Low Back Pain
Physical Therapy Modalities
Intervertebral Disc Displacement
Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Myofascial Pain Syndromes
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Range of Motion, Articular
Activities of Daily Living
Severity of Illness Index
Recovery of Function
Quality of Life
Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
Referral and Consultation
Reproducibility of Results
Physical Therapy Specialty
Complex Regional Pain Syndromes
Spinal Nerve Roots
Work Capacity Evaluation
Primary Health Care
Return to Work
Exercise Movement Techniques
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Cumulative Trauma Disorders
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Health Status Indicators
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Analysis of Variance
Predictive Value of Tests
Electric Stimulation Therapy
Spinal Cord Compression
Episode of Care
Spinal Cord Diseases
A chiropractic service arrangement for musculoskeletal complaints in industry: a pilot study. (1/1089)Chiropractic services are commonly used by workers with musculoskeletal problems, especially low back and neck complaints. Research into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this approach is, however, difficult to design without prior pilot studies. This study followed 32 workers with these complaints attending one such service and used five measures of outcome over a 6-month period. These measured pain (VAS), disability (FLP), quality of life (SF-36), perceived benefit and satisfaction with care. Additionally, sickness costs to the companies were recorded over two years encompassing the study period. Treatment utilization was also monitored. Over half the population were chronic sufferers. The effect sizes were large for pain and for seven out of eight dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire at 6-month follow-up, although not for disability (FLP). High levels of satisfaction and perceived improvement were reported and sickness costs to the companies fell. However, the sample size in this pilot study was small and did not include controls. We would, therefore, recommend a full cost-effectiveness study incorporating a randomized trial in this area. (+info)
Back care instructions in physical therapy: a trend analysis of individualized back care programs. (2/1089)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The treatment of people with low back pain often includes giving a variety of instructions about back care. The objective of our study was to explore the content and sequence of these instructions. SUBJECTS: Our database contained information on 1,151 therapy sessions for 132 patients who were treated by 21 therapists. METHODS: Hierarchical linear modeling was used to establish trends in instructions during the course of treatment. Instructions were measured by means of a registration form. RESULTS: Pain management instructions were given at the start of treatment and then decreased in later sessions. Instructions about taking care of the back in daily activities followed the same course. Exercise instructions were introduced after the start of treatment and were spread evenly across the visits. The number of recommendations about general fitness decreased during treatment. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The majority of back care instructions were spread evenly across therapy visits. Relatively little variation in instructions among patients was seen, which may indicate a lack of individualization of the back care programs. (+info)
A new gatekeeper for back pain. (3/1089)Managed care programs have evolved in response to the escalating costs of healthcare in the United States. Expenses related to back pain represent a significant portion of these costs. Chiropractic physicians handle more back pain visits than do medical doctors and are playing an increasing role in the management of neuromusculoskeletal problems in general. Furthermore, chiropractic patients are more satisfied with their care than are patients of family physicians. A number of studies have shown chiropractic medicine to have high efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Its utilization for neuromusculoskeletal problems in the managed care setting may well offer competitive advantages. Using chiropractic physicians as gatekeepers for back pain would result in more expedient movement through the algorithmic process and facilitate treatment of the patient with acute back pain. Many medical facilities are enhancing their services by utilizing chiropractic physicians as gatekeepers for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromusculoskeletal disorders. (+info)
The assessment of appropriate indications for laminectomy. (4/1089)We have developed criteria to determine the appropriate indications for lumbar laminectomy, using the standard procedure developed at the RAND corporation and the University of California at Los Angeles (RAND-UCLA). A panel of five surgeons and four physicians individually assessed 1000 hypothetical cases of sciatica, back pain only, symptoms of spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, miscellaneous indications or the need for repeat laminectomy. For the first round each member of the panel used a scale ranging from 1 (extremely inappropriate) to 9 (extremely appropriate). After discussion and condensation of the results into three categories laminectomy was considered appropriate in 11% of the 1000 theoretical scenarios, equivocal in 26% and inappropriate in 63%. There was some variation between the six categories of malalignment, but full agreement in 64% of the hypothetical cases. We applied these criteria retrospectively to the records of 196 patients who had had surgical treatment for herniated discs in one Swiss University hospital. We found that 48% of the operations were for appropriate indications, 29% for equivocal reasons and that 23% were inappropriate. The RAND-UCLA method is a feasible, useful and coherent approach to the study of the indications for laminectomy and related procedures, providing a number of important insights. Our conclusions now require validation by carefully designed prospective clinical trials, such as those which are used for new medical techniques. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics of glycosylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (lenograstim) in healthy male volunteers. (5/1089)AIMS: The aim of this open, randomised, crossover, parallel-group study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and neutrophil responses of lenograstim when administered subcutaneously (s.c.) and intravenously (i.v.). METHODS: A total of 27 healthy male volunteers was recruited. Lenograstim doses (0.5, 2, 5, or 10 microg kg(-1)) were administered s.c. or i.v. once-daily for 5 days, and then, after a 10-day washout period, vice versa for a further 5 days. Lenograstim concentrations and absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were measured predosing and postdosing on days 1 and 5. RESULTS: Maximum serum concentrations of lenograstim were higher following i.v. dosing (mean 5.2-185.5 vs 0.7-30.0 ng ml(-1) after s.c. dosing on day 1) and attained sooner (median 0.5-0.8 vs 4.7-8.7 h on day 1). However, apparent elimination half-lives of lenograstim were longer following s.c. dosing (mean 2.3-3.3 vs 0.8-1.2 h after i.v. dosing on days 1 and 5). ANCs increased in a dose-dependent manner with both routes of lenograstim, but more prolonged rises and higher ANC peaks were attained following s.c. doses. ANCs peaked on day 6 following 5 microg kg(-1) s.c. doses (mean peak=26.3x10(9) cells l(-1)), but on day 2 after 5 microg kg(-1) i.v. doses (mean peak = 12.4 x 10(9) cells l(-1)). Irrespective of route, the most common adverse events were headaches and back/spine pain; at doses of up to 5 microg kg(-1) these were mild and generally well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: While supporting the use of both s.c. and i.v. administered lenograstim to treat neutropenia, these results demonstrate that neutrophil responses are more sustained and prolonged with the s.c. route. (+info)
Rheumatic disease and the Australian aborigine. (6/1089)OBJECTIVE: To document the frequency and disease phenotype of various rheumatic diseases in the Australian Aborigine. METHODS: A comprehensive review was performed of the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and contemporary literature relating to rheumatic diseases in these indigenous people. RESULTS: No evidence was found to suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), or gout occurred in Aborigines before or during the early stages of white settlement of Australia. Part of the explanation for the absence of these disorders in this indigenous group may relate to the scarcity of predisposing genetic elements, for example, shared rheumatoid epitope for RA, B27 antigen for AS. In contrast, osteoarthritis appeared to be common particularly involving the temporomandibular joint, right elbow and knees and, most probably, was related to excessive joint loading in their hunter gatherer lifestyle. Since white settlement, high frequency rates for rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pyogenic arthritis have been observed and there are now scanty reports of the emergence of RA and gout in these original Australians. CONCLUSION: The occurrence and phenotype of various rheumatic disorders in Australian Aborigines is distinctive but with recent changes in diet, lifestyle, and continuing genetic admixture may be undergoing change. An examination of rheumatic diseases in Australian Aborigines and its changing phenotype may lead to a greater understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of these disorders. (+info)
Back pain among persons working on small or family farms--eight Colorado counties, 1993-1996. (7/1089)In the United States, work-related back pain often results in lost wages, reduced productivity, and increased medical costs. However, national surveillance data about these injuries, such as occupationally acquired back pain among workers on small or family farms, are limited. To characterize back pain in a farming population, researchers at Colorado State University interviewed adult farmers residing in eight northeastern Colorado counties (Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Phillips, Sedgewick, Washington, Weld, and Yuma) during 1993-1996, using the Colorado Farm Family Health and Hazard Survey (CFFHHS). This report summarizes the findings of CFFHHS, which indicate that back pain is common among farmers and most frequently attributed to repeated activities (RAs) (e.g. lifting, pushing, pulling, bending, twisting, and reaching). (+info)
Type B aortic dissection and thoracoabdominal aneurysm formation after endoluminal stent repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. (8/1089)Endoluminal stent graft repair of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms is being performed in increasing numbers. The long-term benefits of this technology remain to be seen. Reports have begun to appear regarding complications of stent graft application, such as renal failure, intestinal infarction, distal embolization, and rupture. Many of these complications have been associated with a fatal outcome. We describe a case of acute, retrograde, type B aortic dissection after application of an endoluminal stent graft for an asymptomatic infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. An extent I thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm subsequently developed and was successfully repaired. Aggressive evaluation of new back pain after such a procedure is warranted. Further analysis of the short-term complications and long-term outcome of this new technology is indicated before universal application can be recommended. (+info)
The causes of LBP can be broadly classified into two categories:
1. Mechanical causes: These include strains, sprains, and injuries to the soft tissues (such as muscles, ligaments, and tendons) or bones in the lower back.
2. Non-mechanical causes: These include medical conditions such as herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, and spinal stenosis.
The symptoms of LBP can vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
* Pain that may be localized to one side or both sides of the lower back
* Muscle spasms or stiffness
* Limited range of motion in the lower back
* Difficulty bending, lifting, or twisting
* Sciatica (pain that radiates down the legs)
* Weakness or numbness in the legs
The diagnosis of LBP is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI.
Treatment for LBP depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Medications such as pain relievers, muscle relaxants, or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility in the lower back
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on the joints and muscles
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery may be considered for severe or chronic cases that do not respond to other treatments.
Prevention strategies for LBP include:
* Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce strain on the lower back
* Engaging in regular exercise to improve muscle strength and flexibility
* Using proper lifting techniques to avoid straining the lower back
* Taking regular breaks to stretch and move around if you have a job that involves sitting or standing for long periods
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques such as meditation or deep breathing.
There are many different types of back pain, including:
1. Lower back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine and can be caused by strained muscles or ligaments, herniated discs, or other factors.
2. Upper back pain: This type of pain occurs in the thoracic spine and can be caused by muscle strain, poor posture, or other factors.
3. Middle back pain: This type of pain occurs in the thoracolumbar junction and can be caused by muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
4. Lower left back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine on the left side and can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
5. Lower right back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine on the right side and can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
There are many different causes of back pain, including:
1. Muscle strain: This occurs when the muscles in the back are overstretched or torn.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the soft tissue between the vertebrae bulges out and puts pressure on the surrounding nerves.
3. Structural problems: This includes conditions such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis, which can cause back pain due to the abnormal curvature of the spine.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory myopathies, and ankylosing spondylitis can cause back pain due to inflammation and joint damage.
5. Infections: Infections such as shingles, osteomyelitis, and abscesses can cause back pain by irritating the nerves or causing inflammation in the spine.
6. Trauma: Traumatic injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and compression fractures can cause back pain due to damage to the vertebrae, muscles, and other tissues.
7. Poor posture: Prolonged sitting or standing in a position that puts strain on the back can lead to back pain over time.
8. Obesity: Excess weight can put additional strain on the back, leading to back pain.
9. Smoking: Smoking can reduce blood flow to the discs and other tissues in the spine, leading to degeneration and back pain.
10. Sedentary lifestyle: A lack of physical activity can lead to weak muscles and a poor posture, which can contribute to back pain.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms with your back pain:
1. Numbness or tingling in the legs or feet
2. Weakness in the legs or feet
3. Loss of bladder or bowel control
4. Fever and chills
5. Severe headache or stiff neck
6. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
These symptoms could indicate a more serious condition, such as a herniated disc or spinal infection, that requires prompt medical treatment.
There are several different types of pain, including:
1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.
The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:
1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.
It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.
There are many different types of chronic pain, including:
1. Musculoskeletal pain: This type of pain affects the muscles, bones, and joints, and can be caused by injuries, arthritis, or other conditions.
2. Nerve pain: This type of pain is caused by damage or irritation to the nerves, and can be burning, stabbing, or shooting in nature.
3. Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS): This is a chronic pain condition that typically affects one limb and is characterized by burning, aching, or shooting pain.
4. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage or irritation to the nerves, and can be burning, stabbing, or shooting in nature.
5. Cancer pain: This type of pain is caused by cancer or its treatment, and can be severe and debilitating.
6. Postoperative pain: This type of pain is caused by surgery and can vary in severity depending on the type of procedure and individual's response to pain.
7. Pelvic pain: This type of pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including endometriosis, adhesions, or pelvic inflammatory disease.
8. Headache disorders: This type of pain can include migraines, tension headaches, and other types of headaches that are severe and recurring.
Chronic pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to work, sleep, and participate in activities they enjoy. It can also lead to feelings of frustration, anxiety, and depression.
There are many treatment options for chronic pain, including medication, physical therapy, and alternative therapies like acupuncture and massage. It's important to work with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses the underlying cause of the pain and helps improve function and quality of life.
There are several types of neck pain, including:
* Acute neck pain: This is a sudden onset of pain in the neck, often caused by an injury or strain.
* Chronic neck pain: This is persistent pain in the neck that lasts for more than 3 months.
* Mechanical neck pain: This is pain caused by misalignment or degeneration of the spinal bones and joints in the neck.
* Non-mechanical neck pain: This is pain that is not caused by a specific structural problem, but rather by factors such as poor posture, muscle strain, or pinched nerves.
Neck pain can be treated with a variety of methods, including:
* Medications such as pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on nerves
* Massage therapy to relax muscles and improve circulation
* Lifestyle changes such as improving posture, losing weight, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch.
It is important to seek medical attention if neck pain is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs.
Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is persistent and ongoing, lasting more than 3 months. Acute pain is typically treated with medication, physical therapy, or other forms of therapy aimed at managing the underlying cause. In some cases, acute pain may be a symptom of an underlying condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.
Here are some examples of acute pain:
1. Post-surgical pain: Pain that occurs after surgery is a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is usually managed with pain medication and subsides as the body heals.
2. Injury pain: Pain that occurs as a result of an injury, such as a sprain or strain, is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is often treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and may also be managed with pain medication.
3. Headache pain: Some types of headaches, such as tension headaches or migraines, are examples of acute pain. These types of headaches are typically treated with over-the-counter pain medication and may also involve lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers or practicing relaxation techniques.
4. Menstrual cramps: Cramps that occur during menstruation are a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is often managed with over-the-counter pain medication and may also be treated with heat or cold therapy.
5. Childbirth pain: Pain that occurs during childbirth is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is typically managed with breathing techniques, relaxation methods, and medical pain management options such as epidural anesthesia.
In summary, acute pain is a type of pain that is sudden and lasts for a limited period of time, often resolving once the underlying cause is treated or heals. It can be managed with a variety of techniques, including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Postoperative pain is typically managed with pain medication, which may include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or other types of medications. The goal of managing postoperative pain is to provide effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of complications such as addiction, constipation, or nausea and vomiting.
In addition to medication, other techniques for managing postoperative pain may include breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. It is important for patients to communicate with their healthcare provider about the severity of their pain and any side effects they experience from medication, in order to provide effective pain management and minimize complications.
Postoperative pain can be categorized into several different types, including:
* Acute pain: This type of pain is intense but short-lived, typically lasting for a few days or weeks after surgery.
* Chronic pain: This type of pain persists for longer than 3 months after surgery and can be more challenging to manage.
* Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage to nerves and can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
* Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs and can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or abdomen.
Intractable pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, sleep, and overall well-being. Treatment for intractable pain often involves a combination of medications and alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy.
Some common symptoms of intractable pain include:
* Chronic and persistent pain that does not respond to treatment
* Pain that is severe and debilitating
* Pain that affects daily activities and quality of life
* Pain that is burning, shooting, stabbing, or cramping in nature
* Pain that is localized to a specific area of the body or widespread
* Pain that is accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, or depression.
Intractable pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Nerve damage or nerve damage from injury or disease
* Inflammation or swelling in the body
* Chronic conditions like arthritis, fibromyalgia, or migraines
* Infections such as shingles or Lyme disease
* Cancer or its treatment
* Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.
Managing intractable pain can be challenging and may involve a multidisciplinary approach, including:
* Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or muscle relaxants
* Alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy
* Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, stress management techniques, and a healthy diet
* Interventional procedures such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation.
It is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for managing intractable pain. With the right combination of medications and alternative therapies, many people are able to manage their pain and improve their quality of life.
There are many different types of back injuries that can occur, including:
1. Strains and sprains: These are common injuries that occur when the muscles or ligaments in the back are stretched or torn.
2. Herniated discs: When the gel-like center of a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, it can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
3. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the spinal discs wear down over time and lose their cushioning ability, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra in the spine slips out of place, which can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
5. Fractures: These are breaks in one or more of the bones in the back, which can be caused by trauma or overuse.
6. Spinal cord injuries: These are injuries that affect the spinal cord, either from trauma (e.g., car accidents) or from degenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
7. Radiculopathy: This is a condition where a compressed nerve root in the back can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms or legs.
Treatment for back injuries depends on the specific type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated back injuries can lead to chronic pain and decreased mobility.
* Endometriosis: a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing pain, inflammation, and bleeding.
* Adenomyosis: a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, causing pain, inflammation, and heavy bleeding.
* Fibroids: noncancerous growths in the uterus that can cause pain, bleeding, and infertility.
* Ovarian cysts: fluid-filled sacs on the ovaries that can cause pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
* Ectopic pregnancy: a pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which can cause severe pain and bleeding.
* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause pain, fever, and infertility.
* Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a condition that affects the large intestine and can cause abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
* Interstitial cystitis: a chronic bladder condition that can cause pain and frequency of urination.
* Prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause painful urination, fever, and infertility.
Pelvic pain can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment options for pelvic pain depend on the underlying cause and can include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
The causes of abdominal pain are numerous and can include:
1. Gastrointestinal disorders: Ulcers, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and appendicitis.
2. Infections: Urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
3. Obstruction: Blockages in the intestines or other hollow organs.
4. Pancreatic disorders: Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.
5. Kidney stones or other kidney disorders.
6. Liver disease: Hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.
7. Hernias: Inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, and hiatal hernia.
8. Splenic disorders: Enlarged spleen, splenic rupture, and splenectomy.
9. Cancer: Colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, and liver cancer.
10. Reproductive system disorders: Ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cysts, and testicular torsion.
The symptoms of abdominal pain can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Localized or generalized pain in the abdomen
* Cramping or sharp pain
* Difficulty breathing or swallowing
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Fever and chills
* Abdominal tenderness or guarding (muscle tension)
Abdominal pain can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:
1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans
3. Blood tests and urinalysis
4. Endoscopy and laparoscopy
Treatment for abdominal pain depends on the underlying cause, but may include:
1. Medications such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and pain relievers
2. Surgery to repair hernias or remove tumors
3. Endoscopy to remove blockages or treat ulcers
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy
5. Lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
Source: "Pain, Referred." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017.
The most common cause of sciatica is a herniated disc, which occurs when the gel-like center of a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer disc. This can put pressure on the sciatic nerve and cause pain and other symptoms. Other possible causes of sciatica include spondylolisthesis (a condition in which a vertebra slips out of place), spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal), and piriformis syndrome (compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle).
Treatment for sciatica depends on the underlying cause of the symptoms. Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, pain medication, and anti-inflammatory medications are often effective in managing symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compression on the sciatic nerve.
The term "sciatica" is derived from the Latin word "sciare," which means "to shoot." This refers to the shooting pain that can occur in the lower back and legs when the sciatic nerve is compressed or irritated.
IVDD can occur due to various factors such as trauma, injury, degenerative disc disease, or genetic predisposition. The condition can be classified into two main types:
1. Herniated Disc (HDD): This occurs when the soft, gel-like center of the disc bulges out through a tear in the tough outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves.
2. Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD): This is a condition where the disc loses its water content and becomes brittle, leading to tears and fragmentation of the disc.
Symptoms of IVDD can include:
* Back or neck pain
* Muscle spasms
* Weakness or numbness in the legs or arms
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Loss of bladder or bowel control (in severe cases)
Diagnosis of IVDD is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment options for IVDD vary depending on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative approaches such as pain medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to surgical interventions in severe cases.
In summary, Intervertebral Disc Displacement (IVDD) is a condition where the soft tissue between two adjacent vertebrae in the spine is displaced or herniated, leading to pressure on nearby nerves and potential symptoms such as back pain, muscle spasms, and weakness. It can be classified into two main types: Herniated Disc and Degenerative Disc Disease, and diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative approaches to surgical interventions.
Some common types of spinal diseases include:
1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the discs between the vertebrae in the spine wear down over time, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves and causing pain.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra slips out of place, either forward or backward, and can cause pressure on nearby nerves and muscles.
5. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.
6. Spinal infections: These are infections that can affect any part of the spine, including the discs, vertebrae, and soft tissues.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spine, either primary ( originating in the spine) or metastatic (originating elsewhere in the body).
8. Osteoporotic fractures: These are fractures that occur in the spine as a result of weakened bones due to osteoporosis.
9. Spinal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can form in the spine, either as a result of injury or as a congenital condition.
10. Spinal degeneration: This is a general term for any type of wear and tear on the spine, such as arthritis or disc degeneration.
If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
* Headaches or migraines
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)
* Eye problems (e.g., conjunctivitis, styes)
* Infections (e.g., colds, flu)
* Injuries or trauma
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
The types of facial pain include:
* Constant pain: Pain that is present all the time and does not change in intensity.
* Intermittent pain: Pain that comes and goes and may be triggered by specific activities or stimuli.
* Sharp pain: Pain that is sudden and stabbing.
* Dull pain: Pain that is ongoing and aching.
* Throbbing pain: Pain that is pulsing or beating, often with a rhythmic pattern.
The causes of facial pain can vary depending on the location and severity of the pain. Some common causes include:
* Muscle tension or spasm
* Nerve irritation or compression
* Inflammation or infection
* Injury or trauma to the face
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)
The diagnosis of facial pain is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for facial pain depends on the underlying cause and may include medications (e.g., pain relievers, antibiotics), lifestyle changes (e.g., avoiding triggers), or surgical intervention (e.g., to remove a tumor).
Musculoskeletal pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, making it difficult to perform daily activities and enjoy leisure time. It can also lead to sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased productivity. Treatment options for musculoskeletal pain vary depending on the underlying cause but may include physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle modifications such as exercise and stress management.
1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.
Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.
The shoulder is a complex joint that consists of several bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, which work together to provide a wide range of motion and stability. Any disruption in this delicate balance can cause pain and dysfunction.
Some common causes of shoulder pain include:
1. Rotator cuff injuries: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, providing stability and mobility. Injuries to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
2. Bursitis: Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between the bones, muscles, and tendons. Inflammation of the bursae (bursitis) can cause pain and swelling in the shoulder.
3. Tendinitis: Tendinitis is inflammation of the tendons, which connect the muscles to the bones. Tendinitis in the shoulder can cause pain and stiffness.
4. Dislocations: A dislocation occurs when the ball of the humerus (upper arm bone) is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can cause severe pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
5. Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that affects the joints, including the shoulder. It can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
6. Frozen shoulder: Also known as adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder is a condition where the connective tissue in the shoulder joint becomes inflamed and scarred, leading to pain and stiffness.
7. Labral tears: The labrum is a cartilage ring that surrounds the shoulder socket, providing stability and support. Tears to the labrum can cause pain and instability in the shoulder.
8. Fractures: Fractures of the humerus, clavicle, or scapula (shoulder blade) can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
9. Rotator cuff tears: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that provide stability and support to the shoulder joint. Tears to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
10. Impingement syndrome: Impingement syndrome occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff become pinched or compressed as they pass through the shoulder joint, leading to pain and inflammation.
These are just a few examples of common shoulder injuries and conditions. If you're experiencing shoulder pain or stiffness, it's important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Symptoms of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration may include:
* Back pain
* Neck pain
* Stiffness in the back and neck
* Limited range of motion
* Muscle spasms
* Tingling or numbness in the arms or legs
Treatment for Intervertebral Disc Degeneration can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:
* Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, pain medication, and lifestyle changes
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery to remove the damaged disc and fuse the adjacent vertebrae together.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage the condition and prevent further damage.
Symptoms of spinal stenosis may include:
* Pain in the neck, back, or legs that worsens with walking or standing
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs
* Difficulty controlling bladder or bowel functions
* Muscle weakness in the legs
Treatment for spinal stenosis may include:
* Pain medications
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Injections of steroids or pain relievers
* Surgery to remove bone spurs or decompress the spinal cord
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of spinal stenosis worsen over time, as untreated condition can lead to permanent nerve damage and disability.
Neuralgia is often difficult to diagnose and treat, as the underlying cause can be challenging to identify. However, various medications and therapies can help manage the pain and other symptoms associated with this condition. These may include pain relievers, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and muscle relaxants, as well as alternative therapies such as acupuncture or physical therapy.
Some common forms of neuralgia include:
1. Trigeminal neuralgia: This is a condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from the face to the brain. It is characterized by sudden, intense pain in the face, typically on one side.
2. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN): This is a condition that occurs after a shingles infection, and is characterized by persistent pain in the affected area.
3. Occipital neuralgia: This is a condition that affects the nerves in the back of the head and neck, and can cause pain in the back of the head, neck, and face.
4. Geniculate neuralgia: This is a rare condition that affects the nerves in the jaw and ear, and can cause pain in the jaw, face, and ear.
Overall, neuralgia is a complex and debilitating condition that can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. It is important for individuals experiencing symptoms of neuralgia to seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Discitis is a rare inflammatory condition that affects the discs in the spine, causing pain and stiffness in the neck, back, or other areas of the body. It is also known as discitis or infective discitis.
The term "discitis" comes from the Latin words "discus," meaning "disk," and "-itis," meaning "inflammation." Together, the term describes a condition where the soft, spongy tissue between the vertebrae in the spine becomes inflamed.
The condition is caused by bacterial or viral infections that enter the body through small tears in the outer layer of the disc. It can be triggered by activities such as heavy lifting, bending, or twisting, which put excessive pressure on the spine.
Symptoms of discitis may include back pain, stiffness, fever, chills, and difficulty moving or bending. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear up any underlying infections, as well as rest and physical therapy to help manage symptoms and promote healing. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the affected disc.
Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome include:
* Pain in specific areas of the body, such as the neck, back, or limbs
* Pain that is worse with movement or activity
* Muscle stiffness and limited range of motion
* Trigger points, which are areas of hypersensitivity within the muscle that can cause pain when stimulated
* Poor posture or gait
* Decreased strength and endurance
Treatment for myofascial pain syndrome typically involves a combination of physical therapy, pain management strategies, and self-care techniques. Physical therapy may include stretching exercises, myofascial release techniques, and other modalities to help relieve pain and improve range of motion. Pain management strategies may include medication, injections, or alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. Self-care techniques can also be helpful, such as heat or cold applications, relaxation techniques, and good posture.
The prognosis for myofascial pain syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, with appropriate treatment and self-care, many people are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. However, in some cases, the condition can be challenging to treat and may require ongoing management.
Overall, myofascial pain syndrome is a common and often misunderstood condition that can cause significant pain and disability. With proper diagnosis and treatment, however, many people are able to find relief and improve their quality of life.
1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.
These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.
The symptoms of FBSS can vary depending on the underlying cause, but they often include chronic low back pain, numbness, tingling, weakness in the legs, and difficulty walking or standing. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or MRI scans, and other diagnostic tests.
Treatment for FBSS often involves a multidisciplinary approach that may include physical therapy, pain management, and other interventions to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. In some cases, additional surgery may be necessary to address the underlying cause of the failed back surgery.
It is important for patients who have undergone back surgery and are experiencing persistent pain or disability to discuss their symptoms with their healthcare provider, as early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of further complications.
Symptoms of spondylolisthesis may include:
* Back pain
* Stiffness and limited mobility in the lower back
* Pain or numbness in the buttocks, thighs, or legs
* Difficulty maintaining a straight posture
* Muscle spasms
Spondylolisthesis can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment for the condition may include:
* Conservative methods such as physical therapy, exercise, and pain management
* Medications such as muscle relaxants or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Spinal fusion surgery to stabilize the spine and correct the slippage
* Other surgical procedures to relieve pressure on nerves or repair damaged tissue.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent back pain or stiffness, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent further progression of the condition.
The term "spondylolysis" comes from the Greek words "spondylo," meaning "vertebra," and "lysis," meaning "destruction." Together, they refer to a condition where there is a fracture or degeneration of one or more vertebrae in the spine.
Spondylolysis can occur at any level of the spine, but it is most common in the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). It can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Overuse or repetitive strain: This is the most common cause of spondylolysis, particularly in athletes who participate in high-impact sports. The repeated stress and strain on the vertebrae can lead to small fractures or degeneration over time.
2. Trauma: Spondylolysis can also be caused by a sudden injury, such as a fall or a blow to the back. This type of trauma can cause a fracture or compression of one or more vertebrae.
3. Genetics: Some people may be more prone to developing spondylolysis due to inherited factors, such as a family history of spinal problems.
4. Degenerative conditions: Spondylolysis can also be caused by degenerative conditions such as osteoporosis, which can lead to weakened bones and increased risk of fracture.
The symptoms of spondylolysis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
1. Back pain: This is the most common symptom of spondylolysis, and it can range from mild to severe.
2. Stiffness: Patients with spondylolysis may experience stiffness in their back, particularly after periods of rest or inactivity.
3. Limited mobility: Spondylolysis can cause limited mobility in the affected area, making it difficult to bend or twist.
4. Muscle spasms: Muscle spasms are common in patients with spondylolysis, particularly in the back muscles.
5. Tenderness: The affected area may be tender to the touch, and patients may experience pain when pressure is applied to the area.
6. Decreased range of motion: Spondylolysis can cause a decrease in range of motion, making it difficult to move or bend.
7. Numbness or tingling: Patients with spondylolysis may experience numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.
Spondylolysis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment for spondylolysis depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Rest and relaxation: Patients with mild cases of spondylolysis may be advised to rest and avoid activities that exacerbate the condition.
2. Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve range of motion, strength, and flexibility in patients with spondylolysis.
3. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen may be prescribed to manage pain associated with spondylolysis.
4. Bracing: Wearing a brace can help support the affected area and improve mobility.
5. Surgery: In severe cases of spondylolysis, surgery may be necessary to repair or stabilize the affected vertebrae.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of spondylolysis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further damage and improve outcomes.
The word "arthralgia" comes from the Greek words "arthron," meaning joint, and "algos," meaning pain. It is often used interchangeably with the term "joint pain," but arthralgia specifically refers to a type of pain that is not caused by inflammation or injury.
Arthralgia can manifest in different ways, including:
1. Aching or dull pain in one or more joints
2. Sharp or stabbing pain in one or more joints
3. Pain that worsens with movement or weight-bearing activity
4. Pain that improves with rest
5. Pain that is localized to one joint or multiple joints
6. Pain that is accompanied by stiffness or limited range of motion
7. Pain that is worse in the morning or after periods of rest
8. Pain that is triggered by certain activities or movements
The diagnosis of arthralgia typically involves a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as diagnostic tests such as X-rays, blood tests, or imaging studies. Treatment for arthralgia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle modifications, or other interventions.
There are two main types of nociceptive pain: somatic and visceral. Somatic pain arises from damage or inflammation of the skin, muscles, and other somatic tissues, while visceral pain originates from the internal organs. Visceral pain is often more difficult to localize than somatic pain because the organs are deep within the body and their sensory nerve endings are less accessible.
Nociceptive pain can be acute or chronic. Acute pain is typically a short-term response to a specific injury or inflammation, while chronic pain persists beyond the normal healing period and can last for months or even years. Common examples of nociceptive pain include headaches, muscle aches, menstrual cramps, and postoperative pain.
The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines nociceptive pain as "pain resulting from tissue damage or inflammation, including internal organs." The IASP also distinguishes between nociceptive and neuropathic pain, with nociceptive pain being caused by activating nociceptors, while neuropathic pain is caused by damage or dysfunction of the nervous system.
Nociceptive pain can be managed with various analgesic drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and other types of pain relievers. Additionally, nonpharmacological interventions like physical therapy, acupuncture, and cognitive-behavioral therapy can be effective in managing nociceptive pain.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several types of spinal fractures, including:
1. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the vertebrae collapses due to pressure, often caused by osteoporosis or trauma.
2. Fracture-dislocations: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and displaced from its normal position.
3. Spondylolysis: This is a type of fracture that occurs in the spine, often due to repetitive stress or overuse.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a type of fracture where a vertebra slips out of its normal position and into the one below it.
5. Fracture-subluxation: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and partially dislocated from its normal position.
The diagnosis of spinal fractures typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI to confirm the presence of a fracture and determine its severity and location. Treatment options for spinal fractures depend on the severity of the injury and may include pain management, bracing, physical therapy, or surgery to stabilize the spine and promote healing. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to realign the vertebrae and prevent further damage.
Overall, spinal fractures can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:
* Loss of sensation below the level of the injury
* Weakness or paralysis below the level of the injury
* Pain or numbness in the back, arms, or legs
* Difficulty breathing or controlling bladder and bowel functions
* Changes in reflexes or sensation below the level of the injury.
Spinal injuries can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:
* X-rays or CT scans to assess the alignment of the spine and detect any fractures or dislocations
* MRI scans to assess the soft tissues of the spine and detect any damage to the spinal cord
* Electromyography (EMG) tests to assess the function of muscles and nerves below the level of the injury.
Treatment for spinal injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, and may include:
* Immobilization using a brace or cast to keep the spine stable
* Medications to manage pain, inflammation, and other symptoms
* Rehabilitation therapies such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and recreational therapy to help restore function and mobility.
In summary, spinal injuries can be classified into two categories: complete and incomplete, and can be caused by a variety of factors. Symptoms may include loss of sensation, weakness or paralysis, pain, difficulty breathing, and changes in reflexes or sensation. Diagnosis is typically made using X-rays, MRI scans, and EMG tests, and treatment may involve immobilization, medications, and rehabilitation therapies.
The symptoms of spondylarthritis can vary, but may include:
* Back pain that improves with exercise
* Stiffness in the neck or lower back
* Painful joints in the hips or shoulders
* Reduced range of motion in the affected joints
* Loss of appetite
* Swollen lymph nodes
The exact cause of spondylarthritis is unknown, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. This means that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the body, leading to inflammation and joint damage.
There is no cure for spondylarthritis, but medications and lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms. Treatment options may include:
* Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation
* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) to slow the progression of the disease
* Biologic agents to target specific proteins involved in the immune response
* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Rest and exercise to manage fatigue
Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms of spondylarthritis and prevent long-term complications such as joint damage or spinal fusion.
Hyperalgesia is often seen in people with chronic pain conditions, such as fibromyalgia, and it can also be a side effect of certain medications or medical procedures. Treatment options for hyperalgesia depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include pain management techniques, physical therapy, and medication adjustments.
In clinical settings, hyperalgesia is often assessed using a pinprick test or other pain tolerance tests to determine the patient's sensitivity to different types of stimuli. The goal of treatment is to reduce the patient's pain and improve their quality of life.
There are several theories about what might cause fibromyalgia, including:
1. Overactive nerve endings: Some research suggests that people with fibromyalgia may have overactive nerve endings that amplify pain signals.
2. Hormonal imbalance: Hormones such as cortisol and serotonin play a role in regulating pain and mood, and some studies suggest that hormonal imbalances might contribute to fibromyalgia.
3. Infections: Some research suggests that fibromyalgia may be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection, although more research is needed to confirm this theory.
4. Genetics: Fibromyalgia tends to run in families, which suggests that there may be a genetic component to the condition.
5. Environmental factors: Trauma, stress, and other environmental factors may also play a role in the development of fibromyalgia.
There is no single test for diagnosing fibromyalgia, and doctors must use a combination of physical examination, medical history, and other tests to rule out other conditions that might cause similar symptoms. Treatment for fibromyalgia typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes such as exercise and stress management.
Some common symptoms of fibromyalgia include:
* Widespread muscle pain and stiffness
* Fatigue and decreased energy
* Tender points on the body (areas that are painful to the touch)
* Brain fog and cognitive difficulties (such as memory loss and difficulty concentrating)
* Sleep disturbances (including insomnia and restless sleep)
* Headaches and migraines
* Digestive problems (such as irritable bowel syndrome)
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Depression and anxiety
There is no cure for fibromyalgia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Some common medications used to treat fibromyalgia include:
* Pain relievers (such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
* Anti-seizure medications (which can help reduce pain and improve sleep)
* Antidepressants (which can help with mood issues and improve sleep)
* Muscle relaxants (which can help reduce muscle spasms and stiffness)
In addition to medication, physical therapy and lifestyle changes can also be helpful in managing fibromyalgia symptoms. These might include:
* Exercise programs that are tailored to the individual's needs and abilities
* Stress management techniques (such as meditation or yoga)
* Healthy sleep habits (such as establishing a consistent bedtime routine and avoiding caffeine and electronics before bedtime)
* A balanced diet and adequate hydration
* Massage therapy or other forms of relaxation techniques.
It's important to note that each person with fibromyalgia may respond differently to different treatments, so it may take some trial and error to find the right combination of medications and lifestyle changes that work best for an individual case. It's also important to work closely with a healthcare provider to monitor progress and adjust treatment plans as needed.
There are several ways to manage labor pain, including:
1. Breathing techniques: Deep breathing, slow breathing, or controlled breathing can help relax the body and reduce pain.
2. Massage: Massaging the back, shoulders, or abdomen can help relieve tension and pain.
3. Pain relief medication: Medications such as nitrous oxide, epidural anesthesia, or narcotics can be used to reduce pain during labor.
4. Positioning: Changing positions during labor can help relieve pressure and pain. Examples include squatting, kneeling, or leaning on one's hands and knees.
5. Support: Having a supportive partner, family member, or doula can provide emotional support and help with breathing and relaxation techniques.
6. Water immersion: Soaking in a warm bath or pool during labor can help reduce pain and increase feelings of buoyancy.
7. Acupuncture: Acupuncture is a technique that involves inserting thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate healing and pain relief.
8. Hypnosis: Hypnosis is a technique that involves guided relaxation and visualization to help reduce pain and anxiety during labor.
9. TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation): TENS is a device that uses electric impulses to stimulate nerves and reduce pain.
10. Chiropractic care: Some women may find that chiropractic care during pregnancy can help improve spinal alignment and reduce back pain during labor.
It's important to note that every woman's experience of labor pain is different, and what works for one person may not work for another. It's a good idea to discuss pain management options with a healthcare provider before going into labor.
1. Type I (formerly known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type of CRPS occurs after an injury or trauma and is characterized by pain, swelling, redness, and hypersensitivity in the affected limb.
2. Type II (formerly known as Casali's Syndrome): This type of CRPS typically occurs after a major nerve injury and is characterized by severe pain, muscle atrophy, and weakness in the affected limb.
CRPS can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as the symptoms can be diverse and may not always fit neatly into one category. Treatment options for CRPS include physical therapy, medications such as pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture and nerve blocks. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pain and restore function to the affected limb.
The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve abnormalities in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as imbalances in the body's immune and inflammatory responses. CRPS can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, making it important for healthcare professionals to provide prompt and effective treatment to manage the condition.
Kyphosis is an exaggerated forward curvature of the spine, also known as "roundback" or "hunchback". This type of curvature can be caused by a variety of factors such as osteoporosis, degenerative disc disease, and Scheuermann's disease.
Lordosis is an excessive inward curvature of the spine, also known as "swayback". This type of curvature can be caused by factors such as pregnancy, obesity, and spinal injuries.
Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, injury, or birth defects. Scoliosis can be classified into two main types: Cervical (neck) scoliosis and Thoracic (chest) scoliosis.
All three types of curvatures can cause discomfort, pain and decreased mobility if left untreated. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the curvature and may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery.
Visceral pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or obstruction of the affected organ or structure. Some common examples of visceral pain include:
1. Appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe, localized pain in the lower right abdomen.
2. Endometriosis: a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus and can cause pain, bleeding, and other symptoms.
3. Kidney stones: small, hard mineral deposits that can form in the kidneys and cause severe pain in the flank or abdomen.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
5. Ovarian cysts: fluid-filled sacs that can form on the ovaries and cause pelvic pain, bloating, and other symptoms.
Visceral pain can be difficult to diagnose and treat because it can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or the abdomen, and can be accompanied by other symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Imaging tests like CT scans or ultrasound may be used to help identify the source of the pain, and medications like pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the underlying cause of the pain.
Types of Spinal Neoplasms:
1. Benign tumors: Meningiomas, schwannomas, and osteochondromas are common types of benign spinal neoplasms. These tumors usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: Primary bone cancers (chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma) and metastatic cancers (cancers that have spread to the spine from another part of the body) are types of malignant spinal neoplasms. These tumors can grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetic mutations: Some genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis complex, increase the risk of developing spinal neoplasms.
2. Previous radiation exposure: People who have undergone radiation therapy in the past may have an increased risk of developing a spinal tumor.
3. Family history: A family history of spinal neoplasms can increase an individual's risk.
4. Age and gender: Spinal neoplasms are more common in older adults, and males are more likely to be affected than females.
1. Back pain: Pain is the most common symptom of spinal neoplasms, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms or legs.
2. Neurological deficits: Depending on the location and size of the tumor, patients may experience neurological deficits such as paralysis, loss of sensation, or difficulty with balance and coordination.
3. Difficulty with urination or bowel movements: Patients may experience changes in their bladder or bowel habits due to the tumor pressing on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
4. Weakness or numbness: Patients may experience weakness or numbness in their arms or legs due to compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots by the tumor.
5. Fractures: Spinal neoplasms can cause fractures in the spine, which can lead to a loss of height, an abnormal curvature of the spine, or difficulty with movement and balance.
1. Medical history and physical examination: A thorough medical history and physical examination can help identify the presence of symptoms and determine the likelihood of a spinal neoplasm.
2. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans may be ordered to visualize the spine and detect any abnormalities.
3. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor present.
4. Laboratory tests: Blood tests may be ordered to assess liver function, electrolyte levels, or other parameters that can help evaluate the patient's overall health.
1. Surgery: Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove the tumor and relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy or as a standalone treatment for patients who are not candidates for surgery.
4. Supportive care: Patients may require supportive care, such as physical therapy, pain management, and rehabilitation, to help them recover from the effects of the tumor and any treatment-related complications.
The prognosis for patients with spinal neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and location of the tumor, the extent of the disease, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine, as compared to those with more aggressive tumors that have spread to other parts of the body.
The survival rates for patients with spinal neoplasms vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for primary spinal cord tumors is about 60%. However, this rate can be as high as 90% for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine.
There are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, but certain changes may help improve the patient's quality of life and overall health. These may include:
1. Exercise: Gentle exercise, such as yoga or swimming, can help improve mobility and strength.
2. Diet: A balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can help support overall health.
3. Rest: Getting enough rest and avoiding strenuous activities can help the patient recover from treatment-related fatigue.
4. Managing stress: Stress management techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, can help reduce anxiety and improve overall well-being.
5. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with the healthcare provider are crucial to monitor the patient's condition and make any necessary adjustments to their treatment plan.
In conclusion, spinal neoplasms are rare tumors that can develop in the spine and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, and survival rates vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. While there are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, certain changes may help improve the patient's overall health and well-being. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow-up care to ensure the best possible outcome.
There are different types of spondylosis, including:
1. Cervical spondylosis: affects the neck area
2. Thoracic spondylosis: affects the chest area
3. Lumbar spondylosis: affects the lower back
4. Sacroiliac spondylosis: affects the pelvis and lower back
Spondylosis can be caused by a variety of factors such as:
1. Aging - wear and tear on the spine over time
2. Injury - trauma to the spine, such as a fall or a car accident
3. Overuse - repetitive strain on the spine, such as from heavy lifting or bending
4. Genetics - some people may be more prone to developing spondylosis due to their genetic makeup
5. Degenerative conditions - conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and degenerative disc disease can contribute to the development of spondylosis.
Symptoms of spondylosis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Pain - in the neck, back, or other areas affected by the condition
2. Stiffness - limited mobility and reduced flexibility
3. Limited range of motion - difficulty moving or bending
4. Muscle spasms - sudden, involuntary contractions of the muscles
5. Tenderness - pain or discomfort in the affected area when touched
Treatment for spondylosis depends on the severity and location of the condition, but may include:
1. Medications - such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants
2. Physical therapy - exercises and stretches to improve mobility and reduce pain
3. Lifestyle changes - such as regular exercise, good posture, and weight management
4. Injections - corticosteroid or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
5. Surgery - in severe cases where other treatments have not been effective.
It's important to note that spondylosis is a degenerative condition, which means it cannot be cured, but with proper management and treatment, symptoms can be effectively managed and quality of life can be improved.
There are several types of spondylitis, including:
1. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): This is the most common form of spondylitis and primarily affects the lower back. It can cause stiffness, pain, and reduced mobility in the spine.
2. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA): This type of spondylitis affects both the joints and the spine, causing inflammation and pain. It often occurs in people with psoriasis, a skin condition that causes red, scaly patches.
3. Enteropathic spondylitis: This is a rare form of spondylitis that occurs in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
4. Undifferentiated spondylitis: This type of spondylitis does not fit into any other category and may be caused by a variety of factors.
The symptoms of spondylitis can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Back pain that is worse with activity and improves with rest
2. Stiffness in the back, particularly in the morning or after periods of inactivity
3. Redness and warmth in the affected area
4. Swelling in the affected joints
5. Limited range of motion in the spine
7. Loss of appetite
8. Low-grade fever
Spondylitis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and lifestyle modifications, such as exercise, physical therapy, and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints or tissue.
It's important to note that spondylitis is a chronic condition, meaning it cannot be cured but can be managed with ongoing treatment and lifestyle modifications. With proper management, many people with spondylitis are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
Spondylitis, ankylosing can affect any part of the spine, but it most commonly affects the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). The condition can also affect other joints, such as the hips, shoulders, and feet.
The exact cause of spondylitis, ankylosing is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the joints. Genetics may also play a role in the development of the condition.
Symptoms of spondylitis, ankylosing can include:
* Back pain and stiffness
* Pain and swelling in the joints
* Limited mobility and flexibility
* Redness and warmth in the affected area
If you suspect that you or someone you know may have spondylitis, ankylosing, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as X-rays or MRIs, to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.
Treatment for spondylitis, ankylosing typically involves a combination of medications and physical therapy. Medications may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy can help improve mobility and flexibility, as well as strengthen the muscles supporting the affected joints.
In severe cases of spondylitis, ankylosing, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints. In some cases, the condition may progress to the point where the joints become fused and immobile, a condition known as ankylosis.
While there is no cure for spondylitis, ankylosing, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper care and support, individuals with spondylitis, ankylosing can lead active and fulfilling lives.
Symptoms of an epidural abscess may include:
* Back pain that worsens over time
* Muscle weakness or numbness in the legs
* Difficulty urinating
Diagnosis of an epidural abscess is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the presence of bacteria in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid.
Treatment for an epidural abscess usually involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of the abscess. In severe cases, treatment may also involve supportive care such as mechanical ventilation and management of related complications such as seizures or stroke.
There are several types of headaches, including:
1. Tension headache: This is the most common type of headache and is caused by muscle tension in the neck and scalp.
2. Migraine: This is a severe headache that can cause nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
3. Sinus headache: This type of headache is caused by inflammation or infection in the sinuses.
4. Cluster headache: This is a rare type of headache that occurs in clusters or cycles and can be very painful.
5. Rebound headache: This type of headache is caused by overuse of pain medication.
Headaches can be treated with a variety of methods, such as:
1. Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
2. Prescription medications, such as triptans or ergots, for migraines and other severe headaches.
3. Lifestyle changes, such as stress reduction techniques, regular exercise, and a healthy diet.
4. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture or massage, which can help relieve tension and pain.
5. Addressing underlying causes, such as sinus infections or allergies, that may be contributing to the headaches.
It is important to seek medical attention if a headache is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, confusion, or weakness. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the headache and recommend appropriate treatment.
The term "cumulative" refers to the gradual buildup of damage over time, as opposed to a single traumatic event that causes immediate harm. The damage can result from repetitive motions, vibrations, compressive forces, or other forms of stress that accumulate and lead to tissue injury and inflammation.
Some common examples of CTDs include:
1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A condition that affects the wrist and hand, caused by repetitive motion and compression of the median nerve.
2. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive motion or overuse.
3. Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, a fluid-filled sac that cushions joints and reduces friction between tissues.
4. Tennis elbow: A condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons on the outside of the elbow, caused by repetitive gripping or twisting motions.
5. Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, caused by repetitive strain and overuse.
6. Repetitive stress injuries: A broad category of injuries caused by repetitive motion, such as typing or using a computer mouse.
7. Occupational asthma: A condition caused by inhaling allergens or irritants in the workplace, leading to inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
8. Hearing loss: Damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve caused by exposure to loud noises over time.
9. Vibration white finger: A condition that affects the hands, causing whiteness or loss of blood flow in the fingers due to exposure to vibrating tools.
10. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and arm.
It's important to note that these conditions can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, ability to work, and overall well-being. If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
There are several types of spinal cord compression, including:
1. Central canal stenosis: This occurs when the central canal of the spine narrows, compressing the spinal cord.
2. Foraminal stenosis: This occurs when the openings on either side of the spine (foramina) narrow, compressing the nerves exiting the spinal cord.
3. Spondylolisthesis: This occurs when a vertebra slips out of place, compressing the spinal cord.
4. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out and presses on the spinal cord.
5. Bone spurs: This occurs when bone growths develop on the vertebrae, compressing the spinal cord.
6. Tumors: This can be either primary or metastatic tumors that grow in the spine and compress the spinal cord.
7. Trauma: This occurs when there is a direct blow to the spine, causing compression of the spinal cord.
Symptoms of spinal cord compression may include:
* Pain, numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms and legs
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Muscle wasting or loss of muscle mass
* Decreased reflexes
* Loss of bladder or bowel control
* Weakness in the muscles of the face, arms, or legs
* Difficulty with fine motor skills such as buttoning a shirt or typing
Diagnosis of spinal cord compression is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options for spinal cord compression depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.
In conclusion, spinal cord compression is a serious medical condition that can have significant impacts on quality of life, mobility, and overall health. It is important to be aware of the causes and symptoms of spinal cord compression in order to seek medical attention if they occur. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of spinal cord compression can be effectively managed and improved.
There are several types of polyradiculopathy, including:
1. Cervical polyradiculopathy: This type affects the neck and can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms, hands, and fingers.
2. Thoracic polyradiculopathy: This type affects the chest area and can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms, hands, and fingers.
3. Lumbar polyradiculopathy: This type affects the lower back and can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs, feet, and toes.
4. Sacral polyradiculopathy: This type affects the pelvis and can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs, feet, and toes.
Polyradiculopathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Herniated discs: When the gel-like center of a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, it can put pressure on the nerve roots and cause polyradiculopathy.
2. Degenerative disc disease: As we age, the spinal discs can break down and lose their cushioning ability, which can cause pressure on the nerve roots and lead to polyradiculopathy.
3. Spondylosis: This is a condition where bone spurs form on the vertebrae and can put pressure on the nerve roots, leading to polyradiculopathy.
4. Spinal stenosis: This is a condition where the spinal canal narrows, which can put pressure on the nerve roots and cause polyradiculopathy.
5. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis can cause inflammation in the spine and compress the nerve roots, leading to polyradiculopathy.
6. Trauma: A sudden injury, such as a fall or a car accident, can cause polyradiculopathy by compressing or damaging the nerve roots.
7. Tumors: Tumors in the spine can compress or damage the nerve roots and cause polyradiculopathy.
8. Infections: Infections such as meningitis or discitis can cause inflammation and compression of the nerve roots, leading to polyradiculopathy.
9. Vitamin deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins such as B12 and vitamin D can cause nerve damage and lead to polyradiculopathy.
The symptoms of polyradiculopathy can vary depending on the location and severity of the compression. Common symptoms include:
1. Pain: Pain is the most common symptom of polyradiculopathy, and it can occur in the back, legs, feet, and toes. The pain can be sharp, dull, or burning, and it can be exacerbated by movement or coughing.
2. Numbness and tingling: Compression of the nerve roots can cause numbness and tingling sensations in the legs, feet, and toes.
3. Weakness: Polyradiculopathy can cause weakness in the muscles of the legs, feet, and toes, making it difficult to walk or perform daily activities.
4. Muscle spasms: Compression of the nerve roots can cause muscle spasms in the back, legs, and feet.
5. Decreased reflexes: Polyradiculopathy can cause decreased reflexes in the legs and feet.
6. Difficulty with balance: Compression of the nerve roots can cause difficulty with balance and coordination.
7. Bladder and bowel dysfunction: In severe cases, polyradiculopathy can cause bladder and bowel dysfunction.
The diagnosis of polyradiculopathy typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
1. Physical examination: A thorough physical examination can help identify the presence of numbness, weakness, and other symptoms in the legs and feet.
2. Medical history: A detailed medical history can help identify any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the polyradiculopathy, such as diabetes or thyroid disorders.
3. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help identify any structural problems in the spine that may be compressing the nerve roots.
4. Electromyography (EMG): An EMG can help identify any damage to the muscles and nerves in the legs and feet.
5. Nerve conduction studies: Nerve conduction studies can help identify any damage to the nerve roots and their function.
Treatment for polyradiculopathy depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:
1. Medications: Pain medications, muscle relaxants, and anti-inflammatory drugs can help manage symptoms such as pain, numbness, and tingling.
2. Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve mobility, strength, and flexibility in the affected limbs.
3. Lifestyle modifications: Maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and avoiding activities that exacerbate symptoms can help manage the condition.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compression on the nerve roots or repair any structural problems in the spine.
5. Alternative therapies: Alternative therapies such as acupuncture and chiropractic care may also be helpful in managing symptoms.
1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative condition that causes the breakdown of cartilage in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Gout: A condition caused by the buildup of uric acid in the joints, leading to sudden and severe attacks of pain, inflammation, and swelling.
4. Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursae, small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between tendons and bones.
5. Tendinitis: Inflammation of the tendons, which connect muscles to bones.
6. Synovitis: Inflammation of the synovial membrane, a thin lining that covers the joints and lubricates them with fluid.
7. Periarthritis: Inflammation of the tissues around the joints, such as the synovial membrane, tendons, and ligaments.
8. Spondyloarthritis: A group of conditions that affect the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to inflammation and pain in these areas.
9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A condition that affects children and causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
10. Systemic lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disease that can affect many parts of the body, including the joints.
These are just a few examples of the many types of joint diseases that exist. Each type has its own unique symptoms and causes, and they can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, injury, infection, or age-related wear and tear. Treatment options for joint diseases can range from medication and physical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause.
Some common examples of spinal cord diseases include:
1. Spinal muscular atrophy: This is a genetic disorder that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement. It can cause muscle weakness and wasting, as well as other symptoms such as respiratory problems and difficulty swallowing.
2. Multiple sclerosis: This is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and damage to the protective covering of nerve fibers in the spinal cord. Symptoms can include vision problems, muscle weakness, balance and coordination difficulties, and cognitive impairment.
3. Spinal cord injuries: These can occur as a result of trauma, such as a car accident or a fall, and can cause a range of symptoms including paralysis, numbness, and loss of sensation below the level of the injury.
4. Spinal stenosis: This is a condition in which the spinal canal narrows, putting pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots. Symptoms can include back pain, leg pain, and difficulty walking or standing for long periods.
5. Tumors: Benign or malignant tumors can grow in the spinal cord, causing a range of symptoms including pain, weakness, and numbness or tingling in the limbs.
6. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can cause inflammation and damage to the spinal cord, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
7. Degenerative diseases: Conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) can cause progressive degeneration of the spinal cord nerve cells, leading to muscle weakness, twitching, and wasting.
8. Trauma: Traumatic injuries, such as those caused by sports injuries or physical assault, can damage the spinal cord and result in a range of symptoms including pain, numbness, and weakness.
9. Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord can cause tissue damage and lead to symptoms such as weakness, numbness, and paralysis.
10. Spinal cord infarction: A blockage in the blood vessels that supply the spinal cord can cause tissue damage and lead to symptoms similar to those of ischemia.
It's important to note that some of these conditions can be caused by a combination of factors, such as genetics, age, lifestyle, and environmental factors. It's also worth noting that some of these conditions can have a significant impact on quality of life, and in some cases, may be fatal.
The term "hypesthesia" comes from the Greek words "hypo," meaning "under," and "aesthesis," meaning "sensation." It is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "hyperesthesia," which refers to an abnormal increase in sensitivity to sensory stimuli.
Hypesthesia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Neurological disorders such as peripheral neuropathy or multiple sclerosis
* Injury or trauma to the nervous system
* Infections such as Lyme disease or HIV
* Certain medications, such as antidepressants or antipsychotics
* Substance abuse
Symptoms of hypesthesia can vary depending on the individual and the underlying cause, but may include:
* Increased sensitivity to touch, light, or sound
* Exaggerated response to stimuli, such as jumping or startling easily
* Difficulty filtering out background noise or sensory input
* Feeling overwhelmed by sensory inputs
Treatment for hypesthesia depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Medications to manage pain or inflammation
* Physical therapy to improve sensory integration
* Sensory integration techniques, such as deep breathing or mindfulness exercises
* Avoiding triggers that exacerbate the condition
It is important to note that hypesthesia can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, and proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary to address any underlying causes. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing hypesthesia, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.
The exact cause of osteoarthritis is not known, but it is thought to be due to a combination of factors such as genetics, wear and tear on joints over time, and injuries or trauma to the joint. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and which joint is affected. Common symptoms include:
* Pain or tenderness in the joint
* Stiffness, especially after periods of rest or inactivity
* Limited mobility or loss of flexibility
* Grating or crackling sensations when the joint is moved
* Swelling or redness in the affected joint
* Muscle weakness or wasting
There is no cure for osteoarthritis, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include:
* Pain relief medications such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected joint
* Corticosteroid injections or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and improve joint function
* Joint replacement surgery in severe cases where other treatments have failed.
Early diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life for individuals with this condition.
1. The star quarterback suffered a serious athletic injury during last night's game and is out for the season.
2. The athlete underwent surgery to repair a torn ACL, one of the most common athletic injuries in high-impact sports.
3. The coach emphasized the importance of proper technique to prevent athletic injuries among his team members.
4. After suffering a minor sprain, the runner was advised to follow the RICE method to recover and return to competition as soon as possible.
Some common causes of paresthesia include:
1. Nerve compression or entrapment: This can occur when a nerve is pinched or compressed due to injury, tumors, or other conditions.
2. Neurodegenerative diseases: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease can cause paresthesia by damaging the nerve cells.
3. Stroke or cerebral vasculitis: A stroke or inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain can cause paresthesia.
4. Migraines: Some people experience paresthesia during a migraine episode.
5. Nutritional deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins such as B12 and B6, as well as other nutrients, can cause paresthesia.
6. Infections: Certain infections, such as Lyme disease, can cause paresthesia.
7. Trauma: Physical trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, can cause nerve damage and result in paresthesia.
8. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as lymphoma, can cause paresthesia by damaging the nerves.
9. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus can cause paresthesia by attacking the body's own tissues, including the nerves.
Paresthesia can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, so it is important to see a doctor if you experience persistent or recurring episodes of numbness, tingling, or burning sensations. A thorough examination and diagnostic testing can help determine the cause of the paresthesia and appropriate treatment can be recommended.
There are several types of radiculopathy, including:
1. Cervical radiculopathy: This type affects the neck and arm region and is often caused by a herniated disk or degenerative changes in the spine.
2. Thoracic radiculopathy: This type affects the chest and abdominal regions and is often caused by a tumor or injury.
3. Lumbar radiculopathy: This type affects the lower back and leg region and is often caused by a herniated disk, spinal stenosis, or degenerative changes in the spine.
4. Sacral radiculopathy: This type affects the pelvis and legs and is often caused by a tumor or injury.
The symptoms of radiculopathy can vary depending on the location and severity of the nerve compression. They may include:
1. Pain in the affected area, which can be sharp or dull and may be accompanied by numbness, tingling, or weakness.
2. Numbness or tingling sensations in the skin of the affected limb.
3. Weakness in the affected muscles, which can make it difficult to move the affected limb or perform certain activities.
4. Difficulty with coordination and balance.
5. Tremors or spasms in the affected muscles.
6. Decreased reflexes in the affected area.
7. Difficulty with bladder or bowel control (in severe cases).
Treatment for radiculopathy depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes may be effective in managing symptoms and improving function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the nerve root.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the symptoms of radiculopathy, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
If you are experiencing flank pain, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and receive proper treatment. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as blood work, imaging studies, or a CT scan to determine the underlying cause of the pain.
Treatment for flank pain depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for infections, pain management medication, or surgical intervention in more severe cases. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's recommendations and seek medical attention if your symptoms worsen or if you experience other concerning symptoms such as fever, nausea, or vomiting.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
The risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee increases with age, obesity, and previous knee injuries or surgery. Symptoms of knee OA can include:
* Pain and stiffness in the knee, especially after activity or extended periods of standing or sitting
* Swelling and redness in the knee
* Difficulty moving the knee through its full range of motion
* Crunching or grinding sensations when the knee is bent or straightened
* Instability or a feeling that the knee may give way
Treatment for knee OA typically includes a combination of medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications. Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids can help manage symptoms, while physical therapy can improve joint mobility and strength. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition, can also help slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the damaged joint.
There are several types of kyphosis, including:
1. Postural kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by poor posture and is often seen in teenagers.
2. Scheuermann's kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by a structural deformity of the spine and is most common during adolescence.
3. Degenerative kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by degenerative changes in the spine, such as osteoporosis or degenerative disc disease.
4. Neuromuscular kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy.
Symptoms of kyphosis can include:
* An abnormal curvature of the spine
* Back pain
* Difficulty breathing
* Difficulty maintaining posture
* Loss of height
* Tiredness or fatigue
Kyphosis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, X-rays, and other imaging tests. Treatment options for kyphosis depend on the type and severity of the condition and can include:
* Physical therapy
It is important to seek medical attention if you or your child is experiencing any symptoms of kyphosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further progression of the condition and improve quality of life.
Compression fractures are more common in older adults due to the natural aging process that weakens bones, causing them to become brittle and prone to breaking. This type of fracture can also be caused by other conditions such as cancer or infections that weaken bones.
Compression fractures are often diagnosed with X-rays or CT scans, which show the extent of the fracture and any damage to surrounding tissue. Treatment typically involves pain management, bracing to support the spine, and medication to prevent further bone loss. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to stabilize the spine or correct deformities.
Compression fractures can have a significant impact on quality of life, causing chronic back pain, limited mobility, and emotional distress. However, with proper treatment and support, many people are able to recover and maintain their independence.
Preventing compression fractures is essential, particularly for older adults or those with osteoporosis. This can be achieved through a healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. Additionally, falling prevention strategies such as removing tripping hazards from the home environment and improving lighting can help reduce the risk of compression fractures.
Overall, compression fractures are a common condition that can significantly impact quality of life. Understanding the causes, diagnosis, and treatment options is crucial for effective management and prevention of this condition.
There are several types of nerve compression syndromes, including:
1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, commonly caused by repetitive motion or injury.
2. Tarsal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the posterior tibial nerve in the ankle, similar to carpal tunnel syndrome but affecting the lower leg.
3. Cubital tunnel syndrome: Compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, often caused by repetitive leaning or bending.
4. Thoracic outlet syndrome: Compression of the nerves and blood vessels that pass through the thoracic outlet (the space between the neck and shoulder), often caused by poor posture or injury.
5. Peripheral neuropathy: A broader term for damage to the peripheral nerves, often caused by diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, or other systemic conditions.
6. Meralgia paresthetica: Compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in the thigh, commonly caused by direct trauma or compression from a tight waistband or clothing.
7. Morton's neuroma: Compression of the plantar digital nerves between the toes, often caused by poorly fitting shoes or repetitive stress on the feet.
8. Neuralgia: A general term for pain or numbness caused by damage or irritation to a nerve, often associated with chronic conditions such as shingles or postherpetic neuralgia.
9. Trigeminal neuralgia: A condition characterized by recurring episodes of sudden, extreme pain in the face, often caused by compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve.
10. Neuropathic pain: Pain that occurs as a result of damage or dysfunction of the nervous system, often accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness.
Middle back pain
Low back pain
Musculoskeletal causes of back pain
Pelvic girdle pain
American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians
Myofascial pain syndrome
Theatre of Pain
Round ligament pain
Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome
List of causes of genital pain
Causes of cancer pain
Mindfulness-based pain management
Traumatic aortic rupture
List of Royal Pains episodes
Intervertebral disc damage and spaceflight
List of Double the Fist episodes
Good Manners (film)
Nursing in Japan
Justice League Queer
Cranial nerve nucleus
2008 UEFA Champions League Final
Marc Ribot discography
DJ Kool Herc
2022 Shanghai COVID-19 outbreak
Live! (The Police album)
Music of Singapore
Neo Mobor Akpofure
Fire performance (Indonesia)
Game Theory (album)
Fate to Fatal
The Four Seasons (Poussin)
Veterans benefits for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States
Back Pain | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Common Causes of Back Pain - Types & Treatment | NIAMS
'Back Pain'[majr:noexp] AND humans[mh] AND english[la] AND 'last 1 Year' [edat] NOT (letter[pt] OR case reports[pt] OR...
Retraining the Brain to Treat Chronic Back Pain | NIH News in Health
Back pain: Detrimental Consequences of Monsoon on Health - PubMed
9 Things To Know About Chronic Low-Back Pain and Complementary Health Practices
Low Back Pain: What Works? What Doesn't?
Prescription Pain Reliever (Opioid) Supplement and Call-Back Survey
Back and Neck Pain Store
MEDIQUE Back Pain Off
Lower back pain when coughing: Causes and treatment
chronic back pain Archives - ScienceBlog.com
Back Pain Consortium (BACPAC) Research Program | NIH HEAL Initiative
Exercises for prevention of recurrences of low-back pain
Banish back pain with this simple seat
Top 10: Exercises For Back Pain - AskMen
Prognosis in people with back pain | CMAJ
Traditional Treatments for Back Pain
FDA Panels Back Abuse-Deterrent Arymo ER for Severe Pain
Omicron Symptoms Explained: Here's Why You're Suffering Severe Back Pain
How to Do McKenzie Exercises for Neck and Back Pain
Smoking, a pain in the back | Deccan Herald
Back Pain in Pregnancy | Spine-health
Jackson treated for 'excruciating' back pain
Goodys Back and Body Pain Relief - Orange
Father's Day Specials * Alleviate back pain * Core Exercises * Protein bar recipe
- Spinal cord - long bundle of nerves that run down the back through a canal in the vertebrae. (nih.gov)
- Spinal manipulation may lead to small improvements in both pain and function in people with chronic low-back pain. (nih.gov)
- This position can put stress on the lower back and may displace the vertebrae, or spinal bones, making lower back pain worse. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Spinal stenosis can also cause numbness or cramping pain in the lower back and legs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- To reduce the effects of spinal stenosis, a person can try exercising to build up the muscles in the back to help support and strengthen it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- These changes result in increased stress and strain on the spinal and pelvic joints in the lower back and hips. (spine-health.com)
- 5 Yoo H, Shin D, Song C. Changes in the spinal curvature, degree of pain, balance ability, and gait ability according to pregnancy period in pregnant and nonpregnant women. (spine-health.com)
- doi:10.4314/mmj.v31i1.12 Pregnancy-related symptoms and signs affecting the lower back typically result in reduced overall function and include (but are not limited to) 5 Yoo H, Shin D, Song C. Changes in the spinal curvature, degree of pain, balance ability, and gait ability according to pregnancy period in pregnant and nonpregnant women. (spine-health.com)
- Injuries to the spine, paralysis due to disk disease, infections of the spinal column and cancer in or around the spinal column may require surgery in order to correct the problem and alleviate the pain. (vetinfo.com)
- In one case study on a 27-year-old female patient, a combination of spinal manipulation, TENS, and heat was used to reduce dysmenorrhea pain. (healthline.com)
- Chiropractors diagnose and treat common spinal misalignments that can occur from lifestyle or injuries causing pain, discomfort and degenerative conditions. (wellness.com)
- You see, many cases of both upper and lower back pain are caused by compression of the spinal cord. (losethebackpain.com)
- When that type of spinal injury or damage happens, it's likely you're looking at a life of chronic pain unless you do something about it. (losethebackpain.com)
- It is scientifically explained that acupuncture needle points stimulate the nervous system releasing chemicals to the muscles of the spinal cord and brain resulting in pain relief for the back. (articlebiz.com)
- An article in the European Spine Journal reported that people with severe sciatica were more likely to have disk herniation if their leg pain became worse when coughing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Sciatica is pain that results from the irritation or compression of the sciatic nerve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In fact, researchers at England's Newcastle Hospital looked at two groups of sciatica patients who were scheduled for lumbar (lower back) disc surgery. (losethebackpain.com)
- Sometimes the low back pain that radiates down into the buttocks and legs is confused with sciatica. (pregnancy-info.net)
- If you have sciatica the leg pain will probably be worse than the back pain, radiating down below the knee and into the foot. (pregnancy-info.net)
- For example, if a patient has significant leg pain or sciatica type symptoms, you would not advise them to use weights initially, but you might get them to do specific exercises that help to ease the nerve pain and decrease muscle spasm. (irishtimes.com)
- The pain can vary from intermittently minor discomfort, to chronic and debilitating. (spine-health.com)
- Once a veterinarian has diagnosed the back problem, following their recommendations is key to treating the discomfort and pain the dog may be feeling. (vetinfo.com)
- It may be that you are not directly able to pinpoint or verbally specify where your back pain or discomfort originates. (lifehack.org)
- Be mindful of how new your injury or pain discomfort seems to be. (lifehack.org)
- Directly focusing on lower back muscles and connections in the body is essential for proper recovery from pain, injury, or general discomfort. (lifehack.org)
- In pregnancy, kidney pain can generate low back pain that manifests as tenderness and discomfort in the lower back and around the abdomen. (pregnancy-info.net)
- If you have a UTI, your symptoms will include discomfort while urinating, blood in the urine, excessive urination, pain in the region of the bladder, cramping and pain in the lower abdomen and pain during intercourse. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Pregnancy discomfort consisting of pelvic and lower back pain are also treated effectively with acupuncture. (articlebiz.com)
- doi:10.1007/s12178-008-9021-8 some women may continue to be affected by pain in the lumbar and/or pelvic region for several months or years. (spine-health.com)
- 4 Bergström C, Persson M, Nergård KA, Mogren I. Prevalence and predictors of persistent pelvic girdle pain 12 years postpartum. (spine-health.com)
- See a physical therapist or participate in a low back and pelvic pain shared medical appointment (SMA). (clevelandclinic.org)
- Lumbar pain is in the lumbar vertebrae region of your lower back and posterior pelvic pain is experienced at the back of your pelvis. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Posterior pelvic pain is the type of pain symptoms most pregnant women feel in their low back. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Women who have posterior pelvic pain often have pain over the pubic bone as well. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Studies have shown that acupuncture is more effective than either no treatment or sham (fake) acupuncture for back or neck pain. (nih.gov)
- Back & Neck Pain Center is a Chiropractor facility at 7 Junction Dr in Glen Carbon, IL. (wellness.com)
- Services Back & Neck Pain Center practices at 7 Junction Dr, Glen Carbon, IL 62034. (wellness.com)
- To learn more, or to make an appointment with Back & Neck Pain Center in Glen Carbon, IL, please call (618) 509-5680 for more information. (wellness.com)
- That's beginning to change, as hundreds of thousands of people around the world have found long-term relief from back pain, neck pain and other chronic pain issues by practicing this ancient technique. (losethebackpain.com)
- One of the more common causes of low back pain and neck pain in pregnancy is the change in the center of gravity that comes as a result of the growing baby. (pregnancy-info.net)
- As the body tries to balance and adjust to the constantly changing dynamics, stress and strain on the joints and ligaments contribute to pain in the low back and neck pain. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Additionally, with inversion, gravity helps the lymphatic system clear faster, easing the aches and pains of stiff muscles. (losethebackpain.com)
- Neck aches and back aches seem to have become the order of the day, particularly for city folks. (yogawiz.com)
- Sedentary lifestyles at work, but hectic schedules and long working hours, wrong sitting postures or just stress often results in chronic neck and back aches. (yogawiz.com)
- Daily stresses accrued to the body through lack of exercise trauma and poor diet weaken the immune system leaving one susceptible to illnesses and bodily pains and aches. (articlebiz.com)
- The Back Pain Consortium (BACPAC) Research Program is a translational, patient-centered effort to address the need for effective and personalized therapies for chronic low back pain (cLBP). (nih.gov)
- Here, we provide a critical review of the literature that highlights the intersection in brain networks between chronic low back pain (CLBP) and depression and discuss findings from previous deep brain stimulation (DBS) studies for pain. (nih.gov)
- Based on a multidimensional model of pain processing and the connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC) with areas that are implicated in both CLBP and depression, we propose a novel approach to the treatment of CLBP using DBS of the SCC. (nih.gov)
- Whereas target sites from previous DBS trials for pain were not anatomically positioned to engage these areas and their associated networks, the SCC is structurally connected to all of these regions as well as others involved in mediating sensory, cognitive, and affective processing in CLBP. (nih.gov)
- Current best practices for diagnosing and treating chronic low-back pain (cLBP) have yielded only limited success. (nih.gov)
- The NIH Pain Consortium's charge to this group included developing a set of standards to increase the consistency of future clinical research on cLBP. (nih.gov)
- doi:10.1186/s12891-017-1760-5 In general, women who receive postural and activity-related counseling during pregnancy are less likely to develop severe back pain symptoms. (spine-health.com)
- While pregnant women who lead a sedentary lifestyle may be at a higher risk of developing back pain, engaging in heavy physical labor or being active through the day may also lead to back pain symptoms in pregnancy. (spine-health.com)
- It is generally accepted that the following factors warrant immediate evaluation: patient age younger than five years, symptoms persisting beyond four weeks, systemic symptoms, nighttime pain, bowel incontinence/urinary retention, or other neurologic symptoms. (aafp.org)
- The difference between the pain from a UTI and that of a kidney infection lies in the degree of pain (which is severe with a kidney infection), along with accompanying symptoms of fever, vomiting, chills, increased urination, pain while urinating and blood in the urine. (pregnancy-info.net)
- This publication provides an overview of low back pain, including common symptoms, diagnosis, and available therapies. (nih.gov)
Acute and chron1
- 5 Table 2 and Table 3 present suggested approaches for the evaluation and management of common causes of acute and chronic back pain. (aafp.org)
- In that show he spends weeks with a family so he can get to the bottom of their health issues, whether it is unexplained weight problems, severe headaches or back pain. (irishtimes.com)
Lasts for more than three months2
- As part of the BACPAC initiative, we will enroll patients with chronic low back pain in a clinical trial and follow them longitudinally as they try different evidence-based therapies as they might in routine clinical care. (nih.gov)
- Describe key considerations in assessing cost-effectiveness of complementary, alternative, or integrative therapies for low back pain. (nih.gov)
- Medication, complementary therapies, and surgery are the most common treatments for severe lower back pain during your period. (healthline.com)
- Intracept Procedure may be an option for those suffering from low back pain and have had no success with traditional therapies. (wkyc.com)
- Despite converging basic scientific and clinical evidence of the link between chronic pain and depression, existing therapies do not often take advantage of this overlap. (nih.gov)
- PRAMS Opioid Supplement to collect information on prescription opioid pain reliever use during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
- Jurisdictions Participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), Opioid Supplement and Opioid Call-back Survey, 2019. (cdc.gov)
- A range of natural biological changes take place in a woman's body during pregnancy, which directly affects the musculoskeletal system and may become a potential cause of back pain and related issues, such as leg pain. (spine-health.com)
- Back pain may develop as early as the first trimester and typically increases as pregnancy continues. (spine-health.com)
- 2 Silva AM. Preventing and Managing Back Pain During Pregnancy. (spine-health.com)
- Pregnancy and low back pain. (spine-health.com)
- This article describes the causes and types of pregnancy-related lower back pain in detail, including insights on treatment options and the occurrence of back pain after birth. (spine-health.com)
- While it can occur at any time during pregnancy, back pain is usually most troublesome during the second and third trimesters. (spine-health.com)
- Impact of pregnancy on back pain and body posture in women. (spine-health.com)
- Low back pain during pregnancy: Prevalence, risk factors and association with daily activities among pregnant women in urban Blantyre, Malawi. (spine-health.com)
- Round ligament pain is considered a normal part of pregnancy. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Pregnancy does not cause herniation, although a herniation may increase the susceptibility to back pain during pregnancy and birth. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Kidney pain in pregnancy can be caused by a urinary tract infection, which is the cause of right kidney pain. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Studies have shown that about 25% of pregnant women seek medical attention for lower back pain related to pregnancy. (articlebiz.com)
- The basic treatment given that may include physical therapy has proved to be effective in relieving lower back pain during pregnancy and after delivery. (articlebiz.com)
- Stiffness in the morning when awakening and lessened back pain with activity. (nih.gov)
- A person may also experience back stiffness, muscle spasms, or muscle tenderness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis may present with low back pain and stiffness, which are often worse in the morning. (aafp.org)
- Patients with spondyloarthropathy may have back stiffness in the morning or a family history of rheumatologic disorders. (aafp.org)
- Fitness level: Back pain is more common among people who are not physically fit, as their muscles may not properly support the spine. (nih.gov)
- Genetics: Some causes of back pain, such as ankylosing spondylitis (a form of arthritis that affects the spine), have a genetic component. (nih.gov)
- Job-related factors: Job that requires heavy lifting, pushing or pulling, or twisting or vibrating the spine can injure your back, as can sitting at a desk all day, especially if you have poor posture or sit in a chair with not enough back support. (nih.gov)
- For example, weak back and stomach muscles may not properly support the spine (core strength). (nih.gov)
- The Biomarkers for Evaluating Spine Treatments (BEST) clinical trial, part of the BACPAC Research program, aims to find links between a broad range of personal traits, known as biomarkers, and the effectiveness of four existing, proven treatments for chronic lower back pain - which can help doctors make better, more personalized treatment recommendations in the future. (nih.gov)
- The lumbar spine (lower back) and sacroiliac joints are most commonly affected due to changes in posture, joint stability, body weight, and shape. (spine-health.com)
- This shift increases the curve of the lower spine and causes a slight backward tilt of the sacrum (part of the spine that connects the lower back to the hip). (spine-health.com)
- With the latter, back pain is caused by changes in the small joints of the spine. (ottobock.com)
- Straighten your spine all the way through the tailbone, and keep those shoulders back. (pnmag.com)
- This pain is an all-over pain, felt in the low back and spine, a little above the waist with pain that can radiate down your legs. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Back problems can be as simple as muscle spasms from a particularly energetic day of play on up to intervertebral disk disease which can be caused by genetics or external sources. (vetinfo.com)
- These drugs may include anti-inflammatory agents to relieve any swelling or inflammation in the back, antibiotics if the back pain is caused by infection, muscle-relaxers to alleviate muscle spasms or, in some cases, chemotherapeutic agents. (vetinfo.com)
- Because of its success in reducing the occurrence of joint-related injuries, back muscle pain, muscle spasms and compression injuries, inversion is now being considered for inclusion in every recruit's physical training regimen. (losethebackpain.com)
- Consult a physician for a list of low-impact, age-appropriate exercises that are specifically targeted to strengthening lower back and abdominal muscles. (nih.gov)
- Resting for too long can cause the muscles in the back to tighten, which may worsen the pain . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Yet, working to develop and maintain the muscles in your lower back can help make your favorite weekend activities more enjoyable. (lifehack.org)
-  Your body may need a few gentle reminders each week to help get your muscles and joints back into pain-free cooperation with one another. (lifehack.org)
- Working with your lower back muscles can help your body be better equipped to handle the unexpected. (lifehack.org)
- Backaches are usually caused by the strain put on the back muscles, changing hormone levels and changes in your posture. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Perform exercises, as advised by your healthcare provider, to make your back muscles stronger and to help relieve the soreness. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The procedure relaxes the body muscles relieving lower back pain while stimulating the body to heal itself. (articlebiz.com)
Interventions to treat2
- With projected enrolment of nearly 800 patients, BEST will be the largest federally funded clinical trial of interventions to treat chronic low back pain. (medscape.com)
- This 1-day workshop will identify clinical research questions related to nonpharmacologic interventions to treat back pain. (nih.gov)
- I don't feel opioids should ever be used to treat chronic low back pain. (medscape.com)
- The few long-term studies that have been performed using opioids for longer than 3 months suggest that they often make pain worse rather than just failing to make pain better - and we know they are associated with a significantly increased all-cause mortality with increased deaths from myocardial infarction , accidents, and suicides, in addition to overdose. (medscape.com)
- People get more accustomed to managing acute pain, where opioids are a reasonable option. (medscape.com)
- It's just that when you start managing subacute or chronic pain, opioids don't work as well. (medscape.com)
- Current chronic low back pain treatment options are ineffective, which has led to an increased use of opioids. (nih.gov)
- Other studies have found that opioids help only slightly with acute back pain and are worthless for treating chronic back pain. (npr.org)
- About 43 percent of patients taking opioids for chronic back pain also had other substance abuse disorders, the researchers found. (npr.org)
- Primary care physicians need a lot of help in demystifying the diagnosis and treatment of any kind of pain, but back pain is a really good place to start. (medscape.com)
Causes of back pain2
- Below are some of the most common causes of back pain when coughing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Common causes of back pain are damage due to excessive strain or a combination of mechanical damage (for example, pinching of a nerve) and degenerative damage (signs of wear) along with psychosomatic factors. (ottobock.com)
- Banish back pain and encourage proper posture with this smart seat - it's on sale! (yahoo.com)
- The portable, padded perch encourages proper posture (say that 10 times fast) by elevating your tush off of the seat to prevent back and shoulder fatigue (A.K.A. slouching). (yahoo.com)
- Many pregnant women develop drooping, pain-incurring posture as their bellies take the lead. (pnmag.com)
- Occupational and physical therapists are at risk of musculoskeletal pain and injuries possibly due to their work-related activities, posture and affected body mechanics. (who.int)
- The HEAL-supported Back Pain Consortium (BACPAC ) is creating a whole-system model for comprehensive testing of everything that contributes to chronic low back pain, from anxiety to tissue damage. (nih.gov)
- But when researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston looked at records of 23,918 doctor visits for simple back pain between 1999 and 2010, they found that doctors have actually been getting worse at prescribing scientifically based treatments. (npr.org)
- He was always in pain, which added to the stress of the GP's work, but worse still he had to give up playing competitive squash. (irishtimes.com)
- A recent patient was helped by working on movement, doing tai chi to de-stress and taking vitamin D. "As it was for me too, stress was not the cause of pain, but it can make it worse," he says. (irishtimes.com)
- These differences in surgical rates were not felt to be due to underlying differences in the prevalence of low back pain. (nih.gov)
- Rehabilitation professionals experienced 73.7% 1-year lower back pain prevalence, 52.5% intense pain that lasted ≥ 1 day, 22.4% chronic lower back pain, 23.9% sick-leave-seeking lower back pain and 18.5% medical-care-seeking lower back pain. (who.int)
- Prevalence of lower back pain was high among rehabilitation professionals, with a high impact on activities of daily living. (who.int)
- Severe back pain that does not improve with medication (see Treatment section). (nih.gov)
- Researchers have developed a treatment called pain reprocessing therapy (PRT) to help the brain "unlearn" this kind of pain. (nih.gov)
- A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians (the professional organization for doctors who practice internal medicine) encourages the use of nondrug approaches as initial treatment for chronic low-back pain. (nih.gov)
- Treatment for back pain depends on what kind of pain you have, and what is causing it. (nih.gov)
- PRAMS Opioid Call-back Survey to learn about prescription opioid pain reliever use and treatment postpartum, as well as infant health from PRAMS survey respondents 9-10 months after a live birth. (cdc.gov)
- In this article, we cover some of the possible causes of lower back pain when coughing, as well as treatment options and when to see a doctor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- After two weeks, about 80 per cent of all cases have largely recovered due to appropriate treatment with pain therapy, orthopaedic technology devices such as back orthoses/supports and physiotherapy. (ottobock.com)
- Whatever the cause, appropriate treatment is important to help return the dog to a pain-free quality of life. (vetinfo.com)
- Doctors should be cut a little slack, a journal commentary accompanying this study says, because guidelines have been conflicted on back pain treatment until recently, and it takes 17 years, on average, for new treatment standards to be widely adopted. (npr.org)
- First of all, back pain experts typically recommend a well balanced treatment approach. (losethebackpain.com)
- Despite being an effective treatment for back pain for more than 2,000 years, inversion therapy has long been considered an alternative treatment … one that's largely been ignored by the mainstream healthcare community. (losethebackpain.com)
- The procedure is performed by specially trained practitioners either as stand alone form of treatment or in combination with other methods of treating lower back pain. (articlebiz.com)
- This treatment is related to lower back pain control while it has broader medical applications that can be explained in clearer details by an acupuncture practitioner. (articlebiz.com)
- A predictive tool used during a health visit personalizes treatment for back pain. (nih.gov)
- Refining this whole-system model, which is nearing completion, includes finding computer-friendly ways to describe the relationship between the different elements of pain and treatment. (nih.gov)
- In one study , researchers found that women with higher inflammatory markers during their period were more likely to experience abdominal cramping and back pain. (healthline.com)
- If you chronically have poor sleep, depression, or anxiety, back pain can be more frequent and more severe. (nih.gov)
- Chronic pain, and back pain in particular, is among the most frequent concerns for patients in the primary care setting. (medscape.com)
- National Health Interview Survey data indicate that 20 percent of adults in the United States reported "frequent" back pain and 28 percent experienced low back pain that lasted one or more days during the previous three months. (nih.gov)
- For some people, severe lower back pain is a frequent symptom. (healthline.com)
- Back pain is the most frequent cause of activity limitation in people below 45 years and is a common reason for visiting a health care provider. (nih.gov)
- I was hoping for a little relief from pain while using this. (yahoo.com)
- Do yourself a favor and make this simple change to your seating setup and feel instant relief in your back and body. (yahoo.com)
- The misery of low back pain often drives people to the doctor to seek relief. (npr.org)
- I got some relief from acupuncture but also heavily ramped up my pain meds and was frequently using the morphine for "breakthrough" pain on top of the pain patches. (alexking.org)
- Kiss your pain goodbye when you sign up to receive our free, LIVE PAIN FREE email newsletter, which is always full of the latest and most powerful, pain relieving information from the world's leading pain relief experts. (losethebackpain.com)
- But inversion therapy does more than just provide pain relief. (losethebackpain.com)
- Inversion therapy can provide pain relief for the aforementioned reasons. (losethebackpain.com)
- While pain relief is probably your main reason for researching inversion therapy, you should know there are other positive health benefits. (losethebackpain.com)
- I got short-term relief at best before the pain came back. (irishtimes.com)
- But for most of us, the pain is non-specific, so relief may be found. (irishtimes.com)
- Acupuncture is a form of Chinese medicine that encourages natural lower back pain relief while healing and improving body functions. (articlebiz.com)
- This procedure is widely used today in the west as a solution for pain relief for the back. (articlebiz.com)
- When one is looking for pain relief for the back, then they may consider acupuncture which has a track record running over 2000 years. (articlebiz.com)
- Acupuncture is a great alternative to conventional treatments for pain relief for the back and has very limited risks to it. (articlebiz.com)
- Sharp, shooting pains on either side of your stomach might result from the stretching tissues supporting your growing uterus. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The pain may originate in the mid and/or lower back area and typically includes the pelvis and hips. (spine-health.com)
- Each year, about 2% of the work force have back injuries covered by workman's compensation. (nih.gov)
Severe back pain1
- I suffer from severe back pain. (yahoo.com)
Patients with chronic1
- Effect of pain reprocessing therapy vs placebo and usual care for patients with chronic back pain: A randomized clinical trial. (nih.gov)
Treatments for chronic1
- The bones of people who died up to a hundred years ago are being used in the development of new treatments for chronic back pain. (scienceblog.com)
- To relieve the pain of disk herniation, a person can try resting the back, taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ), and applying a cloth-covered ice pack for 10 minutes several times per day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- For more severe cases of back pain, the dog may have to be crated to avoid moving, and may even need to be carried outdoors to relieve himself in order to avoid additional injury to his back. (vetinfo.com)
- If you have a sudden pain in your abdomen, bend forward to the point of pain to relieve tension and relax the tissue. (clevelandclinic.org)
Suddenly and usually1
- Acute back pain happens suddenly and usually lasts a few days to a few weeks. (nih.gov)
- Back pain can range in intensity from a dull, constant ache to a sudden, sharp or shooting pain. (nih.gov)
- The intensity of back pain varies for each person. (nih.gov)
- Tai chi, alone or in addition to physical therapy, may decrease the intensity of pain and improve function in people with low-back pain. (nih.gov)
- Describe the overall results of randomized trials of chiropractic manipulation, acupuncture, and massage for low back pain. (nih.gov)
- Acupuncture helps in improving blood circulation removing blockages to the affected areas that are functioning insufficiently and easing lower back pain. (articlebiz.com)
- Seven states with a high rate of opioid-related overdose deaths participating in the Opioid Supplement implemented the Opioid Call-back Survey from October 2019 to April 2020. (cdc.gov)
- Data from the opioid supplement or call-back survey will be available with the release of the 2019 PRAMS data. (cdc.gov)
Live with chronic2
- Roughly 8% of adults in the United States say they suffer from chronic low back pain, and many of them say the pain is significant enough to impair their ability to move, work, and otherwise enjoy life. (medscape.com)
- With the release of relaxin into the body to encourage the loosening of ligaments and bones, the back and neck suffer the consequences of instability as your body prepares for labor and birth. (pregnancy-info.net)
- This is a fear shared by many, given that about 80 per cent of Irish people, including myself, suffer from back problems at some time in their lives. (irishtimes.com)
People with chronic2
- Sometimes, a herniated disk presses on the nerve roots that make up the sciatic nerve in the lower back and legs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The handle makes it easy to tote with you from car to office chair (or even onto a plane, train or bus to make long-distance travel a bit easier on the back and body). (yahoo.com)
- Some ibuprofen and maybe some physical therapy are all it takes to make most back pain go away. (npr.org)
- Basically what nerve ablation is, we're heating up and interrupting the nerve and deactivating it to disrupt those pain signals that go to our brain and make us feel pain," Dr. Lawrence said. (wkyc.com)
- But doctors are doing a pretty miserable job of treating back pain, a study finds. (npr.org)
- Doctors were recommending NSAID pain relievers and acetaminophen less often. (npr.org)
- In the 1990s doctors were criticized for ignoring patients' pain, Mafi says. (npr.org)
- Doctors were also quick to whip out the prescription pad and call for CT and MRI scans for people with lower back pain, the study found. (npr.org)
- This study didn't examine why doctors aren't following clinical guidelines for treating back pain, but other studies have found that when doctors own imaging equipment, they are more likely to use it. (npr.org)
- Doctors will often prescribe pain killers, which will not treat the origin of the pain. (losethebackpain.com)
- For a long time, doctors thought this was the source of pain, but then they discovered pain can also come from changes in the bone over time, especially in younger patients. (wkyc.com)
- Lower back pain is a fairly common symptom. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Coughing may worsen existing lower back pain for some people, whereas for others, lower back pain may only become noticeable when they cough. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Disk herniation can cause tingling and numbness down the lower back and in one or both legs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Being in certain positions, such as leaning forward when coughing, can put even more pressure on the nerves and cause lower back pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Lung cancer is a rare but possible cause of lower back pain when coughing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If you're one of the many women who experience period pain, you're likely familiar with lower back pain during your period. (healthline.com)
- Lower back pain is a common symptom of PMS, a condition most women experience during menstruation. (healthline.com)
- However, severe lower back pain may be a symptom of conditions like PMDD and dysmenorrhea. (healthline.com)
- There are a handful of causes of severe lower back pain during your period. (healthline.com)
- Like PMS, an increase in inflammation can be a cause of severe lower back pain in PMDD. (healthline.com)
- Of those 261 participants, 16 percent reported lower back pain. (healthline.com)
- While some lower back pain is normal during your period, severe and constant lower back pain can indicate a more serious issue, such as endometriosis. (healthline.com)
- You are in the right place if you are looking for attainable ways to improve your lower back pain with practicality. (lifehack.org)
- Your lower back needs your support to do its job well. (lifehack.org)
- As you work to get rid of your lower back pain, it is going to be more important for you to go slow and ensure that each movement benefits your body. (lifehack.org)
- Regardless of how you acquired lower back pain, be patient with yourself as you work to recover. (lifehack.org)
- Sit in a chair with good back support, or place a small pillow behind your lower back. (clevelandclinic.org)
- But if Sarah had an achilles heel, it was the occastional tweak in her lower back. (wkyc.com)
- To investigate the epidemiology of lower back pain among rehabilitation professionals. (who.int)
- Data on different measures of lower back pain, and its consequences and risk factors were collected. (who.int)
- Logistic regression analysis was done to identify significant predictors of lower back pain. (who.int)
- Lower back pain was responsible for stopping work in 32.5% of participants, with a mean 1.38 (±2.96) days off work during the last year. (who.int)
- Educational programmes are necessary to teach proper use of body mechanics, and sports activity programmes to reduce the risk of lower back pain and arrange for proper rest periods. (who.int)
- Consider participating in a clinical trial so clinicians and scientists can learn more about back pain. (nih.gov)
- The Core Center for Patient-centric, Mechanistic Phenotyping in Chronic Low Back Pain (REACH) is a BACPAC Mechanistic Research Center that conducts translational and clinical research to clarify biopsychosocial mechanisms of chronic low back pain - the interconnection between biology, biomechanics, psychology, and socio-environmental factors - which will be foundational for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. (nih.gov)
Doing back strengthe1
- Spending your Friday evening doing back strengthening exercises may not catch your attention with ease. (lifehack.org)
- Some women have the rather unfortunate experience of having both types of pain intermittently throughout their pregnancies. (pregnancy-info.net)
- Mental health: Anxiety, mood, and depression can influence how you perceive your back pain and stress can cause muscle tension. (nih.gov)
- The Opioid Call-back Survey had a total of 58 questions, took approximately 35 minutes to complete, and assesses opioid misuse and access to medication-assisted therapy, satisfaction with care received, postpartum care received, infant health and development, and receipt of social services and supports. (cdc.gov)
- What magic bullet better than a very powerful pain medication? (npr.org)
Ibuprofen and naproxen2
- NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) like aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen are medications that effectively reduce pain and inflammation. (healthline.com)
- One systematic review found that NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and naproxen, are extremely effective at reducing dysmenorrhea pain in clinical trials, even more than aspirin. (healthline.com)