Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Bacillaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C: A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Tectiviridae: A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Pesticide Synergists: Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Crystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Picolinic AcidsMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Temefos: An organothiophosphate insecticide.

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (1/1083)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

Specific binding of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase to the upstream region of Bacillus thuringiensis protoxin genes. (2/1083)

During sporulation, Bacillus thuringiensis produces inclusions comprised of different amounts of several related protoxins, each with a unique specificity profile for insect larvae. A major class of these genes designated cry1 have virtually identical dual overlapping promoters, but the upstream sequences differ. A gel retardation assay was used to purify a potential regulatory protein which bound with different affinities to these sequences in three cry1 genes. It was identified as the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. There was specific competition for binding by homologous gene sequences but not by pUC nor Bacillus subtilis DNA; calf thymus DNA competed at higher concentrations. The B. thuringiensis gene encoding E2 was cloned, and the purified glutathione S-transferase-E2 fusion protein footprinted to a consensus binding sequence within an inverted repeat and to a potential bend region, both sites 200-300 base pairs upstream of the promoters. Mutations of these sites in the cry1A gene resulted in decreased binding of the E2 protein and altered kinetics of expression of a fusion of this regulatory region with the lacZ gene. Recruitment of the E2 subunit as a transcription factor could couple the change in post exponential catabolism to the initiation of protoxin synthesis.  (+info)

Integrative model for binding of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in susceptible and resistant larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). (3/1083)

Insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in sprays and transgenic crops are extremely useful for environmentally sound pest management, but their long-term efficacy is threatened by evolution of resistance by target pests. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is the first insect to evolve resistance to B. thuringiensis in open-field populations. The only known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis in the diamondback moth is reduced binding of toxin to midgut binding sites. In the present work we analyzed competitive binding of B. thuringiensis toxins Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F to brush border membrane vesicles from larval midguts in a susceptible strain and in resistant strains from the Philippines, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania. Based on the results, we propose a model for binding of B. thuringiensis crystal proteins in susceptible larvae with two binding sites for Cry1Aa, one of which is shared with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Our results show that the common binding site is altered in each of the three resistant strains. In the strain from the Philippines, the alteration reduced binding of Cry1Ab but did not affect binding of the other crystal proteins. In the resistant strains from Hawaii and Pennsylvania, the alteration affected binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Previously reported evidence that a single mutation can confer resistance to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F corresponds to expectations based on the binding model. However, the following two other observations do not: the mutation in the Philippines strain affected binding of only Cry1Ab, and one mutation was sufficient for resistance to Cry1Aa. The imperfect correspondence between the model and observations suggests that reduced binding is not the only mechanism of resistance in the diamondback moth and that some, but not all, patterns of resistance and cross-resistance can be predicted correctly from the results of competitive binding analyses of susceptible strains.  (+info)

Subspecies-dependent regulation of Bacillus thuringiensis protoxin genes. (4/1083)

Bacillus thuringiensis accumulates, primarily during sporulation, large quantities of insecticidal protoxins which are deposited as crystalline, intracellular inclusions. Most subspecies contain several plasmid-encoded cry genes, each of which has a unique specificity. The overall toxicity profile of a subspecies depends not only on the array of cry genes present but also on the relative expression of the genes. In general, transcription depends on sporulation-specific sigma factors, but little is known about regulation of expression of the individual genes. In order to determine whether expression of a particular cry gene varies in different subspecies, lacZ fusions to the cry promoters of two protoxin genes (cry1 class) were constructed. Protoxin accumulation and mRNA contents were also measured by performing immunoblotting and Northern analyses, respectively. The expression of a cry1Ab-lacZ fusion, but not the expression of a cry1C-lacZ fusion, was three to four times lower in B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strains than in B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki or B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi. Also, the Cry1Ab antigen and steady-state mRNA contents of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai were lower. The regulation of the genes must involve regions upstream of the promoters which are unique to each cry gene since (i) mutations in the upstream region of the cry1Ab gene resulted in enhanced expression in B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai and (ii) no differences were found when the lacZ fusions contained the cry1Ab promoters but no upstream sequences. The capacity to regulate each of the protoxin genes must be a factor in the overall protoxin composition of a subspecies and thus its toxicity profile.  (+info)

Replication mechanism and sequence analysis of the replicon of pAW63, a conjugative plasmid from Bacillus thuringiensis. (5/1083)

A 5.8-kb fragment of the large conjugative plasmid pAW63 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73 containing all the information for autonomous replication was cloned and sequenced. By deletion analysis, the pAW63 replicon was reduced to a 4.1-kb fragment harboring four open reading frames (ORFs). Rep63A (513 amino acids [aa]), encoded by the largest ORF, displayed strong similarity (40% identity) to the replication proteins from plasmids pAMbeta1, pIP501, and pSM19035, indicating that the pAW63 replicon belongs to the pAMbeta1 family of gram-positive theta-replicating plasmids. This was confirmed by the facts that no single-stranded DNA replication intermediates could be detected and that replication was found to be dependent on host-gene-encoded DNA polymerase I. An 85-bp region downstream of Rep63A was also shown to have strong similarity to the origins of replication of pAMbeta1 and pIP501, and it is suggested that this region contains the bona fide pAW63 ori. The protein encoded by the second large ORF, Rep63B (308 aa), was shown to display similarity to RepB (34% identity over 281 aa) and PrgP (32% identity over 310 aa), involved in copy control of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmids pAD1 and pCF10, respectively. No significant similarity to known proteins or DNA sequences could be detected for the two smallest ORFs. However, the location, size, hydrophilicity, and orientation of ORF6 (107 codons) were analogous to those features of the putative genes repC and prgO, which encode stability functions on plasmids pAD1 and pCF10, respectively. The cloned replicon of plasmid pAW63 was stably maintained in Bacillus subtilis and B. thuringiensis and displayed incompatibility with the native pAW63. Hybridization experiments using the cloned replicon as a probe showed that pAW63 has similarity to large plasmids from other B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strains and to a strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. alesti.  (+info)

Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of aminopeptidase N in the host insect leading to its evolutionary success. (6/1083)

Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein, Cry1Aa toxin, binds to a specific receptor in insect midguts and has insecticidal activity. Therefore, the structure of the receptor molecule is probably a key factor in determining the binding affinity of the toxin and insect susceptibility. The cDNA fragment (PX frg1) encoding the Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of an aminopeptidase N (APN) or an APN family protein from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella midgut was cloned and sequenced. A comparison between the deduced amino acid sequence of PX frg1 and other insect APN sequences shows that Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of APN family protein. In this paper, we propose a model to explain the mechanism that causes B. thuringiensis evolutionary success and differing insect susceptibility to Cry1Aa toxin.  (+info)

Immune responses in farm workers after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis pesticides. (7/1083)

Although health risks to pesticides containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been minimal, the potential allergenicity of these organisms has not been evaluated. Therefore, a health survey was conducted in farm workers before and after exposure to Bt pesticides. Farm workers who picked vegetables that required Bt pesticide spraying were evaluated before the initial spraying operation (n = 48) and 1 and 4 months after (n = 32 and 20, respectively). Two groups of low- (n = 44) and medium- (n = 34) exposure workers not directly exposed to Bt spraying were also assessed. The investigation included questionnaires, nasal/mouth lavages, ventilatory function assessment, and skin tests to indigenous aeroallergens and to a variety of Bt spore and vegetative preparations. To authenticate exposure to the organism present in the commercial preparation, isolates from lavage specimens were tested for Bt genes by DNA-DNA hybridization. Humoral immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to spore and vegetative Bt extracts were assayed. There was no evidence of occupationally related respiratory symptoms. Positive skin-prick tests to several spore extracts were seen chiefly in exposed workers. In particular, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the number of positive skin tests to spore extracts 1 and 4 months after exposure to Bt spray. The number of positive skin test responses was also significantly higher in high (p < 0.05) than in low- or medium-exposure workers. The majority of nasal lavage cultures from exposed workers was positive for the commercial Bt organism, as demonstrated by specific molecular genetic probes. Specific IgE antibodies were present in more high-exposure workers (p < 0.05) than in the low and medium groups. Specific IgG antibodies occurred more in the high (p < 0.05) than in the low-exposure group. Specific IgG and IgE antibodies to vegetative organisms were present in all groups of workers. Exposure to Bt sprays may lead to allergic skin sensitization and induction of IgE and IgG antibodies, or both.  (+info)

Interaction between functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins. (8/1083)

Interactions among the three structural domains of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins were investigated by functional analysis of chimeric proteins. Hybrid genes were prepared by exchanging the regions coding for either domain I or domain III among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, and Cry1E. The activity of the purified trypsin-activated chimeric toxins was evaluated by testing their effects on the viability and plasma membrane permeability of Sf9 cells. Among the parental toxins, only Cry1C was active against these cells and only chimeras possessing domain II from Cry1C were functional. Combination of domain I from Cry1E with domains II and III from Cry1C, however, resulted in an inactive toxin, indicating that domain II from an active toxin is necessary, but not sufficient, for activity. Pores formed by chimeric toxins in which domain I was from Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac were slightly smaller than those formed by toxins in which domain I was from Cry1C. The properties of the pores formed by the chimeras are therefore likely to result from an interaction between domain I and domain II or III. Domain III appears to modulate the activity of the chimeric toxins: combination of domain III from Cry1Ab with domains I and II of Cry1C gave a protein which was more strongly active than Cry1C.  (+info)

Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that is pathogenic towards a range of insect and nematode species. This is largely mediated through the production of crystal (cry) toxin proteins, which vary among B. thuringiensis strains and enable the infection of particular hosts. Because of the insecticidal activities of the cry toxins, B. thuringiensis has been used widely as a biopesticide, and there is a great deal of interest to understand further its pathogenic properties and how host resistance may evolve.. Strains of B. thuringiensis vary in their amenability to genetic manipulation, and acrystalliferous strains may have higher transformation frequencies than do crystal-producing strains (1). B. thuringiensis strain 407 was isolated as a lepidopteran-active strain, and an acrystalliferous derivative, 407 Cry-, was produced through culturing at a high temperature (2). The 407 Cry- strain can be transformed easily and it can be used to perform targeted gene knockouts; therefore, the ...
The lepidopteran-specific P1 delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 was activated in vitro using insect gut proteases and found to be highly specific for the lepidopteran cell line Choristoneura fumiferana CF1 among a wide range of lepidopteran and dipteran cell lines tested. The toxicity of P1 against CF1 cells is inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and the lectins soybean agglutinin (SBA) and wheat-germ agglutinin. Protein blotting was used to identify a glycoprotein of 146 X 10(3) Mr in the plasma membrane of CF1 cells, capable of binding both the toxin and SBA, which is specific for GalNAc. This glycoprotein was labelled using galactose oxidase and sodium boro-[3H]hydride and solubilized in Triton X-100 before partial purification by affinity chromatography on SBA-agarose. We propose that this glycoprotein is a good candidate for the cellular receptor of the lepidopteran-specific P1 delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1. ...
The accessory protein P20 from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis has been defined as an important molecular chaperone for forming crystal Cyt1Aa, and enhancing Cry11Aa and Cry4Aa expression. To investigate its putative role in Cry4Ba delta-endotoxin production and toxicity, a p20 gene was cloned and introduced into B. thuringiensis recombinant strain expressing cry4Ba type gene (cry4BLB). The delta-endotoxin synthesis was enhanced by 262%. The generated inclusions were assayed against third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The combination of P20 protein with Cry4BLB delta-endotoxin led to a stable mortality rate of 25% with doses ranging from 0.2 mg l−1 to 0.6 mg l−1. Cry4BLB crystals produced in the presence of P20 were much less soluble than those produced by the control strain lacking P20 at pH lower than or equal to 10.5. The observed toxicity perturbation correlates with a decrease of Cry4BLB inclusions solubility. The presence of P20 protein has affected Cry4BLB crystallization and ...
a) For the purposes of this section the microbial insecticide for which exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is being established shall have the following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner conforming to the morphological and biochemical characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis as described in Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition. (2) Spore preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner shall be produced by pure culture fermentation procedures with adequate control measures during production to detect any changes from the characteristics of the parent strain or contamination by other microorganisms. (3) Each lot of spore preparation, prior to the addition of other materials, shall be tested by subcutaneous injection of at least 1 million spores into each of five laboratory test mice weighing 17 grams to 23 grams. Such test shall show no evidence of infection or injury in the test animals when ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genellikle biyolojik pestisit olarak kullanılan, Gram-pozitif, toprakta yaşayan bir bakteridir.[1] B. thuringiensis çeşitli güve ve kelebek türlerinin tırtıllarının bağırsaklarında, yaprak yüzeylerinda, sucul ortamlarda, hayvan dışkısında, böcek popülasyonunun yoğun olduğu ortamlarda, un değirmenleri ve tahıl depolama tesislerinde doğal olarak bulunmaktadır. Sporlanma sırasında, birçok Bacillus thuringiensis suşunun δ-endotoksinleri denilen kristal proteinleri (proteinli inklüzyonlar) üreterek böcekleri öldürdüğü görülmüş bu da böcek öldürücü maddeler olarak kullanımına yol açmıştır. Birçok kristal üreten Bacillus thuringiensis suşu olsa da hepsinin böcek öldürücü özellikleri yoktur. ...
The present invention provides an isolated and purified protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies thuringiensis, having a molecular weight of approximately 20 kDa of SDS-PAGE, said protei
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant. AU - Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I. AU - Moreno-Fierros, L.. AU - Neri-Bazán, L.. AU - De La Riva, G. A.. AU - López-Revilla, Rubén. PY - 1999/7/5. Y1 - 1999/7/5. N2 - Recently we demonstrated that recombinant Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is a potent systemic and mucosal immunogen. In this study we compared the adjuvant effects of Cry1Ac and cholera toxin (CT) for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antibody responses of intestinal secretions and serum were determined by ELISA in Balb/c mice immunized through the intragastric (IG) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes. When HBsAg was administered via IG, the anti- HBsAg intestinal response was not enhanced by either Cry1Ac or CT, whereas via IP Cry1Ac increased the anti-HBsAg intestinal immunoglobulin (Ig)G response and CT increased the intestinal IgA and IgM responses. Serum anti- BSA antibodies ...
The bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) has worldwide become the most commonly used agentin mosquito control programs that pursue two main objectives: the control of vector-borne diseases and the reduction of nuisance, mainly coming frommosquitoes that emerge in large quantities from seasonal wetlands. The Upper Rhine Valley, a biodiversity hotspot in Germany, has been treated withBti for decades to reduce mosquito-borne nuisance and increase human well-being.Although Btiis presumed to be an environmentally safe agent,adverse effects on wetland ecosystems are still a matter of debate especially when it comes to long-term and indirect effects on non-target organisms. In light of the above, this thesis aims at investigating direct and indirect effects of Bti-based mosquito control on non-target organisms within wetland food chains.Effects were examinedin studies with increasingeco(toxico)logical complexity, ranging from laboratory over mesocosm to field approaches with a focus on the
Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) (2001) Komposisi media dan teknologi sederhana produksi bioinsektisida dari bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki. S00200100120. ...
The action of activated 27,000 Mr toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti toxin) on Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus has been investigated. Its binding to the tubules is slowed by low temperature but is not prevented even at 0 degree C. The binding is less effective at pH 10 than at pH7. Pretreatment of the tubules with 0.1 mmol l-1 ouabain or bumetanide or 1 mumol l-1 5-hydroxytryptamine did not affect the toxicity of the toxin. The toxin causes very large changes in the trans-epithelial potential difference; it changes from 40 mV, lumen negative, often to more than 100 mV, lumen positive. This reflects an initial collapse of the potential of the basal cell membrane, followed by a large positive-going potential change at the luminal cell membrane. Just prior to the effects of the toxin on rapid fluid secretion, the basal cell membrane becomes permeable to sucrose molecules. Raffinose at 170 mmol l-1 in the bathing solution does not protect the tubules from Bti toxin ...
Cry4Ba is a δ-endotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Cyt2Aa2 is a cytolytic δ-endotoxin produced by B. thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis. Cry4Ba produced in Escherichia coli was toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae (LC50= 140 ng ml-1) but virtually inactive to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Cyt2Aa2 expressed in E. coli exhibited moderate activity against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus larvae with LC50values of 350 and 250 ng ml-1, respectively. Co-expression of both toxins in E. coli dramatically increased toxicity to both A. aegypti andC. quinquefasciatus larvae (LC50= 7 and 20 ng ml-1, respectively). This is the first report to demonstrate that Cry4Ba and Cyt2Aa2 have high synergistic activity against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. © 2005 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ABCC2 is associated with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin oligomerization and membrane insertion in diamondback moth. AU - Ocelotl,Josue. AU - Sánchez,Jorge. AU - Gómez,Isabel. AU - Tabashnik,Bruce E.. AU - Bravo,Alejandra. AU - Soberón,Mario. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Cry1A insecticidal toxins bind sequentially to different larval gut proteins facilitating oligomerization, membrane insertion and pore formation. Cry1Ac interaction with cadherin triggers oligomerization. However, a mutation in an ABC transporter gene (ABCC2) is linked to Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella. Cry1AcMod, engineered to lack helix α-1, was able to form oligomers without cadherinbinding and effectively countered Cry1Ac resistance linked to ABCC2. Here we analyzed Cry1Ac and Cry1AcMod binding and oligomerization by western blots using brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from a strain of P. xylostella susceptible to Cry1Ac (Geneva 88) and a strain with resistance to Cry1Ac ...
Bacillus thuringiensis ATCC ® 35646D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis Strain USDA H522 TypeStrain=False Application:
In Sub Saharan Africa malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control represents an important public health measure. Integrated malaria control comprises the use of impregnated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying. The use of drugs to treat patients can create additional pressure on the equation of malaria transmission. Vector control may target the adult mosquitoes or their aquatic larval stages. Biological larvicides such as Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) represent a promising approach to support malaria control programs by creating additional pressure on the equation of malaria transmission. In this study we examined the efficacy of a water-dispersible granule formulation (WDG) of the biological larvicide Bti (VectoBac®) against wild Anopheles spp. larvae. Different concentrations of the larvicide were tested in standardized plastic tubs in the field against untreated controls. In weekly intervals tubs were treated with fixed concentrations of larvicide and the
Comparative susceptibility and binding of Cry1 Bacillus thuringiensis toxins to the Asian (Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée) and European (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) corn borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae ...
ENDOTOXINE (TOXIKOLOGIE); BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (MIKROBIOLOGIE); IN-VITRO UNTERSUCHUNGEN (TOXIKOLOGIE); ENDOTOXINS (TOXICOLOGY); BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (MICROBIOLOGY); IN VITRO STUDIES (TOXICOLOGY ...
... , or Bt, is a widely-used microbial biological insect control. Bt is a bacterium that produces crystal proteins that poison, paralyze, and kill targeted pests after ingestion. Bt is found in soil all over the world in almost all types of terrain from desert to tundra. It was first discovered in 1901 by the Japanese biologist Shigetane Ishiwatari as he was investigating the death of large populations of silkworms. He named it Bacillus sotto although it was changed to Bacillus thuringiensis by Ernst Berliner in 1911, a German scientist who re-isolated it as the cause of death of the Mediterranean flour moth larvae. Farmers started using it in 1920 and there are currently more than 35 varieties of this naturally occurring, soil-borne bacterium ...
First Announcement THE PACIFIC RIM CONFERENCE ON BIOTECHNOLOGY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND ITS IMPACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT October 17 - 21, 1994 In order to promote the use of BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (B.t.)-based insecticides in the Pacific rim region, the conference is being organized by a group of scientists from the universities, government institutions, and B.t. industries from Taiwan, Japan, and the U.S.A. The conference will be held in the Academic Activity Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, which can accommodate around 200 participants. In addition to the speakers from the U.S.A. and Canada, the conference organizers plan to invite as many speakers as possible from the Asia- Pacific area. The goals of the conference are: * To promote the biotechnolgy of B.t. for the agricultural industry; to exchange the latest information on strain isolation and identification; to review the current topics on the molecular biology of the insecticidal proteins, transgenic plants, resistance ...
Bacillus thuringiensis: A Cornerstone of Modern Agriculture explores the impact that one of the most prominent biologically based pesticides has had on pest control technology and the issues that surround its use. The book examines the development, use, and management of technologies derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), addressing the health, economic, environmental, and social concerns generated by the deployment of genetically engineered crops. Authors representing a diverse cross section of the international scientific community contribute review articles and research findings that address the use of Bt in microbial formulations and transgenic crops, technological advances in the genetic engineering of plants, advances in methodologies, and improved agricultural practices and productivity through the use of Bt cotton ...
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Bacillus Thuringiensis Bt Definition - Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a type of spore-forming bacterium. Bt occurs naturally in the soil of all types of...
Bacillus thuringiensis serotype kurstaki (Btk) is a group of bacteria used as biological control agents against lepidopterans. Btk, along with other B. thuringiensis products, is one of the most widely used biological pesticides due to its high specificity; it is effective against lepidopterans, and it has little to no effect on nontarget species. During sporulation, Btk produces a crystal protein that is lethal to lepidopteran larvae. Once ingested by the insect, the dissolution of the crystal allows the protoxin to be released. The toxin is then activated by the insect gut juice, and it begins to break down the gut. Btk is available commercially and is commonly known as "Garden Dust" or "Caterpillar Killer", both of which are produced by Safer Brand. Other Btk-producing companies include Bonide and Monterey. Btk is generally regarded as environmentally safe, as its toxicity is essentially limited to its target pest; humans, wildlife, and beneficial insects are regarded as unaffected by the ...
Árvores de Grevillea robusta utilizadas em arborização em Viçosa (MG) são, todos os anos, desfolhadas por lagartas de Eustema serice (Lepidóptera; Notodontidae). Com o objetivo de promover o controle, sem contudo oferecer risco às pessoas, procurou-se testar, em laboratório, dosagens de Bacillus thuringiensis, para recomendação posterior em aplicação no campo. Foi utilizado o produto comercial dipel, em três dosagens: 200, 400 e 600 g pc/ha, colocando-se as folhas pulverizadas à disposição das lagartas pelo período de 24 horas e substituindo-as, posteriormente, por folhas não-tratadas. Obteve-se excelente mortalidade nos três tratamentos, com melhor performance para a dosagem de 400 g pc/ha, já no sexto dia da aplicação do dipel. Recomenda-se, para controle em condições de campo, testar dosagens menores que 200 g pc/ha, pois se o produto ficar à disposição das lagartas, por período superior ao do ensaio, a eficiência poderá ser aumentada ...
Zhang, B., Bai, Z., Hoefel, D., Tang, L., Yang, Z., Zhuang, G., Yang, J. and Zhang, H. (2008), Assessing the impact of the biological control agent Bacillus thuringiensis on the indigenous microbial community within the pepper plant phyllosphere. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 284: 102-108. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01178.x ...
On the market since 1996, genetically modified plants expressing an insecticidal toxin (Cry toxin stemmed from Bacillus thuringiensis) target several lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the impact of two varieties of Bt maize producing different toxins (Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa, respectively) on the biology of a storage pest: Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The Indianmeal moths were susceptible to both toxins but showed an escape behavior only from Cry1Fa. The weight of females issued from larvae reared on Cry1Ab increased with increasing toxin concentration, but adults of both sexes reared on Cry1Fa had decreased weight. Both toxins increased development time from egg to adult regardless of sex and had no impact on the male adult lifespan. Finally, we recorded a time lag between metamorphosis from the non-Bt and the Bt diets, which increased proportionally to Cry concentration in the Bt diet.
For a surrogate bacterium to be used in outdoor studies, it is important to consider environmental and human safety and ease of detection. Recently, Bacillus thuringiensis, a popular bioinsecticide bacterium, has been gaining attention as a surrogate bacterium for use in biodefense. In this study, we constructed simulant strains of B. thuringiensis with enhanced characteristics for environmental studies. Through transposon mutagenesis, pigment genes were inserted into the chromosome, producing yellow-colored colonies for easy detection. To prevent persistence of spores in the environment, a genetic circuit was designed to produce a spore without sporulation capability. Two loxP sites were inserted, one on each side of the spo0A gene, which encodes a sporulation master regulator, and a sporulation-dependent Cre expression cassette was inserted into the chromosome. This genetic circuit successfully deleted spo0A during sporulation, producing spores that lacked the spo0A gene. In addition, two ...
The Vip3 proteins produced during vegetative growth by strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis show insecticidal activity against lepidopteran insects with a mechanism of action that may involve pore formation and apoptosis. These proteins are promising supplements to our arsenal of insecticidal proteins, but the molecular details of their activity are not understood. As a first step in the structural characterisation of these proteins, we have analysed their secondary structure and resolved the surface topology of a tetrameric complex of the Vip3Ag4 protein by transmission electron microscopy. Sites sensitive to proteolysis by trypsin are identified and the trypsin-cleaved protein appears to retain a similar structure as an octomeric complex comprising four copies each of the ~65 kDa and ~21 kDa products of proteolysis. This processed form of the toxin may represent the active toxin. The quality and monodispersity of the protein produced in this study make Vip3Ag4 a candidate for more detailed
The Vip3 proteins produced during vegetative growth by strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis show insecticidal activity against lepidopteran insects with a mechanism of action that may involve pore formation and apoptosis. These proteins are promising supplements to our arsenal of insecticidal proteins, but the molecular details of their activity are not understood. As a first step in the structural characterisation of these proteins, we have analysed their secondary structure and resolved the surface topology of a tetrameric complex of the Vip3Ag4 protein by transmission electron microscopy. Sites sensitive to proteolysis by trypsin are identified and the trypsin-cleaved protein appears to retain a similar structure as an octomeric complex comprising four copies each of the ~65 kDa and ~21 kDa products of proteolysis. This processed form of the toxin may represent the active toxin. The quality and monodispersity of the protein produced in this study make Vip3Ag4 a candidate for more ...
Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the continued effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in sprays and transgenic crops. Fitness costs of Bt resistance occur when, in the absence of Bt toxins, fitness is lower for resistant insects than for susceptible insects. Modeling results show that fitness costs can delay resistance by selecting against Bt-resistant genotypes in refuges where insects are not exposed to Bt toxins. In 77 studies including 18 species, fitness costs were detected in 62% of experiments testing for declines in resistance and in 34% of fitness component comparisons. Mean fitness costs were 15.5% for survival, 7.4% for development time, and 2.5% for mass. Although most fitness costs were recessive, nonrecessive costs can select more strongly against resistance. Because fitness costs vary with ecological conditions, refuges designed to increase the dominance or magnitude of fitness costs could be especially useful for delaying pest resistance. ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops are plants genetically engineered (modified) to contain the endospore (or crystal) toxins of the bacterium, Bt to be resistant to certain insect pests. In 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in USA approved the commercial production and distribution of the Bt crops: corn, cotton, potato, and tobacco. Currently, the most common Bt crops are corn and cotton. The crystal, referred to as Cry toxins, is proteins formed during sporulation of some Bt strains and aggregate to form crystals. Such Cry toxins are toxic to specific species of insects belongs to orders: Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Nematoda. In 2016, the total world area cultivated with genetically modified crops (GM crops) reached about 185 million ha. This review shows that there is a worldwide controversy about the safety of Bt crops to the environment and mammals. Some researchers support the cultivation of Bt crops depending upon the results of their laboratory and field
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used as a biopesticide in agriculture, forestry and mosquito keep watch over due to its merits of particular toxicity opposed to aim bugs, loss of polluting residues and security to non-target organisms. The insecticidal homes of this bacterium are because of insecticidal proteins produced in the course of sporulation. regardless of those ecological merits, using Bt biopesticides has lagged in the back of the bogus chemical compounds. Genetic development of Bt traditional lines, particularly Bt recombination, bargains a promising technique of bettering efficacy and cost-effectiveness of Bt-based bioinsecticide items to improve new biotechnological functions. nevertheless, the several Bacillus species have vital biotechnological functions; certainly one of them is conducted by way of generating secondary metabolites, that are the examine item of usual product chemistry. the fantastic structural variability of those compounds has attracted the interest of ...
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in many areas of the U.S. mid-southern region. A Cry1Ab-resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strain of D. saccharalis has been developed from a single two-parent family-line. To examine the molecular mechanisms of the Cry1Ab resistance in this insect strain, cDNAs of five types of potential candidate genes related to Bt resistance were sequenced using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5 rapid amplification of cDNA end (5 RACE). The Bt resistance candidate genes examined included three trypsins (DsTRYs), three chymotrypsins (DsCHYs), three aminopeptidases N (DsAPNs), one cadherin (DsCAD1), and three alkaline phosphatases (DsALPs). cDNA sequence of each gene and its expression levels were compared between a Cry1Ab-susceptible strain (Cry1Ab-SS) and the Cry1Ab-RR at different larval growth stages. The cDNA sequences of these genes were identical between Cry1Ab
Bacillus thuringiensis, which is a Gram-positive bacteria. It can produce insecticidal crystal proteins(ICP) which are proteolytically processed by gut proteases into the activated δ-endotoxins. The toxins activated by gut proteases bind to specific binding sites on the brush border membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. The conformational change in the toxin molecules triggers the insertion of their pore-forming domain into the membrane. Finally, colloid-osmotic swelling and lysis of the cell result in the death of the larvae. Cry11Aa protein is one of the crystal protein coded in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Israelensis and it is highly toxic to certain dipteran larvae, such as Aedes, and Anopheles larvae. The length of Cry11Aa sequence is about 1.9Kb. In our project, the cry weapon system produce crystal protein, targetting the wrigglers, larvae of mosquitoes. It is controlled by the tetR-repressible promoter PtetR(BBa_R0040), which in turn is regulated by a temperature control ...
Bacillus thuringiensis, which is a Gram-positive bacteria. It can produce insecticidal crystal proteins(ICP) which are proteolytically processed by gut proteases into the activated δ-endotoxins. The toxins activated by gut proteases bind to specific binding sites on the brush border membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. The conformational change in the toxin molecules triggers the insertion of their pore-forming domain into the membrane. Finally, colloid-osmotic swelling and lysis of the cell result in the death of the larvae. Cry11Aa protein is one of the crystal protein coded in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Israelensis and it is highly toxic to certain dipteran larvae, such as Aedes, and Anopheles larvae. The length of Cry11Aa sequence is about 1.9Kb. In our project, the cry weapon system produce crystal protein, targetting the wrigglers, larvae of mosquitoes. It is controlled by the tetR-repressible promoter PtetR(BBa_R0040), which in turn is regulated by a temperature control ...
During the past decade, growing public awareness of the impact of pesticides on food and enviromental safety has significantly affected the pest control industry. Several organizations (scientific, consumer, enviromental and governmental) have called for more severe restrictions on the use of toxic chemicals and increased funding for the development of alternative pest control methods (Gelernter, 1990). This has been a major stimulus for renewed interest in the use of microbial control agents, which have an excellent safety record and maybe produced using renewable raw-materials. Many of these agents can be integrated with chemical and other pest management techniques. Among the microbial agents that offer great potential in this respect is Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) (Davidson and Sweeney, 1983). B.t. based products account for 90-95% of the total bio-pesticide markeb_(Feitelson et al., 1992). Worldwide sales of B.t. products have. grown from $24 million in 1980 to $107 million -in 1989. ...
IBARGUCHI MENDIA, María de los Ángeles (2008) Toxinas cry de bacillus thuringiensis (berliver) para el control de las plagas de algón. Earias insulana (beisduval) yhelicorecpa armígera (hubner). PhD thesis, UPNA.. Texto completo no está disponible desde este repositorio ...
Novel transformation vectors containing novel chimeric genes allow the introduction of exogenous DNA fragments coding for polypeptide toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis or having substantial sequence homology to a gene coding for a polypeptide toxin as described herein and expression of the chimeric gene in plant cells and their progeny after integration into the plant cell genome. Transformed plant cells and their progeny exhibit stably inherited polypeptide toxin expression useful for protecting said plant cells and their progeny against certain insect pests and in controlling said insect pests.
Efimtsev E.I.; Burov G.P.; Solomin A.A., 1990: Quantitative determination of beta exotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis in insecticide biopreparations
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) eggplant or bt talong in Philippine dialect was genetically redesigned to be resistant to the fruit and shoot borer larva that affects crop yielding from 50-70 percent.. Read moreScientist Warns About Risk Of Bt Eggplant. ...
Domain combinations containing the PKD domain superfamily in Bacillus thuringiensis str. Al Hakam. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the PKD domain superfamily.
Cry6Aa is a toxic crystal protein generated by the bacterial family Bacillus thuringiensis during sporulation. This protein is a member of the alpha pore forming toxins family, which gives it insecticidal qualities advantageous in agricultural pest control. Each Cry protein has some level of target specificity; Cry6Aa has specific toxic action against coleopteran insects and nematodes. The corresponding B. thuringiensis gene, cry6aa, is located on bacterial plasmids. Along with several other Cry protein genes, cry6aa can be genetically recombined in Bt corn and Bt cotton so the plants produce specific toxins. Insects are developing resistance to the most commonly inserted proteins like Cry1Ac. Since Cry6Aa proteins function differently than other Cry proteins, they are combined with other proteins to decrease the development of pest resistance. Recent studies suggest this protein functions better in combination with other virulence factors such as other Cry proteins and metalloproteinases. ...
The insect resistant and glyphosate tolerant MON 531 x MON 1445 (MON 531 x MON 1445 Cotton) was generated by crossing MON 531 cotton with MON 1445 cotton through classic genetic improvement and expresses proteins Cry1Ac (MON 531 cotton) and CP4 EPSPS (MON 1445 cotton). MON 531 cotton results from a genetic modification of a conventional variety of Coker 312 corn through a methodology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Genes inserted in MON 531 were cry1Ac (conferring resistance to insects), nptIl (operating as a selection marker of transformed plants) and aad (operating as a selection marker of transformed bacteria in the process of cloning the plasmid of interest. The expression of cry1Ac confers resistance to some species of lepidopteran target-insects (cotton leafworm [Alabama argillacea], apple budworm [Heliothis virescens], corn earworm [Helicoverpa Zea] and pink bollworm [Pectinophora gossypiella]). Gene cry1Ac was isolated from bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki and ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
Genetics Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of genetics and genomics. The journal focuses on articles bearing on heredity, biochemistry, and molecular biology, as well as clinical findings.
Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gomez,I. 2012. Role of GPI-anchored membrane receptors in the mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins en: Larramendy,M.L. Integrated Pest Management and Pest Control- Current and Future Tactics. Intech. pags. 551-566 Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Control de insectos con Bacillus thuringiensis, un m todo efectivo y compatible con el ambiente en: V CICLO MUJER CIENCIA. Mexico,D.F:. Editores Mujeres en la Ciencia. pags. 1-11 Bravo,A. del Rincon-Castro,M.C. Ibarra,J.E. Soberon,M. 2011. Towards a healthy control of insect pest: Potential use of Microbial insecticides en: Fernandez-Bolanos,J.G. Green trends in insect control. London. Royal Society of Chemistry. pags. 266-299 Soberon,M. Pardo,L. Munoz-Garay,C. Sanchez,J. Gomez,I. Porta,H. Bravo,A. 2010. Pore Formation by Cry Toxins en: Lakey,J. Proteins: Membrane Binding and Pore Formation (serie Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology vol 677). Austin, TX. Landes Bioscience y Springer. pags. ...
As biological control agents take an expanding share of the pesticides market and the production of insect-resistant crops increases, it is essential to understand the structure and function of the active agents, the invertebrate-active toxins that are the fundamental ingredients of these control systems. The potential for these agents in industry, agriculture and medicine necessitates a thorough investigation of their activity.. ...
Pore-forming toxin with nematicidal activity (PubMed:26795495, PubMed:27576487). In infected C.elegans, induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) resulting in necrosis of host intestinal cells (PubMed:26795495). Also, induces the expression of aspartic protease asp-1 (PubMed:26795495).
Background & Objective: Epidemic of dangerous diseases caused by Culex pipiens bites prompted us to focus on these groups of insects. Today, the most successful biological insecticides are produced by the bacteria of the genus Bacillus, which in the production phase of spores, makes crystalline endotoxin protein. This protein can ...
Cry proteins are crucial virulence factors of Bt strains. They have been subdivided into several groups, such as three-domain, ETX/MTX-like, and Bin-like toxins (12). Here, we report two ETX/MTX type Cry proteins from Bt strain 1012. The Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca proteins presented here were successfully expressed in Bt HD73− only when they were cloned simultaneously as one operon. The coexpression protein product (Cry64Ba/Cry64Ca) showed efficient and high insecticidal activity against important sap-sucking pests (Table 1). It is unclear why the two components are essential for their high expression. One possibility is that the cotranscription of these two genes may promote the stability of the mRNA. Another possibility is that the interaction of the two proteins may stabilize their physical and chemical properties or confer resistance to endogenous protease digestion. Gel filtration chromatography showed that both Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca proteins form a complex with a molecular size higher than 66 kDa ...
OMRI Listed Monterey Bt Liquid is a biological insecticide that can be used on fruit trees, vegetables, ornamentals and various other plants. The active ingredient is Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain SA-12.
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Toxicity Evaluation of Four Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against Agrotis ypsilon%四株对小地老虎有活性的苏云金芽胞杆菌的毒力评价. Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English). 刘晓垒; 王品舒; 束长龙; 王秀丽; 郝再彬; 张永军; 宋福平. 2012-01-01. 本文对4株苏云金芽胞杆菌Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)的杀虫基因类型、杀虫蛋白表达类型、蛋白表达量以及杀虫活性进行了初步的评价分析。菌株PS9-D12和PS9-C12的基因类型与蛋白表达类型丰富,且其杀虫蛋白表达量是对照菌株HD-1的1.7倍。在相同培养条件下,制备菌株胞晶混合冻干粉对小地老虎Agrotis ypsilon的生测结果显示,菌株HD-1、PS9-D12、PS9-C12、PS9-D11和PS9-H9的LC50分别为0.71、0.19、0.14、0.24和1.16 mg·g^-1,菌株PS9-D12和PS9-C12的杀虫活性显著高于菌株HD-1(P〈0.05);此4株菌株对小菜蛾Plutella ...
The biosafety data submitted by Mahyco on bt cotton also carried similar results...the animal morbidity in AP, Maharashtra after feeding on bt cotton leaves also had similar symptoms....unfortunately indian scientific system never researched upon this. http://gmoevidence.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/JHTD-1-104.pdf In conclusion, results showed that the Bt spore-crystals genetically modified to express individually Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac or Cry2A can…
Fig. 1. Phylogram demonstrating amino acid sequence identity among Cry and Cyt proteins. This phylogenetic tree is modified from a TREEVIEW visualization of NEIGHBOR treatment of a CLUSTAL W multiple alignment and distance matrix of the full-length toxin sequences, as described in the text. The gray vertical bars demarcate the four levels of nomenclature ranks. Based on the low percentage of identical residues and the absence of any conserved sequence blocks in multiple-sequence alignments, the lower four lineages are not treated as part of the main toxin family, and their nodes have been replaced with dashed horizontal lines in this figure. ...
Dear Group: I am trying to start a thesis in which I study the receptor binding properties of the insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). One assay for Bt toxicity is to measure increases in amino acid premeability of midgut brush border membrane vesicles from susceptible insects (Bt acts by binding and inserting into the cell membrane of midgut epithelial cells, forming pores, and killing the cells by osmotic lysis . . . or that is a good-enough description). An alternative assay for Bt toxicity is to prepare brush border membrane vesicles and shrink them by placing them into hyperosmotic solutions. After osmotic shrinkage, vesicles that have been permeabilized by Bt activity will re-swell as pores are formed. This change in vesicle volume is measured by 90 degree light scattering. A nicer way to do the job compared to measuring leakage of [3H]-amino acids. My question is: I dont really have access to equipment for 90 degree light scattering. Is there some other way to detect ...
Accepted name: L-isoleucine 4-hydroxylase. Reaction: L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = (4S)-4-hydroxy-L-isoleucine + succinate + CO2. Glossary: (4S)-4-hydroxy-L-isoleucine = (2S,3R,4S)-2-amino-4-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate. Other name(s): ido (gene name). Systematic name: L-isoleucine,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, can also catalyse the hydroxylation of L-leucine, L-norvaline, L-norleucine, and L-allo-isoleucine, as well as the sulfoxidation of L-methionine, L-ethionine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, S-ethyl-L-cysteine, and S-allyl-L-cysteine.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Kodera, T., Smirnov, S.V., Samsonova, N.N., Kozlov, Y.I., Koyama, R., Hibi, M., Ogawa, J., Yokozeki, K. and Shimizu, S. A novel L-isoleucine hydroxylating enzyme, L-isoleucine dioxygenase from Bacillus thuringiensis, produces (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine. Biochem. ...
Zghal, Raida Zribi; Elleuch, Jihen; Ali, Mamdouh Ben; Darriet, Frederic; Rebaï, Ahmed; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim... more authors ... less authors ...
Bacillus thuringiensis is a common soil bacterium capable of producing spores that have proteins which are toxic to some insect species. It is widely distributed and in one study was detected in approximately 70% of soil samples taken from around the world (Martin). If an insect consumes Bt spores, protein crystals from the spore dissolve and become activated in the insects gut that lead to the formation of pores through the cell membranes of cells within the insect gut. These pores provide a medium that favors bacterial spore germination. A resulting bacterial infection can lead to the death of the insect. When the food supply is exhausted, the bacteria can again enter the spore state and repeat the cycle.. Bt was first cultured from dead silk worm larvae in Japan in 1901. In 1958, Bacillus thuringiensis first became available commercially as a biopesticide. Various preparations based on Bt exist which contain Bt as well as other additives. There are many different varieties of Bt which have ...
By: Myles Power Edited by: Peter & Hannah I have recently published an article and video sceptical of the paper Long-term Toxicity of a Roundup Herbicide and a Roundup-Tolerant Genetically Modified Maize. This paper claims to have shown a link between genetically modified (GM) maize tolerant to the roundup herbicide and an increased risk of developing tumours. Even though I discussed…
Contrary to our expectation, the lower quality of plants did not consistently increase the fitness costs of resistance to Bt in P. xylostella. Larval development time was extended for both resistant Karak and Keluang populations on the better-defended host. However, fitness costs acting on survival depended on interactions between population and environment, as found previously (Carrière et al. 2004; Raymond et al. 2005), and for one population (Karak) increased on the higher-quality plants. While population-level effects were tested with very low statistical power (n=2) in the performance experiment, these results reflect our experience of the stability of resistance in these two populations in culture and formal experiments (figure 2). Independent mutations conferring resistance in different strains could be responsible for the variation in fitness costs. Alternatively, differences in genetic background can also alter pleiotropic fitness costs (Bohannan et al. 1999).. A mechanistic ...
del Pozo-Yauner,L. Ortiz,E. Becerril,B. 2009. Diseases related to protein misfolding en: Fernandez-Velasco,D.A. Advances in Protein Physical Chemistry. Kerala. Research Signpost. pags. 469-501 Gomez,I. Miranda-Rios,J. Arenas,I. Grande,R. Becerril,B. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2007. Identification of scFv Molecules that Recognize Loop 3 of Domain II and Domain III of Cry1Ab Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis en: Vincent,C. 6th Pacific Rim Conference on the biotechnology of Bacillus thuringiensis and its Environmental Impact,. Montreal. Erudit. pags. 12-14 Possani,L.D. Merino,E. Corona,M. Becerril,B. 2002. Scorpion genes and peptides specific for potassium channels: Structure, function and evolution en: Menez,A. Perspectives in Molecular Toxinology. pags. 201-214 Possani,L.D. Becerril,B. Tytgat,J. Delepierre,M. 2001. High Affinity Scorpion Toxins for Studying Potassium and Sodium Channels en: Nichols,C.G. Ion Channel Localization Methods and Protocols: Methods and Protocols. Humana Press. pags. 145-165 ...
Of 14 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis selected from 956 isolates from soil samples from Brazil, 12 were toxic to larvae of Aedes fluviatilis and two were nontoxic. Nine of the 14 strains were serotyped as subspecies israelensis (serotype 14), one as subspecies kurstaki (serotype 3a 3b) one as subspecies morrisoni (serotype 8a 8b) and three did not agglutinate any antisera. Electrophoresis of whole cell proteins showed that all subsp. israelensis strains formed a homogeneous group which included two non-typable toxic strains, and could be readily distinguished from reference strains toxic for lepidoptera or coleoptera ...
Many opportunistic pathogens upregulate the production of virulence factors according to their density within hosts (Williams et al. 2000). The diffusible molecules capable of relaying information about density can have diverse functions. However, microbiologists commonly assert that density-dependent increases in virulence arise because of positive feedback effects on the success in combating host immunity (de Kievit & Iglewski 2000; Williams et al. 2000), what ecologists refer to as an Allee (1931) effect. Excessive virulence at low density is hypothesized to elicit an immune response in which bacteria are unable to survive, while coordinated virulence at high density is adaptive.. Evolutionary biology theory suggests a different interpretation of this phenotypic plasticity. Increasingly, microbial virulence factors have been found to be shared social traits (public goods), imposing metabolic costs on individual cells but benefiting groups of pathogens (West & Buckling 2003). If this ...
Please read our disclaimer , Contact us , About NPIC , En español. NPIC provides objective, science-based information about pesticides and pesticide-related topics to enable people to make informed decisions. NPIC is a cooperative agreement between Oregon State University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (cooperative agreement #X8-83560101). The information in this publication does not in any way replace or supersede the restrictions, precautions, directions, or other information on the pesticide label or any other regulatory requirements, nor does it necessarily reflect the position of the U.S. EPA.. ...
El repositorio institucional tiene como fin maximizar la visibilidad de contenidos institucionales temáticos y especializados de la UNAD, esto es posible a través de una serie de actividades (autoarchivo) para la incorporación de videos, audios, etc.
The Canadian Forest Service promotes the sustainable development of Canadas forests and the competitiveness of the Canadian forest sector
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) has initiated the National Digital Library of India (NDL India) pilot project to develop a framework of virtual repository of learning resources with a single-window search facility. Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find out the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDL India is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for leading Indian languages. It is being arranged to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular form of access devices and differently-abled learners. It is being developed to help students to prepare for entrance and competitive examination, to enable people to learn and prepare from best practices from all over the world and to facilitate researchers to ...
2009 (English)In: SINET: An Ethiopian Journal of Science, ISSN 0379-2897, Vol. 32, no 2, 117-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
MON810 contains a truncated portion of a synthetic form of the cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Two constructs PV-ZMBK07 and PV-ZMGT10 have been used for transformation, but molecular analyses showed that MON810 does not contain any element from PV-ZMGT10 construct and only the elements from construct PV-ZMBK07 have been integrated into its genome. MON810 contains one integrated DNA consisting of P-e35S, I-Hsp70 and cry1Ab. The terminator of the nopaline synthase (nos) gene was lost due to a truncation at the 3 end of the gene cassette during genome integration and is, therefore, not present in MON810 ...
Although higher than expected numbers of surviving larvae of Helicoverpa spp. are reported in some Bollgard II cotton fields from time to time, there is no convincing evidence that field resistance has developed. A behavioural component, specifically the avoidance of the toxin, was considered to contribute to larvae surviving on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-expressing plants. Experiments were conducted with Bt-susceptible and Bt-resistant larvae of Helicoverpa armigera to investigate (1) how larval responses to food deprivation might lead to differences in survival and therefore how far neonates could move to find a suitable feeding site and (2) whether larvae that are physiologically susceptible vs. resistant behave differently when feeding on diet with Bt and without Bt toxins. Bt-susceptible neonates of H. armigera, which were significantly heavier, could survive without food for longer and recover better than Bt-resistant neonates. Although H. armigera neonates did not shift their ...
Germination and conjugation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the intestine of gnotobiotic rats. / Wilcks, Andrea; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, B. M; Andrup, Lars; Hendriksen, B.; Licht, Tine Rask.. In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 104, No. 5, 2008, p. 1252-1259.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal article - Annual report year: 2008 ...
Zhao M, Yuan X, Wei J, et al. Functional Roles Of Cadherin, Aminopeptidase-N And Alkaline Phosphatase From Helicoverpa Armigera (Hübner) In The Action Mechanism Of Bacillus Thuringiensis Cry2Aa[J]. Scientific Reports, 2017.
OMRI Listed Dipel PRO DF biological insecticide contains the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis v. kurstaki. Use in organic production to control caterpillars on fruit, citrus, vegetable, grain, flowers, herbs, turf, ornamental trees and shrubs.
Amaral Filho, B.F.; Habib, M.E., 1993: Efeito da variabilidade genetica de Anagasta kuehniella na resposta de suas larvas a infeccoes causadas por Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki
Cutworms can cause all kinds of problems in a garden so if you see any, pick them up and destroy them. You can protect new transplants by placing a cardboard collar around the stem of the plant. Just take an emply papertowel roll and cut it into 4 inch tall cylinders. Cut one side so you can open it to place around the stem, and sink the collar into the soil about an inch. The collar will prevent the cutworms from circling the stem and chewing through it. You can make scatter baits made of bran, molasses and BTK (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki) into the soil to kill the cutworms if collars arent enough to protect your new plants ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A243BPA7 (A0A243BPA7_BACTU), 30S ribosomal protein S12. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar pingluonsis
Vip3Aa20 is a mutated form of the vip3Aa19 gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. The mutation occurred by two codon changes within the vip3Aa19 coding sequence when this gene was introduced in the maize event MIR162. One of these was a silent mutation and the other codon change resulted in an amino acid substitution. Therefore, the vip3Aa gene variant present in MIR162 maize has been designated vip3Aa20 ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0RHK3 (HSLV_BACAH), ATP-dependent protease subunit HslV. Bacillus thuringiensis (strain Al Hakam)
phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to decouple growth from hydrogen production at the expense of sugar solutions of varying composition. Strain HD701 evolved several times more hydrogen than MC4100 at glucose concentrations ranging from 3 to 200 mM. The difference in the amount of H2 evolved by both strains decreased as the concentration of glucose increased. The highest rate of H2 evolution by strain HD701was 31ml h−1 ODunit −1 l−1 at a glucose concentration of 100 mM.With strain MC4100, the highest ratewas 16ml h−1 ODunit −1 l−1 under these conditions. Experiments using industrial wastes with a high sugar content yielded similar results. In each case, strain HD701 ...
A slight change in molecular structure introduced by genetic engineering gives crop-protecting proteins called Bt toxins a new edge in overcoming resistance of certain pests, a UA-led team of researchers reports in Nature Biotechnology. One of the most successful strategies in pest control is to endow crop plants with genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt for short, which code for proteins that kill pests attempting to eat them.. But insect pests are evolving resistance to Bt toxins, which threatens the continued success of this approach. In the current issue of Nature Biotechnology, a research team led by UA Professor Bruce Tabashnik reports the discovery that a small modification of the toxins structure overcomes the defenses of some major pests that are resistant to the natural, unmodified Bt toxins.. "A given Bt toxin only kills certain insects that have the right receptors in their gut," explained Tabashnik, head of the UA´s entomology department in the College of ...
RODERIC (Repositori dObjectes Digitals per a lEnsenyament la Recerca i la Cultura) es el repositorio institucional de la Universitat de València. Se concibe como una ventanilla única para el acceso y la difusión de la producción digital de la Universitat. RODERIC responde al compromiso de la Universitat con el movimiento de acceso abierto al conocimiento adquirido con su adhesión a la Declaración de Berlín (30 Septiembre de 2008).
The cry1Ac gene produces the insect control protein Cry1Ac, a delta-endotoxin, in the plant tissues. Cry proteins, of which Cry1Ac is only one, act by selectively binding to specific sites localized on the lining of the midgut of susceptible insect species. Following binding, pores are formed that disrupt midgut ion flow, causing gut paralysis and eventual death due to bacterial sepsis. Cry1Ac is insecticidal only when eaten by the larvae of lepidopteran insects (moths and butterflies), and its specificity of action is directly attributable to the presence of specific binding sites in the target insects. There are no binding sites for delta-endotoxins of B. thuringiensis on the surface of mammalian intestinal cells, therefore, livestock animals and humans are not susceptible to these proteins ...
The cry1F gene produces the insect control protein Cry1F, a delta-endotoxin, in the plant tissues. Cry proteins, of which Cry1F is only one, act by selectively binding to specific sites localized on the lining of the midgut of susceptible insect species. Following binding, pores are formed that disrupt midgut ion flow, causing gut paralysis and eventual death due to bacterial sepsis. Cry1F is insecticidal only when eaten by the larvae of lepidopteran insects (moths and butterflies), and its specificity of action is directly attributable to the presence of specific binding sites in the target insects. There are no binding sites for delta-endotoxins of B. thuringiensis on the surface of mammalian intestinal cells, therefore, livestock animals and humans are not susceptible to these proteins ...
A stacked insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant maize derived from conventional cross-breeding of DAS-59122-7 x DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 x MON-ØØØ21-9. Insect resistance is conferred by the cryIF, cry34Ab1, and cry35Ab1 genes from the common soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, and glyphosate herbicide tolerance through EPSPS gene ...
Health Law & Policy Institute The latest recall of taco shells continues. Safeway announced that it would immediately remove its house-brand taco shells sold under the brand, Mission Foods, after a coalition of biotechnology food critics found in the shells genetically engineered (GE) corn not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for human consumption. Just last month, Kraft Foods announced a nationwide recall of the Taco Bell brand of shells after determining that the shells contained the same GE corn. The genetically engineered corn called "StarLink" was developed by Aventis CropScience and has been approved by the Environmental Protection Agency for use as animal feed. StarLink is a type of "bt" corn. It contains a gene from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and produces a bacterial protein known as Cry9C conferring resistance to common pests such as the European corn borer. Although other varieties of Bt corn have been approved by the FDA for human consumption, StarLink has ...
4.1 Product Harvesting. Harvesting microorganisms from submerged fermentation is often difficult due to the low concentration of the products, their thermolabile nature and in some cases their poor stability. Stabilizing adjuvants may have to be incorporated immediately post-harvest to prevent spore death and/or germination. Rapid drying or the addition of specific biocidal chemicals may be required to prevent growth of microbial contamination in the broth or centrifuge slurry (Soper and Ward, 1981).. Spore-forming Bacillus thuringiensis are usually concentrated prior to drying by centrifugation or filtration. Centrifugation using a continuous centrifuge concentrates the product from 2-3 % suspended solids to 15-20 %. Centrifugation may result in some loss of suspended solid as well as loss of dissolved materials. Such losses may not be acceptable and concentration using this technique can often be omitted. Following concentration, one of the technique mixes the crystal/spores slurry with ...
Rising insect resistance to genetically modified (GM) crops including Monsantos biggest selling crop, Bt corn, is threatening their utility and profitability. Insect resistance has prompted a new investigation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to documents in the newly opened docket (Docket No: EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0922) [1], "severe" damage to corn by rootworm has occurred in four states in the US. Further, the EPA describe Monsantos insect resistance monitoring program as "inadequate". The EPA will collect public information to tackle the damage that could cause serious crop and economic damage. Amidst this investigation, Monsanto are seeing significant falls in their share prices [2]. Comments and information regarding insect resistance can be submitted to the EPA on their website [1].. In 2010, GM crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins from the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium, were grown on more than 58 million hectares of land globally [3]. First ...
Rising insect resistance to genetically modified (GM) crops including Monsantos biggest selling crop, Bt corn, is threatening their utility and profitability. Insect resistance has prompted a new investigation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to documents in the newly opened docket (Docket No: EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0922) [1], "severe" damage to corn by rootworm has occurred in four states in the US. Further, the EPA describe Monsantos insect resistance monitoring program as "inadequate". The EPA will collect public information to tackle the damage that could cause serious crop and economic damage. Amidst this investigation, Monsanto are seeing significant falls in their share prices [2]. Comments and information regarding insect resistance can be submitted to the EPA on their website [1].. In 2010, GM crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins from the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium, were grown on more than 58 million hectares of land globally [3]. First ...
According to the U.S. Department of Agricultures Economic Research Service, 88 percent of the 2011 U.S. corn crop consists of genetically engineered varieties - either herbicide-tolerant types like Monsantos Roundup Ready corn, or insect-resistant types containing genes from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), or both. The figure for the 2011 U.S. soybean crop is 94 percent genetically modified. For the 2011 cotton crop the figure is 90 percent genetically modified.. As for sugar beets, the crop that prompted the latest local witch-hunt about growing genetically modified crops on Boulder County open space, the figure for the 2010 crop is 95 percent, according to The New York Times.. The foregoing raises an obvious question about the controversy over growing genetically modified crops on Boulder County open space, which is, why are we even having this conversation? The genie is out of the bottle. The horse is out of the barn. The train has left the station. The attempt to ban GM ...
October 22, 2001. On October 15, 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced approval of genetically engineered Bt corn for an additional seven years, despite serious questions about the dangers crops pose to human health or the environment. Genetically Engineered Food Alert (GE Food Alert) criticized the EPA for rushing to approve Bt corn without conducting necessary tests on human health effects and failing to investigate new concerns about environmental impacts.. Bt plants produce a type of insecticidal or Bt toxin, one of a family of related molecules produced by a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To develop these Bt crops, a company clones the insecticidal gene from the bacterium and inserts it into a crop plant. The plant then produces the toxin in most, if not all, parts of the plant through all or most of a growing season. There five varieties of Bt corn still on the market are made by Monsanto, Pioneer/DuPont, Dow and Syngenta. At least three types of Bt ...
A pest-eating ladybug attacks an aphid.. As angry debates about genetic modification continue, GM crops are quietly going about their business-and producing some positive side effects. In China, with Bt cotton reducing the need for insecticides, pest-eating bugs have rebounded and brought natural pest control with them.. Chinas genetically modified cotton is not new. Farmers used to spray their cotton with a protein, naturally produced by the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria, which is toxic to certain insects. As research into genetically modified crops advanced, scientists implanted the cotton itself with the Bt genes that code for production of the insect toxin, creating so-called "Bt cotton" and alleviating the need for the sprayed insecticide. Since China approved its use in 1997, Bt cotton has proved itself particularly effective against the cotton bollworm moth, reducing the costs and side effects of spraying pesticides, but it has had may also decrease the number of non-pest insects ...
We have a long history tinkering with things. Through domestication and artificial selection, humans have bred many familiar and useful food organisms-- beef cattle, chickens, hybrid corn, large-fruited tomatoes, and hundreds of others. This artificial selection by managing natural reproductive processes takes time, and the appropriateness of the cross-breeding and the resulting hybrids is typically judged both by their viability and by their benign usefulness.. In recent decades, hard-won cleverness in genetics and gene manipulation have enabled technicians to bypass the natural breeding process and change organisms by direct micro-manipulation. By inserting a specific heritable gene into an organisms DNA, researchers can create a genetically modified organism (GMO) with a novel trait.. There are two prominent examples in current industrial agriculture. One is the insertion of a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) into crops like corn. The corn plant then produces a Bt ...
New Formulation OMRI approved. • Low toxicity to humans and animals. • Used by Organic growers. • Made from a bacteria that is toxic to. certain pests. • Same active ingredient as Dipel®. CONTAINS: Bacillus Thuringiensis. in liquid form. USE ON: Vegetables, citrus, nuts, shrubs,. trees, tobacco, and flowering plants.. CONTROLS: Controls lepidoptera larve:. caterpillars and worms. i.e. cabbage looper,. orange dog, tobacco hornworm, imported. cabbageworm and rindworm.. RATE: 2 - 4 teaspoons per gallon.. APPLICATION: Mix with water, add. spreader-sticker, use as a thorough cover spray.. PACKED: 12 x 8 oz. - #13021, 12 x Pt. - #13022,. Labels SDS. ...
1. Kotchoni OS, Gachomo EW, Mwangi M. Commercial production of genetically modified crops: a prognosis towards global acceptance. Int J Agri Biol. 2005;7:681-688 2. FAO/WHO. Food derived from modern biotechnology, 2nd ed. ISBN 978-92-5-105914-2. 2009 3. Sorochinskii BV, Burlaka OM, Naumenko VD. et al. Unintended effects of genetic modifications and methods of their analysis in plants. Cytol Genet. 2011;45:324-332 4. Batista R, Saibo N, Lourenco T. et al. Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105:3640-3645 5. Chen M, Shelton A, Ye GY. Insect-resistant genetically modified rice in China: from research to commercialization. Annu Rev Entomol. 2011;56:81-101 6. Ye GY, Shu QY, Yao HW. et al. Field evaluation of resistance of transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to two stem borers. J Econ Entomol. 2001;94:271-276 7. Shu QY, Ye GY, Cui HR. et al. ...
Shop Insecticidal protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Insecticidal protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Regulatory risk assessments are an important part of the introduction of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis [ Bt] crops) into the environment to ensure the...
Review Mosquitocidal bacterial toxins (Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis): Mode of action, cytopathological effects and mechanism of resistance Subbiah Poopathi and S. Abidha Unit of Microbiology and Immunology, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Medical complex, Indira Nagar, Puducherry - 60 5006, India.. *Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 91-9443957479. Fax: 91-413-2272041 Accepted 4 September, 2013. Bacillus sphaericus Neide (Bs) and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis deBarjac (Bti) provide effective alternatives to broad spectrum larvicides in many situations with little or no environmental impact. Taking into account environmental benefits including safety for humans and other non- target organisms, reduction of pesticide residues in the aquatic environment, increased activity of most other natural enemies and increased biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems, their advantages are ...
Whole cell immobilization of thermostable ?-amylase from phosphate solubilizing Bacillus thuringiensis A5-BRSC-IJMR-Print ISSN No:-2394-546X Online ISSN No:-2394-5478Article DOI No:-10.18231/2394-5478.2018.0055,Indian Journal of Microbiology Research-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.. ...
Bacillus cereus from the Bacillus cereus group species, which consist of: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus pseudomycoides is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial foodborne pathogens. Growth of B. cereus results in production of several highly active toxins therefore, consumption of food containing 105-106 bacteria (spores)/g or toxins, is sufficient to cause emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is milk and mixed food products that include milk powder, thus is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. In this study 138 strains of B. cereus group spp. were characterized based on their phenotypic and genotypic features. The study developed unique DNA primers for use in PCR and these were then tested via real-time PCR (RT-PCR): (i) the motB gene encoding the flagellar motor protein MotB was used as a PCR primer target. (ii) New primers and probes, targeting ...
Cytolytic pore-forming toxins are important for the virulence of many disease-causing bacteria. How target cells molecularly respond to these toxins and whether or not they can mount a defense are poorly understood. By using microarrays, we demonstrate that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds robustly to Cry5B, a member of the pore-forming Crystal toxin family made by Bacillus thuringiensis. This genomic response is distinct from that seen with a different stressor, the heavy metal cadmium. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and a c-Jun N-terminal-like MAPK are both transcriptionally up-regulated by Cry5B. Moreover, both MAPK pathways are functionally important because elimination of either leads to animals that are (i) hypersensitive to a low, chronic dose of toxin and (ii) hypersensitive to a high, brief dose of toxin such that the animal might naturally encounter in the wild. These results extend to mammalian cells because inhibition of p38 results in the hypersensitivity
Investigations on assessment of insecticide resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, Linnaeus on cabbage were undertaken at Department of Agricultural Entomology, Post Graduate Institute, MPKV, Rahuri during 2011-2013. Insecticide usage pattern in Ahmednagar, Dhule, Pune and Nashik locations against diamondback moth on cabbage was also studied. Survey results indicated that farmers relied mostly on chemical insecticides to control the diamondback moth on cabbage. The insecticides viz., chlorpyriphos, quinalphos, profenophos, cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole were the most widely used for its control. It was also observed that the most cabbage growers from all four locations followed routine or calendar spraying pattern. Majority of the farmers did sprayings at an interval of 6 to 10 days giving maximum 6 to 8 sprays. Toxicity of certain conventional insecticides against P. xylostella in western Maharashtra was studied. The populations collected ...
The Western corn rootworm only has one generation per year. From July to September females lay up to 500 eggs into the soil where they overwinter. Larvae appear in the following year from the beginning of June on and begin to feed on corn roots at once. Whereas the first instar feeds on external fine foot hairs the second and third instar also burrows into roots. The roots ability to transport water and nutrients, as well as the stability of the maize plant are significantly affected. Also the roots are likely to get secondary fungal infections (root rot). Furthermore the plant tries to compensate the continuing loss of root mass by growing new ones, which drains a lot of energy. This in turn goes at the expense of developing aerial parts relevant for yield. If the weather is humid during this time, yield loss due to larval feeding stays under 30 percent in most cases. In years with dry weather during early summer, as last year in south-eastern Europe and at severe infestation, yield losses up ...
The invention provides transgenic plants and transformed host cells which express modified cry 3B genes with enhanced toxicity to Coleopteran insects. Also disclosed are methods of making and using these transgenic plants, methods of making recombinant host cells expressing these δ-endotoxins, and methods of killing insects such as Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) and western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte.
Profenofos resistance was found in field strains of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) collected at late season of 2013 from four Governorates in Egypt. Resistance was high in regions where profenofos were frequently used. Resistance ranged between 31.31 and 59.60% in the tested strains. Profenofos resistance was the highest in the individuals collected from Gharbia Governorate as compared with the other field strains; whereas the lowest resistance percentage was noticed in individuals collected from Kafrel-Sheikh Governorate. Studies carried out through estimation of the detoxification enzymes activity indicated that enhanced acetylcholinesterase, alkaline & acid phosphatases and α & β nonspecific esterases as well as total protein contents were probably important mechanisms for profenofos resistance in field strains. Colorimetric assays showed a significant positive correlation between increased resistance to profenofos in strains of P. gossypiella examined and the hydrolytic
Bacillus thuringiensis[edit]. Constant exposure to a toxin creates evolutionary pressure for pests resistant to that toxin. ... To reduce resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, the 1996 commercialization of transgenic cotton and maize came with ... plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).[40] ... rice and some other crops have been engineered to express genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis ...
BT - Bacillus thuringiensis. *EH - Erwinia hebicola. *FP - fluorescent particle. Radiological Agent[edit]. Main article: ...
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki is a bacterium which produces an insect-specific endotoxin which perforates the ... Insecticide, Bacillus and nematode treatments must be repeated three times at an interval of about ten days, because they ...
Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied species of bacteria used for biological control, with at least four sub- ... Similarly, Bacillus thuringiensis and other microbial insecticides are used in large enough quantities for a rapid effect. ... doi:10.1016/S0065-2164(08)70371-X. Neppl, Camilla (26 May 2000). "Management of Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins". ... Careful formulations of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are more effective. The population of Levuana iridescens, the ...
"European Corn Borer and Bacillus thuringiensis". Plant & Soil Sciences eLibrary. Retrieved October 25, 2017. Royer, L.; McNeil ... has had its genome modified to include a synthetic version of an insecticidal gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. As ...
Bacillus thuringiensis is a microbial insecticide. When consumed, it is lethal to lesser wax larvae. However, bees are immune ... with Bacillus thuringiensis". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 11: 184-195. doi:10.1016/0022-2011(68)90148-1. "Wax Moth". ... While a B. thuringiensis-infused liquid can also be used, the powder is more effective and remains protective to bee combs for ... When a powder containing B. thuringiensis is mixed with beeswax present in bee combs, the lesser wax moth is killed and the ...
Cry4Aa was produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. It is a dipteran-specific toxin and it plays an important role in how to produce ... "Alanine scanning analyses of the three major loops in domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis mosquitocidal toxin Cry4Aa". Appl. ...
... plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).[41] ... rice and some other crops have been engineered to express genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis ... Transgenic plants are used to express proteins like the cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, herbicide resistant genes, antibodies ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is microbial and biological. It is the most commonly used pesticide and is used against other pests ... usually via the application of the bacterial pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis ('Bt'). In 2008 California agriculture officials ...
The insecticidal toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been inserted into a tomato plant.[22] When field tested ... Kumar, H.; Kumar, V. (2004). "Tomato expressing Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis protected against ... Safety Assessment of the Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Crystal Protein CRYIA(b) Expressed in Transgenic Tomatoes. ACS ... "Field Performance of Transgenic Tomato Plants Expressing the Bacillus Thuringiensis Var. Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". ...
Unfortunately the field application of Bacillus thuringiensis subs. tenebrionis (Btt) is not possible due to lack of ... "Prove di laboratorio con un formulato a base di Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner ssp.tenebrionis nei confronti di Gonioctena ...
Bacillus thuringiensis and its strain B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki also used by farmer in Assam, India. Chemical control is ...
... is a protein toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis. Delta endotoxin Cry3Bb1 is utilized as an insecticide that confers ... "Structure of the insecticidal bacterial δ-endotoxin Cry3Bb1 of Bacillus thuringiensis". Acta Crystallographica D. 57 (Pt 8): ...
Bt brinjal is a transgenic aubergine that contains a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis.[21] This variety was ... Kumar S, Chandra A, Pandey KC (2008). "Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest ...
Chapter 15 in [Bacillus Thuringiensis Biotechnology], Ed. Estibaliz Sansinenea. Springer, Mar 2, 2012 Erin Hodgson and Aaron ... 2002). "Cry1a Toxins of Bacillus Thuringiensis Bind Specifically to a Region Adjacent to the Membrane-Proximal Extracellular ... 18 May 2004). "Contamination of refuges by Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes from transgenic maize". Proceedings of the ... Involvement of a Cadherin in the Entomopathogenicity of Bacillus Thuringiensis". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 32 ...
Bravo, A.; Gill, S. S.; Soberón, M. (2007). "Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential ... Cygler M, Borisova S, Grochulski P, Masson L, Pusztai-carey M, Schwartz JL, Brousseau R (1995). "Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(a ... Delta endotoxins (δ-endotoxins, also called Cry and Cyt toxins) are pore-forming toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis ... Li JD, Carroll J, Ellar DJ (October 1991). "Crystal structure of insecticidal delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis at ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive soil bacterium from the phylum Firmicutes. It is often used as a biological ... Currently, spraying Bacillus thuringiensis is considered to be the best option, possibly with NPV for an added benefit, but ... Janmaat, Alida F.; Myers, Judith (2003-11-07). "Rapid evolution and the cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in ... Mcvay, John R.; Gudauskas, Robert T.; Harper, James D. "Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Nuclear-Polyhedrosis Virus Mixtures ...
... is one member of a binary Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein set isolated from Bt strain PS149B1. The protein ... Li, Huarong; Olson, Monica; Lin, Gaofeng; Hey, Timothy; Tan, Sek Yee; Narva, Kenneth E. (2013-01-04). "Bacillus thuringiensis ... Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Caballero, Primitivo (2014-12-11). "Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins ... "Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis protect corn from corn rootworms". Nature Biotechnology. 19 (7): 668-672. doi ...
Another gene being put into some crops comes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis; the gene makes a protein that is an ...
... to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki used for gypsy moth suppression in Michigan". The Great Lakes Entomologist. 30 (4): 125 ...
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) naturally produces a chemical harmful only to a small fraction of insects, most ... Kathage, J.; Qaim, M. (2012). "Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India". ... "Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is likely associated with C. elegans in nature. B. thuringiensis is a soil ... "the plcR regulon is involved in the opportunistic properties of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus in mice and insects ... Borgonie G.; Van Driessche R.; Leyns F.; Arnaut G.; De Waele D.; Coomans A (1995). "Germination of Bacillus thuringiensis ... "Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins that target nematodes". PNAS. 100 (5): 2760-2765. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.2760W. doi: ...
"An immuno-PCR method for detecting Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin". Journal of Immunological Methods. 308 (1): 109-115. ...
"Genes encoding the N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading enzyme are widespread in many subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis". ... "Three-dimensional structure of the quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase from Bacillus thuringiensis". Proc. ... "The quorum-quenching lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis is a metalloprotein". Biochemistry. 44: 7559-7569. doi:10.1021/ ... "Identification of quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactonases from Bacillus species". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 1754-1759 ...
14, 71 Li, H., Olson, M., Lin, G., Hey, T., Tan, S.Y., and Narva, K.E. (2013) "Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 ... Peng, D., Chai, L., Wang, F., Zhang, F., Ruan, L., and Sun, M. (2011) "Synergistic activity between Bacillus thuringiensis ... Cry6Aa is a toxic crystal protein generated by the bacterial family Bacillus thuringiensis during sporulation. This protein is ... "Bacillus thuringiensis metalloproteinase Bmp1 functions as a nematicidal virulence factor". Applied and Environmental ...
Moazami, N. (2004). "The Role of Bacillus Thuringiensis H-14 In Malaria Control." The Forth Inter-country Meeting of National ... Moazami, N. (1997). "Large Scale Production of Slow Release Formation of Bacillus Thuringiensis M-H-4 in Qeshm Island." ... "the feasibility of producing and using Bacillus thiringiensis to control malaria vectors in southern Iran. The slow releasing ...
... this pest in crops became more complicated after resistance developed against a toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, which ...
The Bacillus cereus group (consisting of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, and B. anthracis) was found to contain nine ... from Bacillus thuringiensis. 2. Substrate modeling and active site mutations". Biochemistry. 47 (29): 7715-7725. doi:10.1021/ ... "The quorum-quenching lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis is a metalloprotein". Biochemistry. 44 (20): 7559-7569. doi:10.1021/ ... Some examples of these lactonases are AiiA produced by Bacillus species, AttM and AiiB produced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, ...
Key words: Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis, bacterial toxins, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles ... Bacillus sphaericus Neide (Bs) and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis deBarjac (Bti) provide effective alternatives to ... Mosquitocidal bacterial toxins (Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis): Mode of action, ...
1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 W.S. Cranshaw, "Bacillus thuringiensis," Colorado State ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is "a naturally occurring bacterial disease of insects." [1] Because Bt produces a toxin that kills ... Retrieved from "https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Bacillus_thuringiensis&oldid=535596" ...
Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis] Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,399163616,gb,AFP33255.1, ...
cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis] cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,506485019,gb,AGM16382.1, ...
Bacillus thuringiensis Taxonomy (NIH). *Bacillus thuringiensis genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ... Bacillus thuringiensis General Fact Sheet (National Pesticide Information Center). *Bacillus thuringiensis Technical Fact Sheet ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genellikle biyolojik pestisit olarak kullanılan, Gram-pozitif, toprakta yaşayan bir bakteridir.[1] ... De Maagd, R; Bravo, A; Crickmore, N (2001). "How Bacillus thuringiensis has evolved specific toxins to colonize the insect ...
Bacillus thuringiensis definition, a bacterium used in genetically altered form in the biological control of budworms, gypsy ... New Latin (1915): Thuringian bacillus; so named in reference to its discovery in larvae of Mediterranean flour moths from a ...
Buy Bacillus Thuringiensis by ILO, Unep from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK ... Bacillus Thuringiensis - Environmental Health Criteria No. 217 (Paperback). ILO (author), Unep (author), World Health ...
For instance, the standard B.t. (Bacillus thuringiensis)is effective against caterpillars of all kinds. BTSD (B.t. var. san ...
Genomic DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis Strain USDA H522 TypeStrain=False Application: ... Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (ATCC® 35646D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis Strain USDA H522 ... Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner ATCC® 35646D-5™ dried At least 5 µg in 1X TE buffer. OD260/OD280: 1.6 to 2.0 ... Genomic DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis Strain USDA H522 [ATCC® 35646™] Biosafety Level 1 Biosafety classification is based on ...
BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND ITS IMPACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT October 17 - 21, 1994 In order to promote the use of BACILLUS ... CONFERENCE ON BIOTECHNOLOGY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS. C. Lan FJUT028 at TWNMOE10.BITNET Thu Sep 16 19:28:39 EST 1993 *Previous ... THURINGIENSIS (B.t.)-based insecticides in the Pacific rim region, the conference is being organized by a group of scientists ...
Bacillus thuringiensis General Fact Sheet (National Pesticide Information Center) Bacillus thuringiensis Technical Fact Sheet ( ... ISBN 978-0-323-14317-2. Bacillus sotto Ishiwata [→] Taxonomic reassignment: Bacillus thuringiensis var. sotto Ishiwata. [ ... project and results The Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Specificity Database at Natural Resources Canada Bacillus thuringiensis ... of Bacillus thuringiensis var. sotto derives its name from the "sotto" disease. Richard C. Reardon; et al. (1994). Bacillus ...
... novel chimeric genes allow the introduction of exogenous DNA fragments coding for polypeptide toxins produced by Bacillus ... thuringiensis or having substantial sequence homology to a gene coding for a polypeptide toxin as described herein and ... Novel bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins. US20060010520 *. Jun 13, 2005. Jan 12, 2006. Lundquist Ronald C. Fertile ... Insecticidal proteins from bacillus thuringiensis. EP2213681A1. Mar 20, 2003. Aug 4, 2010. Bayer BioScience N.V.. Novel ...
These findings widen the target range of Bacillus spp., in special B. thuringiensis, besides insecticidal activity and help ... On the other hand, the different Bacillus species have important biotechnological applications; one of them is carried out by ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used as a biopesticide in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control because of its ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used as a biopesticide in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control because of its ...
Bacillus thuringiensis serotype kurstaki (Btk) is a group of bacteria used as biological control agents against lepidopterans. ... "Characterized full-length and truncated plasmid clones of the crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-73 ... "Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis". Environmental ... "Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki ( ...
Course "Bacillus thuringiensis genome sequencing: from DNA extraction to annotation through NGS technology". 4 - 13 November, ... Bacillus thuringiensis Next-Generation Sequencing including technique, algorithms, methods, sequence mapping tools, data ... and Design of NGS experiments and workflow of Bacillus thuringiensis genome sequencing, assembly and annotation.. This course ...
Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton. Yves Carrière, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Mark ... Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton. Yves Carrière, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Mark ... Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton. Yves Carrière, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Mark ...
The present invention provides an isolated and purified protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies thuringiensis, ... Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis), kyushunsis (Bacillus thuringiensis kursataki) and morrisoni (Bacillus thuringiensis ... The Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis protein enhances the humoral immune system in rats and guinea pigs, and induces long ... This antitumor Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis protein is not oncotoxin as indicated by the difference in molecular weight ...
Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India. Jonas Kathage and Matin Qaim ... Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India ...
... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt):. *Bernstein, L.; Bernstein, J. A.; Miller, M.; Tierzieva, ... Meadows, M. P. Bacillus thuringiensis, An Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice; Entwistle, P.F.; Cory, J. S.; Bailey ... Hendriksen, N. B.; Hansen, B. M. Long-Term Survival and Germination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki in a Field Trial. ... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Code of ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Terrabacteria group › Firmicutes › Bacilli › Bacillales › Bacillaceae › BacillusBacillus ... "Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.". ... "Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.". ... "Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.". ...
This topic contains 1 reply, has 2 voices, and was last updated by E. Vinje 2 years, 6 months ago. Bt for Mosquitoes Created by Steve Mosher on June
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) consists of a spore, which gives it persistence, and a protein crystal within the spore, which is ... Bt san diego (Bt-sd) - Bacillus thuringiensis var san diego and Bt tenebrionis (Bt-t) - Bacillus thuringiensis var tenebrionis ... 42 Responses to "Bacillus thuringiensis Products". * Maxwell Sandford on March 17th, 2013 at 12:10 am # ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a natural occurring, soil-borne bacteria that has been used since the 1950s for natural insect ...
Phosphotransferase system (PTS) - Bacillus thuringiensis MC28 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , ...
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis - Bacillus thuringiensis HD-771 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a naturally occurring bacterium that produces a protein that is effective for the control of ... European corn borer resistance to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn. European corn borers that have developed resistance to corn ...
  • These findings contrast with similar experiments conducted using B. subtilis , wherein transcription of its cdaS was initiated by the sigma factor σ G . Deletion of all the three DAC genes from a single strain was unsuccessful, suggesting that c-di-AMP is an indispensable molecule in B. thuringiensis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis é uma bactéria utilizada na produção de biopesticidas e de plantas resistentes às pragas por causa da síntese de cristais proteicos pelos genes cry , os quais são eficazes no controle de diversas ordens de insetos, como os lepidópteros. (scielo.br)
  • Os dois isolados de B. thuringiensis selecionados neste trabalho mostraram-se eficientes no controle da lagarta-da-soja em laboratório, sendo recomendada sua avaliação a campo para posterior aplicação na formulação de biopesticidas ou como fonte de genes cry para a obtenção de plantas geneticamente modificadas resistentes à Anticarsia gemmatalis . (scielo.br)
  • Identification of anthrax toxin genes in a Bacillus cereus associated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 101, no. 22, pp. 8449-8454, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • B. Kunkel, R. Losick, and P. Stragier, "The Bacillus subtilis gene for the developmental transcription factor σ (K) is generated by excision of a dispensable DNA element containing a sporulation recombinase gene," Genes & Development , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 525-535, 1990. (hindawi.com)
  • A classification for crystal protein genes of Bacillus thuringiensis is presented. (asm.org)
  • Pigment genes crtM-crtN confer a distinctive yellow color to B. thuringiensis colonies. (asm.org)
  • A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for detection of cry11 genes from Bacillus thuringiensis was established. (scielo.org.ar)
  • En el presente estudio se estableció una estrategia basada en la amplificación génica (PCR) y el posterior análisis de restricción (RFLP) para detectar todos los genes cry11 de Bacillus thuringiensis informados hasta ahora. (scielo.org.ar)
  • De acuerdo con el análisis de las regiones conservadas en los genes cry11 , se diseñaron dos cebadores para amplificar un fragmento de 1459 pb de los genes cry11Aa y un fragmento de 1471 pb de los genes cry11Ba y cry11Bb . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Se analizaron cepas exóticas de B. thuringiensis y aislamientos nativos de Argentina obtenidos a partir de muestras de suelos, hojas y polvillo de silos, para estudiar la distribución de los genes cry11 . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Los patrones de PCR-RFLP revelaron la presencia de genes cry11 en 3 de las 64 cepas exóticas y en 10 de los 107 aislamientos nativos de B. thuringiensis ensayados. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten inferir que el método de PCR-RFLP constituiría una herramienta valiosa para la detección específica de genes que codifican proteínas mosquitocidas Cry11 de B. thuringiensis . (scielo.org.ar)
  • The genome of B. thuringiensis MYBT18247 comprises a variety of promising virulence genes, including:○bacteriocins,○proteases. (deepdyve.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is "a naturally occurring bacterial disease of insects. (sourcewatch.org)
  • We investigated how reproduction and virulence in the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) changed with bacterial density. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A novel approach is used here to probe the morphological structural changes occurring during the growth of the bacterial colony of Bacillus thuringiensis under different environmental conditions (in normal nutrient agar, in presence of glucose - acting as additional nutrient and additional 3mM arsenate as additional toxic material). (spie.org)
  • The current control programme, carried out by the South African National Department of Agriculture, uses regular applications, by helicopter, of the target-specific bacterial larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. (scielo.org.za)
  • Aerial application of mexacarbate and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner was tested against pine butterfly, Neophasia menapia (F. and F.). These were applied to 40-acre plots on the Bitterroot National Forest and adjacent State and private lands during June 1973. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The inheritance and expression patterns of the cry1Ab gene were studied in the progenies derived from different Bt ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) transgenic japonica rice lines under field conditions. (springer.com)
  • S. Poopathi K. Anup kumar L. Kabilan V. Sekar (2002) ArticleTitle Development of low-cost media for the culture of mosquito larvicides, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. (springer.com)
  • Sodium Nitrate With and Without Sorbitol in Bacillus thuringiensis Formulations: Spayability, water retention and Crystallization Behaviour. (gc.ca)
  • Aux conditions de laboratoire, les valeurs de la CL50 pour la poudre mouillable et les formulations en granulés étaient de 227 et 1031 ppm respectivement sur une souche sensible d'An. (who.int)
  • Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of bacillus thuringiensis culture turning into sporulation. (fineartamerica.com)
  • Inhibition of de novo RNA Synthesis by Insecticidial Exotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. (deepdyve.com)
  • The research report studies the global Emea europe middle east and africa bacillus thuringiensis market report 2017 market on the basis of several criteria, including type, application, and geography to provide a better understanding to the readers. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The report also sheds light on the current trends related to the demand, supply, and sales of Emea europe middle east and africa bacillus thuringiensis market report 2017, along with the recent developments in the field. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The research report takes into consideration the drivers, restraints, trends, and opportunities of the global Emea europe middle east and africa bacillus thuringiensis market report 2017 market in order to identify the future of the market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The report also provides an estimation of the overall market size in terms of both value and volume and offers qualitative and quantitative insights into the key segments and the geographical subdivisions of the Emea europe middle east and africa bacillus thuringiensis market report 2017 market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • According to the report, equipment and raw material are two primary components of the manufacturing process of Emea europe middle east and africa bacillus thuringiensis market report 2017. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • ABSTRACT Due to low efficacy in the field of a local commercial product of Bacillus thuringiensis M-H-14 (Bioflash ® ), a study was designed to assess its efficacy in laboratory, glass standard aquarium, semi-field and field conditions at both target and higher dosages against immature stages of Anopheles spp. (who.int)
  • Transmission electron microscopy revealed characteristic bipyramidal intracellular -endotoxin crystals similar to the crystalline inclusions formed by B. thuringiensis. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In this report, the EMEA Bacillus Thuringiensis market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (uniprot.org)
  • We investigated whether reduced plant quality would increase the fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in two populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis Resistance Influences European Corn Borer (Lepi" by Jarrad R. Prasifka, Richard L. Hellmich et al. (iastate.edu)
  • S. C. Hardies, J. A. Thomas, and P. Serwer, "Comparative genomics of Bacillus thuringiensis phage 0305 φ 8-36: defining patterns of descent in a novel ancient phage lineage," Virology Journal , vol. 4, p. 97, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Sequencing Bacillus anthracis typing phages gamma and cherry reveals a common ancestry," Journal of Bacteriology , vol. 188, no. 9, pp. 3402-3408, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genellikle biyolojik pestisit olarak kullanılan, Gram-pozitif , toprakta yaşayan bir bakteridir . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, Bacillus thuringiensis is regarded as environmentally friendly with no toxic effects on natural enemies and humans. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicated increased diversity of CdaS in the B. cereus and B. subtilis Bacillus subgroups. (frontiersin.org)
  • They also reported that the DUF147 domain of DisA, as well as its homolog from Bacillus subtilis , converts two ATP molecules into one c-di-AMP molecule. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genome sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 reveals metabolic adaptations and a large plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis pXO1," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 977-988, 2004. (hindawi.com)