The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
Two muscles, the serratus posterior superior and serratus posterior inferior, located in between the deep and the superficial back muscle layers. Their function is to control THORAX movement.
Musculature of the BACK.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
The top layer of the back muscles whose function is to move the SCAPULA. This group of muscles consists of the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor and levator scapulae.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The position or attitude of the body.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The spinal or vertebral column.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose serving as the primary form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria, stored mainly in liver and muscle tissues. (Two sentences combined as per your request)
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Muscular Dystrophy, Animal: A group of genetic disorders causing progressive skeletal muscle weakness and degeneration, characterized by the lack of or defective dystrophin protein, which can also affect other organ systems such as heart and brain, occurring in various forms with different degrees of severity and age of onset, like Duchenne, Becker, Myotonic, Limb-Girdle, and Facioscapulohumeral types, among others.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.

Comparison of multidirectional seated postural stability between individuals with spinal cord injury and able-bodied individuals. (1/5)

 (+info)

Factors contributing to lumbar region passive tissue characteristics in people with and people without low back pain. (2/5)

 (+info)

Population divergence in venom bioactivities of elapid snake Pseudonaja textilis: role of procoagulant proteins in rapid rodent prey incapacitation. (3/5)

 (+info)

Use of the serratus anterior muscle flap for postoperative empyema -- a single center experience with 25 consecutive cases. (4/5)

 (+info)

The intra- and inter-rater reliability of five clinical muscle performance tests in patients with and without neck pain. (5/5)

 (+info)

The term "back" is a common word used to describe the large posterior part of the body of a human or an animal, which extends from the neck to the pelvis and contains the spine, spinal cord, ribs, muscles, and other various tissues. In medical terms, the back is also known as the dorsal region. It provides support, protection, and mobility for the body, allowing us to stand upright, bend, twist, and perform various physical activities. The back is susceptible to various injuries, disorders, and conditions, such as back pain, strains, sprains, herniated discs, scoliosis, and arthritis, among others.

The "intermediate back muscles" are not a standard or widely used term in anatomy or medicine. However, it is possible that the term may refer to the thoracic erector spinae muscles, which are a group of muscles located in the mid-back region.

More specifically, the thoracic erector spinae muscles include the iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis muscles, which run parallel to the vertebral column and help extend and rotate the trunk. These muscles can be considered "intermediate" in the sense that they are located between the more superficial back muscles (such as the latissimus dorsi and trapezius) and the deeper muscles of the back (such as the multifidus and rotatores).

It's important to note that there is some variation in how anatomical terms are defined and used, so the exact meaning of "intermediate back muscles" may depend on the context in which it is being used.

The back muscles, also known as the dorsal muscles, are a group of muscles that run along the length of the back and provide movement, support, and stability to the spine and vertebral column. They can be divided into three layers: superficial, intermediate, and deep. The main back muscles include:

1. Trapezius: A large, triangular muscle that covers the upper and middle back, extending from the base of the skull to the lower thoracic vertebrae and laterally to the shoulder blades. It is responsible for moving, rotating, and stabilizing the scapula and extending the head at the neck.
2. Latissimus dorsi: A broad, flat muscle that covers the lower back and sides of the torso, originating from the lower thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, iliac crest, and lower ribs, and inserting on the humerus bone. It is responsible for adducting, extending, and medially rotating the arm, as well as extending and laterally flexing the trunk.
3. Erector spinae: A group of three muscles that run along both sides of the vertebral column, from the sacrum to the cervical vertebrae. They are responsible for extending and laterally flexing the spine, as well as rotating the trunk. The three muscles are:
* Iliocostalis: The most lateral muscle, which runs along the length of the ribcage.
* Longissimus: A muscle that lies medial to iliocostalis and extends from the pelvis to the skull.
* Spinalis: The smallest and deepest muscle, located directly over the spinous processes of the vertebrae.
4. Rhomboids: Two muscles (major and minor) that lie between the shoulder blades and connect them to the thoracic vertebrae. They are responsible for retracting and rotating the scapulae, as well as stabilizing the shoulder blades during arm movements.
5. Levator scapulae: A muscle that originates from the cervical vertebrae and inserts on the superior medial border of the scapula. It is responsible for elevating and rotating the scapula, as well as assisting with neck movements.
6. Serratus anterior: A muscle that lies on the lateral chest wall and connects the ribcage to the scapula. It is responsible for protracting (pushing forward) and rotating the scapula during arm movements, such as throwing or punching.
7. Teres major and minor: Two muscles that lie between the shoulder blade and the humerus bone of the upper arm. They are responsible for adducting (pulling inward), extending, and internally rotating the arm.

The lumbosacral region is the lower part of the back where the lumbar spine (five vertebrae in the lower back) connects with the sacrum (a triangular bone at the base of the spine). This region is subject to various conditions such as sprains, strains, herniated discs, and degenerative disorders that can cause pain and discomfort. It's also a common site for surgical intervention when non-surgical treatments fail to provide relief.

The superficial back muscles, also known as the extrinsic back muscles, refer to a group of muscles that are located closer to the surface of the back. These muscles primarily function to provide movement and stability to the shoulder girdle and upper limbs, rather than directly to the spine. The main superficial back muscles include:

1. Trapezius: This large, triangular muscle covers the upper and lower back portions of the neck, thorax, and scapular region. It is responsible for moving, rotating, and stabilizing the scapula and extending the head at the neck.
2. Latissimus dorsi: The largest muscle in the back, it originates from the lower thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, iliac crest, and lower ribs, and inserts onto the humerus bone. Its primary functions include adduction, extension, and internal rotation of the shoulder joint, as well as extending and medially rotating the arm.
3. Levator scapulae: This muscle is located at the neck and upper back region, originating from the transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebrae and inserting onto the superior angle of the scapula. Its main function is to laterally flex and rotate the neck, as well as elevate the scapula.
4. Rhomboid major and minor: These muscles are located between the thoracic vertebrae and the medial border of the scapula. They work together to retract, adduct, and rotate the scapula, providing stability to the shoulder girdle.

While these superficial back muscles do not have a direct impact on spinal movement or stability, they still play an essential role in overall upper body function and posture.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Muscle fatigue is a condition characterized by a reduction in the ability of a muscle to generate force or power, typically after prolonged or strenuous exercise. It is often accompanied by sensations of tiredness, weakness, and discomfort in the affected muscle(s). The underlying mechanisms of muscle fatigue are complex and involve both peripheral factors (such as changes in muscle metabolism, ion handling, and neuromuscular transmission) and central factors (such as changes in the nervous system's ability to activate muscles). Muscle fatigue can also occur as a result of various medical conditions or medications that impair muscle function.

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

The abdominal muscles, also known as the abdominals or abs, are a group of muscles in the anterior (front) wall of the abdominopelvic cavity. They play a crucial role in maintaining posture, supporting the trunk, and facilitating movement of the torso. The main abdominal muscles include:

1. Rectus Abdominis: These are the pair of long, flat muscles that run vertically along the middle of the anterior abdominal wall. They are often referred to as the "six-pack" muscles due to their visible, segmented appearance in well-trained individuals. The primary function of the rectus abdominis is to flex the spine, allowing for actions such as sitting up from a lying down position or performing a crunch exercise.

2. External Obliques: These are the largest and most superficial of the oblique muscles, located on the lateral (side) aspects of the abdominal wall. They run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (the upper part of the pelvis) and the pubic tubercle (a bony prominence at the front of the pelvis). The external obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in side-bending and exhalation.

3. Internal Obliques: These muscles lie deep to the external obliques and run diagonally downward and backward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest, pubic tubercle, and linea alba (the strong band of connective tissue that runs vertically along the midline of the abdomen). The internal obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in forced exhalation and increasing intra-abdominal pressure during actions such as coughing or lifting heavy objects.

4. Transversus Abdominis: This is the deepest of the abdominal muscles, located inner to both the internal obliques and the rectus sheath (a strong, fibrous covering that surrounds the rectus abdominis). The transversus abdominis runs horizontally around the abdomen, attaching to the lower six ribs, the thoracolumbar fascia (a broad sheet of connective tissue spanning from the lower back to the pelvis), and the pubic crest (the front part of the pelvic bone). The transversus abdominis helps maintain core stability by compressing the abdominal contents and increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

Together, these muscles form the muscular "corset" of the abdomen, providing support, stability, and flexibility to the trunk. They also play a crucial role in respiration, posture, and various movements such as bending, twisting, and lifting.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

Muscle proteins are a type of protein that are found in muscle tissue and are responsible for providing structure, strength, and functionality to muscles. The two major types of muscle proteins are:

1. Contractile proteins: These include actin and myosin, which are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They work together to cause muscle movement by sliding along each other and shortening the muscle fibers.
2. Structural proteins: These include titin, nebulin, and desmin, which provide structural support and stability to muscle fibers. Titin is the largest protein in the human body and acts as a molecular spring that helps maintain the integrity of the sarcomere (the basic unit of muscle contraction). Nebulin helps regulate the length of the sarcomere, while desmin forms a network of filaments that connects adjacent muscle fibers together.

Overall, muscle proteins play a critical role in maintaining muscle health and function, and their dysregulation can lead to various muscle-related disorders such as muscular dystrophy, myopathies, and sarcopenia.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

Proprioception is the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense" and it's all about knowing where your body parts are, how they are moving, and the effort being used to move them. This information is crucial for motor control, balance, and coordination.

The proprioceptive system includes sensory receptors called proprioreceptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints that send messages to the brain through nerves regarding body position and movement. These messages are then integrated with information from other senses, such as vision and vestibular sense (related to balance), to create a complete understanding of the body's position and motion in space.

Deficits in proprioception can lead to problems with coordination, balance, and fine motor skills.

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

Postural balance is the ability to maintain, achieve, or restore a state of equilibrium during any posture or activity. It involves the integration of sensory information (visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive) to control and adjust body position in space, thereby maintaining the center of gravity within the base of support. This is crucial for performing daily activities and preventing falls, especially in older adults and individuals with neurological or orthopedic conditions.

Skeletal muscle fibers, also known as striated muscle fibers, are the type of muscle cells that make up skeletal muscles, which are responsible for voluntary movements of the body. These muscle fibers are long, cylindrical, and multinucleated, meaning they contain multiple nuclei. They are surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the endomysium, and many fibers are bundled together into fascicles, which are then surrounded by another layer of connective tissue called the perimysium.

Skeletal muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils, which are long, thread-like structures that run the length of the fiber. Myofibrils contain repeating units called sarcomeres, which are responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle fibers. Sarcomeres are composed of thick and thin filaments, which slide past each other during muscle contraction to shorten the sarcomere and generate force.

Skeletal muscle fibers can be further classified into two main types based on their contractile properties: slow-twitch (type I) and fast-twitch (type II). Slow-twitch fibers have a high endurance capacity and are used for sustained, low-intensity activities such as maintaining posture. Fast-twitch fibers, on the other hand, have a higher contractile speed and force generation capacity but fatigue more quickly and are used for powerful, explosive movements.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

Muscle development, also known as muscle hypertrophy, refers to the increase in size and mass of the muscles through a process called myofiber growth. This is primarily achieved through resistance or strength training exercises that cause micro-tears in the muscle fibers, leading to an inflammatory response and the release of hormones that promote muscle growth. As the muscles repair themselves, they become larger and stronger than before. Proper nutrition, including adequate protein intake, and rest are also essential components of muscle development.

It is important to note that while muscle development can lead to an increase in strength and muscular endurance, it does not necessarily result in improved athletic performance or overall fitness. A well-rounded exercise program that includes cardiovascular activity, flexibility training, and resistance exercises is recommended for optimal health and fitness outcomes.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

Fast-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type II fibers, are a type of skeletal muscle fiber that are characterized by their rapid contraction and relaxation rates. These fibers have a larger diameter and contain a higher concentration of glycogen, which serves as a quick source of energy for muscle contractions. Fast-twitch fibers are further divided into two subcategories: type IIa and type IIb (or type IIx). Type IIa fibers have a moderate amount of mitochondria and can utilize both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, making them fatigue-resistant. Type IIb fibers, on the other hand, have fewer mitochondria and primarily use anaerobic metabolism, leading to faster fatigue. Fast-twitch fibers are typically used in activities that require quick, powerful movements such as sprinting or weightlifting.

Muscle denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss of nerve supply to a muscle or group of muscles. This can occur due to various reasons, such as injury to the nerves, nerve compression, or certain medical conditions like neuromuscular disorders. When the nerve supply to the muscle is interrupted, it can lead to muscle weakness, atrophy (wasting), and ultimately, paralysis.

In denervation, the communication between the nervous system and the muscle is disrupted, which means that the muscle no longer receives signals from the brain to contract and move. Over time, this can result in significant muscle wasting and disability, depending on the severity and extent of the denervation.

Denervation may be treated with various therapies, including physical therapy, medication, or surgical intervention, such as nerve grafting or muscle transfers, to restore function and prevent further muscle wasting. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause and severity of the denervation.

Slow-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type I muscle fibers, are specialized skeletal muscle cells that contract relatively slowly and generate less force than fast-twitch fibers. However, they can maintain contraction for longer periods of time and have a higher resistance to fatigue. These fibers primarily use oxygen and aerobic metabolism to produce energy, making them highly efficient during prolonged, lower-intensity activities such as long-distance running or cycling. Slow-twitch muscle fibers also have an abundant blood supply, which allows for efficient delivery of oxygen and removal of waste products.

Smooth muscle myocytes are specialized cells that make up the contractile portion of non-striated, or smooth, muscles. These muscles are found in various organs and structures throughout the body, including the walls of blood vessels, the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the reproductive system.

Smooth muscle myocytes are smaller than their striated counterparts (skeletal and cardiac muscle cells) and have a single nucleus. They lack the distinctive banding pattern seen in striated muscles and instead have a uniform appearance of actin and myosin filaments. Smooth muscle myocytes are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which allows them to contract and relax involuntarily.

These cells play an essential role in many physiological processes, such as regulating blood flow, moving food through the digestive tract, and facilitating childbirth. They can also contribute to various pathological conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and gastrointestinal disorders.

Mitochondria in muscle, also known as the "powerhouses" of the cell, are organelles that play a crucial role in generating energy for muscle cells through a process called cellular respiration. They convert the chemical energy found in glucose and oxygen into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy used by cells.

Muscle cells contain a high number of mitochondria due to their high energy demands for muscle contraction and relaxation. The number and size of mitochondria in muscle fibers can vary depending on the type of muscle fiber, with slow-twitch, aerobic fibers having more numerous and larger mitochondria than fast-twitch, anaerobic fibers.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to various muscle disorders, including mitochondrial myopathies, which are characterized by muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and other symptoms related to impaired energy production in the muscle cells.

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Striated muscle, also known as skeletal or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle tissue that is characterized by the presence of distinct light and dark bands, or striations, when viewed under a microscope. These striations correspond to the arrangement of sarcomeres, which are the functional units of muscle fibers.

Striated muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated by signals from the nervous system. It is attached to bones via tendons and is responsible for producing movements of the body. Striated muscle fibers are multinucleated, meaning that they contain many nuclei, and are composed of numerous myofibrils, which are rope-like structures that run the length of the fiber.

The myofibrils are composed of thick and thin filaments that slide past each other to cause muscle contraction. The thick filaments are made up of the protein myosin, while the thin filaments are composed of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin. When a nerve impulse arrives at the muscle fiber, it triggers the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which bind to troponin and cause a conformational change that exposes the binding sites on actin for myosin. The myosin heads then bind to the actin filaments and pull them towards the center of the sarcomere, causing the muscle fiber to shorten and contract.

Muscle spindles are specialized sensory organs found within the muscle belly, which primarily function as proprioceptors, providing information about the length and rate of change in muscle length. They consist of small, encapsulated bundles of intrafusal muscle fibers that are interspersed among the extrafusal muscle fibers (the ones responsible for force generation).

Muscle spindles have two types of sensory receptors called primary and secondary endings. Primary endings are located near the equatorial region of the intrafusal fiber, while secondary endings are situated more distally. These endings detect changes in muscle length and transmit this information to the central nervous system (CNS) through afferent nerve fibers.

The activation of muscle spindles plays a crucial role in reflexive responses, such as the stretch reflex (myotatic reflex), which helps maintain muscle tone and joint stability. Additionally, they contribute to our sense of body position and movement awareness, known as kinesthesia.

Muscle relaxation, in a medical context, refers to the process of reducing tension and promoting relaxation in the skeletal muscles. This can be achieved through various techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), where individuals consciously tense and then release specific muscle groups in a systematic manner.

PMR has been shown to help reduce anxiety, stress, and muscle tightness, and improve overall well-being. It is often used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with other treatments for conditions such as chronic pain, headaches, and insomnia.

Additionally, muscle relaxation can also be facilitated through pharmacological interventions, such as the use of muscle relaxant medications. These drugs work by inhibiting the transmission of signals between nerves and muscles, leading to a reduction in muscle tone and spasticity. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.

Muscle weakness is a condition in which muscles cannot develop the expected level of physical force or power. This results in reduced muscle function and can be caused by various factors, including nerve damage, muscle diseases, or hormonal imbalances. Muscle weakness may manifest as difficulty lifting objects, maintaining posture, or performing daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of muscle weakness.

Respiratory muscles are a group of muscles involved in the process of breathing. They include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), scalene muscles (located in the neck), and abdominal muscles. These muscles work together to allow the chest cavity to expand or contract, which draws air into or pushes it out of the lungs. The diaphragm is the primary muscle responsible for breathing, contracting to increase the volume of the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs during inhalation. The intercostal muscles help to further expand the ribcage, while the abdominal muscles assist in exhaling by compressing the abdomen and pushing up on the diaphragm.

Papillary muscles are specialized muscle structures located in the heart, specifically in the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). They are attached to the tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets via tendinous cords, also known as chordae tendineae. The main function of papillary muscles is to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction by providing tension to the valve leaflets through these tendinous cords.

There are two sets of papillary muscles in the heart:

1. Anterior and posterior papillary muscles in the left ventricle, which are attached to the mitral (bicuspid) valve.
2. Three smaller papillary muscles in the right ventricle, which are attached to the tricuspid valve.

These muscle structures play a crucial role in maintaining proper blood flow through the heart and ensuring efficient cardiac function.

The Quadriceps muscle, also known as the Quadriceps Femoris, is a large muscle group located in the front of the thigh. It consists of four individual muscles - the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Medialis. These muscles work together to extend the leg at the knee joint and flex the thigh at the hip joint. The Quadriceps muscle is crucial for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and kicking.

Back injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the structures of the back, including the muscles, nerves, ligaments, bones, and other tissues. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as sudden trauma (e.g., falls, accidents), repetitive stress, or degenerative conditions. Common types of back injuries include strains, sprains, herniated discs, fractured vertebrae, and spinal cord injuries. Symptoms may vary from mild discomfort to severe pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness, depending on the severity and location of the injury. Treatment options range from conservative measures like physical therapy and medication to surgical intervention in severe cases.

Muscle cells, also known as muscle fibers, are specialized cells that have the ability to contract and generate force, allowing for movement of the body and various internal organ functions. There are three main types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.

Skeletal muscle cells are voluntary striated muscles attached to bones, enabling body movements and posture. They are multinucleated, with numerous nuclei located at the periphery of the cell. These cells are often called muscle fibers and can be quite large, extending the entire length of the muscle.

Cardiac muscle cells form the contractile tissue of the heart. They are also striated but have a single nucleus per cell and are interconnected by specialized junctions called intercalated discs, which help coordinate contraction throughout the heart.

Smooth muscle cells are found in various internal organs such as the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts, blood vessels, and the reproductive system. They are involuntary, non-striated muscles that control the internal organ functions. Smooth muscle cells have a single nucleus per cell and can either be spindle-shaped or stellate (star-shaped).

In summary, muscle cells are specialized contractile cells responsible for movement and various internal organ functions in the human body. They can be categorized into three types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth, based on their structure, location, and function.

The masseter muscle is a strong chewing muscle in the jaw. It is a broad, thick, quadrilateral muscle that extends from the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) to the lower jaw (mandible). The masseter muscle has two distinct parts: the superficial part and the deep part.

The superficial part of the masseter muscle originates from the lower border of the zygomatic process of the maxilla and the anterior two-thirds of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch. The fibers of this part run almost vertically downward to insert on the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible and the coronoid process.

The deep part of the masseter muscle originates from the deep surface of the zygomatic arch and inserts on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, blending with the temporalis tendon.

The primary function of the masseter muscle is to elevate the mandible, helping to close the mouth and clench the teeth together during mastication (chewing). It also plays a role in stabilizing the jaw during biting and speaking. The masseter muscle is one of the most powerful muscles in the human body relative to its size.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Masticatory muscles are a group of skeletal muscles responsible for the mastication (chewing) process in humans and other animals. They include:

1. Masseter muscle: This is the primary muscle for chewing and is located on the sides of the face, running from the lower jawbone (mandible) to the cheekbone (zygomatic arch). It helps close the mouth and elevate the mandible during chewing.

2. Temporalis muscle: This muscle is situated in the temporal region of the skull, covering the temple area. It assists in closing the jaw, retracting the mandible, and moving it sideways during chewing.

3. Medial pterygoid muscle: Located deep within the cheek, near the angle of the lower jaw, this muscle helps move the mandible forward and grind food during chewing. It also contributes to closing the mouth.

4. Lateral pterygoid muscle: Found inside the ramus (the vertical part) of the mandible, this muscle has two heads - superior and inferior. The superior head helps open the mouth by pulling the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) downwards, while the inferior head assists in moving the mandible sideways during chewing.

These muscles work together to enable efficient chewing and food breakdown, preparing it for swallowing and digestion.

The intercostal muscles are a group of muscles located between the ribs (intercostal spaces) in the thoracic region of the body. They play a crucial role in the process of breathing by assisting in the expansion and contraction of the chest wall during inspiration and expiration.

There are two sets of intercostal muscles: the external intercostals and the internal intercostals. The external intercostals run from the lower edge of one rib to the upper edge of the next lower rib, forming a layer that extends from the tubercles of the ribs down to the costochondral junctions (where the rib meets the cartilage). These muscles help elevate the ribcage during inspiration.

The internal intercostals are deeper and run in the opposite direction, originating at the lower edge of a rib and inserting into the upper edge of the next higher rib. They assist in lowering the ribcage during expiration.

Additionally, there is a third layer called the innermost intercostal muscles, which are even deeper than the internal intercostals and have similar functions. The intercostal membranes connect the ends of the ribs and complete the muscle layers between the ribs. Together, these muscles help maintain the structural integrity of the chest wall and contribute to respiratory function.

Muscular atrophy is a condition characterized by a decrease in the size and mass of muscles due to lack of use, disease, or injury. This occurs when there is a disruption in the balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation, leading to a net loss of muscle proteins. There are two main types of muscular atrophy:

1. Disuse atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when muscles are not used or are immobilized for an extended period, such as after an injury, surgery, or prolonged bed rest. In this case, the nerves that control the muscles may still be functioning properly, but the muscles themselves waste away due to lack of use.
2. Neurogenic atrophy: This type of atrophy is caused by damage to the nerves that supply the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting. Conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal cord injuries, and peripheral neuropathies can cause neurogenic atrophy.

In both cases, the affected muscles may become weak, shrink in size, and lose their tone and mass. Treatment for muscular atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, exercise, and medication to manage symptoms and improve muscle strength and function.

Isometric contraction is a type of muscle activation where the muscle contracts without any change in the length of the muscle or movement at the joint. This occurs when the force generated by the muscle matches the external force opposing it, resulting in a balanced state with no visible movement. It is commonly experienced during activities such as holding a heavy object in static position or trying to push against an immovable object. Isometric contractions are important in maintaining posture and providing stability to joints.

Satellite cells in skeletal muscle are undifferentiated stem cells that are crucial for postnatal growth, maintenance, and repair of skeletal muscle. They are located between the basal lamina and plasma membrane of myofibers. In response to muscle damage or injury, satellite cells become activated, proliferate, differentiate into myoblasts, fuse with existing muscle fibers, and contribute to muscle regeneration. Satellite cells also play a role in maintaining muscle homeostasis by fusing with mature muscle fibers to replace damaged proteins and organelles. They are essential for the adaptation of skeletal muscle to various stimuli such as exercise or mechanical load.

The pectoralis muscles are a group of chest muscles that are primarily involved in the movement and stabilization of the shoulder joint. They consist of two individual muscles: the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor.

1. Pectoralis Major: This is the larger and more superficial of the two muscles, lying just under the skin and fat of the chest wall. It has two heads of origin - the clavicular head arises from the medial half of the clavicle (collarbone), while the sternocostal head arises from the anterior surface of the sternum (breastbone) and the upper six costal cartilages. Both heads insert onto the lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus (upper arm bone). The primary actions of the pectoralis major include flexion, adduction, and internal rotation of the shoulder joint.

2. Pectoralis Minor: This is a smaller, triangular muscle that lies deep to the pectoralis major. It originates from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs near their costal cartilages and inserts onto the coracoid process of the scapula (shoulder blade). The main function of the pectoralis minor is to pull the scapula forward and downward, helping to stabilize the shoulder joint and aiding in deep inspiration during breathing.

Together, these muscles play essential roles in various movements such as pushing, pulling, and hugging, making them crucial for daily activities and athletic performance.

Muscular diseases, also known as myopathies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the functionality and health of muscle tissue. These diseases can be inherited or acquired and may result from inflammation, infection, injury, or degenerative processes. They can cause symptoms such as weakness, stiffness, cramping, spasms, wasting, and loss of muscle function.

Examples of muscular diseases include:

1. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): A genetic disorder that results in progressive muscle weakness and degeneration due to a lack of dystrophin protein.
2. Myasthenia Gravis: An autoimmune disease that causes muscle weakness and fatigue, typically affecting the eyes and face, throat, and limbs.
3. Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM): A progressive muscle disorder characterized by muscle inflammation and wasting, typically affecting older adults.
4. Polymyositis: An inflammatory myopathy that causes muscle weakness and inflammation throughout the body.
5. Metabolic Myopathies: A group of inherited disorders that affect muscle metabolism, leading to exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and other symptoms.
6. Muscular Dystonias: Involuntary muscle contractions and spasms that can cause abnormal postures or movements.

It is important to note that muscular diseases can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, mobility, and overall health. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing symptoms and improving outcomes.

The psoas muscles are a pair of muscles that are located in the lower lumbar region of the spine and run through the pelvis to attach to the femur (thigh bone). They are deep muscles, meaning they are located close to the body's core, and are surrounded by other muscles, bones, and organs.

The psoas muscles are composed of two separate muscles: the psoas major and the psoas minor. The psoas major is the larger of the two muscles and originates from the lumbar vertebrae (T12 to L5) and runs through the pelvis to attach to the lesser trochanter of the femur. The psoas minor, which is smaller and tends to be absent in some people, originates from the lower thoracic vertebrae (T12) and upper lumbar vertebrae (L1-L3) and runs down to attach to the iliac fascia and the pectineal line of the pubis.

The primary function of the psoas muscles is to flex the hip joint, which means they help to bring the knee towards the chest. They also play a role in stabilizing the lumbar spine and pelvis during movement. Tightness or weakness in the psoas muscles can contribute to lower back pain, postural issues, and difficulty with mobility and stability.

Myofibrils are the basic contractile units of muscle fibers, composed of highly organized arrays of thick and thin filaments. They are responsible for generating the force necessary for muscle contraction. The thick filaments are primarily made up of the protein myosin, while the thin filaments are mainly composed of actin. Myofibrils are surrounded by a membrane called the sarcolemma and are organized into repeating sections called sarcomeres, which are the functional units of muscle contraction.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

The temporalis muscle is a fan-shaped muscle located in the lateral aspect of the head, in the temporal fossa region. It belongs to the group of muscles known as muscles of mastication, responsible for chewing movements. The temporalis muscle has its origin at the temporal fossa and inserts into the coronoid process and ramus of the mandible. Its main function is to retract the mandible and assist in closing the jaw.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Myosin Heavy Chains are the large, essential components of myosin molecules, which are responsible for the molecular motility in muscle cells. These heavy chains have a molecular weight of approximately 200 kDa and form the motor domain of myosin, which binds to actin filaments and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force and movement during muscle contraction. There are several different types of myosin heavy chains, each with specific roles in various tissues and cellular functions. In skeletal and cardiac muscles, for example, myosin heavy chains have distinct isoforms that contribute to the contractile properties of these tissues.

The pharyngeal muscles, also known as the musculature of the pharynx, are a group of skeletal muscles that make up the walls of the pharynx, which is the part of the throat located just above the esophagus and behind the nasal and oral cavities. These muscles play a crucial role in several vital functions, including:

1. Swallowing (deglutition): The pharyngeal muscles contract in a coordinated sequence to propel food or liquids from the mouth through the pharynx and into the esophagus during swallowing.
2. Speech: The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help shape the sounds produced by the vocal cords, contributing to the production of speech.
3. Respiration: The pharyngeal muscles assist in maintaining an open airway during breathing, especially during sleep and when the upper airways are obstructed.

The pharyngeal muscles consist of three layers: the outer circular muscle layer, the middle longitudinal muscle layer, and the inner inferior constrictor muscle layer. The specific muscles that make up these layers include:

1. Superior constrictor muscle (outer circular layer)
2. Middle constrictor muscle (middle longitudinal layer)
3. Inferior constrictor muscle (inner inferior constrictor layer)
4. Stylopharyngeus muscle
5. Salpingopharyngeus muscle
6. Palatopharyngeus muscle
7. Buccinator muscle (partially contributes to the middle longitudinal layer)

These muscles work together to perform their various functions, and any dysfunction in these muscles can lead to problems like swallowing difficulties (dysphagia), speech impairments, or respiratory issues.

A diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a vital role in the process of breathing as it contracts and flattens to draw air into the lungs (inhalation) and relaxes and returns to its domed shape to expel air out of the lungs (exhalation).

In addition, a diaphragm is also a type of barrier method of birth control. It is a flexible dome-shaped device made of silicone that fits over the cervix inside the vagina. When used correctly and consistently, it prevents sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing an egg, thereby preventing pregnancy.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Glycogen is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long, branched chains of glucose molecules linked together by glycosidic bonds. Glycogen is stored primarily in the liver and muscles, where it can be quickly broken down to release glucose into the bloodstream during periods of fasting or increased metabolic demand.

In the liver, glycogen plays a crucial role in maintaining blood glucose levels by releasing glucose when needed, such as between meals or during exercise. In muscles, glycogen serves as an immediate energy source for muscle contractions during intense physical activity. The ability to store and mobilize glycogen is essential for the proper functioning of various physiological processes, including athletic performance, glucose homeostasis, and overall metabolic health.

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized synapse or chemical communication point, where the motor neuron's nerve terminal (presynaptic element) meets the muscle fiber's motor end plate (postsynaptic element). This junction plays a crucial role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation.

At the NMJ, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the presynaptic nerve terminal into the synaptic cleft, following an action potential. Acetylcholine then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to the generation of an end-plate potential. If sufficient end-plate potentials are generated and summate, they will trigger an action potential in the muscle fiber, ultimately causing muscle contraction.

Dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction can result in various neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, where autoantibodies attack acetylcholine receptors, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Muscular Dystrophy, Animal" is not a standard medical term. Muscular Dystrophy is a group of genetic disorders that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. They are primarily human diseases and there are no known animal models of muscular dystrophy that directly correspond to any type of muscular dystrophy in humans.

However, scientists often use animals (like mice, dogs, and cats) as models for human diseases, including various types of muscular dystrophies. These animal models are used to study the disease process and to test potential treatments. For example, the mdx mouse is a well-known model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. This mouse lacks the muscle protein dystrophin, similar to humans with DMD, and shows many of the same symptoms, making it a valuable tool for research.

Myoblasts are types of cells that are responsible for the development and growth of muscle tissue in the body. They are undifferentiated cells, meaning they have not yet developed into their final form or function. Myoblasts fuse together to form myotubes, which then develop into muscle fibers, also known as myofibers. This process is called myogenesis and it plays a crucial role in the growth, repair, and maintenance of skeletal muscle tissue throughout an individual's life.

Myoblasts can be derived from various sources, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, or satellite cells, which are adult stem cells found within mature muscle tissue. Satellite cells are typically quiescent but can be activated in response to muscle damage or injury, proliferate and differentiate into myoblasts, and fuse together to repair and replace damaged muscle fibers.

Dysregulation of myogenesis and impaired myoblast function have been implicated in various muscle-related disorders, including muscular dystrophies, sarcopenia, and cachexia. Therefore, understanding the biology of myoblasts and their role in muscle development and regeneration is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications for muscle-related diseases.

A muscle cramp is an involuntary and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. It can involve partial or complete muscle groups, often occurring in the legs and feet (hamstrings, quadriceps, calves, and foot intrinsic muscles) during or after exercise, at night, or while resting. The exact cause of muscle cramps is unclear, but they can be associated with muscle fatigue, heavy exercising, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, or underlying medical conditions (e.g., nerve compression or disorders, hormonal imbalances). The primary symptom is a sudden, sharp pain in the affected muscle, which may be visibly tightened and hard to touch. Most muscle cramps resolve on their own within a few minutes, but gentle stretching, massage, or applying heat/cold can help alleviate discomfort.

Actin is a type of protein that forms part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells, and is also found in various other cell types. It is a globular protein that polymerizes to form long filaments, which are important for many cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, and the maintenance of cell shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments interact with another type of protein called myosin to enable muscle contraction. Actins can be further divided into different subtypes, including alpha-actin, beta-actin, and gamma-actin, which have distinct functions and expression patterns in the body.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

Regeneration in a medical context refers to the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that replaces damaged or missing cells, tissues, organs, or even whole limbs in some organisms. This complex biological process involves various cellular and molecular mechanisms, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, which work together to restore the structural and functional integrity of the affected area.

In human medicine, regeneration has attracted significant interest due to its potential therapeutic applications in treating various conditions, including degenerative diseases, trauma, and congenital disorders. Researchers are actively studying the underlying mechanisms of regeneration in various model organisms to develop novel strategies for promoting tissue repair and regeneration in humans.

Examples of regeneration in human medicine include liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, where the remaining liver lobes can grow back to their original size within weeks, and skin wound healing, where keratinocytes migrate and proliferate to close the wound and restore the epidermal layer. However, the regenerative capacity of humans is limited compared to some other organisms, such as planarians and axolotls, which can regenerate entire body parts or even their central nervous system.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Position of rhomboid major muscle (shown in red). Left scapula. Dorsal surface. Surface anatomy of the back. Full back muscle ... The rhomboid major is a skeletal muscle of the back that connects the scapula with the vertebrae of the spinal column. It ... Video: Anatomy, Function & Dysfunction Rhomboid Muscles Dissection video: Superficial Back Review showing the rhomboids with ... The rhomboid major is considered a superficial back muscle. It is deep to the trapezius, and situated directly inferior to the ...
... Rhomboid minor muscle Rhomboid major muscle Rhomboid muscles. Left scapula. Posterior surface. Full back ... There are two rhomboid muscles on each side of the upper back: Rhomboid major muscle Rhomboid minor muscle The large rhombus- ... shaped muscle, located under the trapezius muscle in the upper part of the thoracic region of the back, and the small muscle, ... The rhomboid muscles (/ˈrɒmbɔɪd/), often simply called the rhomboids, are rhombus-shaped muscles associated with the scapula. ...
Miniato, MA; Varacallo, M (January 2020). "Anatomy, Back, Lumbosacral Trunk". PMID 30969700. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal ... The gemelli muscles are the inferior gemellus muscle and the superior gemellus muscle, two small accessory fasciculi to the ... The gemelli muscles belong to the lateral rotator group of six muscles of the hip that rotate the femur in the hip joint. The ... The superior gemellus muscle is the higher placed gemellus muscle that arises from the outer (gluteal) surface of the ischial ...
Full back muscle flex. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 434 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy ... In human anatomy, the rhomboid minor is a small skeletal muscle of the back that connects the scapula to the vertebrae of the ... While other shoulder muscles are active, the rhomboid major and minor stabilize the scapula. Position of rhomboid minor muscle ... It is usually separated from the rhomboid major by a slight interval, but the adjacent margins of the two muscles are ...
Back of left lower extremity. Semitendinosus muscle Semitendinosus muscle Semitendinosus muscle Muscles of thigh. Lateral view ... The semitendinosus muscle is one of three hamstring muscles that are located at the back of the thigh. The other two are the ... The semitendinosus (/ˌsɛmiˌtɛndɪˈnoʊsəs/) is a long superficial muscle in the back of the thigh. It is so named because it has ... These three muscles work collectively to flex the knee and extend the hip. The muscle also helps to medially rotate the tibia ...
In humans and some other mammals, the soleus is a powerful muscle in the back part of the lower leg (the calf). It runs from ... Soleus muscles have more slow muscle fibers than many other muscles. In some animals, such as the guinea pig and cat, soleus ... The plantaris muscle and a portion of its tendon run between the two muscles. Deep to it (farther from the skin) is the ... It is closely connected to the gastrocnemius muscle and some anatomists consider it to be a single muscle, the triceps surae. ...
Ultimate Back Fitness and Performance. Ontario, Canada: Wabuno. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-9735018-0-3. Portal: Anatomy (Wikipedia ... The rotatores muscles (rotatores spinae muscles) lie beneath the multifidus and are present in all spinal regions but are most ... The Rotatores muscles have a high density of proprioceptors and have been implicated in postural control. Multifidus muscle ... Each muscle is small and somewhat quadrilateral in form; it arises from the superior and posterior part of the transverse ...
Right leg seen from back. Deep layer. Muscles of the sole of the foot. Second layer. This article incorporates text in the ... Because the FHL muscle is small, injuries associated with this muscle and its tendon are often overlooked. An MRI can be used ... The tibialis posterior is the most powerful of these deep muscles. All three muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve which ... Similar to the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior muscles, the flexor hallucis longus muscle functions to plantar ...
Back of left lower extremity. Semimembranosus muscle Semimembranosus muscle Muscles of thigh. Lateral view. Muscles of thigh. ... The semimembranosus muscle, so called from its membranous tendon of origin, is situated at the back and medial side of the ... The muscle can also aid in counteracting the forward bending at the hip joint. The semitendinosus muscle may be dry needled. ... The semimembranosus muscle (/ˌsɛmiˌmɛmbrəˈnoʊsəs/) is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles in the thigh. It is so ...
Muscles of the back of the leg. Deep layer. Muscles of the back of the leg. Deep layer. Muscles of the leg.Posterior view. ... The tibialis posterior muscle is supplied by the tibial nerve. The tibialis posterior muscle is a key muscle for stabilization ... Muscles of the back of the leg. Deep layer. The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. ... The tibialis posterior muscle is the most central of all the leg muscles, and is located in the deep posterior compartment of ...
van Tulder MW, Touray T, Furlan AD, Solway S, Bouter LM (2003). "Muscle relaxants for non-specific low back pain". Cochrane ... A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. It may be used to alleviate ... It reduces skeletal muscle strength by inhibiting the excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. In normal muscle ... Muscle that contracts more rapidly is more sensitive to dantrolene than muscle that contracts slowly, although cardiac muscle ...
11.3 Axial muscles of the head, neck and back. ISBN 978-1-947172-04-3. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muscles of ... Other muscles, usually associated with the hyoid, such as the mylohyoid muscle, are responsible for opening the jaw in addition ... While these four muscles are the primary participants in mastication, other muscles are usually if not always helping the ... Unlike most of the other facial muscles, which are innervated by the facial nerve (or CN VII), the muscles of mastication are ...
Wilson E, Payton O, Donegan-Shoaf L, Dec K (September 2003). "Muscle energy technique in patients with acute low back pain: a ... Muscle energy requires the patient to actively use his or her muscles on request to aid in treatment. Muscle energy techniques ... A 2015 Cochrane review concluded that Muscle Energy Technique is not effective for patients with low back pain, and that the ... Franke H, Fryer G, Ostelo R, Kamper S (2015). "Muscle energy technique for non-specific low-back pain". Cochrane Database of ...
Deep muscles. Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. Arteries of the back of the forearm and hand. Supinator muscle Muscles of ... potentially resulting in selective paralysis of the muscles served by this nerve (the extensor muscles and the abductor ... The term "supinator" can also refer more generally to a muscle that causes supination of a part of the body. In older texts, ... In human anatomy, the supinator is a broad muscle in the posterior compartment of the forearm, curved around the upper third of ...
11.3 Axial muscles of the head, neck and back. ISBN 978-1-947172-04-3. ARTNATOMY: Anatomical Basis of Facial Expression ... muscle Temporoparietalis muscle Procerus muscle Nasalis muscle Depressor septi nasi muscle Orbicularis oculi muscle Corrugator ... Orbicularis oris muscle Depressor anguli oris muscle Risorius Zygomaticus major muscle Zygomaticus minor muscle Levator labii ... These muscles also cause wrinkles at right angles to the muscles' action line. The facial muscles are supplied by the facial ...
The Holden Commodore, which debuted in However, a renaissance in muscle cars would be sparked by factory-backed aftermarket ... "Muscle Car Definition". Muscle Car Society. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2016. "Muscle car ... "Muscle Car History". classic-car-history.com. Retrieved 12 February 2019. "Muscle Car Definition". Muscle Car Club. 2 January ... "muscle car". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 18 January 2016. Sherman, Don (4 June 2006). "Muscle Cars Now Worth Millions". ...
The mucous sheaths of the tendons on the back of the wrist. Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Extensor carpi radialis ... brevis muscle Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle ... Like all the muscles in the posterior forearm, ECR brevis is supplied by a branch of the radial nerve. It is an extensor, and ... The muscle, like all extensors of the forearm, can be strengthened by exercise that resist its extension; Reverse wrist curls ...
The mucous sheaths of the tendons on the back of the wrist. Extensor digitorum communis muscle Extensor digitorum muscles ... muscle Extensor digitorum muscle Extensor digitorum muscle Extensor digitorum muscle Extensor digitorum muscle Muscles of hand ... Muscles of hand. Posterior view. Extensor digitorum brevis muscle (leg) Extensor digitorum longus muscle (leg) Extensor ... The extensor digitorum muscle (also known as extensor digitorum communis) is a muscle of the posterior forearm present in ...
The mucous sheaths of the tendons on the back of the wrist. (Extensor indicis proprius visible going into second digit.) Bones ... Extensor indicis muscle Extensor indicis muscle Extensor indicis muscle Extensor indicis muscle Extensor indicis muscle Muscles ... Muscles of hand. Posterior view. Extensor digitorum Extensor medii proprius Extensor indicis et medii communis Platzer 2004, p ... Split tendons of the muscle inserting on both ulnar and the radial side of the common extensor digitorum was also reported. ...
Deep muscles. Transverse section across distal ends of radius and ulna. The mucous sheaths of the tendons on the back of the ... Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Extensor ... The extensor carpi radialis longus is one of the five main muscles that control movements at the wrist. This muscle is quite ... carpi radialis longus muscle Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Muscles of upper limb. Cross section. Garten, Hans (2013-01- ...
They were masters at creating a southern combination of R&B, soul and country music known as the "Muscle Shoals sound" to back ... The Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section is a group of American session musicians based in the northern Alabama town of Muscle Shoals. ... The Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section is featured in the 2013 documentary film Muscle Shoals, which won the Grand Prize in the 2013 ... In 1961, Hall took out a loan to buy an abandoned brick warehouse in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, to make a recording studio. Muscle ...
It lies at the back of the orbit and spans the infraorbital fissure. It is a thin layer of smooth muscle that bridges the ... The orbitalis muscle is a vestigial or rudimentary nonstriated muscle (smooth muscle) that crosses from the infraorbital groove ... muscle in the floor of the orbit. While the orbitalis muscle is also known as Müller's muscle, the use of this term should be ... The orbital muscle of Müller. S Afr Med J. 1978 Jan 28; 53(4):139-41. [1] Gray's Anatomy - 40th Ed/MINOR MUSCLES OF THE EYELIDS ...
Dysfunction in the lumbar multifidus muscles is strongly associated with low back pain. The dysfunction can be caused by ... The multifidus muscles (labeled left) as seen in a posterior view of the neck. Rotatores muscles This article incorporates text ... One way to help recruit and strengthen the lumbar multifidus muscles is by tensing the pelvic floor muscles for a few seconds " ... multifidi ) muscle consists of a number of fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, which fill up the groove on either side of the ...
As Ca2+ declines back to resting levels, the force declines and relaxation occurs. The sliding filament theory describes a ... muscle contraction does not necessarily mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle ... Muscle tension is the force exerted by the muscle on an object whereas a load is the force exerted by an object on the muscle. ... The termination of muscle contraction is followed by muscle relaxation, which is a return of the muscle fibers to their low ...
Reeve also performed additional backing vocals "Unintended" and "Instant Messenger". Muscle Museum was released in the same way ... Inside the Muscle Museum, New York City, New York: Random House (published 7 June 2007), ISBN 978-0955282256 Muscle Museum on ... Muscle Museum is the second EP by English rock band Muse. Recorded in 1998 at Sawmills Studios with producer Paul Reeve, it was ... The Muscle Museum EP gained Muse national exposure, thanks in part to the NME who featured Muse following its release. The EP ...
It is the deepest abdominal muscle, and commonly referred to as a back muscle. Each is irregular and quadrilateral in shape. ... The quadratus lumborum muscles can be the source of back pain when overused, or in association with scoliosis or weak gluteal ... The quadratus lumborum muscle, informally called the QL, is a paired muscle of the left and right posterior abdominal wall. ... The quadratus lumborum muscle is a continuation of transverse abdominal muscle. Anterior branches of the ventral rami of T12 to ...
Back of the left thigh, with the position of the tensor fasciae latae indicated. Tensor fasciae latae muscle Tensor fasciae ... Thigh muscles, Muscles of the lower limb, Muscles of the gluteus). ... The muscle assists in keeping the balance of the pelvis while standing, walking, or running. It arises from the anterior part ... Some problems that arise when this muscle is tight or shortened are pelvic imbalances that lead to pain in hips, as well as ...
Other figures include a lyre-playing Apollo riding a griffin, Diana on the back of a hind, and the quadriga of the Sun at the ... Two Samnite muscle cuirasses (left and right only), 4th century BC Japanese muscle cuirass. Also found as "muscled cuirass" or ... In Neo-Attic art, the muscle cuirass was worn over a longer chiton. The Italian muscle cuirass lacked the shoulder-guards found ... The muscle cuirass is also depicted on Attic red-figure pottery, which dates from around 530 BC and into the late 3rd century ...
Deep muscles of the back (obliquus capitis superior labeled at upper left) Occipital bone. Outer surface. Muscle attachments ... The obliquus capitis superior muscle (/əˈblaɪkwəs ˈkæpɪtɪs/) is a small[citation needed] muscle in the upper back part of the ... The obliquus capitis superior muscle is one of the suboccipital muscles. It forms the superolateral boundary of the ... and overlaps the attachment of the rectus capitis posterior major muscle. The muscle receives motor innervation from the ...
A goitre can therefore only grow to the front, back or middle but no higher. Superficial dissection of the right side of the ... The sternothyroid muscle (or sternothyroideus) is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck. It acts to depress the hyoid bone. The two ... The muscle may be absent or doubled. It may issue accessory slips to the thyrohyoid muscle, inferior pharyngeal constrictor ... The sternothyroid muscle is shorter and wider than the sternohyoid muscle and is situated deep to and partially medial to it. ...
MCMILLANS BACK. Cedric McMillan on his back-to-basics back routine.. by Flex Staff ... CEDRIC ON BACK BASICS. *"I dont do anything fancy for back. I just stick to the basics, mostly free-weight rows and pulldowns ... Pre-Contest Training to Maintain Peak Strength and Muscle Activation Make sure to showcase your muscle mass with this training ... Meanwhile, Cedric filled us in on his back to basics back routine. ...
... muscle structure, fat infiltration, cross-sectional area, fiber type, review. ... Low back pain, non-specific, chronic, recurrent, acute, ... Macroscopically, muscle degeneration in low back pain (LBP) is ... Structural Changes of Lumbar Muscles in Non-specific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review Pain Physician. 2016 Sep-Oct;19(7):E985 ... Key words: Low back pain, non-specific, chronic, recurrent, acute, muscle structure, fat infiltration, cross-sectional area, ...
However, it is not clear if the assessment and normalization of these variables are effective for prevention of low back pain ( ... Chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been related to hips, trunk and spine strength imbalances and/or low flexibility levels. ... "Chronic low back pain" or "Low back pain" (e.g., "Hips muscle strength imbalance and low back pain"). Articles that did not ... Low back stabilization tests. - Low back and pelvis kinematics.. - Body balance. - Strength and stability of low back and ...
Abdominal Muscles, Athletic tape, Kinesio live different science, kinesio tape, low back pain, Physical Endurance, tape with ... Keywords- Low Back Pain, Physical Endurance, Abdominal Muscles, Athletic Tape, Kinesio tape, Tape with wisdom, Kinesio live ... Effect of Elastic Therapeutic Taping on Abdominal Muscle Endurance in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A ... Effect of Elastic Therapeutic Taping on Abdominal Muscle Endurance in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A ...
Overview of the superficial muscles of the back]Overview of the superficial muscles of the back showing their attachment points ... Levator scapulae muscle Rhomboid major muscle Rhomboid minor muscle. Intermediate layer Serratus posterior superior muscle. ... The superficial muscles of the back are located beneath the skin and superficial fascia of the back and extend between the ... Key points about the superficial muscles of the back. Superficial layer. Trapezius muscle: descending, transverse, ascending ...
Minnesota Wild winger Marcus Foligno has undergone core muscle repair surgery and will miss the remainder of the 2023-24 season ... Welcome back, !. {* #userInformationForm *} {* traditionalSignIn_emailAddress *} {* traditionalSignIn_password *} Forgot your ... Wilds Foligno undergoes core muscle repair surgery, out for rest of season. ...
Low Back Pain - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Strengthening abdominal muscles, as well as back muscles, helps support the spine and prevent low back pain. ... back bones, or vertebrae), disks, and the muscles Muscles There are three types of muscles: Skeletal Smooth Cardiac (heart) Two ... or in the skin and muscles (dermatomyositis). Muscle damage may cause muscle pain and muscle weakness may cause... read more ...
Dragons Den-backed Alf Turner sausages back in the mults * Heck back in profit after range reset ... The Black Farmer has launched a reduced fat sausage in a bid to muscle in on the healthy sausage market dominated by Heck and ...
Position of rhomboid major muscle (shown in red). Left scapula. Dorsal surface. Surface anatomy of the back. Full back muscle ... The rhomboid major is a skeletal muscle of the back that connects the scapula with the vertebrae of the spinal column. It ... Video: Anatomy, Function & Dysfunction Rhomboid Muscles Dissection video: Superficial Back Review showing the rhomboids with ... The rhomboid major is considered a superficial back muscle. It is deep to the trapezius, and situated directly inferior to the ...
Learn more about the benefits, the muscles it works, and how to do a weighted dip safely. ... lower back When done correctly, weighted dips can add muscle mass to your upper body. This exercise can also help build your ... Weighted dips are a challenging exercise that can build strength and muscle mass in your chest, triceps, shoulders, and back. ... These exercises are beneficial because they work multiple opposing muscle groups at the same time and isolate the muscles you ...
However, it is still not clear the relationship between muscle degeneration and spinal-pelvic alignment. The purpose of this ... The fat infiltration (FI) and relative cross-sectional area of muscle (RCSA) were quantitatively measured for multifidus (MF), ... and the muscle degeneration was found to exist in degenerative spinal kyphosis (DSK) patients. ... study was to determine the correlations between the individual muscle degeneration at each lumbar spinal level and spinal- ...
GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscleprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:4234 See related. Ensembl: ... GEM GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 2669, updated on 5-Mar-2024 ... GEM GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle [Homo sapiens] GEM GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal ... Microarray analysis indicates HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle (GEM) in ...
Build muscle at home without weights! Push-ups, squats, lunges & more. Discover beginner-friendly bodyweight exercises to ... Inhale, push hips back, bend knees, and squat with good form. Keep the chin up, shoulders upright, and back straight. Engage ... To know how to build muscle mass correctly, one must first understand the basics of muscle-building. *Muscle growth depends to ... against your muscles, and force your muscles to overcome that resistance, leading to gradual muscle growth. ...
10-trayla slimming em machine with ems neo technology for effective muscle stimulation, fat burning, and professional beauty ... 1. Muscle building, exercising the hip/arm/abdomen/leg/ muscles.. 2. Exercising the hip muscles.. 3. Body shaping vest line & ... EMSlim body shaping machine hi-emt Stimulate Muscles slimming devcie no downtime muscle stimulator Focused Electromagnetic ... The beneficial of building muscle. ① Shape your body.. ② Helps blood flow smoothly.. ③ Reduce chronic pain in muscles and ...
... severe back pain, a history of brain aneurysm or stroke were excluded from the muscle strength exam. Examinees who are not able ... Exclusion criteria for muscle strength. English Text: Exclusion criteria for muscle strength. Target: Both males and females 50 ... Six muscle strength measurements are obtained: three warm-up/ learning measurements and three test measurements for the muscle ... Timed walk and muscle strength status Target: Both males and females 50 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code or Value. Value Description. ...
Read PERFECT Sports reviews from Muscle & Strength members. ... Subscribe to Back in Stock Alerts Success!. We will notify you ... Muscle & Strength, LLC. 1180 First Street South Ext. Columbia, SC 29209. PH: 1-800-537-9910. Email: click here ... Copyright 2005-2024, Muscle & Strength LLC. Images copyright of their respective owners. ...
Candace Owens, sat-down in an interview with Ben Carson where she claimed that Black America has turned its back on " ... Candace Owens Claims Black America Has Turned Its Back On Intellectual Heroes Like Ben Carson. ... She Suggests Cop Who Shot Rayshard Brooks In The Back Was Unjustly Fired. ...
Filed In Back Pain, Lower Back Pain, Muscles, Pain Management, Posture * Tagsback, back pain, lower back, lower back pain, ... Categories Back Pain, Lower Back Pain, Muscles, Pain Management, Posture Tags back, back pain, lower back, lower back pain, ... Filed In Back Pain, Headaches, Injury, Muscles, Pain Management * Tagsacute injury, back pain, heat, heat pack, ice, ice pack, ... Categories Back Pain, Headaches, Injury, Muscles, Pain Management Tags acute injury, back pain, heat, heat pack, ice, ice pack ...
Strengthen lower back, glutes, and core. Learn the exercises benefits your overall posture and strength. ... Risk of Injury from Weak Back Muscles. Weak back extension muscles make you more susceptible to back injuries, such as strains ... Common Issues with Weak Back Extension Muscles. Weak back extension muscles can contribute to various issues, including back ... Major Muscles Involved in Back Extension. Lets take a closer look at each of the major muscles involved in back extension:. * ...
Annually, back pain symptoms impact half of all working people in the United States. The number of annual doctor visits for ... Call us and tell us about your health issues and set up a consultation to discuss the treatment that will best get you back to ... Curt Collins, my team and I are dedicated to helping you get out of pain and get back to feeling great again. ... According to the Global Burden of Disease 2010, more people suffer from low back pain than any other health condition. ...
Scientists and body builders warn that new drugs being developed to treat muscle wasting disease will also likely be abused by ... "The muscle will atrophy. And in a lot of cases as hard as we try, the muscle mass never comes back." ... And then Bugs Bunny comes back with a bat. And then Daffy Duck goes off and comes back with a gun, and then Bugs Bunny goes off ... "So when you get rid of the myostatin gene entirely, you see more muscle fibers, and then you get bigger muscle fibers," Lee ...
Download free muscle photos and vectors. Thousands of free images, photos and vectors. ... Related Searches:stronggymenergyback musclemusclemassagemuscle workoutbuild musclecrossfit ...
Back Massage Techniques. *Benefits of Acupressure. *Benefits of Lymphatic Massage. *Common Forms of Hydrotherapy ... The massage is considered to be quite instrumental in relaxing the muscles of hands and feet. The swelling of these organs are ... its success is not fully confirmede But it is believed that a massage helps relax the muscles of the body and helps release ... massage techniquese Big toe is associated with the neck hence applying pressure on the big toe is said to relax the muscles of ...
Back Strengthening Exercises 25. Lower Back Exercises At Home: Lower Back Strengthening ... Great lower back strengthening ... Knee Exercise: Basic Leg Lifts Strengthen Quad Muscles To .... Make sure your back is well supported. Lean back on your hands, ... Low Back Program - Athletic Advisor. Tighten stomach muscles to flatten back against the floor. Hold for 5 seconds, then relax ... Excessive muscle tightness in the leg, hip or back. Strengthening Strengthen the muscles at your knee and hip (Figures 1-4) ...
... strengthening the back muscles along the spine, and relieving over all stress due to back muscles stress. This piece of ... The Muscle and Strength website has put together a set of great videos that address the muscles in the back and trapezoid ... Looking for a way to exercise your back? Trying to strengthen your muscles or aim specifically on one part of your back? Look ... A plus here is that while you are working on your back muscles, you are also defining your glutens and hamstring muscles. This ...
Showing off fit and sexy girls, fitness porn, gym sex, nude yoga and natural hard bodies. Enjoy!
These Cobra Mild Steel Muscle Blade Irons were designed for players wanting a true forged mild steel blade iron. ... Cobra Muscle Back Blade Irons. › Sale Clubs › Cobra Muscle Back Blade Irons ... These Cobra Mild Steel Muscle Blade Irons were designed for players wanting a true forged mild steel blade iron. ...
Explore our online archive, going back to 1828 SUBSCRIBE 3 months for £3 Cancel any time ... Rationality is like a muscle that needs constant flexing. Steven Pinker has the noble aim of making cognitive exercise as ...
Muscles of the trunk, back and ribs. Muscles support the spine together with 3 ligaments and abdominal muscles. ... An Introduction to the Muscles of the horse and their uses. Muscles of the forehand Muscle / Ligament ... Muscles in the hindquarters. Hindquarters are the engine of the horse, they should be well developed, strong to move the horse ... Main muscles over the hindquarters, part of the hamstring group, well developed in eventers, race horses. ...
We were exhausted after a long day of travel, so we headed back to the hotel and crashed. ...
  • Macroscopically, muscle degeneration in low back pain (LBP) is characterized by a decrease in cross-sectional area and an increase in fat infiltration in the lumbar paraspinal muscles. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, there is moderate evidence in RLBP that fat infiltration does not occur, although a larger muscle fat index was found in the erector spinae, multifidus, and paraspinal muscles, reflecting an increased relative amount of intramuscular lipids in RLBP. (nih.gov)
  • Restricted evidence indicates no abnormalities in fiber type in the paraspinal muscles in CLBP. (nih.gov)
  • The results indicate atrophy in CLBP in the multifidus and paraspinal muscles but not in the erector spinae. (nih.gov)
  • A previous study showed that the fat infiltration of paraspinal muscles in patients with degenerative lumbar flat back were higher than healthy subjects using T2 weighted MR Image analysis [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These exercises are beneficial because they work multiple opposing muscle groups at the same time and isolate the muscles you are trying to work. (healthline.com)
  • Let's explore the resistance training exercises to build muscles at home. (bajajallianz.com)
  • In this article, we'll dive into the importance of strong back extension muscles, examine their anatomy, discuss common issues associated with weak back muscles, explore effective exercises to strengthen them, and provide tips for safe and efficient workouts. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • However, regular exercise and strength training , including exercises that target the back extension muscles, can help maintain bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • Incorporate exercises that target these muscles into your fitness routine and enjoy the numerous benefits they bring to your overall health and well-being. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • Leg extension exercises do a great job of isolating and strengthening quad muscles, while leg curls work both the hamstrings and the quads. (blogspot.com)
  • Strengthening exercises Stretching exercises muscles. (blogspot.com)
  • EXERCISES Every exercise has a name and a purpose, EXERCISE Exhale rocking the pelvic back into a 'north tilt', and begin to peel up off the floor. (blogspot.com)
  • This is a partial list of weight training exercises organized by muscle group. (blogspot.com)
  • Strengthening Strengthen the muscles at your knee and hip (Figures 1-4) Below are some stretches and strengthening exercises to do for the next few weeks. (blogspot.com)
  • I have listed for you a full range of exercises and videos, with and without equipment that will help in reaching your back health goals. (txpt.vn)
  • They highlight three exercises that focus on strengthening and trimming the back muscles . (txpt.vn)
  • They twenty-three exercises that specifically build stonger, toner back muscles. (txpt.vn)
  • These exercises are designed specifically for low back care. (txpt.vn)
  • ExRx.net offers a different kind of website it looks like it is just a list, but when you click on the individual exercises listed, it will take you to a page that will give you a video of the exercise, along with a complete description of the exercise and list the muscles the exercise highlights. (txpt.vn)
  • The Mayo Clinic , renowned for their expert medical opinions, has put together a slide show depicting a series of back exercises on their website. (txpt.vn)
  • They exercises they suggest are to stretch and strengthen your back muscles, and address the entire back. (txpt.vn)
  • Back exercises. (txpt.vn)
  • The website offers a full range of lower back exercises that go from intermediate to advanced. (txpt.vn)
  • Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pelvic floor muscle training exercises can help strengthen the muscles under the uterus, bladder, and bowel (large intestine). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Once you can comfortably identify the muscles, perform the exercises while seated, but NOT when you are urinating. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The therapist can help find the right muscles for performing pelvic floor muscle training exercises. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you feel any discomfort in your abdomen or back while doing these exercises, you are probably doing them wrong. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When done the right way, pelvic floor muscle exercises have been shown to be very effective at improving urinary continence. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The rhomboid major is a skeletal muscle of the back that connects the scapula with the vertebrae of the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our research interest is to understand how genetic variation influences skeletal muscle function and whole-body metabolism. (lu.se)
  • We use translational approaches and regularly conduct focused intervention studies in humans, including skeletal muscle biopsies. (lu.se)
  • It is our hope that this research will lead to new understanding of skeletal muscle function with implications primarily for human health, but also provide answers to fundamental evolutionary questions. (lu.se)
  • Our exercise studies include muscle biopsies and skeletal muscle satellite cells. (lu.se)
  • Here we present a study aimed at evaluating if a correlation exists between the treatment with GPAs and alterations in the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) protein pattern obtained from the biceps brachii skeletal muscle from mixed-bred cattle. (lu.se)
  • Our research unit is interested in learning how genetic variation influences skeletal muscle function and whole-body metabolism. (lu.se)
  • These studies involve taking skeletal muscle biopsies. (lu.se)
  • Those looking to strengthen their arm muscles can do so with plank-ups which focus on triceps and biceps. (bajajallianz.com)
  • Did you know that the erector spinae muscles are actually a group of three muscles that run along the length of the spine? (garagegymplanner.com)
  • Discover the various functions of each superficial back muscle. (kenhub.com)
  • citation needed] The rhomboid major is considered a superficial back muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • To understand how to strengthen your back extension muscles effectively, it's essential to grasp their anatomy and function. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • I keep my back nearly parallel to the floor during barbell rows, old-school-style, and I often alternate a full rep with a half rep, lowering the bar only halfway from my chest. (muscleandfitness.com)
  • Weighted dips are an advanced variation of the chest dip exercise that works your triceps, chest, shoulders, and arm muscles. (healthline.com)
  • Once you feel a stretch in your chest, breathe out and start to push yourself slowly back up to the starting position. (healthline.com)
  • The push-up is a classic bodyweight exercise, ideal for growing chest and triceps muscles, while also engaging the shoulders, core, lower back, and lower body. (bajajallianz.com)
  • Examinees who had a history of myocardial infarction within the past six weeks, chest or abdominal surgery within the past three weeks, knee surgery or knee replacement surgery, severe back pain, a history of brain aneurysm or stroke were excluded from the muscle strength exam. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of accessory muscles of respiration (neck, back, and chest). (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been related to hips, trunk and spine strength imbalances and/or low flexibility levels. (mdpi.com)
  • The major muscles of the core reside in the area of the belly and the mid-lower back, including the hips and even muscles that run up into your neck and shoulders. (backtobasicschiropractic.com.au)
  • This bodyweight targets the shoulders, upper back, and biceps. (bajajallianz.com)
  • Slowly lower until elbows are parallel with shoulders, then push back up. (bajajallianz.com)
  • Keep the chin up, shoulders upright, and back straight. (bajajallianz.com)
  • By strengthening your back extension muscles, you can improve your posture and reduce the strain on your neck and shoulders. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • The abdominal muscles, which run from the bottom of the rib cage to the pelvis, also help stabilize the spine by supporting the abdominal contents. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The spine (spinal column) consists of back bones (vertebrae). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The muscles in the buttocks also help stabilize the spine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The lower spine (lumbar spine) connects to the spine in the upper back (thoracic spine) above and to the pelvis through the sacrum below. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It was reported that the extensor muscle volume in the lower lumbar spine is related to the magnitude of the sagittal curvature [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These muscles, known as the iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis, work together to provide support and stability to the spine. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • The multifidus muscle, on the other hand, is a deep muscle that runs along the spine, attaching to each vertebra. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • These muscles work together to keep our spine aligned, prevent slouching, and support our body during various activities. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • However, with well-developed back extension muscles, you can maintain an upright posture, reducing strain on your spine and decreasing the risk of developing musculoskeletal issues. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • Whether you're lifting weights at the gym or moving furniture around the house, these muscles help distribute the load evenly and protect your spine from excessive strain. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • First and foremost, these muscles help prevent back injuries by providing support and stability to the spine. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • When it comes to the anatomy of back extension muscles, there are several key players that contribute to the movement and stability of your spine. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • These muscle groups are responsible for extending and straightening the spine, as well as assisting in lateral flexion and rotation. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • The erector spinae flexor muscles that, located on either side of the spine, are like the pillars that support and maintain the integrity of your back. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • This focuses on elongating the spine, strengthening the back muscles along the spine, and relieving over all stress due to back muscles stress. (txpt.vn)
  • Lean back on your hands, Do this knee exercise at least twice a day, increasing the number of leg raises as your quad muscles get stronger. (blogspot.com)
  • Looking for a way to exercise your back? (txpt.vn)
  • Fitness Rush I actually found a site that offers for sale used exercise equipment, and of course they have a full range of equipment specifically for exercising your back muscles. (txpt.vn)
  • These machines are all designed to strengthen the back muscles and based on the exercise form you chose would highlight different back muscle groups. (txpt.vn)
  • Gym Cor offers a full range of equipment for back exercise. (txpt.vn)
  • The Gym Tough Total Back System is another piece of exercise equipment offered to you by Gym Cor. (txpt.vn)
  • Hayama Town has been promoting the "Chokin Exercise" (a type of muscle strengthening exercise) town-wide since 2016. (who.int)
  • Nevertheless, the "Chokin Exercise" has been scientifically proven to have a certain level of effectiveness in improving muscle strength. (who.int)
  • A pelvic floor muscle training exercise is like pretending that you have to urinate, and then holding it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The primary muscles involved in back extension are the erector spinae, which consist of the iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis muscles. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • The chemical controlling nerve signals works like the body's "off switch" for muscles. (cdc.gov)
  • Tennis elbow, also known as lateral epicondylitis, typically arises from overuse and strain of the muscles and tendons on the outside of your elbow. (backtobasicschiropractic.com.au)
  • The rhomboids work collectively with the levator scapulae muscles to elevate the medial border of the scapula, downwardly rotating the scapula with respect to the glenohumeral joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • When done correctly, weighted dips can add muscle mass to your upper body. (healthline.com)
  • To know how to build muscle mass correctly, one must first understand the basics of muscle-building. (bajajallianz.com)
  • If you are unsure whether you are doing the pelvic floor muscle training correctly, you can use biofeedback or electrical stimulation to help find the correct muscle group to work. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When this "off switch" does not work correctly, muscles throughout the body have severe, painful spasms. (cdc.gov)
  • Make your triceps (and pecs) muscles stronger with triceps dips, using a chair or similar surface. (bajajallianz.com)
  • Do Muscle Strength Imbalances and Low Flexibility Levels Lead to Low Back Pain? (mdpi.com)
  • Muscle strength was assessed by measuring the isokinetic strength of the knee extensors (quadriceps). (cdc.gov)
  • Six muscle strength measurements are obtained: three warm-up/ learning measurements and three test measurements for the muscle strength component record. (cdc.gov)
  • Although six muscle strength trials are preformed only the highest peak forced is reported in the data file. (cdc.gov)
  • Stability and strength of the muscles around your knee and hip. (blogspot.com)
  • The Muscle and Strength website has put together a set of great videos that address the muscles in the back and trapezoid muscles. (txpt.vn)
  • Excessive muscle tightness in the leg, hip or back. (blogspot.com)
  • The paraspinal and psoas muscles have been considered to be essentially important for stabilizing the spinal column, and the muscle degeneration was found to exist in degenerative spinal kyphosis (DSK) patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it is still not clear the relationship between muscle degeneration and spinal-pelvic alignment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the correlations between the individual muscle degeneration at each lumbar spinal level and spinal-pelvic parameters in DSK patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This indicates that the different extent of back muscles degeneration could be accompanied with different extent of spinal deformity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lumbar muscle dysfunction due to pain might be related to altered lumbar muscle structure. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of this article is to review which macro- and/or microscopic structural alterations of the lumbar muscles occur in case of non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP), recurrent low back pain (RLBP), and acute low back pain (ALBP). (nih.gov)
  • However, it is not clear if the assessment and normalization of these variables are effective for prevention of low back pain (LBP) episodes and rehabilitation of patients with CLBP. (mdpi.com)
  • Neck Pain Along with low back pain, neck pain is a very common reason for health care visits. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Occasionally, low back pain results from a disorder that does not involve the musculoskeletal system. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Low back pain becomes more common as people age, affecting more than half of people over 60. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Low back pain can limit many activities and reduce the quality of life. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Common types of back pain include local, radiating, and referred pain. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Local pain occurs in a specific area of the lower back. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Do sit-ups help your lower back pain or make it worse? (backtobasicschiropractic.com.au)
  • However, if done excessively and incorrectly, sit-ups can also exacerbate your back pain! (backtobasicschiropractic.com.au)
  • Doing sit-ups with back pain comes with multiple risks. (backtobasicschiropractic.com.au)
  • Without strong back extension muscles, your posture would suffer, and you would likely experience discomfort and pain in your back. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • So, whether you're looking to alleviate back pain, improve your posture, enhance your athletic performance, or prevent age-related issues, don't neglect your back extension muscles. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • According to the Global Burden of Disease 2010 , more people suffer from low back pain than any other health condition. (envistamedical.com)
  • Annually, back pain symptoms impact half of all working people in the United States. (envistamedical.com)
  • The number of annual doctor visits for back pain is second only to upper-respiratory infections. (envistamedical.com)
  • I'm Dr. Curt Collins, my team and I are dedicated to helping you get out of pain and get back to feeling great again. (envistamedical.com)
  • The quadratus lumborum, While stretching and strengthening the QL are indicated for unilateral lower back pain, Muscles of the torso Navigation menu. (blogspot.com)
  • and muscle, back, and joint pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Even though the person's consciousness or thinking are not affected at first (except that the person is very excitable and in pain), eventually the muscles tire and the person can't breathe. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the lack of objective evidence, spinal manual therapies have been common practice for many years, particularly for treatment of lower back pain (LBP). (bvsalud.org)
  • Biomechanical and psychosocial risks for low back pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Low back pain is a common and costly occupational health concern. (cdc.gov)
  • There are a multitude of risk factors for occupational low back pain including the physical demands of the job, psychosocial characteristics of work, and personal factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the goal of this project was to examine the physical, psychosocial and personal risk factors that may contribute to occupational low back pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Low back pain was measured using two self-report symptom measures and one objective functional performance measure. (cdc.gov)
  • There were weak or insignificant correlations among the three outcome measures of low back pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: The three outcome measures were very different indicators of low back pain. (cdc.gov)
  • After a while, the bone and muscle pain got so severe that I could not keep up with my studies anymore. (who.int)
  • The trapezius has evolved separately, but the other muscles in this group evolved from the first eight or ten ribs and the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae (homologous to the ribs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic lunge can help grow your glutes, quadriceps, hamstrings, and calf muscles, while allowing you to achieve better balance and flexibility. (bajajallianz.com)
  • Eccentric quadriceps: Straighten your knee by tightening your thigh muscles. (blogspot.com)
  • The paraspinal and psoas muscles have been considered to be essentially important for stabilizing the spinal column, and fatty infiltration in muscle decreases the proportion of contractile tissue capable of producing force [ 5 , 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It's crucial to focus on strengthening your back extension muscles. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • Core Strengthening Building a Learning Foundation muscles and difficulty with eye coordination skills. (blogspot.com)
  • Begin muscle strengthening Knee Range of Motion. (blogspot.com)
  • It is a Hyper Extension machine and helps you focus on strengthening the lower back muscles group. (txpt.vn)
  • At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity every week, plus muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days a week. (cdc.gov)
  • Only full texts of original studies regarding structural alterations (atrophy, fat infiltration, and fiber type distribution) in lumbar muscles of patients with non-specific LBP compared to healthy controls were included. (nih.gov)
  • Also moderate evidence occurred in RLBP and ALBP, where no atrophy was shown in any lumbar muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Both rhomboid muscles also derive their arterial blood supply from the dorsal scapular artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Position of rhomboid major muscle (shown in red). (wikipedia.org)
  • Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rhomboid major muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other muscles that perform this function include the serratus anterior and pectoralis minor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional demands have resulted in the evolution of individual muscles from the basal unit formed by the serratus anterior. (wikipedia.org)
  • You relax and tighten the muscles that control urine flow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are still not sure whether you are tightening the right muscles, keep in mind that all of the muscles of the pelvic floor relax and contract at the same time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Relax the muscles completely for a count of 10. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After starting supplements I felt instant relief from the symptoms and finally life came back to normal after missing out on 3 months of college. (who.int)
  • In humans, as in other types of cattle, myostatin normally limits the number of muscle fibers that form before birth and then limits the growth of those fibers later on. (npr.org)
  • Surprisingly, the majority of published data on humans goes back to the latter part of the 1980s. (cdc.gov)
  • The pectoralis major muscle originates from the medial clavicle and lateral sternum and inserts on the lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Tighten your thigh or upper leg muscles. (blogspot.com)
  • It is important to find the right muscles to tighten. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tighten the muscles as if you are holding in your urine, then let go. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should feel the muscles tighten and move up and down. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These are the same muscles you would tighten if you were trying to prevent yourself from passing gas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Then you try to tighten the pelvic floor muscles to hold the device in place. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tighten the pelvic floor muscles and hold for a count of 10. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The fat infiltration (FI) and relative cross-sectional area of muscle (RCSA) were quantitatively measured for multifidus (MF), erector spinae (ES) and psoas (PS) at each spinal level from L1/2 to L5/S1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another benefit of weighted dips is the ability to work opposing muscle groups at once. (healthline.com)
  • The superficial muscles of the back are located beneath the skin and superficial fascia of the back and extend between the vertebral column and bones of the pectoral girdle and arm. (kenhub.com)
  • Discussion: The low correlations among the three outcome measures suggest that different aspects of low back disorders are being tapped by the different measures. (cdc.gov)
  • Insights regarding structural muscle alterations in LBP are, however, important for prevention and treatment of non-specific LBP. (nih.gov)
  • Classification and regression tree analysis as well as logistic regression, were used to examine categories of workers whose low back function "got worse" or "did not get worse" during the study. (cdc.gov)
  • The research has produced several muscle-building drugs now being tested in people with medical problems, including muscular dystrophy, cancer and kidney disease. (npr.org)
  • When it comes to maintaining a healthy body, it's essential to pay attention to every muscle group. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • Additionally, strong back extension muscles improve flexibility and range of motion. (garagegymplanner.com)
  • Muscle growth depends to a large extent on the amount of protein your body removes and deposits. (bajajallianz.com)
  • Resistance training is a process wherein you use resistance (in the form of any kind of weight, including body weight) against your muscles, and force your muscles to overcome that resistance, leading to gradual muscle growth. (bajajallianz.com)
  • If the tension shifts from the targeted muscles to some other fragile body part, it could lead to an immediate injury. (bajajallianz.com)
  • Slowly lower body back to start position, gently touching heel on ground, then repeat by slowly lifting body with involved le g. (blogspot.com)
  • Scientists and body builders warn that new drugs being developed to treat muscle wasting disease will also likely be abused by athletes - with little chance of detection. (npr.org)
  • The drugs all work by blocking a substance called myostatin that the body normally produces to keep muscles from getting too big. (npr.org)
  • The massage is considered to be quite instrumental in relaxing the muscles of hands and feet. (yogawiz.com)
  • One reason is that athletes and bodybuilders have seen pictures of animals like Belgian Blue bulls, which naturally lack myostatin and appear to be made of muscle. (npr.org)
  • Building muscles naturally is a long-term process, requiring patience and discipline. (bajajallianz.com)