Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.
April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Radium. A radioactive element of the alkaline earth series of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ra, atomic number 88, and atomic weight 226. Radium is the product of the disintegration of uranium and is present in pitchblende and all ores containing uranium. It is used clinically as a source of beta and gamma-rays in radiotherapy, particularly BRACHYTHERAPY.
Elements which exhibit atomic emission due to natural or artificial nuclear transformation. These elements spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polonium. A radioactive element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Po, atomic number 84, and the atomic weight of the isotope with the longest half-life (209Po) is 208.98. It decays by alpha-emission.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Instruments used to observe distant objects.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
The behavior and interactions of matter and energy in outer space.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)

Radiation exposure to sonographers from fluorine-18-FDG PET patients. (1/58)

OBJECTIVE: We estimated the amount of radiation exposure to sonographers from patients who were injected with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at 2 and 3 h postinjection. METHODS: We studied 8 patients who were given between 380-420 MBq 18F-FDG. The patients were measured with a RADOS RDS-120 dosimeter between 2 and 3 h after FDG injection. The dosimetry measurement was taken at a distance of 0.5 m from the injected patient, a distance used by a sonographer to perform an abdominal ultrasound. Measurements were taken at the levels of the sonographer's shoulder, abdomen, and gonads. RESULTS: At the first measurement at 2 h, the mean exposures to the shoulder, abdomen, and gonads of the sonographer in pSv/h were 31.9+/-11.3, 37.1+/-9.5, and 32.8+/-11.8, respectively. At 3 h, the mean exposures to the shoulder, abdomen, and gonads were 21.5+/-4.2, 20.2+/-5.8, and 19.6+/-4.9, respectively. CONCLUSION: The amount of radiation exposure to a sonographer is minimal. Radiation exposure risks should be considered, however, if the sonographer comes into daily, repeated contact with patients who have been given 18F-FDG.  (+info)

An introductory overview of the epidemiological study on the population at the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China. (2/58)

The epidemiological study on the residents of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China was started by Chinese scientists in 1972 and continued until 1986. In 1991, Japanese scientists recognized the importance of the work and a joint feasibility study was conducted with revised protocols. The feasibility study matured to a cooperative project involving both Chinese and Japanese scientists in 1992, which currently is still in progress. The project was divided into three phases; the first being from 1992 to 1995, the second from 1995-1998 and the third from 1998 to 2001. The results of the first phase were reported previously in 1996. The present paper is a historical overview of the studies before the cooperation and the first two phases. Remarks are made on the detailed data on dosimetry, cytogenetic studies and cancer epidemiology of a series of the papers in this supplemental issue. Some problems such as paradoxical observations between cytogenetic results and cancer mortality, and the importance of the high background study in risk assessment are discussed.  (+info)

Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China. (3/58)

For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: (1) integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; (2) eqilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; (3) external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; (4) cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined.  (+info)

Cancer mortality in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China during the period between 1979 and 1995. (4/58)

The objective of the present study was to estimate cancer risk associated with the low-level radiation exposure of an average annual effective dose of 6.4 mSv (including internal exposure) in the high background-radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China. The mortality survey consisted of two steps, i.e., the follow-up of cohort members and the ascertainment of causes of death. The cohort members in HBRA were divided into three dose-groups on the basis of environmental dose-rates per year. The mortality experiences of those three dose groups were compared with those in the residents of control areas by means of relative risk (RR). During the period 1987-1995, we observed 926,226 person-years by following up 106,517 subjects in the cohort study, and accumulated 5,161 deaths, among which 557 were from cancers. We did not observe an increase in cancer mortality in HBRA (RR = 0.96, 96% CI, 0.80 to 1.15). The combined data for the period 1979-95 included 125,079 subjects and accumulated 1,698,316 person-years, observed 10,415 total deaths and 1,003 cancer deaths. The relative risk of all cancers for whole HBRA as compared with the control area was estimated to be 0.99 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.14). The relative risks of cancers of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, bone, female breast and thyroid within whole HBRA were less than one, while the risks for leukemia, cancers of the nasopharynx, esophagus, rectum, pancreas, skin, cervix uteri, brain and central nervous system, and malignant lymphoma were larger than one. None of them were significantly different from RR = 1. Neither homogeneity tests nor trend tests revealed any statistically significant relationship between cancer risk and radiation dose. We did not find any increased cancer risk associated with the high levels of natural radiation in HBRA. On the contrary, the mortality of all cancers in HBRA was generally lower than that in the control area, but not statistically significant.  (+info)

Excess relative risk of solid cancer mortality after prolonged exposure to naturally occurring high background radiation in Yangjiang, China. (5/58)

A study was made on cancer mortality in the high-background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex- and age-specific occupancy factors, cumulative doses were calculated for each subject. In this article, we describe how the indirect estimation was made on individual dose and the methodology used to estimate radiation risk. Then, assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995, we estimate the excess relative risk per Sievert for solid cancer to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69). Also, we estimate the excess relative risks of four leading cancers in the study areas, i.e., cancers of the liver, nasopharynx, lung and stomach. In addition, we evaluate the effects of possible bias on our risk estimation.  (+info)

A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. (6/58)

The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death (+/- 5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR = 14.2, 95% CI = 2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI = 0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI = 0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish intake was a strong risk factor of NPC. Education, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were also related to NPC risk. The exposure to high background radiation in HBRA of Yangjiang was not related to NPC risk with or without the adjustment for those major risk determinants of NPC.  (+info)

Dose-effect relationship of dicentric and ring chromosomes in lymphocytes of individuals living in the high background radiation areas in China. (7/58)

Chromosomes of 39 healthy family members (3 generations from 13 families) living both in the high-level background radiation areas (HBRA) and the control areas (CA) were studied. Cumulative dose from birth to the time of blood sampling was estimated by calculating measured exposure rate in each individual. The cumulative doses ranged 30.9-358.9 and 6.0-59.2 mGy for HBRA and CA, respectively. Peripheral lymphocyte chromosome preparations were made according to our improved method. Dicentric and ring chromosomes (Dic + Rc) were scored in average 2,527 cells per individual in HBRA and 2,694 cells in CA under a microscope equipped with an automated stage. A positive correlation between Dic + Rc and age was found in HBRA, while no such dose relationship was clear in CA. The frequency of Dic + Rc linearly increases over lifetime due to chronic low dose exposure and it is likely that the activation of repair enzymes is not triggered in the present HBRA. Threshold dose (rate) of the induction of chromosome aberrations, if any, is below the present dose (rate) level.  (+info)

Chromosome translocation in residents of the high background radiation areas in southern China. (8/58)

We performed a cytogenetical study using chromosome painting analysis on 9 residents of the naturally high background radiation areas (HBRA) and 8 residents of the control areas in southern China. The estimated dose (air kerma) of each resident measured by an electric pocket dosimeter showed 2.20-4.23 mGy/year in HBRA and 0.56-0.70 mGy/year in the control areas. A total of 14,096 cells (1,566 cells/case) in the former and 17,522 cells (2,190 cells/case) in the latter were analyzed. Children, both in HBRA and in the control areas, had translocations at low frequencies. The frequency of translocations among elder individuals varied widely and it was not possible to detect dose effect although it was detected in dicentrics. The effect of radiation on the induction of chromosome aberrations, which have a statistically potential risk of causing malignant or congenital diseases, seems to be less significant than those of metabolic factors and/or mutagenic agents (excluding radiation) even in HBRA in China.  (+info)

Radioprotection, theoretical calculation of doses - radioactive fallout - biological effects of ionising radiation or radiobiology - experimental studies (dosimetry, reactor physics, radiochemistry), radiobiological risk management
Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the sky with no discernable source. It comes from the effects of interplanetary dust, and interstellar matter. The origin of this radiation depends on the region of the spectrum that we are observing. One component is the cosmic microwave background radiation. This component is redshifted photons that have freely streamed from an epoch when the universe became transparent for the first time to radiation. Its discovery and detail observations of its properties are considered one of the major confirmations of the Big Bang ...
Humans are constantly exposed to different kinds of radiations, especially natural radiation. The annual dose received by the public in Hong Kong from natural background radiation is about 2 mSv. In general, the annual dose received by the public in the world ranges from 1 mSv to 10 mSv. However, different areas in the world may have different background radiation levels. For example, the background radiation in some regions in Iran and India may reach 200 mSv per year. According to the report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) in 2000, the worldwide average annual effective dose through ingestion (including foods and drinking water) is 0.3 mSv. Moreover, people are also exposed to radiation in other ways, for example, 0.4 mSv per year from cosmic rays, 0.5 mSv per year from terrestrial gamma rays and 1.2 mSv per year from inhalation (mainly radon).. ...
The coastal belt of Karunagappally, Kerala, India, is known for high background radiation (HBR) from thorium-containing monazite sand. In coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy y-1 and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy y-1. Although HBR has been repeatedly shown to increase the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the circulating lymphocytes of exposed persons, its carcinogenic effect is still unproven. A cohort of all 385,103 residents in Karunagappally was established in the 1990s to evaluate health effects of HBR. Based on radiation level measurements, a radiation subcohort consisting of 173,067 residents was chosen. Cancer incidence in this subcohort aged 30-84 y (N = 69,958) was analyzed. Cumulative radiation dose for each individual was estimated based on outdoor and indoor dosimetry of each household, taking into account sex- and age-specific house occupancy factors. Following 69,958 residents for 10.5 years on average, 736,586 ...
What is background radiation?. Ionising radiation always present in the environment. Why does background radiation not cause harm?. The levels are constant and are too low to be harmful and are naturally occuring mostly. Main contributors to background radiation?. Cosmic rays from the sun, decay of rocks, radon gas from the ground. Small contributors to background radiation?. Man made sources like radioactive waste from nuclear power stations and hospitals, and from smoke alarms. How much does human activity contribute to background radiation?. Less than 1%. What is the most common radioisotope used in smoke alarms?. Americium 241. What type of radiation do smoke alarms give out?. Alpha. How does a smoke alarm work?. The alpha particles ionise the molecules of the air forming ions and electrons which are attracted to a pair of charged plates as shown in the picture below. When the ions and electrons hit the plates they provide a small amount of electricity (a small current). This current stays ...
Appendixes . This part provides troubleshooting of ELISA kit with means of cause-solution table ELISA high background, often means excessive color development or high ELISA TroubleShooting Guide High background. LOEWE® Biochemica At the same time, negative samples can exhibit high background reactions. High Background/ Non-specific Color Development, Non-specific The KPL ELISA Technical Guide is a continuation of the series of guides and information from KPL to help However, if high background persists, adding. 1. 2). 5) in wells that have no antigen. Check the amount of antibody suggested. 2. 4-0. ELISA - Troubleshooting aspects. Troubleshooting for Common Lab Applications ELISA TroubleShooting High backgrounds can result from extended incubation periods or incubation at make it our first priority to provide high quality products to the research ELISA Troubleshooting Guide . A common cause of high background in ELISA is an overly. All tags ELISA ELISA troubleshooting tips practical solutions ...
Deinococcus accomplishes its resistance to radiation by having multiple copies of its genome and rapid DNA repair mechanisms. It usually repairs breaks in its chromosomes within 12-24 hours through a 2-step process. First, D. radiodurans reconnects some chromosome fragments through a process called single-strand annealing. In the second step, a protein mends double-strand breaks through homologous recombination. This process does not introduce any more mutations than a normal round of replication would.. A persistent question regarding D. radiodurans is how such a high degree of radioresistance could evolve. Natural background radiation levels are very low-in most places, on the order of 0.4 mGy per year, and the highest known background radiation, near Ramsar, Iran is only 260 mGy per year. With naturally-occurring background radiation levels so low, organisms evolving mechanisms specifically to ward off the effects of high radiation are unlikely.. Valerie Mattimore and John R. Battista of ...
We have developed a 33 GHz airborne radiometer system to map large-scale angular variations in the temperature of the 3 K cosmic background radiation. A ferrite circulator switches a room-temperature mixer between two antennas pointing 60{sup o} apart in the sky. In forty minutes of observing, the radiometer can measure the anisotropy of the microwave background with an accuracy of {+-} 1 m{sup o}K rms, or about one part in 3000 of 3 K. The apparatus is flown in a U-2 jet to 20 km altitude where 33 GHz thermal microwave emission from the atmosphere is at a low level. A second radiometer, tuned to 54 GHz near oxygen emission lines, monitors spurious signals from residual atmospheric radiation. The antennas, which have an extremely low side-lobe response of less than -65 dB past 60{sup o}, reject anisotropic radiation from the earths surface. Periodic interchange of the antenna positions and reversal of the aircrafts flight direction cancel equipment-based imbalances. The system has been operated
We review mechanisms for producing temperature and polarization anisotropies in the microwave background radiation, and summarize their relation to the large-scale distribution of matter and to theories of galaxy formation. We also review possible sources of ambiguity in interpreting data, in particular the unknown opacity of the pregalactic gas and the possible contribution of discrete sources of radiation. Strategies for removing these ambiguities are discussed. ...
Weve featured adorable subatomic particles from The Particle Zoo previously at Neatorama. Now they have a new item called the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This cuddly plush toy represents the residual radiation from the Big Bang. The perfect gift for someone who understands what that is -or someone who doesnt! http://www.particlezoo.net/individual_pages/shop_cmbr.html -via Bad Astronomy Blog...
Big Bang pictures created from CMB, cosmic microwave background radiation. Online exhibit of artistic images by Rick Doble. This display combines both art and science.
Big Bang pictures created from CMB, cosmic microwave background radiation. Online exhibit of artistic images by Rick Doble. This display combines both art and science.
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Earth_materials_for_low_background_radia.html?id=W9cZsyxpGEcC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareEarth materials for low background radiation shielding ...
Round style manicure set with brush,, Guangdong, China (Mainland), Marktop, MT-M3010.Source from Yangjiang Marktop Hardware & Manicure Factory on Alibaba.com.
The National Radiological Protection Board (NRBP) has recently revised the radiation dose for typical x ray examinations. For example, an abdominal/pelvic CT scan would typically lead to an effective dose of 10 mSv, which is an equivalent of 4.5 years of natural background radiation.8 This radiation exposure was estimated to carry a 1:2000 risk of fatal cancer in the 16-69 year old patient population (personal communication from NRPB). For older patients, this may be halved but for younger patients increased up to fivefold. Put another way, this is equal to 250-300 fatal cancers for every 1 million abdominal/pelvic CT scans.. These values are calculated using a probability coefficient, which was developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), based on historical epidemiological cohorts and other research.9 It is worth noting that the cancer risk attributed to radiation exposure has constantly risen over time as longer term follow up information from the Hiroshima and ...
It has been suggested that, when assessing radiation impacts on non-human biota, estimated dose rates due to anthropogenically released radionuclides should be put in context by comparison to dose rates from natural background radiation. In order to make these comparisons, we need data on the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental media and organisms of interest. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the exposure of terrestrial organisms in England and Wales to naturally occurring radionuclides, specifically 40K, 238U series and 232Th series radionuclides. Whole-body activity concentrations for the reference animals and plants (RAPs) as proposed by the ICRP have been collated from literature review, data archives and a targeted sampling campaign. Data specifically for the proposed RAP are sparse. Soil activity concentrations have been derived from an extensive geochemical survey of the UK. Unweighted and weighted absorbed dose rates were ...
The level of contamination isnt going to pose a significant health risk to people, but could have long-term economic consequences for the fishermen along Japans east coast.. Three of the nuclear plants six reactors suffered meltdown on March 11, 2011 when a 9.0-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Japan. Large quantities of radioactivity were released into the atmosphere and emergency cooling water leaked into the sea.. A new model from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts estimates that 16.2 petabecquerels (1015 becquerels) of radioactive cesium leaked from the plant, about the same amount that went in to the atmosphere.. Most of the radioactivity was dispersed across the Pacific Ocean, where it was diluted to extremely low levels. However, in regions near the plant, levels of cesium-137 have remained fixed at about 1,000 becquerels, which is relatively high compared to the natural background radiation. Researchers are convinced that there is something preventing ...
In order to prevent influx of highly enriched nuclear material throu-gh border checkpoints, new advanced detection schemes need to be developed. Typical issues faced in this context are sources with very low emission against a dominating natural background radiation. Sources are expected to be small and shielded and hence cannot be detected from measurements of radiation levels alone. We consider collimated and Compton-type measurements and propose a detection method that relies on the geometric singularity of small sources to distinguish them from the more uniform background. The method is characterized by high sensitivity and specificity and allows for assigning confidence probabilities of detection. The validity of our approach can be justified using properties of related techniques from medical imaging. Results of numerical simulations are presented for collimated and Compton-type measurements. The 2D case is considered in detail.
Some radionuclides have been present in rocks since the formation of the Earth. All radionuclides go through radioactive decay until they reach a stable state. Radioactive decay is the process in which a radioactive element turns into another element, releasing radiation in the process. Natural radionuclides found in the Earths crust include uranium and thorium. As they decay, they become other radionuclides such as radium and radon. These radionuclides end up naturally in soil, water and air.. Rocks containing natural radionuclides are broken down into soil by the weather, bacteria and fungi. When radionuclides are in soil particles, they can be blown around by wind. Some radionuclides dissolve in water and end up in surface or groundwater.. ...
Although it was discovered less than 40 years ago, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation has been around a lot longer than that. A relic from the early days of the Universe more than 14 billion years ago, the CMB is the oldest radiation on record. Current cosmological models posit that the CMB should be slightly polarized but this property has never been observed--until now. Researchers have successfully detected the CMBs polarization and found that it agrees with the theoretical estimates. Erik Leitch and John Kovac of the University of Chicago and their colleagues used the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), which is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, to study the CMB radiation. Over a two-year period, this array of radio telescopes collected radiation signals coming from deep space in two patches of blank sky. The resulting 271 days worth of useable data revealed the lights polarization (the direction in which the lights field oscillates as it travels ...
All of the information media are at fault here I think. They are saying stupid things like, why, we are exposed to radiation all the time in our daily life, we get radiation from outer space. But thats one millisievert per year. A year has 365 days, a day has 24 hours; multiply 365 by 24, you get 8760. Multiply the 400 millisieverts by that, you get 3,500,000 the normal dose. You call that safe? And what media have reported this? None. They compare it to a CT scan, which is over in an instant; that has nothing to do with it. The reason radioactivity can be measured is that radioactive material is escaping. What is dangerous is when that material enters your body and irradiates it from inside. These industry-mouthpiece scholars come on TV and what to they say? They say as you move away the radiation is reduced in inverse ratio to the square of the distance. I want to say the reverse. Internal irradiation happens when radioactive material is ingested into the body. What happens? Say there is a ...
Adding some biology to the physics suggests that the curve is neither linear nor logarithmic, but rather a chimera of two (or more) curves, with an inflection point (or range). Life has evolved on earth in the presence of non-negligible levels of background radiation. As a result, organisms have developed mechanisms to repair the cellular damage caused by radiation (as well as other physical insults). At very low doses of radiation, most cells in an organism will be able to deal with whatever damage might result from such exposure. But as radiation levels rise, cells become overwhelmed, and repair mechanisms cant keep up with the rate of damage inflicted. Thus, at very low doses of radiation, death rates (from cancer, the primary cause of low-to-moderate dose radiation death) are indistinguishable from those caused by background radiation.. As doses rise, radiation damage can overwhelm the cellular damage-repair machinery; here, a second biological effect comes into play. The radiation-induced ...
This code generates random numbers based on nuclear decay events, // In my mind they would be the highest quality of random numbers. // The only downside is that it is very very very very very slow. // // Using only background radiation of about 18CPM it would take // about 30 hours to generate 1k of random goodness. // Using low-sodium kitchen salt, you can get about 10x background radiation. // Using LoSalt (66% potassium Chloride) 161CPM it would take about // 202 minutes to generate 1k of random goodness. // Using some crazy lethal radiation source of 170,000CPM (60*1000000/350) // (maximum with my GM tube recovery time of ~350uS) it would take about // 200 minutes to generate 1MiB of random numbers // // This is one of the reasons that I would not use a GM tube as my final solution // to generate high quality truly random numbers, but it is interesting to test. // // Using background where I am is about 18 CPM I can generate about 0.53 bytes/minute // Using Lo-Salt (66% Potassium Chloride) ...
The cosmic microwave background radiation is an emission of uniform, black body thermal energy coming from all parts of the sky. The radiation is isotropic to roughly one part in , the root mean square variations are only 18 µK, after subtracting out a dipole anisotropy from the Doppler shift of the background radiation. The latter is caused by the peculiar velocity of the .
Youve bought the propaganda from the nuclear industry. They say its low-level radiation. Thats absolute rubbish. If you inhale a millionth of a gram of plutonium, the surrounding cells receive a very, very high dose. Most die within that area, because its an alpha emitter. The cells on the periphery remain viable. They mutate, and the regulatory genes are damaged. Years later, that person develops cancer. Now, thats true for radioactive iodine, that goes to the thyroid; cesium-137, that goes to the brain and muscles; strontium-90 goes to bone, causing bone cancer and leukemia. Its imperative … that you understand internal emitters and radiation, and its not low level to the cells that are exposed. Radiobiology is imperative to understand these days. ...
Counteracting gravity is the additional pressure of the excess matter. Hence, as Jeans (1902) showed for a static (non-expanding) fluid, there is a critical length scale, below which perturbations do not grow and above which gravity wins so that Ap/p does increase. This scale is the Jeans length,* / \l/2 jO J^L] 9 (L34) \Gp) {Gpm) where cs is the speed of sound in a non-relativistic gas of particles of mass m at a temperature T. Since > 90% atoms in the Universe are 1H, we may take m = m , the proton mass. It is therefore of considerable importance to note that the inflationary model may allow us to specify the nature, the spectrum and even the amplitude of these fluctuations. Let us look first at the nature of the fluctuations. There are two main classes: those in which both the radiation and the matter were perturbed, and those in which essentially only the matter was perturbed (so that the radiation density and hence T remained essentially constant). In the first of these classes, n I nh ...
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology. In older literature, the CMB is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) or relic radiation. The CMB is a faint cosmic background radiation filling all space that is an important source of data on the early universe because it is the oldest electromagnetic radiation in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination. With a traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies (the background) is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background noise, or glow, almost isotropic, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum. The accidental discovery of the CMB in 1964 by American radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson[1][2] was the culmination of work initiated in the 1940s, ...
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This conclusion was later confirmed by further groundbreaking evidence provided by the study of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation as it passes by the Earth.. The CMBR is a wall of radiation created by the Big Bang explosion which occurred some 14 billion years ago. The radiation is everywhere - you can even see it when you get the snowstorm picture on your TV. In terms of mapping outer space, its all we can see when we look out at the very edge of the known universe (which is why, in time, the universe will always be finite).. By monitoring the black spots in the radiation as it passes by Earth, scientists can see exactly what space the CMBR has traveled through so far and measure the microwave background fluctuations. And it has revealed that the universe is flat within a 0.5% margin of error.. A flat universe gives us an infinite universe, in terms of space. And with accelerating expansion, the universe will always be bigger than we can directly ...
Note the group of workers studied was a while ago (1970s I believe) and it looked at the overall health after the exposure for long term effects. They have received much more than normal amounts (back in those days you could get a lot more than 5 rem per year) of radiation as their badges would indicate so missing dental x-rays would not be an issue as they would not contribute much at all. According to the study, they were just normal dock workers without additional education. The only distinguishing feature found in the study was the handling of waste ...
there is a lot of truth to the phrase, the sound of the big bang. As has been said above, sound waves are compressions and rarefactions in a medium. Shortly after the big bang the universe was a hot plasma of particles interacting with an enormous number of photons. Gravity was pulling denser clumps of matter toward each other while the radiation pressure (the pressure of the photons) would blow the denser pieces apart again. So, during this phase of the early universe (up until the time the cosmic background radiation was emitted) this plasma was undergoing oscillations very similar to sound waves. Once the temperature of the universe (which means the temperature of the photon bath) dropped to a point where it could no longer interact with the matter the oscillations ceased. The light preserved the pattern of compressions and rarefactions sooooooo when scientists measure the cosmic background radiation they are measuring a snapshot of the soundwaves that propogated throughout the early dense ...
Eating Clean for the Mind. I finished Philip K. Dicks The Man in the High Castle. I enjoyed it. I knocked it off in three or four days, which shows the difference between reading things you enjoy and things you only read out of duty. Ive been suffering while reading relatively small passages from the books on the Columbia College Lit. Hum. syllabus. Reading 50 pages of Philip K. Dick in one day is a pleasure. Reading 20 pages of Cervantes is a chore.. Dick is very clever, but I dont think hes all that deep. Heres one thing you notice about him right away: all of his characters sound the same. Its as if one person is talking all through the book. In that respect, he resembles Ayn Rand. Maybe Rand wrote that way because her books involved two opposing sets of characters, and the characters in each set shared the same mind. Dagney Taggart and Hank Rearden were pretty much the same person.. Perhaps, like most people who write science fiction, he was more interested in the physical world than ...
Diana Battefeld, The Effects of a Rotating Cosmic String Loop on the Surrounding Plasma, 2015 [soft chalk on paper]. After the concepts published by A. Anthonisen et al and D. Battefeld et al. A rotating cosmic string loop has detached from its parent string. In the picture, the left part of the string moves downward, … ...
Find natural radioactivity level articles from Dec. 11th 1967 to Jan. 1st 2017 on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
External radiation exposure represents about one third of the total natural radiation exposure - resulting in a annual dose of approximately 0.7 millisievert. About half of it is due to cosmic radiation, which reaches the earth from the deep space and mainly consists of high-energy particles. On its way through the atmosphere cosmic radiation is partially absorbed on its way to the ground owing to nuclear reactions with the atomic nuclei of the air molecules. Therefore, its intensity depends on the altitude. It is lowest at sea level and increases with the altitude of a site. On the Zugspitze, Germanys highest mountain, it is four times higher than on the coast.. Terrestrial radiation is also part of external radiation exposure. It originates from natural radioactive substances existing in the soils and rock layers of the earths crust in regional different concentrations.. Rocks and soils again are important raw materials for mineral building materials such as bricks and concrete. The ...
There is no firm basis for setting a safe level of exposure above background for stochastic effects. Many sources emit radiation that is well below natural background levels. This makes it extremely difficult to isolate its stochastic effects. In setting limits, EPA makes the conservative (cautious) assumption that any increase in radiation exposure is accompanied by an increased risk of stochastic effects. Health physicists generally agree on limiting a persons exposure beyond background radiation to about 100 mrem per year from all sources. Exceptions are occupational, medical or accidental exposures. (Medical X-rays generally deliver less than 10 mrem). However, there do appear to be threshold exposures for the various non-stochastic effects. (Please note that the acute affects in the following table are cumulative. For example, a dose that produces damage to bone marrow will have produced changes in blood chemistry and be accompanied by nausea ...
I still have problems with my WB. I got some information from JacksonImmuno, which says that the commercial milk might have some contimination with bovine IgG and this bovine IgG can react with anti Goat IgG. It means when you use 5% milk to do the blocking actually you block your membrane with Bovine IgG which can react with anti-goat IgG(your 2nd) and this is equal to block your membrane with 1st antibody(It is stupid but I dont think many of us think of it before doing the WB including myself ). So when you add the 2nd Ab it will bind to your first antibody and the bovine IgG. This is one of the major reason that causes high background in the ECL. They suggest use the normal sera from the 2nd Ab to do the blocking ...
All of us are exposed to some background radiation just by going about our daily lives. This low-level exposure to radiation is generally considered safe. Some imaging procedures provide additional exposure to radiation. For most people, occasional imaging procedures throughout their lifetime wont be an issue, but doctors must balance the valuable medical information from these procedures against the slight increased risk that too much radiation may cause. Some imaging tests, such as MRI and ultrasound, involve no radiation, while others, such as X-rays, CT scans, mammograms, fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine, do expose you to small amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation varies from test to test and depends on a number of other factors, including your weight, the number of views taken, the equipment, and the imaging facilitys procedures. Most X-rays, including mammograms and bone density tests, have very small amounts of radiation. Despite recent media reports, radiation exposure to ...
Most isolates from low background radiation sites showed a significant reduced or no response to exposure to either source of radiation, whereas the stimulatory effect of experimental exposure to radiation appeared to increase in magnitude as prior exposure to radiation increased. We propose that the enhanced spore germination and hyphal growth seen in the exposure trials is induced by prior long term exposure to radiation and these factors could be important in controlling the decomposition of radionuclide-bearing resources in the environment.. The Opened International University of Human Development Ukraine ...
Space travel has its dangers. One of the biggest risks will come from the various types of radiation that flood space. Scientists are learning how life on Earth has evolved different kinds of tricks to resist radiation. Some animals and plants have evolved protective covering or pigmentation, but some forms of bacteria can actually repair damage to its DNA from radiation. Future space travelers might take advantage of these techniques to minimize the harm they get from long exposure. In Star Wars and Star Trek movies, people travel between planets and galaxies with ease. But our future in space is far from assured. Issues of hyperdrive and wormholes aside, it doesnt seem possible that the human body could withstand extended exposure to the harsh radiation of outer space.. Radiation comes from many sources. Light from the sun produces a range of wavelengths from long-wave infrared to short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV). Background radiation in space is composed of high-energy X-rays, gamma rays ...
Space travel has its dangers. One of the biggest risks will come from the various types of radiation that flood space. scientists are learning how life on Earth has evolved different kinds of tricks to resist radiation. Some animals and plants have evolved protective covering or pigmentation, but some forms of bacteria can actually repair damage to its DNA from radiation. Future space travellers might take advantage of these techniques to minimize the harm they get from long exposure.. In Star Wars and Star Trek movies, people travel between planets and galaxies with ease. But our future in space is far from assured. Issues of hyperdrive and wormholes aside, it doesnt seem possible that the human body could withstand extended exposure to the harsh radiation of outer space.. Radiation comes from many sources. light from the Sun produces a range of wavelengths from long-wave infrared to short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV). Background radiation in space is composed of high-energy X-rays, gamma rays ...
Computed tomography has emerged as the gold standard for the diagnosis of a broad range of medical diagnoses. For cardiac imaging alone, the installation of CT scanners in US cardiology practices alone has tripled over the past 2 years. Patients who undergo cardiac CTA (computed tomography angiography) may be subjected to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation (ie. 4 times annual background radiation) during the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease. Current radiation doses for cardiac CT examinations are comparable to the effective doses for patients undergoing nuclear stress tests or cardiac catheterization (ie. approximately 10-15 milliSieverts). In addition, non cardiac CT protocols, such as chest CT examinations for the evaluation of pulmonary arteries, thoracic and abdominal aorta, and lung nodules, are associated with significant radiation exposure. Many patients undergo repeated CT examinations over several years for such pathology. There is a growing public concern ...
b. Describe the hazards of radiation to humans, the environment, and wildlife. Explain the difference between radiation exposure and contamination. In your explanation, discuss the nature and magnitude of radiation risks to humans from nuclear power, medical radiation (e.g., chest or dental X-ray), and background radiation including radon. Explain the ALARA principle and measures required by law to minimize these risks ...
b. Describe the hazards of radiation to humans, the environment, and wildlife. Explain the difference between radiation exposure and contamination. In your explanation, discuss the nature and magnitude of radiation risks to humans from nuclear power, medical radiation (e.g., chest or dental X-ray), and background radiation including radon. Explain the ALARA principle and measures required by law to minimize these risks ...
We are all naturally exposed to background radiation from radon, a colourless, odourless gas found in soil, water and air. Unnatural sources of exposure such as medical X-rays deliver about 10 days worth of naturally occurring radiation. Symptoms of radiation sickness occur when the body is damaged by a very large dose of radiation over a…
With nearly 30 years of risk assessment experience, Gradient scientists bring sound science to the health risks and potential environmental impacts of both radiation and chemical exposures. Whether in the context of litigation, supporting environmentally sound site closure, or addressing public concerns, Gradient uses human health risk assessment to assess radioisotope concentrations in environmental media and evaluate the potential for cancer or other health risks. We place these risks in proper perspective compared to background radiation as an important element of risk communication. Moreover, Gradient scientists help draw the important health-risk distinctions between exposure to ionizing versus non-ionizing radiation (e.g., power-line electric and magnetic fields, cell phones, and radio waves).. Example Publications:. Goodman, JE; Nascarella, MA; Valberg, PA. 2009. Ionizing radiation: A risk factor for mesothelioma. Cancer Causes Control 20:1237-1254.. Valberg, PA; Van Deventer, TE; ...
The radiation used in CT scans can damage body cells, including DNA molecules, which can lead to cancer.[12] According to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, between the 1980s and 2006, the use of CT scans has increased sixfold (+500%). The radiation doses received from CT scans is variable. Compared to the lowest dose x-ray techniques, CT scans can have 100 to 1,000 times higher dose than conventional X-rays.[45] However, a lumbar spine x-ray has a similar dose as a head CT.[46] Articles in the media often exaggerate the relative dose of CT by comparing the lowest-dose x-ray techniques (chest x-ray) with the highest-dose CT techniques. In general, the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to 3 years average background radiation (from cosmic radiation).[47] Some experts note that CT scans are known to be overused, and there is distressingly little evidence of better health outcomes associated with the current high rate of ...
We use only enough radiation to see what Dr. Andy needs to care for your child. We all are exposed to small amounts of radiation daily from the sun, soil, rocks, buildings, air and water. This type of natural radiation is called background radiation. The radiation used in x rays has been compared to the amount of background radiation a person gets daily to help you understand how much radiation your child is getting during their x-ray exam.. We make sure your child is exposed to the lowest amount of radiation possible during an x-ray picture.. The amount of radiation from one dental x-ray picture is very small. Still, it is important to us keep the radiation amount as low as possible.. ...
Hippocampus Fantasy Aquarium: 2020 Top Things to Do in Yangjiang. Hippocampus Fantasy Aquarium travelers reviews, business hours, introduction, open hours. Check out updated best hotels & restaurants near Hippocampus Fantasy Aquarium.
Dr. Dale A. Miles, adjunct professor at the University of Texas, and professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology at the Arizona School of Dentistry, addressed the issue of dental X-rays.. Dr. Miles asked the questions, are dental X-rays safe? Dr. Miles has determined after many years of research and study, the individualized radiographic exposure of radiation that we are exposed to from dental X-rays is very small compared to our daily exposure from things like, cosmic radiation and naturally-occurring radioactive elements (for example, those producing radon).. The table below compares our estimated exposure to radiation from dental X-ray with other various sources. As indicated below, a millisievert (µSv) is a unit of measure that allows for some comparison between radiation sources that expose the entire body (such as natural background radiation) and those that only expose a portion of the body (such as X-rays).. Annual estimated average effective dose of equivalent received by a member of ...
Online conversion from Nausea And Vomiting (Acute Radiation Syndrome) to Hourly Average Background Radiation (Radiation Dose Examples). Radiation Converter.
Electromagnetic radiation remaining from the early development of the universe. It fills the known universe and can be detected from every direction in space. Its existence is physical corroboration of the Big Bang theory for the formation of the universe around 13.7 billion years ago. It has an overall background temperature of −270.4°C/−454.8°F (around 3°C above absolute zero).. CMBR was first detected in 1965 by US physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, who in 1978 shared the Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery.. In 1992 the US Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite detected very small changes in the strength of CMBR that are believed to mark the first stage in the formation of galaxies. George Smoot and John C Mather won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2006 for determining very small changes of temperature in the CMBR in different directions, known as anisotropy, using data collected by COBE.. In 2001, NASA launched the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), ...
Wallace, J. and Jones, K. C. (1994) Effects of natural radiation and narrow bands of light on the survival of pathogenic and indicator bacteria. Demonstration meeting: microbiology of water treatment, abstract. Society of Applied Bacteriology News. p. 5.. Full text not available from this repository ...
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Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is responsible for approximately half of the human annual background radiation exposure globally. Chronic exposure to radon and its decay products is estimated to be the second leading cause of lung cancer behind smoking, and links to other forms of neoplasms have been postulated. Ionizing radiation emitted during the radioactive decay of radon and its progeny can induce a variety of cytogenetic effects that can be biologically damaging and result in an increased risk of carcinogenesis. Suggested effects produced as a result of alpha particle exposure from radon include mutations, chromosome aberrations, generation of reactive oxygen species, modification of the cell cycle, up or down regulation of cytokines and the increased production of proteins associated with cell-cycle regulation and carcinogenesis. A number of potential biomarkers of exposure, including translocations at codon 249 of TP53 in addition to HPRT mutations, have been suggested
If you search on the Internet for health risks as a result of radiation of X-rays, particularly dental X-rays since thats the most common source of X-rays were exposed to, youll find hundreds of articles. The most trustworthy ones are from well-respected web sites, such as Annual X-rays May Expose Patients to Unnecessary Risk on WebMD, New Dental X-ray Guidelines Spell Out Radiation Reduction on Medscape. Many articles including these two mention the 2012 study Dental x-rays and risk of meningioma that links brain tumor to frequent dental X-rays. On the other hand, dentists and some articles argue that dental radiation is insignificant compared to background radiation. According to Wikipedia, A dental x-ray delivers a dose of 5 to 10 µSv (or 0.005 to 0.01 mSv). The average American receives about 3 mSv of diagnostic medical dose per year (including chest, dental and other types of medical X-rays), while Average annual human exposure to ionizing radiation for an American is 3.10 mSv, ...
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; BETA DETECTION; LOW LEVEL COUNTING; GERMANIUM 76; DOUBLE BETA DECAY; GE SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS; BACKGROUND RADIATION; BETA SPECTRA; ENERGY SPECTRA; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; HALF-LIFE; MAJORANA THEORY; BETA DECAY; BETA-MINUS DECAY; CHARGED PARTICLE DETECTION; COUNTING TECHNIQUES; DATA; DAYS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; DECAY; DETECTION; EVEN-EVEN NUCLEI; GERMANIUM ISOTOPES; INFORMATION; INTERMEDIATE MASS NUCLEI; ISOTOPES; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; NUCLEAR DECAY; NUCLEI; NUMERICAL DATA; RADIATION DETECTION; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATIONS; RADIOISOTOPES; SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS; SPECTRA; STABLE ISOTOPES; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; 440103* - Radiation Instrumentation- Nuclear Spectroscopic Instrumentation; 663210 - Ground-State Radioactivity- (1992-); 663550 - Nuclear Mass Ranges- A=59-89- (1992 ...
E2847 - 14 Standard Test Method for Calibration and Accuracy Verification of Wideband Infrared Thermometers , accuracy verifications, background radiations, blackbodies, calibrations, cavity radiation sources, distance to size ratios, emissivities, fields-of-view, flatplate radiation sources, handheld thermometers, infrared, infrared thermometers, radiation thermometers, reflected radiations, size-of-source effects, spot sizes, temperature measurements, thermal imagers, thermal radiation sources, thermometries, transfer standards, uncertainties,
ANOTHER WAR CRIME? IRAQI CITIES HOT WITH DEPLETED URANIUM. Download pdf brochure format. By Sara Flounders August 18, 2003--Has U.S. use of depleted-uranium weapons turned Iraq into a radioactive danger area for both Iraqis and occupation troops? This question has already had serious consequences. In hot spots in downtown Baghdad, reporters have measured radiation levels that are 1,000 to 1,900 times higher than normal background radiation levels. It has also opened a debate in the Netherlands parliament and media as 1,100 Dutch troops in Kuwait prepare to enter Iraq as part of the U.S./British-led occupation forces. The Dutch are concerned about the danger of radioactive poisoning and radiation sickness in Iraq. Washington has assured the Dutch government that it used no DU weapons near Al-Samawah, the town where Dutch troops will be stationed. But Dutch journalists and anti-war forces have already found holes in the U.S. stories according to an article on the Radio Free Europe website. The ...
Videos , Audio *new* , Organizations & News Sources , Articles, Studies & Reports , Bioeffects and electrohypersensitivity , Govt & NGOs , Books. Proponents of wireless communications want everyone to think that there is zero risk from their devices, the technology itself and infrastructure that enable their use.. However, according to several decades of science, the risk is not zero. These devices (all cell phones, anything wi-fi or Bluetooth, tablet computers, cordless phones, baby monitors) operate in the microwave band of the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Nothing on Earth naturally generates microwaves.. In the past 125 years (but mostly in the last 20), we have increased the amount of microwave radiation on our planet by over 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 times. Thats a one quintillion (a million trillion) fold increase over the level of natural cosmic background radiation under which all life evolved. No wonder it makes some people sick.. These links below provide a ...
During normal operations, the Station crew will record the background radiation dosage on each badge and transmit it to the ground every week. Shortly before a spacewalk by Station or Shuttle crew members, the crew will measure the radiation dosage of each badge to be used in the spacewalk. A set of three badges will be inserted into pockets sewn into the front torso and front leg areas of the liquid cooling undergarment and the top of the fabric communications cap of each spacesuit. Those locations were selected because of the radiation hazard to sensitive soft tissues such as eyes and internal organs, as well as the hazard to the skin on the arms and legs, which are not as well shielded as the torso.. Shortly after the spacewalk, the crew will plug each badge set into the badge reader. They will later transfer the data to the Human Research Facility laptop computer for transmission to the payload team on the ground.. EVARM will be ferried to the Station on the STS-108 Space Shuttle mission ...
At present, CT is the gold standard in the assessment of patients with acute abdomen. Yet, one CT of the abdomen exposes patients to a radiation dose equivalent to several years of background radiation. MR can be expected to yield the same information without ionizing radiation, but tends to be more time consuming. In this study, patients with nontraumatic acute abdominal pain referred to CT of the abdomen by the department of surgery will also have performed an additional MR scan covering the entire abdomen with few fast imaging sequences in approximately 15min. CT is the diagnostic test. The MR scan is only used for scientific purposes. It will be evaluated by a radiologist blinded for the results of the CT scan. Fourteen days after admission, a final diagnosis is established based on clinical, peroperative, pathological and lab. findings. The performance of CT and MR will then be compared. The investigators hypothesize that MR can provide a diagnostic accuracy comparable to CT ...
Russia has said it found extremely high concentrations of a radioactive isotope in some parts of the country in September, amid reports of a nuclear accident.. The announcement confirmed findings earlier this month by a French nuclear safety institute, the IRSN, which detected a cloud of radioactivity above Europe.. Russian officials had previously denied any knowledge of a nuclear accident that could have caused the cloud.. In October, state nuclear company Rosatom said at the time of the proposed accident radiation around all objects of Russian nuclear infrastructure is within the norm and at the level of background radiation.. But on Monday Russias meteorological service, Rosgidromet, said probes of radioactive aerosols from monitoring stations Argayash and Novogorny were found to contain radioisotope Ru-106 [Ruthenium-106] between 25 September and 1 October.. Ruthenium-106 is a product of splitting atoms in a reactor and does not occur naturally.. The isotope was found in Tatarstan ...
An IARC-coordinated International collaborative case-control study was aimed at investigating the relationship between exposure to ETS and to other environmental and occupational risk factors and the risk of lung cancer in subjects who have never smoked tobacco. A total of 650 cases and 1542 controls have been enrolled in 12 centres in seven European countries. Information on exposure to occupational carcinogens, urban air pollution, background radiation and dietary habits, as well as lifelong exposure to ETS, has been collected by personal interview of cases and controls. Self-reported (non-)smoking status was confirmed by interviews of relatives. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer risk was 1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.44) for exposure to ETS from the spouse, 1.17 (95% CI 0.94-1.45) for workplace ETS exposure and 1.14 (0.88-1.47) for combined spousal and workplace exposure. Several quantitative indicators of ETS showed a dose-response relationship with lung cancer risk; RRs were higher for squamous ...
The Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Centers has a fixed in vivo bioassay facility which occupies approximately 966 square feet, and provides the primary analytical infrastructure for the internal dosimetry program. This facility includes a large shielded counting chamber, dedicated instrument control workstation, two change rooms with showers and toilets, and a reception area. The counting chamber measuring 8 feet x 8 feet x 8 feet and is constructed of 10 inch thick cast iron, with a full graded-Z liner consisting of lead, tin and stainless steel. The cast iron composing the chamber was produced for industrial use prior to 1945, and re-cast for the chamber using a specially selected foundry, resulting in very low background radiation from anthropogenic and naturally occurring constituents. The instrument control workstation includes a video display terminal and intercom that are used to monitor subjects during the examination. Signal processing electronics are located outside the ...
Cue the Jaws theme As for the hypothetical tachyon - often invoked in modern science fiction tales - Peasley gave hers a sharklike appearance. If a tachyon shows up in an equation, that suggests something is wrong, she explains. I wanted the tachyons to look a little devious. The quirky quality of Peasleys pieces has resonated with the scientific community - at least those with a sense of humor - and orders have come from staff at Oxford and Cambridge universities in the U.K., the Fermi and Brookhaven labs in the U.S., and many other schools, universities and science institutions around the world. In early July, particle plushies were presented to several physicists, including George Smoot and Gerard t Hooft, during the annual meeting of Nobel Laureates in Lindau, Germany. I got a stuffed photon - a fairly appropriate choice, said Smoot, who won the 2006 physics Nobel Prize for his work on cosmic background radiation. Smoot and t Hooft say the toys could have some educational value ...
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University of Oxford mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose won a Nobel Prize earlier this month for a lifetime of work studying black holes, singularities from which not even light can escape. Yet he is also behind a provocative and controversial theory about the formation of the universe - namely, that the Big Bang did not mark the beginning of the universe as we know it, but merely started the next iteration of our universe. In his theory, known as conformal cyclic cosmology, our current conception of the universe is merely one of a series of infinite universes that came before it and which will come after, too.. Cosmology, of course, is full of theories of assorted degrees of harebrainedness, and many of the most famous ones - such as string theory - lack any observational evidence. But Penroses prediction is different, as there is some evidence in observations of the cosmic background radiation - meaning the average background temperature of the entire night sky, in which one can see ...
Among this years winners are a geneticist who revealed how plants respond to shade and a group of physicists who mapped the universes background radiation.. 1 Comment. ...
Among this years winners are a geneticist who revealed how plants respond to shade and a group of physicists who mapped the universes background radiation.. 1 Comment. ...
AEC 1970. Atomic Energy Commission. Reports dated March 27 and May 4, 1970, from John R. Totter, Director of AECs Biology and Medicine Division, to U.S. Senator Mike Gravel of Alaska. Totter was reporting on a pilot study of Alaskan natives by J.G. Brewen. Barcinski 1975. M.A. Barcinski et al, Cytogenetic Investigation in a Brazilian Population Living in an Area of High Natural Radioactivity, Amer. J. of Human Genetics 27: 02-806. 1975. Baverstock 1981. # Keith F. Baverstock et al, Risk of Radiation at Low Dose Rates, Lancet 1: 30-433. Feb. 21, 1981. Baverstock 1983. # Keith F. Baverstock + J. Vennart, A Note on Radium Body Content and Breast Cancers in U.K. Radium Luminisers, Health Physics 44, Suppl.No.1: 75-577. 1983. Baverstock 1987. # Keith F. Baverstock + D.G. Papworth, The U.K. Radium Luminizer Survey, British J. of Radiology, Supplemental BIR Report 21: 1-76. (BIR = Brit. Inst. of Radiology.) 1987. Boice 1977. # John D. Boice, Jr. + R.R. Monson, Breast Cancer in Women after ...
Literature indicates that point mutations in codon 12 of the Ki-ras2 gene are associated with colon cancer. The detection of a point mutation in the high background of wild-type cells is very difficult, which represents a problem for many research projects focused on processes that take place during cancerogenesis. Therefore, a quick and easy, yet reliable method of detecting single point mutations is preferred. This article shows an application example for Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) oligomers in combination with Hybridization Probes on the LightCycler Instrument. Here, PNAs suppress the codon 12 wild-type PCR product, as they bind to nucleic acids with higher stringency, compared to deoxyribonucleotides, and do not serve as primers for Taq polymerase. Due to these properties, PNAs can be used to detect single point mutations in research samples in a high background of wild-type sequences.. ...
Activity concentrations of twenty-six (26) samples of sediment collected from rivers from eleven (11) oil-producing communities and two (2) non-oil producing communities in Delta state of Nigeria were studied. Hyper Purity Germanium (HPGe) Detector was used for counting and detection of radionuclide content of all samples. Results of the samples analysed showed that the radioactivity concentrations of K40, Th232 and U238 in the sediment samples from oil-producing areas range from 32.47 Bq·kg-1 to 525.1 Bq·kg-1 with an average of 302.15 Bq·kg-1, 6.31 Bq·kg-1 to 19.33 Bq·kg-1 with an average of 11.66 Bq·kg-1, and 4.45 Bq·kg-1 to 18.69 Bq·kg-1 with an average of 8.66 Bq·kg-1 respectively. Activity concentrations at the control site ranged from 3.15 Bq·kg-1 to 4.80 Bq·kg-1, 2.27 Bq·kg-1 to 4.18 Bq·kg-1 and 1.15 Bq·kg-1 to 1.76 Bq·kg-1 for K40, Th232 and U238. These values are within the world average; natural radioactivity mapping of the study area is carried out using the Surfer software.
By the end of Year 9, students explain chemical processes and natural radioactivity in terms of atoms and energy transfers and describe examples of important chemical reactions. They describe models of energy transfer and apply these to explain phenomena. They explain global features and events in terms of geological processes and timescales. They analyse how biological systems function and respond to external changes with reference to interdependencies, energy transfers and flows of matter. They describe social and technological factors that have influenced scientific developments and predict how future applications of science and technology may affect peoples lives.. Students design questions that can be investigated using a range of inquiry skills. They design methods that include the control and accurate measurement of variables and systematic collection of data and describe how they considered ethics and safety. They analyse trends in data, identify relationships between variables and ...
By the end of Year 9, students explain chemical processes and natural radioactivity in terms of atoms and energy transfers and describe examples of important chemical reactions. They describe models of energy transfer and apply these to explain phenomena. They explain global features and events in terms of geological processes and timescales. They analyse how biological systems function and respond to external changes with reference to interdependencies, energy transfers and flows of matter. They describe social and technological factors that have influenced scientific developments and predict how future applications of science and technology may affect peoples lives.. Students design questions that can be investigated using a range of inquiry skills. They design methods that include the control and accurate measurement of variables and systematic collection of data and describe how they considered ethics and safety. They analyse trends in data, identify relationships between variables and ...
Raymond Sucgang, head researcher at PNRI said that, One can only imagine all the impurities and residues from the petroleum by-products, which can be the source of various degenerative diseases.. Their study was all about distinguishing vinegar and other condiments from natural or plant-based sources, from those which are created from petroleum.. Basically vinegar made from synthetic formulas will not have traces of carbon with natural radioactivity, unlike those made from plants, according to Sucgang.. The reason why these vinegar brands are approved is because they go through conventional methods of testing.. Unfortunately, Sucgang and his research team cannot name the brands because it is prohibited by the law.. ...
Abstract. In this study, the activity concentrations of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny have been measured in air for 61 different locations of Al-Maddan city using twin cup dosimeter. Furthermore, some useful parameters concerning the health hazards have been estimated; working level month (WLM), annual effective dose (Eff), and excess lung cancer per million person per year (ELC).The results show that the values of radon gas levels in the investigated districts varied from 56.28 to 194.43Bq/m3with an overall average value 132.96Bq/m3, while 0.313 to 1.085 for WLM with an overall average 0.740, respectively. The value of Eff and ELC have been found to vary from 1.420 to 4.918 mSv/y with an overall average value 3.354mSv/y, and 852 to 2951 with an overall average value 2013, respectively. For thoron gas only, the results showed that the thoron activity concentration varied from 15.05 to 172.40 Bq/m3 with an overall average 76.48 Bq/m3, and 0.021to 0.240for WLM with an overall average ...
The convention entered into force in Estonia on 29 July 1994.. Estonia currently has 17 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites), with a surface area of 304,778 hectares. ...
Some patients who require radiation to lymph node regions have a risk of developing arm swelling after treatment. Radiation can also cause damage to nearby structures; for example, radiation to the chest may affect the heart. Damage to the heart can lead to hardening of the arteries, which may increase your risk of having a heart attack later in life; or damage to the heart valves.. The most common radiation side effects associated with breast cancer treatments involve the skin within the treatment field and the soft tissues of the breast or chest wall.. External-beam radiation therapy can cause inflammation of the lungs from six weeks to six months after treatment ends; this inflammation is called radiation pneumonitis. Whether radiation pneumonitis develops will depend on the radiation area, your history of radiation treatment and any treatments you are receiving at the same time as radiation. You may or may not experience any symptoms, which can include cough, fever, shortness of breath or ...
Our everyday environment exposes us to natural radiation all the time. Dental x-rays from a full- mouth series emits the same level of radiation that a person receives on a daily basis from natural sources. The low-level of radiation emitted by dental x-rays is considered safe, but we still take precautions to minimize how much exposure our patients receive. Using lead apron shields to cover the patients bodies enable us to keep our patients radiation exposure at the lowest level possible. In addition, our state-of-the-art digital x-rays reduce exposure by up to 90 percent when compared to traditional film methods. How often should de. How often should dental x-rays be taken?. Based on your medical and dental history, as well as your age, risk for disease and current signs/symptoms, your dentist and hygienist will be able to recommend the best time frame for dental x-rays. In the end, the frequency of these x-rays will depend largely on your individual needs.. We recommend a full-mouth series ...
Its a continuous recording of the natural radiations emitted from the formation measured in (API) , most of those radiations are present in the radio active materials ( thorium - potassium - uranium ) found in clay and shales while sandstones and limestones contain very low radio active isotopes ...
Other areas at the plant are considered unrestricted unless indicated otherwise.. High radiation areas are those where a person could receive more than 100 millirem in an hour. Additional controls are imposed for these areas.. If one must work in a contaminated area at a plant, special clothing requirements may exist depending on the level of contamination. From least to most contaminated areas, clothing requirements vary from lab coat and rubbers to anti-contamination suits (anti-Cs) to double anti-Cs or plastic covering over normal anti-Cs. When a worker enters a controlled area, they are expected to wear appropriate clothing and dosimetry depending on the requirements specified on the Radiation Work Permit for the area. When the worker leaves a controlled area, they are expected to monitor themselves for contamination and to turn in their dosimetry that indicates how much radiation dose they may have received. For additional information, go to the NEI search page and type in either radiation ...
We have created something that is harming us, and it is getting out of control. Before Edisons light bulb there was very little electromagnetic radiation in our environment. The levels today are very many times higher than natural background levels, and are growing rapidly because of all the new devices that emit this radiation.. One example that was cited is the cellphone. Blank pointed to a study which showed that as cellphone usage has spread widely, the incidence of fatal brain cancer in younger people has more than tripled.. The scientists see the unregulated use of radio frequency radiation in cellphones and Wi-Fi as developing into a public health crisis. Blank said biologists and scientists are not being heard from committees that set safety standards, that safety limits are much too high and that biological facts are being ignored.. They are not protective, he added. We are really all part of large biological experiment without our informed consent. To protect ourselves, our ...
Metaphase chromosomes were analyzed in Aplastodiscus perviridis from the locations: Morro do Ferro (MG), Serra da Bocaina (SP), Botucatu (SP), and in Hyla albopunctata found at: Morro do Ferro, Botucatu, and Campinas (SP). A significant quantity of metaphases with structural alterations were found in the Morro do Ferro population. These alterations were classified as: decondensation, condensation, breaks, gaps, deletions and acentric fragments. Breaks, deletions and fragments were the most frequent alterations and a great number of these occurred near centromeric heterochromatin. The frequency of altered metaphases varied among individuals in all populations studied. The majority of the alterations can probably be attributed to the high level of natural radiation at Morro do Ferro ...
Where is the coldest place in the Universe? Right now, astronomers consider the Boomerang Nebula to have the honors. Located about 5,000 light-years away in the constellation Centaurus, this pre-planetary nebula carries a temperature of about one Kelvin - or a brisk, minus 458 degrees Fahrenheit. That makes it even colder than the natural background temperature of space! What makes it more frigid than the elusive afterglow of the Big Bang? Astronomers are employing the powers of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope to tell us more about its chilly properties and unusual shape. The Boomerang is different all the way around. It is not yet a planetary nebula. The fueling light source - the central star - just isnt hot enough yet to emit the massive amounts of ultra-violet radiation which lights up the structure. Right now it is illuminated by starlight shining off its surrounding dust grains. When it was first observed in optical light by our terrestrial ...
Objects in the real world are rarely seen in isolation. Generally they are seen embedded in complex backgrounds. This reality necessitates the ability of recognition mechanisms to disregard background information and selectively respond to objects of interest. Our goal in this study is to examine how putative object-specific neural responses are influenced by the presence of background clutter. We focus specifically on the domain of faces since a rich body of work has accumulated regarding neural correlates of face recognition. The recording technique we use is magneto-encephalography (MEG). The M170 response of the occipito-temporal region of the human brain has previously been implicated in face recognition. However it is unknown how this response changes when faces are viewed against complex natural backgrounds rather than in isolation. We measured the amplitude and latency of the M170 for color faces embedded either in natural scenes or in homogeneous backgrounds with luminance values ...
all in accordance with specific provisions of the MCP. In either case, a Permanent Solution does not apply to any disposal site or part of a disposal site where groundwater concentrations exceed an applicable (or suitably analogous) standard in certain situations where the groundwater is categorized as GW-1 (the most highly protected classification of groundwater).. There are some important differences between the two types of Permanent Solutions, however, beyond the obvious observation that one has no conditions and the other is subject to conditions. For a Permanent Solution with No Conditions to apply, OHM concentrations cannot exceed an applicable Upper Concentration Limit (UCL) in soil or groundwater, unless that level is consistent with Natural Background (e.g., naturally occurring arsenic in certain areas of the Commonwealth). By contrast, a Permanent Solution with Conditions can apply if OHM concentrations exceed an applicable UCL in two situations: either the UCL exceedance in soil or ...
International Models. SPARROW models can be applied in any part of the world where sufficient data are available to support model development. Examples include models developed for New Zealand to identify the primary sources of nutrients to streams (Alexander and others, 2002), and a joint U.S.-Canadian effort to build nutrient models for the Red - Assiniboine watershed to better understand and manage nutrient loads to Lake Winnipeg (Benoy and others, 2016).. Applications of SPARROW models. Once built and calibrated, SPARROW models can be applied in a variety of ways to better understand the environmental factors affecting water-quality conditions in streams. SPARROW models were applied at the national scale to estimate natural background levels of nutrients to help guide the potential development of nutrient criteria in streams. A model developed for the upper Midwest was used to identify the benefits of management practices designed to limit the amount of agricultural nutrients reaching ...
This was written at a time before the overwhelming consensus of medical science and cultural zeitgeist turned against smoking as a socially acceptable habit. Today, it seems even more strange to take it up, given the massive anti-smoking campaigns in which we have all been inundated over the past 20 years or so. There are other addictive habits, to be sure. Caffeine and sugar are both common, and for many people necessary. They can be as addictive as nicotine, with a whole variety of negative side effects when taken in large doses (in fact, nicotine, caffeine, and sugar are all made up of the same basic elements - hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen - but simply rearranged into different chemical structures; the addictive qualities are a result of the interaction of these chemicals with the natural background behavior of the brain, specifically the release of dopamine and the blocking of acetylcholine receptors). Yet nobody really thinks twice about drinking six cups of coffee a day, and the campaign ...
Discover how scientists involved in the Italian National Antarctic Research Program are using ultrapure water, provided by ELGA LabWater, to analyze ice, snow, sediment, atmospheric and oceanic samples from Antarctica. The team studies the concentrations and distribution of chemicals in the region, identifying natural background levels and investigating changes over time.
Whether for a birthday, in celebration of the New Year, or even as a way congratulate your recipient on a new job or adventure, this bouquet conveys your warmest wishes with each sunlit bloom. Happy and bright gerbera daisies are at the base of this arrangement with brilliant green stalks of Bells of Ireland, blue iris, and tropical leaves stretching upwards for a vertical display. Accented with yellow solidago, purple button poms, and lush greens, this stunning flower arrangement arrives in a rustic square wooden planter to give it a natural background in which to truly shine. GOOD bouquet includes 9 stems. Approx. 23H x 10W. BETTER bouquet includes 13 stems. Approx. 25H x 10W. BEST bouquet includes 16 stems. Approx. 25H x 11W.
Lecture 8 �Instruments and Calibration �Area Surveys and Leak Tests �Audits/Inspections �Review of Take home midterm Regions • Recombination: If the voltage is too low, the ions • • recombine before reaching the electrodes. Ionization (Ion Chambers) Size of pulse directly related to energy deposited. Thus, can measure exposure in Roentgens. Proportional Basically the same as Ion except stronger signal. Probably better in lower radiation areas where you still want exposure measurements. Regions • Geiger-Mueller (The Geiger counter) Very sensitive to small amounts of radiation. Best calibrated for cpm and to locate radiation. • Use ion chamber for exposure (hence dose) Survey Meters Excellent Reference on Survey Meters • http://www.ndted.org/EducationResources/CommunityColleg e/RadiationSafety/radiation_safety_equipment/ SurveyMeters.htm Scintillation Detectors. • The most sensitive to radiation. Calibrated in cpm. • Can detect very ...
The CHESS study found that the monoclonal antibody HA-1A did not reduce mortality in patients with septic shock. In fact, there was a trend toward higher overall mortality with HA-1A compared with placebo. The studys large size and simple design support the validity of its findings. Evidence from both the HA-1A pivotal trial (1) and the CHESS trial suggests that HA-1A may harm some patients with septic shock. The finding that spontaneously reported, acute adverse events (2) were similar in the HA-1A and placebo groups is only marginally reassuring. The high background rate of adverse events in septic shock makes detection of drug-related events difficult; also, untoward effects of HA-1A may occur late. Therefore, mortality may be the best measure of harm. In the CHESS trial, excess mortality was found in patients without gram-negative sepsis who were treated with HA-1A (14-day mortality, 318 of 785 [41%] vs. 292 of 793 [37%]; P = 0.07), invoking an early stopping rule set up by the ...
This review analyses the literature concerning non-fluorescent and fluorescent probes for nucleic acid imaging in fixed and living cells from the point of view of their suitability for imaging intracellular native RNA and DNA. Attention is mainly paid to fluorescent probes for fluorescence microscopy imaging. Requirements for the target-binding part and the fluorophore making up the probe are formulated. In the case of native double-stranded DNA, structure-specific and sequence-specific probes are discussed. Among the latest, three classes of dsDNA-targeting molecules are described: (i) sequence-specific peptides and proteins; (ii) triplex-forming oligonucleotides and (iii) polyamide oligo(N-methylpyrrole/N-methylimidazole) minor groove binders. Polyamides seem to be the most promising targeting agents for fluorescent probe design, however, some technical problems remain to be solved, such as the relatively low sequence specificity and the high background fluorescence inside the cells. Several
The gene encoding glycoprotein D (gD) of the monkey B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) was cloned into a mammalian expression vector, pcDNA3.1(-), and the recombinant plasmid DNA was transfected into COS7 cells. The expression of gD in transfected COS7 cells was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay or radioimmunoprecipitation analysis (RIPA). Although the expressed gD protein was revealed to react well with sera from monkeys naturally infected with B virus by RIPA, some sera showed reduced reactivity when analyzed by the Western blotting (WB) method. Some sera also showed relatively high background when the WB was performed using gD expressed from recombinant plasmid. The mutant gD protein lacking the transmembrane domain (TM) and cytoplasmic tail (CT) was next expressed in COS7 cells. The mutant protein was secreted into culture medium without apparent loss of the antigenicity. Using the secretory form of the gD protein as antigen in dot blot analysis, sera from B virus-infected monkeys
... background radiation), the spectrum should be analyzed when no source is present. The background radiation must then be ... Calibration and background radiation[edit]. If a gamma spectrometer is used for identifying samples of unknown composition, its ... Lead absorbers can be placed around the measurement apparatus to reduce background radiation. ... the peak to the left of channel 200 most likely indicates a strong background radiation source that has not been subtracted. A ...
... the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to 3 years average background radiation ... received less than 7 mSv per year as background radiation.[67] Medical imaging as of 2007 accounted for half of the radiation ... Radiation dose units[edit]. The radiation dose reported in the gray or mGy unit is proportional to the amount of energy that ... Effects of radiation[edit]. Further information: Radiobiology. Most adverse health effects of radiation exposure may be grouped ...
... the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to 3 years average background radiation. ... received less than 7 mSv per year as background radiation.[72] Medical imaging as of 2007 accounted for half of the radiation ... Radiation dose units[edit]. The radiation dose reported in the gray or mGy unit is proportional to the amount of energy that ... The radiation used in CT scans can damage body cells, including DNA molecules, which can lead to radiation-induced cancer.[12] ...
High Background Radiation Area (HBRA) of Yangjiang, China[7] 7.6. Annual. 0.87. Fountainhead Rock Place, Santa Fe, NM natural[ ... a b c d e Radiation Protection Regulations, Canada *^ "Annex B: Exposures from natural radiation sources" (PDF). UNSCEAR 2000 ... The most radiation-hardened electronics can survive this radiation level.[20] 70 000 000 000. Hourly. 70 000 000 000 000. ... USA average medical and natural background [3]. Human internal radiation due to radon, varies with radon levels[4] ...
"Testing Isotropy of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 385 (4): 1718- ... Black holes, black hole information paradox, and black hole radiation: Do black holes produce thermal radiation, as expected on ... Problem of time: In quantum mechanics time is a classical background parameter and the flow of time is universal and absolute. ... The cosmic-microwave-background data shows several features of anisotropy,[50][51][52][53] which are not consistent with the ...
Lachièze-Rey, M.; Gunzig, E. (1999). The Cosmological Background Radiation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 168-9. ... Objects emitting ultraviolet radiation include the Sun, other stars and galaxies. UV ranges listed at Ultraviolet astronomy# ... A combination of many unresolved X-ray sources is thought to produce the observed X-ray background. Ultraviolet telescopes make ... They also measure synchrotron radiation, free-free emission and spinning dust from our Galaxy, as well as extragalactic compact ...
Background radiation. E. *Epidemiology. O. *Oral rehydration therapy. T. *Tuskegee syphilis experiment ...
... other perturberances that may be existing locally or even extra terrestrially like the Cosmic microwave background radiation ... Typical signal noises include: ambient background noise (electric brush noise from electric motors, high voltage sources from, ...
Wustrow, Eric; Karir, Manish; Bailey, Michael; Jahanian, Farnam; Houston, Geoff (2010-06-09). Internet Background Radiation ... O'Hara, Joseph (April 2019). "Cloud-based network telescope for Internet background radiation collection" (PDF). Trinity ... Leveraging Internet Background Radiation for Opportunistic Network Analysis (PDF). Tokyo, Japan. doi:10.1145/2815675.2815702. ... Honeypot (computing) Internet background noise Cheswick, Bill (August 2013). "Bill Cheswick on Firewalls" (PDF). Security. ; ...
In comparison, typical exposure from naturally occurring background radiation is about 3mSv per year, or 57μSv per week. Lake ... "Naturally-occurring "background" radiation exposure". radiologyinfo.org. Retrieved 28 July 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged ... A 2009 radiation survey of the lake and surrounding areas was conducted to determine the relative danger of the area, finding " ...
R. Weiss & D. Muehlner (1970). "A Measurement of the Isotropic Background Radiation in the Far Infrared". Phys. Rev. Lett. 24 ( ... He made pioneering measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation, with a balloon experiment that ... R. Weiss & D. Muehlner (1973). "Balloon Measurements of the Far Infrared Background Radiation". Phys. Rev. D. 7 (2): 326. ... PMID 18204660.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) R. Weiss (1980). "Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation ...
ISBN 978-3-540-22712-0. Sunyaev, R. A.; Y. B. Zel'dovich (Sep 1980). "Microwave background radiation as a probe of the ... ISBN 978-0-412-62300-4. Partridge, R. B. (1995-09-29). 3K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University ... making the universe itself and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) more uniform. Around 300,000 years after the Big ... when factored into the Boltzmann equation for the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), reduces the amplitude of ...
A comoving observer is the only observer who will perceive the universe, including the cosmic microwave background radiation, ... Thus isotropy, particularly isotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation, defines a special local frame of reference ... ISBN 978-1-85233-106-1. Extract of page 263 Lachièze-Rey, Marc; Gunzig, Edgard (1999). The Cosmological Background Radiation ( ...
... also assisted in analyzing data from the Spitzer Space Telescope in connection with measuring far infrared background radiation ... He then took up an interest in the microwaves in cosmic radiation which had been discovered by Arno Allan Penzias and Robert ... That work made it possible to measure black holes and cosmic radiation much more exactly than was possible before. ... This work was completed using the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE). The Nobel Prize committee said: "the COBE- ...
The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. See Louis N. Hand; ... R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 279-280. ISBN 0-521- ... ISBN 0-521-62113-5., and Ralph A. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (in ... the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system ...
doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06563.x. Study of the background cosmic microwave radiation ; read at the reception Dr. D. Rafael ... He has been a pioneer in Spain in the experimental research of the cosmic microwave background. Rebolo has developed ... Rebolo leads the QUIJOTE consortium for measuring the polarization of the cosmic microwave background with telescopes in ... Papadopoulos, D. (December 2002). "Acceleration and cyclotron radiation induced by gravitational waves". Astronomy & ...
Thus the observed radiation density (the sky brightness of extragalactic background light) can be independent of finiteness of ... Cosmic microwave background radiation has cosine anisotropy. Heat death paradox List of paradoxes Horizon problem Overbye, ... this microwave radiation background has wavelengths much longer than those of visible light, and so appears dark to the naked ... and thus forms the cosmic microwave background radiation. This explains the relatively low light densities and energy levels ...
Shielding reduces the cosmic and radiation background. Neon has been studied as a clear, dense, low-background scintilator. ...
He used this to set a limit on the temperature of the microwave background radiation, from the roof of the Radiation Laboratory ... R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35808-6. Penzias ... During the Second World War he worked in the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he worked ... Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. G.; Wilkinson, D. T. (1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". Astrophysical Journal. ...
Background radiation List of humorous units of measurement List of unusual units of measurement Naturally occurring radioactive ... Environmental and Background Radiation, Health Physics Society. Internal Exposure from Radioactivity in Food and Beverages, U.S ... The radiation exposure from consuming a banana is approximately 1% of the average daily exposure to radiation, which is 100 ... The average radiation dose to people living within 10 miles of the plant was 0.08 millisieverts... Bin Samat, Supian; Green, ...
Cosmic infrared background radiation Low, F. J.; et al. (March 1, 1984), "Infrared cirrus - New components of the extended ...
ISBN 0-375-41288-3. The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. See ... R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 279-280. ISBN 0-521- ... ISBN 0-521-62113-5. Ralph A. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (in Proc. ... the background energy level independent of r. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame), this energy ...
The background radiation level on some spots on the Guarapari beach read 175 mSv per year (20μSv/h); Some other spots reach 55 ... "High natural background radiation areas - Guarapari, Brazil". Japan: Health Research Foundation. Pfeiffer, W. C.; Penna-Franca ... "Radiation Sources and Doses". Radiation Protection. EPA. N. Fujinami; T. Koga; H. Morishima. "External Exposure Rates from ... In the Guarapari city, radiation levels are far lower: a study among 320 inhabitants showed an average received dose of 0.6 µSv ...
Background Radiation 2.725 K 1.063 mm (peak wavelength) Water's triple point 273.16 K 10.6083 µm. (Long wavelength I.R.) ... The diffusion of thermal energy: Black-body radiationEdit. Figure 5 The spectrum of black-body radiation has the form of a ... Furthermore, this zero-point radiation has a unique zero-point spectrum. However, even though a T=0 system emits zero-point ... Derivation of the classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation spectrum via a classical thermodynamic operation involving van ...
... is born to a family living near the Los Alamos research facility in New Mexico; the background radiation may have ...
Along with Robert Woodrow Wilson, he discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation, which helped establish the Big Bang ... Having rejected all sources of interference, Penzias contacted Robert Dicke, who suggested it might be the background radiation ... Wilson, R. W.; Penzias, A. A. (1967). "Isotropy of Cosmic Background Radiation at 4080 Megahertz". Science. 156 (3778): 1100- ... New York Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation List of Jewish Nobel laureates Notable Twentieth-century Scientists ...
... the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to 3 years average background radiation ... received less than 7 mSv per year as background radiation.[65] Medical imaging as of 2007 accounted for half of the radiation ... Radiation dose unitsEdit. The radiation dose reported in the gray or mGy unit is proportional to the amount of energy that the ... For purposes of comparison, the world average dose rate from naturally occurring sources of background radiation is 2.4 mSv per ...
"Galactic Radiation And Background"), sometimes referred to as GREB ("Galactic Radiation Experiment Background"), and referred ... "GRAB, Galactic Radiation And Background, World's First Reconnaissance Satellite". Naval Research Laboratory. Archived from the ... Vanguard 3 had carried X-ray and ultraviolet detectors, though they had been completely saturated by the background radiation ... The SOLRAD scientific package aboard the satellite provided cover for the GRAB (Galactic Radiation and Background) electronic ...
Radiation monitoring is conducted in nine districts. The radiation background complies with the established radiation situation ... The territory of the oblast is exposed to a substantial amount of solar radiation - around 115 Kcal per cm². The average annual ...
Ultraviolet radiation damages the skin, eyes and eggs of amphibians. However, the declines of amphibian population are still ... "Amphibian decline or extinction? Current declines dwarf background extinction rate" (PDF). Journal of Herpetology. 41 (3): 483 ...
Background radiation. *Computer-aided diagnosis. *Imaging science. *List of civilian radiation accidents ... Radiation dose[edit]. The dosage of radiation applied in radiography varies by procedure. For example, the effective dosage of ... Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view ... DeWerd LA, Wagner LK (January 1999). "Characteristics of radiation detectors for diagnostic radiology". Applied Radiation and ...
308-309 "Some radiation would emerge, either electrons ejected from atoms or X-rays as the atoms are disturbed, but none were ... However, the authors later retracted that report, saying that the helium they measured was due to background from the air.[17][ ... reported what they called the first scientific report of highly energetic neutrons, using CR-39 plastic radiation detectors,[85 ... Biberian 2007 - ("Almost all the heat is dissipated by radiation and follows the temperature fourth power law. The cell is ...
... and brown to allow them to blend into the background of their natural environment.[118] Aided by the reptiles' capacity for ... in the form of pits sensitive to infrared radiation (heat). Such heat-sensitive pits are particularly well developed in the pit ... but they underwent a great radiation event once they recovered, and today squamates make up the majority of living reptiles (, ...
To protect against low energy background from radon decay products in the air, the roof of the cavity and the access tunnels ... Mounted on an inside superstructure are about 13,000 photomultiplier tubes that detect light from Cherenkov radiation. A ... These gases are dissolved in water with a serious background of events source for solar neutrinos in the MeV energy range and ... This creates a cone of light known as Cherenkov radiation, which is the optical equivalent to a sonic boom. The Cherenkov light ...
C4 plants are mainly grasses from tropical and subtropical regions, and are adapted to higher levels of radiation than C3 ... Blakey, Michael L. Introduction: Section 1: Background of the New York African Burial Ground Project. Philadelphia, PA: US ...
Global fallout is the result, which exposes everything to an elevated level of man-made background radiation. While " ... "Health Physics and Radiation Protection FAQ About Radiation". Georgetown University Medical Center. Retrieved 15 June 2018.. ... Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability and Bystander Effects Clastogenic Factors and Transgenerational Effects". Radiation ... women are at a significantly higher risk of radiation-induced cancers, such and that women's sensitivity to radiation-induced ...
BackgroundEdit. Feynman the "Great Explainer": The Feynman Lectures on Physics found an appreciative audience beyond the ... Volume I: Mainly mechanics, radiation, and heatEdit. Preface: "When new ideas came in, I would try either to deduce them if ... The first volume focuses on mechanics, radiation, and heat, including relativistic effects. The second volume covers mainly ...
... the grounds also served as the background for the cover of All Things Must Pass.[370][nb 25] He employed ten workers to ... "George Harrison Receives Radiation Treatment". ABC News. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2010 ...
"Transparent Radiation" was awarded 'Single of the Week' by Sounds, and matched the previous single in reaching no. 29 on the ... Background information. Origin. Rugby, Warwickshire, England. Genres. Neo-psychedelia, alternative rock, garage rock, space ... Whilst working on the album, "Transparent Radiation" - a cover of a song by the Red Crayola - was recorded, and released as a ... "Transparent Radiation", "Revolution", "Suicide", "Set Me Free", "Che" and "Let Me Down Gently" [Kember]; and "Take Me to the ...
Low-background steel, steel manufactured prior to 1945, is used for certain radiation-sensitive applications such as Geiger ... Low-background steel[edit]. Main article: Low-background steel. Steel manufactured after World War II became contaminated with ...
... and greatly preferred over methods of Solar radiation management.[43] ...
Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds". Nutrients. 7 (9): 7312-7331. doi:10.3390/nu7095340. ISSN 2072- ... Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds". Nutrients (Review). 7 (9): 7312-31. doi:10.3390/nu7095340. PMC ...
... intercalates into DNA and on exposure to ultraviolet (UVA) radiation can form monoadducts and covalent interstrand ... Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle ... is tumorigenic in mice exposed to 365 nm UV radiation". Carcinogenesis. 2 (2): 121-7. doi:10.1093/carcin/2.2.121. PMID 7273295. ... where they are mixed with the extracted leukocytes before UV radiation is applied. ...
AGNs emit radiation throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from radio wavelengths to X-rays, though some of the radiation may ... 1986). "Large-scale homogeneity of the Universe measured by the microwave background". Letters to Nature. 319 (6056): 751-753. ... This radiation is not affected by dust absorption, and so its Doppler shift can be used to map the motion of the gas in our ... The peak radiation of most stars lies in the visible spectrum, so the observation of the stars that form galaxies has been a ...
Background on Penrose: Most (practically all) scientists do not agree with Penrose, he is widely regarded as a crank in this ... whether the heat I receive is from radiation or conduction, etc. When a thermostat "says" it "knows" it is too hot it makes a ...
Hydrogen fuel cells background information Fuel cells operate similar to a battery in that electricity is harnessed from ... Photosynthesis is known to have an efficiency rate of about 3-6% of total solar radiation[112] and if the entire mass of a crop ...
... where it is more difficult to see a dark spot on a bright background than a bright spot on a dark background. It is possible to ... Exogenous factors include nicotine and UV radiation.[11] Somatic mosaics have been created in Drosophila using X‑ray treatment ... This gives an appearance of yellow patches on the wild type background in Drosophila. another example of mitotic recombination ... This results in the cells of interest being marked brightly in a dark background.[20] ...
Ambient radiation heats dust and re-emits radiation into the microwave band, which may distort the cosmic microwave background ...
... "of the black body form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.[326] ... Lucas Garron (December 2010). "Background & Currents". NATIONAL SOCIALISM AND THE DEATH OF GERMAN MATHEMATICS (PDF). p. 8. ... orthodox Jewish background and major-league rituals and that sort of thing [...] and something happened when I was fourteen, ... best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (X-ray mutagenesis). He won the Nobel Prize in ...
"Cosmic radiation" redirects here. For some other types of cosmic radiation, see Cosmic background radiation and Cosmic ... Average annual radiation exposure (millisieverts) Radiation UNSCEAR[83][84] Princeton[85] Wa State[86] MEXT[87] Remark ... raising cosmic radiation exposure to a quarter of total background radiation exposure for populations of said cities. Airline ... of total background) for the Earth's population. However, the background radiation from cosmic rays increases with altitude, ...
Measurements of the cosmic background radiation give the cooling time of the universe since the Big Bang,[3] and measurements ... The discovery of microwave cosmic background radiation announced in 1965[20] finally brought an effective end to the remaining ... These include studies of the microwave background radiation, and measurements by the Planck satellite, the Wilkinson Microwave ... TT, TE, EE: Planck Cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra lowP: Planck polarization data in the low-ℓ likelihood ...
The difference between M and Mirr is due to the equivalence of mass and energy, which makes the electric field energy also contribute to the total mass.. In the limit that the charge Q (or equivalently, the length-scale rQ) goes to zero, one recovers the Schwarzschild metric. The classical Newtonian theory of gravity may then be recovered in the limit as the ratio rs/r goes to zero. In that limit that both rQ/r and rs/r go to zero, the metric becomes the Minkowski metric for special relativity.. In practice, the ratio rs/r is often extremely small. For example, the Schwarzschild radius of the Earth is roughly 9 mm (3/8 inch), whereas a satellite in a geosynchronous orbit has a radius r that is roughly four billion times larger, at 42,164 km (26,200 miles). Even at the surface of the Earth, the corrections to Newtonian gravity are only one part in a billion. The ratio only becomes large close to black holes and other ultra-dense objects such as neutron stars.. ...
Colour is the most obvious property of a mineral, but it is often non-diagnostic.[72] It is caused by electromagnetic radiation ... Hübnerite, the manganese-rich end-member of the wolframite series, with minor quartz in the background ...
A diagnosis of throat cancer led his doctors to recommend a new and experimental radiation therapy treatment, which was being ... Background. *Baroque music. *Common practice period. *Classical period. *Romantic music. *19th-century philosophy ...
ions absorb solar radiation around 1.54 µm. Two Er3+. ions that have absorbed this radiation can interact with each other ... Herwig, Lloyd O. (1999). "Cherry Hill revisited: Background events and photovoltaic technology status". AIP Conference ... Each layer has a different band gap energy to allow it to absorb electromagnetic radiation over a different portion of the ... They are used as a photodetector (for example infrared detectors), detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the ...
"The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation. New York: Columbia University Press: 200-216. Retrieved September 27, 2007.. ... with both the gaps between mass extinctions becoming longer and the average and background rates of extinction decreasing. ... Sansom I.J., Smith, M.M. & Smith, M.P. (2001). "The Ordovician radiation of vertebrates". In Ahlberg, P.E. Major Events in ... Alroy J. (March 1999). "The fossil record of North American mammals: evidence for a Paleocene evolutionary radiation". ...
"Background Information - Team CANDU". Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-28.. ... No immediate injuries resulted from AECL's two accidents, but there were over-exposures to radiation. In the case of the NRU ... Between 1985 and 1987, a series of design flaws in AECL's Therac-25 medical accelerator caused massive overdoses of radiation ... cleanup, this resulted in at least one documented case of latent, life-changing injury, as well as allegations that radiation ...
One distinctive feature of work in Open Labs is phenomena of translation, driven by the different backgrounds and levels of ... radiation safety, ventilation as well as respiratory testing and indoor air quality. An important element of such audits is the ...
Background and lead-up[edit]. The conference was preceded by the Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions ...
Background radiation is the radiation that is present in the natural environment. Natural background radiation is all around us ... Background Radiation. Radiation Facts. *Radionuclides can occur naturally or can be man-made. ... It makes up over half of our yearly exposure to radiation. The amount of background radiation is different at every location. ... Sources of Radiation. On this webpage you can see a chart of the publics exposure to ionizing radiation. It shows both natural ...
GRAB Galactic RAdiation and Background Worlds First Reconnaissance Satellite *GRAB Galactic RAdiation and Background Worlds ... Galactic Radiation Background Experiment. The Galactic Radiation Background Experiment [GRAB] was a US Navy electronic ... Galactic Radiation and Background (GRAB) Satellite Declassified - NRL Press Release 41-98r June 17, 1998 * Prepared Remarks at ... Development and interagency coordination proceeded as the GRAB (Galactic RAdiation and Background) experiment. The NRL Naval ...
Edema and the presence of tumor render the CNS parenchyma in the tumor bed more susceptible to radiation necrosis. ... Radiation necrosis, a focal structural lesion that usually occurs at the original tumor site, is a potential long-term central ... Background. Radiation necrosis, a focal structural lesion that usually occurs at the original tumor site, is a potential long- ... encoded search term (Radiation Necrosis) and Radiation Necrosis What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases ...
This garbage traffic known as "Internet background radiation" could be an early warning indicator when parts of the Internet ...
... radiation-induced intestinal injury was first reported. Although toxicity was the limiting factor in the early years, ... advancements in technology made delivering high doses of radiation possible to selective localized tissue targets, resulting in ... Background. In 1897, 2 years after the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen, radiation-induced intestinal injury was first reported. ... Images of radiation-induced intestinal injuries are shown below.. Intestinal radiation injury. Note the characteristic mucosal ...
Now they have a new item called the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This cuddly plush toy represents the residual ... radiation from the Big Bang. The perfect gift for someone who understands what that is -or someone who doesnt! http://www. ... Main Blog , The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ... Now they have a new item called the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This cuddly plush toy represents the residual ...
Background radiation. Radiation is all around us. It comes from radioactive substances including the ground, air, building ... The main sources of background radiation are in the table below.. Some rocks contain radioactive substances that produce a ... The pie chart below shows the average contribution of these different sources to natural background radiation. ... Radiation is also found in cosmic rays from space. ...
Issue 1 of Federal Radiation Council (U.S.) Report. Background Material for the Development of Radiation Protection Standards: ... nuclides occupational exposure occupational standards radiation and atomic radiation dose Radiation Protection Guides radiation ... Background Material for the Development of Radiation Protection Standards: Staff Report, Issue 2. ... Background Material for the Development of Radiation Protection Standards: Staff Report, Issue 2. ...
Background radiation is 50 times higher than New York in the Sudan and parts of India.. Background radiation is 5 times higher ... The highest level of background radiation is in the state of Kerala and city of Chennai in southern India, where people receive ... Background radiation is almost 3 times higher than New York in the UK ... The coastal belt of Karunagappally, Kerala, India, is known for high background radiation (HBR) from thorium-containing ...
Although it was discovered less than 40 years ago, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation has been around a lot longer ... to study the CMB radiation. Over a two-year period, this array of radio telescopes collected radiation signals coming from deep ... A relic from the early days of the Universe more than 14 billion years ago, the CMB is the oldest radiation on record. Current ... the scientists report that the CMB radiations level and spatial distribution are in excellent agreement with the predictions ...
This fossil radiation, the furthest that any telescope can see, was released soon after the Big Bang. ... The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the cooled remnant of the first light that could ever travel freely throughout the ... The cosmic background has been affected by the same process: it has expanded and cooled down. Space has stretched itself, and ... The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the cooled remnant of the first light that could ever travel freely throughout the ...
... "control background;" we assume that this signal above background indicates radiation attributable to contamination from the ... compared with our assumed background of roughly 10 mrem/y in the Marshall Islands. The background gamma radiation in Central ... Gamma radiation backgrounds on the boat were typically 5.3 mrem/y and rose to ∼26.3 mrem/y when exposed to the uranium glass. ... Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Background radiation description from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Environmental and Background Radiation FAQ from ... However, background radiation for occupational doses includes radiation that is not measured by radiation dose instruments in ... Background radiation is a measure of the level of ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which ... In a radiation metrology laboratory, background radiation refers to the measured value from any incidental sources that affect ...
Characteristics of Internet Background Radiation. Title. Characteristics of Internet Background Radiation. Publication Type. ...
Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the Big Bang. The origin of this radiation depends on the region ... See cosmic infrared background and X-ray background. See also cosmic neutrino background and extragalactic background light. ... of the cosmic background radiation suggests that the early universe was dominated by a radiation field, a field of extremely ... clouds distorting the spectrum of the radiation. There is also background radiation in the infrared, x-rays, etc., with ...
Radiation dose is measured in units of rem. Not to get some kind of perspective:. 0.3-0.4 rem = background radiation. 65 rem = ... I am just exploring the idea that we may be wrong in our idea of how much background radiation increase we as a human body can ... But from a laymans point of view I have concerns about how the overall global back ground radiation energy levels may have been ... If you look at statistical studies done on areas with higher background radiation than others, there is an interesting trend ...
The antennas, which have an extremely low side-lobe response of less than -65 dB past 60{sup o}, reject anisotropic radiation ... In forty minutes of observing, the radiometer can measure the anisotropy of the microwave background with an accuracy of {+-} 1 ... a 33 GHz airborne radiometer system to map large-scale angular variations in the temperature of the 3 K cosmic background ... radiation. A ferrite circulator switches a room-temperature mixer between two antennas pointing 60{sup o} apart in the sky. ...
Background spectra are routinely subtracted from spectra of samples prepared in known geometries, with data collection time ... An enhanced understanding of background gamma radiation is necessary for accurate radionuclide activity quantification. ... To study the requirements of such background measurements, sequential background gamma radiation collections were obtained on ... Temporal Fluctuations in Indoor Background Gamma Radiation Using NaI(Tl) Health Phys. 2018 Mar;114(3):360-372. doi: 10.1097/HP. ...
Natural background radiation. Natural background radiation comes from two primary sources: cosmic radiation and terrestrial ... Background radiation description from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. *Environmental and Background Radiation FAQ ... This article is about ionizing radiation. For some background radiation from space, see Cosmic background radiation and cosmic ... Ionizing radiation. X-ray · Cosmic radiation · Gamma ray · Background radiation · Nuclear fission · Nuclear fusion · Particle ...
Im trying to find out how much gamma-radiation the average human is exposed too from background radiation. But all I can find ... World nuclear association published that early exposure background gamma radiation is averaged at 600 μSv, with a range of 100- ... World nuclear association published that early exposure background gamma radiation is averaged at 600 μSv, with a range of 100- ... are numbers describing the total background radiation, not just the gamma radiation alone. Does anyone know where I can find ...
p,​Heres background on radiation therapy systems, including linear accelerators (linacs). We review how the technology is used ... Heres background on radiation therapy systems. We review how these technologies are used, what the latest developments are, ... Radiation therapy is used to treat tumors and some benign lesions. The radiation beam is usually produced by a linear ... It is very important to control the shape and intensity of the radiation beam, so that the radiation dose to healthy tissue is ...
BACKGROUND: Exposure to medium or high doses of ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer in children. The extent to ... Background ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood cancer: a census-based nationwide cohort study.. Spycher BD1, Lupatsch ... Comment on "Background Ionizing Radiation and the Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Census-Based Nationwide Cohort Study". [Environ ... Comment on "Background Ionizing Radiation and the Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Census-Based Nationwide Cohort Study". [Environ ...
... to Hourly Average Background Radiation (Radiation Dose Examples). Radiation Converter. ... Convert Nausea And Vomiting (Acute Radiation Syndrome) to Hourly Average Background Radiation (Radiation Dose Examples) ... Nausea And Vomiting (Acute Radiation Syndrome) to Hourly Average Background Radiation (Radiation Dose Examples) Copyright © ... Nausea And Vomiting (Acute Radiation Syndrome) to Hourly Average Background Radiation (Radiation Dose Examples) ...
Download this Abstract Background A Pattern On A White Background Of Black Skulls Sign Of Radiation Wallpapers For Your ... iStockAbstract Background A Pattern On A White Background Of Black Skulls Sign Of Radiation Wallpapers For Your Projects Danger ... Download this Abstract Background A Pattern On A White Background Of Black Skulls Sign Of Radiation Wallpapers For Your ... Abstract background. A pattern on a white background of black skulls. Sign of radiation. Wallpapers for your projects. Danger ...
The deduction of past star formation rates from rest-frame UV radiation in the Hubble and other deep fields as a function of ...
Read chapter 1 Background Information: This book is the seventh in a series of titles from the National Research Council that ... Background Radiation. Added to the sources of spontaneous damage and metabolically produced oxidative DNA damage is background ... that the DNA damage produced by background radiation and the low doses of radiation to which some workers are exposed does not ... terrestrial γ-radiation, and natural radioisotopes in the human body. Collectively, background radiation is responsible for ...
The bottom line is that there is some naturally-occurring background radiation, which can - at times - pose a health hazard ( ... They are saying stupid things like, why, we are exposed to radiation all the time in our daily life, we get radiation from ... "background radiation" for caesium-137 before above-ground nuclear testing and nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. Japan has ... Specifically, one is only exposed to radiation as long as he or she is near the external emitter.. For example, when you get an ...
Interpretation of anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation. C. J. Hogan, N. Kaiser, M. J. Rees, F. R. S. ... Interpretation of anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... We review mechanisms for producing temperature and polarization anisotropies in the microwave background radiation, and ... in particular the unknown opacity of the pregalactic gas and the possible contribution of discrete sources of radiation. ...
However, only a limited number of studies have focused on the biological effects of below-background radiation (BBR) in deep ... However, a few researches focused on the biological effect of below background radiation (BBR) in deep underground environment ... There has been considerable concern about the potential harmful effects of radiation exposure inducing cancers. ... There has been a considerable concern about cancer induction in response to radiation exposure. ...
C57Bl6 mice were exposed to continuous very low dose radiation at a dose rate 300-fold above background (0.3 cGy / day) for 5 ... Chronic very low dose radiation 300-fold above background does not induce DNA damage but mediates an adaptive response in vivo ... Chronic very low dose radiation 300-fold above background does not induce DNA damage but mediates an adaptive response in vivo ... Chronic very low dose radiation 300-fold above background does not induce DNA damage but mediates an adaptive response in vivo ...
  • Minimal tolerance (TD 5/5) is the dose that causes 5% of patients to have radiation injury within 5 years. (medscape.com)
  • Acute injury is a function of fractionation of the dose, field size, type of radiation, and frequency of treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic injury is a function of the total dose of radiation used. (medscape.com)
  • Cumulative radiation dose for each individual was estimated based on outdoor and indoor dosimetry of each household, taking into account sex- and age-specific house occupancy factors. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • In site-specific analysis, no cancer site was significantly related to cumulative radiation dose. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Background radiation is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency as "Dose or dose rate (or an observed measure related to the dose or dose rate) attributable to all sources other than the one(s) specified. (wikipedia.org)
  • So a distinction is made between dose which is already in a location, which is defined here as being "background", and the dose due to a deliberately introduced and specified source. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if no radiation source is specified as being of concern, then the total radiation dose measurement at a location is generally called the background radiation, and this is usually the case where an ambient dose rate is measured for environmental purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation dose is measured in units of rem. (physicsforums.com)
  • The worldwide average background dose for a human being is about 2.4 milli sievert (mSv) per year. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The immediate dose from cosmic radiation is largely from muons, neutrons, and electrons, and this dose varies in different parts of the world based largely on the geomagnetic field and altitude. (thefullwiki.org)
  • It is very important to control the shape and intensity of the radiation beam, so that the radiation dose to healthy tissue is minimized. (ecri.org)
  • The extent to which low-dose radiation from natural sources contributes to the risk of childhood cancer remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • A radiation model was used to predict dose rates from terrestrial and cosmic radiation at locations of residence. (nih.gov)
  • Hazard ratios for each millisievert increase in cumulative dose of external radiation were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.05) for any cancer, 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) for leukemia, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.05) for lymphoma, and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) for CNS tumors. (nih.gov)
  • The second one is from Radiation Dose Examples . (convert-me.com)
  • If the figure next to the symptome is 1 or more, there's a good chance the corresponding radiation dose could cause it. (convert-me.com)
  • This report focuses on the health effects of low-dose, low-LET (low linear energy transfer) radiation. (nap.edu)
  • The central question that must be resolved when considering the physical and biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation is whether the effects of ionizing radiation and the effects of the free radicals and oxidative reaction products generated in normal cellular metabolism are the same or different. (nap.edu)
  • Dose average LET represents more realistically the high local energy densities that can occur in a track even for low-LET radiation, and it therefore can assume larger values. (nap.edu)
  • A linear no-threshold (LNT) relationship, which is an assumption model, was formed between dose and risk values to estimate the risk of cancer induced by low doses of radiation ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Environmental radiation exposures encountered by humans are typically at low dose rate over extended periods of time. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Yet most of what we know about deleterious radiation effects is based on studies using high doses of radiation and little is known about low dose radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In fact, in the absence of low dose radiation data, low dose radiation effects have mostly been linearly extrapolated from high dose radiation data. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we investigated the effects of continuously administered very low dose radiation on DNA damage in vivo. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We first developed a novel device allowing continuous exposure of mice to very low dose radiation over extended periods of time using 125-iodine with Luxel OSL dosimeters in place to control for dose-rate and uniformity of exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • C57Bl6 mice were exposed to continuous very low dose radiation at a dose rate 300-fold above background (0.3 cGy / day) for 5 weeks (10.5 cGy total dose) with littermate controls housed in the same facility. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also analyzed effects of low dose radiation on DNA double strand break repair using a transgenic mouse model in which homologous recombination (HR) events at a transgenic reporter give rise to fluorescent cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion we provide experimental data that continuous very low dose radiation at a dose rate 300-fold above background does not induce detectable DNA damage in vivo, consistent with a threshold dose below which no DNA damage is detected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At very low radiation dose rates, the effects of energy depositions in cells by ionizing radiation is best understood stochastically, as ionizing particles deposit energy along tracks separated by distances often much larger than the size of cells. (plos.org)
  • In order for the chance cells are hit to approach the mutation rate, a gamma background dose rate of 20 μ Gy hr −1 is predicted to be required. (plos.org)
  • When considering the impact of ionizing radiation on cellular systems from the environment, the absorbed radiation dose is considered by experimentalists. (plos.org)
  • While this is appropriate in high dose regimes, it is less applicable in the growing field of low background biological research [ 1 - 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • When cells grown for 120 generations in each environment were exposed to a challenging dose of a carcinogenic agent, higher fractions of recombinant and aberrant cells were found in the culture grown in the low background environment. (plos.org)
  • People in some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, receive an annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation that is up to 260 mSv y(-1), substantially higher than the 20 mSv y(-1) that is permitted for radiation workers. (seekerblog.com)
  • An in vitro challenge dose of 1.5 Gy of gamma rays was administered to the lymphocytes, which showed significantly reduced frequency for chromosome aberrations of people living in high background compared to those in normal background areas in and near Ramsar. (seekerblog.com)
  • The similar effects of low-dose ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation from background environmental levels of exposure. (emf-portal.org)
  • The deleterious effects of background radiation, estimated as causing 1-6% of spontaneous genetic mutation, rise with dose. (dentistryinworld.com)
  • As part of the validation process, the o-tyrosine content in unirradiated chicken meat, the radiation dose response curve, and the effects of postirradiation storage on o-tyrosine levels are examined. (allenpress.com)
  • The radiation dose response curve was linear within the dose range studied (0 to 10 kGy), with a slope of 0.127 ± 0.003 ppm (wet weight)/kGy. (allenpress.com)
  • Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'Background Levels and Radiation Dose Yield of o-Tyrosine in Chicken Meat' and will not need an account to access the content. (allenpress.com)
  • natural background radiation) through their work, the dose is reduced and the risk of illness essentially eliminated by limiting exposure time. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • Artificial sources account for about 15 per cent of the average background radiation dose. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. (plos.org)
  • However, psychological effects of radiation from Chernobyl have recently been attributed to post-traumatic stress rather than developmental errors (e. g. [24] ), and increased levels of neural tube defects in contaminated areas may be ascribed to low-dose radiation, folate deficiencies or prenatal alcohol teratogenesis [17] . (plos.org)
  • Background: High dose ionizing radiation can induce ovarian cancer, but the effect of low dose radiation on the development of ovarian cancer has not been extensively studied. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • We evaluated the effect of low dose radiation and total background radiation, and the radiation delivered to the ovaries during the treatment of rectosigmoid cancer and breast cancer on ovarian cancer incidence. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Conclusions: The reduction of ovarian cancer risk following low dose radiation may be the result of radiation hormesis. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Further studies would be worthwhile to establish the lowest optimum radiation dose. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • While both deliver a 'dose' of radiation, it's contamination - especially ingested contamination - that has the greatest odds of delivering a concentrated dose to human tissue in a way that can lead to serious acute and/or chronic damage. (blogspot.com)
  • In this study, the annual effective dose in high level environmental background radiation areas (HLEBRAs) of northern city of Ramsar in Iran was determined. (ac.ir)
  • In some areas, the annual effective dose from outdoor external gamma radiation in HLEBRAs (30 mSv/y) exceeded the annual effective dose limit for radiation workers. (ac.ir)
  • Our results are evident that the population dose from normal background radiation in HLEBRAs is 200 times higher than corresponding values in Ramsar sea shore. (ac.ir)
  • a serious illness caused by receiving a dose greater than 75 rads of penetrating radiation to the body in a short time (usually minutes). (cdc.gov)
  • Extensive doses of ionizing radiation have been shown to have a mutating effect to future generations of the individual receiving the dose. (bionity.com)
  • If the dose is sufficient, the effect may be seen almost immediately, in the form of radiation poisoning . (bionity.com)
  • A number of institutions offer full-body scans for the general population although this practice goes against the advice and official position of many professional organizations in the field primarily due to the radiation dose applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emitted dose of radiation is the radiation generated to produce the desired imaging. (medscape.com)
  • When assessing any imaging technique, the radiation dose must be considered along with the value of the imaging technique. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The frequency or intensity of the biological effects and the probability of chromosomal damage is proportional to the radiation dose and is dependent upon the total energy of radiation absorbed per unit mass of a sensitive tissue or organ. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The sievert (Sv) is an SI unit used for measuring the effective (or 'equivalent') dose of radiation received by a living organism. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Various types of radiation have different effects on living tissue, so a simple measurement of the dose as energy received, stated in Gy or rad, does not give a clear indication of the probable biological effects of the radiation. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The equivalent dose in Sv is equal to the actual dose in Gy, multiplied by a 'quality factor', which is larger for more dangerous forms of radiation. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • An effective dose of 1 Sv requires 1 Gy of beta or gamma radiation, but only 0.05 Gy of alpha radiation or 0.1 Gy of neutron radiation. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The effective dose allows for quantification of risk and comparison with more familiar sources of exposure that range from natural background radiation to radiographic medical procedures. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The effective dose is not applicable to radiation therapy used to treat cancer patients, where very large absorbed doses affect individual tissues or organs. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The committed effective dose equivalent is used in radiation safety because it implicitly includes the relative carcinogenic sensitivity of the various tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • The incidence increases with increasing radiation dose in patients with oligodendroglioma but not with astrocytoma. (springer.com)
  • But during the time that humans have existed the amount of radiation has decreased very little. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chernobyl effects have been mainly local and overall have not impacted the global amount of radiation exposure. (physicsforums.com)
  • What they call monitoring means only measuring the amount of radiation in the air. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • My theory is that there was an event at Fukushima around late December 2011 - new years 2012 that released a large amount of radiation. (sccc.org.au)
  • On the other hand, during radiographic examination some degree of biological damage does occur during exposure, therefore no amount of radiation is considered safe (Howerton, Iannucci, 2012). (cram.com)
  • Natural sources of radiation account for the largest amount of radiation exposure received by most people each year with medical and occupational sources accounting for only a fraction of that exposure. (dentistryinworld.com)
  • a collimator for adjusting an amount of radiation on the subject, wherein the collimator is adjusted to have a collimator condition of a fan beam computed tomography (CT), so as to establish a state that the scattered radiation amount is nearly zero. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The amount of radiation to which a member of the general population is exposed from natural sources, such as terrestrial radiation from naturally occurring radionuclides in the soil, cosmic radiation originating from outer space, and naturally occurring radionuclides deposited in the human body. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important to test your home for radon to reduce your exposure to radiation. (epa.gov)
  • Half of the average annual radiation to people in the U.K. comes from radon - an invisible, colorless, radioactive gas present in all soils," John Harrison, deputy director of the agency's radiation center. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • These include both cosmic radiation and environmental radioactivity from naturally occurring radioactive materials (such as radon and radium), as well as man-made medical X-rays, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and nuclear accidents. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was feared that Radon could accumulate in people's basements and produce a radiation risk. (physicsforums.com)
  • This is known as background radiation and is caused by terrestrial, cosmic, and naturally occurring radon. (cram.com)
  • It is currently believed that radon, a gas produced by radium decay within rock, constitutes the major source of background radiation throughout many parts of the US. (dentistryinworld.com)
  • Natural sources are how most people come into contact with radiation, with radon gas from the ground being the largest source. (getting-in.com)
  • The largest source of background radiation exposure comes from the natural radioactivity in rocks and soil and the inhalation of naturally occurring radon that seeps from the ground into our buildings. (jabamakas.net)
  • radonThe biggest source of natural background radiation is airborne radon, a radioactive gas that emanates from the ground. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between ovarian cancer in white women and radon background radiation (r = - 0.465. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The inverse relationship between ovarian cancer incidence and radon background was significant ( ${\beta}=-0.463$ , p = 0.002) but unrelated to age ( ${\beta}=-0.080$ , p = 0.570) or obesity ( ${\beta}=-0.180$ , p = 0.208). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This radiation interacts with atoms in the atmosphere to create secondary radiation, including X-rays , muons , protons , alpha particles , pions , electrons , and neutrons . (thefullwiki.org)
  • On this page we provide conversion for radiation of electrons, muons and photons. (convert-me.com)
  • Ionizing radiation, by definition, contains enough energy to displace electrons and break chemical bonds. (nap.edu)
  • 1 High-energy electromagnetic radiations, such as X-rays or γ-rays, are sparsely ionizing since, in tissue, they release fast electrons that have low LET. (nap.edu)
  • Non-ionizing radiation has enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate, but not enough to remove electrons from atoms. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • Ionizing radiation is produced by radioactive decay, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, by extremely hot objects (the hot sun, e.g., produces ultraviolet), and by particle accelerators that may produce, e.g., fast electrons or protons or bremsstrahlung or synchrotron radiation. (bionity.com)
  • The negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions created by ionizing radiation may cause damage in living tissue. (bionity.com)
  • The most common types of ionising radiation used in medicine are X-rays, gamma-rays, beta-rays and electrons. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the Big Bang. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of electromagnetic radiation , being physically the same as all other forms (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the sky with no discernable source. (blogspot.com)
  • In cosmology, cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation (also CMBR , CBR , MBR , and relic radiation ) is a form of electromagnetic radiation filling the universe. (phys.org)
  • Ionizing electromagnetic radiation that can produce chemical changes, e.g., the damage done to skin by ultraviolet sunlight. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Electromagnetic radiation that does not readily ionize atoms such as that in visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, microwaves, ultrasound, and radiofrequency emissions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz. (statemaster.com)
  • This article is about electromagnetic radiation. (statemaster.com)
  • Based on radiation level measurements, a radiation subcohort consisting of 173,067 residents was chosen. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Rather than obtain new data, recent estimates of contamination levels in the northern Marshall Islands use measurements made decades ago to calculate present radiation levels. (pnas.org)
  • This is important where radiation measurements are taken of a specified radiation source, where the existing background may affect this measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma background measurements with and without blank samples are included along with spectra from different sizes and shapes of NaI(Tl) detectors. (nih.gov)
  • To study the requirements of such background measurements, sequential background gamma radiation collections were obtained on an hourly basis for a total of 316 h from an unshielded 5.5 × 11 × 40 cm NaI(Tl) detector located inside a laboratory setting where small sources are routinely stored and used. (nih.gov)
  • Measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation-the 14-billion-year-old light from the big bang-by cosmologist John Carlstrom in the early 2000s verified the framework that supports modern cosmological theory. (uchicago.edu)
  • Materials and Methods: Background radiation measurements are from Assessment of Variations in Radiation Exposure in the United States, 2011. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • I then discovered that my supposed "control" measurements were actually measuring radiation from some dust on old books! (blogspot.com)
  • Precise measurements of cosmic background radiation are critical to cosmology, since any proposed model of the universe must explain this radiation. (phys.org)
  • They also pose a serious internal radiation threat if beta-emitting atoms are ingested or inhaled . (cdc.gov)
  • These atoms could no longer absorb the thermal radiation, and the universe became transparent instead of being an opaque fog. (phys.org)
  • There are numerous other types of radiation (e.g. visible light, infrared waves, ultrasound, high frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic waves) that do not possess the ability to ionise atoms of the absorbing matter. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Available from: https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/heliconhe/cosmic_microwave_background_radiation/0 [Accessed 16 December 2017]. (credoreference.com)
  • Background We previously reported a significant association between higher ultraviolet radiation exposure before diagnosis and greater survival with melanoma in a population-based study in Connecticut. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Pheomelanin has weak shielding capacity against ultraviolet radiation relative to eumelanin, and has been shown to amplify ultraviolet-A-induced reactive oxygen species 3 , 4 , 5 . (ilmelanoma.com)
  • Several observations, however, complicate the assumption that melanoma risk is completely ultraviolet-radiation-dependent. (ilmelanoma.com)
  • For example, unlike non-melanoma skin cancers, melanoma is not restricted to sun-exposed skin and ultraviolet radiation signature mutations are infrequently oncogenic drivers 6 . (ilmelanoma.com)
  • Although linkage of melanoma risk to ultraviolet radiation exposure is beyond doubt, ultraviolet-radiation-independent events are likely to have a significant role 1 , 7 . (ilmelanoma.com)
  • We observed a high incidence of invasive melanomas without providing additional gene aberrations or ultraviolet radiation exposure. (ilmelanoma.com)
  • To investigate the mechanism of ultraviolet-radiation-independent carcinogenesis, we introduced an albino allele, which ablates all pigment production on the Mc1r e/e background. (ilmelanoma.com)
  • These data suggest that the pheomelanin pigment pathway produces ultraviolet-radiation-independent carcinogenic contributions to melanomagenesis by a mechanism of oxidative damage. (ilmelanoma.com)
  • Although protection from ultraviolet radiation remains important, additional strategies may be required for optimal melanoma prevention. (ilmelanoma.com)
  • Poisson regression analysis of cohort data, stratified by sex, attained age, follow-up interval, socio-demographic factors and bidi smoking, showed no excess cancer risk from exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Terrestrial radiation, for the purpose of the table above, only includes sources that remain external to the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The level over the sea and other large bodies of water tends to be about a tenth of the terrestrial background. (wikipedia.org)
  • cosmic radiation and terrestrial sources. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In a nationwide census-based cohort study, we investigated whether the incidence of childhood cancer was associated with background radiation from terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays. (nih.gov)
  • Natural background radiation comes from the following three sources:Cosmic Radiation.Terrestrial Radiation.Internal Radiation. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • ionizing radiation from natural sources, such as terrestrial radiation due to radionuclides in the soil or cosmic radiation originating in outer space. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, events such as the explosions at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March of 2011 ignite concerns of radiation exposure, which can lead to radiation-induced injury. (medscape.com)
  • Tokyo's Setagaya Officials: Radiation Spike Unlikely From Fukushima (Sure! (infiniteunknown.net)
  • The (NILU), Norwegian Institute for Air Research had run simulations which predicted the creation of world wide radiation fallout clouds from the Fukushima nuclear disaster for March / April 2011. (sccc.org.au)
  • See all the Fukushima radiation cloud simulation maps for 2011 by NILU here. (sccc.org.au)
  • Whilst the likelihood of an issue like the one in Fukushima, Japan is extremely unlikely in the UK just by the sheer fact that we are not on a major fault line, the other sources of radiation that are present in the environment are of interest. (comberaleighweather.co.uk)
  • All of my research and understanding of the risks of radiation at this point indicate that people living on the West Coast of the U.S. or in Hawaii are currently not in danger from the radiation released in the wake of the Fukushima tragedy. (blogspot.com)
  • Nuclear apologists pretend that people are exposed to more radiation from bananas than from Fukushima. (globalresearch.ca)
  • This component is redshifted photons that have freely streamed from an epoch when the Universe became transparent for the first time to radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electromagnetic radiations, such as X- and γ-rays, consist of photons that can travel relatively large distances in tissue without interaction. (nap.edu)
  • Examples of ionizing radiation are energetic Beta particles, neutrons, alpha particles and energetic photons (UV and above). (bionity.com)
  • Radiation containing photons of similar wavelength. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gamma radiation, consisting of energetic photons , is eventually absorbed as it penetrates a dense material. (statemaster.com)
  • Now they have a new item called the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. (neatorama.com)
  • Although it was discovered less than 40 years ago, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation has been around a lot longer than that. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the cooled remnant of the first light that could ever travel freely throughout the Universe. (esa.int)
  • One component is the cosmic microwave background. (wikipedia.org)
  • 179/1" 1938: Nobel Prize winner (1920) Walther Nernst re-estimates the cosmic ray temperature as 0.75 K. 1946: The term "microwave" is first used in print in an astronomical context in an article "Microwave Radiation from the Sun and Moon" by Robert Dicke and Robert Beringer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1946: Robert Dicke predicts a microwave background radiation temperature of 20 K (ref: Helge Kragh) 1946: Robert Dicke predicts a microwave background radiation temperature of "less that 20 K"[clarification needed] but later revised to 45 K (ref: Stephen G. Brush). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1946: George Gamow estimates a temperature of 50 K. 1948: Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman re-estimate Gamow's estimate at 5 K. 1949: Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman re-re-estimate Gamow's estimate at 28 K. 1960s: Robert Dicke re-estimates a MBR (microwave background radiation) temperature of 40 K (ref: Helge Kragh). (wikipedia.org)
  • In forty minutes of observing, the radiometer can measure the anisotropy of the microwave background with an accuracy of {+-} 1 m{sup o}K rms, or about one part in 3000 of 3 K. The apparatus is flown in a U-2 jet to 20 km altitude where 33 GHz thermal microwave emission from the atmosphere is at a low level. (unt.edu)
  • We review mechanisms for producing temperature and polarization anisotropies in the microwave background radiation, and summarize their relation to the large-scale distribution of matter and to theories of galaxy formation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This is so your phone use does not exceed the current regulatory safety limits for microwave radiation exposure to your head or body. (sccc.org.au)
  • If you do place one of these mobile phones directly in contact with your body, your exposure level to microwave radiation can be three or more times greater than the maximum Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) safety level! (sccc.org.au)
  • This means that any child's microwave radiation exposure is much greater than for an adult, when using a mobile phone. (sccc.org.au)
  • Who posted in: Cosmic Microwave Background. (evolutionfairytale.com)
  • Big Bang pictures created from CMB, cosmic microwave background radiation. (rickdoble.net)
  • Incorrectly, a number of people believe that microwave ovens contain ionising radiation, which could damage your health. (comberaleighweather.co.uk)
  • This is not true, Microwave energy is non-ionising and therefore not a radiation issue. (comberaleighweather.co.uk)
  • It became a popular theory with improved evidence because of the discovery of cosmic microwave background. (cram.com)
  • It was in the spring of 1965 that unexplained microwave radiation was found by (2) by two astronomers called Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson. (cram.com)
  • John Carlstrom used the degree angular scale interferometer (DASI) at the NSF Scott-Amundsen South Pole Station to measure the cosmic microwave background radiation. (uchicago.edu)
  • A uniform background radiation in the microwave region of the spectrum is observed in all directions in the sky. (physics.org)
  • This image unveiled March 21, 2013, shows the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by the European Space Agency's Planck space observatory. (space.com)
  • The Planck mission has imaged the oldest light in our universe, called the cosmic microwave background, with unprecedented precision. (space.com)
  • This European Space Agency graphic depicts the most refined values yet of the Universe's ingredients, based on the first all-sky map of the cosmic microwave background by the Planck space observatory unveiled on March 21, 2013. (space.com)
  • This European Space Agency graphic shows a map of the universe that depicts the anomalies seen when comparing the Planck space observatory's map of the universe's cosmic microwave background and the standard model of the cosmos. (space.com)
  • Two Cosmic Microwave Background anomalies hinted at by the Planck observatory's predecessor, NASA's WMAP, are confirmed in new high-precision data revealed on March 21, 2013. (space.com)
  • Called the cosmic microwave background, this light reveals secrets of the universe's origins, fate, ingredients and more. (space.com)
  • This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum, hence the name cosmic microwave background radiation . (phys.org)
  • Given the large number of possible cancer types, possible population groups, and types of radiation you can study (and they did look at other cancer types and other types of radiation), it would be surprising if you cannot find any 'significant' effect by chance. (physicsforums.com)
  • What are the 7 types of radiation? (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • There are four major types of radiation: alpha, beta, neutrons, and electromagnetic waves such as gamma rays. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • Two types of radiation therapy are commonly used for patients with cancer: teletherapy and brachytherapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although toxicity was the limiting factor in the early years, advancements in technology made in delivering high doses of radiation possible to selected localized tissue targets, resulted in increased efficacy and increased utilization of radiation in the armamentarium of cancer therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Abstract background. (istockphoto.com)
  • abstract = "Deinococcus bacteria are extremely resistant to radiation, oxidation, and desiccation. (elsevier.com)
  • This radiation primarily consists of positively charged ions from protons to iron and larger nuclei derived sources outside our solar system . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Neutron interaction with nuclei in this manner often produces radioactive nuclei, which produce ionizing radiation when they decay. (bionity.com)
  • Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is stopped by a sheet of paper. (statemaster.com)
  • Finally, this chapter introduces a special subject, the physical characteristics that determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons, estimates of which are required in the derivation of low-LET radiation risk estimates from atomic bomb survivors. (nap.edu)
  • However, fast neutrons will interact with the protons in hydrogen (in the manner of a billiard ball hitting another, sending it away with all of the first ball's energy of motion), and this mechanism produces proton radiation (fast protons). (bionity.com)
  • Background spectra are routinely subtracted from spectra of samples prepared in known geometries, with data collection time chosen to optimize statistics for counting uncertainties. (nih.gov)
  • The work presents measured background spectra collected inside and outside shields of varying geometry and composition, showing the effects of these on background. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, a strategy for optimizing data collection times and analyzing background gamma radiation spectra for long-term radionuclide monitoring is presented. (nih.gov)
  • This is the source for the term relic radiation , another name for the CMBR. (phys.org)
  • 1965: Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson measure the temperature to be approximately 3 K. Robert Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll and D. T. Wilkinson interpret this radiation as a signature of the Big Bang. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tests produced radioactive fallout, which even today gives rise to radiation measurable above naturally occurring background levels. (pnas.org)
  • Chernobyl caused radiation and fallout problems in Russia, Ukraine (where Chernobyl is located) and in Europe. (physicsforums.com)
  • These people have done similar analyses of American radiation fallout events. (sccc.org.au)
  • Also perhaps of interest is our radiation fallout plan. (blogspot.com)
  • It makes up over half of our yearly exposure to radiation. (epa.gov)
  • The International Atomic Energy Agency states: "Exposure to radiation from natural sources is an inescapable feature of everyday life in both working and public environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • And this fact is sometimes used to downplay the impact of exposure to radiation via medical treatments or accidental intake. (globalresearch.ca)
  • an exposure to radiation that occurred in a matter of minutes rather than in longer, continuing exposure over a period of time. (cdc.gov)
  • Austrian researchers have used a worldwide network of radiation detectors - designed to spot clandestine nuclear bomb tests - to show that iodine-131 is being released at daily levels 73 per cent of those seen after the 1986 disaster. (blogspot.com)
  • With respect to radiation imaging operations for medical diagnoses, there have heretofore been known radiation imaging apparatuses, in which radiation image detectors (utilizing semiconductors as principal sections) are utilized for detecting radiation and converting the radiation into an electric signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This page features online conversion from nausea and vomiting to hourly average background radiation . (convert-me.com)
  • You can also switch to the converter for hourly average background radiation to nausea and vomiting . (convert-me.com)
  • The average background radiation level is 0.15 μSv in Ottery St Mary, which is normal for UK geology. (comberaleighweather.co.uk)
  • This page features online conversion from hourly average background radiation to millisievert . (convert-me.com)
  • If you need to convert hourly average background radiation to another compatible unit, please pick the one you need on the page below. (convert-me.com)
  • You can also switch to the converter for millisievert to hourly average background radiation . (convert-me.com)
  • Accidental exposure to man-made radioactive substances can result in radiation exposure that is many times that received from background sources, whether natural or man-made. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Radioactivity generates radiation by emitting particles. (blogspot.com)
  • The "current" (second finger flow of charged particles) is the beam of radiation. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Ionizing radiation is energetic particles or waves that have the potential to ionize an atom or molecule through atomic interactions. (bionity.com)
  • In order for radiation to be ionizing, the particles must both have a high enough energy and interact with the atom. (bionity.com)
  • Gamma quanta do not ionize all along their path like alpha or beta particles (see particle radiation. (bionity.com)
  • Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of small fast-moving particles that have energy and mass. (statemaster.com)
  • An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles or alpha rays are a form of particle radiation which are highly ionizing and have low penetration. (statemaster.com)
  • Naturally occurring radioactive minerals in the ground, soil, and water produce background radiation. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • Background radiation is a measure of the level of ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article is about ionizing radiation . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Background ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood cancer: a census-based nationwide cohort study. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to medium or high doses of ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer in children. (nih.gov)
  • Is ionizing radiation a unique insult to cells, or are its effects lost in the ocean of naturally occurring metabolic reaction products? (nap.edu)
  • Can cells detect and respond to low doses of ionizing radiation because of detectable qualitative and quantitative differences from endogenous reaction products? (nap.edu)
  • X- and γ-rays are accordingly termed "indirectly ionizing" radiation. (nap.edu)
  • In addition to the distinction between indirectly ionizing and directly ionizing ( i.e. , uncharged and charged radiation) a distinction is made between sparsely ionizing, or low-LET, and densely ionizing, or high-LET, radiation. (nap.edu)
  • The energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material. (unr.edu)
  • There are two kinds of radiation: non-ionizing radiation and ionizing radiation. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • Low levels of ionizing radiation cause changes in both central and autonomous nervous systems and can cause radiogenic encephalopathy [21] . (plos.org)
  • The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. (ac.ir)
  • Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. (ac.ir)
  • the amount of energy deposited by ionizing radiation in a unit mass of tissue. (cdc.gov)
  • reports of the National Research Council's committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • microwaves and radio waves are non-ionizing radiation. (bionity.com)
  • It interacts with the nuclear field of a target atom, changing direction and losing energy that is emitted in the form of an ionizing radiation photon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ionizing radiation from the sun and other extraterrestrial sources. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It accounts for about one tenth of the yearly total of ionizing radiation exposure for each person. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ionizing radiation hazard symbol (recently introduced). (statemaster.com)
  • Non-ionizing radiation (or, esp. (statemaster.com)
  • This article is devoted to examining the branch of psychology that is concerned with the behavior of living organisms after their exposure to ionizing radiations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are two classes of ionizing radiations, material and electromagnetic. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Natural radiation sources contribute over half of the annual radiation exposure for an average person in the United States. (epa.gov)
  • More than half of the average annual radiation exposure of people in the United States comes from natural sources. (epa.gov)
  • The main sources of background radiation are in the table below. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The pie chart below shows the average contribution of these different sources to natural background radiation. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Background radiation originates from a variety of sources, both natural and artificial. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the environment is being monitored for quick and confident detection of recently appearing radiation sources, a thorough knowledge of the background radiation and its temporal variation is essential. (nih.gov)
  • Background radiation is constantly present in the environment and is emitted from a variety of natural and artificial sources. (thefullwiki.org)
  • However, when it comes to background radiation, naturally occurring sources are responsible for the vast majority of radiation exposure. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Older coal-fired power plants without effective fly ash capture are one of the largest sources of human-caused background radiation exposure. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We also review possible sources of ambiguity in interpreting data, in particular the unknown opacity of the pregalactic gas and the possible contribution of discrete sources of radiation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Humans are exposed to radiation that originates from natural and man-made sources ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Background radiation can be emitted from a number of sources. (comberaleighweather.co.uk)
  • Radiation that comes from environmental sources including the earth's crust, the atmosphere, cosmic rays, and radioisotopes. (dentistryinworld.com)
  • For most people, about 15% of their background radiation comes from artificial sources and most is due to medical X-rays. (getting-in.com)
  • The chart shows the main sources of background radiation. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • When carrying out practical work involving count-rates from radioactive sources, allowance should be made for this background radiation. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • We constantly receive radiation from a number of sources in our environment. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • What are two sources of background radiation? (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • What are the two top sources of natural and man made radiation? (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • Man-Made Sources of Radiation. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • Man-made sources include medical uses of radiation, residues from nuclear tests, industrial uses of radiation etc. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • Radiation treatment accomplished by inserting sealed sources of a particle emitter directly into tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and (3) the control and mitigation of radiation exposure from all sources. (federalregister.gov)
  • Sources of background observed during Phase I are discussed. (osti.gov)
  • However, only a limited number of studies have focused on the biological effects of below-background radiation (BBR) in deep underground environments. (frontiersin.org)
  • An example would be measurement of radioactive contamination in a gamma radiation background, which could increase the total reading above that expected from the contamination alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • For more information, see " Primer on Radiation Measurement " at the end of this document. (cdc.gov)
  • The CMB radiation was discovered by chance in 1965. (esa.int)
  • The discovery (by chance in 1965) of the cosmic background radiation suggests that the early universe was dominated by a radiation field, a field of extremely high temperature and pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated that weapons testing and nuclear power (minus Chernobyl) has contributed about 0.001 rem to our radiation exposure. (physicsforums.com)
  • As of 2005, caesium-137 is the principal source of radiation in the zone of alienation around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. (blogspot.com)
  • So there was no "background radiation" for caesium-137 before above-ground nuclear testing and nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. (blogspot.com)
  • [23] summarized an extensive literature on the effects of radiation on cognitive performance as a consequence of the Chernobyl disaster. (plos.org)
  • 4 radiation originating from outer space, and naturally occurring radionuclides deposited in the 5 human body. (cdc.gov)
  • We are also exposed to cosmic radiation and the natural radioactivity in food and in the body. (jabamakas.net)
  • Total radioactivity from cosmic rays, natural radioactive materials, and other radiation that is present in a specific area. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This also may be an etiology for the changes seen with radiation necrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Understanding the potential for radiation exposures is important in the office, hospital, as well as in the operating room. (medscape.com)
  • Specifically, inhabitants of high background radiation areas had about 56% the average number of induced chromosomal abnormalities of normal background radiation area inhabitants following this exposure. (seekerblog.com)
  • Mortazavi S, Shabestani Monfared A, Ghiassi-Nejad M, Mozdarani H. Radioadaptive responses induced in human lymphocytes of the inhabitants of high level natural radiation areas in Ramsar, Iran. (ac.ir)
  • Similarly, cosmic ray causes higher background exposure in astronauts than in humans on the surface of Earth. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The U.K. Health Protection Agency estimates the typical Briton receives about 2,200 microsieverts of radiation per year from background radiation, or about 0.251 microsieverts per hour - more than double the levels registered in Tokyo. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Radiation levels are also far higher on planes. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • In coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy y-1 and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy y-1. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). (pnas.org)
  • Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. (pnas.org)
  • 0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. (pnas.org)
  • But from a laymans point of view I have concerns about how the overall global back ground radiation energy levels may have been effected by the use of Nuclear energys both in the form of explosions, power plants and most especially nuclear fall out from failed reactors such as the one in eastern Europe at *Chenobyle* (spellings). (physicsforums.com)
  • Additionally, radiation therapy can cause relatively high levels of exposure. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This suggests that adaptive response might be induced by chronic exposure to natural background radiation as opposed to acute exposure to higher (tens of mGy) levels of radiation in the laboratory. (seekerblog.com)
  • Raised radiation levels lasted until around 9.45 pm. (sccc.org.au)
  • Background radiation levels here, with 4 years of recorded data to refer to, has averaged around 0.10 uSv/Hr. The background radiation level was peaking 8 times above average during this event! (sccc.org.au)
  • Here are new background radiation level charts that show raised radiation levels for January 25th, 27th and February 25th 2012. (sccc.org.au)
  • While the background levels are elevated somewhat, those detected so far remain well within what I consider to be a safe zone. (blogspot.com)
  • Kansas Tracking has collaborated with the Kansas Radiation Control program on a statewide soil sampling project to establish background radiation levels External for Kansas. (cdc.gov)
  • Food Examination Kit measures radiation levels. (thomasnet.com)
  • [12] however, this estimate is disputed, [13] as there is not a consensus about the existence of damage from low levels of radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first one is from Acute Radiation Syndrome . (convert-me.com)
  • For more information, see CDC's fact sheet "Acute Radiation Syndrome" at emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/ars.htm . (cdc.gov)
  • Lower radiation doses are often used in many areas, such as in the investigation of renal colic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sv is a large unit, so radiation doses are often measured in millisieverts (mSv). (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • A relic from the early days of the Universe more than 14 billion years ago, the CMB is the oldest radiation on record. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Since the time when that radiation was released, the Universe has expanded, becoming at the same time cooler and cooler. (esa.int)
  • The CMB radiation tells us the age and composition of the universe and raises new questions that must be answered. (space.com)
  • As the universe expanded, both the plasma and the radiation filling it grew cooler. (phys.org)
  • Moreover, there is reduced lung cancer incidence in high radiation background US states where nuclear weapons testing was done. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The incidence remains poorly categorized and known risk factors identified are related to the radiation modality. (springer.com)
  • About 5% of the average annual radiation exposure for people in the United States comes from outer space. (epa.gov)
  • The Earth, and all living things on it, are constantly bombarded by radiation from outer space. (thefullwiki.org)
  • They are saying stupid things like, why, we are exposed to radiation all the time in our daily life, we get radiation from outer space. (blogspot.com)
  • The radiation we receive from outer space is called cosmic radiation or cosmic rays. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • There are many difficulties to feeding more than 9 billion people by 2050, in particular producing sustainably more food that is accessible and nutritionally satisfying against a background of such challenges as climate change, soil degradation and plant and animal diseases. (springer.com)
  • Supplied in Pelican-Style hard wheeled case, Model 971 Food-SSAFE Kit utilizes NaI detector and software algorithm to measure and report nuclear radiation found in fish and meat products, liquids, and soil samples. (thomasnet.com)
  • In addition to this internal exposure, humans also receive external exposure from radioactive materials that remain outside the body and from cosmic radiation from space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. (plos.org)
  • Absorbed and equivalent radiation doses can not be directly converted as the conversion depends on the type of radiation. (convert-me.com)
  • The human body is born with potassium-40 [the type of radiation found in bananas] in its tissues and it is the most common radionuclide in human tissues and in food. (globalresearch.ca)
  • This is four times the worldwide average artificial radiation exposure, which in 2008 amounted to about 0.6 millisieverts (60 mrem) per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural and most artificial radiations are not different in kind or effect. (resveratrolhealthblog.com)
  • But internal emitters steadily and continuously emit radiation for as long as the particle remains radioactive, or until the person dies - whichever occurs first. (blogspot.com)
  • that you understand internal emitters and radiation, and it's not low level to the cells that are exposed. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • Radiation necrosis can occur when radiotherapy is used to treat primary CNS tumors, metastatic disease, or head and neck malignancies. (medscape.com)
  • While the term radiation necrosis is used to refer to radiation injury, pathology is not limited to necrosis and a spectrum of injury patterns may occur. (medscape.com)
  • Radiation necrosis and diffuse cerebral atrophy are considered long-term complications of radiotherapy that occur from months to decades after radiation treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Although radiation injury can occur at doses of less than 40 Gy, serious injury usually occurs at doses greater than 50 Gy. (medscape.com)
  • The biological damage and chemical changes that occur to human cells and chromosomes due to radiation can lead to two types of injuries at the cellular level. (cram.com)
  • The background of radiation mostly in the frequency range 3 x 10 8 to 3 x 10 11 Hz discovered in space in 1965. (blogspot.com)
  • 1965), doses of a few hundred rads to the whole body will cause death within days, while doses of several thousands of rads are delivered to focal points of the body in radiation therapy without lethal effect. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The committee discusses contributions of normal oxidative DNA damage relative to radiation-induced DNA damage and describes the DNA repair mechanisms that mammalian cells have developed to cope with such damage. (nap.edu)