Low Back Pain
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome
Physical Therapy Modalities
Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Range of Motion, Articular
Reproducibility of Results
Activities of Daily Living
Recovery of Function
Work Capacity Evaluation
Referral and Consultation
Cumulative Trauma Disorders
Severity of Illness Index
Physical Therapy Specialty
Spinal Nerve Roots
Primary Health Care
Return to Work
Quality of Life
Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
Intermediate Back Muscles
Molecular Sequence Data
Exercise Movement Techniques
Analysis of Variance
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Moving and Lifting Patients
Episode of Care
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Myofascial Pain Syndromes
Interior Design and Furnishings
Health Status Indicators
Occupational Health Services
Predictive Value of Tests
Chronic radiodermatitis following cardiac catheterisation: a report of two cases and a brief review of the literature. (1/230)Cardiac angiography produces one of the highest radiation exposures of any commonly used diagnostic x ray procedure. Recently, serious radiation induced skin injuries have been reported after repeated therapeutic interventional procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic imaging. Two male patients, aged 62 and 71 years, in whom chronic radiodermatitis developed one to two years after two consecutive cardiac catheterisation procedures are reported. Both patients had undergone lengthy procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic guidance in a limited number of projections. The resulting skin lesions were preceded, in one case, by an acute erythema and took the form of a delayed pigmented telangiectatic, indurated, or ulcerated plaque in the upper back or below the axilla whose site corresponded to the location of the x ray tube during cardiac catheterisation. Cutaneous side effects of radiation exposure result from direct damage to the irradiated tissue and have known thresholds. The diagnosis of radiation induced skin injury relies essentially on clinical and histopathological findings, location of skin lesions, and careful medical history. Interventional cardiologists should be aware of this complication, because chronic radiodermatitis may result in painful and resistant ulceration and eventually in squamous cell carcinoma. (+info)
Can nuchal cord cause transient increased nuchal translucency thickness? (2/230)When detected in a first trimester scan, an increased thickness of nuchal translucency (NT) may be associated with chromosomal, cardiac or genetic disorders. However, less attention has been devoted to the outcome of those fetuses who have confirmed normal anatomies and karyotyping, but have abnormal first trimester scans. Thus, a challenging new issue is how to counsel such cases of transient increased NT in which the translucency rapidly vanishes with no evidence of other underlying abnormalities. Two cases of transient increased thickness of NT are reported. In both, a nuchal cord was ultrasonographically demonstrated and a thorough work-up revealed chromosomally and anatomically normal fetuses. The pathophysiological theories behind these observations and their significance are discussed. Based on these observations, we suggest that transvaginal sonography combined with Doppler flow studies should be utilized for the presize detection of cord patterns to accomplish the work-up in cases of increased NT. (+info)
Evaluation of an intervention to reduce sun exposure in children: design and baseline results. (3/230)The Kidskin Study is a 5-year intervention study (1995-1999) involving 1,776 5- and 6-year-old children attending 33 primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. The aim of the study is to design, implement, and evaluate an intervention to reduce sun exposure in young children. There are three study groups: a control group, a "moderate intervention" group, and a "high intervention" group. The control schools receive the standard Western Australian health education curriculum, while the moderate and high intervention schools receive a specially designed curricular intervention. In addition, children in the high intervention group receive program materials over the summer holidays, when exposure is likely to be highest, and are offered sun-protective swimwear at low cost. The main outcome measure is the number of nevi on the back. Other outcomes include nevi on the chest (boys only), face, and arms, levels of suntanning, degree of freckling, and sun-related behaviors. At baseline, the three groups were similar with respect to nevi and freckling after adjustment for observer and month of observation. Sun exposure was slightly higher in the high intervention group. The groups were also similar with respect to most potential confounders, although they differed with respect to Southern European ethnicity and parental education. (+info)
A study of motoneuron groups and motor columns of the human spinal cord. (4/230)Eight normal human spinal cords were studied for motoneuron (Mn) groups and columns. Spinal segments (C1 to Coc.) were identified and embedded in paraffin wax. Serial cross sections were cut at 25 microm and stained by cresyl violet. Cross-sectional profiles of the spinal cord were traced for each segmental level and the outlines of the various Mn groups superimposed. These charts (maps) were used to examine intra and intersegmental changes in the relative positions of the columns. An attempt was made to provide topographical picture of Mn groups of individual segments. In the cervical region neuronal groups were more numerous but smaller and less distinct, while in the lumbosacral region they were fewer, larger and at many levels better circumscribed. The average number of Mn groups at any segmental level was 3-4 and never exceeded 5. C4, C5, C6, C7, L4, L5 and S1 contained numerous Mn groups. Maximum intrasegmental changes were noted at C3, C4, C7, T1, and S2, while at C5, C6, all thoracic, L1 L2 and L3, the pattern was constant throughout the segment. Eleven motor columns were traced in the human spinal cord. Column 1 belonged to the medial division and columns 2-11 to the lateral division of the ventral grey horn. Columns 1 and 2 were the most extensive as they were traceable from the lower medulla to S3 segment. Columns 3-8 were confined to cervical segments (including T1), while columns 9-11 were traced in lumbosacral segments. In general, motor columns followed a definite mode for their appearance and disappearance. Many of them showed rotation from a dorsal to a ventromedial direction. (+info)
The unilateral and bilateral control of motor unit pairs in the first dorsal interosseous and paraspinal muscles in man. (5/230)1. The discharges of two motor units were identified in an intrinsic hand muscle (first dorsal interosseous, FDI) or an axial muscle (lumbar paraspinals, PSP) in ten healthy subjects. Each motor unit was situated in the homologous muscle on either side of the body (bilateral condition) or in the same muscle (ipsilateral condition). The relationship between the times of discharge of the two units was determined using coherence analysis. 2. Motor unit pairs in the ipsilateral FDI showed significant coherence over the frequency bands 1-10 Hz and 12-40 Hz. Motor units in the ipsilateral PSP were significantly coherent below 5 Hz. In contrast there was no significant coherence at any frequency up to 100 Hz in the bilateral FDI condition and only a small but significant band of coherence below 2 Hz in the bilateral PSP condition. 3. Common drive to motor units at frequencies of < 4 Hz was assessed by cross-correlation of the instantaneous frequencies of the motor units. A significantly higher coefficient was found in the ipsilateral FDI, ipsi- and bilateral PSP compared with shifted, unrelated data sets. This was not the case for the bilateral FDI condition. 4. The presence of higher frequency coherence ( > 10 Hz) in the ipsilateral FDI condition and its absence in ipsilateral PSP is consistent with a more direct and influential cortical supply to the intrinsic hand muscles compared with the axial musculature. The presence of low frequency drives (< 4 Hz) in the bilateral PSP condition and its absence in the bilateral FDI condition is consistent with a bilateral drive to axial, but not distal, musculature by the motor pathways responsible for this oscillatory input. (+info)
Investigation of trunk and extremity movement associated with passive head turning in newborns. (6/230)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physical therapist examination of pediatric clients or clients with neurological conditions often includes the observation of stereotypical movement patterns such as the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex and righting reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether extremity and trunk responses to passive head turning could be documented in newborn infants. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-two newborns with no known medical problems were videotaped within 5 days of birth while an investigator turned their heads left and right. Videotapes were stopped at 5-second intervals to record the direction of head turn with the rest of the body obscured. A second investigator recorded trunk and extremity position with the head obscured. RESULTS: The direction of head turning affected upper- and lower-extremity position, with extension stronger on the face side. The direction of trunk convexity was also affected by head position, with the trunk convex to the side to which the face was turned. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Extremity responses and trunk responses to passive head turning can be documented corresponding to patterns reported for the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex and righting reflexes in neonates with no known medical problems more frequently than would occur by chance. (+info)
Genome-wide scan for body composition in pigs reveals important role of imprinting. (7/230)The role of imprinting in body composition was investigated in an experimental cross between Chinese Meishan pigs and commercial Dutch pigs. A whole-genome scan revealed significant evidence for five quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting body composition, of which four were imprinted. Imprinting was tested with a statistical model that separated the expression of paternally and maternally inherited alleles. For back fat thickness, a paternally expressed QTL was found on Sus scrofa chromosome 2 (SSC2), and a Mendelian-expressed QTL was found on SSC7. In the same region of SSC7, a maternally expressed QTL affecting muscle depth was found. Chromosome 6 harbored a maternally expressed QTL on the short arm and a paternally expressed QTL on the long arm, both affecting intramuscular fat content. The individual QTL explained from 2% up to 10% of the phenotypic variance. The known homologies to human and mouse did not reveal positional candidate genes. This study demonstrates that testing for imprinting should become a standard procedure to unravel the genetic control of multifactorial traits. (+info)
Spinal cord stimulation for treatment of failed back surgery syndrome--two case reports. (8/230)Severe, persistent back pain following back surgery is often referred to as Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS). Conservative measures such as physiotherapy, back strengthening exercises, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and epidural steroids may be inadequate to alleviate pain. Spinal Cord Stimulators were implanted into two patients suffering from FBSS. Both patients responded successfully to spinal cord stimulation with reduction of pain and disability. (+info)
There are many different types of back pain, including:
1. Lower back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine and can be caused by strained muscles or ligaments, herniated discs, or other factors.
2. Upper back pain: This type of pain occurs in the thoracic spine and can be caused by muscle strain, poor posture, or other factors.
3. Middle back pain: This type of pain occurs in the thoracolumbar junction and can be caused by muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
4. Lower left back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine on the left side and can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
5. Lower right back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine on the right side and can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
There are many different causes of back pain, including:
1. Muscle strain: This occurs when the muscles in the back are overstretched or torn.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the soft tissue between the vertebrae bulges out and puts pressure on the surrounding nerves.
3. Structural problems: This includes conditions such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis, which can cause back pain due to the abnormal curvature of the spine.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory myopathies, and ankylosing spondylitis can cause back pain due to inflammation and joint damage.
5. Infections: Infections such as shingles, osteomyelitis, and abscesses can cause back pain by irritating the nerves or causing inflammation in the spine.
6. Trauma: Traumatic injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and compression fractures can cause back pain due to damage to the vertebrae, muscles, and other tissues.
7. Poor posture: Prolonged sitting or standing in a position that puts strain on the back can lead to back pain over time.
8. Obesity: Excess weight can put additional strain on the back, leading to back pain.
9. Smoking: Smoking can reduce blood flow to the discs and other tissues in the spine, leading to degeneration and back pain.
10. Sedentary lifestyle: A lack of physical activity can lead to weak muscles and a poor posture, which can contribute to back pain.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms with your back pain:
1. Numbness or tingling in the legs or feet
2. Weakness in the legs or feet
3. Loss of bladder or bowel control
4. Fever and chills
5. Severe headache or stiff neck
6. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
These symptoms could indicate a more serious condition, such as a herniated disc or spinal infection, that requires prompt medical treatment.
The causes of LBP can be broadly classified into two categories:
1. Mechanical causes: These include strains, sprains, and injuries to the soft tissues (such as muscles, ligaments, and tendons) or bones in the lower back.
2. Non-mechanical causes: These include medical conditions such as herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, and spinal stenosis.
The symptoms of LBP can vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
* Pain that may be localized to one side or both sides of the lower back
* Muscle spasms or stiffness
* Limited range of motion in the lower back
* Difficulty bending, lifting, or twisting
* Sciatica (pain that radiates down the legs)
* Weakness or numbness in the legs
The diagnosis of LBP is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI.
Treatment for LBP depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Medications such as pain relievers, muscle relaxants, or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility in the lower back
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on the joints and muscles
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery may be considered for severe or chronic cases that do not respond to other treatments.
Prevention strategies for LBP include:
* Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce strain on the lower back
* Engaging in regular exercise to improve muscle strength and flexibility
* Using proper lifting techniques to avoid straining the lower back
* Taking regular breaks to stretch and move around if you have a job that involves sitting or standing for long periods
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques such as meditation or deep breathing.
There are many different types of back injuries that can occur, including:
1. Strains and sprains: These are common injuries that occur when the muscles or ligaments in the back are stretched or torn.
2. Herniated discs: When the gel-like center of a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, it can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
3. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the spinal discs wear down over time and lose their cushioning ability, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra in the spine slips out of place, which can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
5. Fractures: These are breaks in one or more of the bones in the back, which can be caused by trauma or overuse.
6. Spinal cord injuries: These are injuries that affect the spinal cord, either from trauma (e.g., car accidents) or from degenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
7. Radiculopathy: This is a condition where a compressed nerve root in the back can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms or legs.
Treatment for back injuries depends on the specific type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated back injuries can lead to chronic pain and decreased mobility.
The symptoms of FBSS can vary depending on the underlying cause, but they often include chronic low back pain, numbness, tingling, weakness in the legs, and difficulty walking or standing. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or MRI scans, and other diagnostic tests.
Treatment for FBSS often involves a multidisciplinary approach that may include physical therapy, pain management, and other interventions to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. In some cases, additional surgery may be necessary to address the underlying cause of the failed back surgery.
It is important for patients who have undergone back surgery and are experiencing persistent pain or disability to discuss their symptoms with their healthcare provider, as early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of further complications.
There are many different types of chronic pain, including:
1. Musculoskeletal pain: This type of pain affects the muscles, bones, and joints, and can be caused by injuries, arthritis, or other conditions.
2. Nerve pain: This type of pain is caused by damage or irritation to the nerves, and can be burning, stabbing, or shooting in nature.
3. Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS): This is a chronic pain condition that typically affects one limb and is characterized by burning, aching, or shooting pain.
4. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage or irritation to the nerves, and can be burning, stabbing, or shooting in nature.
5. Cancer pain: This type of pain is caused by cancer or its treatment, and can be severe and debilitating.
6. Postoperative pain: This type of pain is caused by surgery and can vary in severity depending on the type of procedure and individual's response to pain.
7. Pelvic pain: This type of pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including endometriosis, adhesions, or pelvic inflammatory disease.
8. Headache disorders: This type of pain can include migraines, tension headaches, and other types of headaches that are severe and recurring.
Chronic pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to work, sleep, and participate in activities they enjoy. It can also lead to feelings of frustration, anxiety, and depression.
There are many treatment options for chronic pain, including medication, physical therapy, and alternative therapies like acupuncture and massage. It's important to work with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses the underlying cause of the pain and helps improve function and quality of life.
There are several types of neck pain, including:
* Acute neck pain: This is a sudden onset of pain in the neck, often caused by an injury or strain.
* Chronic neck pain: This is persistent pain in the neck that lasts for more than 3 months.
* Mechanical neck pain: This is pain caused by misalignment or degeneration of the spinal bones and joints in the neck.
* Non-mechanical neck pain: This is pain that is not caused by a specific structural problem, but rather by factors such as poor posture, muscle strain, or pinched nerves.
Neck pain can be treated with a variety of methods, including:
* Medications such as pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on nerves
* Massage therapy to relax muscles and improve circulation
* Lifestyle changes such as improving posture, losing weight, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch.
It is important to seek medical attention if neck pain is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs.
1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.
Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.
Some common types of spinal diseases include:
1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the discs between the vertebrae in the spine wear down over time, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves and causing pain.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra slips out of place, either forward or backward, and can cause pressure on nearby nerves and muscles.
5. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.
6. Spinal infections: These are infections that can affect any part of the spine, including the discs, vertebrae, and soft tissues.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spine, either primary ( originating in the spine) or metastatic (originating elsewhere in the body).
8. Osteoporotic fractures: These are fractures that occur in the spine as a result of weakened bones due to osteoporosis.
9. Spinal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can form in the spine, either as a result of injury or as a congenital condition.
10. Spinal degeneration: This is a general term for any type of wear and tear on the spine, such as arthritis or disc degeneration.
If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.
These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.
Symptoms of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration may include:
* Back pain
* Neck pain
* Stiffness in the back and neck
* Limited range of motion
* Muscle spasms
* Tingling or numbness in the arms or legs
Treatment for Intervertebral Disc Degeneration can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:
* Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, pain medication, and lifestyle changes
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery to remove the damaged disc and fuse the adjacent vertebrae together.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage the condition and prevent further damage.
Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is persistent and ongoing, lasting more than 3 months. Acute pain is typically treated with medication, physical therapy, or other forms of therapy aimed at managing the underlying cause. In some cases, acute pain may be a symptom of an underlying condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.
Here are some examples of acute pain:
1. Post-surgical pain: Pain that occurs after surgery is a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is usually managed with pain medication and subsides as the body heals.
2. Injury pain: Pain that occurs as a result of an injury, such as a sprain or strain, is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is often treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and may also be managed with pain medication.
3. Headache pain: Some types of headaches, such as tension headaches or migraines, are examples of acute pain. These types of headaches are typically treated with over-the-counter pain medication and may also involve lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers or practicing relaxation techniques.
4. Menstrual cramps: Cramps that occur during menstruation are a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is often managed with over-the-counter pain medication and may also be treated with heat or cold therapy.
5. Childbirth pain: Pain that occurs during childbirth is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is typically managed with breathing techniques, relaxation methods, and medical pain management options such as epidural anesthesia.
In summary, acute pain is a type of pain that is sudden and lasts for a limited period of time, often resolving once the underlying cause is treated or heals. It can be managed with a variety of techniques, including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes.
There are several types of radiculopathy, including:
1. Cervical radiculopathy: This type affects the neck and arm region and is often caused by a herniated disk or degenerative changes in the spine.
2. Thoracic radiculopathy: This type affects the chest and abdominal regions and is often caused by a tumor or injury.
3. Lumbar radiculopathy: This type affects the lower back and leg region and is often caused by a herniated disk, spinal stenosis, or degenerative changes in the spine.
4. Sacral radiculopathy: This type affects the pelvis and legs and is often caused by a tumor or injury.
The symptoms of radiculopathy can vary depending on the location and severity of the nerve compression. They may include:
1. Pain in the affected area, which can be sharp or dull and may be accompanied by numbness, tingling, or weakness.
2. Numbness or tingling sensations in the skin of the affected limb.
3. Weakness in the affected muscles, which can make it difficult to move the affected limb or perform certain activities.
4. Difficulty with coordination and balance.
5. Tremors or spasms in the affected muscles.
6. Decreased reflexes in the affected area.
7. Difficulty with bladder or bowel control (in severe cases).
Treatment for radiculopathy depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes may be effective in managing symptoms and improving function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the nerve root.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the symptoms of radiculopathy, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
The prevalence of OAS increases with age, affecting approximately 60% of people over the age of 65. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, obesity, joint injuries, and degenerative conditions such as scoliosis or spondylolisthesis.
The symptoms of OAS can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the specific location of the affected joints. Common symptoms include:
Back pain: Pain in the back, which can radiate to the buttocks, thighs, or arms
Stiffness: Limited mobility and rigidity in the spine
Limited range of motion: Decreased flexibility and ability to move the spine
Muscle spasms: Involuntary contractions of the muscles in the back
Decreased height: Compression fractures or loss of disc height can cause the spine to curve or shrink, leading to a decreased height.
The diagnosis of OAS is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs. Treatment for OAS typically focuses on managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the condition. Conservative treatments may include:
Medications: Pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants
Physical therapy: Exercise and stretching to improve flexibility and strength
Lifestyle modifications: Maintaining a healthy weight, bracing, and good posture
Injections: Corticosteroid injections or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy
Surgery: In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to relieve pressure on the spine, stabilize the joints, or fuse vertebrae together.
It is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of OAS, as early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the condition.
Symptoms of spondylolisthesis may include:
* Back pain
* Stiffness and limited mobility in the lower back
* Pain or numbness in the buttocks, thighs, or legs
* Difficulty maintaining a straight posture
* Muscle spasms
Spondylolisthesis can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment for the condition may include:
* Conservative methods such as physical therapy, exercise, and pain management
* Medications such as muscle relaxants or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Spinal fusion surgery to stabilize the spine and correct the slippage
* Other surgical procedures to relieve pressure on nerves or repair damaged tissue.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent back pain or stiffness, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent further progression of the condition.
Discitis is a rare inflammatory condition that affects the discs in the spine, causing pain and stiffness in the neck, back, or other areas of the body. It is also known as discitis or infective discitis.
The term "discitis" comes from the Latin words "discus," meaning "disk," and "-itis," meaning "inflammation." Together, the term describes a condition where the soft, spongy tissue between the vertebrae in the spine becomes inflamed.
The condition is caused by bacterial or viral infections that enter the body through small tears in the outer layer of the disc. It can be triggered by activities such as heavy lifting, bending, or twisting, which put excessive pressure on the spine.
Symptoms of discitis may include back pain, stiffness, fever, chills, and difficulty moving or bending. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear up any underlying infections, as well as rest and physical therapy to help manage symptoms and promote healing. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the affected disc.
There are several different types of pain, including:
1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.
The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:
1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.
It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.
Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:
* Loss of sensation below the level of the injury
* Weakness or paralysis below the level of the injury
* Pain or numbness in the back, arms, or legs
* Difficulty breathing or controlling bladder and bowel functions
* Changes in reflexes or sensation below the level of the injury.
Spinal injuries can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:
* X-rays or CT scans to assess the alignment of the spine and detect any fractures or dislocations
* MRI scans to assess the soft tissues of the spine and detect any damage to the spinal cord
* Electromyography (EMG) tests to assess the function of muscles and nerves below the level of the injury.
Treatment for spinal injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, and may include:
* Immobilization using a brace or cast to keep the spine stable
* Medications to manage pain, inflammation, and other symptoms
* Rehabilitation therapies such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and recreational therapy to help restore function and mobility.
In summary, spinal injuries can be classified into two categories: complete and incomplete, and can be caused by a variety of factors. Symptoms may include loss of sensation, weakness or paralysis, pain, difficulty breathing, and changes in reflexes or sensation. Diagnosis is typically made using X-rays, MRI scans, and EMG tests, and treatment may involve immobilization, medications, and rehabilitation therapies.
The term "spondylolysis" comes from the Greek words "spondylo," meaning "vertebra," and "lysis," meaning "destruction." Together, they refer to a condition where there is a fracture or degeneration of one or more vertebrae in the spine.
Spondylolysis can occur at any level of the spine, but it is most common in the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). It can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Overuse or repetitive strain: This is the most common cause of spondylolysis, particularly in athletes who participate in high-impact sports. The repeated stress and strain on the vertebrae can lead to small fractures or degeneration over time.
2. Trauma: Spondylolysis can also be caused by a sudden injury, such as a fall or a blow to the back. This type of trauma can cause a fracture or compression of one or more vertebrae.
3. Genetics: Some people may be more prone to developing spondylolysis due to inherited factors, such as a family history of spinal problems.
4. Degenerative conditions: Spondylolysis can also be caused by degenerative conditions such as osteoporosis, which can lead to weakened bones and increased risk of fracture.
The symptoms of spondylolysis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
1. Back pain: This is the most common symptom of spondylolysis, and it can range from mild to severe.
2. Stiffness: Patients with spondylolysis may experience stiffness in their back, particularly after periods of rest or inactivity.
3. Limited mobility: Spondylolysis can cause limited mobility in the affected area, making it difficult to bend or twist.
4. Muscle spasms: Muscle spasms are common in patients with spondylolysis, particularly in the back muscles.
5. Tenderness: The affected area may be tender to the touch, and patients may experience pain when pressure is applied to the area.
6. Decreased range of motion: Spondylolysis can cause a decrease in range of motion, making it difficult to move or bend.
7. Numbness or tingling: Patients with spondylolysis may experience numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.
Spondylolysis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment for spondylolysis depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Rest and relaxation: Patients with mild cases of spondylolysis may be advised to rest and avoid activities that exacerbate the condition.
2. Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve range of motion, strength, and flexibility in patients with spondylolysis.
3. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen may be prescribed to manage pain associated with spondylolysis.
4. Bracing: Wearing a brace can help support the affected area and improve mobility.
5. Surgery: In severe cases of spondylolysis, surgery may be necessary to repair or stabilize the affected vertebrae.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of spondylolysis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further damage and improve outcomes.
Kyphosis is an exaggerated forward curvature of the spine, also known as "roundback" or "hunchback". This type of curvature can be caused by a variety of factors such as osteoporosis, degenerative disc disease, and Scheuermann's disease.
Lordosis is an excessive inward curvature of the spine, also known as "swayback". This type of curvature can be caused by factors such as pregnancy, obesity, and spinal injuries.
Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, injury, or birth defects. Scoliosis can be classified into two main types: Cervical (neck) scoliosis and Thoracic (chest) scoliosis.
All three types of curvatures can cause discomfort, pain and decreased mobility if left untreated. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the curvature and may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery.
Musculoskeletal pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, making it difficult to perform daily activities and enjoy leisure time. It can also lead to sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased productivity. Treatment options for musculoskeletal pain vary depending on the underlying cause but may include physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle modifications such as exercise and stress management.
The shoulder is a complex joint that consists of several bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, which work together to provide a wide range of motion and stability. Any disruption in this delicate balance can cause pain and dysfunction.
Some common causes of shoulder pain include:
1. Rotator cuff injuries: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, providing stability and mobility. Injuries to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
2. Bursitis: Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between the bones, muscles, and tendons. Inflammation of the bursae (bursitis) can cause pain and swelling in the shoulder.
3. Tendinitis: Tendinitis is inflammation of the tendons, which connect the muscles to the bones. Tendinitis in the shoulder can cause pain and stiffness.
4. Dislocations: A dislocation occurs when the ball of the humerus (upper arm bone) is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can cause severe pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
5. Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that affects the joints, including the shoulder. It can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
6. Frozen shoulder: Also known as adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder is a condition where the connective tissue in the shoulder joint becomes inflamed and scarred, leading to pain and stiffness.
7. Labral tears: The labrum is a cartilage ring that surrounds the shoulder socket, providing stability and support. Tears to the labrum can cause pain and instability in the shoulder.
8. Fractures: Fractures of the humerus, clavicle, or scapula (shoulder blade) can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
9. Rotator cuff tears: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that provide stability and support to the shoulder joint. Tears to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
10. Impingement syndrome: Impingement syndrome occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff become pinched or compressed as they pass through the shoulder joint, leading to pain and inflammation.
These are just a few examples of common shoulder injuries and conditions. If you're experiencing shoulder pain or stiffness, it's important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several types of spinal fractures, including:
1. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the vertebrae collapses due to pressure, often caused by osteoporosis or trauma.
2. Fracture-dislocations: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and displaced from its normal position.
3. Spondylolysis: This is a type of fracture that occurs in the spine, often due to repetitive stress or overuse.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a type of fracture where a vertebra slips out of its normal position and into the one below it.
5. Fracture-subluxation: This type of fracture occurs when the vertebra is both broken and partially dislocated from its normal position.
The diagnosis of spinal fractures typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI to confirm the presence of a fracture and determine its severity and location. Treatment options for spinal fractures depend on the severity of the injury and may include pain management, bracing, physical therapy, or surgery to stabilize the spine and promote healing. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to realign the vertebrae and prevent further damage.
Overall, spinal fractures can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The symptoms of spondylarthritis can vary, but may include:
* Back pain that improves with exercise
* Stiffness in the neck or lower back
* Painful joints in the hips or shoulders
* Reduced range of motion in the affected joints
* Loss of appetite
* Swollen lymph nodes
The exact cause of spondylarthritis is unknown, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. This means that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the body, leading to inflammation and joint damage.
There is no cure for spondylarthritis, but medications and lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms. Treatment options may include:
* Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation
* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) to slow the progression of the disease
* Biologic agents to target specific proteins involved in the immune response
* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Rest and exercise to manage fatigue
Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms of spondylarthritis and prevent long-term complications such as joint damage or spinal fusion.
The term "cumulative" refers to the gradual buildup of damage over time, as opposed to a single traumatic event that causes immediate harm. The damage can result from repetitive motions, vibrations, compressive forces, or other forms of stress that accumulate and lead to tissue injury and inflammation.
Some common examples of CTDs include:
1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A condition that affects the wrist and hand, caused by repetitive motion and compression of the median nerve.
2. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive motion or overuse.
3. Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, a fluid-filled sac that cushions joints and reduces friction between tissues.
4. Tennis elbow: A condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons on the outside of the elbow, caused by repetitive gripping or twisting motions.
5. Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, caused by repetitive strain and overuse.
6. Repetitive stress injuries: A broad category of injuries caused by repetitive motion, such as typing or using a computer mouse.
7. Occupational asthma: A condition caused by inhaling allergens or irritants in the workplace, leading to inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
8. Hearing loss: Damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve caused by exposure to loud noises over time.
9. Vibration white finger: A condition that affects the hands, causing whiteness or loss of blood flow in the fingers due to exposure to vibrating tools.
10. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and arm.
It's important to note that these conditions can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, ability to work, and overall well-being. If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
Source: "Pain, Referred." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017.
Types of Spinal Neoplasms:
1. Benign tumors: Meningiomas, schwannomas, and osteochondromas are common types of benign spinal neoplasms. These tumors usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: Primary bone cancers (chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma) and metastatic cancers (cancers that have spread to the spine from another part of the body) are types of malignant spinal neoplasms. These tumors can grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetic mutations: Some genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis complex, increase the risk of developing spinal neoplasms.
2. Previous radiation exposure: People who have undergone radiation therapy in the past may have an increased risk of developing a spinal tumor.
3. Family history: A family history of spinal neoplasms can increase an individual's risk.
4. Age and gender: Spinal neoplasms are more common in older adults, and males are more likely to be affected than females.
1. Back pain: Pain is the most common symptom of spinal neoplasms, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms or legs.
2. Neurological deficits: Depending on the location and size of the tumor, patients may experience neurological deficits such as paralysis, loss of sensation, or difficulty with balance and coordination.
3. Difficulty with urination or bowel movements: Patients may experience changes in their bladder or bowel habits due to the tumor pressing on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
4. Weakness or numbness: Patients may experience weakness or numbness in their arms or legs due to compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots by the tumor.
5. Fractures: Spinal neoplasms can cause fractures in the spine, which can lead to a loss of height, an abnormal curvature of the spine, or difficulty with movement and balance.
1. Medical history and physical examination: A thorough medical history and physical examination can help identify the presence of symptoms and determine the likelihood of a spinal neoplasm.
2. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans may be ordered to visualize the spine and detect any abnormalities.
3. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor present.
4. Laboratory tests: Blood tests may be ordered to assess liver function, electrolyte levels, or other parameters that can help evaluate the patient's overall health.
1. Surgery: Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove the tumor and relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy or as a standalone treatment for patients who are not candidates for surgery.
4. Supportive care: Patients may require supportive care, such as physical therapy, pain management, and rehabilitation, to help them recover from the effects of the tumor and any treatment-related complications.
The prognosis for patients with spinal neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and location of the tumor, the extent of the disease, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine, as compared to those with more aggressive tumors that have spread to other parts of the body.
The survival rates for patients with spinal neoplasms vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for primary spinal cord tumors is about 60%. However, this rate can be as high as 90% for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine.
There are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, but certain changes may help improve the patient's quality of life and overall health. These may include:
1. Exercise: Gentle exercise, such as yoga or swimming, can help improve mobility and strength.
2. Diet: A balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can help support overall health.
3. Rest: Getting enough rest and avoiding strenuous activities can help the patient recover from treatment-related fatigue.
4. Managing stress: Stress management techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, can help reduce anxiety and improve overall well-being.
5. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with the healthcare provider are crucial to monitor the patient's condition and make any necessary adjustments to their treatment plan.
In conclusion, spinal neoplasms are rare tumors that can develop in the spine and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, and survival rates vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. While there are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, certain changes may help improve the patient's overall health and well-being. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow-up care to ensure the best possible outcome.
There are different types of spondylosis, including:
1. Cervical spondylosis: affects the neck area
2. Thoracic spondylosis: affects the chest area
3. Lumbar spondylosis: affects the lower back
4. Sacroiliac spondylosis: affects the pelvis and lower back
Spondylosis can be caused by a variety of factors such as:
1. Aging - wear and tear on the spine over time
2. Injury - trauma to the spine, such as a fall or a car accident
3. Overuse - repetitive strain on the spine, such as from heavy lifting or bending
4. Genetics - some people may be more prone to developing spondylosis due to their genetic makeup
5. Degenerative conditions - conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and degenerative disc disease can contribute to the development of spondylosis.
Symptoms of spondylosis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Pain - in the neck, back, or other areas affected by the condition
2. Stiffness - limited mobility and reduced flexibility
3. Limited range of motion - difficulty moving or bending
4. Muscle spasms - sudden, involuntary contractions of the muscles
5. Tenderness - pain or discomfort in the affected area when touched
Treatment for spondylosis depends on the severity and location of the condition, but may include:
1. Medications - such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants
2. Physical therapy - exercises and stretches to improve mobility and reduce pain
3. Lifestyle changes - such as regular exercise, good posture, and weight management
4. Injections - corticosteroid or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
5. Surgery - in severe cases where other treatments have not been effective.
It's important to note that spondylosis is a degenerative condition, which means it cannot be cured, but with proper management and treatment, symptoms can be effectively managed and quality of life can be improved.
* Endometriosis: a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing pain, inflammation, and bleeding.
* Adenomyosis: a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, causing pain, inflammation, and heavy bleeding.
* Fibroids: noncancerous growths in the uterus that can cause pain, bleeding, and infertility.
* Ovarian cysts: fluid-filled sacs on the ovaries that can cause pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
* Ectopic pregnancy: a pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which can cause severe pain and bleeding.
* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause pain, fever, and infertility.
* Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a condition that affects the large intestine and can cause abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
* Interstitial cystitis: a chronic bladder condition that can cause pain and frequency of urination.
* Prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause painful urination, fever, and infertility.
Pelvic pain can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment options for pelvic pain depend on the underlying cause and can include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
Symptoms of an epidural abscess may include:
* Back pain that worsens over time
* Muscle weakness or numbness in the legs
* Difficulty urinating
Diagnosis of an epidural abscess is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the presence of bacteria in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid.
Treatment for an epidural abscess usually involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of the abscess. In severe cases, treatment may also involve supportive care such as mechanical ventilation and management of related complications such as seizures or stroke.
There are several types of spondylitis, including:
1. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): This is the most common form of spondylitis and primarily affects the lower back. It can cause stiffness, pain, and reduced mobility in the spine.
2. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA): This type of spondylitis affects both the joints and the spine, causing inflammation and pain. It often occurs in people with psoriasis, a skin condition that causes red, scaly patches.
3. Enteropathic spondylitis: This is a rare form of spondylitis that occurs in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
4. Undifferentiated spondylitis: This type of spondylitis does not fit into any other category and may be caused by a variety of factors.
The symptoms of spondylitis can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Back pain that is worse with activity and improves with rest
2. Stiffness in the back, particularly in the morning or after periods of inactivity
3. Redness and warmth in the affected area
4. Swelling in the affected joints
5. Limited range of motion in the spine
7. Loss of appetite
8. Low-grade fever
Spondylitis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and lifestyle modifications, such as exercise, physical therapy, and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints or tissue.
It's important to note that spondylitis is a chronic condition, meaning it cannot be cured but can be managed with ongoing treatment and lifestyle modifications. With proper management, many people with spondylitis are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
1. The star quarterback suffered a serious athletic injury during last night's game and is out for the season.
2. The athlete underwent surgery to repair a torn ACL, one of the most common athletic injuries in high-impact sports.
3. The coach emphasized the importance of proper technique to prevent athletic injuries among his team members.
4. After suffering a minor sprain, the runner was advised to follow the RICE method to recover and return to competition as soon as possible.
Intractable pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, sleep, and overall well-being. Treatment for intractable pain often involves a combination of medications and alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy.
Some common symptoms of intractable pain include:
* Chronic and persistent pain that does not respond to treatment
* Pain that is severe and debilitating
* Pain that affects daily activities and quality of life
* Pain that is burning, shooting, stabbing, or cramping in nature
* Pain that is localized to a specific area of the body or widespread
* Pain that is accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, or depression.
Intractable pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Nerve damage or nerve damage from injury or disease
* Inflammation or swelling in the body
* Chronic conditions like arthritis, fibromyalgia, or migraines
* Infections such as shingles or Lyme disease
* Cancer or its treatment
* Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.
Managing intractable pain can be challenging and may involve a multidisciplinary approach, including:
* Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or muscle relaxants
* Alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy
* Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, stress management techniques, and a healthy diet
* Interventional procedures such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation.
It is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for managing intractable pain. With the right combination of medications and alternative therapies, many people are able to manage their pain and improve their quality of life.
Spondylitis, ankylosing can affect any part of the spine, but it most commonly affects the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). The condition can also affect other joints, such as the hips, shoulders, and feet.
The exact cause of spondylitis, ankylosing is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the joints. Genetics may also play a role in the development of the condition.
Symptoms of spondylitis, ankylosing can include:
* Back pain and stiffness
* Pain and swelling in the joints
* Limited mobility and flexibility
* Redness and warmth in the affected area
If you suspect that you or someone you know may have spondylitis, ankylosing, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as X-rays or MRIs, to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.
Treatment for spondylitis, ankylosing typically involves a combination of medications and physical therapy. Medications may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy can help improve mobility and flexibility, as well as strengthen the muscles supporting the affected joints.
In severe cases of spondylitis, ankylosing, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints. In some cases, the condition may progress to the point where the joints become fused and immobile, a condition known as ankylosis.
While there is no cure for spondylitis, ankylosing, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper care and support, individuals with spondylitis, ankylosing can lead active and fulfilling lives.
There are several types of kyphosis, including:
1. Postural kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by poor posture and is often seen in teenagers.
2. Scheuermann's kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by a structural deformity of the spine and is most common during adolescence.
3. Degenerative kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by degenerative changes in the spine, such as osteoporosis or degenerative disc disease.
4. Neuromuscular kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy.
Symptoms of kyphosis can include:
* An abnormal curvature of the spine
* Back pain
* Difficulty breathing
* Difficulty maintaining posture
* Loss of height
* Tiredness or fatigue
Kyphosis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, X-rays, and other imaging tests. Treatment options for kyphosis depend on the type and severity of the condition and can include:
* Physical therapy
It is important to seek medical attention if you or your child is experiencing any symptoms of kyphosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further progression of the condition and improve quality of life.
Examples of how 'Tissue Adhesions' is used in the medical field:
1. In gastrointestinal surgery, tissue adhesions can form between the intestines and other organs, leading to bowel obstruction, inflammation, or other complications.
2. In cardiovascular surgery, tissue adhesions can form between the heart and surrounding tissues, causing impaired heart function and increasing the risk of postoperative complications.
3. In gynecological surgery, tissue adhesions can form between the uterus and other pelvic organs, leading to pain, bleeding, and infertility.
4. In oncologic surgery, tissue adhesions can form between cancerous tissues and surrounding normal tissues, making it difficult to remove the tumor completely.
5. In chronic diseases such as endometriosis, tissue adhesions can form between the uterus and other pelvic structures, leading to pain and infertility.
6. Tissue adhesions can also form within the skin, causing keloids or other types of scarring.
Treatment options for tissue adhesions depend on the location, size, and severity of the adhesions, as well as the underlying cause. Some common treatment options include:
1. Surgical removal of adhesions: This involves surgically removing the fibrous bands or scar tissue that are causing the adhesions.
2. Steroid injections: Injecting steroids into the affected area can help reduce inflammation and shrink the adhesions.
3. Physical therapy: Gentle stretching and exercise can help improve range of motion and reduce stiffness in the affected area.
4. Radiofrequency ablation: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses heat to break down and remove the fibrous bands causing the adhesions.
5. Laser therapy: Laser therapy can be used to break down and remove the fibrous bands causing the adhesions, or to reduce inflammation and promote healing.
6. Natural remedies: Some natural remedies such as turmeric, ginger, and omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and may help reduce inflammation and improve symptoms.
Preventing tissue adhesions is not always possible, but there are some measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of their formation. These include:
1. Proper wound care: Keeping wounds clean and dry, and using sterile dressings can help prevent infection and reduce the risk of adhesion formation.
2. Minimizing trauma: Avoiding unnecessary trauma to the affected area can help reduce the risk of adhesion formation.
3. Gentle exercise: Gentle exercise and stretching after surgery or injury can help improve range of motion and reduce stiffness in the affected area.
4. Early mobilization: Early mobilization after surgery or injury can help reduce the risk of adhesion formation.
5. Avoiding smoking: Smoking can impede wound healing and increase the risk of adhesion formation, so avoiding smoking is recommended.
6. Using anti-adhesive agents: Applying anti-adhesive agents such as silicone or hydrogel to the affected area after surgery or injury can help reduce the risk of adhesion formation.
It's important to note that the most effective method for preventing or treating tissue adhesions will depend on the specific cause and location of the adhesions, as well as the individual patient's needs and medical history. A healthcare professional should be consulted for proper evaluation and treatment.
Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome include:
* Pain in specific areas of the body, such as the neck, back, or limbs
* Pain that is worse with movement or activity
* Muscle stiffness and limited range of motion
* Trigger points, which are areas of hypersensitivity within the muscle that can cause pain when stimulated
* Poor posture or gait
* Decreased strength and endurance
Treatment for myofascial pain syndrome typically involves a combination of physical therapy, pain management strategies, and self-care techniques. Physical therapy may include stretching exercises, myofascial release techniques, and other modalities to help relieve pain and improve range of motion. Pain management strategies may include medication, injections, or alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. Self-care techniques can also be helpful, such as heat or cold applications, relaxation techniques, and good posture.
The prognosis for myofascial pain syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, with appropriate treatment and self-care, many people are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. However, in some cases, the condition can be challenging to treat and may require ongoing management.
Overall, myofascial pain syndrome is a common and often misunderstood condition that can cause significant pain and disability. With proper diagnosis and treatment, however, many people are able to find relief and improve their quality of life.
Symptoms of lordosis may include back pain, stiffness, and difficulty standing up straight. In severe cases, it can also lead to nerve compression and other complications.
Treatment for lordosis typically involves a combination of physical therapy, bracing, and medication to address any associated pain or discomfort. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct the underlying structural issues.
There are several types of spinal cord compression, including:
1. Central canal stenosis: This occurs when the central canal of the spine narrows, compressing the spinal cord.
2. Foraminal stenosis: This occurs when the openings on either side of the spine (foramina) narrow, compressing the nerves exiting the spinal cord.
3. Spondylolisthesis: This occurs when a vertebra slips out of place, compressing the spinal cord.
4. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out and presses on the spinal cord.
5. Bone spurs: This occurs when bone growths develop on the vertebrae, compressing the spinal cord.
6. Tumors: This can be either primary or metastatic tumors that grow in the spine and compress the spinal cord.
7. Trauma: This occurs when there is a direct blow to the spine, causing compression of the spinal cord.
Symptoms of spinal cord compression may include:
* Pain, numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms and legs
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Muscle wasting or loss of muscle mass
* Decreased reflexes
* Loss of bladder or bowel control
* Weakness in the muscles of the face, arms, or legs
* Difficulty with fine motor skills such as buttoning a shirt or typing
Diagnosis of spinal cord compression is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options for spinal cord compression depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.
In conclusion, spinal cord compression is a serious medical condition that can have significant impacts on quality of life, mobility, and overall health. It is important to be aware of the causes and symptoms of spinal cord compression in order to seek medical attention if they occur. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of spinal cord compression can be effectively managed and improved.
Back Pain | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Common Causes of Back Pain - Types & Treatment | NIAMS
'Back Pain'[majr:noexp] AND humans[mh] AND english[la] AND 'last 1 Year' [edat] NOT (letter[pt] OR case reports[pt] OR...
Retraining the Brain to Treat Chronic Back Pain | NIH News in Health
Back pain: Detrimental Consequences of Monsoon on Health - PubMed
Take Back Day
New decision-support tool for COVID-19 testing can help you get back to your life, safely | NIH MedlinePlus Magazine
9 Things To Know About Chronic Low-Back Pain and Complementary Health Practices
NIMH » N-back
The Back Page
Back to school | NCHHSTP | CDC
Blade: I'll be back
Flying back in time
Back to the S**t! - Wikipedia
Petition Bring Back Old Nickelodeon
Airline investor circles back - MarketWatch
Bears position analysis: Running back
Roll Back Malaria.
June: Welcome back!
Back To The Future | The New Yorker
Get back to your content - Microsoft Support
Scaling Back Your Holiday Parties - WSJ
Hold Back the Dawn - Rotten Tomatoes
Back up iPhone - Apple Support (VN)
Burish back for Stars | Fox News
Ducking danger in the back yard
- The five-part series, which began in September and runs through January 2023, covers a range of topics including how a digital tool can help researchers inform study participants of their chemical exposures and the role of citizen scientists in the report back process. (nih.gov)
- Acute (short-term) back pain lasts a few days to a few weeks. (nih.gov)
- Acute back pain happens suddenly and usually lasts a few days to a few weeks. (nih.gov)
- Subacute back pain can come on suddenly or over time and lasts 4 to 12 weeks. (nih.gov)
- Chronic back pain may come on quickly or slowly and lasts longer than 12 weeks and occurs daily. (nih.gov)
- Back pain is called chronic if it lasts for more than three months. (nih.gov)
- Mental health: Anxiety, mood, and depression can influence how you perceive your back pain and stress can cause muscle tension. (nih.gov)
- If you chronically have poor sleep, depression, or anxiety, back pain can be more frequent and more severe. (nih.gov)
- Back to school is a busy time for families, marked by traditions, excitement, and anxiety. (cdc.gov)
Patients with chronic2
- Effect of pain reprocessing therapy vs placebo and usual care for patients with chronic back pain: A randomized clinical trial. (nih.gov)
- As part of the BACPAC initiative, we will enroll patients with chronic low back pain in a clinical trial and follow them longitudinally as they try different evidence-based therapies as they might in routine clinical care. (nih.gov)
- Job-related factors: Job that requires heavy lifting, pushing or pulling, or twisting or vibrating the spine can injure your back, as can sitting at a desk all day, especially if you have poor posture or sit in a chair with not enough back support. (nih.gov)
Causes of back pain1
- Genetics: Some causes of back pain, such as ankylosing spondylitis (a form of arthritis that affects the spine), have a genetic component. (nih.gov)
American College of1
- A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians (the professional organization for doctors who practice internal medicine) encourages the use of nondrug approaches as initial treatment for chronic low-back pain. (nih.gov)
- Back pain can be caused by many different factors, which may all be present at the same time and interact to result in chronic low back pain. (nih.gov)
- Here's what the science says about chronic low-back pain and several complementary health approaches. (nih.gov)
- Spinal manipulation may lead to small improvements in both pain and function in people with chronic low-back pain. (nih.gov)
- Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with a small improvement in chronic low-back pain. (nih.gov)
- Current chronic low back pain treatment options are ineffective, which has led to an increased use of opioids. (nih.gov)
- The Back Pain Consortium (BACPAC) Research Program is a translational, patient-centered effort to address the need for effective and personalized therapies for chronic low back pain (cLBP). (nih.gov)
- Mechanistic Research Centers (MRCs) collect data on patients through clinical and other research efforts in an effort to identify specific traits unique to chronic low back pain patients. (nih.gov)
- The goal of this research is to help explain how these individual characteristics affect chronic low back pain and to identify new treatments. (nih.gov)
- The Core Center for Patient-centric, Mechanistic Phenotyping in Chronic Low Back Pain (REACH) is a BACPAC Mechanistic Research Center that conducts translational and clinical research to clarify biopsychosocial mechanisms of chronic low back pain - the interconnection between biology, biomechanics, psychology, and socio-environmental factors - which will be foundational for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. (nih.gov)
- Strategies for effectively reporting research results to study participants - a practice known as "report back" - is the topic of a monthly webinar series jointly hosted by the NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Sciences (EHS) Core Centers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina State University, the University of Kentucky, and Emory University. (nih.gov)
- Fitness level: Back pain is more common among people who are not physically fit, as their muscles may not properly support the spine. (nih.gov)
- For example, weak back and stomach muscles may not properly support the spine (core strength). (nih.gov)
- The Biomarkers for Evaluating Spine Treatments (BEST) clinical trial, part of the BACPAC Research program, aims to find links between a broad range of personal traits, known as biomarkers, and the effectiveness of four existing, proven treatments for chronic lower back pain - which can help doctors make better, more personalized treatment recommendations in the future. (nih.gov)
- There are many different structures in the anatomy of the back that work together to support your body. (nih.gov)
- Even though you don't have much control over where the virus is, the When To Test team wants to empower people with the latest data and support to help them get back to the things that matter most to them, safely. (medlineplus.gov)
- On models that support 5G , your carrier may give you the option to back up iPhone using your cellular network. (apple.com)
- He has done it in the NFL with players such as Charlie Garner, who caught 91 passes for 941 yards in 2002 for the Raiders, and more recently in Canada where Montreal Alouettes running back Brandon Whitaker caught 121 balls over the previous two seasons. (chicagotribune.com)
- So, with Bush pocketing $5,004,805 last season the Bears have devoted more than $14.5 million to backup running backs over the last three seasons. (chicagotribune.com)
- Initial assessment of back pain: an overview. (nih.gov)
- Forte always has considered himself a dual threat out of the backfield and new coach Marc Trestman has a proven track record for making backs an integral part of the passing game. (chicagotribune.com)
- National Health Interview Survey data indicate that 20 percent of adults in the United States reported "frequent" back pain and 28 percent experienced low back pain that lasted one or more days during the previous three months. (nih.gov)
- Genetics play a role in some disorders that cause back pain. (nih.gov)
- In 2014, representatives of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) , a component of the National Institutes of Health, and the Wellcome Trust signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to work together to make thousands of complete back issues of historically-significant biomedical journals freely available online. (nih.gov)
- Consider participating in a clinical trial so clinicians and scientists can learn more about back pain. (nih.gov)
- Chronic back pain is pain that continues for 12 weeks or longer, even after an initial injury or underlying cause of back pain has been treated. (nih.gov)
- Age: The first attack of low back pain typically occurs between the ages of 30 and 50 and may become more common as you age. (nih.gov)
- Back pain can range in intensity from a dull, constant ache to a sudden, sharp or shooting pain. (nih.gov)
- The intensity of back pain varies for each person. (nih.gov)
- Tai chi, alone or in addition to physical therapy, may decrease the intensity of pain and improve function in people with low-back pain. (nih.gov)
- DATE: May 27, 1994 FROM: Back Belt Working Group SUBJECT: Conclusions/Recommendations on the Use of Back Belts to Prevent Work-Related Back Injuries TO: Linda Rosenstock, M.D., M.P.H. Director, NIOSH Through: Richard A. Lemen, Ph.D. _____ _____ (D35) In the Autumn of 1992, the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) formed a Working Group to review the scientific literature related to back belts. (cdc.gov)
- Back pain is one of most common reasons people see a doctor or miss days at work. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, a back brace at work has provided some relief. (medscape.com)
- The Group's objective was to evaluate the adequacy of the data supporting the use of back belts to reduce work-related back injuries in healthy, previously uninjured workers. (cdc.gov)
- Back pain is also more likely if you exercise too strenuously after being inactive for a while (overdoing it). (nih.gov)
- December 2, 2022: Engaging citizen scientists in theory-based report back. (nih.gov)
- Conclusions The Working Group concludes that the effectiveness of using back belts to lessen the risk of back injury among uninjured workers remains unproven. (cdc.gov)
- How can I or my loved one help improve care for people with back pain? (nih.gov)
- Learn about clinical trials currently looking for people with back pain at Clinicaltrials.gov , a database of current and past clinical studies and research results. (nih.gov)
- Back pain is more common among people who are not physically fit. (nih.gov)
- Back pain is one of the most common medical problems, affecting 8 out of 10 people at some point during their lives. (nih.gov)
- I enjoy sharing on Google+ a great deal too and writing back and forth to people there with similar interests (photography, nature, helping people to understand complex topics, science fiction, human interest stories, animals and conservation, and having a smile on my face and enjoying life, and my computers and love of the web and sharing). (berkeley.edu)
- Fragility and Back Pain: Lessons From the Frontiers of Biopsychosocial Practice. (nih.gov)
- Studies have shown that acupuncture is more effective than either no treatment or sham (fake) acupuncture for back or neck pain. (nih.gov)
- Treatment for back pain depends on what kind of pain you have, and what is causing it. (nih.gov)
- Research excluded from this review related to the use of back belts prescribed by medical care providers for the treatment and rehabilitation of injured persons. (cdc.gov)
- The volunteers received one of three treatments: four weeks of intensive PRT, a harmless injection into the back, or continued standard care. (nih.gov)
- Back pain after a fall or injury. (nih.gov)
- You should also get medical attention if you have back pain following an injury . (nih.gov)
- There is insufficient scientific evidence to conclude that wearing back belts reduces risk of injury to the back based on changes in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and trunk muscle electromyography (EMG). (cdc.gov)
- There are insufficient data to demonstrate a relationship between the prevalence of back injury in healthy workers and the discontinuation of back belt use. (cdc.gov)
- The Working Group recommends that the most effective means of minimizing the likelihood of back injury is to develop and implement a comprehensive ergonomics program. (cdc.gov)
- To learn more about what NIEHS is doing to advance report back, check out the July 2022 Director's Corner featuring Katrina Korfmacher, Ph.D., director of the community engagement core within the EHS Core Center at the University of Rochester, and Julia Brody, Ph.D., from Silent Spring Institute. (nih.gov)
- The Teach-back method is a quick way for health care team members and others to check how well patients have understood the information provided. (nih.gov)
- Please check back for more upcoming events. (nih.gov)
- However, there are steps you can take to improve your health and lower your chance of developing chronic or long-lasting back pain. (nih.gov)
- DEA's National Prescription Drug Take Back Day reflects DEA's commitment to Americans' safety and health, encouraging the public to remove unneeded medications from their homes as a measure of preventing medication misuse and opioid addiction from ever starting. (dea.gov)
Pain can range1
- Back pain can range from local pain in a specific spot to generalized pain spreading all over the back. (nih.gov)
- The most common type of chronic pain is chronic back pain. (nih.gov)
- One way to make your back yard safer for birds is by providing places for them to take shelter. (startribune.com)
- This year is a back-to-school time like no other. (cdc.gov)
- This back-to-school season, we honor the teachers, parents, and caregivers that are helping students thrive during a time of perseverance. (cdc.gov)
- The event will begin with an open mic rally at on Bosco Plaza and terrace of the K-State Student Union, followed by a march through Aggieville, and concluding with a block party back on Bosco Plaza where K-Staters may enjoy more open mic time, poetry, music and food. (k-state.edu)
- Back pain is one of the most common medical problems in the United States. (nih.gov)
- This is a list of all the different ways Klaus Back ( songwriter, producer and engineer ) is credited in the database. (musicbrainz.org)
- At 6 p.m. Monday, April 30, on Bosco Plaza, FIRE, a registered student organization, will lead its second Take Back Our Lives rally and march. (k-state.edu)
- Consult a physician for a list of low-impact, age-appropriate exercises that are specifically targeted to strengthening lower back and abdominal muscles. (nih.gov)
- He felt a "pull" in his left back when lifting a bag of concrete about 6 weeks ago. (medscape.com)