Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Neurofibrosarcoma: A malignant tumor that arises from small cutaneous nerves, is locally aggressive, and has a potential for metastasis. Characteristic histopathologic features include proliferating atypical spindle cells with slender wavy and pointed nuclei, hypocellular areas, and areas featuring organized whorls of fibroblastic proliferation. The most common primary sites are the extremities, retroperitoneum, and trunk. These tumors tend to present in childhood, often in association with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p1662; Mayo Clin Proc 1990 Feb;65(2):164-72)Pelvic Exenteration: Removal of all of the organs and adjacent structures of the pelvis. It is usually performed to surgically remove cancer involving the bladder, uterine cervix, or rectum. (Stedman, 25th ed)Radiation ProtectionRadiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Telescopes: Instruments used to observe distant objects.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).ChicagoRadiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Astronomical Processes: The behavior and interactions of matter and energy in outer space.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Selenoproteins: Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.Pressure Ulcer: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.Leg Ulcer: Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SulfhemoglobinMoon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.DenmarkCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

Radiation exposure to sonographers from fluorine-18-FDG PET patients. (1/58)

OBJECTIVE: We estimated the amount of radiation exposure to sonographers from patients who were injected with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at 2 and 3 h postinjection. METHODS: We studied 8 patients who were given between 380-420 MBq 18F-FDG. The patients were measured with a RADOS RDS-120 dosimeter between 2 and 3 h after FDG injection. The dosimetry measurement was taken at a distance of 0.5 m from the injected patient, a distance used by a sonographer to perform an abdominal ultrasound. Measurements were taken at the levels of the sonographer's shoulder, abdomen, and gonads. RESULTS: At the first measurement at 2 h, the mean exposures to the shoulder, abdomen, and gonads of the sonographer in pSv/h were 31.9+/-11.3, 37.1+/-9.5, and 32.8+/-11.8, respectively. At 3 h, the mean exposures to the shoulder, abdomen, and gonads were 21.5+/-4.2, 20.2+/-5.8, and 19.6+/-4.9, respectively. CONCLUSION: The amount of radiation exposure to a sonographer is minimal. Radiation exposure risks should be considered, however, if the sonographer comes into daily, repeated contact with patients who have been given 18F-FDG.  (+info)

An introductory overview of the epidemiological study on the population at the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China. (2/58)

The epidemiological study on the residents of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China was started by Chinese scientists in 1972 and continued until 1986. In 1991, Japanese scientists recognized the importance of the work and a joint feasibility study was conducted with revised protocols. The feasibility study matured to a cooperative project involving both Chinese and Japanese scientists in 1992, which currently is still in progress. The project was divided into three phases; the first being from 1992 to 1995, the second from 1995-1998 and the third from 1998 to 2001. The results of the first phase were reported previously in 1996. The present paper is a historical overview of the studies before the cooperation and the first two phases. Remarks are made on the detailed data on dosimetry, cytogenetic studies and cancer epidemiology of a series of the papers in this supplemental issue. Some problems such as paradoxical observations between cytogenetic results and cancer mortality, and the importance of the high background study in risk assessment are discussed.  (+info)

Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China. (3/58)

For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: (1) integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; (2) eqilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; (3) external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; (4) cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined.  (+info)

Cancer mortality in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China during the period between 1979 and 1995. (4/58)

The objective of the present study was to estimate cancer risk associated with the low-level radiation exposure of an average annual effective dose of 6.4 mSv (including internal exposure) in the high background-radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China. The mortality survey consisted of two steps, i.e., the follow-up of cohort members and the ascertainment of causes of death. The cohort members in HBRA were divided into three dose-groups on the basis of environmental dose-rates per year. The mortality experiences of those three dose groups were compared with those in the residents of control areas by means of relative risk (RR). During the period 1987-1995, we observed 926,226 person-years by following up 106,517 subjects in the cohort study, and accumulated 5,161 deaths, among which 557 were from cancers. We did not observe an increase in cancer mortality in HBRA (RR = 0.96, 96% CI, 0.80 to 1.15). The combined data for the period 1979-95 included 125,079 subjects and accumulated 1,698,316 person-years, observed 10,415 total deaths and 1,003 cancer deaths. The relative risk of all cancers for whole HBRA as compared with the control area was estimated to be 0.99 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.14). The relative risks of cancers of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, bone, female breast and thyroid within whole HBRA were less than one, while the risks for leukemia, cancers of the nasopharynx, esophagus, rectum, pancreas, skin, cervix uteri, brain and central nervous system, and malignant lymphoma were larger than one. None of them were significantly different from RR = 1. Neither homogeneity tests nor trend tests revealed any statistically significant relationship between cancer risk and radiation dose. We did not find any increased cancer risk associated with the high levels of natural radiation in HBRA. On the contrary, the mortality of all cancers in HBRA was generally lower than that in the control area, but not statistically significant.  (+info)

Excess relative risk of solid cancer mortality after prolonged exposure to naturally occurring high background radiation in Yangjiang, China. (5/58)

A study was made on cancer mortality in the high-background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex- and age-specific occupancy factors, cumulative doses were calculated for each subject. In this article, we describe how the indirect estimation was made on individual dose and the methodology used to estimate radiation risk. Then, assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995, we estimate the excess relative risk per Sievert for solid cancer to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69). Also, we estimate the excess relative risks of four leading cancers in the study areas, i.e., cancers of the liver, nasopharynx, lung and stomach. In addition, we evaluate the effects of possible bias on our risk estimation.  (+info)

A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. (6/58)

The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death (+/- 5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR = 14.2, 95% CI = 2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI = 0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI = 0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish intake was a strong risk factor of NPC. Education, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were also related to NPC risk. The exposure to high background radiation in HBRA of Yangjiang was not related to NPC risk with or without the adjustment for those major risk determinants of NPC.  (+info)

Dose-effect relationship of dicentric and ring chromosomes in lymphocytes of individuals living in the high background radiation areas in China. (7/58)

Chromosomes of 39 healthy family members (3 generations from 13 families) living both in the high-level background radiation areas (HBRA) and the control areas (CA) were studied. Cumulative dose from birth to the time of blood sampling was estimated by calculating measured exposure rate in each individual. The cumulative doses ranged 30.9-358.9 and 6.0-59.2 mGy for HBRA and CA, respectively. Peripheral lymphocyte chromosome preparations were made according to our improved method. Dicentric and ring chromosomes (Dic + Rc) were scored in average 2,527 cells per individual in HBRA and 2,694 cells in CA under a microscope equipped with an automated stage. A positive correlation between Dic + Rc and age was found in HBRA, while no such dose relationship was clear in CA. The frequency of Dic + Rc linearly increases over lifetime due to chronic low dose exposure and it is likely that the activation of repair enzymes is not triggered in the present HBRA. Threshold dose (rate) of the induction of chromosome aberrations, if any, is below the present dose (rate) level.  (+info)

Chromosome translocation in residents of the high background radiation areas in southern China. (8/58)

We performed a cytogenetical study using chromosome painting analysis on 9 residents of the naturally high background radiation areas (HBRA) and 8 residents of the control areas in southern China. The estimated dose (air kerma) of each resident measured by an electric pocket dosimeter showed 2.20-4.23 mGy/year in HBRA and 0.56-0.70 mGy/year in the control areas. A total of 14,096 cells (1,566 cells/case) in the former and 17,522 cells (2,190 cells/case) in the latter were analyzed. Children, both in HBRA and in the control areas, had translocations at low frequencies. The frequency of translocations among elder individuals varied widely and it was not possible to detect dose effect although it was detected in dicentrics. The effect of radiation on the induction of chromosome aberrations, which have a statistically potential risk of causing malignant or congenital diseases, seems to be less significant than those of metabolic factors and/or mutagenic agents (excluding radiation) even in HBRA in China.  (+info)

Radioprotection, theoretical calculation of doses - radioactive fallout - biological effects of ionising radiation or radiobiology - experimental studies (dosimetry, reactor physics, radiochemistry), radiobiological risk management
Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the sky with no discernable source. It comes from the effects of interplanetary dust, and interstellar matter. The origin of this radiation depends on the region of the spectrum that we are observing. One component is the cosmic microwave background radiation. This component is redshifted photons that have freely streamed from an epoch when the universe became transparent for the first time to radiation. Its discovery and detail observations of its properties are considered one of the major confirmations of the Big Bang ...
The coastal belt of Karunagappally, Kerala, India, is known for high background radiation (HBR) from thorium-containing monazite sand. In coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy y-1 and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy y-1. Although HBR has been repeatedly shown to increase the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the circulating lymphocytes of exposed persons, its carcinogenic effect is still unproven. A cohort of all 385,103 residents in Karunagappally was established in the 1990s to evaluate health effects of HBR. Based on radiation level measurements, a radiation subcohort consisting of 173,067 residents was chosen. Cancer incidence in this subcohort aged 30-84 y (N = 69,958) was analyzed. Cumulative radiation dose for each individual was estimated based on outdoor and indoor dosimetry of each household, taking into account sex- and age-specific house occupancy factors. Following 69,958 residents for 10.5 years on average, 736,586 ...
What is background radiation?. Ionising radiation always present in the environment. Why does background radiation not cause harm?. The levels are constant and are too low to be harmful and are naturally occuring mostly. Main contributors to background radiation?. Cosmic rays from the sun, decay of rocks, radon gas from the ground. Small contributors to background radiation?. Man made sources like radioactive waste from nuclear power stations and hospitals, and from smoke alarms. How much does human activity contribute to background radiation?. Less than 1%. What is the most common radioisotope used in smoke alarms?. Americium 241. What type of radiation do smoke alarms give out?. Alpha. How does a smoke alarm work?. The alpha particles ionise the molecules of the air forming ions and electrons which are attracted to a pair of charged plates as shown in the picture below. When the ions and electrons hit the plates they provide a small amount of electricity (a small current). This current stays ...
Appendixes . This part provides troubleshooting of ELISA kit with means of cause-solution table ELISA high background, often means excessive color development or high ELISA TroubleShooting Guide High background. LOEWE® Biochemica At the same time, negative samples can exhibit high background reactions. High Background/ Non-specific Color Development, Non-specific The KPL ELISA Technical Guide is a continuation of the series of guides and information from KPL to help However, if high background persists, adding. 1. 2). 5) in wells that have no antigen. Check the amount of antibody suggested. 2. 4-0. ELISA - Troubleshooting aspects. Troubleshooting for Common Lab Applications ELISA TroubleShooting High backgrounds can result from extended incubation periods or incubation at make it our first priority to provide high quality products to the research ELISA Troubleshooting Guide . A common cause of high background in ELISA is an overly. All tags ELISA ELISA troubleshooting tips practical solutions ...
Deinococcus accomplishes its resistance to radiation by having multiple copies of its genome and rapid DNA repair mechanisms. It usually repairs breaks in its chromosomes within 12-24 hours through a 2-step process. First, D. radiodurans reconnects some chromosome fragments through a process called single-strand annealing. In the second step, a protein mends double-strand breaks through homologous recombination. This process does not introduce any more mutations than a normal round of replication would.. A persistent question regarding D. radiodurans is how such a high degree of radioresistance could evolve. Natural background radiation levels are very low-in most places, on the order of 0.4 mGy per year, and the highest known background radiation, near Ramsar, Iran is only 260 mGy per year. With naturally-occurring background radiation levels so low, organisms evolving mechanisms specifically to ward off the effects of high radiation are unlikely.. Valerie Mattimore and John R. Battista of ...
We have developed a 33 GHz airborne radiometer system to map large-scale angular variations in the temperature of the 3 K cosmic background radiation. A ferrite circulator switches a room-temperature mixer between two antennas pointing 60{sup o} apart in the sky. In forty minutes of observing, the radiometer can measure the anisotropy of the microwave background with an accuracy of {+-} 1 m{sup o}K rms, or about one part in 3000 of 3 K. The apparatus is flown in a U-2 jet to 20 km altitude where 33 GHz thermal microwave emission from the atmosphere is at a low level. A second radiometer, tuned to 54 GHz near oxygen emission lines, monitors spurious signals from residual atmospheric radiation. The antennas, which have an extremely low side-lobe response of less than -65 dB past 60{sup o}, reject anisotropic radiation from the earths surface. Periodic interchange of the antenna positions and reversal of the aircrafts flight direction cancel equipment-based imbalances. The system has been operated
We review mechanisms for producing temperature and polarization anisotropies in the microwave background radiation, and summarize their relation to the large-scale distribution of matter and to theories of galaxy formation. We also review possible sources of ambiguity in interpreting data, in particular the unknown opacity of the pregalactic gas and the possible contribution of discrete sources of radiation. Strategies for removing these ambiguities are discussed. ...
Weve featured adorable subatomic particles from The Particle Zoo previously at Neatorama. Now they have a new item called the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This cuddly plush toy represents the residual radiation from the Big Bang. The perfect gift for someone who understands what that is -or someone who doesnt! http://www.particlezoo.net/individual_pages/shop_cmbr.html -via Bad Astronomy Blog...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Earth_materials_for_low_background_radia.html?id=W9cZsyxpGEcC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareEarth materials for low background radiation shielding ...
Round style manicure set with brush,, Guangdong, China (Mainland), Marktop, MT-M3010.Source from Yangjiang Marktop Hardware & Manicure Factory on Alibaba.com.
The National Radiological Protection Board (NRBP) has recently revised the radiation dose for typical x ray examinations. For example, an abdominal/pelvic CT scan would typically lead to an effective dose of 10 mSv, which is an equivalent of 4.5 years of natural background radiation.8 This radiation exposure was estimated to carry a 1:2000 risk of fatal cancer in the 16-69 year old patient population (personal communication from NRPB). For older patients, this may be halved but for younger patients increased up to fivefold. Put another way, this is equal to 250-300 fatal cancers for every 1 million abdominal/pelvic CT scans.. These values are calculated using a probability coefficient, which was developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), based on historical epidemiological cohorts and other research.9 It is worth noting that the cancer risk attributed to radiation exposure has constantly risen over time as longer term follow up information from the Hiroshima and ...
The level of contamination isnt going to pose a significant health risk to people, but could have long-term economic consequences for the fishermen along Japans east coast.. Three of the nuclear plants six reactors suffered meltdown on March 11, 2011 when a 9.0-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Japan. Large quantities of radioactivity were released into the atmosphere and emergency cooling water leaked into the sea.. A new model from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts estimates that 16.2 petabecquerels (1015 becquerels) of radioactive cesium leaked from the plant, about the same amount that went in to the atmosphere.. Most of the radioactivity was dispersed across the Pacific Ocean, where it was diluted to extremely low levels. However, in regions near the plant, levels of cesium-137 have remained fixed at about 1,000 becquerels, which is relatively high compared to the natural background radiation. Researchers are convinced that there is something preventing ...
Although it was discovered less than 40 years ago, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation has been around a lot longer than that. A relic from the early days of the Universe more than 14 billion years ago, the CMB is the oldest radiation on record. Current cosmological models posit that the CMB should be slightly polarized but this property has never been observed--until now. Researchers have successfully detected the CMBs polarization and found that it agrees with the theoretical estimates. Erik Leitch and John Kovac of the University of Chicago and their colleagues used the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), which is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, to study the CMB radiation. Over a two-year period, this array of radio telescopes collected radiation signals coming from deep space in two patches of blank sky. The resulting 271 days worth of useable data revealed the lights polarization (the direction in which the lights field oscillates as it travels ...
Adding some biology to the physics suggests that the curve is neither linear nor logarithmic, but rather a chimera of two (or more) curves, with an inflection point (or range). Life has evolved on earth in the presence of non-negligible levels of background radiation. As a result, organisms have developed mechanisms to repair the cellular damage caused by radiation (as well as other physical insults). At very low doses of radiation, most cells in an organism will be able to deal with whatever damage might result from such exposure. But as radiation levels rise, cells become overwhelmed, and repair mechanisms cant keep up with the rate of damage inflicted. Thus, at very low doses of radiation, death rates (from cancer, the primary cause of low-to-moderate dose radiation death) are indistinguishable from those caused by background radiation.. As doses rise, radiation damage can overwhelm the cellular damage-repair machinery; here, a second biological effect comes into play. The radiation-induced ...
This code generates random numbers based on nuclear decay events, // In my mind they would be the highest quality of random numbers. // The only downside is that it is very very very very very slow. // // Using only background radiation of about 18CPM it would take // about 30 hours to generate 1k of random goodness. // Using low-sodium kitchen salt, you can get about 10x background radiation. // Using LoSalt (66% potassium Chloride) 161CPM it would take about // 202 minutes to generate 1k of random goodness. // Using some crazy lethal radiation source of 170,000CPM (60*1000000/350) // (maximum with my GM tube recovery time of ~350uS) it would take about // 200 minutes to generate 1MiB of random numbers // // This is one of the reasons that I would not use a GM tube as my final solution // to generate high quality truly random numbers, but it is interesting to test. // // Using background where I am is about 18 CPM I can generate about 0.53 bytes/minute // Using Lo-Salt (66% Potassium Chloride) ...
Counteracting gravity is the additional pressure of the excess matter. Hence, as Jeans (1902) showed for a static (non-expanding) fluid, there is a critical length scale, below which perturbations do not grow and above which gravity wins so that Ap/p does increase. This scale is the Jeans length,* / \l/2 jO J^L] 9 (L34) \Gp) {Gpm) where cs is the speed of sound in a non-relativistic gas of particles of mass m at a temperature T. Since > 90% atoms in the Universe are 1H, we may take m = m , the proton mass. It is therefore of considerable importance to note that the inflationary model may allow us to specify the nature, the spectrum and even the amplitude of these fluctuations. Let us look first at the nature of the fluctuations. There are two main classes: those in which both the radiation and the matter were perturbed, and those in which essentially only the matter was perturbed (so that the radiation density and hence T remained essentially constant). In the first of these classes, n I nh ...
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology. In older literature, the CMB is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) or "relic radiation". The CMB is a faint cosmic background radiation filling all space that is an important source of data on the early universe because it is the oldest electromagnetic radiation in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination. With a traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies (the background) is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background noise, or glow, almost isotropic, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum. The accidental discovery of the CMB in 1964 by American radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson[1][2] was the culmination of work initiated in the 1940s, ...
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This conclusion was later confirmed by further groundbreaking evidence provided by the study of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation as it passes by the Earth.. The CMBR is a wall of radiation created by the Big Bang explosion which occurred some 14 billion years ago. The radiation is everywhere - you can even see it when you get the snowstorm picture on your TV. In terms of mapping outer space, its all we can see when we look out at the very edge of the known universe (which is why, in time, the universe will always be finite).. By monitoring the "black spots" in the radiation as it passes by Earth, scientists can see exactly what space the CMBR has traveled through so far and measure the microwave background fluctuations. And it has revealed that the universe is flat within a 0.5% margin of error.. A flat universe gives us an infinite universe, in terms of space. And with accelerating expansion, the universe will always be bigger than we can directly ...
Note the group of workers studied was a while ago (1970s I believe) and it looked at the overall health after the exposure for long term effects. They have received much more than normal amounts (back in those days you could get a lot more than 5 rem per year) of radiation as their badges would indicate so missing dental x-rays would not be an issue as they would not contribute much at all. According to the study, they were just normal dock workers without additional education. The only distinguishing feature found in the study was the handling of waste ...
there is a lot of truth to the phrase, the sound of the big bang. As has been said above, sound waves are compressions and rarefactions in a medium. Shortly after the big bang the universe was a hot plasma of particles interacting with an enormous number of photons. Gravity was pulling denser clumps of matter toward each other while the radiation pressure (the pressure of the photons) would blow the denser pieces apart again. So, during this phase of the early universe (up until the time the cosmic background radiation was emitted) this plasma was undergoing oscillations very similar to sound waves. Once the temperature of the universe (which means the temperature of the photon bath) dropped to a point where it could no longer interact with the matter the oscillations ceased. The light preserved the pattern of compressions and rarefactions sooooooo when scientists measure the cosmic background radiation they are measuring a snapshot of the soundwaves that propogated throughout the early dense ...
Eating Clean for the Mind. I finished Philip K. Dicks The Man in the High Castle. I enjoyed it. I knocked it off in three or four days, which shows the difference between reading things you enjoy and things you only read out of duty. Ive been suffering while reading relatively small passages from the books on the Columbia College Lit. Hum. syllabus. Reading 50 pages of Philip K. Dick in one day is a pleasure. Reading 20 pages of Cervantes is a chore.. Dick is very clever, but I dont think hes all that deep. Heres one thing you notice about him right away: all of his characters sound the same. Its as if one person is talking all through the book. In that respect, he resembles Ayn Rand. Maybe Rand wrote that way because her books involved two opposing sets of characters, and the characters in each set shared the same mind. Dagney Taggart and Hank Rearden were pretty much the same person.. Perhaps, like most people who write science fiction, he was more interested in the physical world than ...
Diana Battefeld, The Effects of a Rotating Cosmic String Loop on the Surrounding Plasma, 2015 [soft chalk on paper]. After the concepts published by A. Anthonisen et al and D. Battefeld et al. A rotating cosmic string loop has detached from its parent string. In the picture, the left part of the string moves downward, … ...
Find natural radioactivity level articles from Dec. 11th 1967 to Jan. 1st 2017 on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
External radiation exposure represents about one third of the total natural radiation exposure - resulting in a annual dose of approximately 0.7 millisievert. About half of it is due to cosmic radiation, which reaches the earth from the deep space and mainly consists of high-energy particles. On its way through the atmosphere cosmic radiation is partially absorbed on its way to the ground owing to nuclear reactions with the atomic nuclei of the air molecules. Therefore, its intensity depends on the altitude. It is lowest at sea level and increases with the altitude of a site. On the Zugspitze, Germanys highest mountain, it is four times higher than on the coast.. Terrestrial radiation is also part of external radiation exposure. It originates from natural radioactive substances existing in the soils and rock layers of the earths crust in regional different concentrations.. Rocks and soils again are important raw materials for mineral building materials such as bricks and concrete. The ...
I still have problems with my WB. I got some information from JacksonImmuno, which says that the commercial milk might have some contimination with bovine IgG and this bovine IgG can react with anti Goat IgG. It means when you use 5% milk to do the blocking actually you block your membrane with Bovine IgG which can react with anti-goat IgG(your 2nd) and this is equal to block your membrane with 1st antibody(It is stupid but I dont think many of us think of it before doing the WB including myself ). So when you add the 2nd Ab it will bind to your first antibody and the bovine IgG. This is one of the major reason that causes high background in the ECL. They suggest use the normal sera from the 2nd Ab to do the blocking ...
All of us are exposed to some background radiation just by going about our daily lives. This low-level exposure to radiation is generally considered safe. Some imaging procedures provide additional exposure to radiation. For most people, occasional imaging procedures throughout their lifetime wont be an issue, but doctors must balance the valuable medical information from these procedures against the slight increased risk that too much radiation may cause. Some imaging tests, such as MRI and ultrasound, involve no radiation, while others, such as X-rays, CT scans, mammograms, fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine, do expose you to small amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation varies from test to test and depends on a number of other factors, including your weight, the number of "views" taken, the equipment, and the imaging facilitys procedures. Most X-rays, including mammograms and bone density tests, have very small amounts of radiation. Despite recent media reports, radiation exposure to ...
Most isolates from low background radiation sites showed a significant reduced or no response to exposure to either source of radiation, whereas the stimulatory effect of experimental exposure to radiation appeared to increase in magnitude as prior exposure to radiation increased. We propose that the enhanced spore germination and hyphal growth seen in the exposure trials is induced by prior long term exposure to radiation and these factors could be important in controlling the decomposition of radionuclide-bearing resources in the environment.. The Opened International University of Human Development Ukraine ...
Space travel has its dangers. One of the biggest risks will come from the various types of radiation that flood space. scientists are learning how life on Earth has evolved different kinds of tricks to resist radiation. Some animals and plants have evolved protective covering or pigmentation, but some forms of bacteria can actually repair damage to its DNA from radiation. Future space travellers might take advantage of these techniques to minimize the harm they get from long exposure.. In Star Wars and Star Trek movies, people travel between planets and galaxies with ease. But our future in space is far from assured. Issues of hyperdrive and wormholes aside, it doesnt seem possible that the human body could withstand extended exposure to the harsh radiation of outer space.. Radiation comes from many sources. light from the Sun produces a range of wavelengths from long-wave infrared to short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV). Background radiation in space is composed of high-energy X-rays, gamma rays ...
Space travel has its dangers. One of the biggest risks will come from the various types of radiation that flood space. Scientists are learning how life on Earth has evolved different kinds of tricks to resist radiation. Some animals and plants have evolved protective covering or pigmentation, but some forms of bacteria can actually repair damage to its DNA from radiation. Future space travelers might take advantage of these techniques to minimize the harm they get from long exposure. In Star Wars and Star Trek movies, people travel between planets and galaxies with ease. But our future in space is far from assured. Issues of hyperdrive and wormholes aside, it doesnt seem possible that the human body could withstand extended exposure to the harsh radiation of outer space.. Radiation comes from many sources. Light from the sun produces a range of wavelengths from long-wave infrared to short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV). Background radiation in space is composed of high-energy X-rays, gamma rays ...
Computed tomography has emerged as the gold standard for the diagnosis of a broad range of medical diagnoses. For cardiac imaging alone, the installation of CT scanners in US cardiology practices alone has tripled over the past 2 years. Patients who undergo cardiac CTA (computed tomography angiography) may be subjected to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation (ie. 4 times annual background radiation) during the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease. Current radiation doses for cardiac CT examinations are comparable to the effective doses for patients undergoing nuclear stress tests or cardiac catheterization (ie. approximately 10-15 milliSieverts). In addition, non cardiac CT protocols, such as chest CT examinations for the evaluation of pulmonary arteries, thoracic and abdominal aorta, and lung nodules, are associated with significant radiation exposure. Many patients undergo repeated CT examinations over several years for such pathology. There is a growing public concern ...
b. Describe the hazards of radiation to humans, the environment, and wildlife. Explain the difference between radiation exposure and contamination. In your explanation, discuss the nature and magnitude of radiation risks to humans from nuclear power, medical radiation (e.g., chest or dental X-ray), and background radiation including radon. Explain the ALARA principle and measures required by law to minimize these risks ...
b. Describe the hazards of radiation to humans, the environment, and wildlife. Explain the difference between radiation exposure and contamination. In your explanation, discuss the nature and magnitude of radiation risks to humans from nuclear power, medical radiation (e.g., chest or dental X-ray), and background radiation including radon. Explain the ALARA principle and measures required by law to minimize these risks ...
We are all naturally exposed to background radiation from radon, a colourless, odourless gas found in soil, water and air. Unnatural sources of exposure such as medical X-rays deliver about 10 days worth of naturally occurring radiation. Symptoms of radiation sickness occur when the body is damaged by a very large dose of radiation over a…
The radiation used in CT scans can damage body cells, including DNA molecules, which can lead to cancer.[12] According to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, between the 1980s and 2006, the use of CT scans has increased sixfold (+500%). The radiation doses received from CT scans is variable. Compared to the lowest dose x-ray techniques, CT scans can have 100 to 1,000 times higher dose than conventional X-rays.[45] However, a lumbar spine x-ray has a similar dose as a head CT.[46] Articles in the media often exaggerate the relative dose of CT by comparing the lowest-dose x-ray techniques (chest x-ray) with the highest-dose CT techniques. In general, the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to 3 years average background radiation (from cosmic radiation).[47] Some experts note that CT scans are known to be "overused," and "there is distressingly little evidence of better health outcomes associated with the current high rate of ...
LOS ALAMOS, N.M. (AP) - Officials at Los Alamos National Laboratory say two recent aerial flyovers show normal radiation levels around the city and county. Los Alamos Field office acting manager Juan Griego says the surveys conducted August 2011 and June 2012 in the vicinity of the northern New Mexico nuclear facility found that radioisotopes and their associated exposure rates are consistent with those expected from normal background radiation. The 2011 survey focused on the White Rock community and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 2012 survey concentrated on the Los Alamos town site.
In the OR, the radiation level children are exposed to during surgery for supracondylar humerus fractures is about the same as normal daily background radiation
One millisievert (1 msv) = One thousand microsieverts (1,000 usv). Greenpeaces reading was reported as 10 micro sieverts per hour (10 usv/h). In 2.... One millisievert (1 msv) = One thousand microsieverts (1,000 usv). Greenpeaces reading was reported as 10 micro sieverts per hour (10 usv/h). In 24 hours, a resident would be exposed to 240 usv. In 10 days, a resident would be exposed to 2,400 usv which is 2.4 msv. As a comparison, a north american is typically exposed to 4.0 msv in an entire year. Of this 4.0 msv, a portion (3.0 msv) is normal background radiation. The remaining 1.0 msv is considered the annual maximum for other voluntary radiation such as x-rays, etc. It is true that for radiogoly technicians, the annual maximum of 1.0 msv is increaed to 50 msv. And for emergencies, nuclear plant personnel have a limit of 100 msv per year. With readings of 10 usv/h, they should be evacuated.. ...
By Colin A. Young State House News Service BOSTON -- A helicopter equipped with radiation-sensing technology will make several low passes over the Boston Marathon route later this week to measure naturally occurring background radiation ahead
Are fish from the Pacific safe to eat? What about the elevated background radiation readings detected in Japan, and recently, in California? Are these harmful levels?Should we be worried? And if so, what should be done about these potential health threats? What steps should we take to protect ourselves?As many of you know, Im a scientis
The sarcophagus that currently encases Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is a giant metal concrete and structure quickly constructed as an emergency measure in 1986 to halt the release of radiation into the atmosphere following the explosion. The official Russian name is "Obyekt Ukrytiye" which means shelter or covering. It is estimated that within the shelter there is 200 tons of radioactive corium, 30 tons of contaminated dust and 16 tons of uranium and plutonium (source Wikipedia). In 1996 it was considered impossible to repair the sarcophagus as radiation levels within it were as high as 10,000 röntgens per hour (background radiation in cities is around 20-50 microröntgens per hour, a lethal dose being 500 röntgens over 5 hours). A decision to replace the sarcophagus with a "New Safe Containment" was taken and construction of the new structure is now well underway. Originally planned to be in place by 2005, the New Shelter is expected to be completed by the French consortium ...
However, in both cases once the I-131 has decayed off theres no longer much risk. People could move back into the zone and resume life as before. To allay fear, those who want them could obtain dosimeters to understand and place into perspective the actual radioactivity they are receiving. Most people would probably see amounts very close to the original background radiation anyway. A few may see more, and this can be either rationalized in terms of measuring it against statistics (an education requirement attaches to do this effectively). Or, anyone who feels uncomfortable by the amount they see, no matter how small, can be allowed to take charge of their lives as before and choose to move away. In this way, people are empowered to freely identify and manage their risks as they choose, just as in other parts of their lives ...
Define background count. background count synonyms, background count pronunciation, background count translation, English dictionary definition of background count. The evidence or effect on a detector of radiation caused by background radiation. In connection with health protection, the background count includes but is...
Thermoluminescence is used in archaeology and the earth sciences to date artefacts and rocks. When exposed to radiation, quartz emits light proportional to the energy it absorbs. Replicating the very low dose of background radiation from natural sources present in quartz is a key precondition for precise and accurate dating results. Scientists have now developed a method to control the accuracy of the dose calibrations. These findings are published in a paper in EPJ Plus.
GEORGE F. SMOOT. 1 Cyclotron Rd., 50-205. Berkeley, CA 94720. Education. Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Physics, 1970. Thesis: "Charge Exchange of K+ on Platinum at Three GeV." B.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematics and Physics, 1966. Thesis: "Measurement of [[eta]] -, 3[[pi]]o." Georgetown University, Summer 1963. Stetson University, Summer 1961. Professional Experience. 1994 - Professor, Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley. 1971 - Research Physicist, University of California, Space Sciences Laboratory. 1974 - Joint appointment, Research Physicist, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Primary research: (1) Experiments on cosmology and particle physics utilizing the cosmic background radiation as a probe of the early universe. These include work on COBE satellite, and airborne and ground-based experiments to extend anisotropy and spectrum measurements to greater accuracy. (2) Cosmic radiation measurement utilizing balloon-borne super-conducting magnetic ...
Funny story…. A couple of years ago I was into radioactivity experiments, and carried around a detector in my truck. It was on the glare shade, and powered whenever I was driving.. One day I was stopped at an intersection and the thing started slowly clicking more and more, and built up to to a tremendous signal over the course of several seconds, then faded back to normal background level.. I parked and went around the intersection looking for what might have caused it, and then realized that it was probably an oncoming vehicle that passed me in the other lane!. Some random vehicle is running around New Hampshire with enough radioactivity to register 200 times background radiation from a distance of several meters!. Not making this up, and there is no legitimate (read: legal) explanation that I can think of. Maybe someone delivering radionuclides to a local hospital? I dont drive around with a detector any more, because vibration from driving killed it.. Just note that there might be ...
Measurements from two recent aerial flyovers to determine the presence of background and man-made radioactivity brought good news for Los Alamos County and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The radiological surveys, conducted in August 2011 and June 2012, found that radioisotopes and their associated exposure rates are consistent with those expected from normal background radiation.
An on-line spectrometric system installed with a small spectrometer and an image intensifier unit has been developed for weak and changeable TL-spectrum measurements with rising temperature for application to natural minerals. The detection sensitivity over visible wavelength regions was corrected using a known spectrum from a standard light source, and the detection sensitivity was also examined by a chemical luminol reaction. In an applied experiment, two quartz grain samples from two pyroclastic flows of the same origin, were subjected to testing with the present measuring system. The original data, consisting of 512 channels for every second at a constant heating rate of 1°C/s, were used to create a contour map or a 3-dimensional expression of TL-spectra after subtraction of background radiation. The artificially irradiated quartz grains clearly showed both red (RTL) and blue TL (BTL) in contrast to RTL alone from naturally accumulated TL. Both spectral expressions and glow curves from the ...
Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990-2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985-2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including ...
July 23, 1999, Friday. HEADLINE: SCIENCE: IF YOU REALLY WANT TO KNOW, LOOK IN THE MIRROR;. COSMOLOGISTS BELIEVE THEY MAY HAVE FOUND A TRUE REFLECTION OF THE WAY THE UNIVERSE REALLY WORKS.. BYLINE: John Gribbin. Have you ever stood in a lift with mirrored walls, and looked at the images of yourself reflecting away to infinity on all sides? Some cosmologists say this may be a good representation of what the Universe is really like - a relatively small box (like the lift cage) that is copied hundreds of times to make up what we see as the visible Universe. When we look back (using microwave detectors on satellites) to the background radiation that is interpreted as the remains of the Big Bang itself, we think we are looking across some 15 billion light years of space. But if the Universe is multiply connected, as the buzz-phrase goes, we may be seeing light that has indeed spent 15 billion years on its journey, but has been bouncing around from one copy of the Universe to another for all that time, ...
In addition to being a vast natural laboratory, Antarctica has a dry, stable atmosphere that offers an ideal setting for astrophysical observations. The report recommends a next-generation experimental program to observe cosmic microwave background radiation, the "fossil light" from the early universe. This would include an installation of a new set of telescopes at the South Pole, as part of a larger global array, which will allow highly sensitive measurements that could detect signatures of gravitational waves. Such observations might provide evidence that could confirm the theory of cosmic inflation and the quantum nature of gravity, as well as address other enduring questions about the nature of the universe ...
Legendary artist Colin Wilson (Lt. Blueberry, POINT BLANK) visits the Losers in Part 1 of the thrilling new 3-part story arc Unamerica. Maxs mysterious Project is revealed as a massive seismic event rocks the Persian Gulf. But his plans also hinge on another key element: an arsenal of nuclear warheads hidden in a ghost town near Chernobyl. And with the background radiation masking the warhead emissions, the Losers might as well be looking for a needle in a stack of needles…
Rhoda,. I think you are describing is the temporal profile of temperature as the disk rotates and youve correctly pointed out that this is not quite symmetric. To calculate the average temperature over a diurnal cycle from this profile will be difficult because it depends on the thermal properties of the near surface layers.. I have taken a different approach which is to determine the diurnal average insolation as a function of latitude and from this and the S-B equation the average temperature as a function of latitude. It ranges from 287K at the equator to 0K at the poles (I didnt account for the background radiation). These latitudinal temperatures should be close to the constant sub surface temperatures at the same latitudes. Theres not much data out there. Ive seen Moon average temperatures of 250K quoted somewhere, the recent Diviner data shows an equatorial equilibrium temperature of 240K (somewhat less than my estimate BUT they report that albedo changes significantly with ...
Cosmologists use the term to describe the uneven temperature distribution of the cosmic microwave background radiation. There is evidence for a so-called "Axis of Evil" [1] in the early Universe that is at odds with the currently favored theory of rapid expansion after the Big Bang. Cosmic anisotropy has also been seen in the alignment of galaxies rotation axes and polarisation angles of quasars. Physicists use the term anisotropy to describe direction-dependent properties of materials. Magnetic anisotropy, for example, may occur in a plasma, so that its magnetic field is oriented in a preferred direction. Plasmas may also show "filamentation" (such as that seen in lightning or a plasma globe) that is directional. An anisotropic liquid is one which has the fluidity of a normal liquid, but has an average structural order relative to each other along the molecular axis, unlike water or chloroform, which contain no structural ordering of the molecules. Liquid crystals are examples of anisotropic ...
Are we looking, then, for complexity? Maybe a microbe is more complex that the Great Red Spot. (I dont know. Measuring complexity is a vexed issue.) But sheer complexity doesnt seem like what were after. Galaxies are complex, and the canyons of Mars are complex, and there are subtle, complex variations in cosmic background radiation -- all very interesting, but the search for life appears to be something different, not just a search for complexity.. Maybe discovering life would be interesting because it would give us a glimpse of our potential past? Life on Earth evolved up from microbes, but its still obscure how. Seeing microbial life elsewhere might illuminate our own origins. Maybe, if its very different from us, it will also illuminate the contingency of our origins.. Maybe discovering life would be interesting because it would complete the Copernican revolution, which knocked human beings out of the center of the cosmos? Earth is still special in being the only planet known to have ...
Some Christians claim that God used the Big Bang (BB) as a means to create the universe, despite the obvious contradictions with the Genesis creation account-like stars existing before Earth and the billions of years of supposed time involved-and they cite "scientific" arguments for this claim. Upon closer examination, however, these arguments do not impress. Christians can refute them by noting inconsistencies between science and the BB.. For instance, many people think the universe is expanding as a result of a cosmic explosion. But is the BB really the only way to explain an expanding universe? A possible reason God might have imposed expansion upon His recently created universe would be to prevent the universe from collapsing in on itself due to its own gravity.. The BB supposedly explains low-energy cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) observed from all directions in space. According to the BB, the CMBR from one part of the sky should be essentially the same as that in any other ...
Since this time, under the guidance of its CEO, Amanda Lacaze, who took the helm in 2014, Lynas has been making huge strides and achieving its project goals.. Now following a rigorous review undertaken by the Atomic Energy License Board (AELB) as well as other independent regulatory bodies in Malaysia, it was concluded that the LAMP project is in full compliance with all applicable regulations. Furthermore as Lynas has now been in operation for four years and data shows that there has been no increase in background radiation levels, the license has been granted until September 2019.. Regarding the Companys financial results, the company made good progress and reported positive production growth, despite the poor pricing environment. The NdPr production facility is now running at full capacity and the business has been breakeven for several quarters.. The increase in production was reflected in higher revenue, which rose to A$196.1m compared to A$148.6m in 2014. Production volumes rose ...
Among this years winners are a geneticist who revealed how plants respond to shade and a group of physicists who mapped the universes background radiation.. 1 Comment. ...
Among this years winners are a geneticist who revealed how plants respond to shade and a group of physicists who mapped the universes background radiation.. 1 Comment. ...
5 meanings of CMBR acronym and CMBR abbreviation. Get the definition of CMBR by All Acronyms dictionary. Top Definition: Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
Photays Onism is one of my favorite albums of the year. It is endlessly playable. News sounds arranged into new types of songs. Static crackle bent into sheets of fine music. Synthesized animal vocalizations carefully calibrated to harmonize with buzzing radiators. Cosmic background radiation sampled, scrubbed, and used as a foundation for an unfurling and swaggering thing like Off-Piste. I dont know where these sounds come from, but theyre beautiful and pleasurable. Each song seems like it runs miles deep, there are sounds beneath sounds beneath sounds. Onism feels new, like its pushing into a different place. [BUY Onism]. ...
In the beginning was Chance. And Chance was with Chaos. And there was no God. Then Chance created the universe, and there was light, and a period of inflation. And the background radiation was Good. But there was still no...
For placing the cradle in a baby bedroom we have studied the artificial and natural radiations in the space. With the method of the rods the natural radiations have been studied. We have no found important perturbations, just Hartmann Lines and its geopatogenic crosses that we have avoided in the cradle place. The electromagnetic fields have been measure around the electrical ...
Sofiati, Purnami and Masneli, Lubis and Siti, Nurhayati and Suryadi, Suryadi and Dwi, Ramadhani and Mukh, Syaifudin (2018) Micronucleus Frequencies in Mononucleated Cells of People Living in Takandeang Village - A High Level of Natural Radiation Area in Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmiah Aplikasi Isotop dan Radiasi, 14 (2). pp. 117-124. ISSN 1907-0322 Sri Wardani, SW and Sihombing, Edison and Amir Hamzah, AH and Rohidi, Rohidi and Putut Hery Setiawan, PHS and Saleh Hartaman, SH and Jaka Iman, JI (1998) PENENTUAN UNSUR KELUMIT UMUR PARO PENDEK DALAM CUPLIKAN LINGKUNGAN DENGAN METODA ANALISIS PENGAKTIPAN NEUTRON. PROSIDING SEMINAR HASIL PENELITIAN PRSG. ISSN 0854-5278 Subiharto, Subiharto (2010) PEMANTAUAN KANDUNGAN H-3 DAN C-14 TERAS 70 PADA AIR PENDINGIN REAKTOR GA. SIWABESSY. Buletin "Reaktor", 7 (2). pp. 1-5. ISSN ISSN: 0216-2695 Subiharto, Subiharto and Sumarno, Yulius and Nazly Kurniawan, NK (2013) EVALUASI DATA LEPASAN MONITORING STACK DARI TAHUN 2009-2013 DI RSG-GAS. PRO SIDING SEMINAR PENELITIAN ...
There is food available in the supermarkets but many empty shelves. This morning before we left we were in a little shop and they were taking away all the milk and replacing it. At 9am we set out from Yonezawa, and drove for one and a half hours toward the region we wanted to make our measurements.. We do not stay in the high radiation areas longer than necessary in order to minimize our own dosages.. It was a beautiful day today with lots of sun. My face is actually a little red -- though thats from solar radiation, and not the radioactivity from the plant.. We kept our measurement gear on, but we had to turn off the audio bleeps on the Geiger counter, its constant sound was driving us nuts. The alarms of the devices cant be turned off, and in particularly high radiation areas theyd all go off. There was one place we hit such a high reading that we didnt even stop there. It was windy and dry, and the dust and snow can carry radioactive particles. So if you step out of the car and get dust ...
500 mr/hr is definitely a high radiation area as defined. In U.S. plants 100 mr/hr and above gets roped off for cleanup and decontamination, but may lay around as puddles (from leaks) on the floor for days or weeks before that gets done.. In my day annual allowable accumulated dose at a U.S. facility was 5R, no more than 3R in any quarter. During a serious emergency - like a meltdown - that could go as high as 10R. Readily measurable blood changes and symptoms of acute radiation poisoning dont start until ~50-100 Rem, and LD50/30 is upwards of 350 Rem. This is of course acute exposure, there is no really safe long term exposure.. It would take this crew sitting still in the middle of the high-dose zone for 6 hours to get 3R of dose. Since they were just driving through, it is highly unlikely they encountered anything worth screaming about. Though a giant mutant glow-in-the-dark feral bull charging the vehicle would probably qualify… §;o). ...
Objective: to identify and link populations and individuals that live within high risk areas. Design: census registers and disease registers which contain data on individuals can only give aggregate statistics relating to postal code districts, town, county or state boundaries. However environmental risk factors rarely, if ever, respect these man-made boundaries. What is needed is a method to rapidly identify individuals who may live within a described area or region and to further identify the disease(s) occurring among these individuals and/or in these areas. Method: this paper describes a method for linking the standard registers available in Sweden, notably the residence-property addresses they contain and the geographical coordinate setting of these, to map the population as a point coverage. Using standard GIS methods this coverage could be linked, merged or intersected with any other map to create new subsets of population. Representation of populations down to the individual level by ...
This is a very common problem for ELISAs because of 2 issues. First there is a high IgG content present in serum which provides significant background especially when low dilutions are used. Preimmune sera typically have lower IgG contents because young animals have not built up significant humoural responses until they get older. Even sera from an unimmunized animal will show increased ELISA signals that are non-specific over a typical immunization period of 10-12 weeks. Polystyrene plates typically used for ELISA bind significant amounts of protein and so the use of sera at low dilutions inevitably results in adsorption of detectable amounts of non-immune IgGs. Secondly, depending on the immune titre, you may or may not be able to measure specific reactions over and above the background. My company, Larial Proteomics develops high fidelity custom immunologicals for clients. We typically use biosensors to measure serum antibody interactions with antigens because we obtain much greater ...
Methods have been developed to screen for and confirm darbepoetin alfa, recombinant human EPO, and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin β (PEG-epoetin β) in horse plasma. All three methods screen samples with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirm by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This report focuses on PEG-epoetin β. The ELISA assay was able to detect PEG-epoetin β at 0.02 ng/mL in 50 µL of horse plasma. Many samples had high background levels of immunoreactivity; however, introducing polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) into the samples before the ELISA assay removed the high background and increased the apparent concentrations of PEG-epoetin β. In samples collected following the administration of 100 µg of PEG-epoetin β by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) routes, PEG-epoetin β was detectable up to 72, 144, and 120 h, respectively. The samples were prepared for LC-MS/MS analysis by extraction with anti-rHuEPO-antibodies
Hi Ladies! I havent posted in ages but have been reading all your updates! Good luck to all those cycling or about to and those still having testing. And of course a huge congrats to those who are pregnant!!! Without the information on - page 4
Not that lucky 8 years with no diagnosis Was harder to deal with as there was nothing to treat.... nothing I still thing egg issues maybe at play, as it was strange to go on meds to improve eggs and fall naturally.... But ill never - page 102
Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation also accompany induced radioactivity. Radioactive isotopes are prepared in the lab using bombardment reactions to convert a stable nucleus into one which is radioactive. Positron (particle with the same mass as an electron, but a charge of +1 instead of -1) emission isnt observed in natural radioactivity, but it is a common mode of decay in induced radioactivity. Bombardment reactions can be used to produce very heavy elements, including many which dont occur in nature ...
Most towns and city homes are located in Smoke Control Areas as designated by the Clean Air Act 1993. To burn logs on stoves, fires or fireplaces, the appliance installed must have been granted exemption from the regulations by the government through DEFRA. Stovax has a large collection of wood burning and multi-fuel stoves, fires and fireplaces that are suitable for use in Smoke Control Areas.
The convention entered into force in Brazil on 24 September 1993.. Brazil currently has 22 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites), with a surface area of 8,783,614 hectares. ...
The convention entered into force in the Netherlands on 23 September 1980.. The Netherlands currently has 55 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites), with a surface area of 905,849 hectares. ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) neural structures may have the inability to cope up with natural radiation [Momcilović B et al]. There exist DNA repair defects in familial AD, but not in sporadic AD [Boerrigter ME et al.]. Cranial radiation is a risk factor for A-β amyloid deposition and amyloid angiopathy in Brain. Radiation injures endothelial cells, breaks the blood-brain barrier and could be an enhancing factor of A-β deposition, although further study is necessary [Sugihara S et al.]. Changes typical of AD such as the formation of neuritic or diffuse plaques and tangles were not identified as a consequence of cranial irradiation. Although the neurodegenerative changes of radiation therapy are different from that of AD [Riudavets et al.], both have similar effect on cognitive function of neuronal structures [Shaw EG et al.]. Further studies with larger case sample that includes longer post-treatment intervals are needed to improve the understanding of the consequences and mechanisms leading to ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Multi dimensional probability distributions are used in many surveillance tasks such as modeling color distribution of background pixels for Background Subtraction. Accurate representation of such distributions, e.g. in a histogram, requires much memory that may not be available when a histogram is computed for each pixel. Parametric representations such as Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) are very efficient in memory but may not be accurate enough when the distribution is not from the assumed model. We propose a memory efficient representation for distributions. Histograms cells usually have equal width, and count the hits in each cell (Equi-width histograms). In most cases a 1D distribution can be represented more efficiently when cell sizes change so that each cell will have same number of hits (Equi-depth histograms). We propose to describe compactly multi-dimensional distributions (e.g. color) using an equi-depth histograms.
Background subtraction is considered the first processing stage in video surveillance systems, and consists of determining objects in movement in a scene captured by a static camera. It is an intensive task with a high computational cost. This work proposes an embedded novel architecture on FPGA which is able to extract the background on resource-limited environments and offers low degradation (produced because of the hardware-friendly model modification). In addition, the original model is extended in order to detect shadows and improve the quality of the segmentation of the moving objects. We have analyzed the resource consumption and performance in Spartan3 Xilinx FPGAs and compared to others works available on the literature, showing that the current architecture is a good trade-off in terms of accuracy, performance and resources utilization. With less than a 65% of the resources utilization of a XC3SD3400 Spartan-3A low-cost family FPGA, the system achieves a frequency of 66.5 MHz reaching 32.8 fps
Taking the position that no increase in cancer risk is acceptable fails to acknowledge the many risks to our health that we accept each day, including risks of developing cancer from lifestyle choices. The government sets limits on the levels of known carcinogens in the environment, but these limits are often meant to be "as low as reasonably achievable" and therefore are typically greater than zero. For ionizing radiation, perhaps the best understood carcinogen (and my own area of expertise), the current dose limit is 1 mSv per year for the general public. Yet a single medical imaging procedure can deliver ten times that dose, and the natural background dose (which is highly variable from one place to another) averages three times higher [8,9]. To put these amounts into perspective, exposure to 1 mSv would be expected to produce five extra cancer deaths in 100,000 people [9]. It would be impossible to demonstrate a statistically-significant increase in cancer incidence by exposure of small ...
The background scene generator MATISSE, whose main functionality is to generate natural background radiance images, makes use of the so-called Correlated K (CK) model. It necessitates either loading or computing thousands of CK coefficients for each atmospheric profile. When the CK coefficients cannot be loaded, the computation time becomes prohibitive. The idea developed in this paper is to substitute fast approximate models for the exact CK generator; using the latter, a representative set of numerical examples is built and used to train linear or nonlinear regression models. The resulting models enable an accurate CK coefficient computation for all the profiles of an image in a reasonable time.. © 2009 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Then we had to go to the Radiation area and wait they had to make sure all blood work came in before they gave you radiation so we waited 45 min. that was long and when your hungry it doesnt help; however I did see some friends of mine and that made time go by faster. Then my name was called - I had taken Landen for a walk because the wait was getting to long for a 7 year old. While we were walking they called my name my aunt was looking all over for us and my buzzer didnt go off she found us and back to the waiting room we went. I have to back the buss up while Landen and I were in the Skywalk he gave me a HUGE hug and said mom I sure love you I told him I love you too and Im so lucky to have you boys! Back to the waiting room Joe was waiting hes the one whom gives the radioactive pill he recognized me right away from the last time I was there, "how are you doing" he asked, I said "Fantastic I cant wait to get this done in a nice way"! As he put on his plastic gloves hes going over the ...
Brookhaven Lab agrees with the recommendations of the Inspector General report and has already taken action to implement them. Since the original memorandum of agreement was signed between the Laboratory and Stony Brook University Hospital, in 1999, Brookhaven Lab has provided radiological training to Stony Brook each year except for 2001. That year, the hospital declined our training because of a real-life incident - not at Brookhaven - that tested their response capabilities. The Laboratorys emergency personnel most recently participated in an emergency drill with Stony Brook University Hospital in December of 2002. The training we provide helps the hospital respond appropriately to victims of radiation accidents as well as to victims of industrial accidents in a radiation area, where they may become contaminated. Brookhaven Lab now has an updated memorandum of understanding with Stony Brook, signed in 2003, and will ensure that its terms are fully implemented and that the document is ...
The multidisciplinary approach, including the medical, surgical, and radiation areas of cancer therapy, providing a forum for the comprehensive care of complex cases in the management of Melanoma Cancers Cancer Patients. ...
The multidisciplinary approach, including the medical, surgical, and radiation areas of cancer therapy, providing a forum for the comprehensive care of complex cases in the management of Sarcoma Cancer Patients. ...
Announcing Colilert-18/ Quanti-Tray as ISO 9308-2:2102 Colilert-18/ Quanti-Tray becomes the new International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) worldwide standard for detecting total coliforms and E. coli in water. Colilert-18/ Quanti-Tray can e applied to all types of water including those contaiing an appreciable amount of suspended matter and high background counts of heterotrophic…. ...
Finally, the abundance of In Figure 7, the very first saccade was biased toward the wealthy quadrant unbound probes (that cant be washed away) can contribute to high background and false constructive signal in live cells. To mitigate this situation, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) wants to be tagged for the RBP-FP gene as a implies to concentrate unbound RBP-FPs inside the nucleus and boost the sensitivity of (m)RNA detection inside the cytoplasm.233 Alternatively, fluore.Tion web-sites or RNA-protein aggregates is seldom simple and usually errorprone. A different concern pertains to RNA probing in live cells, wherein hybridization of oligonucleotides, particularly a big quantity of them, may possibly compete with endogenous RBP binding or regulatory RNA elements very important to RNA function or trigger antisense or RNA silencing responses that degrade title= 1753-2000-7-28 the RNA. In addition, the translation title= 890334415573001 machinery along with other RNA helicases might denature ...
Im working at a chemistry lab and our collaborators gave us a sample of a smokers lung cells for us to characterize the carbon materials in the cell. We initially tried Raman spectroscopy, but (apparently) the lung cells have very high background fluorescence and we couldnt see anything ...
The fluorescent dye (Rhodamine B or Rhodamine 6G) is homogeneously distributed over the entire particle volume. Especially in PIV applications with a high background light level fluorescent seeding particles can enhance the signal to noise ratio. The optics of receiving devices must be equipped with a suitable filter centered on the corresponding wavelength. For µPIV applications the fluorescence is essential to separate the particle signal from the background scatter light. To separate the light emitted from the particles an epi-fluorescent microscope with filter cube is required. ...
The fluorescent dye (Rhodamine B or Rhodamine 6G) is homogeneously distributed over the entire particle volume. Especially in PIV applications with a high background light level fluorescent seeding particles can enhance the signal to noise ratio. The optics of receiving devices must be equipped with a suitable filter centered on the corresponding wavelength. For µPIV applications the fluorescence is essential to separate the particle signal from the background scatter light. To separate the light emitted from the particles an epi-fluorescent microscope with filter cube is required. ...
I havent had anything go bad yet. However, I mostly use this method with preserves that have high natural amounts of preservatives in them--either vinegar, sugar (natural or added) or honey. I do heat-process my canned fruit (halved peaches, etc.) for a short amount of time after packing. From the above-mentioned book I made a Sweet and Sour Plums recipe that required no heat-packing at all. The vinegar and sugar in the sauce have kept the plums for almost two years, now. (The sauce was heated several times during the process and re-poured over the fruit to soak before sealing ...
When ovariectomized females were tested with allopregnanolone alone here also reduced CRF enahnced startle reaction.. In another set of experiments the researchers discovered that lactating female rats with high natural progesterone were markedly lower CRF-enhanced startle responses compared to virgin females with intact ovaries. The results of theses initial experiments revealed the conclusion that progesterone […]. ...
... background radiation), the spectrum should be analyzed when no source is present. The background radiation must then be ... Calibration and background radiation[edit]. If a gamma spectrometer is used for identifying samples of unknown composition, its ... Lead absorbers can be placed around the measurement apparatus to reduce background radiation. ... the peak to the left of channel 200 most likely indicates a strong background radiation source that has not been subtracted. A ...
... the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to 3 years average background radiation ... received less than 7 mSv per year as background radiation.[67] Medical imaging as of 2007 accounted for half of the radiation ... Radiation dose units[edit]. The radiation dose reported in the gray or mGy unit is proportional to the amount of energy that ... Effects of radiation[edit]. Further information: Radiobiology. Most adverse health effects of radiation exposure may be grouped ...
... the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to 3 years average background radiation. ... received less than 7 mSv per year as background radiation.[72] Medical imaging as of 2007 accounted for half of the radiation ... Radiation dose units[edit]. The radiation dose reported in the gray or mGy unit is proportional to the amount of energy that ... The radiation used in CT scans can damage body cells, including DNA molecules, which can lead to radiation-induced cancer.[12] ...
Background radiation. E. *Epidemiology. O. *Oral rehydration therapy. T. *Tuskegee syphilis experiment ...
... also assisted in analyzing data from the Spitzer Space Telescope in connection with measuring far infrared background radiation ... He then took up an interest in the microwaves in cosmic radiation which had been discovered by Arno Allan Penzias and Robert ... That work made it possible to measure black holes and cosmic radiation much more exactly than was possible before. ... This work was completed using the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE). The Nobel Prize committee said: "the COBE- ...
Cosmic background radiation. Search for CO in galaxies with high redshift. Molecular abundance. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). ... Continuum radiation from extragalactic cold dust. Molecular material in the direction of different stellar objects. ... University of Maryland and University of Chicago Cosmic Background Imager a 13 element interferometer operating in Llano de ...
... the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to 3 years average background radiation ... received less than 7 mSv per year as background radiation.[65] Medical imaging as of 2007 accounted for half of the radiation ... Radiation dose unitsEdit. The radiation dose reported in the gray or mGy unit is proportional to the amount of energy that the ... For purposes of comparison, the world average dose rate from naturally occurring sources of background radiation is 2.4 mSv per ...
In comparison, typical exposure from naturally occurring background radiation is about 3mSv per year, or 57μSv per week. Lake ... "Naturally-occurring "background" radiation exposure". radiologyinfo.org. Retrieved 28 July 2016. ... Photosynthesizing vegetation exists all around the lake, and a 2009 radiation survey of the lake and surrounding areas was ...
Background radiation levels are measured in terms of absorbed doses (see the sievert). To calculate the radioactivity of ... Becquerels of radiation are more relevant to medicine, but in that field the measurement is "more properly referred to as ... That is clear, but how do its values correspond to real life? How much an environment radiation of 1 GBq convert to Grays/hour ... Besides the type and energy of the emitted radiation, the dose it delivers will now also depend on where in the body it's ...
He made pioneering measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation, and then was co-founder and ... R. Weiss & D. Muehlner (1970). "A Measurement of the Isotropic Background Radiation in the Far Infrared". Phys. Rev. Lett. 24 ( ... R. Weiss & D. Muehlner (1973). "Balloon Measurements of the Far Infrared Background Radiation". Phys. Rev. D. 7 (2): 326. ... 1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) R. Weiss (1980). "Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation". Annual ...
The heat radiation map of the Universe served as the emblem of the 1989 international conference "The Cosmic Wave Background: ... "Anisotropy of the microwave background radiation". Soviet Astronomy Letters. 18: 153-156. Bibcode:1992SvAL...18..153S. CS1 ... of the data in the later years claimed a confident blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. ... 1984 Strukov, I. A.; Brukhanov, A. A.; Skulachev, D. P.; Sazhin, M. V. Anisotropy of relic radiation in the RELICT-1 experiment ...
A comoving observer is the only observer that will perceive the universe, including the cosmic microwave background radiation, ... Thus isotropy, particularly isotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation, defines a special local frame of reference ... ISBN 978-1-85233-106-1. Extract of page 263 Lachièze-Rey, Marc; Gunzig, Edgard (1999). The Cosmological Background Radiation ( ...
Subsequent investigations have found no increase in the natural background radiation in the area. The Apollo 13 accident ... ORISE: Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site "Pentetate zinc trisodium injection (Zn-DTPA)". Cerner Multum. ... Estimated 6300GBq or 2100 man-Sv of radiation was released and led to NASA's development of solar photovoltaic energy ... Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. Retrieved 2009-07-06. "PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION VALENCE STATE DETERMINATION USING X- ...
background radiation - potassium-40 - γ radiation".. *^ a b Chemistry, By Eng Nguan, Lim Eng & Lim Yean Ching, pagina 73 ... Physics for radiation protection: a handbook, James E. Martin, pagina 286 *^ a b Archaeological chemistry, Zvi Goffer, pagina ...
High Background Radiation Area (HBRA) of Yangjiang, China[7] 7.6. Annual. 0.87. Fountainhead Rock Place, Santa Fe, NM natural[ ... a b c d e Radiation Protection Regulations, Canada *^ "Annex B: Exposures from natural radiation sources" (PDF). UNSCEAR 2000 ... The most radiation-hardened electronics can survive this radiation level.[20] 70 000 000 000. Hourly. 70 000 000 000 000. ... USA average medical and natural background [3]. Human internal radiation due to radon, varies with radon levels[4] ...
The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. See Louis N. Hand; ... ISBN 0-231-06636-8. R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 279 ... ISBN 0-521-62113-5. , and Ralph A. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (in ... the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system ...
"Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". "Radiation-Induced Lumbosacral Plexopathy: ... in conditions known as Radiation-induced Brachial Plexopathy (RIBP) and Radiation-induced Lumbosacral Plexopathy (RILP). The ... For radiation-induced plexopathies, treatment options are limited to pain/symptom mananagement and provision of assistive ... Both plexopathies can also occur as a consequence of radiation therapy, sometimes after 30 or more years have passed, ...
... other perturberances that may be existing locally or even extra terrestrially like the Cosmic microwave background radiation ... Typical signal noises include: ambient background noise (electric brush noise from electric motors, high voltage sources from, ... See Also: Balun Cosmic microwave background radiation. ...
Shielding reduces the cosmic and radiation background. Neon has been studied as a clear, dense, low-background scintilator. ...
He used this to set a limit on the temperature of the microwave background radiation, from the roof of the Radiation Laboratory ... R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35808-6. Penzias ... During the Second World War he worked in the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he worked ... Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. G.; Wilkinson, D. T. (1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". Astrophysical Journal. ...
"Testing Isotropy of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 385 (4): 1718- ... and black hole radiation: Do black holes produce thermal radiation, as expected on theoretical grounds? Does this radiation ... The cosmic-microwave-background data shows several features of anisotropy, which are not consistent with the Big Bang model. ... Or does the radiation stop at some point leaving black hole remnants? Is there another way to probe their internal structure ...
ISBN 0-375-41288-3. The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. See ... R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 279-280. ISBN 0-521- ... ISBN 0-521-62113-5. Ralph A. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (in Proc. ... the background energy level independent of r. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame), this energy ...
"Enhancement of Natural Background Gamma-radiation Dose around Uranium Micro-particles in the Human Body". Journal of the Royal ... Civilian uses include counterweights in aircraft, radiation shielding in medical radiation therapy and industrial radiography ... The primary radiation danger from pure depleted uranium is due to alpha particles, which do not travel far through air, and do ... Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 103 (3): 211-219. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a006135. PMID 12678382. Archived from the ...
A major consideration is the low emissivity of yttria, which limits background radiation upon heating. It is also known that ... Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects near room temperature, according to the black body radiation law, ... Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface of an object which is due to the object's temperature. ... Maiman, T.H. (1960). "Stimulated optical radiation in ruby". Nature. 187 (4736): 493-494. Bibcode:1960Natur.187..493M. doi: ...
... local background radiation was 0.2 mR/hour. A 1995 assessment by the EPA recommended that a cap be placed over the burial ... Some minutes later, a health physics response team arrived with radiation meters capable of measuring gamma radiation up to 500 ... The firefighters entered the reactor building and noticed a radiation warning light. Their radiation detectors jumped sharply ... Horan, J. R., and J. B. Braun, 1993, Occupational Radiation Exposure History of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL, EGG- ...
Ultraviolet radiation damages the skin, eyes and eggs of amphibians. However, the declines of amphibian population are still ... "Amphibian decline or extinction? Current declines dwarf background extinction rate". Journal of Herpetology 41 (3): 483-491. ...

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