A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)
Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Peptidoglycan is a complex, cross-linked polymer of carbohydrates and peptides that forms the rigid layer of the bacterial cell wall, providing structural support and protection while contributing to the bacterium's susceptibility or resistance to certain antibiotics.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.

EXAFS study of zinc coordination in bacitracin A. (1/285)

Bacitracin is a dodecapeptide antibiotic produced by Bacillus sp. The antibacterial activity depends upon the peptide binding a divalent metal. Hitherto, the exact coordination of the cation has not been established. In particular the role played by the sulphur and nitrogen atoms of the thiazoline ring of bacitracin A has not been clear. Here the coordination of Zn2+ by bacitracin A has been studied using extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The experimental data are consistent with a model in which zinc is coordinated by one oxygen and three nitrogen atoms with the sulphur atom of the thiazoline ring not being directly involved in the zinc coordination.  (+info)

Lack of efficacy of oral bacitracin plus doxycycline for the eradication of stool colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (2/285)

In a prospective observational cohort study designed to assess the role of oral bacitracin solution plus doxycycline in the eradication of intestinal carriage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in patients on a renal ward, rectal swab specimens were obtained from 15 treated and 24 control patients. Cultures of the rectal swabs were negative for 15 (100%) of the antibiotic-treated vs. eight (33.3%) of the untreated patients (P < .001) on day 14. However, follow-up for a mean of 127 and 130 days revealed 9 of 15 (60%) and 15 of 24 (62.5%) in the treated and untreated cohorts (P = .86), respectively, carried VREF intermittently or persistently. Quantitative VREF stool cultures in the treated cohort revealed an initial 3.1-log10/g decrease, but there was an increase to pretreatment levels at 2-4 and 5-7 weeks post-treatment (7.8 and 7.4 log10/g). Oral bacitracin and doxycycline were not efficacious in reducing the carriage of VREF beyond the 2-week interval during which they were given.  (+info)

Resistance to bacitracin as modulated by an Escherichia coli homologue of the bacitracin ABC transporter BcrC subunit from Bacillus licheniformis. (3/285)

A small open reading frame from the Escherichia coli chromosome, bcrC(EC), encodes a homologue to the BcrC subunit of the bacitracin permease from Bacillus licheniformis. We show that disruption of the chromosomal bcrC(EC) gene causes bacitracin sensitivity and, conversely, that BcrC(EC) confers bacitracin resistance when expressed from a multicopy plasmid.  (+info)

Efficacy of a new cream formulation of mupirocin: comparison with oral and topical agents in experimental skin infections. (4/285)

A new cream formulation of mupirocin developed to improve patient compliance was compared with systemic and topical antibiotics commonly used to treat primary and secondary skin infections. A mouse surgical wound model infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes was used. Topical treatment was applied at 4 and 10 h postinfection or oral treatment at a clinically relevant dose was administered 4, 8, and 12 h postinfection; treatments were continued three times daily for a further 3 days. Mupirocin cream was significantly more effective than (P < 0.01; two of eight studies) or not significantly different from (six of eight studies) mupirocin ointment in reducing bacterial numbers. Mupirocin cream was similar in efficacy to oral flucloxacillin but significantly more effective (P < 0.001) than oral erythromycin. It was also similar in efficacy to cephalexin against S. pyogenes but superior against S. aureus (P < 0.01). Mupirocin cream had a similar efficacy to fusidic acid cream against S. aureus but was significantly superior against S. pyogenes (P < 0.01). A hamster impetigo model infected with S. aureus was also used. Topical or oral treatment was administered at 24 and 30 h postinfection (also 36 h postinfection for oral therapy) and then three times daily for a further 2 days. On day 5, mupirocin cream was significantly more effective than mupirocin ointment in one study (P < 0.01) and of similar efficacy in the other two studies. Mupirocin cream was not significantly different from fusidic acid cream or neomycin-bacitracin cream, but it was significantly superior (P < 0.01) to oral erythromycin and cephalexin. Mupirocin cream was as effective as, or superior to, oral and other topical agents commonly used for skin infections.  (+info)

Structural (shape-maintaining) role of the cell surface glycoprotein of Halobacterium salinarium. (5/285)

The obligate halophile, Halobacterium salinarium, maintains a rod-shaped morphology under normal growth conditions. Lactoperoxidase(EC 1.11.1.7;donor:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase)-catalyzed iodination and treatment with proteolytic enzymes were used to demonstrate that the recently described envelope glycoprotein (Mescher, M.F. & Strominger, J.L. (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 2005-2014) is the only major cell surface component of this organism. The morphological changes that accompany alteration of the structure of the glycoprotein by growth in the presence of bacitracin or its removal with proteolytic enzymes strongly suggest that it forms a rigid matrix at the cell surface and is responsible for maintenance of the characteristic rod shape.  (+info)

Potential errors in recognition of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. (6/285)

Here we describe four isolations of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae associated with polyarthralgia and renal failure, septic arthritis, classic erysipeloid, and peritonitis. Although the biochemical identification was straightforward in each case, recognition presented a challenge to the clinical microbiologist, since in three cases E. rhusiopathiae was not initially considered due to unusual clinical presentations, in two cases the significance might not have been appreciated because growth was in broth only, and in one case the infection was thought to be polymicrobic. Because the Gram stain can be confusing, abbreviated identification schemes that do not include testing for H(2)S production could allow E. rhusiopathiae isolates to be misidentified as Lactobacillus spp. or Enterococcus spp. in atypical infections.  (+info)

The bacA gene, which determines bacitracin susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, is also required for virulence. (7/285)

Homologues of Escherichia coli bacA, encoding extremely hydrophobic proteins, were identified in the genomes of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Allelic replacement mutagenesis demonstrated that the gene is not essential for in vitro growth in either organism, and the mutants showed no significant changes in growth rate or morphology. The Staph. aureus bacA mutant showed slightly reduced virulence in a mouse model of infection and an eightfold increase in bacitracin susceptibility. However, a Strep. pneumoniae bacA mutant was highly attenuated in a mouse model of infection, and demonstrated an increase in susceptibility to bacitracin of up to 160000-fold. These observations are consistent with the previously proposed role of BacA protein as undecaprenol kinase.  (+info)

The effect of feeding diets containing permitted antibiotics on the faecal excretion of Salmonella typhimurium by experimentally infected chickens. (8/285)

Groups of 45 chickens were fed continuously on diets containing 10 or 100 mg./kg. of different 'growth-promoting' antibiotics and infected orally with a nalidixic acid-resistant mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. The amount of S. typhimurium organisms excreted in their faeces was estimated by culturing them at weekly intervals and in a standard manner on plates of brilliant green agar containing sodium nalidixate, both direct and after enrichment in selenite broth. All of four groups fed diets containing 100 mg./kg. of nitrovin in three different experiments excreted much larger amounts of S. typhimurium than did groups fed antibiotic-free diets. In some, but not all, experiments, larger amounts were also excreted by groups fed diets containing 10 mg./kg. of nitrovin or 10 or 100 mg./kg. of flavomycin or tylosin. Feeding diets containing 10 or 100 mg./kg. of virginiamycin or bacitracin either did not influence or slightly increased the amount of S. typhimiurium excreted. Two groups fed continuously on diets containing 100 or 500 mg./kg. of sulphaquinoxaline for 44 days excreted smaller amounts of the S. typhimurium organisms that did groups fed antibiotic-free diets; no sulphonamide-resistant organisms of the S. typhimurium strain were isolated from the faeces.  (+info)

'Bacillus' is a genus of rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Many species of Bacillus are capable of forming endospores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive for long periods in harsh environments. The most well-known species of Bacillus is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in animals and humans. Other species of Bacillus have industrial or agricultural importance, such as B. subtilis, which is used in the production of enzymes and antibiotics.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

"Micrococcus" is a genus of Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in pairs or tetrads. They are typically spherical in shape and range from 0.5 to 3 micrometers in diameter. Micrococci are ubiquitous in nature and can be found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals, as well as in soil, water, and air.

Micrococci are generally considered to be harmless commensals, but they have been associated with a variety of infections in immunocompromised individuals, including bacteremia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. They can also cause contamination of medical equipment and supplies, leading to nosocomial infections.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of this genus has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and many species previously classified as Micrococcus have been reassigned to other genera. As a result, the medical significance of this genus is somewhat limited.

Cycloserine is an antibiotic medication used to treat tuberculosis (TB) that is resistant to other antibiotics. It works by killing or inhibiting the growth of the bacteria that cause TB. Cycloserine is a second-line drug, which means it is used when first-line treatments have failed or are not effective.

The medical definition of Cycloserine is:

A bacteriostatic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces orchidaceus that inhibits gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by interfering with peptidoglycan synthesis in the bacterial cell wall. It has been used to treat tuberculosis, but its use is limited due to its adverse effects, including neurotoxicity, which can manifest as seizures, dizziness, and confusion. Cycloserine is also used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and other bacterial infections that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is available in oral form and is typically taken two to four times a day.

Protein Disulfide-Isomerases (PDIs) are a family of enzymes found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. They play a crucial role in the folding and maturation of proteins by catalyzing the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins. This process helps to stabilize the three-dimensional structure of proteins and is essential for their proper function. PDIs also have chaperone activity, helping to prevent protein aggregation and assisting in the correct folding of nascent polypeptides. Dysregulation of PDI function has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and diabetes.

Polyisoprenyl phosphates are a type of organic compound that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various essential biomolecules in cells. They are formed by the addition of isoprene units, which are five-carbon molecules with a branched structure, to a phosphate group.

In medical terms, polyisoprenyl phosphates are primarily known for their role as intermediates in the biosynthesis of dolichols and farnesylated proteins. Dolichols are long-chain isoprenoids that function as lipid carriers in the synthesis of glycoproteins, which are proteins that contain carbohydrate groups attached to them. Farnesylated proteins, on the other hand, are proteins that have been modified with a farnesyl group, which is a 15-carbon isoprenoid. This modification plays a role in the localization and function of certain proteins within the cell.

Abnormalities in the biosynthesis of polyisoprenyl phosphates and their downstream products have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and genetic syndromes. Therefore, understanding the biology and regulation of these compounds is an active area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Peptide synthases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between specific amino acids to produce peptides or proteins. They are responsible for the biosynthesis of many natural products, including antibiotics, bacterial toxins, and immunomodulatory peptides.

Peptide synthases are large, complex enzymes that consist of multiple domains and modules, each of which is responsible for activating and condensing specific amino acids. The activation of amino acids involves the formation of an aminoacyl-adenylate intermediate, followed by transfer of the activated amino acid to a thiol group on the enzyme. The condensation of two activated amino acids results in the formation of a peptide bond and release of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate.

Peptide synthases are found in all three domains of life, but are most commonly associated with bacteria and fungi. They play important roles in the biosynthesis of many natural products that have therapeutic potential, making them targets for drug discovery and development.

Enterococcus faecalis is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are part of the normal gut microbiota in humans and animals. It is a type of enterococci that can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, and meningitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with compromised immune systems.

E. faecalis is known for its ability to survive in a wide range of environments and resist various antibiotics, making it difficult to treat infections caused by this organism. It can also form biofilms, which further increase its resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses. Accurate identification and appropriate treatment of E. faecalis infections are essential to prevent complications and ensure positive patient outcomes.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drugs, their actions, and their uses. It involves understanding how drugs interact with biological systems to produce desired effects, as well as any adverse or unwanted effects. This includes studying the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs (often referred to as ADME), the receptors and biochemical pathways that drugs affect, and the therapeutic benefits and risks of drug use. Pharmacologists may also be involved in the development and testing of new medications.

Novobiocin is an antibiotic derived from the actinomycete species Streptomyces niveus. It belongs to the class of drugs known as aminocoumarins, which function by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase, thereby preventing DNA replication and transcription. Novobiocin has activity against a narrow range of gram-positive bacteria, including some strains of Staphylococcus aureus (particularly those resistant to penicillin and methicillin), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and certain mycobacteria. It is used primarily in the treatment of serious staphylococcal infections and is administered orally or intravenously.

It's important to note that Novobiocin has been largely replaced by other antibiotics due to its narrow spectrum of activity, potential for drug interactions, and adverse effects. It is not widely used in clinical practice today.

A reducing agent, in the context of biochemistry and medicine, is a substance that donates electrons to another molecule, thereby reducing it. This process is known as reduction, which is the opposite of oxidation. Reducing agents are often used in chemical reactions to reduce the oxidation state of other compounds. In medical terms, reducing agents may be used in various treatments and therapies, such as wound healing and antioxidant defense systems, where they help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Examples of reducing agents include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), glutathione, and certain enzymes like NADPH-dependent reductases.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Nisin is not a medical term, but a bacteriocin, which is a type of antimicrobial peptide produced by certain bacteria to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Nisin is specifically produced by some strains of the bacterium Lactococcus lactis and has been shown to be effective against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including those that cause foodborne illnesses.

Nisin is commonly used as a food preservative to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria in processed foods such as dairy products, meats, and canned goods. It is also being studied for its potential use in medical applications, such as wound healing and the treatment of bacterial infections. However, it is not currently approved for use as a drug or medical treatment in many countries, including the United States.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of membrane proteins that utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport various substrates across extra- and intracellular membranes. These transporters play crucial roles in several biological processes, including detoxification, drug resistance, nutrient uptake, and regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

The structure of ABC transporters consists of two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that bind and hydrolyze ATP, and two transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the substrate-translocation pathway. The NBDs are typically located adjacent to each other in the cytoplasm, while the TMDs can be either integral membrane domains or separate structures associated with the membrane.

The human genome encodes 48 distinct ABC transporters, which are classified into seven subfamilies (ABCA-ABCG) based on their sequence similarity and domain organization. Some well-known examples of ABC transporters include P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

Dysregulation or mutations in ABC transporters have been implicated in various diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, neurological disorders, and cancer. In cancer, overexpression of certain ABC transporters can contribute to drug resistance by actively effluxing chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells, making them less susceptible to treatment.

Agar is a substance derived from red algae, specifically from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria. It is commonly used in microbiology as a solidifying agent for culture media. Agar forms a gel at relatively low temperatures (around 40-45°C) and remains stable at higher temperatures (up to 100°C), making it ideal for preparing various types of culture media.

In addition to its use in microbiology, agar is also used in other scientific research, food industry, and even in some artistic applications due to its unique gelling properties. It is important to note that although agar is often used in the preparation of food, it is not typically consumed as a standalone ingredient by humans or animals.

'Bacillus subtilis' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and vegetation. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow with or without oxygen. This bacterium is known for its ability to form durable endospores during unfavorable conditions, which allows it to survive in harsh environments for long periods of time.

'Bacillus subtilis' has been widely studied as a model organism in microbiology and molecular biology due to its genetic tractability and rapid growth. It is also used in various industrial applications, such as the production of enzymes, antibiotics, and other bioproducts.

Although 'Bacillus subtilis' is generally considered non-pathogenic, there have been rare cases of infection in immunocompromised individuals. It is important to note that this bacterium should not be confused with other pathogenic species within the genus Bacillus, such as B. anthracis (causative agent of anthrax) or B. cereus (a foodborne pathogen).

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive, beta-hemolytic streptococcus bacterium that causes various suppurative (pus-forming) and nonsuppurative infections in humans. It is also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS) due to its ability to produce the M protein, which confers type-specific antigenicity and allows for serological classification into more than 200 distinct Lancefield groups.

S. pyogenes is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. In rare cases, it can lead to invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS).

The bacterium is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected skin lesions. Effective prevention strategies include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding sharing personal items, as well as prompt recognition and treatment of infections to prevent spread.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

Vancomycin is an antibiotic that belongs to the glycopeptide class. It is primarily used to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Vancomycin works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. It is usually administered intravenously in a hospital setting due to its potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. The medical definition of 'Vancomycin' can be summarized as:

"A glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly those that are resistant to other antibiotics. It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is administered intravenously due to its potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity."

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

Potassium isotopes refer to variants of the element potassium that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei, while having the same number of protons, which defines the element. The most common and stable potassium isotope is potassium-39 (39K), which contains 19 neutrons and 20 protons. However, there are also other naturally occurring potassium isotopes, including potassium-40 (40K) with 21 neutrons and potassium-41 (41K) with 22 neutrons.

Potassium-40 is a radioactive isotope that undergoes both beta decay and electron capture, making it useful for various scientific applications such as dating rocks and determining the age of archaeological artifacts. It has a half-life of approximately 1.25 billion years.

In medical contexts, potassium isotopes may be used in diagnostic tests or therapeutic procedures, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where radioactive potassium-40 or other radioisotopes are introduced into the body to help visualize and diagnose various conditions. However, it's important to note that the use of potassium isotopes in medical settings is relatively rare due to the availability of other more commonly used radioisotopes.

"L-forms" is not a standard medical term, but it is used in microbiology to refer to a particular state that some bacteria can take. L-form bacteria are able to survive and replicate without maintaining their cell wall, which is usually necessary for bacterial survival and reproduction. This state can be induced in the laboratory by treating bacteria with antibiotics that target the cell wall synthesis, such as penicillin. However, there is some controversy over whether L-forms play a significant role in human disease or not.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Peptidoglycan is a complex biological polymer made up of sugars and amino acids that forms a crucial component of the cell walls of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to bacterial cells, contributing to their shape and rigidity. Peptidoglycan is unique to bacterial cell walls and is not found in the cells of other organisms, such as plants, animals, or fungi.

The polymer is composed of linear chains of alternating units of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM), which are linked together by glycosidic bonds. The NAM residues contain short peptide side chains, typically consisting of four amino acids, that cross-link adjacent polysaccharide chains, forming a rigid layer around the bacterial cell.

The composition and structure of peptidoglycan can vary between different species of bacteria, which is one factor contributing to their diversity. The enzymes responsible for synthesizing and degrading peptidoglycan are important targets for antibiotics, as inhibiting these processes can weaken or kill the bacterial cells without affecting host organisms.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Dithionitrobenzoic acid is not a medical term, as it is related to chemistry rather than medicine. It is an organic compound with the formula C6H4N2O4S2. This compound is a type of benzenediol that contains two sulfur atoms and two nitro groups. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol.

Dithionitrobenzoic acid is not used directly in medical applications, but it can be used as a reagent in chemical reactions that are relevant to medical research or analysis. For example, it can be used to determine the concentration of iron in biological samples through a reaction that produces a colored complex. However, if you have any specific questions related to its use or application in a medical context, I would recommend consulting with a medical professional or a researcher in the relevant field.

Penicillin G is a type of antibiotic that belongs to the class of medications called penicillins. It is a natural antibiotic derived from the Penicillium fungus and is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Penicillin G is active against many gram-positive bacteria, as well as some gram-negative bacteria.

Penicillin G is available in various forms, including an injectable solution and a powder for reconstitution into a solution. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. Penicillin G is often used to treat serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics, such as endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), pneumonia, and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).

It's important to note that Penicillin G is not commonly used for topical or oral treatment due to its poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and instability in acidic environments. Additionally, as with all antibiotics, Penicillin G should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional to ensure appropriate use and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Food additives are substances that are added to food or drink during manufacturing or processing to perform various functions such as preservation, coloring, flavoring, enhancing taste and texture, and increasing nutritional value. These additives can be natural or synthetic and must be approved by regulatory authorities before they can be used in food products. Examples of food additives include salt, sugar, vinegar, spices, artificial flavors, preservatives, emulsifiers, and food dyes. It is important to note that some people may have allergies or sensitivities to certain food additives, and excessive consumption of some additives may have negative health effects.

Pyrophosphatases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis or cleavage of pyrophosphate (PPi) into two inorganic phosphate (Pi) molecules. This reaction is essential for many biochemical processes, such as energy metabolism and biosynthesis pathways, where pyrophosphate is generated as a byproduct. By removing the pyrophosphate, pyrophosphatases help drive these reactions forward and maintain the thermodynamic equilibrium.

There are several types of pyrophosphatases found in various organisms and cellular compartments, including:

1. Inorganic Pyrophosphatase (PPiase): This enzyme is widely distributed across all kingdoms of life and is responsible for hydrolyzing inorganic pyrophosphate into two phosphates. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the cellular energy balance by ensuring that the reverse reaction, the formation of pyrophosphate from two phosphates, does not occur spontaneously.
2. Nucleotide Pyrophosphatases: These enzymes hydrolyze the pyrophosphate bond in nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) and deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), converting them into nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) or deoxynucleoside monophosphates (dNMPs). This reaction is important for regulating the levels of NTPs and dNTPs in cells, which are necessary for DNA and RNA synthesis.
3. ATPases and GTPases: These enzymes belong to a larger family of P-loop NTPases that use the energy released from pyrophosphate bond hydrolysis to perform mechanical work or transport ions across membranes. Examples include the F1F0-ATP synthase, which synthesizes ATP using a proton gradient, and various molecular motors like myosin, kinesin, and dynein, which move along cytoskeletal filaments.

Overall, pyrophosphatases are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating the levels of nucleotides and providing energy for various cellular processes.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Anti-infective agents, local, are medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. These agents include topical antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and anti-parasitic drugs. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the infectious organisms, thereby preventing their spread and reducing the risk of infection. Local anti-infective agents are often used to treat skin infections, eye infections, and other localized infections, and can be administered as creams, ointments, gels, solutions, or drops.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Neomycin is an antibiotic drug derived from the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae. It belongs to the class of aminoglycoside antibiotics and works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Neomycin is primarily used topically (on the skin or mucous membranes) due to its poor absorption into the bloodstream when taken orally. It is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Medical definitions for Neomycin include:

1. An antibiotic (aminoglycoside) derived from Streptomyces fradiae, used primarily for topical application in the treatment of superficial infections, burns, and wounds. It is not usually used systemically due to its potential ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
2. A medication (generic name) available as a cream, ointment, solution, or powder, often combined with other active ingredients such as bacitracin and polymyxin B for broader-spectrum antibacterial coverage. Neomycin is used to treat various skin conditions, including eczema, dermatitis, and minor cuts or abrasions.
3. A component of some over-the-counter products (e.g., ear drops, eye drops) intended for the treatment of external otitis, swimmer's ear, or bacterial conjunctivitis. It is crucial to follow the instructions carefully and avoid using neomycin-containing products for extended periods or in larger quantities than recommended, as this may increase the risk of antibiotic resistance and potential side effects.

In summary, Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic primarily used topically for treating various superficial bacterial infections due to its effectiveness against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It should be used cautiously and as directed to minimize the risk of side effects and antibiotic resistance.

Chemical fractionation is a process used in analytical chemistry to separate and isolate individual components or fractions from a mixture based on their chemical properties. This technique typically involves the use of various chemical reactions, such as precipitation, extraction, or chromatography, to selectively interact with specific components in the mixture and purify them.

In the context of medical research or clinical analysis, chemical fractionation may be used to isolate and identify individual compounds in a complex biological sample, such as blood, urine, or tissue. For example, fractionating a urine sample might involve separating out various metabolites, proteins, or other molecules based on their solubility, charge, or other chemical properties, allowing researchers to study the individual components and their roles in health and disease.

It's worth noting that while chemical fractionation can be a powerful tool for analyzing complex mixtures, it can also be time-consuming and technically challenging, requiring specialized equipment and expertise to perform accurately and reliably.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Bacitracin is an antibiotic drug that is primarily used topically, in the form of ointments or creams, to prevent and treat skin infections caused by bacteria. It works by inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis necessary for their growth and multiplication. Bacitracin is not typically used systemically due to its potential nephrotoxicity (kidney toxicity) when given internally.

The medical definition of 'Bacitracin' is:

A polypeptide antibiotic derived from a strain of Bacillus subtilis, with a molecular weight of about 1450 daltons. It is used topically for its antibacterial properties and is often combined with other agents such as neomycin and polymyxin B in ointments or creams to treat skin infections. Bacitracin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by blocking the transfer of amino acids during peptidoglycan formation, thereby exerting a bacteriostatic effect on susceptible organisms. It is not used systemically due to its potential nephrotoxicity.

Pharyngitis is the medical term for inflammation of the pharynx, which is the back portion of the throat. This condition is often characterized by symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and scratchiness in the throat. Pharyngitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections (such as the common cold), bacterial infections (such as strep throat), and irritants (such as smoke or chemical fumes). Treatment for pharyngitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications to relieve symptoms or antibiotics to treat a bacterial infection.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Bacteria do not produce spores; instead, it is fungi and other types of microorganisms that produce spores for reproduction and survival purposes. Spores are essentially reproductive cells that are resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive under harsh conditions.

If you meant to ask about endospores, those are produced by some bacteria as a protective mechanism during times of stress or nutrient deprivation. Endospores are highly resistant structures containing bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes. They can survive for long periods in extreme environments and germinate into vegetative cells when conditions improve.

Here's the medical definition of endospores:

Endospores (also called bacterial spores) are highly resistant, dormant structures produced by certain bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They contain a core of bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes surrounded by a protective layer called the spore coat. Endospores can survive under harsh conditions for extended periods and germinate into vegetative cells when favorable conditions return. Common examples of endospore-forming bacteria include Bacillus species (such as B. anthracis, which causes anthrax) and Clostridium species (such as C. difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea).

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Polymyxin B is an antibiotic derived from the bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa. It belongs to the class of polypeptide antibiotics and has a cyclic structure with a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region, which allows it to interact with and disrupt the bacterial cell membrane. Polymyxin B is primarily active against gram-negative bacteria, including many multidrug-resistant strains. It is used clinically to treat serious infections caused by these organisms, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. However, its use is limited due to potential nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity.

'Clostridium perfringens' is a type of Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including in soil, decaying vegetation, and the intestines of humans and animals. It is a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, producing several toxins that can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting.

The bacterium can contaminate food during preparation or storage, particularly meat and poultry products. When ingested, the spores of C. perfringens can germinate and produce large numbers of toxin-producing cells in the intestines, leading to food poisoning. The most common form of C. perfringens food poisoning is characterized by symptoms that appear within 6 to 24 hours after ingestion and last for less than 24 hours.

In addition to foodborne illness, C. perfringens can also cause other types of infections, such as gas gangrene, a serious condition that can occur when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxins that damage surrounding tissues. Gas gangrene is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement or amputation of affected tissue.

Prevention measures for C. perfringens food poisoning include proper cooking, handling, and storage of food, as well as rapid cooling of cooked foods to prevent the growth of the bacterium.

A protoplast is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions, but rather it is a term commonly used in cell biology and botany. A protoplast refers to a plant or bacterial cell that has had its cell wall removed, leaving only the plasma membrane and the cytoplasmic contents, including organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, and other cellular structures.

Protoplasts can be created through enzymatic or mechanical means to isolate the intracellular components for various research purposes, such as studying membrane transport, gene transfer, or cell fusion. In some cases, protoplasts may be used in medical research, particularly in areas related to plant pathology and genetic engineering of plants for medical applications.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Reagent strips, also known as diagnostic or test strips, are narrow pieces of plastic material that have been impregnated with chemical reagents. They are used in the qualitative or semi-quantitative detection of various substances, such as glucose, proteins, ketones, blood, and white blood cells, in body fluids like urine or blood.

Reagent strips typically contain multiple pad areas, each with a different reagent that reacts to a specific substance. To perform the test, a small amount of the fluid is applied to the strip, and the reaction between the reagents and the target substance produces a visible color change. The resulting color can then be compared to a standardized color chart to determine the concentration or presence of the substance.

Reagent strips are widely used in point-of-care testing, providing quick and convenient results for healthcare professionals and patients alike. They are commonly used for monitoring conditions such as diabetes (urine or blood glucose levels), urinary tract infections (leukocytes and nitrites), and kidney function (protein and blood).

Peptide hydrolases, also known as proteases or peptidases, are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins and peptides. They play a crucial role in various biological processes such as protein degradation, digestion, cell signaling, and regulation of various physiological functions. Based on their catalytic mechanism and the specificity for the peptide bond, they are classified into several types, including serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases. These enzymes have important clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, and inflammatory disorders.

Streptococcal infections are a type of infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes). These bacteria can cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild skin infections to serious and potentially life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease).

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

* Streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) - an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes.
* Impetigo - a highly contagious skin infection that causes sores or blisters on the skin.
* Cellulitis - a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, pain, and warmth in the affected area.
* Scarlet fever - a streptococcal infection that causes a bright red rash on the body, high fever, and sore throat.
* Necrotizing fasciitis - a rare but serious bacterial infection that can cause tissue death and destruction of the muscles and fascia (the tissue that covers the muscles).

Treatment for streptococcal infections typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect a streptococcal infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.

Diphosphates, also known as pyrophosphates, are chemical compounds that contain two phosphate groups joined together by an oxygen atom. The general formula for a diphosphate is P~PO3~2-, where ~ represents a bond. Diphosphates play important roles in various biological processes, such as energy metabolism and cell signaling. In the context of nutrition, diphosphates can be found in some foods, including milk and certain vegetables.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism against other competing bacterial strains. They primarily target and inhibit the growth of closely related bacterial species, although some have a broader spectrum of activity. Bacteriocins can be classified into different types based on their structural features, molecular masses, and mechanisms of action.

These antimicrobial peptides often interact with the cell membrane of target bacteria, causing pore formation, depolarization, or disrupting cell wall biosynthesis, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Bacteriocins have gained interest in recent years as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics due to their narrow spectrum of activity and reduced likelihood of inducing resistance. They are being explored for use in food preservation, agricultural applications, and as therapeutic agents in the medical field.

Multienzyme complexes are specialized protein structures that consist of multiple enzymes closely associated or bound together, often with other cofactors and regulatory subunits. These complexes facilitate the sequential transfer of substrates along a series of enzymatic reactions, also known as a metabolic pathway. By keeping the enzymes in close proximity, multienzyme complexes enhance reaction efficiency, improve substrate specificity, and maintain proper stoichiometry between different enzymes involved in the pathway. Examples of multienzyme complexes include the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the citrate synthase complex, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.

Hemolysis is the destruction or breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid (plasma). This process can occur due to various reasons such as chemical agents, infections, autoimmune disorders, mechanical trauma, or genetic abnormalities. Hemolysis may lead to anemia and jaundice, among other complications. It is essential to monitor hemolysis levels in patients undergoing medical treatments that might cause this condition.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics derived from the Penicillium fungus. They are widely used to treat various bacterial infections due to their bactericidal activity, which means they kill bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. The first penicillin, benzylpenicillin (also known as penicillin G), was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Since then, numerous semi-synthetic penicillins have been developed to expand the spectrum of activity and stability against bacterial enzymes that can inactivate these drugs.

Penicillins are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and spectrum of activity:

1. Natural Penicillins (e.g., benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin): These have a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly targeting Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci. However, they are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some bacteria.
2. Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins (e.g., methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin): These penicillins resist degradation by certain bacterial beta-lactamases and are primarily used to treat infections caused by staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).
3. Aminopenicillins (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin): These penicillins have an extended spectrum of activity compared to natural penicillins, including some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. However, they are still susceptible to degradation by many beta-lactamases.
4. Antipseudomonal Penicillins (e.g., carbenicillin, ticarcillin): These penicillins have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria with increased resistance to other antibiotics. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate or tazobactam to protect them from degradation.
5. Extended-spectrum Penicillins (e.g., piperacillin): These penicillins have a broad spectrum of activity, including many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors to protect them from degradation.

Penicillins are generally well-tolerated antibiotics; however, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Cross-reactivity between different penicillin classes and other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins) is possible but varies depending on the specific drugs involved.

Vancomycin resistance refers to the ability of certain bacteria to resist the antibiotic effects of vancomycin, which is a glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat severe infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. This resistance develops due to genetic changes that result in the alteration of the bacterial cell wall, making it difficult for vancomycin to bind and inhibit bacterial growth.

There are several types of vancomycin resistance mechanisms, with the most common ones being VanA, VanB, VanC, VanD, VanE, and VanG. Among these, VanA and VanB are clinically significant as they confer high-level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin, another glycopeptide antibiotic.

Vancomycin-resistant bacteria can cause various difficult-to-treat infections, such as urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. These infections often occur in healthcare settings, including hospitals and long-term care facilities, where the use of antibiotics is more frequent. The spread of vancomycin resistance is a significant public health concern, as it limits treatment options for severe bacterial infections and can lead to worse patient outcomes.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

Polyenes are a group of antibiotics that contain a long, unsaturated hydrocarbon chain with alternating double and single bonds. They are characterized by their ability to bind to ergosterol, a steroid found in fungal cell membranes, forming pores that increase the permeability of the membrane and lead to fungal cell death.

The most well-known polyene antibiotic is amphotericin B, which is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis. Other polyenes include nystatin and natamycin, which are primarily used to treat topical fungal infections of the skin or mucous membranes.

While polyenes are effective antifungal agents, they can also cause significant side effects, particularly when used systemically. These may include kidney damage, infusion reactions, and electrolyte imbalances. Therefore, their use is typically reserved for severe fungal infections that are unresponsive to other treatments.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

A genomic library is a collection of cloned DNA fragments that represent the entire genetic material of an organism. It serves as a valuable resource for studying the function, organization, and regulation of genes within a given genome. Genomic libraries can be created using different types of vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), or plasmids, to accommodate various sizes of DNA inserts. These libraries facilitate the isolation and manipulation of specific genes or genomic regions for further analysis, including sequencing, gene expression studies, and functional genomics research.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is a gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic bacterium frequently found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. It is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can also cause other infectious diseases such as otitis media (ear infection), sinusitis, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection). The bacteria are encapsulated, and there are over 90 serotypes based on variations in the capsular polysaccharide. Some serotypes are more virulent or invasive than others, and the polysaccharide composition is crucial for vaccine development. S. pneumoniae infection can be treated with antibiotics, but the emergence of drug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

An insulin receptor is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells, primarily in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. It plays a crucial role in regulating glucose metabolism in the body. When insulin binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that promote the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells, as well as the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or fat.

Insulin receptors are composed of two extracellular alpha subunits and two transmembrane beta subunits, which are linked together by disulfide bonds. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunits activates the tyrosine kinase activity of the beta subunits, leading to the phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and the initiation of downstream signaling pathways.

Abnormalities in insulin receptor function or number can contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of gram-positive, round (coccal) bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals and humans. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections, from mild skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, and furuncles (boils) to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. It can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

The bacterium is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin, which has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are difficult to treat. Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices are critical in preventing the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

We have called this active principle "Bacitracin. Bacitracin was approved by the US FDA in 1948. Bacitracin is synthesised via ... Notable fractions include bacitracin A, A1, B, B1, B2, C, D, E, F, G, and X. Bacitracin A has been found to have the most ... Bacitracin B1 and B2 have similar potencies and are approximately 90% as active as bacitracin A. Some have claimed that ... Bacitracin is used in human medicine as a polypeptide antibiotic and is "approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ...
... (TSBV) is a type of agar plate medium used in microbiological testing to select for ... Per litre, TSBV contains: 40 g tryptic soy agar 1 g yeast extract 100 mL horse serum 75 mg bacitracin 5 mg vancomycin "Tryptic ... Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin Agar (TSBV)". Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2010-02-16. van Steenbergen, ...
"BACITRACIN- bacitracin injection". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 10 September 2019. "Xellia to produce Civica ... including Vancomycin and Bacitracin. The company's US base of operations is in Buffalo Grove, Illinois, with additional ...
2005 - Corticosteroids 2004 - Cocamidopropyl betaine 2003 - Bacitracin 2002 - Thimerosal 2001 - Gold 2000 - Disperse Blue Dyes ... http://www.the-dermatologist.com/content/focus-on-bacitracin-allergen-year-2003 Sood, A; Taylor, J. S. (2003). "Bacitracin: ... 2003). Focus On: Bacitracin Allergen of the Year 2003. The Dermatologist. ...
Wrinch DM (1957). "Structure of Bacitracin A". Nature. 179 (4558): 536-537. Bibcode:1957Natur.179..536W. doi:10.1038/179536a0. ...
It is also available as the combinations bacitracin/polymyxin B and neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin for use on the skin. Common ... "Neomycin, bacitracin, polymyxin b ointment". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 19 April 2019. Woo TM, ...
Bacitracin, from Bacillus subtilis (Tracy strain). Gramicidin, from Brevibacillus brevis. Polymyxin, from Paenibacillus ...
"Neomycin, Polymyxin, Bacitracin, and Hydrocortisone Topical". MedlinePlus Drug Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine. ... For example, it could be used together with antibiotics such as polymyxin, neomycin and bacitracin to improve dermal conditions ...
... bacitracin, and fosfomycin.". In Giguère S, Prescott JF, Dowling PM (eds.). Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine. Wiley ...
Bacitracin use as an irrigation solution and topical bacitracin use after rhinoplasty procedures have also produced rare cases ... As a result, further studies of Bacitracin treatment in Impetigo, and to compare vancomycin and bacitracin are required. ... Bacitracin has been used in clinical practice mainly as a topical medication due to its toxicity being too high for parental ... However, use of bacitracin as a topical or ophthalmic medication is considered relatively safe during breastfeeding, due to the ...
The organism is sensitive to bacitracin and novobiocin. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance was determined using the agar ...
Pons M, Feliz M, Antònia Molins M, Giralt E (May 1991). "Conformational analysis of bacitracin A, a naturally occurring lariat ...
Such drugs include other aminoglycosides; the antiviral acyclovir; the antifungal amphotericin B; the antibiotics bacitracin, ...
It has a similar process of cell wall disruption as bacitracin, resulting with lysis of cells. While Bacitracin and clomiphene ... Bacitracin is an example of one of these antibiotics. It is a generic topical cream used for "cuts, scrapes, and burns", ... Nguyen, Rosalee; Khanna, Niloufar R.; Safadi, Anthony O.; Sun, Yan (2022), "Bacitracin Topical", StatPearls, Treasure Island ( ...
Several antibiotics, e.g. bacitracin, contain D-amino acid residues. Phaeobacter sp. JL2886, a deep sea strain, that was ...
Sensitivity to novobiocin, bacitracin, anisomycin, aphidicolin, and rifampicin have been observed. However, no sensitivity has ...
Over time, the bacteria synthesizes bacitracin and secretes the antibiotic into the medium. The bacitracin is then extracted ... The antibiotic bacitracin was first isolated from a variety of Bacillus licheniformis named "Tracy I" in 1945, then considered ... Johnson BA, Anker H, Meleney FL (October 1945). "Bacitracin: a new antibiotic produced by a member of the B. subtilis group". ...
The topical antibiotic bacitracin targets the utilization of C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate. Lantibiotics, which includes the food ...
Other popular recommendations include triple dye, betadine, bacitracin, or silver sulfadiazine. With regards to the medicinal ...
The enzyme has been implicated in conferring resistance to the antibiotic bacitracin. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... which determines bacitracin susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, is also required for ...
Topical antibiotics used may be a triple antibiotic ointment, bacitracin, or mupirocin. In patients failing topical treatment ...
Stone, K. John; Strominger, Jack L. (December 1971). "Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin: Complexation with Metal Ion and C55- ...
Sensitivity, as of 2003, is still found in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin and bacitracin. Bergan T, Bøvre K, Hovig B ...
They studied claviformin, proactinomycin, helvolic acid, mycophenolic acid, hirsutic acid, bacitracin and micrococcin. In 1949 ...
OFPBL contains polymyxin (which kills most Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and bacitracin (which ... oxidation-fermentation polymyxin-bacitracin-lactose (OFPBL) agar can be used. ...
... with the addition of bacitracin becomes selective for the genus Haemophilus. Another variant of chocolate agar ...
Topical antibiotics, such as mupirocin or neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin ointment may be prescribed. Oral antibiotics may also ...
They are: cephalosporins, carbapenems, aztreonam, clindamycin, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, bacitracin, doxycycline, ...
It is resistant to novobiocin, bacitracin, vibriostatic agent O/129, lysozyme, metronidazole, and optochin. It is susceptible ...
Species in this genus are resistant to bacitracin and lysozyme and sensitive to furazolidone. The DNA base content is 38-45 mol ...
We have called this active principle "Bacitracin. Bacitracin was approved by the US FDA in 1948. Bacitracin is synthesised via ... Notable fractions include bacitracin A, A1, B, B1, B2, C, D, E, F, G, and X. Bacitracin A has been found to have the most ... Bacitracin B1 and B2 have similar potencies and are approximately 90% as active as bacitracin A. Some have claimed that ... Bacitracin is used in human medicine as a polypeptide antibiotic and is "approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ...
Small amounts of bacitracin are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. ... Bacitracin is an antibiotic medicine. It is used to kill germs that cause infections. ... Eating bacitracin in large amounts may cause stomach pain and vomiting.. In rare cases, bacitracin can cause an allergic ... Bacitracin is an antibiotic medicine. It is used to kill germs that cause infections. Small amounts of bacitracin are dissolved ...
BACITRACIN (UNII: 58H6RWO52I) (BACITRACIN - UNII:58H6RWO52I) BACITRACIN. 500 [iU] in 1 g. ... BACITRACIN ointment. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will be ... BACITRACIN ointment. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. https:// ...
Bacitracin and polymyxin B belong to the class of medicines known as antibiotics. They work by killing the bacteria or ... Bacitracin and polymyxin B combination is used to treat eye infections affecting the conjunctiva or cornea. ... No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of bacitracin and polymyxin B combination in pediatric ... No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of bacitracin and polymyxin B combination in geriatric ...
Can Bacitracin Treat Rashes?. Well folks, this one isnt so cut and dry. While bacitracin can be effective in treating certain ... What is Bacitracin?. Bacitracin is an antibiotic that comes from the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. It works by inhibiting ... Is bacitracin good for rashes?. 23 Apr, 2023 by Dane Raynor Are you tired of those pesky rashes ruining your day? Have no fear ... In fact, using bacitracin on non-bacterial related rashes might even make them worse since it can cause allergic reactions or ...
... off Bacitracin Sterile at the pharmacy. Coupons, discounts, and promos updated 2021. ... Get Bacitracin Sterile Coupon Card by print, email or text and save up to 51% ... Claim your free Bacitracin Sterile discount. *. Click the Get free coupon button to receive your free Bacitracin Sterile ... Bacitracin Sterile Coupon & Discounts. Save on Bacitracin Sterile at your pharmacy with the free discount below. ...
The absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity of bacitracin in man. Am J Med Sci. 1949 Abstract ... Neosporin Ointment™. Contains other elements than Bacitracin-Zinc in its composition *Phonal comprimidos para chupar™. Contains ... Bacitraycin Plus™. Contains other elements than Bacitracin-Zinc in its composition *Cortisporin Ointment™. Contains other ... elements than Bacitracin-Zinc in its composition *Dermisone Tri Antibiotic™. Contains other elements than Bacitracin-Zinc in ...
Bacitracin and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria.. Bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic may also be used for ... How to take AK-Poly-Bac (Bacitracin Polymyxin B Ophthalmic)?. Use AK-Poly-Bac (Bacitracin Polymyxin B Ophthalmic) exactly as ... AK-Poly-Bac (Bacitracin Polymyxin B Ophthalmic). Generic Name:Bacitracin and polymyxin b ophthalmic ... Do not use bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic if you have a viral or fungal infection in your eye. This medicine treats only ...
We show the trends of usage of the word bacitracin ointment in literature and the internet. ... In the chart below, we show the trends of usage of the word bacitracin ointment in literature and the internet. The usage ... patterns indicate the proportion of the word bacitracin ointment in the set of all words found in various language resources. ...
The Dried Disc Technique with Bacitracin, Carbomycin, Erythromycin, Polymyxin B, and Tetracycline ... The Dried Disc Technique with Bacitracin, Carbomycin, Erythromycin, Polymyxin B, and Tetracycline ...
... bacitracin and lidocaine topical), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & ... Topical pain dosing for CVS Bacitracin With Pain Relief ( ... CVS Bacitracin With Pain Relief)) and bacitracin and lidocaine ... bacitracin and lidocaine topical (OTC). Brand and Other Names:CVS Bacitracin With Pain Relief ... Bacitracin: Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis, by preventing the incorporation of amino acids and nucleotides into the ...
Wholesale LUCKY ANTI-BAC W/BACITRACIN OINTMENT 24/.5OZ for local, national and international discount, convenience, dollar, ... Wholesale LUCKY ANTI-BAC W/BACITRACIN OINTMENT 24/.5OZ. OINTMENTS AND CREAMS - LUCKY ANTI-BAC OINTMENT WITH BACITRACIN 24/.5OZ ... LUCKY ANTI-BAC W/BACITRACIN OINTMENT 24/.5OZ. Order Guide Line No. ---------- Product Code. 10374L UPC Code. 808829103748 ...
From modules to networks: A systems--level analysis of the bacitracin stress response in Bacillus subtilis. mSystems. 2020 Feb ... From modules to networks: A systems--level analysis of the bacitracin stress response in Bacillus subtilis. In: mSystems. 2020 ... From modules to networks: A systems--level analysis of the bacitracin stress response in Bacillus subtilis. / Piepenbreier, ... Dive into the research topics of From modules to networks: A systems--level analysis of the bacitracin stress response in ...
Bacitracin, Colistin, Polymyxin B - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... Polypeptide Antibiotics: Bacitracin, Colistin, Polymyxin B By Brian J. Werth , PharmD, University of Washington School of ... Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis and is active against gram-positive bacteria. ... Bacitracin may pose minimal risk during pregnancy and breastfeeding because systemic absorption is minimal; however, safety has ...
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Bacitracin ointment is used to prevent harmful skin infections caused by small cuts or burns. Bacitracin is an antibiotic that ... Avoid contact of bacitracin ointment with eyes, lips, mouth, nasal cavities.. Take bacitracin ointment regularly to make it ... Contraindications to the use of bacitracin ointment. Note the expiration date of bacitracin ointment and do not take it if your ... Do not use bacitracin ointment on large areas of skin.. Do not use this ointment for serious skin infections. Ask your doctor ...
Binding of nickel and zinc ions to bacitracin A. (2) Roth, R.A. (1981) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 98, 431-438. Bacitracin: ... Bacitracin BioChemica. Specifications:. Activity: min. 60 IU/mg. Solubility (1 %; H2O): clear, yellow. pH (1 %; H2O; 20°C): 6.0 ...
Find information on Bacitracin in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, ... "Bacitracin." Daviss Drug Guide, 18th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2023. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency ... Davis-Drug-Guide/109628/all/bacitracin. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Bacitracin. Daviss Drug Guide. F.A. Davis ... Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C. A., & Quiring, C. (2023). Bacitracin. In Daviss Drug Guide (18th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. https ...
Bacitracin Zinc Zinc bacitracin,Bacitracin zinc salt,杆菌肽锌. Antibacterial , c-Met/HGFR , Antibiotic ... Zinc bacitracin 是 C55-异戊二烯焦磷酸酯的去磷酸化干扰物,可抑制 Met-enkephalin 中 Tyr
Bacitracin is bitter and must be specially prepared in capsule form to prevent nausea. This agent is administered PO, and it is ... Bacitracin inhibits the formation of major components of the bacterial cell wall and is bactericidal. This agent is used as an ...
Since 1975, Ofichem has been committed to improving human and animal health with its APIs. In doing so, it sets high standards for its APIs and services.
Dont see the correct size, strength or format of your medication? We continuously update our prescription drug selections and it is possible that this product has not yet been updated on our website. Please contact us at [email protected] or call 1-877-966-0567 and well be able to help you ...
by Meghan Smallwood , May 27, 2021 , Personal Care, Uncategorized. Neosporin is a medicine cabinet staple for most families. I know growing up myself, Neosporin was a go to anytime I got a cut. But is it safe and is there a better option? Here are some alternatives! First, lets talk about why we skip Neosporin in our ...
500 units of Bacitracin per gram SIZE 3.5g tube , 1g tube INDICATIONS For the treatment of superficial ocular infections ... Bacitracin (ung) DOSAGE Conjunctivitis/Cornea keratitis:1 cm strip in conjunctival sac qD to TID x 7 days. Consider Maxitrol ... Overuse of bacitracin alone and as a combination drug is thought to have contributed to the rise of MRSA. Other trade-name: AK- ... Not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to Bacitracin. Allergenicity is "practically non-existent" PEDIATRIC ...
... , Antibiotics , Sky Dental Supply ... Dynarex Bacitracin Ointment helps prevent infection in minor cuts, scrapes and burns, as well as inhibits bacterial growth. ... https://www.skydentalsupply.com/bacitracin-ointment-usp.htm?params[sent]=1 Please fill up missing fields below. Value entered ...
The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for statistical purposes. The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes. Without a subpoena, voluntary compliance on the part of your Internet Service Provider, or additional records from a third party, information stored or retrieved for this purpose alone cannot usually be used to identify you. ...
Bacitracin. Bacitracin. July 22, 2020. by Data Trace Editor - Discussion:. - is bactericidal antibiotic active only against Gm ... bacitracin in concentrations as low as 50,000 units/L and polymyxin in concentrations as low as 50 mg/liter sterilized all ... The use of bacitracin irrigation to prevent infection in postoperative skeletal wounds. An experimental study. ... Intraoperative anaphylactic shock associated with bacitracin irrigation during revision total knee arthroplasty. A case report. ...
Dynarex Bacitracin Ointment is an antibiotic ointment designed to help prevent infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns by ... Bacitracin Ointment 0.9g foil pack. Dynarex Bacitracin Ointment is an antibiotic ointment designed to help prevent infection in ... Bacitracin Ointment 0.9g foil pack. Dynarex Bacitracin Ointment is an antibiotic ointment designed to help prevent infection in ... Bacitracin Ointment 0.9g foil pack (Per Pack). $0.20. * ... SKU: 4-1161 Bacitracin Ointment 0.9g foil pack Categories: BYOK ...
  • As bacitracin zinc salt, in combination with other topical antibiotics (usually polymyxin B and neomycin) as an ointment ("triple antibiotic ointment," with the brand name Neosporin), it is used for topical treatment of a variety of localized skin and eye infections, as well as for the prevention of wound infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the chart below, we show the trends of usage of the word 'bacitracin ointment' in literature and the internet. (shabdkosh.com)
  • The usage patterns indicate the proportion of the word 'bacitracin ointment' in the set of all words found in various language resources. (shabdkosh.com)
  • Bacitracin ointment is used to prevent harmful skin infections caused by small cuts or burns. (marsoclinic.com)
  • If you need more information about bacitracin eye ointment, refer to the relevant page. (marsoclinic.com)
  • Before using bacitracin ointment, wash and dry the affected area thoroughly and then apply the ointment on the affected area. (marsoclinic.com)
  • Wash and dry your hands before and after using bacitracin ointment to prevent the spread of infection. (marsoclinic.com)
  • Take bacitracin ointment regularly to make it work for you. (marsoclinic.com)
  • Do not use bacitracin ointment on large areas of skin. (marsoclinic.com)
  • Note the expiration date of bacitracin ointment and do not take it if your medicine has expired. (marsoclinic.com)
  • Check for drug interactions with bacitracin ointment, and if you are using a drug that interacts with this drug, talk to your doctor about using your medications. (marsoclinic.com)
  • Consult your doctor if you have any other symptoms that you feel are due to the use of bacitracin ointment. (marsoclinic.com)
  • Dynarex Bacitracin Ointment helps prevent infection in minor cuts, scrapes and burns, as well as inhibits bacterial growth. (skydentalsupply.com)
  • Bacitracin Antibiotic ointment 0.9g s. (sostechnologies.ca)
  • Dynarex Bacitracin Ointment is an antibiotic ointment designed to help prevent infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns by inhibiting bacterial growth. (wheatonarms.com)
  • INDICATIONS: Bacitracin First aid Antibiotic Ointment to help prevent infection in: minor cuts, scrapes, burns. (storkz.com)
  • Dynarex Bacitracin Zinc Ointment from IndeMedical.com is used to prevent minor skin infections caused by small cuts, scrapes or burns. (indemedical.com)
  • Bacitracin, Neomycin Sulfate, Polymyxin B Sulfate Ointment consists three active ingredients namely Neomycin sulfate,Polymyxin b and Bacitracin. (drlact.com)
  • Bacitracin, Neomycin Sulfate, Polymyxin B Sulfate Ointment in lactation but also recommend you to go through the analysis of all three ingredients as below. (drlact.com)
  • The patient's right nostril was packed with 6 ft of Vaseline gauze (Sherwood Medical, St. Louis, MO) placed within the finger of a latex glove coated with bacitracin ointment. (silverchair.com)
  • Bacitracin vs Mupirocin (Bactroban) - Which Is The Best Ointment For Wound Healing? (healthguidenet.com)
  • People who are sensitive to neomycin, another antibiotic that is used on the skin, may also be sensitive to bacitracin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chemotherapy for giardiasis: randomized clinical trial of bacitracin, bacitracin zinc, and a combination of bacitracin zinc with neomycin. (antiinfectivemeds.com)
  • [2] It is also available as the combinations bacitracin/polymyxin B and neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin for use on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kei te waatea te Neosporin i roto i te momo waitohu me te momo-ka kite pea koe i tapaina ia hei hinu rongoa paturopi takitoru Kei roto i te Neosporin te bacitracin, me te polymyxin B sulfate me te neomycin, ko te ingoa tenei o te toru o nga rongoā paturopi, na te mea e toru nga paturopi i roto. (covidografia.pt)
  • Kei roto ko te bacitracin, polymyxin B, me te neomycin, kei te waatea i roto i nga momo waitohu me nga hinu panui, aihikirimi ranei. (covidografia.pt)
  • Ko te Polysporin he hinu 'rongoā paturopi takirua' kei roto te whakauru o te bacitracin me te polymyxin B, engari kaore he neomycin kei roto i te tuatoru o nga whakauru i roto i te Neosporin e toru nga kirikiri paturopi. (covidografia.pt)
  • Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacitracin is used in human medicine as a polypeptide antibiotic and is "approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in chickens and turkeys," though use in animals contributes to antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis and is active against gram-positive bacteria. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bacitracin is synthesised via nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), which means that ribosomes are not directly involved in its synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the response of Bacillus subtilis toward the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotic bacitracin, we developed a mathematical model that comprehensively describes the protective effect of two well-studied resistance modules (BceAB and BcrC) on the progression of the lipid II cycle. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Bacitracin prevents the transfer of mucopeptides into the growing cell wall, which causes inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • Small amounts of bacitracin are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bacitracin is an antibiotic that comes from the bacteria Bacillus subtilis . (dane101.com)
  • Bacitracin and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Bacitracin is an antibiotic that stops the growth of certain bacteria. (marsoclinic.com)
  • Bacitracin works by stopping the growth of certain bacteria and is considered a antibiotic. (indemedical.com)
  • Bacitracin works by stopping the growth of bacteria. (healthguidenet.com)
  • Bacitracin is primarily used as a topical preparation, as it can cause kidney damage when used internally. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report a case of life-threatening anaphylaxis after topical application of bacitracin to the nasal mucosa at the conclusion of an anesthetic. (silverchair.com)
  • 1 tube of Neosporin or Bacitracin (topical antibiotic). (cdc.gov)
  • Bacitracin and polymyxin B belong to the class of medicines known as antibiotics. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This product utilizes the high-affinity antibodies against Bacitracin, Levofloxacin, Trimethoprim,Pirlimycin, Lincomycin antibiotics, which can easily identify these potentially hazardous substances in milk without any instrument. (ringbio.com)
  • He rite ki te bacitracin me te Neosporin he hua ingoa-ingoa ko Polysporin. (covidografia.pt)
  • Bacitracin and polymyxin B combination is used to treat eye infections affecting the conjunctiva or cornea. (mayoclinic.org)
  • While bacitracin can be effective in treating certain types of rashes caused by bacterial infections (such as impetigo), it won't do much for other types of rashes like heat rash or poison ivy. (dane101.com)
  • Bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic (for the eyes) is a combination medicine used to treat bacterial infections of the eyes or eyelids. (everydayhealth.com)
  • For the treatment of superficial ocular infections involving the conjunctiva and/or cornea caused by Bacitracin susceptible organisms. (odclinicals.com)
  • For the treatment of bacterial infections susceptible to bacitracin such as infections due to Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus spp. (pharmgate.com)
  • Bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic is not approved for use by anyone younger than 18 years old. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Do not use bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic if you have a viral or fungal infection in your eye. (everydayhealth.com)
  • You should not use bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic to treat any eye infection that has not been checked by your doctor. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Can I take AK-Poly-Bac (Bacitracin Polymyxin B Ophthalmic) if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (everydayhealth.com)
  • Use AK-Poly-Bac (Bacitracin Polymyxin B Ophthalmic) exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In rare cases, bacitracin can cause an allergic reaction , often redness and itching of the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In fact, using bacitracin on non-bacterial related rashes might even make them worse since it can cause allergic reactions or irritation. (dane101.com)
  • You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to bacitracin or polymyxin B. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Before using bacitracin, tell your healthcare provider if you are allergic to it or if you have any other allergies. (healthguidenet.com)
  • Bacitracin Susceptibility and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Data" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Overuse of bacitracin alone and as a combination drug is thought to have contributed to the rise of MRSA. (odclinicals.com)
  • Bacitracin is found in certain over-the-counter antibiotic ointments such as Neosporin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ko te Bacitracin me te Neosporin he hinu rongoa rongoa rongoa rongoa (OTC) whakamahia hei aukati i te pangia o nga whara iti o te kiri penei i te motu, ngatata, me te weranga. (covidografia.pt)
  • He aha nga rereketanga nui i waenga i te bacitracin me te Neosporin? (covidografia.pt)
  • Kei kona ano te Neosporin + Pain Pain Cream me te Neosporin Kids Plus Pain Cream, kei roto i enei e rua he bacitracin me te polymyxin me te pramoxine. (covidografia.pt)
  • He rite tonu te tohu a te bacitracin me te Neosporin-hei whakamahi hei awhina tuatahi ki te aukati i te mate o te motu iti, te karawarawa, me te weranga. (covidografia.pt)
  • He pai ake te whai hua o te bacitracin, te Neosporin ranei? (covidografia.pt)
  • I kii nga kaituhi o te rangahau na te kaha o te aukati paturopi, he mea nui te patu paturopi kaupapa, a, ka taea te kii ko te patu patu whakararuraru he whakakapi i nga paturopi kaupapa penei i te bacitracin me te Neosporin. (covidografia.pt)
  • Kaore nga rangahau i whakataurite tika i te bacitracin ki a Neosporin. (covidografia.pt)
  • Not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to Bacitracin. (odclinicals.com)
  • Bacitracin is produced by Bacillus subtilis and has a potent bactericidal activity directed mainly against Gram-positive organisms. (healthguidenet.com)
  • Bacitracin B1 and B2 have similar potencies and are approximately 90% as active as bacitracin A. Some have claimed that bacitracin is a protein disulfide isomerase inhibitor, but this is disputed by in vitro studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacitracin: Inhibitor of the Insulin-degrading activity of glutathione-insulin transhydrogenase. (itwreagents.com)
  • Bacitracin zinc is a medicine that is used on cuts and other skin wounds to help prevent infection. (nih.gov)
  • The use of bacitracin irrigation to prevent infection in postoperative skeletal wounds. (wheelessonline.com)
  • As with any medication, bacitracin can have side effects. (dane101.com)
  • Bacitracin overdose occurs when someone swallows a product containing this ingredient or uses more than the normal or recommended amount of the product. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A highly nutritious medium enriched with Horse Blood, where the blood has been 'chocolated' by heating the medium to 70°C. Suitable for the isolation of most pathogens including many fastidious organisms the addition of Bacitracin makes it is particularly suitable for the selective isolation of Haemophilus spp. (eolabs.com)
  • No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of bacitracin and polymyxin B combination in pediatric patients. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Serial decimal dilutions of saliva samples were prepared up to 10 -3 dilution, and these samples were inoculated in Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar, selective for growth of mutans streptococci. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, it is important to All swabs were inoculated onto 5% establish the epidemiological patterns of horse blood agar plates, with nalidixic acid group A streptococci in different countries and colistin and incubated in a CO -en- and regions, and especially to serotype the 2 riched atmosphere for 24 hours at 37 °C. strains that have been isolated. (who.int)
  • Emergency Central , emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/109628/all/bacitracin. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • But before you go smearing it all over yourself like a toddler with a jar of peanut butter, let's find out if bacitracin is really the superhero we need to fight off these annoying skin irritations. (dane101.com)