A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (1/1083)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

Specific binding of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase to the upstream region of Bacillus thuringiensis protoxin genes. (2/1083)

During sporulation, Bacillus thuringiensis produces inclusions comprised of different amounts of several related protoxins, each with a unique specificity profile for insect larvae. A major class of these genes designated cry1 have virtually identical dual overlapping promoters, but the upstream sequences differ. A gel retardation assay was used to purify a potential regulatory protein which bound with different affinities to these sequences in three cry1 genes. It was identified as the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. There was specific competition for binding by homologous gene sequences but not by pUC nor Bacillus subtilis DNA; calf thymus DNA competed at higher concentrations. The B. thuringiensis gene encoding E2 was cloned, and the purified glutathione S-transferase-E2 fusion protein footprinted to a consensus binding sequence within an inverted repeat and to a potential bend region, both sites 200-300 base pairs upstream of the promoters. Mutations of these sites in the cry1A gene resulted in decreased binding of the E2 protein and altered kinetics of expression of a fusion of this regulatory region with the lacZ gene. Recruitment of the E2 subunit as a transcription factor could couple the change in post exponential catabolism to the initiation of protoxin synthesis.  (+info)

Integrative model for binding of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in susceptible and resistant larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). (3/1083)

Insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in sprays and transgenic crops are extremely useful for environmentally sound pest management, but their long-term efficacy is threatened by evolution of resistance by target pests. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is the first insect to evolve resistance to B. thuringiensis in open-field populations. The only known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis in the diamondback moth is reduced binding of toxin to midgut binding sites. In the present work we analyzed competitive binding of B. thuringiensis toxins Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F to brush border membrane vesicles from larval midguts in a susceptible strain and in resistant strains from the Philippines, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania. Based on the results, we propose a model for binding of B. thuringiensis crystal proteins in susceptible larvae with two binding sites for Cry1Aa, one of which is shared with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Our results show that the common binding site is altered in each of the three resistant strains. In the strain from the Philippines, the alteration reduced binding of Cry1Ab but did not affect binding of the other crystal proteins. In the resistant strains from Hawaii and Pennsylvania, the alteration affected binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Previously reported evidence that a single mutation can confer resistance to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F corresponds to expectations based on the binding model. However, the following two other observations do not: the mutation in the Philippines strain affected binding of only Cry1Ab, and one mutation was sufficient for resistance to Cry1Aa. The imperfect correspondence between the model and observations suggests that reduced binding is not the only mechanism of resistance in the diamondback moth and that some, but not all, patterns of resistance and cross-resistance can be predicted correctly from the results of competitive binding analyses of susceptible strains.  (+info)

Subspecies-dependent regulation of Bacillus thuringiensis protoxin genes. (4/1083)

Bacillus thuringiensis accumulates, primarily during sporulation, large quantities of insecticidal protoxins which are deposited as crystalline, intracellular inclusions. Most subspecies contain several plasmid-encoded cry genes, each of which has a unique specificity. The overall toxicity profile of a subspecies depends not only on the array of cry genes present but also on the relative expression of the genes. In general, transcription depends on sporulation-specific sigma factors, but little is known about regulation of expression of the individual genes. In order to determine whether expression of a particular cry gene varies in different subspecies, lacZ fusions to the cry promoters of two protoxin genes (cry1 class) were constructed. Protoxin accumulation and mRNA contents were also measured by performing immunoblotting and Northern analyses, respectively. The expression of a cry1Ab-lacZ fusion, but not the expression of a cry1C-lacZ fusion, was three to four times lower in B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strains than in B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki or B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi. Also, the Cry1Ab antigen and steady-state mRNA contents of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai were lower. The regulation of the genes must involve regions upstream of the promoters which are unique to each cry gene since (i) mutations in the upstream region of the cry1Ab gene resulted in enhanced expression in B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai and (ii) no differences were found when the lacZ fusions contained the cry1Ab promoters but no upstream sequences. The capacity to regulate each of the protoxin genes must be a factor in the overall protoxin composition of a subspecies and thus its toxicity profile.  (+info)

Replication mechanism and sequence analysis of the replicon of pAW63, a conjugative plasmid from Bacillus thuringiensis. (5/1083)

A 5.8-kb fragment of the large conjugative plasmid pAW63 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73 containing all the information for autonomous replication was cloned and sequenced. By deletion analysis, the pAW63 replicon was reduced to a 4.1-kb fragment harboring four open reading frames (ORFs). Rep63A (513 amino acids [aa]), encoded by the largest ORF, displayed strong similarity (40% identity) to the replication proteins from plasmids pAMbeta1, pIP501, and pSM19035, indicating that the pAW63 replicon belongs to the pAMbeta1 family of gram-positive theta-replicating plasmids. This was confirmed by the facts that no single-stranded DNA replication intermediates could be detected and that replication was found to be dependent on host-gene-encoded DNA polymerase I. An 85-bp region downstream of Rep63A was also shown to have strong similarity to the origins of replication of pAMbeta1 and pIP501, and it is suggested that this region contains the bona fide pAW63 ori. The protein encoded by the second large ORF, Rep63B (308 aa), was shown to display similarity to RepB (34% identity over 281 aa) and PrgP (32% identity over 310 aa), involved in copy control of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmids pAD1 and pCF10, respectively. No significant similarity to known proteins or DNA sequences could be detected for the two smallest ORFs. However, the location, size, hydrophilicity, and orientation of ORF6 (107 codons) were analogous to those features of the putative genes repC and prgO, which encode stability functions on plasmids pAD1 and pCF10, respectively. The cloned replicon of plasmid pAW63 was stably maintained in Bacillus subtilis and B. thuringiensis and displayed incompatibility with the native pAW63. Hybridization experiments using the cloned replicon as a probe showed that pAW63 has similarity to large plasmids from other B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strains and to a strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. alesti.  (+info)

Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of aminopeptidase N in the host insect leading to its evolutionary success. (6/1083)

Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein, Cry1Aa toxin, binds to a specific receptor in insect midguts and has insecticidal activity. Therefore, the structure of the receptor molecule is probably a key factor in determining the binding affinity of the toxin and insect susceptibility. The cDNA fragment (PX frg1) encoding the Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of an aminopeptidase N (APN) or an APN family protein from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella midgut was cloned and sequenced. A comparison between the deduced amino acid sequence of PX frg1 and other insect APN sequences shows that Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of APN family protein. In this paper, we propose a model to explain the mechanism that causes B. thuringiensis evolutionary success and differing insect susceptibility to Cry1Aa toxin.  (+info)

Immune responses in farm workers after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis pesticides. (7/1083)

Although health risks to pesticides containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been minimal, the potential allergenicity of these organisms has not been evaluated. Therefore, a health survey was conducted in farm workers before and after exposure to Bt pesticides. Farm workers who picked vegetables that required Bt pesticide spraying were evaluated before the initial spraying operation (n = 48) and 1 and 4 months after (n = 32 and 20, respectively). Two groups of low- (n = 44) and medium- (n = 34) exposure workers not directly exposed to Bt spraying were also assessed. The investigation included questionnaires, nasal/mouth lavages, ventilatory function assessment, and skin tests to indigenous aeroallergens and to a variety of Bt spore and vegetative preparations. To authenticate exposure to the organism present in the commercial preparation, isolates from lavage specimens were tested for Bt genes by DNA-DNA hybridization. Humoral immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to spore and vegetative Bt extracts were assayed. There was no evidence of occupationally related respiratory symptoms. Positive skin-prick tests to several spore extracts were seen chiefly in exposed workers. In particular, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the number of positive skin tests to spore extracts 1 and 4 months after exposure to Bt spray. The number of positive skin test responses was also significantly higher in high (p < 0.05) than in low- or medium-exposure workers. The majority of nasal lavage cultures from exposed workers was positive for the commercial Bt organism, as demonstrated by specific molecular genetic probes. Specific IgE antibodies were present in more high-exposure workers (p < 0.05) than in the low and medium groups. Specific IgG antibodies occurred more in the high (p < 0.05) than in the low-exposure group. Specific IgG and IgE antibodies to vegetative organisms were present in all groups of workers. Exposure to Bt sprays may lead to allergic skin sensitization and induction of IgE and IgG antibodies, or both.  (+info)

Interaction between functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins. (8/1083)

Interactions among the three structural domains of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins were investigated by functional analysis of chimeric proteins. Hybrid genes were prepared by exchanging the regions coding for either domain I or domain III among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, and Cry1E. The activity of the purified trypsin-activated chimeric toxins was evaluated by testing their effects on the viability and plasma membrane permeability of Sf9 cells. Among the parental toxins, only Cry1C was active against these cells and only chimeras possessing domain II from Cry1C were functional. Combination of domain I from Cry1E with domains II and III from Cry1C, however, resulted in an inactive toxin, indicating that domain II from an active toxin is necessary, but not sufficient, for activity. Pores formed by chimeric toxins in which domain I was from Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac were slightly smaller than those formed by toxins in which domain I was from Cry1C. The properties of the pores formed by the chimeras are therefore likely to result from an interaction between domain I and domain II or III. Domain III appears to modulate the activity of the chimeric toxins: combination of domain III from Cry1Ab with domains I and II of Cry1C gave a protein which was more strongly active than Cry1C.  (+info)

A major challenge for achieving successful mosquito control is overcoming insecticide resistance. Bacillus thuringiensis which is one of the most effective biolarvacide for control of species of mosquitoes and monitoring of larval susceptibility is essential to avoid resistance development. Mosquito larvacidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis was assessed by isolating them from ecologically different soil habitats in and around Enugu metropolis. The isolate organisms were confirmed as Bacillus thuringiensis based on biochemical characterization and microscopic observation. The larvacidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates was tested against the larval of mosquito by using the standard cup bioassay. The isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis showed a significant level of variation in their larvacidal activity.. .reading-box-container-1 .element-bottomshadow:before,.reading-box-container-1 .element-bottomshadow:after{opacity:0.7;} ...
Labels related to ingredient - Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain EG7841 solids, spores and Lepidopteran active toxins.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dispersal of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera. T2 - Gelechiidae) males in transgenic cotton that produces a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. AU - Tabashnik, B. E.. AU - Patin, A. L.. AU - Dennehy, T. J.. AU - Liu, Y. B.. AU - Miller, E.. AU - Staten, R. T.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton that produces Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac (Bt cotton), refuges composed of cotton that does not produce Cry1Ac (non-Bt cotton) are mandated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. One critical assumption of this strategy is that susceptible adults emerging from non-Bt cotton refuges mate with resistant adults emerging from Bt cotton, which requires movement of adults between Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton. To better understand movements of pink bollworm, the key lepidopteran pest of cotton in Arizona, we analyzed the distribution of wild males and dispersal of sterile males during 1997 on a 259-ha block of a commercial farm ...
Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that is pathogenic towards a range of insect and nematode species. This is largely mediated through the production of crystal (cry) toxin proteins, which vary among B. thuringiensis strains and enable the infection of particular hosts. Because of the insecticidal activities of the cry toxins, B. thuringiensis has been used widely as a biopesticide, and there is a great deal of interest to understand further its pathogenic properties and how host resistance may evolve.. Strains of B. thuringiensis vary in their amenability to genetic manipulation, and acrystalliferous strains may have higher transformation frequencies than do crystal-producing strains (1). B. thuringiensis strain 407 was isolated as a lepidopteran-active strain, and an acrystalliferous derivative, 407 Cry-, was produced through culturing at a high temperature (2). The 407 Cry- strain can be transformed easily and it can be used to perform targeted gene knockouts; therefore, the ...
A bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces a toxic protein named cry protein that is lethal to certain insects but not bacterium A Why this toxin does not kill the bacteria B what type of changes occur in the gut of insects on consuming this protein C - Biology - Biotechnology Principles and Processes
Патент RU2278159C1: Изобретение относится к биотехнологии, а именно к производству бактериальных препаратов. Штамм бактерий Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki ВКПМ В-8715 характеризуется значительной инсектоакарицидной активностью против представителей отрядов Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, Thysanoptera и Acariformes, приносящих вред сельскохозяйственным культурам. Заявляемый штамм по токсичности против членистоногих, представителей отрядов Homoptera и Thysanoptera может успешно конкурировать с химическим препаратом карбофос на таких экономически значимых культурах, как хлопок, табак и розы. 6
The lepidopteran-specific P1 delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 was activated in vitro using insect gut proteases and found to be highly specific for the lepidopteran cell line Choristoneura fumiferana CF1 among a wide range of lepidopteran and dipteran cell lines tested. The toxicity of P1 against CF1 cells is inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and the lectins soybean agglutinin (SBA) and wheat-germ agglutinin. Protein blotting was used to identify a glycoprotein of 146 X 10(3) Mr in the plasma membrane of CF1 cells, capable of binding both the toxin and SBA, which is specific for GalNAc. This glycoprotein was labelled using galactose oxidase and sodium boro-[3H]hydride and solubilized in Triton X-100 before partial purification by affinity chromatography on SBA-agarose. We propose that this glycoprotein is a good candidate for the cellular receptor of the lepidopteran-specific P1 delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1. ...
The accessory protein P20 from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis has been defined as an important molecular chaperone for forming crystal Cyt1Aa, and enhancing Cry11Aa and Cry4Aa expression. To investigate its putative role in Cry4Ba delta-endotoxin production and toxicity, a p20 gene was cloned and introduced into B. thuringiensis recombinant strain expressing cry4Ba type gene (cry4BLB). The delta-endotoxin synthesis was enhanced by 262%. The generated inclusions were assayed against third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The combination of P20 protein with Cry4BLB delta-endotoxin led to a stable mortality rate of 25% with doses ranging from 0.2 mg l−1 to 0.6 mg l−1. Cry4BLB crystals produced in the presence of P20 were much less soluble than those produced by the control strain lacking P20 at pH lower than or equal to 10.5. The observed toxicity perturbation correlates with a decrease of Cry4BLB inclusions solubility. The presence of P20 protein has affected Cry4BLB crystallization and ...
a) For the purposes of this section the microbial insecticide for which exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is being established shall have the following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner conforming to the morphological and biochemical characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis as described in Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition. (2) Spore preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner shall be produced by pure culture fermentation procedures with adequate control measures during production to detect any changes from the characteristics of the parent strain or contamination by other microorganisms. (3) Each lot of spore preparation, prior to the addition of other materials, shall be tested by subcutaneous injection of at least 1 million spores into each of five laboratory test mice weighing 17 grams to 23 grams. Such test shall show no evidence of infection or injury in the test animals when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.). AU - Zheng Sijun, S.J.. AU - Henken, B.. AU - de Maagd, R.A.. AU - Purwito, A.. AU - Krens, F.A.. AU - Kik, C.. N1 - 2680. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genellikle biyolojik pestisit olarak kullanılan, Gram-pozitif, toprakta yaşayan bir bakteridir.[1] B. thuringiensis çeşitli güve ve kelebek türlerinin tırtıllarının bağırsaklarında, yaprak yüzeylerinda, sucul ortamlarda, hayvan dışkısında, böcek popülasyonunun yoğun olduğu ortamlarda, un değirmenleri ve tahıl depolama tesislerinde doğal olarak bulunmaktadır. Sporlanma sırasında, birçok Bacillus thuringiensis suşunun δ-endotoksinleri denilen kristal proteinleri (proteinli inklüzyonlar) üreterek böcekleri öldürdüğü görülmüş bu da böcek öldürücü maddeler olarak kullanımına yol açmıştır. Birçok kristal üreten Bacillus thuringiensis suşu olsa da hepsinin böcek öldürücü özellikleri yoktur. ...
A gene encoding a 125-kilodalton (kDa) mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin was cloned from the 72-MDa resident plasmid of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.
The present invention provides an isolated and purified protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies thuringiensis, having a molecular weight of approximately 20 kDa of SDS-PAGE, said protei
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant. AU - Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I. AU - Moreno-Fierros, L.. AU - Neri-Bazán, L.. AU - De La Riva, G. A.. AU - López-Revilla, Rubén. PY - 1999/7/5. Y1 - 1999/7/5. N2 - Recently we demonstrated that recombinant Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is a potent systemic and mucosal immunogen. In this study we compared the adjuvant effects of Cry1Ac and cholera toxin (CT) for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antibody responses of intestinal secretions and serum were determined by ELISA in Balb/c mice immunized through the intragastric (IG) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes. When HBsAg was administered via IG, the anti- HBsAg intestinal response was not enhanced by either Cry1Ac or CT, whereas via IP Cry1Ac increased the anti-HBsAg intestinal immunoglobulin (Ig)G response and CT increased the intestinal IgA and IgM responses. Serum anti- BSA antibodies ...
The bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) has worldwide become the most commonly used agentin mosquito control programs that pursue two main objectives: the control of vector-borne diseases and the reduction of nuisance, mainly coming frommosquitoes that emerge in large quantities from seasonal wetlands. The Upper Rhine Valley, a biodiversity hotspot in Germany, has been treated withBti for decades to reduce mosquito-borne nuisance and increase human well-being.Although Btiis presumed to be an environmentally safe agent,adverse effects on wetland ecosystems are still a matter of debate especially when it comes to long-term and indirect effects on non-target organisms. In light of the above, this thesis aims at investigating direct and indirect effects of Bti-based mosquito control on non-target organisms within wetland food chains.Effects were examinedin studies with increasingeco(toxico)logical complexity, ranging from laboratory over mesocosm to field approaches with a focus on the
Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) (2001) Komposisi media dan teknologi sederhana produksi bioinsektisida dari bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki. S00200100120. ...
The action of activated 27,000 Mr toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti toxin) on Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus has been investigated. Its binding to the tubules is slowed by low temperature but is not prevented even at 0 degree C. The binding is less effective at pH 10 than at pH7. Pretreatment of the tubules with 0.1 mmol l-1 ouabain or bumetanide or 1 mumol l-1 5-hydroxytryptamine did not affect the toxicity of the toxin. The toxin causes very large changes in the trans-epithelial potential difference; it changes from 40 mV, lumen negative, often to more than 100 mV, lumen positive. This reflects an initial collapse of the potential of the basal cell membrane, followed by a large positive-going potential change at the luminal cell membrane. Just prior to the effects of the toxin on rapid fluid secretion, the basal cell membrane becomes permeable to sucrose molecules. Raffinose at 170 mmol l-1 in the bathing solution does not protect the tubules from Bti toxin ...
Cry4Ba is a δ-endotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Cyt2Aa2 is a cytolytic δ-endotoxin produced by B. thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis. Cry4Ba produced in Escherichia coli was toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae (LC50= 140 ng ml-1) but virtually inactive to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Cyt2Aa2 expressed in E. coli exhibited moderate activity against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus larvae with LC50values of 350 and 250 ng ml-1, respectively. Co-expression of both toxins in E. coli dramatically increased toxicity to both A. aegypti andC. quinquefasciatus larvae (LC50= 7 and 20 ng ml-1, respectively). This is the first report to demonstrate that Cry4Ba and Cyt2Aa2 have high synergistic activity against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. © 2005 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Structural stability of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin homolog-scanning mutants determined by susceptibility to proteases
Free Online Library: Decontamination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas. by Journal of Environmental Health; Health, general Environmental issues Anthrax Analysis Case studies
TY - JOUR. T1 - ABCC2 is associated with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin oligomerization and membrane insertion in diamondback moth. AU - Ocelotl,Josue. AU - Sánchez,Jorge. AU - Gómez,Isabel. AU - Tabashnik,Bruce E.. AU - Bravo,Alejandra. AU - Soberón,Mario. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Cry1A insecticidal toxins bind sequentially to different larval gut proteins facilitating oligomerization, membrane insertion and pore formation. Cry1Ac interaction with cadherin triggers oligomerization. However, a mutation in an ABC transporter gene (ABCC2) is linked to Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella. Cry1AcMod, engineered to lack helix α-1, was able to form oligomers without cadherinbinding and effectively countered Cry1Ac resistance linked to ABCC2. Here we analyzed Cry1Ac and Cry1AcMod binding and oligomerization by western blots using brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from a strain of P. xylostella susceptible to Cry1Ac (Geneva 88) and a strain with resistance to Cry1Ac ...
Bacillus thuringiensis ATCC ® 35646D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis Strain USDA H522 TypeStrain=False Application:
In Sub Saharan Africa malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control represents an important public health measure. Integrated malaria control comprises the use of impregnated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying. The use of drugs to treat patients can create additional pressure on the equation of malaria transmission. Vector control may target the adult mosquitoes or their aquatic larval stages. Biological larvicides such as Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) represent a promising approach to support malaria control programs by creating additional pressure on the equation of malaria transmission. In this study we examined the efficacy of a water-dispersible granule formulation (WDG) of the biological larvicide Bti (VectoBac®) against wild Anopheles spp. larvae. Different concentrations of the larvicide were tested in standardized plastic tubs in the field against untreated controls. In weekly intervals tubs were treated with fixed concentrations of larvicide and the
Comparative susceptibility and binding of Cry1 Bacillus thuringiensis toxins to the Asian (Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée) and European (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) corn borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae ...
ENDOTOXINE (TOXIKOLOGIE); BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (MIKROBIOLOGIE); IN-VITRO UNTERSUCHUNGEN (TOXIKOLOGIE); ENDOTOXINS (TOXICOLOGY); BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (MICROBIOLOGY); IN VITRO STUDIES (TOXICOLOGY ...
Interaction analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with two aminopeptidases purified from Gypsy moth midgut brush border membranes
Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt, is a widely-used microbial biological insect control. Bt is a bacterium that produces crystal proteins that poison, paralyze, and kill targeted pests after ingestion. Bt is found in soil all over the world in almost all types of terrain from desert to tundra. It was first discovered in 1901 by the Japanese biologist Shigetane Ishiwatari as he was investigating the death of large populations of silkworms. He named it Bacillus sotto although it was changed to Bacillus thuringiensis by Ernst Berliner in 1911, a German scientist who re-isolated it as the cause of death of the Mediterranean flour moth larvae. Farmers started using it in 1920 and there are currently more than 35 varieties of this naturally occurring, soil-borne bacterium ...
First Announcement THE PACIFIC RIM CONFERENCE ON BIOTECHNOLOGY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND ITS IMPACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT October 17 - 21, 1994 In order to promote the use of BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (B.t.)-based insecticides in the Pacific rim region, the conference is being organized by a group of scientists from the universities, government institutions, and B.t. industries from Taiwan, Japan, and the U.S.A. The conference will be held in the Academic Activity Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, which can accommodate around 200 participants. In addition to the speakers from the U.S.A. and Canada, the conference organizers plan to invite as many speakers as possible from the Asia- Pacific area. The goals of the conference are: * To promote the biotechnolgy of B.t. for the agricultural industry; to exchange the latest information on strain isolation and identification; to review the current topics on the molecular biology of the insecticidal proteins, transgenic plants, resistance ...
Bacillus thuringiensis: A Cornerstone of Modern Agriculture explores the impact that one of the most prominent biologically based pesticides has had on pest control technology and the issues that surround its use. The book examines the development, use, and management of technologies derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), addressing the health, economic, environmental, and social concerns generated by the deployment of genetically engineered crops. Authors representing a diverse cross section of the international scientific community contribute review articles and research findings that address the use of Bt in microbial formulations and transgenic crops, technological advances in the genetic engineering of plants, advances in methodologies, and improved agricultural practices and productivity through the use of Bt cotton ...
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Bacillus Thuringiensis Bt Definition - Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a type of spore-forming bacterium. Bt occurs naturally in the soil of all types of...
TY - RPRT. T1 - Mikrobiologiske plantebeskyttelsesmidlers skæbne i mave-tarm kanalen - Studier af Bacillus thuringiensis. AU - Wilcks, Andrea. AU - Hansen, B. M.. AU - Hendriksen, N. B.. AU - Ørum-Smidt, Lasse. AU - Andrup, L.. AU - Licht, Tine Rask. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Rapport. BT - Mikrobiologiske plantebeskyttelsesmidlers skæbne i mave-tarm kanalen - Studier af Bacillus thuringiensis. PB - Miljøstyrelsen. ER - ...
O B. thuringiensis descubriuno en 1901 o biólogo xaponés Ishiwata Shigetane.[3] En 1911, foi redescuberto en Alemaña por Ernst Berliner, que o illou como causante dunha enfermidade nas eirugas das avelaíñas da fariña. En 1976, Robert A. Zakharyan informou da presenza dun plásmido nunha cepa de B. thuringiensis e suxeriu que o plásmido estaba implicado na formación de endósporas e cristais.[4][5] B. thuringiensis está moi relacionado coa bacteria do solo B.cereus e con B.anthracis: os tres organismos difiren principalmente nos plásmidos que posúen.[6] páx. 34-35 Igual que outros membros do xénero Bacillus, estas tres especies son aerobias e poden formar endósporas.[1] Cando esporula, B. thuringiensis forma cristais de δ-endotoxinas proteináceas insecticidas (chamadas proteínas cristalinas ou Cry, do inglés crystal), que están codificadas por xenes cry.[7] Na maioría das cepas de B. thuringiensis, os xenes cry están localizados nun plásmido, polo que non é un xene ...
Bacillus thuringiensis serotype kurstaki (Btk) is a group of bacteria used as biological control agents against lepidopterans. Btk, along with other B. thuringiensis products, is one of the most widely used biological pesticides due to its high specificity; it is effective against lepidopterans, and it has little to no effect on nontarget species. During sporulation, Btk produces a crystal protein that is lethal to lepidopteran larvae.[1] Once ingested by the insect, the dissolution of the crystal allows the protoxin to be released. The toxin is then activated by the insect gut juice, and it begins to break down the gut.[2] Btk is available commercially and is commonly known as Garden Dust or Caterpillar Killer, both of which are produced by Safer Brand. Other Btk-producing companies include Bonide and Monterey. ...
Árvores de Grevillea robusta utilizadas em arborização em Viçosa (MG) são, todos os anos, desfolhadas por lagartas de Eustema serice (Lepidóptera; Notodontidae). Com o objetivo de promover o controle, sem contudo oferecer risco às pessoas, procurou-se testar, em laboratório, dosagens de Bacillus thuringiensis, para recomendação posterior em aplicação no campo. Foi utilizado o produto comercial dipel, em três dosagens: 200, 400 e 600 g pc/ha, colocando-se as folhas pulverizadas à disposição das lagartas pelo período de 24 horas e substituindo-as, posteriormente, por folhas não-tratadas. Obteve-se excelente mortalidade nos três tratamentos, com melhor performance para a dosagem de 400 g pc/ha, já no sexto dia da aplicação do dipel. Recomenda-se, para controle em condições de campo, testar dosagens menores que 200 g pc/ha, pois se o produto ficar à disposição das lagartas, por período superior ao do ensaio, a eficiência poderá ser aumentada ...
Polymerase chain reaction screening using cryV-specific oligonucleotides, designed to amplify the 5 half of cryV-type genes, revealed the presence of such genes in 7 of 21 Bacillus thuringiensis serotypes examined. Restriction analysis and hybridization studies indicated that these putative genes fall into at least three subclasses. The nucleotide sequence of the cryV-type gene cloned from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki DSIR732 revealed an open reading frame coding for a protein of 719 amino acids, and lysates of Escherichia coli cells expressing the 81.2-kDa CryV732 protein were toxic to Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). ...
Zhang, B., Bai, Z., Hoefel, D., Tang, L., Yang, Z., Zhuang, G., Yang, J. and Zhang, H. (2008), Assessing the impact of the biological control agent Bacillus thuringiensis on the indigenous microbial community within the pepper plant phyllosphere. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 284: 102-108. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01178.x ...
This work has been done for the purpose of creating a complete struggle strategy against Pristiphora abietina (Christ), which is the cause of the spoil in Artvin Savsat spruce forests in the recent years and Pyrethrum and Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides effects has been investigated and put into practice on the P. abietina. Under laboratory conditions, Pyrethrum (Spruzit Neu) and B. thuringiensis (Dipel DF) biopesticides were administered at different doses to the larvae of P. abietina and the results were evaluated according to the One Way Analysis of Variance and Duncan Test. The most effective applications for larval applications have been determined that Dipel 100 gr / 100 lt, Dipel 300 gr / 100 lt and Dipel 500 gr / 100 lt. The Pyrethrum (Spruzit Neu) efficiency ratio was determined 71.7% dose of 150 ml / 100 lt, 81% dose of 300 ml / 100 lt, 93.2% dose of 600 ml / 100 lt and Dipel DF was found to be 91.5% dose of 100 g / 100 lt, 93.6% dose of 300 gr / 100 lt and 98.8% dose of 500 gr / ...
On the market since 1996, genetically modified plants expressing an insecticidal toxin (Cry toxin stemmed from Bacillus thuringiensis) target several lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the impact of two varieties of Bt maize producing different toxins (Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa, respectively) on the biology of a storage pest: Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The Indianmeal moths were susceptible to both toxins but showed an escape behavior only from Cry1Fa. The weight of females issued from larvae reared on Cry1Ab increased with increasing toxin concentration, but adults of both sexes reared on Cry1Fa had decreased weight. Both toxins increased development time from egg to adult regardless of sex and had no impact on the male adult lifespan. Finally, we recorded a time lag between metamorphosis from the non-Bt and the Bt diets, which increased proportionally to Cry concentration in the Bt diet.
For a surrogate bacterium to be used in outdoor studies, it is important to consider environmental and human safety and ease of detection. Recently, Bacillus thuringiensis, a popular bioinsecticide bacterium, has been gaining attention as a surrogate bacterium for use in biodefense. In this study, we constructed simulant strains of B. thuringiensis with enhanced characteristics for environmental studies. Through transposon mutagenesis, pigment genes were inserted into the chromosome, producing yellow-colored colonies for easy detection. To prevent persistence of spores in the environment, a genetic circuit was designed to produce a spore without sporulation capability. Two loxP sites were inserted, one on each side of the spo0A gene, which encodes a sporulation master regulator, and a sporulation-dependent Cre expression cassette was inserted into the chromosome. This genetic circuit successfully deleted spo0A during sporulation, producing spores that lacked the spo0A gene. In addition, two ...
The Vip3 proteins produced during vegetative growth by strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis show insecticidal activity against lepidopteran insects with a mechanism of action that may involve pore formation and apoptosis. These proteins are promising supplements to our arsenal of insecticidal proteins, but the molecular details of their activity are not understood. As a first step in the structural characterisation of these proteins, we have analysed their secondary structure and resolved the surface topology of a tetrameric complex of the Vip3Ag4 protein by transmission electron microscopy. Sites sensitive to proteolysis by trypsin are identified and the trypsin-cleaved protein appears to retain a similar structure as an octomeric complex comprising four copies each of the ~65 kDa and ~21 kDa products of proteolysis. This processed form of the toxin may represent the active toxin. The quality and monodispersity of the protein produced in this study make Vip3Ag4 a candidate for more detailed
The Vip3 proteins produced during vegetative growth by strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis show insecticidal activity against lepidopteran insects with a mechanism of action that may involve pore formation and apoptosis. These proteins are promising supplements to our arsenal of insecticidal proteins, but the molecular details of their activity are not understood. As a first step in the structural characterisation of these proteins, we have analysed their secondary structure and resolved the surface topology of a tetrameric complex of the Vip3Ag4 protein by transmission electron microscopy. Sites sensitive to proteolysis by trypsin are identified and the trypsin-cleaved protein appears to retain a similar structure as an octomeric complex comprising four copies each of the ~65 kDa and ~21 kDa products of proteolysis. This processed form of the toxin may represent the active toxin. The quality and monodispersity of the protein produced in this study make Vip3Ag4 a candidate for more ...
Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the continued effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in sprays and transgenic crops. Fitness costs of Bt resistance occur when, in the absence of Bt toxins, fitness is lower for resistant insects than for susceptible insects. Modeling results show that fitness costs can delay resistance by selecting against Bt-resistant genotypes in refuges where insects are not exposed to Bt toxins. In 77 studies including 18 species, fitness costs were detected in 62% of experiments testing for declines in resistance and in 34% of fitness component comparisons. Mean fitness costs were 15.5% for survival, 7.4% for development time, and 2.5% for mass. Although most fitness costs were recessive, nonrecessive costs can select more strongly against resistance. Because fitness costs vary with ecological conditions, refuges designed to increase the dominance or magnitude of fitness costs could be especially useful for delaying pest resistance. ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops are plants genetically engineered (modified) to contain the endospore (or crystal) toxins of the bacterium, Bt to be resistant to certain insect pests. In 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in USA approved the commercial production and distribution of the Bt crops: corn, cotton, potato, and tobacco. Currently, the most common Bt crops are corn and cotton. The crystal, referred to as Cry toxins, is proteins formed during sporulation of some Bt strains and aggregate to form crystals. Such Cry toxins are toxic to specific species of insects belongs to orders: Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Nematoda. In 2016, the total world area cultivated with genetically modified crops (GM crops) reached about 185 million ha. This review shows that there is a worldwide controversy about the safety of Bt crops to the environment and mammals. Some researchers support the cultivation of Bt crops depending upon the results of their laboratory and field
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used as a biopesticide in agriculture, forestry and mosquito keep watch over due to its merits of particular toxicity opposed to aim bugs, loss of polluting residues and security to non-target organisms. The insecticidal homes of this bacterium are because of insecticidal proteins produced in the course of sporulation. regardless of those ecological merits, using Bt biopesticides has lagged in the back of the bogus chemical compounds. Genetic development of Bt traditional lines, particularly Bt recombination, bargains a promising technique of bettering efficacy and cost-effectiveness of Bt-based bioinsecticide items to improve new biotechnological functions. nevertheless, the several Bacillus species have vital biotechnological functions; certainly one of them is conducted by way of generating secondary metabolites, that are the examine item of usual product chemistry. the fantastic structural variability of those compounds has attracted the interest of ...
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in many areas of the U.S. mid-southern region. A Cry1Ab-resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strain of D. saccharalis has been developed from a single two-parent family-line. To examine the molecular mechanisms of the Cry1Ab resistance in this insect strain, cDNAs of five types of potential candidate genes related to Bt resistance were sequenced using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5 rapid amplification of cDNA end (5 RACE). The Bt resistance candidate genes examined included three trypsins (DsTRYs), three chymotrypsins (DsCHYs), three aminopeptidases N (DsAPNs), one cadherin (DsCAD1), and three alkaline phosphatases (DsALPs). cDNA sequence of each gene and its expression levels were compared between a Cry1Ab-susceptible strain (Cry1Ab-SS) and the Cry1Ab-RR at different larval growth stages. The cDNA sequences of these genes were identical between Cry1Ab
Bacillus thuringiensis, which is a Gram-positive bacteria. It can produce insecticidal crystal proteins(ICP) which are proteolytically processed by gut proteases into the activated δ-endotoxins. The toxins activated by gut proteases bind to specific binding sites on the brush border membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. The conformational change in the toxin molecules triggers the insertion of their pore-forming domain into the membrane. Finally, colloid-osmotic swelling and lysis of the cell result in the death of the larvae. Cry11Aa protein is one of the crystal protein coded in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Israelensis and it is highly toxic to certain dipteran larvae, such as Aedes, and Anopheles larvae. The length of Cry11Aa sequence is about 1.9Kb. In our project, the cry weapon system produce crystal protein, targetting the wrigglers, larvae of mosquitoes. It is controlled by the tetR-repressible promoter PtetR(BBa_R0040), which in turn is regulated by a temperature control ...
Bacillus thuringiensis, which is a Gram-positive bacteria. It can produce insecticidal crystal proteins(ICP) which are proteolytically processed by gut proteases into the activated δ-endotoxins. The toxins activated by gut proteases bind to specific binding sites on the brush border membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. The conformational change in the toxin molecules triggers the insertion of their pore-forming domain into the membrane. Finally, colloid-osmotic swelling and lysis of the cell result in the death of the larvae. Cry11Aa protein is one of the crystal protein coded in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Israelensis and it is highly toxic to certain dipteran larvae, such as Aedes, and Anopheles larvae. The length of Cry11Aa sequence is about 1.9Kb. In our project, the cry weapon system produce crystal protein, targetting the wrigglers, larvae of mosquitoes. It is controlled by the tetR-repressible promoter PtetR(BBa_R0040), which in turn is regulated by a temperature control ...
Review Mosquitocidal bacterial toxins (Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis): Mode of action, cytopathological effects and mechanism of resistance Subbiah Poopathi and S. Abidha Unit of Microbiology and Immunology, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Medical complex, Indira Nagar, Puducherry - 60 5006, India.. *Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 91-9443957479. Fax: 91-413-2272041 Accepted 4 September, 2013. Bacillus sphaericus Neide (Bs) and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis deBarjac (Bti) provide effective alternatives to broad spectrum larvicides in many situations with little or no environmental impact. Taking into account environmental benefits including safety for humans and other non- target organisms, reduction of pesticide residues in the aquatic environment, increased activity of most other natural enemies and increased biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems, their advantages are ...
The synergistic effect between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii and a sublethal dose of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni var. tenebrionis was studied in terms of immune defense reactions and detoxification system activity of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, fourth instar larvae. Bacterial infection led to more rapid germination of fungal conidia on integuments. We found a significant decrease of cellular immunity parameters, including total hemocyte count and encapsulation response, under the influence of bacteria. Phenoloxidase activity in integuments was increased under bacteriosis, mycosis and combined infection compared to controls. However, phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph was enhanced under bacteriosis alone, and it was decreased under combined infection. Activation of both nonspecific esterases and glutathione-S-transferases in the hemolymph was shown at the first day of mycosis and third day of bacteriosis. However, ...
Spodoptera littoralis, one of the major pests of many important crop plants, is more susceptible to Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai delta-endotoxins than to those of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. Within the framework of the development of efficient bioinsecticides and the prevention against insect resistance, we tested the effect of mixing B. thuringiensis kurstaki delta-endotoxins and Photorhabdus luminescens cells on S. littoralis growth. The obtained results showed that the growth inhibition of this insect was more effective when B. thuringiensis kurstaki spore-crystal mixture and Photorhabdus luminescens cells were used in combination. Furthermore, this synergism is mainly due to the presence of Cry1Ac, which is one of the three delta-endotoxins that form the crystal of B. thuringiensis kurstaki strain BNS3 in addition to Cry1Aa and Cry2Aa. This work shows a possibility to use B. thuringiensis as a delivery means for Photorhabdus bacteria in order to infect the insect hemocoel and to ...
Dedi Indrawandi, Uji Pengendalian Biologi Nematoda Puri Akar ( Meloidogyne Spp ) Dengan Bakteri Bacillus thuringiensis ( Thuricide Hp ) pada Tanaman Tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum) Di Rumah Kaca. Pengendalian nematoda puru akar Meloidogyne spp dengan menggunakan bakteri Bacillus thuringiensis merupakan suatu terobosan baru di bidang tiertanian khususnya di dalam dunia pengendalian hayati. Seperti diketahui bahwa Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) biasanya dipakai untuk mengendalikan hama atau seranta pada stadia larva dari ordo coleóptera dan lepidoptera. Namun akan lebih hemat jika penggunaannya untuk mengendalikan hama juga untuk pengendalian nematoda puru akar (Meloidogyne spp ). Oleh karena itu dilakukanlah penelitian mengenai penggunaan Bt dalam pengendalian nematoda puru akar ( Meloidogyne spp ) di rumah kaca dan di laboratorium nematologi tumbuhan di Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumalera Utara Medan, mulai bulan juni - agustus 2003. Penelitian terdiri dari 1 faktor yang terdiri dari 16 ...
Bacillus thuringiensis is widely used as a bioinsecticide due to its ability to form parasporal crystals containing proteinaceous toxins. It is a member of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, a group with low genetic diversity but produces several promising antimicrobial compounds. B. thuringiensis DNG9, isolated from an oil-contaminated slough in Algeria, has strong antibacterial, antifungal and biosurfactant properties. Here, we report the 6.06 Mbp draft genome sequence of B. thuringiensis DNG9. The genome encodes several gene inventories for the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds such as zwittermycin A, petrobactin, insecticidal toxins, polyhydroxyalkanoates and multiple bacteriocins. We expect the genome information of strain DNG9 will provide another model system to study pathogenicity against insect pests, plant diseases, and antimicrobial compound mining and comparative phylogenesis among the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group.
Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa...
Ellibs Ebookstore - Ebook: Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus - Author: Crickmore, Neil (#editor) - Price: 163,65€
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Free download of On-line Biomass Estimation in a Batch Biotechnological Process: Bacillus thuringiensis δ - endotoxins production. by Adriana Amicarelli. Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. Read, write reviews and more...
Few studies on screening of the enzyme phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) have been reported. Here we present a simple potato-based med
Monitoring for adult moths can be done using ultraviolet (UV) black lights or incandescent light bulbs, which are both attractive to the moth (Buckingham and Bennett 1996). Hydrilla is invasive, and the actions of the moth rarely require management and are usually considered to be desirable. However, in certain situations where the presence of hydrilla is needed, such as in research with other biocontrol agents, management of the moth larvae may be necessary to prevent consumption of the plant material. In these situations, a strain of the biorational insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis has been tested for controlling Parapoynx diminutalis (Buckingham and Bennett 1996; Bownes 2010; Baniszewski et al. 2016). Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki, commonly known as Btk, is specific to lepidopteran pests. Btk produces proteins that are toxic to larvae; the proteins bind to the midgut when consumed and kill the larvae (Bauce et al. 2006; Van Driesche et al. 2008). A commercially available Btk ...
Bacillum thuringiensis (Bt) toxin produced in Cry1-expressing genetically modified rice (Bt rice) is highly effective to control lepidopteran pests, which reduces the needs for synthetic insecticides. Non-target organisms can be exposed to Bt toxins through direct feeding or trophic interactions in the field. The wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, one of the dominant predators in South China, plays a crucial role in the rice agroecosystem. In this study, we investigated transcriptome responses of the 5th instar spiders fed on preys maintained on Bt- and non-Bt rice. Comparative transcriptome analysis resulted in 136 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between spiderlings preying upon N. lugens fed on Bt- and non-Bt rice (Bt- and non-Bt spiderlings). Functional analysis indicated a potential impact of Bt toxin on the formation of new cuticles during molting. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses suggested that GO terms associated with chitin or cuticle, including
In this study, cost simulation was made to produce Bacillus thuriengiensis based biopesticide formulation using starch industry wastewater (SIW) as substrate. The results obtained at pilot plant (2000L capacity fermenter) were used for cost simulation of the process. The unit production cost for annual production of 5 million L of formulated biopesticide (20.2 Billion International Units (BIU)/L) was estimated to be $ 2.54/L, which is competitive to chemical pesticides. The techno-economic evaluation revealed that the profitability of the biopesticide manufacturing process was sensitive to the plant capacity and selling price of the biopesticide. The manufacturer should target 5 million L annual plant capacity and selling price of $ 15/L for payback period to be less than 5 years. The process serves many advantages (1) alternate disposal or bio-valorisation of industry wastewater and (2) use of industry wastewater as inexpensive carbon source reducing cost of raw materials for ...
csaB gene analysis clustered 198 strains of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis into two groups related to mammalian and insect hosts, respectively. Mammal-related group I strains also have more S-layer homology (SLH) protein genes than group II strains. This indicates that csaB-based differentiation reflects selective pressure from animal hosts. ...
Resistance to attack by CPB was accomplished by introducing the cry3A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis, which encodes an insecticidal crystalline Cry3A delta-endotoxin protein. The insecticidal activity of Cry3A protein is due to its selective binding to specific sites localized on the brush border midgut epithelium of susceptible insect species. Following binding, cation-specific pores are formed that disrupt midgut ion flow and thereby cause gut paralysis, ultimately leading to bacterial sepsis and death. Delta-endotoxins, such as the Cry3A protein expressed in CPB resistant potato lines, exhibit highly selective insecticidal activity against a narrow range of coleopteran insects such as CPB, elm leaf beetle and yellow mealworm. Their specificity of action is directly attributable to the presence of specific receptors in the target insects ...
Cultivars of Bt corn (which express proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis) are available which are resistant to feeding by European corn borer, and for some cultivars feeding by certain other caterpillars. If planting cultivars of Bt corn, a refuge of non-Bt cultivars is required to be planted to reduce the odds of European corn borer developing resistance to Bt corn. There are 2 types of refuge. Some cultivars of Bt corn will be purchased containing an integrated refuge (sometimes referred to as refuge-in-a-bag), where seeds of a refuge cultivar have been pre-mixed with seeds of the Bt cultivar in the bag. This integrated refuge typically comprises 5% or 10% of the seeds in the bag. Other Bt cultivars will not have an integrated refuge blended in, in which case blocks or strips of a cultivar of corn susceptible to European corn borer needs to be planted within or adjacent to the Bt cultivar. This is called a structured refuge. Planting a non-Bt refuge is a requirement set by the Canadian Food ...
To reduce the number of biting flies in your stable area you can reduce the breeding ground areas like stagnant water, long weeds and manure piles. A natural way to reduce emerging larvae is to treat ponds, streams and standing water with BTI aka mosquito dunks. Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies Isralensis, is a naturally occurring bacteria in soil. It produces toxins that only affect the larvae of mosquitos, blackflies and gnats. It is safe for all other animals, insects and plants and approved for pest control for organic farms. Spray BTI in ponds, use dunks in running water or drainage ditches. Make traps with bti in buckets of water with grass clippings or pulled weeds. Mosquitos and gnats will lay eggs there but they will never hatch. Goldfish and mosquito fish may be available from your county free. Dump water troughs every few days and some shell or gravel around the trough will prevent muddy puddles from becoming gnat nurseries ...
Mosquito Dunks. 6 pc package Mosquito Dunks. 6 pc package Place Mosquito Dunks in ponds or standing water and its active ingredient, Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israaelenses called BTI kills mosquito and black fly larvae for 30 days or more. While floating they slowly release a long term biological mosquito larvacide killing the larvae before they hatch into adults. Will not effect fish, plants, people or wildlife. Alternative wetting and drying will not reduce its effectiveness. Use one dunk per 100 sqft of water surface. Mosquito Dunks. 6 pc package [IN412] - Pest & Disease Control - Gardening & Hydroponics Store -
This journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects, including types of insects, insecticides, biological control, and crop protection.
The production of bioethanol by co-culture of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria isolated from agro-waste-impacted soil through simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of steam-exploded bagasse was investigated. The cellulolytic (VCE-19) and xylanolytic (VXE-41) isolates were screened using the Congo Red Plate Method. The DNS method was used in the determination of reducing sugar content. Chemical analysis of the sugarcane bagasse was determined using standard methods. The bagasse was subjected to steam explosion to reduce lignin content and enhance cellulose availability. Mean proximate composition analysis of the bagasse showed total carbohydrate and lignin content (% dry weight) of 70.3 ± 1.9 and 19.2 ± 1.2 before pretreatment and 85.4 ± 2.33 and 4.2 ± 0.44 after pretreatment, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene classified VCE-19 and VXE-41 as Bacillus cereus GBPS9 and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki HD1, respectively. The
Msadek, T., Kunst, F., Henner, D., Klier, A., Rapoport, G., Dedonder, R. (1990) Signal transduction pathway controlling synthesis of a class of degradative enzymes in Bacillus subtilis : expression of the regulatory genes and analysis of mutations in degS and degU. J Bacteriol 172: 824-834. ...
The present study was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity of entomophathogenic fungi and bacteria against aphid and jassid at Youngwala, Entomological Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Rose Gomes Monnerat Sólon de Pontes, Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia; C. M. Soares, Bthek Biotecnologia Ltda; R. A. Roberg, Bthek Biotecnologia Ltda; Vinícius Fiuza Dumas, Bthek Biotecnologia Ltda; Felipe Rosa Ramos, Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia; Lilian Botelho Praça, Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia; Érica Soares Martins, Universidade de Brasília; P. R. Queiroz, Universidade de Brasília; Edison Ryoiti Sujii, Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia ...
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Few plants are as problem-free as sunflowers, although they can develop fungal disorders that mottle leaves or fuzzy mold growth in especially wet conditions. Avoid those issues by spacing plants well apart; for example, allow 1 1/2 to 3 feet between annual sunflowers to avoid crowding. When watering, avoid wetting foliage, and water only on sunny days, when water dries quickly. Clear away plant debris on a regular basis to prevent fungal growth in the plants.. The sunflower moth, which is small and gray, might lay eggs on the flowers. Wormlike larvae hatch from the eggs and feed on the plants. Remove the larvae by hand. If a larval infestation is severe, then spray the plants with Bacillus thuringiensis, which infects and kills larvae. Dilute Bacillus thuringiensis concentrate at a rate of 2 teaspoons per 1 gallon of water, but check your products label for directions. Spray until the plants are wet but not dripping, and agitate the solution while applying it. Wear gloves when preparing and ...
Relatively little is known about the metabolic breakdown of indoxacarb or other SCBIs in insects. On balance, it is clear that bioactivation is occurring much
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
På grund af lectinernes aktivitet som pesticider, er fødemidler blevet genetisk modificeret med lectin-gener som Bt-toxinet fra Bacillus thuringiensis. Et andet aktivt lectin stammer fra vintergækker. Det benævnes GNA for Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, og der er bl.a. blevet udført forsøg med GNA-genet overført til kartofler. Herom sagde i 1998 Arpad Pusztai, en skotsk-ungarsk biokemiker og ernæringsforsker, i et interview på britisk TV (World in Action), at hans forskningsgruppe havde observeret skader på tarmsystemet og immunsystemet på rotter fodret med de genetisk modificerede kartofler. Bl.a. sagde han: If I had the choice I would certainly not eat it, og I find its very unfair to use our fellow citizens as guinea pigs.[25] Disse bemærkninger startede Pusztai-affæren om genetisk modificerede fødemidler.[26][27] Bt-toxinerne fra Bacillus thuringiensis anses for at være uskadelige for mennesker og dyr bortset fra visse insekter, og derfor anses afgrøder modificeret med ...
Cotton tolerant to oxynil herbicides, through introduction of the bxn gene isolated from the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies ozaenae which codes for the enzyme nitrilase, which hydrolyses ioxynil and bromoxynil into non-toxic compounds. The cotton is also resistant to lepidopteran insects through the introduction of cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics, extracellular enzyme production and enterotoxigenic genes contents of 6 Bacillus cereus and 22 Bacillus thuringiensis strains, isolated from ...
Chromosorb 101: Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis immobilized on Chromosorb 101, a solid phase extractant for preconcentration of heavy metal ions in environmental samples
Author Summary Hookworm infections are one of the great parasitic diseases of our time, infecting more than half a billion people worldwide and are a significant source of iron-deficient anemia. Although mass drug administrations to eliminate hookworms from children and pregnant women are being deployed, all the drugs for treatment we have lack full potency against the parasites and are showing signs of reduced efficacy. Crystal proteins, like Cry5B, made by Bacillus thuringiensis are as a class considered safe to vertebrates and have been shown to have efficacy against intestinal roundworms like hookworms. Here we show that the key mechanistic details of how Cry5B functions in hookworms is conserved with that of the model free-living roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, which has implications for confirming Cry5B safety in vertebrates and for enhancing Cry5B efficacy against roundworms. Furthermore, we show that Cry5B works effectively as a single-dose drug against hookworm infections in hamsters and can
The more things change, the more they stay the same, as a Dec. 29 Associated Press report on genetically engineered corn notes. Like déjà vu, this news story on emerging resistance to Bt toxin - a fabulously effective and popular insecticide to protect corn - brings to mind articles I encountered over the weekend while flipping through historic issues of Science News.. More than a half-century ago, our magazine chronicled, real time, the emergence of resistance to DDT, the golden child of pest controllers worldwide. Now much the same thing is happening again with Bt, its contemporary agricultural counterpart. Will we never learn?. The new AP story cites rather vague references to the fact that corn genetically engineered to produce the insect-targeting Bt toxin no longer knocks out a major scourge - the Western corn rootworm - as it recently had. These beetle larvae are developing resistance to the toxin (named for its initial source, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis). And the worst part: ...
Cry-toxin genes originating from Bacillus thuringiensis are inserted into genetically modified (GM) plants, often called Bt-plants, to provide insect resistance to pests. Significant amounts of Bt-plant residues, and thus Cry-toxins, will be shed to soil and aquatic environments. We exposed Daphnia magna to purified Cry1Ab and Cry2Aa toxins for the full life-span of the animals. We used single toxins in different doses and combinations of toxins and Roundup, another potential stressor on the rise in agricultural ecosystems. Animals exposed to 4.5 mg/L (ppm) of Cry1Ab, Cry2Aa and the combination of both showed markedly higher mortality, smaller body size and very low juvenile production compared to controls. Animals exposed to 0.75 mg/L also showed a tendency towards increased mortality but with increased early fecundity compared to the controls. Roundup stimulated animals to strong early reproductive output at the cost of later rapid mortality. We conclude that i) purified Cry-toxins in high ...
Following concerns over the potential for insect resistance to insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis toxins expressed in transgenic plants, there has been recent interest in novel biological insecticides. Over the past year there has been considerable progress in the cloning of several alternative tox …
Beyond Pesticides, January 3, 2014) A recent study on the European corn borer (ECB), a major corn pest, finds no significant difference in yield between genetically engineered (GE)Bt (ECB-resistant) corn and non-GE corn in the Northeast, where pest pressure has decreased. Considering the high cost of GE corn, researchers determine that farmers will see no benefits in terms of profit. The study, published in the journal Pest Management Science, examines the damage that ECBs cause to crops, comparing corn genetically engineered to express the insecticidal toxin Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt) with non-Bt crops at 29 sites around Pennsylvania over three years. The study concludes that although Bt corn hybrids reduced ECB damage in comparison to non-Bt crops, they found no difference in yields, explaining that because of higher seed costs they also rarely improved profits. Although researchers attribute the decline in ECB population to the adoption of Bt corn, the study does not address long-term ...
RAHMAN, Mahmood-ur et al. Insect resistance and risk assessment studies of advanced generations of basmati rice expressing two genes of Bacillus thuringiensis. Electron. J. Biotechnol. [online]. 2007, vol.10, n.2, pp.241-251. ISSN 0717-3458.. Advanced generations of different transgenic lines of indica basmati rice (Basmati-370) expressing two unrelated Bt genes, cry1Ac and cry2A were evaluated for resistance to Yellow Stem Borer (YSB) and Rice Leaf Folder (RLF) under field conditions compared to control lines over three years (2003-2005). Homozygous lines were selected and analyzed for insect resistance, morphological, physiochemical properties and risk assessment studies. After artificial infestation of target insects, the transgenic plants showed significant resistance. Data were recorded in terms of dead hearts and white heads at vegetative and flowering stage respectively. Transgenic lines showed up to 100 and 96% resistance against yellow stem borer at vegetative and flowering stages, ...
The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, is a pest of stored grain products and is sensitive to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin. As digestive peptidases are a determining factor in Cry toxicity and resistance, we evaluated the expression of peptidase transcripts in the midgut of T. molitor larvae fed either a control or Cry3Aa protoxin diet for 24h (RNA-Seq), or in larvae exposed to the ...
Understanding how certain protein toxins from the normally insecticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) target human cell lines has implications for both the risk assessment of products containing these toxins and potentially for cancer therapy. This understanding requires knowledge of whether the human cell active toxins work by the same mechanism as their insecticidal counterparts or by alternative ones. The Bt Cry41Aa (also known as Parasporin3) toxin is structurally related to the toxins synthesised by commercially produced transgenic insect-resistant plants, with the notable exception of an additional C-terminal β-trefoil ricin domain. To better understand its mechanism of action, we developed an efficient expression system for the toxin and created mutations in regions potentially involved in the toxic mechanism. Deletion of the ricin domain did not significantly affect the activity of the toxin against the human HepG2 cell line, suggesting that this region was not responsible for ...
Rainbow Papaya: In 1992 papaya ringspot virus hit Hawaiis papaya groves, decimating the livelihoods of farmers and damaging the islands economy. By 1998, most trees were infected and production cut by half. Then Dennis Gonsalves, a plant pathologist developed a papaya that was inoculated against the virus by inserting a bit of the virus into the DNA of the plant. Since humans are immune to the virus and had already been eating mildly infected fruit for years, there were no real health concerns. The Hawaiian papaya industry has largely bounced back. In fact, the transgenic papayas help organic papaya producers by creating buffer zones to isolate the organic papayas from the virus.. Bt Corn and Bt Cotton: The concept behind Bt traited crops takes a page out of natures playbook and one from the organic farmers playbook. Bt stands for Bacillus thuringiensis, a soil bacteria. Bt produces crystal proteins or Cry proteins. In the gut of certain pests, notably the European corn borer which eats ...
Brett Smith for redOrbit.com. Modern science is no match for Mother Nature when it comes to agriculture, a new research paper has revealed.. The report, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by a team of scientists, showed that pests are adapting faster than expected to the genetically modified (GM) crops that have been altered to repel them.. Many GM crops were originally created to reduce the amount of pesticides used to repel the insects and larvae that feed on their naturally occurring counterparts. Scientists accomplished this in some plants by engineering them to produce toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt, which kill certain insect pests but are harmless to most other creatures including humans.. As expected, initially rare genetic mutations that conferred toxin resistance in these pests became more common. This allowed a growing number of pest populations to adapt to the GM crops.. Scientists expected the insects to adapt, but were ...
The drugs currently used to treat STH infections as part of mass drug administration campaigns, such as albendazole and mebendazole, are threatened by the rise of resistance. A significant gap in the profile of all of the currently used anthelmintic drugs is that they are contraindicated for women in their first trimester of pregnancy, leaving the mother and her fetus vulnerable to the effects of STH-induced anemia and malnutrition and out of reach of a therapeutic intervention.. Cry5B is a powerful, naturally occurring anthelmintic protein from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. It has demonstrated efficacy in animal models, and its safety profile could permit its use in young children and women during their first trimester of pregnancy. There is also evidence that resistance to the protein would be developed more slowly compared to current treatments, which could allow for decades of intensive use.. Supported by the investment from GHIT, the partnerships effort over the next two years ...
Blog on Insecticidal protein LA-b recombinant protein product: The Insecticidal protein LA-b n/a (Catalog #MBS1246161) is a Recombinant Protein produced from E Coli or ...
a) Btk: Due to proprietary information exemptions in the Access to Information Act, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) cannot disclose the total contents of Foray 48B, the particular formula of Btk used for the eradication of gypsy moths. What we can say is that the active ingredient is a bacterial insect disease, Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki-Btk. Small amounts of chemicals are used in the commercial fermentation process, and the bacteria metabolize these into complex and simple sugars and water in the final formulation. The final formulation has been examined by Health Canada and Environment Canada and has been proven safe; it is even certified for use by organic growers.. (b) Treatment Effectiveness: European gypsy moths (also knows as North American gypsy moths) have been accidentally moved to British Columbia on household effects numerous times in the last 17 years from infested areas of eastern North America and elsewhere. Thirty-nine male moths wer caught in pheromone-baited sticky ...
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (HD-1) can produce a parasporal crystal in the form of a toxic inclusion body. Proteins ... "Isolation of a protein from the parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis var, kurstaki toxic to the mosquito larva, Aedes ... Turell, M. J.; Knudson, G. B. (1987-08-01). "Mechanical transmission of Bacillus anthracis by stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans ... Experimental studies also established that the species is capable of mechanical transmission of Bacillus anthracis. ...
"European Corn Borer and Bacillus thuringiensis". Plant & Soil Sciences eLibrary. Retrieved October 25, 2017. Royer, L.; McNeil ... has had its genome modified to include a synthetic version of an insecticidal gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. As ...
Bacillus thuringiensis is a microbial insecticide. When consumed, it is lethal to lesser wax larvae. However, bees are immune ... with Bacillus thuringiensis". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 11 (2): 184-195. doi:10.1016/0022-2011(68)90148-1. PMID ... While a B. thuringiensis-infused liquid can also be used, the powder is more effective and remains protective to bee combs for ... When a powder containing B. thuringiensis is mixed with beeswax present in bee combs, the lesser wax moth is killed and the ...
Cry4Aa was produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. It is a dipteran-specific toxin and it plays an important role in how to produce ... "Alanine scanning analyses of the three major loops in domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis mosquitocidal toxin Cry4Aa". Appl. ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is microbial and biological. It is the most commonly used pesticide and is used against other pests ... using Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) toxin - to prevent their establishment in the state. Since 1980, the gypsy moth has ... usually via the application of the bacterial pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis ('Bt'). In 2008 California agriculture officials ...
This commonly uses Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium. This bacterium is used as a ... ISBN 978-81-209-0442-2. Wei JZ, Hale K, Carta L, Platzer E, Wong C, Fang SC, Aroian RV (2003). "Bacillus thuringiensis crystal ...
Wei JZ, Hale K, Carta L, Platzer E, Wong C, Fang SC, Aroian RV (2003). "Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins that target ... Rhizobium is a genus of soil bacteria used as biofertilizers, Bacillus thuringiensis (also called Bt) and the annonins ( ... September 1992). "Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal compositions containing the same US5147640A". Retrieved 2020- ...
Bacillus thuringiensis and its strain B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki are also used by farmers in Assam, India. Chemical control ...
Chapter 15 in [Bacillus Thuringiensis Biotechnology], Ed. Estibaliz Sansinenea. Springer, 2 March 2012, Erin Hodgson and Aaron ... 2002). "Cry1a Toxins of Bacillus Thuringiensis Bind Specifically to a Region Adjacent to the Membrane-Proximal Extracellular ... Chilcutt CF, Tabashnik BE (May 2004). "Contamination of refuges by Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes from transgenic maize". ... "Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(a) insecticidal toxin: crystal structure and channel formation". Journal of Molecular Biology. 254 ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a gram-positive soil bacterium from the phylum Firmicutes. It is often used as a biological ... Currently, spraying Bacillus thuringiensis is considered to be the best option, possibly with NPV for an added benefit, but ... Janmaat, Alida F.; Myers, Judith (2003-11-07). "Rapid evolution and the cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in ... Mcvay, John R.; Gudauskas, Robert T.; Harper, James D. (1977). "Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Nuclear-Polyhedrosis Virus ...
Bacillus thuringiensis[edit]. Constant exposure to a toxin creates evolutionary pressure for pests resistant to that toxin. ... To reduce resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, the 1996 commercialization of transgenic cotton and maize came with ... plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).[40] ... rice and some other crops have been engineered to express genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis ...
"An immuno-PCR method for detecting Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin". Journal of Immunological Methods. 308 (1): 109-115. ...
14, 71 Li, H., Olson, M., Lin, G., Hey, T., Tan, S.Y., and Narva, K.E. (2013) "Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 ... Peng, D., Chai, L., Wang, F., Zhang, F., Ruan, L., and Sun, M. (2011) "Synergistic activity between Bacillus thuringiensis ... Cry6Aa is a toxic crystal protein generated by the bacterial family Bacillus thuringiensis during sporulation. This protein is ... "Bacillus thuringiensis metalloproteinase Bmp1 functions as a nematicidal virulence factor". Applied and Environmental ...
Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium, is often applied as a pesticide. Chemical pesticides continue to be used for infestation ... "Why Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins are so effective: unique features of their mode of action". FEMS Microbiology ...
Moazami, N. (2004). "The Role of Bacillus Thuringiensis H-14 In Malaria Control." The Forth Inter-country Meeting of National ... Moazami, N. (1997). "Large Scale Production of Slow Release Formation of Bacillus Thuringiensis M-H-4 in Qeshm Island." ... "the feasibility of producing and using Bacillus thuringiensis to control malaria vectors in southern Iran. Their slow release ...
Li H, Olson M, Lin G, Hey T, Tan SY, Narva KE (2013-01-04). "Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 interactions with western ... Cry34Ab1 is one member of a binary Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein set isolated from Bt strain PS149B1. The protein ... Palma L, Muñoz D, Berry C, Murillo J, Caballero P (December 2014). "Bacillus thuringiensis toxins: an overview of their ... July 2001). "Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis protect corn from corn rootworms". Nature Biotechnology. 19 (7 ...
The selection of pesticides should be based on biological pesticide bacillus thuringiensis, select some high efficiency, low ... Jouzani, Gholamreza; Valijanian, Salehi; Sharafi, Elena (2017). "Bacillus Thuringiensis : A Successful Insecticide with New ...
The insecticidal toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been inserted into a tomato plant. When field tested they ... Kumar, H.; Kumar, V. (2004). "Tomato expressing Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis protected against ... Safety Assessment of the Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Crystal Protein CRYIA(b) Expressed in Transgenic Tomatoes. ACS ... "Field Performance of Transgenic Tomato Plants Expressing the Bacillus Thuringiensis Var. Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". ...
The active ingredient is Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (Btk)[clarification needed]. Petrie, K; Thomas, M; Broadbent, E ( ...
It has also been used in combination with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in controlling Aedes aegypti larvae in ... PMID 8887220 Enhancement of the efficacy of a combination of Mesocyclops aspericornis and Bacillus thuringiensis var. ...
Pesticides and use of Bacillus thuringiensis extracts are effective against caterpillars. "Mango flower webworm". Pacific Pests ...
Recently an actin-like protein has been found in a gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms a microtubule- ... "Novel actin filaments from Bacillus thuringiensis form nanotubules for plasmid DNA segregation". Proceedings of the National ...
A. F. Janmaat; J. Myers (2003). "Rapid evolution and the cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in greenhouse populations ... from Bacillus thuringiensis) in the field. Bt toxin is poisonous when ingested by insects but not mammals, so it was used to ... "One gene in diamondback moth confers resistance to four Bacillus thuringiensis toxins". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "Mechanism of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in a greenhouse population of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni". ...
Bacillus thuringiensis can help control dry rot when applied to older cultures. Dry rot is not just a cosmetic problem like ... Evaluation of Bacterial Isolates From Salty Soils and Bacillus thuringiensis Strains for the Biocontrol of Fusarium Dry Rot of ... Researchers at Michigan State University are investigating the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilis (both ... Scientists in Tunisia have found that several bacterial species of the genus Bacillus, commonly found in the salty soils of ...
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab mutants affecting oligomer formation are non-toxic to Manduca sexta larvae. J Biol Chem 282 29: ... The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt protein that is poisonous to insects in the order ... Risk assessment of toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis--synergism, efficacy, and selectivity. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17: ... Specificity of Bacillius thuringiensis delta-endotoxins. Eur J Biochem 186: 239-247. ISAAA. 2009. Executive Summary Global ...
For example: mosquitoes are often controlled by putting Bt Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, a bacterium that infects ... "Bacillus thuringienis Factsheet". Colorado State University. Retrieved 2 June 2010. "Agriotes sputator L. - Common Click Beetle ...
The spores of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana are known to effective. Beauveria bassiana should mix with potato ...
Lately an actin-like ParM homolog has been found in a gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which assembles into a ... "Novel actin filaments from Bacillus thuringiensis form nanotubules for plasmid DNA segregation". Proceedings of the National ...
Kathage, J; Qaim, M (Jul 2012). "Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India". Proc ... The cotton incorporated the cry1Ac gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), making the cotton toxic to ... Strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce over 200 different Bt toxins, each harmful to different insects. Most ...
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis were only recently established as a model system ... Model systems include the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans with the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis; the crustacean Daphnia and ...
The insecticidal toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been inserted into a tomato plant.[22] When field tested ... Kumar, H.; Kumar, V. (2004). "Tomato expressing Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis protected against ... Safety Assessment of the Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Crystal Protein CRYIA(b) Expressed in Transgenic Tomatoes. ACS ... "Field Performance of Transgenic Tomato Plants Expressing the Bacillus Thuringiensis Var. Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". ...
Genotipsko in fenotipsko je podobna vrstama Bacillus cereus in Bacillus thuringiensis. Vse tri vrste imajo podobno celično ... Bacillus anthracis. Cohn 1872 Bacillus anthracis je povzročitelj antraksa - pogoste bolezni živine in občasno ljudi - in edini ... Wikimedijina zbirka ponuja več predstavnostnega gradiva o temi: Bacillus anthracis. *↑ 1,0 1,1 Spencer, Robert C. (marec 2003 ... Bacillus anthracis je ena od maloštevilnih vrst bakterij, ki sintetizirajo polipeptidno kapsulo (poli-D-gama-glutamat). Tako ...
... this pest in crops became more complicated after resistance developed against a toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, which ...
... and biologic controls such as Bacillus thuringiensis. USDA officials obtained an Emergency Exemption from Registration from the ... biological control including Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and occasionally mating disruption, which typically involves releasing ...
Bacillus thuringiensis. *Baculovirus. *Beauveria bassiana. *Beauveria brongniartii. *Metarhizium acridum. *Metarhizium ...
BT - Bacillus thuringiensis. *EH - Erwinia hebicola. *FP - fluorescent particle. Radiological Agent[edit]. Main article: ...
Bacillus thuringiensis · Bakulovirus · Beauveria bassiana · Beauveria brongniartii · Metarhizium acridum · Metarhizium ...
Bacillus thuringiensis · Bakulovirus · Beauveria bassiana · Beauveria brongniartii · Metarhizium acridum · Metarhizium ...
Bacillus thuringiensis • Baculovirus • Beauveria bassiana • Beauveria brongniartii • Metarhizium acridum • Metarhizium ...
Another gene being put into some crops comes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis; the gene makes a protein that is an ...
B. thuringiensis. B. tianshenii. B. trypoxylicola. B. tusciae. B. validus. B. vallismortis. B. vedderi. B. velezensis. B. ... Bacillus adalah genus bakteri Gram-positif berbentuk batang yang anggota dari filum Firmicutes. Spesies Bacillus dapat bersifat ... Bacillus. Foto mikroskopis Bacillus subtilis dengan pewarnaan Gram dan pembesaran 1.000x. Bentuk oval yang tidak terwarnai ... Wikimedia Commons memiliki media mengenai Bacillus.. *Bacillus genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ...
Lipopolysaccharide (Lipid A) · Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin. Virulence factor. Clumping factor A · Fibronectin ...
Bacillus thuringiensis · Bakulovirus · Beauveria bassiana · Beauveria brongniartii · Metarhizium acridum · Metarhizium ...
Combining multiple strategies, such as engineering the protein Cry, derived from a bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt ...
Bacillus thuringiensis. *Chloroflexi. *Chloroflexus. *Sianobakteri. *Staphylococcus aureus. F. *Frankia (genus). G. *GFAJ-1 ...
Bacillus thuringiensis · Bakulovirus · Beauveria bassiana · Beauveria brongniartii · Metarhizium acridum · Metarhizium ...
New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, which confers resistance to the Colorado ...
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) naturally produces a chemical harmful only to a small fraction of insects, most ... Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (29): 11652-6. Bibcode:2012PNAS ... "Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Lipopolisakarida (Lipid A) · Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoksin. Faktor virulen. Clumping factor A · Fibronectin binding ...
Bacillus cereus group: close and polyphyleticEdit. Main article: Bacillus cereus. In a similar way, the Bacillus species (= ... phylum Firmicutes) belonging to the "B. cereus group" (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B . thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. ... Main article: Bacillus. Another example of a large genus with nested genera is the genus Bacillus, in which the genera ... Bacillus-a genus of spore-forming rod shaped bacteria first described in 1835[13] ...
For example, a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces a natural insecticide toxin. Genes from Bt can ...
Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin *Cry1Ac. *Cry3Bb1. *Other B. thuringiensis toxins *Cry6Aa. *Cry34Ab1 ... A new anaerobic bacillus and its relation to botulism. E. van Ermengem. Originally published as "Ueber einen neuen anaëroben ... Bacillus und seine Beziehungen zum Botulismus" in Zeitschrift für Hygiene und Infektionskrankheiten 26: 1-56, 1897". Reviews of ...
Bacillus thuringiensis · Bakulovirus · Beauveria bassiana · Beauveria brongniartii · Metarhizium acridum · Metarhizium ...
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been used in sprays to reduce damage to crops by the caterpillars of the large white ...
Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin. Virulence. factor. *Clumping factor A. *Fibronectin binding protein A ...
Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin. Virulence. factor. *Clumping factor A. *Fibronectin binding protein A ...
... led to the development of transgenics expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. "Bt maize" is widely grown in the United ...
aastal kiideti heaks Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kartul kasvatamiseks, mistõttu see oli esimene Ameerika Ühendriikides heaks ... Toidu ja etanooli jaoks kasutatud maisi on geneetiliselt muundatud herbitsiidide talumiseks ja Bacillus thuringiensis'i (Bt) ... See geen pärineb mullabakterist Bacillus subtilis.[60] Puuviljad ja köögivaljad[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. Papaia (Carica ...
B. thuringiensis. B. tianshenii. B. trypoxylicola. B. tusciae. B. validus. B. vallismortis. B. vedderi. B. velezensis. B. ... Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be ... A portion of the Bacillus thuringiensis genome was incorporated into corn (and cotton) crops. The resulting GMOs are therefore ... Many Bacillus species are able to secrete large quantities of enzymes. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is the source of a natural ...
Li JD, Carroll J, Ellar DJ (October 1991). "Crystal structure of insecticidal delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis at ...
Bacillus thuringiensis serotype kurstaki (Btk) is a group of bacteria used as biological control agents against lepidopterans. ... Tapp, H; Stotzky, G (15 April 1998). "Persistence of the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in soil ... "Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis". Environmental ... "Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki ( ...
1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 W.S. Cranshaw, "Bacillus thuringiensis," Colorado State ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is "a naturally occurring bacterial disease of insects." [1] Because Bt produces a toxin that kills ... Retrieved from "https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Bacillus_thuringiensis&oldid=535596" ...
Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis] Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,399163616,gb,AFP33255.1, ...
cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis] cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,506485019,gb,AGM16382.1, ...
Bacillus thuringiensis Taxonomy (NIH). *Bacillus thuringiensis genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ... Bacillus thuringiensis General Fact Sheet (National Pesticide Information Center). *Bacillus thuringiensis Technical Fact Sheet ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genellikle biyolojik pestisit olarak kullanılan, Gram-pozitif, toprakta yaşayan bir bakteridir.[1] ... De Maagd, R; Bravo, A; Crickmore, N (2001). "How Bacillus thuringiensis has evolved specific toxins to colonize the insect ...
Bacillus thuringiensis definition, a bacterium used in genetically altered form in the biological control of budworms, gypsy ... New Latin (1915): Thuringian bacillus; so named in reference to its discovery in larvae of Mediterranean flour moths from a ...
There are a large number of toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are able to confer insect resistance on plants ... 1 shows the nucleotide sequence of the gene contained in Bacillus thuringiensis that encodes the Cry1M protein of the invention ... First, the protein itself, either isolated directly from Bacillus thuringiensis or prepared recombinantly or otherwise ... become resistant to previously described Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.. BACKGROUND ART. ...
Buy Bacillus Thuringiensis by ILO, Unep from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK ... Bacillus Thuringiensis - Environmental Health Criteria No. 217 (Paperback). ILO (author), Unep (author), World Health ...
For instance, the standard B.t. (Bacillus thuringiensis)is effective against caterpillars of all kinds. BTSD (B.t. var. san ...
Genomic DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis Strain USDA H522 TypeStrain=False Application: ... Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (ATCC® 35646D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis Strain USDA H522 ... Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner ATCC® 35646D-5™ dried At least 5 µg in 1X TE buffer. OD260/OD280: 1.6 to 2.0 ... Genomic DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis Strain USDA H522 [ATCC® 35646™] Biosafety Level 1 Biosafety classification is based on ...
BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND ITS IMPACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT October 17 - 21, 1994 In order to promote the use of BACILLUS ... CONFERENCE ON BIOTECHNOLOGY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS. C. Lan FJUT028 at TWNMOE10.BITNET Thu Sep 16 19:28:39 EST 1993 *Previous ... THURINGIENSIS (B.t.)-based insecticides in the Pacific rim region, the conference is being organized by a group of scientists ...
... novel chimeric genes allow the introduction of exogenous DNA fragments coding for polypeptide toxins produced by Bacillus ... thuringiensis or having substantial sequence homology to a gene coding for a polypeptide toxin as described herein and ... Novel bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins. US20060010520 *. Jun 13, 2005. Jan 12, 2006. Lundquist Ronald C. Fertile ... Insecticidal proteins from bacillus thuringiensis. EP2213681A1. Mar 20, 2003. Aug 4, 2010. Bayer BioScience N.V.. Novel ...
These findings widen the target range of Bacillus spp., in special B. thuringiensis, besides insecticidal activity and help ... On the other hand, the different Bacillus species have important biotechnological applications; one of them is carried out by ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used as a biopesticide in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control because of its ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used as a biopesticide in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control because of its ...
Course "Bacillus thuringiensis genome sequencing: from DNA extraction to annotation through NGS technology". 4 - 13 November, ... Bacillus thuringiensis Next-Generation Sequencing including technique, algorithms, methods, sequence mapping tools, data ... and Design of NGS experiments and workflow of Bacillus thuringiensis genome sequencing, assembly and annotation.. This course ...
Bacillus Thuringiensis May 3, 2014. A few days ago you talked about control of bagworms. What was the spray that we should use ... The spray I mentioned for killing bagworms is BT, Bacillus thuringiensis. This is actually a concentration of bacteria and you ...
Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests. Nanasaheb P. Chougule, Huarong Li, ... Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of ...
Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton. Yves Carrière, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Mark ... Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton. Yves Carrière, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Mark ... Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton. Yves Carrière, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Mark ...
The present invention provides an isolated and purified protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies thuringiensis, ... Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis), kyushunsis (Bacillus thuringiensis kursataki) and morrisoni (Bacillus thuringiensis ... The Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis protein enhances the humoral immune system in rats and guinea pigs, and induces long ... This antitumor Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis protein is not oncotoxin as indicated by the difference in molecular weight ...
Risks for public health related to the presence of Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus spp. including Bacillus thuringiensis in ... thuringiensis strains. Bacillus cereus andB. thuringiensis strains are usually not discriminated in clinical diagnostics or ... Bacillus thuringiensis strains display a similar repertoire of the potential virulence genes on the chromosome as B. cereus ... The Bacillus cereus group, also known as B. cereus sensu lato, is a subdivision of the Bacillus genus that consists of eight ...
Comparative Genomics of Bacillus thuringiensis Reveals a Path to Specialized Exploitation of Multiple Invertebrate Hosts ... Bacillus thuringiensis took advantage of important insect cellular proteins, such as chaperones, involved in maintaining ... Insect Hsp90 Chaperone Assists Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Toxicity by Enhancing Protoxin Binding to the Receptor and by ... Using the Bacillus cereus group as a model, a conceptual framework for the... ...
Taxonomía de Bacillus thuringiensis (NIH). *xenomas de Bacillus thuringiensis e información relacionada en PATRIC, un Centro de ... Bacillus thuringiensis General Fact Sheet (National Pesticide Information Center). *Bacillus thuringiensis Technical Fact Sheet ... O Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis é unha cepa de B. thuringiensis amplamente usada como larvicida contra as larvas ... "Production of Bacillus thuringiensis integrants". USPTO. 1998. US5955367.. *↑ Hayes Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Volume 1 ...
... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt):. *Bernstein, L.; Bernstein, J. A.; Miller, M.; Tierzieva, ... Meadows, M. P. Bacillus thuringiensis, An Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice; Entwistle, P.F.; Cory, J. S.; Bailey ... Hendriksen, N. B.; Hansen, B. M. Long-Term Survival and Germination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki in a Field Trial. ... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Code of ...
The replication region of the Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid, pHT1030, was treated with hydroxylamine. Various copy-number ... Construction of cloning vectors for Bacillus thuringiensis Gene. 1991 Dec 1;108(1):115-9. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(91)90495-w. ... The replication region of the Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid, pHT1030, was treated with hydroxylamine. Various copy-number ... These recombinant plasmids are very stable and allowed the cloning of a delta-endotoxin-encoding gene in B. thuringiensis. ...
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Tenebrionis STRAIN: NB 176 (TM 141) Culture collection: No SD-5428 Regulatory process names 1 ... Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Tenebrionis STRAIN: NB 176 (TM 141) Culture collection: No SD-5428 ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Terrabacteria group › Firmicutes › Bacilli › Bacillales › Bacillaceae › BacillusBacillus ... "Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.". ... "Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.". ... "Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.". ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) consists of a spore, which gives it persistence, and a protein crystal within the spore, which is ... Bt san diego (Bt-sd) - Bacillus thuringiensis var san diego and Bt tenebrionis (Bt-t) - Bacillus thuringiensis var tenebrionis ... 44 Responses to "Bacillus thuringiensis Products". * Maxwell Sandford on March 17th, 2013 at 12:10 am # ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a natural occurring, soil-borne bacteria that has been used since the 1950s for natural insect ...
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai strains ABTS-1857 and GC-91; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Israeliensis (serotype H-14) ... Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai strains ABTS-1857 and GC-91; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Israeliensis (serotype H-14) ... strain AM65-52; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki strains ABTS 351, PB 54, SA 11, SA12 and EG 2348; Bacillus thuringiensis ... strain AM65-52; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki strains ABTS 351, PB 54, SA 11, SA12 and EG 2348; Bacillus thuringiensis ...
This topic contains 1 reply, has 2 voices, and was last updated by E. Vinje 2 years, 6 months ago. Bt for Mosquitoes Created by Steve Mosher on June
Phosphotransferase system (PTS) - Bacillus thuringiensis MC28 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a naturally occurring bacterium that produces a protein that is effective for the control of ... European corn borer resistance to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn. European corn borers that have developed resistance to corn ...
  • Characterized full-length and truncated plasmid clones of the crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistence of the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (europa.eu)
  • A0A0K0SBL2_BACT3 Hut operon positive regulatory protein OS=Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (uniprot.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (asm.org)
  • The two predominant polypeptides of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (asm.org)
  • The B. thuringiensis subsp. (asm.org)
  • Now that everyone wants to kill mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, can somebody please make a transgenic plant that expresses mosquitocidal Bti ( Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (colinpurrington.com)
  • Biochemical studies on the mosquitocidal delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The cytolytic properties of the mosquitocidal 25 Kd protein deltaendotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Search results for: 'Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (avivasysbio.com)
  • A partial match was found for Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Comparative analysis of the individual protoxin components in P1 crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (portlandpress.com)
  • Cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (portlandpress.com)
  • The identification of the rate-limiting binding steps of Cry toxins that are used for insect control in the field, such as those of B. thuringiensis subsp. (portlandpress.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis serotype kurstaki (Btk) is a group of bacteria used as biological control agents against lepidopterans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several vendors offer Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki that is approved or use in organic production. (planetnatural.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium native to the soil in a wide range of regions globally. (arbico-organics.com)
  • In order to ensure that pathogens were properly adapted to hosts, we used five rifampicin-resistant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki ( Btk rif R ), originally isolated from the biopesticide DiPel WP, four of which had recently been selected for improved growth in our invertebrate host, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (DBM), by three rounds of infection and re-isolation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram positive soil dwelling bacterio, This Spore kurstaki strain H1 has just emerged from vegetative bacteria. (ucsd.edu)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis took advantage of important insect cellular proteins, such as chaperones, involved in maintaining protein homeostasis, to enhance its insecticidal activity. (asm.org)
  • Dean, D. H. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins. (orst.edu)
  • Bt ( Bacillus thuringiensis ), a soil-dwelling bacterium, produces proteins that are toxic to certain immature insects. (finegardening.com)
  • The efficiency of the insecticidal properties of B. thuringiensis is due to the synthesis of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) encoded by the cry genes. (scielo.br)
  • Parasporal inclusion proteins from a total of 1744 Bacillus thuringiensis strains, consisting of 1700 Japanese isolates and 44 reference type strains of existing H serovars, were screened for cytocidal activity against human leukaemia T cells and haemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes. (wiley.com)
  • These findings may lead to the use of B. thuringiensis inclusion proteins for medical purposes. (wiley.com)
  • Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. (asm.org)
  • Studies on the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity suggest that B. thuringiensis crystal proteins induce the formation of pores in membranes of susceptible cells. (asm.org)
  • The expression of B. thuringiensis crystal proteins in plant-associated microorganisms and in transgenic plants has been reported. (asm.org)
  • When ingested, Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins that react with the cells of the stomach lining. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a group of spore-forming Gram positive bacteria that produce entomocidal parasporal crystalline proteins during the sporulation phase of their life cycle [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis strains display a similar repertoire of the potential virulence genes on the chromosome as B. cereus sensu stricto strains and it has been shown that these genes can also be actively expressed in B. thuringiensis strains. (europa.eu)
  • Bacillus cereus and B. thuringiensis strains are usually not discriminated in clinical diagnostics or food microbiology. (europa.eu)
  • The Panel has recommended the application of whole genome sequencing to provide unambiguous identification of strains used as biopesticides and the detailed characterisation of outbreak strains allowing discrimination of B. thuringiensis from B. cereus . (europa.eu)
  • Data gaps include: dose-response and behavioural characteristics of B. cereus group strains and specifically of B. thuringiensis . (europa.eu)
  • Of 1684 B. thuringiensis strains having no haemolytic activity, 42 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against leukaemia T cells. (wiley.com)
  • Five bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus hirae) and three fungal strains (Alternaria sp. (environmental-expert.com)
  • PFGE of DNAs from three B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains of ETs 24 and 25 digested with Asc I (lanes 2 to 4) and Not I (lanes 7 to 9). (asm.org)
  • Spores from Cry + strains of Bacillus thuringiensis bound fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibodies specific for the 65-kDa activated Cry 1Ac toxin, whereas spores from Bacillus cereus and Cry - strains of B. thuringiensis did not. (unl.edu)
  • Several factors make the local production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) highly appropriate for pest control in developing nations. (scielo.br)
  • The simultaneous production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticide and proteases was studied using synthetic medium and wastewater sludge as a raw material. (indymedia.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a naturally occurring bacterium that produces a protein that is effective for the control of several insects, such as flies, mosquitoes, Colorado potato beetles and corn borers. (gc.ca)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium used for biopesticides production and pest-resistant plants due to the synthesis of protein crystals by cry genes, which are effective in controlling several insect orders such as Lepidoptera. (scielo.br)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a type of spore-forming bacterium. (maximumyield.com)
  • An aerobic denitrifying bacterium isolated from a bio-trickling filter treating NOx, Bacillus sp. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis is a naturally occurring soil bacterium that causes disease on insect pests. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • The activity of Bacillus thuringiensis is due to toxins produced by this bacterium. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • Negative staining image of Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces spores and crystals in times of stress. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Decontamination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This study examined the efficacy of chlorine dioxide Cl[O.sub.2]) gas for the decontamination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on paper, wood, epoxy, and plastic surfaces. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • From October 4 to November 2, 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local public health authorities reported l0 confirmed cases of inhalational anthrax caused by intentional delivery of Bacillus anthracis spores through mailed letters or packages in the United States (Jernigan et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To better understand Cl[O.sub.2] as a disinfection agent, more information on the inactivation of Bacillus spores on different surfaces, such as envelope paper, wood, and plastic, is needed. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study, a Bacillus thuringiensis strain designated BT1 was chosen as a surrogate for B. anthracis and utilized for the preparation of spores. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Preparation of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores The authors prepared suspensions of B. thuringiensis spores by growing BT1 on nutrient agar (DIFCO Laboratories, Detroit, Michigan) plates overnight at 34[degrees]C. The overnight culture then was used to inoculate Roux bottles containing nutrient agar supplemented with manganese sulfate (3 mg/L). The cultures were incubated at 34 [degrees] C and periodically examined microscopically to detect sporulation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram positive bacteria that during sporulation synthesizes large quantities of a protein that kills insects when ingested (Hofte and Whiteley, 1989). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis é unha especie bacteriana grampositiva , que vive no solo, usada comunmente como pesticida biolóxico (como bacteria completa ou só a toxina Cry extraída dela). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a natural occurring, soil-borne bacteria that has been used since the 1950s for natural insect control. (planetnatural.com)
  • There are no comments for Bacillus Thuringiensis Bacteria . (fineartamerica.com)
  • The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria," Nature , vol. 423, no. 6935, pp. 81-86, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects of a newly isolated quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria (Bacillus sp. (environmental-expert.com)
  • whereby the chimeric gene can be expressed in the cell as an insect controlling amount of an insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis polyopeptide toxin with toxicity to Lepidoptera insects. (google.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used as a biopesticide in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control because of its advantages of specific toxicity against target insects, lack of polluting residues and safety to non-target organisms. (foyles.co.uk)
  • 4) Spore preparations shall be free of the Bacillus thuringiensis β-exotoxin when tested with the fly larvae toxicity test ("Microbial Control of Insects and Mites," R.P.M. Bond et al. (cornell.edu)
  • Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity," Chemico-Biological Interactions , vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 236-249, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Toxicity Information for Bacillus thuringiensis sub. (pesticideinfo.org)
  • S. Poopathi K. Anup kumar L. Kabilan V. Sekar (2002) ArticleTitle Development of low-cost media for the culture of mosquito larvicides, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. (springer.com)
  • Sango (1999) Experimental formulations of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Burkina Faso. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt, is a widely-used microbial biological insect control. (uconn.edu)
  • b) Exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, as specified in paragraph (a) of this section, in or on honey and honeycomb and all other raw agricultural commodities when it is applied either to growing crops, or when it is applied after harvest in accordance with good agricultural practices. (cornell.edu)
  • Milky spore is the name of the disease to which Japanese beetle larvae succumb when attacked by Bacillus popilliae . (planetnatural.com)
  • He named it Bacillus sotto although it was changed to Bacillus thuringiensis by Ernst Berliner in 1911, a German scientist who re-isolated it as the cause of death of the Mediterranean flour moth larvae. (uconn.edu)
  • B. thuringiensis is used in biological control of agricultural and sylvicultural pests (insect larvae). (fineartamerica.com)
  • This work aimed at the evaluation and characterisation of two new B. thuringiensis isolates active against A. gemmatalis (Hübner 1818) larvae, which is the soybean major pest. (scielo.br)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) WDG (water dispersible granules) was evaluated in Aedes aegypti larvae. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Strengths and limitations of Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae for managing Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) adults and grubs with caveats for cross-order activity to monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) larvae. (cabi.org)
  • The genetic diversity and relationships among 154 Bacillus cereus/B. thuringiensis isolates recovered from soil samples from five geographic areas in Norway were investigated with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE). (nih.gov)
  • The isolates were also serotyped with B. thuringiensis flagellar antisera, and 28 distinct serotypes were identified. (nih.gov)
  • The two B. thuringiensis isolates selected in this study were effective to control velvetbean caterpillar at laboratory conditions. (scielo.br)
  • Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis," Journal of Bacteriology , vol. 188, no. 9, pp. 3382-3390, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • [ 3 ] En 1911, foi redescuberto en Alemaña por Ernst Berliner, que o illou como causante dunha enfermidade nas eirugas das avelaíñas da fariña. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner conforming to the morphological and biochemical characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis as described in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition. (cornell.edu)
  • 2) Spore preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner shall be produced by pure culture fermentation procedures with adequate control measures during production to detect any changes from the characteristics of the parent strain or contamination by other microorganisms. (cornell.edu)
  • Bti for Mosquito Control FAQs - Frequently asked questions regarding Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis and its use in mosquito control. (arbico-organics.com)
  • Antiproliferative protein from Bacillus thuringiensis var. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • More specifically, the present invention relates to the isolation, purification and characterization of a novel antiproliferative protein from Bacillus thuringiensis var. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Cry1Aa protein from Bacillus thuringiensis is an insecticidal protein that is highly active against several species of Lepidoptera. (environmental-expert.com)
  • These recombinant plasmids are very stable and allowed the cloning of a delta-endotoxin-encoding gene in B. thuringiensis. (nih.gov)
  • Cry6Aa1, une nouvelle toxine produite par Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), agit comme insecticide sur la chrysomèle du maïs (WCRW). (umontreal.ca)
  • Novel transformation vectors containing novel chimeric genes allow the introduction of exogenous DNA fragments coding for polypeptide toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis or having substantial sequence homology to a gene coding for a polypeptide toxin as described herein and expression of the chimeric. (google.com)
  • These findings contrast with similar experiments conducted using B. subtilis , wherein transcription of its cdaS was initiated by the sigma factor σ G . Deletion of all the three DAC genes from a single strain was unsuccessful, suggesting that c-di-AMP is an indispensable molecule in B. thuringiensis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis é uma bactéria utilizada na produção de biopesticidas e de plantas resistentes às pragas por causa da síntese de cristais proteicos pelos genes cry , os quais são eficazes no controle de diversas ordens de insetos, como os lepidópteros. (scielo.br)
  • Os dois isolados de B. thuringiensis selecionados neste trabalho mostraram-se eficientes no controle da lagarta-da-soja em laboratório, sendo recomendada sua avaliação a campo para posterior aplicação na formulação de biopesticidas ou como fonte de genes cry para a obtenção de plantas geneticamente modificadas resistentes à Anticarsia gemmatalis . (scielo.br)
  • Identification of anthrax toxin genes in a Bacillus cereus associated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 101, no. 22, pp. 8449-8454, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • B. Kunkel, R. Losick, and P. Stragier, "The Bacillus subtilis gene for the developmental transcription factor σ (K) is generated by excision of a dispensable DNA element containing a sporulation recombinase gene," Genes & Development , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 525-535, 1990. (hindawi.com)
  • A classification for crystal protein genes of Bacillus thuringiensis is presented. (asm.org)
  • Pigment genes crtM-crtN confer a distinctive yellow color to B. thuringiensis colonies. (asm.org)
  • This gene is useful to confer insect resistance on plants, especially against those insects that have, themselves, become resistant to previously described Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The inheritance and expression patterns of the cry1Ab gene were studied in the progenies derived from different Bt ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) transgenic japonica rice lines under field conditions. (springer.com)
  • 1979)‎. Essais de bacillus thuringiensis israelensis sur les moustiques / par Dempah, J. et Coz, J. Genève : Organisation mondiale de la Santé. (who.int)
  • thompsoni crystal protein gene operon promoter aligned with other crystal protein gene promoters, which are activated from early to midsporulation and transcribed in vitro by the B. thuringiensis RNA polymerase E sigma 35. (asm.org)
  • Simultaneous production of biopesticide and alkaline proteases by Bacillus thuringiensis using SEWAGE SLUDGE as a raw material. (indymedia.org)
  • I, strend, was the author of the submission and not Tyagi RDS I submitted the 'Simultaneous production of biopesticide and alkaline proteases by Bacillus thuringiensis using sewage sludge as a raw material. (indymedia.org)
  • Three oil-based formulations, Dipel ® 6L, Dipel ® 8L and Dipel ® 12L, and five aqueous formulations, Thuricide ® 48LV, Thuricide ® 64B, Futura ® XLV, Dipel ® 6AF and Dipel ® 8AF, of Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) were sprayed at a dosage rate of 30 BIU per ha in a laboratory chamber using a spinning disc atomizer. (astm.org)
  • Sodium Nitrate With and Without Sorbitol in Bacillus thuringiensis Formulations: Spayability, water retention and Crystallization Behaviour. (gc.ca)
  • Transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to control insects are grown widely, but rapid evolution of resistance by pests could nullify their benefits. (pnas.org)
  • Transgenic cultivars of cotton and maize that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to control insect pests were grown on 12 million hectares worldwide during 2001 ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis , birds and other predators can feed on the infected pests without ingesting toxic chemicals. (arbico-organics.com)
  • Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes with Bacillus subtilis," FEMS Microbiology Letters , vol. 250, no. 2, pp. 175-184, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Using the Bacillus cereus group as a model, a conceptual framework for the. (asm.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae , strain SDS-502 (Btg), recently registered in the USA and Canada, produces Cry8Da protein active against scarab beetles. (cabi.org)
  • topB ([Bacillus thuringiensis] serovar konkukian str. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphatidylinositol-Specific Phospholipase C Production from Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar. (springer.com)
  • Here we present a simple potato-based medium to elaborate large quantities of extracellular PI-PLC from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. (springer.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genellikle biyolojik pestisit olarak kullanılan, Gram-pozitif , toprakta yaşayan bir bakteridir . (wikipedia.org)
  • New to the home market in 2015 was the strain Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae (Btg) which is reportedly effective against both the adult and grub forms of Japanese, Asian, and Oriental beetles, all of which cause large amounts of damage to turf. (uconn.edu)
  • The magnitude of oviposition as well as the size, shape and the number of eggs per of egg rafts egg raft were determined after gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say oviposited on water treated with water dispersible granules (WDG) of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. (bioone.org)
  • In vitro binding studies with radiolabeled toxins demonstrated a strong correlation between the specificity of B. thuringiensis toxins and the interaction with specific binding sites on the insect midgut epithelium. (asm.org)
  • The mechanism of action and receptor binding of a dual-specificity Bacillus thuringiensis var. (portlandpress.com)
  • There are a large number of toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are able to confer insect resistance on plants. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (uniprot.org)
  • We investigated whether reduced plant quality would increase the fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in two populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Development of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins threatens the long-term success of transgenic crops expressing the Bt toxins. (cornell.edu)
  • Field studies after application of B. thuringiensis biopesticides are needed to enable the establishment of pre-harvest intervals. (europa.eu)
  • Biopesticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis have become a reliable tool in agricultural pest control, forestry and health-related conditions (Lopes et al. (scielo.br)
  • Sequencing Bacillus anthracis typing phages gamma and cherry reveals a common ancestry," Journal of Bacteriology , vol. 188, no. 9, pp. 3402-3408, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • B. cereus sensu stricto, B. anthracis , B. thuringiensis , B. weihenstephanensis , B. mycoides , B. pseudomycoides , B. cytotoxicus and B. toyonensis . (europa.eu)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis was used as a surrogate for B. anthracis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • B. thuringiensis was chosen for this work because of its non-pathogenicity and because it is a member of the Bacillus subgroup I, to which B. anthracis also belongs. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The genome sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 reveals metabolic adaptations and a large plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis pXO1," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 977-988, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Cry6Aa1 is a new toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which displays insecticidal activity against the Western corn rootworm (WCRW). (umontreal.ca)
  • The Cry1Ab toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis binds to a conserved structural motif in the 12th ectodomain module (EC12) of BT-R 1 , a cadherin G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) contained in the membrane of midgut epithelial cells of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta . (omicsonline.org)
  • The replication region of the Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid, pHT1030, was treated with hydroxylamine. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicated increased diversity of CdaS in the B. cereus and B. subtilis Bacillus subgroups. (frontiersin.org)
  • They also reported that the DUF147 domain of DisA, as well as its homolog from Bacillus subtilis , converts two ATP molecules into one c-di-AMP molecule. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of bacillus thuringiensis culture turning into sporulation. (fineartamerica.com)
  • In this report, the EMEA Bacillus Thuringiensis market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Adult mortality continued for approximately 14 d after initial exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis var. (usda.gov)
  • In three trials, feeding on Btg-sprayed milkweed resulted in 97-100% mortality of early instar monarchs, with symptoms of B. thuringiensis pathogenesis. (cabi.org)
  • Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. (pnas.org)
  • in special B. thuringiensis, besides insecticidal activity and help people to better understand its role in soil ecosystem. (foyles.co.uk)
  • We conclude that B. cereus/B. thuringiensis from soil exhibit a high degree of recombination. (nih.gov)
  • The research report studies the global Emea europe middle east and africa bacillus thuringiensis market report 2017 market on the basis of several criteria, including type, application, and geography to provide a better understanding to the readers. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The report also sheds light on the current trends related to the demand, supply, and sales of Emea europe middle east and africa bacillus thuringiensis market report 2017, along with the recent developments in the field. (qyresearchreports.com)
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