Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A condition of persistent pain and discomfort in the BACK and the LEG following lumbar surgery, often seen in patients enrolled in pain centers.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Chiropractic: An occupational discipline founded by D.D. Palmer in the 1890's based on the relationship of the spine to health and disease.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Spinal DiseasesManipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Back Muscles: Musculature of the BACK.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Manipulation, Chiropractic: Procedures used by chiropractors to treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Osteoarthritis, Spine: A degenerative joint disease involving the SPINE. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the spinal articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR), usually with hardening of the subchondral bone and outgrowth of bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE).Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Manipulation, Osteopathic: Musculoskeletal manipulation based on the principles of OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE developed in 1874 by Dr Andrew Taylor Still.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Discitis: Inflammation of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC or disk space which may lead to disk erosion. Until recently, discitis has been defined as a nonbacterial inflammation and has been attributed to aseptic processes (e.g., chemical reaction to an injected substance). However, recent studies provide evidence that infection may be the initial cause, but perhaps not the promoter, of most cases of discitis. Discitis has been diagnosed in patients following discography, myelography, lumbar puncture, paravertebral injection, and obstetrical epidural anesthesia. Discitis following chemonucleolysis (especially with chymopapain) is attributed to chemical reaction by some and to introduction of microorganisms by others.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Spondylolysis: Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Spondylarthritis: Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Physical Therapists: Persons trained in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY to make use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Physical Therapy Specialty: The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Spinal NeoplasmsBraces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Nurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Bed Rest: Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Intermediate Back Muscles: Two muscles, the serratus posterior superior and serratus posterior inferior, located in between the deep and the superficial back muscle layers. Their function is to control THORAX movement.Pain Clinics: Facilities providing diagnostic, therapeutic, and palliative services for patients with severe chronic pain. These may be free-standing clinics or hospital-based and serve ambulatory or inpatient populations. The approach is usually multidisciplinary. These clinics are often referred to as "acute pain services". (From Br Med Bull 1991 Jul;47(3):762-85)Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Spondylitis: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.Diskectomy, Percutaneous: Percutaneous excision of a herniated or displaced INTERVERTEBRAL DISC by posterolateral approach, always remaining outside the spinal canal. Percutaneous nucleotomy was first described by Hijikata in Japan in 1975. In 1985 Onik introduced automated percutaneous nucleotomy which consists in percutaneous aspiration of the nucleus pulposus. It is carried out under local anesthesia, thus reducing the surgical insult and requiring brief hospitalization, often performed on an outpatient basis. It appears to be a well-tolerated alternative to surgical diskectomy and chymopapain nucleolysis.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Paraspinal Muscles: Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Exercise Movement Techniques: Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Catastrophization: Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Acupuncture Points: Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Moving and Lifting Patients: Moving or repositioning patients within their beds, from bed to bed, bed to chair, or otherwise from one posture or surface to another.Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.AxisYoga: A major orthodox system of Hindu philosophy based on Sankhya (metaphysical dualism) but differing from it in being theistic and characterized by the teaching of raja-yoga as a practical method of liberating the self. It includes a system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being with liberation of the self and union with the universal spirit. (From Webster, 3d ed)DenmarkMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.United StatesHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Sacrococcygeal Region: The body region between (and flanking) the SACRUM and COCCYX.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Athletic Tape: Adhesive tape with the mechanical strength to resist stretching. It is applied to the skin to support, stabilize, and restrict movement to aid healing and/or prevent injuries of MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.GermanyGreat BritainComorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.JapanPredictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Bankruptcy: The state of legal insolvency with assets taken over by judicial process so that they may be distributed among creditors.
Indirect sampling. Indirect sampling is often referred to as back calculation. It involves the use of a mathematical ... There are two main odor sampling techniques: direct and indirect odor sampling techniques. ... which is a small patch of tissue at the back of the nasal cavity. There are millions of olfactory receptor neurons that act as ... associated with stronger feelings of being brought back in time, and have been thought of less often as compared to memories ...
Indirect moxibustion holds a cigar made of moxa near the acupuncture point to heat the skin, or holds it on an acupuncture ... a Korean set of tteum application of tteum on the back of a hand Samples of Japanese Moxa. Left to right: processed mugwort ( ... 1st stage); processed mugwort (2nd stage); coarse Moxa for indirect moxibustion; usual quality for indirect and direct ... Traditional moxibustion set from Maibara (Japan) Stick-on moxa (left) and moxa rolls (right) used for indirect moxa heat ...
With his slicked-back hair and sunglasses, he was already known to much of the U.S. youth audience through appearances on MTV, ... Their presence in focus groups tended to negatively skew results as they exerted indirect peer pressure on other participants. ... As far back as 1935, Coca-Cola sought kosher certification from an Atlanta rabbi and made two changes to the formula so the ... Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-36546-7. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Imram, Nazlin (1999). "The role of visual cues in ...
List of coups d'état and coup attempts
Military-backed indirect coup in Turkey. It was named a "postmodern coup" by one of the top-ranking generals. Although the ... 1893: With the aid of U.S. Marines, U.S. Department of State Minister to the Kingdom of Hawaii, John L. Stevens backs ... Failed coup attempt in Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen Military coup in Syria by U.S.-backed general Husni al-Za'im overthrows ... In the Plan of Agua Prieta, General Álvaro Obregón, backed by labor unions and Zapatistas, ousts Mexican President Venustiano ...
European Single Market
Hedemann-Robinson (1995). "Indirect Discrimination: Article 95(1) EC Back to Front and Inside Out". European Public Law. 1: 439 ... For such "indirect" discriminatory (or "indistinctly applicable") measures the Court of Justice has developed more ... "indirect quid pro quo" for the work he did. Having "worker" status means protection against all forms of discrimination by ... Member State shall impose on the products of other member states any internal taxation of such a nature as to afford indirect ...
Grootvlei Power Station
Reproduction can involve direct or indirect sperm transfer; when indirect, the male emits a spermatophore on the ground and ... To do this, he flings the female on her back. The female then digs a burrow, into which she lays 50 to 200 eggs - some species ... The flagella, which bend back over the chelicerae, are sometimes called horns and are believed to have some sexual connection, ...
Ancient Greek épleto 'he turned', Armenian eɫew 'he became', Old Irish cloïd 'turns back, defeats'). Analogical or otherwise ... indirect reflexes are italicized below. Grammatical conjugation Colin Mark has suggested that the Scots Gaelic substantive verb ... going back to the verb būdan, there is no doubt that it can only act as a copula, even if we look at its other forms which, as ... might go back to ancient Iranian languages, where ast could have two variants (cf. Avestan which has both as- and has- nīst (it ...
"We Put Troubled Lives Back Together". CINewsNow.com. Broadcast Interactive. Retrieved May 7, 2012. Roy, Alec; Adinoff, Brian; ... doi:10.1007/s10899-014-9449-2. "The indirect factors that influence on problem gambling". American Psychiatric Association (18 ... cut back, or stop gambling Is often preoccupied with gambling (e.g., having persistent thoughts of reliving past gambling ...
1984 Atlantic hurricane season
Three indirect deaths were associated with Diana. Diana was the first hurricane to strike a nuclear power plant - the Carolina ... A weakened Tropical Storm Diana curved back out to sea and headed northeast until it became extratropical near Newfoundland on ... When it passed 36°N latitude (roughly level with Norfolk, Virginia), Josephine curved to the southeast, then back to the ... formed east of Florida on November 22 and rode up the East Coast of the United States producing heavy rain before curving back ...
Earth's energy budget
Indirect measurement. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly ... Of the ~340 W/m² of solar radiation received by the Earth, an average of ~77 W/m² is reflected back to space by clouds and the ... Called the albedo of Earth, around 35 units are reflected back to space: 27 from the top of clouds, 2 from snow and ice-covered ... Globally, over the course of the year, the Earth system-land surfaces, oceans, and atmosphere-absorbs and then radiates back to ...
Indirect laryngoscopy. Indirect laryngoscopy is performed whenever the provider visualizes the patient's vocal cords by a ... Direct laryngoscopy is carried out (usually) with the patient lying on his or her back; the laryngoscope is inserted into the ... These include a number of indirect fiberoptic viewing laryngoscopes such as the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. The flexible ... All previous observations of the glottis and larynx had been performed under indirect vision (using mirrors) until 23 April ...
508th Heavy Panzer Battalion
Later in the month, the German lines were pushed back to Northern Italy. On 20 October, the demolition carriers were sent back ... Unusually, Tigers were occasionally used in indirect fire roles. The Borgward IV demolition carriers had mobility problems in ... By the end of the month, the personnel previously of the Funklenk company were sent back to Germany, disbanding the third ... Eight Tiger Is absorbed from Tiger-Gruppe Schwebbach (formerly Schwere Panzer Kompanie Meyer) brought the battalion back up to ...
Carbon capture and storage
Indirect methods would be to send sound or electromagnetic waves down to the reservoir where it is then reflected back up to be ... Both direct and indirect monitoring can be done intermittently or continuously. Seismic monitoring is a type of indirect ... Leakage of CO2 back into the atmosphere may be a problem in saline aquifer storage. Current research shows, however, that ... "Samsung backs £5bn Hatfield carbon-capture project". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-06-19. "New public exhibitions for Yorkshire ...
Indirect flight muscles are attached to the tergum and sternum. Contraction makes the tergum and base of the wing pull down. In ... Contraction of the second set of muscles, which run from the back to the front of the thorax, powers the downbeat. This deforms ... Prothoracic glands are diffuse, paired glands located at the back of the head or in the thorax. These glands secrete an ... or an indirect system where there is no muscle-to-wing connection and instead they are attached to a highly flexible box-like ...
Uplighting is less common, often used to bounce indirect light off the ceiling and back down. It is commonly used in lighting ... However indirect lighting is completely reliant upon the reflectance value of the surface. While indirect lighting can create a ... Uplighting (indirect) uses a diffuse surface to reflect light in a space and can minimize disabling glare on computer displays ... Forms of lighting include alcove lighting, which like most other uplighting is indirect. This is often done with fluorescent ...
Two Upbuilding Discourses, 1843
Kierkegaard offered him his money back. Either/or was indirect communication but Kierkegaard's discourses are direct ... changes into a pitiless proprietor who demands everything back, everything that it gave in such a way that it can take it back- ... but as an indirect relation through God." Walter Lowrie said the Two Discourses were an "either/or" meant for Regine Olsen. His ... asserted that his authorship can all be traced back to what he went through in his relationship with Regine." Kierkegaard tried ...
Lope de Vega Theatre (Seville)
The back and wings are mottled buff or brown. There is a less distinctive dark shoulder patch, but a larger comma-shaped patch ... In level flight progress is rather indirect. Their flight pattern has been described as 'winnowing' with soft steady beats ... The female feeds the chicks with the mice brought back to the nest by the male, feeding them in tiny pieces for the first week ... In another study, a female kite was seen to struggle back to fledglings in the nest with a three-quarters grown rabbit, a heavy ...
Mitch directly caused $2.005 billion in damage,[nb 1] with an additional $1.8 billion in indirect costs. Most of the damage was ... The President of Honduras estimated that Mitch set back 50 years of economic development. The storm wrecked about 35,000 houses ... In all, Hurricane Mitch caused $748 million (1998 USD) and 268 deaths in Guatemala. In addition, Mitch caused 11 indirect ... 2.005 billion was from direct damages and the remainder from indirect costs. The overall impact represented about 70% of ...
European Single Market
Hedemann-Robinson (1995). "Indirect Discrimination: Article 95(1) EC Back to Front and Inside Out". European Public Law. 1: 439 ... The Court of Justice held that Mr Steymann was entitled to stay, so long as there was at least an "indirect quid pro quo" for ... For such "indirect" discriminatory (or "indistinctly applicable") measures the Court of Justice has developed more ... Member State shall impose on the products of other member states any internal taxation of such a nature as to afford indirect ...
Accusative and infinitive
Among other uses, information may be given in this form to indicate indirect speech, also called indirect discourse. The ... literally: 'Julia says herself to be a good student.' Sē here is an accusative reflexive pronoun referring back to the subject ... the indirect statement might say Julia says that she is a good student. Latin tends not to use the word "that" to introduce ... It is also the equivalent of the Greek indirect statement introduced by ὅτι. This is the origin of the construction in the ...
... moving upper teeth back) where lower molar teeth serve as anchors, or Class 3 elastics (moving lower teeth back) where upper ... The implants can be used to provide either direct or indirect anchorage. In this type of setup, orthodontic force is applied ... when elastics are used from the back molar teeth to the front teeth in the same jaw to move teeth back of the mouth. Intraoral ... Greater movement of back teeth is seen in this case. This type of anchorage is needed in a treatment when there is 0% movement ...
... for indirect procurement. In 2012, Xchanging entered the US Indirect Procurement market through an agreement with U.S. based ... Although the list of back-office processes which could be transformed is non-exhaustive. Xchanging provides services across ... Procurement - Managing direct & indirect spend and sourcing strategies Finance and accounting - Processing of receipts and ... In outsourcing, Xchanging will typically take over a customer's business process, or back office function, and incorporate them ...
Siege of Pyongyang (1593)
Indirect inguinal hernia is still the most common groin hernia for females. If a woman has an indirect inguinal hernia, her ... The inability to "reduce", or place the bulge back into the abdomen usually means the hernia is 'incarcerated' which requires ... In men, indirect hernias follow the same route as the descending testes, which migrate from the abdomen into the scrotum during ... In an indirect inguinal hernia, the protrusion passes through the deep inguinal ring and is located lateral to the inferior ...
There are two solutions: to "back off" the amplifier settings into a safe range, or to be alert for signs that the amplifier is ... Thus, the electrode has only an indirect influence on the feedback circuit. The amplifier reads only the voltage at the top of ... Likewise, when the circuit passes back current to compensate for that (distorted) voltage, the current will be distorted by the ... the electrode, and feeds back current to compensate. But, if the electrode is an imperfect conductor, the clamp circuity has ...
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
An indirect coombs needs to be run in cases of anti-C, anti-c, and anti-M. Anti-M also recommends antigen testing to rule out ... Anti-M also recommends antigen testing to rule out the presence of HDN as the direct coombs can come back negative in a ... Blood tests done on the mother Positive indirect Coombs test Types of HDN are classified by the type of antigens involved. The ... An indirect coombs must also be run. ...
Raffaelli, D. (2002). "From Elton to mathematics and back again". Science. 296 (5570): 1035-1037. doi:10.1126/science.1072080. ... Links in a food-web illustrate direct trophic relations among species, but there are also indirect effects that can alter the ... The net effect of direct and indirect relations is called trophic cascades. Trophic cascades are separated into species-level ... but is recycled by detritus back into useful nutrients. Many of the Earth's microorganisms are involved in the formation of ...
Five year "look-back". The DRA created a five-year "look-back period." That means that any transfers without fair market ... We calculate that the financial benefits of Medicaid double when considering these indirect benefits in addition to the direct ... All transfers made during the five-year look-back period are totaled, and the applicant is penalized based on that amount after ...
Women's education in the United States
... "back pain/musculoskeletal specialists", the label "back and neck pain specialists" was regarded by 47% of them as a least ... Indirect risks of chiropractic involve delayed or missed diagnoses through consulting a chiropractor. ... Most who seek chiropractic care do so for low back pain. Back and neck pain are considered the specialties of chiropractic ... Spinal manipulation may be cost-effective for sub-acute or chronic low back pain but the results for acute low back pain were ...
The hyperdisease hypothesis, proposed by Ross MacPhee in 1997, states that the megafaunal die-off was due to an indirect ... and other organisms caused by human actions may go as far back as the late Pleistocene, over 12,000 years ago. There is a ... and the history of humans in the Americas may extend back many thousands of years before the Clovis culture. The amount of ... Although significant debate exists as to how much human predation and indirect effects contributed to prehistoric extinctions, ...
Death of Dale Earnhardt
Blaney takes the Wood Brothers Back to Victory Lane (FS1). * "For Dale": Austin Dillon Takes The #3 Back To Daytona Victory ... That day, and in retellings of the events, Schrader described what he saw in indirect terms: "We've got bigger problems. Look, ... On that lap, a huge crash on the back straightaway eliminated 18 cars in a spectacular fashion. Those involved in the crash ... As per NASCAR rules, any driver involved in a crash and unable to drive back to the pits or who must be extricated from their ...
Dresden Generating Station
Indirect open-cycle mode:[e] Intake from canal leading to the Kankakee River,[d][f] discharge to cooling canal leading to ... Closed-cycle mode:[h] Intake from return cooling canal leading back from Dresden Cooling Lake,[i] discharge to cooling canal ... One pump turned back on when this signal (which was later found to have been set incorrectly) turned off, feeding water which ... The dump valves closed, increasing the back pressure and slowing the inlet flow, while the cooling temperatures caused further ...
West Texas Intermediate
Occupational health psychology
There is also quite a bit of fat which can make the ribs more tender than baby back ribs. *St. Louis Cut ribs are spare ribs ... Pork spare ribs are taken from the belly side of the pig's rib cage above the sternum (breast bone) and below the back ribs ... Spare ribs are flatter than the curved back ribs and contain more bone than meat. ...
The Burrows-Wheeler transform can also be viewed as an indirect form of statistical modelling. In a further refinement of ... share the same basic architecture that dates back to H.261 which was standardized in 1988 by the ITU-T. They mostly rely on the ... techniques and some kind of frequency analysis and back-end noiseless coding. Several of these papers remarked on the ...
Since these tests can cross-react with other flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, these indirect methods cannot conclusively ... within a day of improving the fever comes back, abdominal pain occurs, and liver damage begins causing yellow skin. If ... back pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting. In these cases, the infection lasts only three to ... muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches. Symptoms typically improve within five days. In about 15% of people ...
Back on the offensive" 24 January 2008 The Economist *^ Thailand Times, Thaksin's 'Drug Murders' investigated Archived 2 April ... Several academics outside Thailand, including Duncan McCargo and Federico Ferrara, noted the active but indirect political ... He injured his back, suffered paralysis in half of his face and incurred cuts on his face that cost him the sight of his right ... The ensuing chaos was used as a pretext for a military coup, which Bhumibol backed and described as a manifestation of the ...
Political positions of Marine Le Pen
... claiming that an indirect European tax already exists since France is a net annual contributor to the EU budget by up to 7 ... a project of hope which puts back man and nation in the centre of politics". After Parisot published a book criticising the ... "Going back to the monetary freedom". Les Échos (in French). Retrieved 25 July 2011 ...
The first uses of medical simulation can be traced back to the first time that a person utilized something other than a patient ... Eyesi® Indirect (Indirect Ophthalmoscopy). *Eyesi® Direct (Direct Ophthalmoscopy). *Earsi® Otoscope (Otoscopy). Examples of ... The origins of debriefing can be traced back to the military, whereby upon return from a mission or war game exercise, ...
Section 44 of the Constitution of Australia
v.) Has any direct or indirect pecuniary interest in any agreement with the Public Service of the Commonwealth otherwise than ... More fully, "incapable of being chosen" extends back to nomination. The process does not include the" declaration of the poll, ... The Court held that Day had an "indirect pecuniary interest" in an agreement with the Commonwealth since at least February 2016 ... The Australian Labor Party (ALP) opposition and some community groups believed that Gillespie also had an indirect financial ...
Due to the design of the combustion chambers in indirect injection engines, these are the best engines for use with vegetable ... The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) set by congress for 2010 was pushed back to at best 2012 to produce 100 million gallons of ... the time it will take biofuels to pay back the carbon debt they acquire due to land-use change, has been estimated to be ... "A Look Back at the U. S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program: Biofuels from Algae" (PDF). National Renewable Energy ...
Various current Chinese characters have been traced back to the late Shang Dynasty about 1200-1050 BC, but the process ... which replaced Classical Chinese as the written standard as an indirect result of the May Fourth Movement of 1919, is not ... The earliest generally accepted examples of Chinese writing date back to the reign of the Shang Dynasty king Wu Ding (1250-1192 ...
Battle of Milne Bay
... by tank-mounted infantry forced them back further, moving back through the 61st and 25th Infantry Battalions towards No. 3 ... Receiving indirect fire support from the 2/5th Field Regiment's 25 pounder guns situated near Gili Gili, they repelled four ... Anticipating an armoured attack at dawn, the Australians withdrew back to the Gama River, which was situated 1 mile (1.6 km ... That night, a force of around 300 Japanese who had been falling back since they had run into the 61st Infantry Battalion on ...
Indirect reciprocity. The avoidance of poor reciprocators and cheaters causes a person's reputation to become very ... and what motivates it at the group level is an area of focus that sociologists seek to investigate in order to contribute back ... Both indirect reciprocity and costly signaling depend on the value of reputation and tend to make similar predictions. One is ... "Evolution of indirect reciprocity". Nature. 437 (27): 1291-1298. Bibcode:2005Natur.437.1291N. doi:10.1038/nature04131. PMID ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist
Cellular respiration - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
List of birds of Malaysia
The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat ... I) Introduced - a species introduced to Malaysia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions ... However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide ... Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. There are 17 species which have been recorded in ...
History of CP/CMS
Rasmussen remained committed to time-sharing, and wanted to earn back the confidence of MIT and other researchers. To do this, ... clearly made direct and indirect contributions. This also would have clouded perceptions of authorship. ... MIT wouldn't back down on this position, felt betrayed by IBM, and ultimiately turned away from IBM to GE for a MULTICS ...
Motion (parliamentary procedure)
The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure classifies five "bring back" motions under the classification of main motions but ... whether direct or indirect, to reverse such a decision. Essentially this is a safeguard for the rights of the minority. ... The underlying principle behind the non-renewal of a motion dates back to at least April 2, 1607, when the House of Commons ... The problem of dilatory tactics in such bodies dates back to the beginnings of parliamentary procedure in England and the ...
Identification of Indirect Effects in a Cognitive Patient Education (COPE) Intervention for Low Back Pain
... ... illness perceptions standardized indirect effect = 0.09 [95% CI = 0.03 to 0.16]; pain catastrophizing standardized indirect ... Many interventions for the treatment of low back pain exist, but the mechanisms through which such treatments work are not ... The finding that small indirect effects of the COPE intervention via changes in illness perceptions and pain catastrophizing on ...
Research advocates push back on Trump proposal but don't see imminent cuts to university research in Congress
... typically negotiate the highest reimbursement rates for indirect costs. Critics of the current indirect costs arrangement say ... of Congress elected since the last major fight over indirect costs that advocates see good reason to spend time pushing back ... A House of Representatives panel on research and technology last week took up the issue of how those indirect costs are ... Each university negotiates reimbursement rates for indirect costs ahead of time with either the NIH or the Office of Naval ...
How Nigeria broke the back of apartheid - Vanguard News
Chiropractic Has Role to Play in Easing Lower Back Pain: Study - HealthStatus
Millions and millions of people suffer from lower back pain on a daily basis. And more every day find that bending and ... Indirect Decompression to Treat Spinal Stenosis. HealthStatus Can a Common Cancer Screening Be Used to Detect Rheumatoid ... Back-Shoulder-Joints. Chiropractic Has Role to Play in Easing Lower Back Pain: Study. HealthStatus000 ... Chiropractic is key to helping your back pain #noopiates #nopain. Could your chiropractor be the key to fixing your lower back ...
Acid Reflux Disease: An Indirect Cause Of Back Pain - Understanding The Value Of Acne Treatments
Back pain can be an indirect symptom of acid reflux disease - a condition that allows stomach acid to travel back up your ... Acid Reflux Disease: An Indirect Cause Of Back Pain. Health & Medical Blog ... When sleeping on your back, support your spine by placing pillows under your neck, lower back, and knees. ... You may find it helpful to lie on your left side or on your back, using pillows to prop up your head and chest. Raising the ...
'Conversational Hypnosis' Manual of Indirect Suggestion Examples Scripts Talks |...
Direct and indirect costs in persons with chronic back pain and comorbid mental disorders--a systematic review
The results indicate increased direct but not indirect costs in CBP patients with mental disorders. However, the evidence is ... Direct and indirect costs in persons with chronic back pain and comorbid mental disorders--a systematic review J Psychosom Res ... Regarding indirect costs results were inconsistent for both return to work rates (n=3) and work absence (n=2). ... All studies were included which allowed for a comparison of direct and indirect costs between CBP patients with and without ...
H.J. Lu - Re: [PATCH] Call REAL(swapcontext) with indirect return attribute on x86
... merge back to GCC. , , , , I am working with our LLVM people to address this. , , Cool! , I am testing this patch and will ... indirect_return__) + __attribute__((__indirect_return__)) +# endif + = REAL(swapcontext); + int res = real_swapcontext(oucp, ... Re: [PATCH] Call REAL(swapcontext) with indirect_return attribute on x86. *From: H.J. Lu ,hjl dot tools at gmail dot com, ... Since swapcontext may return via indirect branch on x86 when shadow stack is enabled, we need to call REAL(swapcontext) with ...
Step Back: Lessons for U.S. Foreign Policy from the Failed War on Terror | Cato Institute
The effort to arm and train Syrian rebel groups to fight the Islamic State is one example of indirect military intervention. U. ... Step Back: Lessons for U.S. Foreign Policy from the Failed War on Terror By A. Trevor Thrall and Erik Goepner ... Stepping Back from the War on Terror. How should these lessons from the failure of the War on Terror inform President Trumps ... Instead, the United States should take a step back from the fight. Though we do not attempt here to consider all of the ...
Sydney taxi Corruption
... recalled and handed back to working taxi drivers directly to improve service to disabled people. Past and present abusers of ... This time, it appears, I am blocked due to direct and indirect influence of industry mobsters advertisement power.. 9. Taxi ... I have been talking to talk back radios for a long time. Last time I was blocked by some of them due to the 9/11 charade. ... Investigate and prosecute direct and indirect power and influence of taxi mafia to radio, television and print media. h. the ...
Patent US20110160835 - Indirect-release electrolytic implant delivery systems - Google Patents
Pull back stent delivery system. US5733325 *. 6 May 1996. 31 Mar 1998. C. R. Bard, Inc.. Non-migrating vascular prosthesis and ... Spring-back assembly 280 includes a coil spring 282 or a similar member that is wound-down upon the delivery guide body portion ... Pull back sleeve system with compression resistant inner shaft. US6344041 *. 26 Oct 2001. 5 Feb 2002. David Kupiecki. Aneurysm ... show preloaded spring-back restraint systems. In each, a coil spring, elastomeric tube, or relived metal (e.g., NITINOL) tube ( ...
Poplar Extrafloral Nectaries: Two Types, Two Strategies of Indirect Defenses against Herbivores | Plant Physiology
Nectar Composition Feeds Back on a Visitors Attraction. Nectar is a complex mixture of metabolites. The sweet nectar blend is ... 2007) Within-plant signaling by volatiles leads to induction and priming of an indirect plant defense in nature. Proc Natl Acad ... Poplar Extrafloral Nectaries: Two Types, Two Strategies of Indirect Defenses against Herbivores. María Escalante-Pérez, Mario ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plants take part in indirect defense to overcome herbivore attack. They attract predatory ...
Indirect Images and Stock Photos. 603 Indirect photography and royalty free pictures available to download from thousands of...
Over 603 Indirect pictures to choose from, with no signup needed. Download in under 30 seconds. ... Indirect Hostility Stock Photoby vaeenma0/4. The word indirect changed to direct on torn paper Stock Photographsby jarin131/2. ... Indirect Hostility Stock Photoby vaeenma1/9. Artillery Corps - Israel Stock Imagesby lucidwaters6/153. Indirect Hostility Stock ... Indirect immunofluorescent reaction RIF Pictureby Kateryna_Kon0/0. Tax Stock Photographyby chrisdorney3/26. INDIRECT LABOR ...
Win back trust to thrive | The Daily Star
Bankers, analysts say cumbersome KYC, high NPLs, direct and indirect taxes discourage depositors. ... We will go back with your responses to our readers.. In a sense, we are starting some sort of a dialogue regarding the way the ... We have come back to you with feedback of our readers so that you, as leaders of the finance industry, can respond to their ... The government had introduced agent banking back in 2013. It is digital, biometric and much safer for customers. We have come ...
Can a Common Cancer Screening Be Used to Detect Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Indirect Decompression to Treat Spinal Stenosis. HealthStatus Chiropractic Has Role to Play in Easing Lower Back Pain: Study. ... Back-Shoulder-Joints. Can a Common Cancer Screening Be Used to Detect Rheumatoid Arthritis?. HealthStatus000 ... Back-Shoulder-Joints Can a Common Cancer Screening Be Used to Detect Rheumatoid Arthritis?. ... Home Back-Shoulder-Joints Can a Common Cancer Screening Be Used to Detect Rheumatoid Arthritis? ...
Recreating nature with Simon Chard - Dentistry.co.uk
KwikHEAT MH110 Portable Indirect Fired Oil Heater Hire from the UK's largest Heater hire range
KwikHEAT MH110 Indirect Oil Fired Heater hire, 110kW, ideal temporary heating for marquees, factories, warehousing, storage ... Call me back!. Let us have your details and well call you back! ... Indirect Fired Heaters. Our indirect fired heaters are the ... Call Me Back. ×. Domestic Enquiry. Please note: Our domestic hire criteria requires a minimum hire period of 4 weeks and ... 110kW Indirect Heater Hire. The MH110 can run on either a 110V or 230V single phase power supply. ...
Potential Indirect Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Use of Emergency Departments for Acute Life-Threatening Conditions -...
... or back; pain or discomfort in one or both arms or shoulders; and shortness of breath. The F.A.S.T acronym is a mnemonic that ... Potential Indirect Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Use of Emergency Departments for Acute Life-Threatening Conditions - ... Potential Indirect Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Use of Emergency Departments for Acute Life-Threatening Conditions - ...
Translation of Pelvic Lipomas
indirect signs: it is primarily about ur t ro-py localicielle dilation. The uret res are more or less dilated but always ... The bladder is driven back to the top, out of the pelvis. It goes up to the umbilical point. Its wall is thick. The cul-de-sac ... direct signs: the bladder median, is raised, deformed in drop of water, is pyriforme; its walls are brought back towards the ... The pelvic uret res are driven back towards the centre line, sometimes st nos s on the level of their vesical penetration. The ...
Odor - Wikipedia
Indirect sampling. Indirect sampling is often referred to as back calculation. It involves the use of a mathematical ... There are two main odor sampling techniques: direct and indirect odor sampling techniques. ... which is a small patch of tissue at the back of the nasal cavity. There are millions of olfactory receptor neurons that act as ... associated with stronger feelings of being brought back in time, and have been thought of less often as compared to memories ...
Central Heating Boilers | Heating System | Plumbing | Hot Water Cylinders
DiRECT and indirect paths to reducing cardiovascular risk in... : Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism
Back to Top , Article Outline. References. 1. Lean MEJ, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, et al. Durability of a primary care-led weight- ... DiRECT and indirect paths to reducing cardiovascular risk in diabetes. insights from Diabetes UK 2019. Krentz, Andrew J. ... Home , Current Issue , DiRECT and indirect paths to reducing cardiovascular risk in... ... DiRECT and indirect paths to reducing cardiovascular risk in diabetes: insights from Diabetes UK 2019 ...
Uniform indirect boundary controllability of semi-discrete
... $ 1 $-$ d $ coupled wave equations. Abdeladim El Akri , and Lahcen ... Keywords: Coupled wave equations, uniform indirect exact boundary controllability, space semi-discretization, finite ... Uniform indirect boundary controllability of semi-discrete $ 1 $-$ d $ coupled wave equations. Mathematical Control & Related ... F. Alabau-Boussouira and M. Léautaud, Indirect controllability of locally coupled wave-type systems and applications, J. Math. ...
perldelta - search.cpan.org
may fall back to the shell on Win32. Only the indirect-object syntax exec PROGRAM LIST. and system PROGRAM LIST. will reliably ... This bug goes back to Perl 5.8.0.. *Stub declarations like sub f;. and sub f ();. no longer wipe out constants of the same name ... this does not fall back to the shell. [perl #121159]. *New DebugSymbols. and DebugFull. configuration options added to Windows ... This bug goes back to when here-docs were introduced in Perl 3.000 twenty-five years ago. ...
Cost Effectiveness of Medical Yoga Therapy on Low Back Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Assessments of direct and indirect cost. Further, assessments of performance is used to calculate production losses. ... Back Pain. Low Back Pain. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Signs and Symptoms. ... Cost Effectiveness of Medical Yoga Therapy on Low Back Pain (MYTH). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Low Back Pain Behavioral: Kundalini yoga Behavioral: Self care advice Behavioral: Exercise ...
Smoking and Chronic Back Pain Analyses of the German Telephone Health Survey 2003 (13.06.2008)
... rather than reflecting the indirect influence of mental problems on back pain. This study, conducted at the Robert Koch ... chronic back disorders and clinical findings in the low back as predictors of hospitalization due to low back disorders. Spine ... chronic back disorders and clinical findings in the low back as predictors of hospitalization due to low back disorders. Spine ... The 12-month prevalence of chronic back pain, defined as back pain appearing on a daily or almost daily basis over a period of ...
Indirect land use change impacts of biofuels - Wikipedia
"EPAs RFS Proposal: One Step Forward … and Another Step Back?" (PDF). Clean Air Task Force. 2009-05-05. Archived from the ... The indirect land use change impacts of biofuels, also known as ILUC, relates to the unintended consequence of releasing more ... Previously, the indirect impacts of soy crops were only anecdotal or analyzed through demand models at a global scale, while ... Due to this change in the carbon stock of the soil and the biomass, indirect land use change has consequences in the GHG ...
S there difference between indirect and direct coombs test - Things You Didn't Know
The indirect Coombs test is typically used to test for blood type compatibility prior to a transfusion, and detects the ... S there difference between indirect and direct Coombs test? Yes. The direct Coombs test is typically used to test for ... S there difference between indirect and direct coombs test - ... so will my babys indirect Coombs test came back positive? ... indirect coombs test looks for unbound circulating antibodies against a series of standardized red blood cells. The indirect ...
NeckPainDirect and indirect costsLaryngoscopyPrevalenceCharacteristicSunlightVersusBaby backSymptomsPostureRibsOccursPolypropyleneInfection2020ScalingAdvocatesSignificantlyExposureSuggestsChronicLightRepetitiveEvidenceExaminationReactionDiagnosisBasicsStomachTemperatureDiseaseDysfunctionMusclesProceduresCostPATCHThroatClinicalConsiderationPlaceMutationSenateConditionFree
Direct and indirect costs2
- All studies were included which allowed for a comparison of direct and indirect costs between CBP patients with and without mental disorders. (nih.gov)
- The authors came to these conclusions after an exhaustive analysis of an integrated database belonging to a giant, self-insured Fortune 500 manufacturer covering nine years of claims They evaluated the direct and indirect costs of LBP for all employees, looking in-depth at personnel characteristics, and medical, behavioral health, pharmaceutical, Workers Comp costs, disability, absenteeism, and lost productivity during the 2001 to 2009 period. (chiro.org)
- Laryngoscopy is an exam of the back of your throat, including your voice box (larynx). (medlineplus.gov)
- Indirect laryngoscopy uses a small mirror held at the back of your throat. (medlineplus.gov)
- Indirect laryngoscopy using a mirror or stroboscopy can cause gagging. (medlineplus.gov)
- Laryngoscopy is a visual examination below the back of the throat, where the voice box (larynx) containing the vocal cords is located. (kidshealth.org)
- Indirect laryngoscopy is not typically used with children, as it tends to cause gagging and can be hard for kids to tolerate. (kidshealth.org)
- This was intended to exclude, as far as possible, potential interactions between smoking behavior, mental health, and prevalence of back pain. (aerzteblatt.de)
- No previous study has compared two indirect techniques for estimating abortion prevalence. (guttmacher.org)
- Of the two indirect methods, UCT may be simpler and more dependable for the estimation of induced abortion prevalence in low-literacy, abortion-restricted settings. (guttmacher.org)
- 2 In epidemiologic studies of different populations, the prevalence of low back pain has varied from 7.6 to 37 percent. (aafp.org)
- Peak prevalence is in the group between 45 and 60 years of age, 3 although back pain is also reported by adolescents and by adults of all ages. (aafp.org)
- Sweet, rich, and a little bit tangy, these succulent baby back ribs sing with the flavors of the Caribbean. (bhg.com)
- It has been years since I learned to make competition-worthy barbecued baby back ribs. (middletownpress.com)
- All you need are a love of great barbecue and three ingredients -- meaty baby back ribs, lemons and my W'ham-inspired rib rub. (middletownpress.com)
- Therefore, it's important to know what risk factors can cause or exacerbate GERD and lead to back pain symptoms. (luispedrocabezas.com)
- All of the published studies on the relationship beween musculoskeletal symptoms, particularly in the back, and smoking, have serious limitations. (aerzteblatt.de)
- Back pain is classified into three categories based on the duration of symptoms. (aafp.org)
- Because of this, the AHCPR has grouped back pain into three categories: potentially serious spinal conditions, sciatica and nonspecific back symptoms. (aafp.org)
- A new study by researchers at Northern Illinois University suggests that the on-the-job, indirect exposure to trauma puts 911 dispatchers at risk for developing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (ehstoday.com)
- Blood test for CK enzymes came back negative (79 U/L), but test was administered 33 hours after onset of symptoms, which I understand to be tail end of diagnostic window. (medhelp.org)
- At the supermarket, these ribs may be labeled as back ribs or pork ribs. (bettycrocker.com)
- But the more I cooked ribs, the more I liked leaving the membrane on the back. (middletownpress.com)
- When the membrane pulls away from the back of the rack and looks like translucent parchment paper, you know the ribs are done. (middletownpress.com)
- However, the inclusion of an interaction term led to the indirect effects being significantly reduced, with the effects no longer being statistically significant. (ovid.com)
- however, this finding must be viewed in light of the adjusted analyses, which showed that the indirect effects were significantly reduced through the inclusion of a treatment-mediator interaction term. (ovid.com)
- Multivariate data analysis clearly shows that not only daily smokers (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.85) but also former smokers (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.07) have a significantly higher chance of suffering from chronic back pain than non-smokers. (aerzteblatt.de)
- Number of smoking years is the factor most significantly correlated with chronic back pain, while starting age and amount of tobacco consumed have no impact. (aerzteblatt.de)
- This comprehensive new study from the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine reveals that chiropractic care costs significantly less than other forms of low back care, and appears to comply with guideline recommendations more closely than than any of the other 4 comparison groups. (chiro.org)
- Direct inpatient and outpatient healthcare costs as well as indirect costs (e.g. productivity losses) are hypothesized to be increased in chronic back pain (CBP) patients with mental disorders. (nih.gov)
- Subacute back pain has a six- to 12-week duration and chronic back pain lasts longer than 12 weeks. (aafp.org)
- Next, take the bare plant and place it in a warm area that gets indirect light. (almanac.com)
- Until the plant seems to be rooted and happy, keep it in a warm place that receives bright but indirect light. (almanac.com)
- They need 12 hours of strong, indirect light each day. (reference.com)
- The doctor will aim a light at the back of the throat, usually by wearing headgear that has a bright light attached. (kidshealth.org)
- It has a light and different tiny lenses that allow the provider to view the back of the eyeball. (medlineplus.gov)
- The light is brighter with indirect ophthalmoscopy, so the sensation of seeing after-images may be greater. (medlineplus.gov)
- Water the soil once per week and leave the seeds in 70 to 75 degree temperatures and set in indirect light. (ehow.com)
- Here, we utilized the Shank3B mutant mouse model of autism to investigate how Shank3 mutation may differentially affect striatonigral (direct pathway) and striatopallidal (indirect pathway) medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and its relevance to repetitive grooming behavior in Shank3B mutant mice. (jci.org)
- Our findings directly demonstrate the existence of distinct changes between 2 striatal pathways in a mouse model of autism and indicate that the indirect striatal pathway disruption might play a causative role in repetitive behavior of Shank3B mutant mice. (jci.org)
- Thus, manipulation of the function of the striatal indirect pathway may be a useful therapeutic target for treating disorders characterized by excessive repetitive behaviors. (jci.org)
- And there's indirect evidence that it works in human brains, too. (npr.org)
- indirect evidence. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Can anyone post evidence of soros backing for blacklivesmatter/antifa. (freerepublic.com)
- No direct or indirect evidence of any enlargement of the right ventricle. (medhelp.org)
- thalium stress test/MUGA detect evidence of minor myocardial muscle/cell damage when blood work comes back negative? (medhelp.org)
- A July 2008 RFA study, known as the Gallager Review, found several risks and uncertainties, and that the "quantification of GHG emissions from indirect land-use change requires subjective assumptions and contains considerable uncertainty", and required further examination to properly incorporate indirect effects into calculation methodologies. (wikipedia.org)
- Ophthalmoscopy is an examination of the back part of the eye (fundus), which includes the retina , optic disc, choroid , and blood vessels. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you're a man and your doctor finds that the hernia has extended into your scrotum, the diagnosis is usually an indirect hernia. (healthline.com)
- Identify all active employees reporting a back problem diagnosis during the study period. (chiro.org)
- Longitudinally tracked episodes of three types of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis code-identified back problems (n=14,787) during 2001 to 2009. (chiro.org)
- Frequent episodes of severe coughing can strain muscles in the chest, abdomen, and lower back. (luispedrocabezas.com)
- Decreased perfusion of structures in and around the spinal column, particularly the intervertebral disks and the muscles of the back, seem to promote degenerative changes (7 9). (aerzteblatt.de)
- An indirect hernia is not caused by weakened or injured abdominal muscles. (healthline.com)
- In March, after the release of the White House's skinny budget for the 2018 fiscal year, Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price told congressional appropriators that large proposed cuts to the National Institutes of Health could be covered by reducing indirect-cost payments to universities. (insidehighered.com)
- Grants or contracts will not be subject to more than one indirect cost rate. (uthsc.edu)
- indirect cost studies were searched back to 2010. (news-medical.net)
- Track the effect of these patterns on direct and indirect cost outcomes. (chiro.org)
- For more information visit www.ivoclarvivadent.co.uk/en-uk/clinical-courses . (dentistry.co.uk)
- We also take a trip back in time to showcase how this race stacks up to a similarly hotly contested open seat Nevada Senate election that occurred more than 100 years ago. (brown.edu)
- The House bill phases out that expansion, and GOP-backed legislation in the Senate takes a similar tack. (edweek.org)
- 603 Indirect photography and royalty free pictures available to download from thousands of stock photo providers. (canstockphoto.com)
- Our indirect fired heaters are the perfect choice if you are looking for a fast and effective solution to a wide range of applications requiring 100% fume free heating. (watkinshire.co.uk)
- The KwikHEAT MH110 is a highly fuel efficient indirect oil fired heater providing large volumes of 100% fume free dry heated air. (watkinshire.co.uk)
- 6. Sports Being an indirect free kick. (thefreedictionary.com)
- re-evaluated ROI after 3 months, caution free ROI was 110%, scaled back ROI 185%, smart feeds ROI grew 135% first month to 1250% by 3rd month and still increasing to date. (seroundtable.com)