A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (1/8455)

A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (2/8455)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (3/8455)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

In vivo and in vitro processing of the Bacillus subtilis transcript coding for glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyltransferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (4/8455)

In Bacillus subtilis, the adjacent genes gltX, cysE, and cysS encoding respectively glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyl-transferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, are transcribed as an operon but a gltX probe reveals only the presence of a monocistronic gltX mRNA (Gagnon et al., 1994, J Biol Chem 269:7473-7482). The transcript of the gltX-cysE intergenic region contains putative alternative secondary structures forming a p-independent terminator or an antiterminator, and a conserved sequence (T-box) found in the leader of most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and many amino acid biosynthesis genes in B. subtilis and in other Gram-positive eubacteria. The transcription of these genes is initiated 45 nt upstream from the first codon of gltX and is under the control of a sigmaA-type promoter. Analysis of the in vivo transcript of this operon revealed a cleavage site immediately downstream from the p-independent terminator structure. In vitro transcription analysis, using RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, B. subtilis, and that encoded by the T7 phage, in the presence of various RNase inhibitors, shows the same cleavage. This processing generates mRNAs whose 5'-end half-lives differ by a factor of 2 in rich medium, and leaves putative secondary structures at the 3' end of the gltX transcript and at the 5' end of the cysE/S mRNA, which may be involved in the stabilization of these mRNAs. By its mechanism and its position, this cleavage differs from that of the other known transcripts encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in B. subtilis.  (+info)

Structural basis of multidrug recognition by BmrR, a transcription activator of a multidrug transporter. (5/8455)

Multidrug-efflux transporters demonstrate an unusual ability to recognize multiple structurally dissimilar toxins. A comparable ability to bind diverse hydrophobic cationic drugs is characteristic of the Bacillus subtilis transcription regulator BmrR, which upon drug binding activates expression of the multidrug transporter Bmr. Crystal structures of the multidrug-binding domain of BmrR (2.7 A resolution) and of its complex with the drug tetraphenylphosphonium (2.8 A resolution) revealed a drug-induced unfolding and relocation of an alpha helix, which exposes an internal drug-binding pocket. Tetraphenylphosphonium binding is mediated by stacking and van der Waals contacts with multiple hydrophobic residues of the pocket and by an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged drug and a buried glutamate residue, which is the key to cation selectivity. Similar binding principles may be used by other multidrug-binding proteins.  (+info)

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (6/8455)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. (7/8455)

The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi was unexpectedly found to be as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself. The susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as that of B. burgdorferi, to diacetyl chloramphenicol were then assayed in different media. All three species were susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol when growth media were supplemented with rabbit serum or, to a lesser extent, human serum. Susceptibility of E. coli and B. subtilis to diacetyl chloramphenicol was not observed in the absence of serum, when horse serum was used, or when the rabbit or human serum was heated first. In the presence of 10% rabbit serum, a strain of E. coli bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had a fourfold-lower resistance to chloramphenicol than in the absence of serum. A plate bioassay for chloramphenicol activity showed the conversion by rabbit, mouse, and human sera but not bacterial cell extracts or heated serum of diacetyl chloramphenicol to an inhibitory compound. Deacetylation of acetyl chloramphenicol by serum components was demonstrated by using fluorescent substrates and thin-layer chromatography. These studies indicate that esterases of serum can convert diacetyl chloramphenicol back to an active antibiotic, and thus, in vitro findings may not accurately reflect the level of chloramphenicol resistance by cat-bearing bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

Transient gene asymmetry during sporulation and establishment of cell specificity in Bacillus subtilis. (8/8455)

Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is initiated by an asymmetric division generating two cells of different size and fate. During a short interval, the smaller forespore harbors only 30% of the chromosome until the remaining part is translocated across the septum. We demonstrate that moving the gene for sigmaF, the forespore-specific transcription factor, in the trapped region of the chromosome is sufficient to produce spores in the absence of the essential activators SpoIIAA and SpoIIE. We propose that transient genetic asymmetry is the device that releases SpoIIE phosphatase activity in the forespore and establishes cell specificity.  (+info)

Other. Table of Content:. Chapter One Global Bacillus Subtilis Market Overview. 1.1Global Bacillus Subtilis Market Sales Volume Revenue and Price 2012-2022. 1.2 Bacillus Subtilis, by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.1 Global Bacillus Subtilis Sales Market Share by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.2 Global Bacillus Subtilis Revenue Market Share by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.3 Global Bacillus Subtilis Price by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.4 100 Billion CFU/g. 1.2.5 100-300 Billion CFU/g. 1.2.6 300 Billion CFU/g. Make an Enquiry @ http://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=enquiry&repid=1256588. About Market Research Hub:. Market Research Hub (MRH) is a next-generation reseller of Research Reports and analysis. MRHs expansive collection of pharmaceutical market research reports has been carefully curated to help key personnel and decision makers across industry verticals to clearly visualize their operating environment and take strategic steps.. MRH functions as an integrated platform for the ...
0141] FIGS. 5A to 5E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 1. FIGS. 6A to 6E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans as well as Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 3. FIG. 7 is a bar chart showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis when treated with micelles formed from Example 2. Example 2 does not show a strong inhibition effect towards bacterial growth, having a MIC of higher than 66.4 micromole/L against Bacillus subtilis (FIG. 7). This is attributed to the polymer with the longest hydrophobic block precipitating ...
BioAssay record AID 1307019 submitted by ChEMBL: Potency index, ratio of chloromycin MIC to compound MIC for Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633.
Author Summary Many bacteria can actively acquire novel genetic material from their environment, which leads to the rapid spreading of, for example, antibiotic resistance genes. The bacterium Bacillus subtilis can differentiate into the state of competence, in which cells take up ssDNA through a DNA uptake complex that is specifically localized at a single cell pole. DNA can be integrated into the chromosome, via RecA, or can be reconstituted as circular dsDNA, if derived from plasmid or from viral DNA. We show that RecO, RecU, and Ku proteins, but not RecA, are important for plasmid transformation, and differentially accumulate at the polar DNA uptake machinery. Upon addition of any kind of DNA, the assembly of RecU at the competence pole dissipated, while RecA formed filamentous structures that rapidly grew and shrank within a 1 minute time scale. RecO visibly accumulated at the competence machinery only upon addition of plasmid DNA, but not of chromosomal DNA. In vitro, RecO was highly efficient at
Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC ® 6633D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii strain NRS 231 TypeStrain=False Application: Food testing
Health Canada proposes registration of Bacillus velezensis strain RTI301 Technical, Bacillus subtilis strain RTI477 Technical, Ataplan Biological Fungicide and Arolist Biological Fungicide, containing the technical grade active ingredients Bacillus velezensis strain RTI301 and Bacillus subtilis strain RTI477.
Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatl …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the phoB-rrnE-groESL region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. AU - Sadaie, Yoshito. AU - Yata, Katsunori. AU - Fujita, Masaya. AU - Sagai, Hitoshi. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Kasahara, Yasuhiro. AU - Ogasawara, Naotake. PY - 1997/6. Y1 - 1997/6. N2 - A 36 kb sequence of the phoB-rrnE-groESL region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome at around 55°has been determined. The sequenced region contains 36 ORFs including the phoB and groESL genes, and the whole rrnE operon. The phoB gene is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of chromosome replication, while most ORFs, including groESL and the rrnE operon, are transcribed in the same direction. Two newly identified tRNA genes upstream of the rrnE operon were those for Arg-tRNA and Gly-tRNA. The sequenced region contains an operon consisting of genes for degradation and uptake of mannan. The rrnE operon and its downstream ORFs are well conserved among Mycoplasma genitalium, Haemophilus ...
A characteristic feature of biofilm formation is the production of a protective extracellular polymeric matrix. In the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the biofilm matrix is synthesized by the products of the epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO operon (hereafter called the eps operon) and yqxM-sipW-tasA loci. Transcription from these operons is repressed by two key regulators, AbrB and SinR. Relief of inhibition is necessary to allow biofilm formation to proceed. Here we present data indicating that Abh, a sequence and structural homologue of AbrB, regulates biofilm architecture by B. subtilis when colony morphology and pellicle formation are assessed. Data indicating that abh expression is dependent on the environmental signals that stimulate the activity of the extracytoplasmic function sigma-factor sigma(X) are shown. We demonstrate that expression of slrR, the proposed activator of yqxM transcription, is positively controlled by Abh. Furthermore, Abh is shown to activate transcription from the ...
Chemoheterotrophic Bacterium Bacillus Subtilis B-3157. Microbiological Preparation of Deuterium Labeled Purine Ribonucleoside Inosine from Bacillus Subtilis B-3157
Source: Bacillus subtilis: A Healthy Probiotic Strain by Dr. Edward Group Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that is found in soil and the gut of humans and some types of animals. Also known as Bacillus uniflagellatus, Bacillus globigii, and Bacillus natto, Bacillus subtilis is commonly included in probiotic supplement formulations. Its a useful and beneficial probiotic that supports digestion, enzyme production, and helps…
Summary The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is well-known for its contributions to agricultural, medical, and food biotechnology and for the production of recombinant proteins. At present, about 60% of the commercially available technical enzymes are produced by Bacillus species. Furthermore, a large body of information concerning transcription, translation, protein folding and secretion mechanisms, genetic manipulation, and large-scale fermentation has been acquired. But so far, efficient and inexpensive expression vectors for B. subtilis are still missing. To fill this gap, a glycine-inducible expression system and a lysine-autoinducible one were explored and IPTG-inducible expression plasmids that allow overexpression and purification of proteins were constructed and analyzed. Furthermore, a technique with a useful promoter-probe plasmid to analyze strong promoters in B. subtilis was established, which allowed to study promoter and mRNA stabilizing elements to enhance the transcript ...
Spores of foodborne pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus are widely distributed in nature. Presence of those spores in food products, particularly C. botulinum spores in vacuum packed, ready-to-eat low-acid products, is a great safety concern. The research here described is a first effort towards understanding the role of the spore coat proteins in the inactivation of bacterial spore using high pressure processing. This study proposes a coat protein solubilization methodology using non-ionic detergents minimizing protein damage and compatible with spectroscopy methods. The methodology developed here was compared with approaches proposed in the literature with respect to protein yield, protein fractions identified, amino acid composition and suitability with spectroscopy techniques for the further analysis of coat proteins. Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 spore coat proteins were solubilized (n=3) using octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP) at room ...
Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) have important applications in agriculture. A key prerequisite for those PGPRs to exert beneficial activities is to effectively colonize the roots. Paradoxically, a major challenge for those rhizobacteria is how to migrate from soil to the roots, and further spread along the roots, considering the arid or semi-arid nature of the soil and the root surface. Studies have shown that chemotaxis and swimming motility driven by flagella play an important role in root colonization in aqueous environments. However, one can argue that swimming motility is not productive in the semi-arid or arid soil and root surface. Bacteria may have to reply on certain types of solid surface motility to migrate in the soil and colonize roots. So here comes the simple question: how do bacteria migrate in the soil? We showed here that Bacillus subtilis, a well-known PGPR, can utilize sucrose, a simple sugar and an abundant root exudate component, as a signal to initiate ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|16077226|ref|NP_388039.1| from Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Bacillus subtilis uses two-component signal transduction systems to sense intra- and extracellular stimuli to adapt to fluctuating environmental situations. Regulator aspartate phosphatases (Raps) have important roles in these processes, as they can dephosphorylate certain response-regulators, and are themselves subject to cell-density-controlled inhibition by secreted Phr (phosphate regulator) peptides. Eleven chromosomal genes encode this family of phosphatases, but in addition, certain strains contain endogenous plasmids with genes for homologous Rap-Phr systems. Plasmid pTA1060 encodes Rap60 and its antagonistic signalling molecule Phr60. Strikingly, expression of Rap60 in B. subtilis 168 strongly repressed the production of proteolytic enzymes. In fact, the transcription of the aprE gene, encoding a major extracellular protease, was shown to be decreased upon Rap60 expression, whereas this effect could be antagonized by the extracellular addition of synthetic Phr60 pentapeptide. Finally,
The present study was conducted with an aim to scale up the production of iturin A using soybean curd residue (okara). Iturin A was produced by indigenous bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS through glass column reactor (GCR) under solid state fermentation (SSF) was characterized. The enhanced iturin A production was observed with respect to enhanced substrate bed height when SSF was conducted in Erlenmeyer flask. To check the effect of substrate bed height on iturin A production under SSF of okara, GCR was introduced. Substrate bed height of 15 cm was suitable for iturin A production which was about 2700 mg/kg wet substrate. The observed iturin A production by the aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis in nearly anaerobic condition in such high substrate bed for SSF is a wonderful finding for development of SSF system in future.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rok regulates yuaB expression during architecturally complex colony development of Bacillus subtilis 168. AU - Kovács, Ákos T.. AU - Kuipers, Oscar P.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Transcriptome analysis of a Bacillus subtilis rok strain that showed reduced complex colony structure formation revealed significant downregulation of the yuaB gene. Overexpression of yuaB restored structure formation in the rok strain. We show that transcription of yuaB is indirectly regulated by Rok, independently from its previously described AbrB-dependent regulation.. AB - Transcriptome analysis of a Bacillus subtilis rok strain that showed reduced complex colony structure formation revealed significant downregulation of the yuaB gene. Overexpression of yuaB restored structure formation in the rok strain. We show that transcription of yuaB is indirectly regulated by Rok, independently from its previously described AbrB-dependent regulation.. U2 - 10.1128/JB.01170-10. DO - ...
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pAM beta 1, a 26.5-kilobase plasmid originally isolated from Streptococcus faecalis, was conjugally transferred from Streptococcus lactis to Bacillus subtilis. No conjugal transfer of pAM beta 1 from B. subtilis to S. lactis was observed. In addition, pAM beta 1 which had been reintroduced in S. lactis after cycling through B. subtilis had lost its conjugal transferability to Streptococcus cremoris, although under the same conditions noncycled pAM beta 1 was transferred at high efficiency. Restriction and Southern blot analyses showed that pAM beta 1 had suffered one major, specific 10.6-kilobase deletion and several minor but also specific deletions in B. subtilis. Comparing the major deletion derivative, delta pAM beta 1, with B. subtilis strains which have been reported to contain pAM beta 1 showed that these strains also contained delta pAM beta 1. Hybridization experiments showed that the deleted fragment was not transposed to the B. subtilis chromosome. Based on the size of the minor ...
This chapter focuses on Bacillus subtilis multicellularity, emphasizing the two-cell differentiation process of endospore formation and attempting to note similarities to Myxococcus xanthus. While cell growth, division, motility, and chemotaxis clearly play roles in forming bioconvection patterns, complex colonies, and macrofibers, these multicellular phenomena have not yet been subjected to systematic genetic analysis. In contrast, recently discovered multicellular behaviors of biofilm formation and swarming motility are rapidly being elucidated by genetic and genomic approaches. The most studied and best understood multicellular behaviors of B. subtilis are the development of genetic competence (the ability to take up exogenous DNA) and sporulation. The chapter summarizes the understanding of how morphogenesis and intercellular signaling control the activity of cell-specific s factors, focusing on recent progress and attempting to identify questions that remain. It also reviews the results of genomic
Of 130 strains classified as Bacillus subtilis, 60 fermented lactose and utilized gluconate slowly. High deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness values of 70 to 100% to the type strain (NRRL B-14393) of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens indicated these organisms to be strains of that species. The 70 remaining strains did not ferment lactose, utilized gluconate strongly, and were highly related genetically to the type strain (NRRL NRS-744) of B. subtilis. Lactose fermentation was observed in a standard medium containing 2% lactose instead of the usual 0.5%. Low deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness values of 25 to 37% established that neither group was related to B. pumilus, B. coagulans, B. firmus, or B. licheniformis. The results indicated that lactose fermentation and gluconate utilization are characteristics that can differentiate between B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens.
Bacillus subtilis can secrete active substances, activate plant defense systems, enhance crop immunity and disease resistance, and reduce or eliminate the harm of pathogenic bacteria to plants. It can also promote the growth and development of a variety of plant seeds, seedlings, roots, and enhance the disease resistance of plants, thereby indirectly reducing the occurrence of diseases. For example, Bacillus subtilis increase the formation of auxin (IAA, IBA), stimulates crop roots development, and enhances photosynthesis. At the same time, it converts materials that are difficult to absorb in the soil into materials that are easily absorbed by crops, promotes the absorption and utilization of nutrients by crops, and improves the utilization rate of fertilizers. ...
The previously identified spoIIS locus encodes a toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis. It comprises two genes, spoIISA encoding a toxin and spoIISB encoding an antitoxin, which lies adjacent to each other on the chromosome. Each of the spoIIS coding sequences is preceded by a promoter region and the two genes together constitute an operon. The function of SpoIISA is unknown, although it has been shown that the absence of SpoIISB or loss of its function leads to a block in sporulation at stage II. The cytoplasmic membrane has been proposed as the target of the SpoIISA toxin. Heterologously expressed SpoIISA-SpoIISB was shown to be functional in Escherichia coli, where again the cytoplasmic membrane was the most probable target for SpoIISA toxicity. Here we analyzed the effects of SpoIISA production during vegetative growth of B. subtilis and during sporulation by following the levels of SpoIISA. SpoIISA levels increase at the point of entry into stationary phase of cell cultures grown in
Cytochromes of c-type contain covalently bound haem and in bacteria are located on the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic membrane. More than eight different gene products have been identified as being specifically required for the synthesis of cytochromes c in Gram-negative bacteria. Corresponding genes are not found in the genome sequences of Gram-positive bacteria. Using two random mutagenesis approaches, we have searched for cytochrome c biogenesis genes in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Three genes, resB, resC and ccdA, were identified. CcdA has been found previously and is required for a late step in cytochrome c synthesis and also plays a role in spore synthesis. No function has previously been assigned for ResB and ResC but these predicted membrane proteins show sequence similarity to proteins required for cytochrome c synthesis in chloroplasts. Attempts to inactivate resB and resC in B. subtilis have indicated that these genes are essential for growth. We demonstrate ...
A biofilm is a complex community of cells enveloped in a self-produced polymeric matrix. Entry into a biofilm is exquisitely controlled at the level of transcription and in the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis it requires the concerted efforts of three major transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to transcriptional control, B. subtilis utilizes post-translational modifications to control biofilm formation; specifically through phosphorylation of tyrosine residues. Through our work we have assigned novel roles during biofilm formation to two proteins; the protein tyrosine kinase PtkA and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpZ. Furthermore by introducing amino acid point mutations within the catalytic domains of PtkA and PtpZ we have identified that the kinase and phosphatase activities, respectively, are essential for function. PtkA contains a conserved C-terminal tyrosine cluster that is the site of autophosphorylation; however, our in vivo analysis demonstrates that ...
Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006655) was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere and characterized for potato plant growth promoting potential. The strain utilized both Ca-phosphate and Na-phytate in vitro and produced 6.48 μg mL-1 indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium. P-solubilization after 240 h was 66.4 μg mL-1 alongwith the production of 19.3 μg mL-1 gluconic acid and 5.3 μg mL-1 malic acid. The extracellular phytase activity was higher (4.3 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein) than the cell-associated phytase activity (1.6 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein). B. subtilis strain KPS-11 utilized 40 carbon sources and showed resistance against 20 chemicals in GENIII micro-plate system demonstrating its metabolic
On July 17, 2009 the U.S. Food & Drug Adminsitration (FDA) in association withLuv N Care, LTD issued an urgent, nationwide recall of various gel filled baby/infant teeters after the FDA discovered that some lots of the Nuby, Cottontails and Playschool Teethers contained Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans.. The Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans bacteria generally do not cause illness in healthy babies, however if a baby has a weakened immune system the results of ingesting wither forms of the Bacillus bacteria could lead to serious health problems.. If your child or somebody you know has gotten sick after ingesting any of the contaminated teether liquid, you should speak with a qualified medical professional immediately. You should then contact us for a free confidential case review, as you may be entitled to compensation for your childs injuries. ...
Inactivation kinetics for Bacillus subtilis endospores for (△) pure argon, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen i
Bacillus subtilis subsp. stercoris is the correct name if this subspecies is regarded as a separate subspecies (i.e., if its nomenclatural type is not assigned to another subspecies whose name is validly published, legitimate and not rejected and has priority) within a separate species Bacillus subtilis within a separate genus Bacillus. ...
Biodegradable plastics can be made from polylactate, which is a polymer made from lactic acid. This compound can be produced from renewable resources as substrates using microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a GRAS microorganism (g enerally r egarded a s s afe) by the FDA. B. subtilis produces and secretes different kind of enzymes, such as proteases, cellulases, xylanases and amylases to utilize carbon sources more complex than the monosaccharides present in the environment. Thus, B. subtilis could be potentially used to hydrolyze carbohydrate polymers contained in lignocellulosic biomass to produce chemical commodities. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic fraction of agroindustrial wastes produces cellobiose and a lower amount of glucose. Under aerobic conditions, B. subtilis grows using cellobiose as substrate. In this study, we proved that under non-aerated conditions, B. subtilis ferments cellobiose to produce L-lactate with 82% of the theoretical yield,
article{b934b2b3-a5c6-4edc-b815-40c3fe1ef9c9, abstract = {Bacteria use a number of mechanisms for coping with the toxic effects exerted by nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives. Here we show that the flavohemoglobin encoded by the hmp gene has a vital role in an adaptive response to protect the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis from nitrosative stress. We further show that nitrosative stress induced by the nitrosonium cation donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) leads to deactivation of the transcriptional repressor NsrR, resulting in derepression of hmp. Nitrosative stress induces the sigma B-controlled general stress regulon. However, a sigB null mutant did not show increased sensitivity to SNP, suggesting that the sigma B-dependent stress proteins are involved in a nonspecific protection against stress whereas the Hmp flavohemoglobin plays a central role in detoxification. Mutations in the yjbIH operon, which encodes a truncated hemoglobin (YjbI) and a predicted 34-kDa cytosolic protein of unknown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of σ(B) levels and activity in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Benson, A. K.. AU - Haldenwang, W. G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The sigB operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes σ(B) plus three additional proteins (RsbV, RsbW, and RsbX) that regulate σ(B) activity. Using an anti- σ(B) monoclonal antibody to monitor the levels of σ(B) protein, P(SPAC) to control the expression of the sigB operon, and a ctc-lacZ reporter system to monitor σ(B) activity, we observed that the rsbV and rsbW products control σ(B) activity at the ctc promoter independently of their effects on σ(B) levels. In contrast, RsbX was found to have no effect on expression of ctc when the sigB operon was controlled by P(SPAC). The data are consistent with RsbV and RsbW being regulators of σ(B) activity and RsbX acting primarily as a negative regulator of sigB operon expression. Evidence that stationary- phase induction of the σ(B)-dependent ctc promoter is accomplished by a reduction in ...
TY - THES. T1 - Developing Bacillus subtilis as a versatile bioproduct platform for agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. AU - Song, Yafeng. PY - 2021. Y1 - 2021. N2 - Bioproducts made by microbial cell factories play important roles in human life ranging from food, feed, cosmetic and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Microbial hosts are required to be non-pathogenic overproducers and should be growing at low costs. Bacillus subtilis is one of the bacteria, which can fulfill these requirements. It is generally regarded as safe, easy to modify genetically and able to grow fast in simple medium. It can secrete high levels of proteins into the culture medium, and has also been reported to be a high isoprene producer. The work described in the thesis of Yafeng Song focuses on two aspects. Firstly, she engineered B. subtilis to secrete high level of β-mannanase, a major mannan-degrading enzyme that is extensively used in agriculture as feed additive. This was achieved by increasing β-mannanase ...
An efficient heat-inducible Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage 105 expression and secretion system for the production of the Streptomyces clavuligerus beta-lactama
Abstract: Bacillus subtilis has long been a model bacterium for understanding biological mechanisms, such as fatty acid catabolism and polyketide biosynthesis. Our interest in the latter was centered on the polyketide synthase (PKS) mechanism responsible for ß-branching polyketides. The unique structural moiety is attributed to a HMG-CoA synthase homolog, such as the pksG gene in B. subtilis. The first goal was a metagenomic survey of local soils, using the conserved pksG homolog sequence as a genetic marker. After optimizing techniques for the extraction and purification of environmental DNA, the ß-branching polyketide population was not detected in any local soil samples. While working with a pksG homolog, an apparent sequence anomaly prompted us to verify the taxonomic classification of B. subtilis research strains ATCC 39374 and 39320. Comparison of DNA sequences (pksG homologs, hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA and rDNA) and species-specific genes showed the two ATCC strains are more ...
The Bacillus subtilis (k1) grew in submerged fermentation cultures supplemented with various organs of banana agricultural wastes as the cheapest substrate. Due to the differential richness of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of banana organs, it could be a valuable factor for B. subtilis growth and the production of valuable secondary products. The B. subtilis was inoculated on LB0 (TY-medium), LB1 (⅛ TY-medium), LB2 (LB1 + leaf blade), LB3 (LB1 + leaf midrib), LB4 (LB1 + leaf sheet), LB5 (
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence that a single monomer of Spx can productively interact with RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Lin, Ann A.. AU - Zuber, Peter. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Spx activates transcription initiation in Bacillus subtilis by directly interacting with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase(RNAP) holoenzyme- subunit, which generates a complex that recognizes the promoter regions of genes within the Spxregulon. Many Gram-positive species possess multiple paralogs of Spx, suggesting that two paralogous forms of Spx could simultaneouslycontact RNAP. The composition of Spx/RNAP was examined in vitro using an Spx variant (SpxδCHA) bearing a 12-amino-acid deletion of the C terminus (SpxδC) and a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag and Spxc-Myc, a full-length Spx with aC-terminal myelocytomatosis oncoprotein (c-Myc) epitope tag. All Spx/RNAP complexes bearing deletion or C-terminal-taggedvariants were transcriptionally active in vivo and in vitro. Reaction mixtures ...
Interesting features of cell structure; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces. B. subtilis is a rod-shaped bacterium arranged in either single cells, small clumps, or short chains. Its cell wall consists of a thick peptidoglycan layer. B. subtilis is apart of the kingdom Bacteria, which means this organism has a single circular chromosome within the nucleoid region of its cytoplasm. B. subtilis has a helical cytoskeleton composed of a single protein. (11) B. subtilis is a motile organism through use of its flagella, which is a whip-like appendage used for movement. Specifically, B. subtilis has peritrichous flagella, meaning has flagella projecting in all directions around the cell. (11) B. subtilis exhibits endospore formation. Endospores are dormant durable structures often created from a vegetative cell in response to nutrient deprivation are produced through the process sporulation. During this process, a thick layer of peptidoglycan and spore coat form around a copy of ...
Interesting features of cell structure; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces. B. subtilis is a rod-shaped bacterium arranged in either single cells, small clumps, or short chains. Its cell wall consists of a thick peptidoglycan layer. B. subtilis is apart of the kingdom Bacteria, which means this organism has a single circular chromosome within the nucleoid region of its cytoplasm. B. subtilis has a helical cytoskeleton composed of a single protein. (11) B. subtilis is a motile organism through use of its flagella, which is a whip-like appendage used for movement. Specifically, B. subtilis has peritrichous flagella, meaning has flagella projecting in all directions around the cell. (11) B. subtilis exhibits endospore formation. Endospores are dormant durable structures often created from a vegetative cell in response to nutrient deprivation are produced through the process sporulation. During this process, a thick layer of peptidoglycan and spore coat form around a copy of ...
Keratinases are well-recognized enzymes with the singular power of taking down the recalcitrant structural proteins such as keratin. Their prospective in bio-waste management of feather waste has been well recognized since long. In present scenario, they have acquired importance in various other industrial applications. The present study mainly focused on the isolation of keratin degrading bacteria and its use in optimization of culture conditions to maximize the keratinase production. The isolated strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis strainS1 according to morphological and biochemical characteristics followed by 16 S rRNA sequencing (accession no: LC054177). The influence of cultivation temperature and initial pH of the medium on keratinase production revealed the optimal values of the temperature and pH as 40 °C and 7, respectively. Maximum keratinolytic activity was observed at 72 h after incubation. Optimized value for inoculum size and substrate concentration was found to be 5% and 1%
Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, 1000 of which were previously identified and mapped by classical genetic crosses. Comparison of these experimentally determined positions to th
Spores of Bacillus subtilis are being used as probiotics and competitive exclusion agents for animal consumption. Commercial production media often include relatively expensive components of animal origin that are a potential source for the presence of adventious agents, therefore undesirable for use in production scale. In this study a new animal-free component, chemically defined medium, was tested for B. subtilis spore production. Medium composition was optimized with respect to vitamin composition, carbon, nitrogen and calcium concentrations. A fed-batch bioprocess was developed, being the effect on sporulation of the carbon to nitrogen ratio at the end of the exponential growth phase studied. The developed strategy consisted of an initial and a final batch phase and an intermediate fed-batch phase with the addition of a feeding solution containing glucose and calcium and the addition of a feeding solution of ammonium sulphate, using an exponential and a constant feeding profile,
Bacillus subtilis comC protein: Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader peptide processing enzyme; has prepilin peptidase (EC as well as N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-) activities; amino acid sequence given in first source; may be a component of the DNA-processing apparatus of competent cells; cleaves pre-comGC; homologous to pilD protein; member of protease/transmethylase family; isolated from Bacillus subtilis; Do not confuse with comC, a peptide competence factor
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B. AU - Joshi, Sanket. AU - Bharucha, Chirag. AU - Desai, Anjana J.. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 °C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil ...
Bacillus subtilis spoVK protein: from Bacillus subtilis; MW 36 kDa; expressed only in mother cell from sequentially active promoters; amino acid sequence given in first source
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of Bacillus subtilis DSM 28343 when used in feed for pigs for fattening. The additive is a preparation containing viable spores of a strain of Bacillus subtilis. This species is considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety (QPS) approach to safety assessment which requires the identity of the strain to be conclusively established, evidence that the strain is not toxigenic and that it does not show resistance to antibiotics of human and veterinary importance. The strain was found to meet the criteria for the QPS approach in the context of a previous opinion and since concerns are not expected from other components of the additive, the additive is presumed safe for all target species, consumers and the environment. In a previous opinion, the FEEDAP Panel concluded that ...
Structure of a Bacillus subtilis endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene.: The nucleotide sequence of the portion of a Bacillus subtilis (strain PAP115) 3 kb Pst I fragmen
Castaing, J.-P., Lee, S., Anantharaman, V., Ravilious, G. E., Aravind, L. and Ramamurthi, K. S. (2014), An autoinhibitory conformation of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat protein SpoIVA prevents its premature ATP-independent aggregation. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 358: 145-153. doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12452 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DNA repair and the evolution of transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. AU - Michod, R. E.. AU - Wojciechowski, M. F.. AU - Hoezler, M. A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - The purpose of the work reported here is to test the hypothesis that natural genetic transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has evolved as a DNA repair system. Specifically, tests were made to determine whether transformation functions to provide DNA template for the bacterial cell to use in recombinational repair. The survivorship and the homologous transformation rate as a function of dose of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) was studied in two experimental treatments, in which cells were either transformed before (DNA-UV), or after (UV-DNA), treatment with UV. The results show that there is a qualitative difference in the relationship between the survival of transformed cells (sexual cells) and total cells (primarily asexual ...
Phytochemicals of Syzygium cumini are used for the treatment of various diseases as a traditional medicine but the mechanism behind their action is not well reported. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic seed extract of S. cumini was done by agar well diffusion assay on Bacillus subtilis and its zone of inhibition was found to be 20.06 mm in comparison to control having no zone of inhibition. MIC of S. cumini was found to be 0.3 mg/ml. Genomic DNA degradation of B. subtilis reveals apoptosis and FE-scanning electron microscope indicates cell wall cracking on several intervals of time. Results of propidium iodide staining showed few bacterial cells were stained in control; however population of stained cells increased after exposing them for varying period of time. Flow cytometric kinetic data analysis on the membrane permeabilization in bacterial cell showed the significant contribution of antimicrobial potential of the seed extract on antimicrobial-induced permeabilization. In silico analysis revealed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Horizontal transfer of iturin a operon, itu, to Bacillus subtilis 168 and conversion into an iturin A producer. AU - Tsuge, Kenji. AU - Inoue, Satoka. AU - Ano, Takashi. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Shoda, Makoto. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - Iturin A and its derivatives are lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis and several closely related bacteria. Three iturin group operons (i.e., iturin A, mycosubtilin, and bacillomycin D) of those antibiotic-producing strains have been cloned and sequenced thus far, strongly implying the horizontal transfer of these operons. To examine the nature of such horizontal transfer in terms of antibiotic production, a 42-kb region of the B. subtilis RB14 genome, which contains a complete 38-kb iturin A operon, was transferred via competent cell transformation to the genome of a non-iturin A producer, B. subtilis 168, using a method based on double-crossover ...
The activation of additional promoter sites by production of an alternative sigma subunit for RNA polymerase is a common strategy for the coordinate regulation of gene expression. Many alternative sigma factors control genes for specialized, and often narrowly distributed, functions. For example, most of the alternative sigma factors in Bacillus subtilis control genes necessary for endospore formation. In contrast, the B. subtilis sigma D protein controls the expression of genes important for flagellar-based motility and chemotaxis, a form of locomotion very broadly distributed in the eubacteria. A homologous sigma factor, sigma F, controls a similar group of motility genes in the enteric bacteria. The conservation of both promoter specificity and genetic function in these two regulons allowed us to test the ability of a B. subtilis sigma factor to function within an Escherichia coli host. We demonstrate that expression of the B. subtilis sigD gene restores motility to an E. coli strain mutant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification and Characterization of Bacillus subtilis CheY. AU - Bischoff, David S.. AU - Kirsch, Michael L.. AU - Ordal, George W.. AU - Bourret, Robert B.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Amino acid sequence comparison suggests that numerous proteins are common to the signal transduction pathways controlling Chemotaxis in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, previous work has indicated several differences between the two systems. We have undertaken a comparative study of the roles of the CheY protein in Chemotaxis by B. subtilis and E. coli. Although CheY from the two species share only 36% amino acid sequence identity, purified B. subtilis CheY was phosphorylated in vitro by E. coli CheA, and dephosphorylation of CheY-P was enhanced by E. coli CheZ. Alteration of the putative site of phosphorylation in B. subtilis CheY, Asp54, eliminated Chemotaxis in vivo, further confirming that phosphorylation is ...
sigma B, a secondary sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis, was found to increase 5- to 10-fold when cultures were shifted from 37 to 48 degrees C. Western blot (immunoblot) analyses, in which monoclonal antibodies specific for the sigB operon products RsbV, RsbW, and sigma B were used to probe extracts from wild-type and mutant B. subtilis strains, revealed that all three proteins increased coordinately after heat shock and that this increase was dependent on sigma B but not RsbV, a positive regulator normally essential for sigma B-dependent sigB expression. Nuclease protection experiments of RNA synthesized after heat shock supported the notion that the shift to 48 degrees C enhanced transcription from the sigB operons sigma B-dependent promoter. The level of mRNA initiating at the sigma B-dependent ctc promoter was also seen to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold after heat shock. Pulse-labeling of the proteins synthesized after a shift to 48 degrees C demonstrated that sigB wild-type and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and expression of inulin fructotransferase gene of Arthrobacter sp. A-6 in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. AU - Kim, H. Y.. AU - Kim, C. W.. AU - Cho, Y. J.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The inulin fructotransferase (depolymerizing) (IFTase, EC gene of Arthrobacter sp. A-6 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The IFTase gene consisted of an ORF of 1,311 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 436 amino acids containing a signal peptide of 31 amino acids in the N-terminus. The molecular mass of the IFTase based on the nucleotide sequence was calculated to be 46,116 Da. The recombinant E. coli DH5α cells expressing the Arthrobacter sp. A-6 IFTase gene produced most of the IFTase intracellularly. In contrast, the recombinant B. subtilis DB 104 carrying the IFrase gene on a B. subtilis-E. coli expression vector secreted the IFrase into the culture fluid efficiently.. AB - The inulin fructotransferase (depolymerizing) (IFTase, EC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression dynamics of the poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis genes of Bacillus subtilis in response to glucose and glutamic acid-a pilot study. AU - Tiwari, Deepika Pandey. AU - Chatterjee, Poonam Mishra. AU - Rotti, Harish. AU - Chand, Bipin. AU - Raval, Ritu. AU - Dubey, Ashok Kumar. PY - 2018/11/1. Y1 - 2018/11/1. N2 - Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) is biosynthesized by various Bacillus species through PGA synthetase, encoded by the PGA operon comprised of the ywsC and ywtABC genes. Due to the minimal available knowledge, understanding the expression pattern of PGA operon genes is pivotal. In this study, the effect of glucose and glutamic acid on the global gene expression profile of Bacillus subtilis Natto3 was investigated using high throughput microarray, with an emphasis on the PGA operon and genes influencing PGA production. Two treatment groups (set1-in the presence of glutamic acid and set2-in the presence of glutamic acid + glucose) were analyzed against the control (in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An antifungal compound produced by Bacillus subtilis YM 10-20 inhibits germination of Penicillium roqueforti conidiospores. AU - Chitarra, G.S.. AU - Breeuwer, P.. AU - Nout, M.J.R.. AU - van Aelst, A.C.. AU - Rombouts, F.M.. AU - Abee, T.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Aims: To identify and characterize an antifungal compound produced by Bacillus subtilis YM 10-20 which prevents spore germination of Penicillium roqueforti . Methods and Results: The antifungal compound was isolated by acid precipitation with HCl. This compound inhibited fungal germination and growth. Identification by HPLC and mass spectrometry analysis showed high similarity to iturin A. Permeabilization and morphological changes in P. roqueforti conidia in the presence of the inhibitor were revealed by fluorescence staining and SEM, respectively. Conclusions: The iturin-like compound produced by B. subtilis YM 10-20 permeabilizes fungal spores and blocks germination. Significance and Impact of the Study: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of ResE phosphatase activity in down-regulation of ResD-controlled genes in Bacillus subtilis during aerobic growth. AU - Nakano, M. M.. AU - Zhu, Y.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The ResD-ResE signal transduction system is required for aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Bacillus subtilis. The histidine sensor kinase ResE, by functioning as a kinase and a phosphatase for the cognate response regulator ResD, controls the level of phosphorylated ResD. A high level of phosphorylated ResD is postulated to cause a dramatic increase in transcription of ResDE-controlled genes under anaerobic conditions. A mutant ResE, which retains autophosphorylation and ResD phosphorylation activities but is defective in ResD dephosphorylation, allowed partially derepressed aerobic expression of the ResDE-controlled genes. The result indicates that phosphatase activity of ResE is regulated by oxygen availability and ...
Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogenic fungus, lives commensally in the human gut. Caenorhabditis elegans, an ideal host organism for microbiome studies, pre-exposed to the beneficial bacteria Bacillus subtilis are able to resist wildtype C. albicans infections and live longer than naive worms. We have identified C. albicans mutants that showed significant difference in lifespans of C. elegans with and without pre-exposure to B. subtilis. This approach will identify genes and pathways that modulate microbial interactions to alter host outcomes.. ...
A team of researchers from the Biotechnical Faculty of the University of Ljubljana (Polonca Štefanič, Barbara Kraigher and Ines Mandić-Mulec) and their colleagues from Harvard University (Nick Lyons and Roberto Kolter) were the first to show the world that the Bacillus subtilis bacteria strains are implementing kin discrimination. This means that only the swarms of the most closely related strains interact. This research and its findings were published in the renowned journal PNAS and triggered exceptional interest in the international research community, since the descriptions of kin discrimination in microorganisms are extremely rare, and no one had yet examined the kin discrimination in sympatric bacteria populations.. The genetic profile of the Bacillus subtilis bacteria is very well known, which is why it serves as an excellent model for further research of mechanisms and the meaning of kin discrimination for the evolution and territoriality of bacteria, as well as for the development of ...
The inactivation performances of different nonthermal plasmas are often compared with each other in terms of their decimal reduction values, typically obtained by linearizing selected segments of their inactivation curves. However, this approach is subjective and can result in uncertainties in the prediction of this parameter. To overcome this, in this paper, the application of models capable of describing inactivation curves in their entirety is considered. The authors employ the Baranyi and Weibull models, both commonly used for microbial inactivation by heat. An empirical model based on a third-order polynomial to seek greater accuracy is further proposed. Using these three inactivation models, predictions of decimal reduction values for 11 plasma inactivation studies of Bacillus subtilis spores are obtained and compared with their reported values. Although the agreement obtained between these different approaches is generally fair, the current practice of segmented linearization is shown to ...
article{4e41ad28-a68a-44c9-88fe-3468160150e0, abstract = {The azlB locus of Bacillus subtilis was defined previously by a mutation conferring resistance to a leucine analog, 4-azaleucine (J. B. Ward, Jr., and S. A. Zahler, J. Bacteriol. 116:727-735, 1973). In this report, azlB is shown to be the first gene of an operon apparently involved in branched-chain amino acid transport. The product of the azlB gene is an Lrp-like protein that negatively regulates expression of the azlBCDEF operon. Resistance to 4-azaleucine in azlB mutants is due to overproduction of AzlC and AzlD, two novel hydrophobic proteins.}, author = {Belitsky, B R and Gustafsson, Mattias and Sonenshein, A L and von Wachenfeldt, Claes}, issn = {0021-9193}, language = {eng}, number = {17}, pages = {5448--5457}, publisher = {American Society for Microbiology}, series = {Journal of Bacteriology}, title = {An lrp-like gene of Bacillus subtilis involved in branched-chain amino acid transport}, url = ...
The Bacillus subtilis gnt operon is negatively regulated by GntR, which is antagonized by gluconate. Three GntR mutants with diminished gluconate-binding ability were obtained. Two were missense mutants (Met-209 to Ile and Ser-230 to Leu), whereas the third had a deletion of the C-terminal 23 amino acids. The mutant GntR proteins were unable to become properly detached from the gnt operator even in the presence of gluconate. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Threonine synthetase catalyzed conversion of phosphohomoserine to α ketobutyrate in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Schildkraut, I.. AU - Greer, S.. PY - 1973/12/1. Y1 - 1973/12/1. N2 - An enzyme activity of Bacillus subtilis was found that catalyzes the dephosphorylation and deamination of phosphohomoserine to α ketobutyrate, resulting in a bypass of threonine in isoleucine biosynthesis. In crude extracts of a strain deficient in the biosynthetic isoleucine inhibitable threonine dehydratase, phosphohomoserine was converted to α ketobutyrate. Phosphohomoserine conversion to α ketobutyrate was shown not to involve a threonine intermediate. Single mutational events affecting threonine synthetase also affected the phosphohomoserine deaminating activity, suggesting that the deamination of phosphohomoserine was catalyzed by the threonine synthetase enzyme. It was demonstrated in vivo, in a strain deficient in the biosynthetic threonine dehydratase, that isoleucine was synthesized from ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the free amino acids of ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the free amino acids of ...
Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.
Other names: ATCC 14579, B. cereus, BCRC 10603, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus endorhythmos, Bacillus medusa, Bacillus sp. 2479, Bacillus sp. BS2(2013b), Bacillus sp. BV4, Bacillus sp. JKR50, Bacillus sp. JKR62, Bacillus sp. JP44SK22, Bacillus sp. JP44SK37, Bacillus sp. JP44SK43, Bacillus sp. JP44SK45, Bacillus sp. JSG1(2014), Bacillus sp. KER 17, Bacillus sp. MZ-01, Bacillus sp. PXDK-1, Bacillus sp. Pf-1, Bacillus sp. V3, Bacillus sp. mmm86, CCM 2010, CCRC 10603, CCUG 7414, CIP 66.24, DSM 31, IAM 12605, IFO 15305, JCM 2152, LMG 6923, NBRC 15305, NCCB 75008, NCIMB 9373, NCTC 2599, NRRL B-3711, VKM B-504 ...
Other names: ATCC 14579, B. cereus, BCRC 10603, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus endorhythmos, Bacillus medusa, Bacillus sp. 2479, Bacillus sp. BS2(2013b), Bacillus sp. BV4, Bacillus sp. JKR50, Bacillus sp. JKR62, Bacillus sp. JP44SK22, Bacillus sp. JP44SK37, Bacillus sp. JP44SK43, Bacillus sp. JP44SK45, Bacillus sp. JSG1(2014), Bacillus sp. KER 17, Bacillus sp. MZ-01, Bacillus sp. PXDK-1, Bacillus sp. Pf-1, Bacillus sp. V3, Bacillus sp. mmm86, CCM 2010, CCRC 10603, CCUG 7414, CIP 66.24, DSM 31, IAM 12605, IFO 15305, JCM 2152, LMG 6923, NBRC 15305, NCCB 75008, NCIMB 9373, NCTC 2599, NRRL B-3711, VKM B-504 ...
Bacillus subtilis[edit]. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis have a cAMP-independent catabolite repression ...
Branda, SS; González-Pastor, JE; Ben-Yehuda, S; Losick, R; Kolter, R (2001). "Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis". ... Shank, EA; Klepac-Ceraj, V; Collado-Torres, L; Powers, GE; Losick, R; Kolter (2011). "Bacillus subtilis forming biofilms are ... van Gestel, J; Vlamakis, H; Kolter; Collectives, Cell (2015). "Bacillus subtilis Uses Division of Labor to Migrate". PLOS Biol ... Lyons NA, Kolter R. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species. mBio. ...
A common polypeptide antibiotic is bacitracin, derived from the bacteria; Bacillus subtilis. As a therapeutic drug, it has ... Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic derived from a bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and acts against bacteria through the ...
In Bacillus subtilis, this riboswitch is found upstream of the gcvT operon which controls glycine degradation. It is thought ... Babina AM, Lea NE, Meyer MM (October 2017). "Bacillus subtilis". mBio. 8 (5). doi:10.1128/mBio.01602-17. PMC 5666159. PMID ...
Bacillus subtilis, etc.). Different types of such steam application are also available in practice, including substrate ...
ISBN 0-8412-0095-5. "Lichenase endo-1-3-1-4-beta-D-Glucanase Bacillus subtilis". megazyme.com. Retrieved 2019-06-25. McCleary, ... "Lichenase from Bacillus subtilis". Biomass Part A: Cellulose and Hemicellulose. Methods in Enzymology. 160. Academic Press. pp ... 4-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis 168". Process Biochemistry. 46 (5): 1202-1206. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2011.01.037. ISSN 1359- ... bonds The best-characterised variant of this of enzyme is Bacillus subtilis lichenase, which is used as a molecular biology ...
Recombinant Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1 and Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1AB were used in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates ... "Bioconversion of fish solid waste into PHB using Bacillus subtilis based submerged fermentation process". Environmental ... "Bacillus and biopolymer: Prospects and challenges". Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports. 12: 206-13. doi:10.1016/j.bbrep. ...
Essential Bacillus subtilis genes., in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 4678-4683 (April 15, 2003) Kowalski, Heather. "First Self- ... subtilis, where the data comes from Genome News Network The organisms listed in this table have been systematically tested for ...
Reeve, John N.; Mendelson, Neil H.; Coyne, Sheila I.; Hallock, Linda L. (1973-05-01). "Minicells of Bacillus subtilis". Journal ...
April 2003). "Essential Bacillus subtilis genes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Commichau FM, Pietack N, Stülke J (June 2013). "Essential genes in Bacillus subtilis: a re-evaluation after ten years". ...
Šrogl, M. (5 March 1965). "Intraspecific transformation in Bacillus subtilis". Folia Microbiologica. 11 (1): 39-42. doi:10.1007 ...
Job V, Marcone GL, Pilone MS, Pollegioni L (March 2002). "Glycine oxidase from Bacillus subtilis. Characterization of a new ... Nishiya Y, Imanaka T (November 1998). "Purification and characterization of a novel glycine oxidase from Bacillus subtilis". ...
Bacillus brevis • Bacillus Cereus • Bacillus megaterium • Bacillus subtilis • Burkholderia cepacia • Campylobacter jejuni • ...
Bacillus subtilis. 0.91. [7] Staphylococcus aureus. 0.86. [10] Most molds. 0.80. [10] ...
Experiments on Bacillus subtilis by Matsushita et al. Lacasta, A. M.; Cantalapiedra, I. R.; Auguet, C. E.; Peñaranda, A.; ... A large number of studies on pattern formation in bacterial colonies have been performed in Bacillus subtilis and in Proteus ... Employed models include: Reaction-diffusion system Cellular automata Colonies of Bacillus subtilis on a Petri dish can grow ... Reaction-diffusion model for Bacillus Subtilis. Some more images of patterns in bacterial growth can be found in: http://www. ...
For instance, transformation occurs near the end of logarithmic growth, when amino acids become limiting in Bacillus subtilis, ... Anagnostopoulos C, Spizizen J (May 1961). "Requirements for Transformation in Bacillus Subtilis". Journal of Bacteriology. 81 ( ...
Kearns, Daniel B.; Losick, Richard (2004). "Swarming motility in undomesticated Bacillus subtilis". Molecular Microbiology. 49 ... "Branched swarming patterns on a synthetic medium formed by wild-type Bacillus subtilis strain 3610: detection of different ... "Single-cell analysis in situ in a Bacillus subtilis swarming community identifies distinct spatially separated subpopulations ... Bacillus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Vibrio and Escherichia. This multicellular behavior has been mostly observed in ...
Takahashi I, Ogura K, Seto S (1980). "Heptaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Bacillus subtilis". J. Biol. Chem. 255 (10): ...
Anagnostopoulos C, Spizizen J (1961). "REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS". J. Bacteriol. 81 (5): 741-6. doi: ... as in Bacillus subtilis and in other bacteria. Natural genetic transformation is a form of DNA transfer that appears to be an ...
Competence development in Bacillus subtilis requires expression of about 40 genes. The DNA integrated into the host chromosome ... Saito Y, Taguchi H, Akamatsu T (April 2006). "DNA taken into Bacillus subtilis competent cells by lysed-protoplast ... Anagnostopoulos C, Spizizen J (May 1961). "Requirements for Transformation in Bacillus Subtilis". Journal of Bacteriology. 81 ( ... "DNA repair and the evolution of transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis". Genetics. 118 (1): 31-9. PMC 1203263. PMID ...
Bacillus subtilis). The experiment comprises two oak wooden boxes containing duplicate samples, to be kept at the University of ...
Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii.[8] Nominotypical subspecies and subspecies autonyms[edit]. In zoological nomenclature, ...
Bacillus subtilis spores. 82 0.5 µm. Pseudomonas diminuta. 19146 0.45 µm. Serratia marcescens. 14756 ...
"Prephenate Dehydrogenase - TyrA - Bacillus Subtilis (strain 168)."Prephenate Dehydrogenase - TyrA - Bacillus Subtilis (strain ...
Kaji A, Saheki T (December 1975). "Endo-arabinanase from Bacillus subtilis F-11". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... Purification and Partial Characterization of a Wall-degrading Endo-Arabanase and an Arabinosidase from Bacillus subtilis". ... from Bacillus subtilis". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 241 (1): 41-8. doi:10.1016/j.femsle.2004.10.003. PMID 15556708. Arabinan+ ...
In Bacillus subtilis, genetic analysis has revealed three primosomal proteins, DnaB, DnaD, and DnaI, that have no obvious ... DnaD alone and the DnaD/DnaB complex then interact with PriA of Bacillus subtilis at several DNA sites. This suggests that the ... Ishigo-Oka D, Ogasawara N, Moriya S (March 2001). "DnaD protein of Bacillus subtilis interacts with DnaA, the initiator protein ... Marsin S, McGovern S, Ehrlich SD, Bruand C, Polard P (December 2001). "Early steps of Bacillus subtilis primosome assembly". ...
Visualization of reinitiated chromosomes in Bacillus subtilis. J Mol Biol. Jul 28;68(3):501-9. Prescott D.M., Kuempel P.L. 1972 ... The first conclusive observations of bidirectional replication was from studies of B. subtilis. Shortly after, the E. coli ... circular bacteria chromosome replication is best understood in the well-studied bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis ...
HS-1 also has antimicrobial effects on some bacterial species, i.e. Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas ...
subscription required) Silvaggi JM, Perkins JB, Losick R (October 2005). "Small untranslated RNA antitoxin in Bacillus subtilis ...
Unlike Eschericia coli, in Bacillus subtilis transcription significantly outpaces translation, and coupling consequently does ... "Functionally uncoupled transcription-translation in Bacillus subtilis". Nature. 585 (7823): 124-128. doi:10.1038/s41586-020- ...
"The roles of mutation accumulation and selection in loss of sporulation in experimental populations of Bacillus subtilis". ...
Kadota H, Iijima K (1965). "The X-ray diffraction pattern of spores of Bacillus subtilis". Agric Biol Chem. 29 (1): 80-81. doi: ... Bacillus subtilis spores are useful for the expression of recombinant proteins and in particular for the surface display of ... Hiragi Y, Iijima K, and Kadota H (1967). "Hexagonal single crystal pattern from the spore coat of Bacillus subtilis". Nature. ... 1967). "The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis". Nature. 390 (6657): 249-56. doi:10.1038 ...
Bacillus subtilis completed in 1997, Mycobacterium tuberculosis completed in 1998. ... Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin discovered how to culture the tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (so called ... Right after he had discovered the bacillus, Koch had tried in vain to create a vaccine against it, however the injection of the ... Roux and Yersin established that they were dealing with a new type of bacillus, not only able to proliferate and abundantly ...
೯೬.೦ ೯೬.೧ Juhas, M; Reuß, DR; Zhu, B; Commichau, FM (November 2014). "Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes ...
Ovaj enzim je izolovan iz bakterija Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Escherichia coli i Bacillus subtilis. ... Bernard, R., El Ghachi, M., Mengin-Lecreulx, D., Chippaux, M. and Denizot, F. (2005). „BcrC from Bacillus subtilis acts as an ...
... as well as the bacteria Corynebacterium ammoniagenes and Bacillus subtilis.[38] The latter organism has been genetically ... or Bacillus subtilis compete with chemical riboflavin production". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 53 (5): 509-516. doi ...
Other active ingredients in fungicides include neem oil, rosemary oil, jojoba oil, the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and the ...
Bacillus anthracis, which causes Anthrax.. *Bacillus subtilis is considered an model organism. It is often used in genetic ... Bacillus cereus which is responsible for a form of food poisoning.. *Bacillus thuringensis which is used in pest control. It ... Bacilli are partly or wholly aerobic. They do aerobic respiration. They are everywhere in nature. Bacillus includes both free- ... Bacillus is a genus of rod shaped bacteria. They are Gram-positive, meaning they have an extra outside cell layer. ...
Bacillus subtilis-en lagin bat, zelula begetatiboak gorriz eta bakterioaren endoespora berdez ...
"Enhancement of Cellulase Activity from a New Strain of Bacillus subtilis by Medium Optimization and Analysis with Various ... "Recombinant expression and characterization of a novel endoglucanase from Bacillus subtilis in Escherichia coli". Molecular ... January 2008). "Purification and characterization of cellulase produced by Bacillus amyoliquefaciens DL-3 utilizing rice hull ...
Bacillus stearothermophilus bacterium chocolate [1] Bacillus subtilis bacterium chocolate [1] Bacillus subtilis bacterium soy ... Bacillus cereus bacterium chocolate [1] Bacillus coagulans bacterium chocolate [7] Bacillus licheniformis bacterium chocolate [ ...
"Assembly of Bacillus subtilis Phage Phi29. 1. Mutants in the Cistrons Coding for the Structural Proteins". European Journal of ... Bacillus phage phi29 (Φ29 phage) belongs to a family of related Bacteriophages which includes, in addition to Φ29, phages PZA, ... are the smallest Bacillus phages isolated to date and are among the smallest known dsDNA phages.[3] ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bacillus_phage_phi29&oldid=841433724" ...
Bacillus subtilis stained with Nile red as a membrane dye (shown in red). This strain grows partly as cell chains, so a ...
Bacillus. Foto mikroskopis Bacillus subtilis dengan pewarnaan Gram dan pembesaran 1.000x. Bentuk oval yang tidak terwarnai ... Bacillus adalah genus bakteri Gram-positif berbentuk batang yang anggota dari filum Firmicutes. Spesies Bacillus dapat bersifat ... Wikimedia Commons memiliki media mengenai Bacillus.. *Bacillus genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ... B. s. subsp. subtilis. B. taeanensis. B. tequilensis. B. thermantarcticus. B. thermoaerophilus. B. thermoamylovorans. B. ...
Lopez D, Vlamakis H, Kolter R (January 2009). "Generation of multiple cell types in Bacillus subtilis". FEMS Microbiol Rev. 33 ...
"The permeability of the wall fabric of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis". Journal of Bacteriology. 178 (3): 768-73. PMC ...
... the class Bacilli such as the Bacillus spp. (e.g. B. anthracis, a pathogen, and B. subtilis, biotechnologically useful), lactic ... Pasteuria is now assigned to phylum Bacilli, not to phylum Planctomycetes. *^ It has been proposed to call the clade ... Low-G+C species (later renamed Firmicutes[19]) (Clostridium, Peptococcus, Bacillus, Mycoplasma) ...
Sibula sibula bakteriostaatiline toime in vitro bakterite kliiniliste isolaatide Bacillus subtilis ja Escherichia coli[24] ...
e.g. Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, and others. (2) apical growth. e.g. Corynebacterium diphtheriae. ... "Life without a wall or division machine in Bacillus subtilis". Nature. 457 (7231): 849-53. Bibcode:2009Natur.457..849L. doi: ... Schematic diagram of cellular growth (elongation) and binary fission of bacilli. Blue and red lines indicate old and newly ...
... lactic acid and Bacillus subtilis improved yields in all substrates.[33] ...
Visualization of reinitiated chromosomes in Bacillus subtilis. J Mol Biol. Jul 28;68(3):501-9. ... circular bacteria chromosome replication is best understood in the well-studied bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis ... The first conclusive observations of bidirectional replication was from studies of B. subtilis.[11] Shortly after, the E. coli ...
Bacillus subtilis recently has been genetically modified to culture a proprietary formula to yield hyaluronans,[55] in a ...
Bacillus subtilis spores. 82 0.5 µm. Pseudomonas diminuta. 19146 0.45 µm. Serratia marcescens. 14756 ...
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sanguinis and in gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus.[20] ... The non-spore formers are Corynebacterium and Listeria (a coccobacillus), whereas Bacillus and Clostridium produce spores.[16] ... Two of these, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, are cocci (sphere-shaped). The remaining organisms are bacilli (rod-shaped) and ... Rod-shaped gram-positive Bacillus anthracis bacteria in a cerebrospinal fluid sample stand out from round white blood cells, ...
"DNA repair and the evolution of transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis". Genetics. 118 (1): 31-39. PMC 1203263. PMID ...
Dose K, Gill M (1995). "DNA stability and survival of Bacillus subtilis spores in extreme dryness". Orig Life Evol Biosph. 25 ( ... Upon exposure to extreme dryness, Bacillus subtilis endospores acquire DNA-double strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks.[6] ...
"The Roles of Mutation Accumulation and Selection in Loss of Sporulation in Experimental Populations of Bacillus subtilis". ... სპორულაციის შესაძლებლობის დაკარგვა Bacillus subtilis-ში ლაბორატორიული ევოლუციის დროს, როგორც ჩანს, გამოწვეულია უფრო მუტაციური ...
A ConA interacciona cos residuos superficiais de manosa de moitos microbios, como as bacterias E. coli,[25] e Bacillus subtilis ... "Interaction of concanavalin A with the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis". J Bacteriol 109 (2): 652-8. PMC 285189. PMID 4621684.. ...
Bacillus subtilis.. The reason for this is not clear because the raw juice is thought to be more concentrated than the other ... Bacillus subtilis. was not inhibited at all. The hot water extracts of onions did not inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi. ... Bacillus subtilis. but inhibited Salmonella typhi. at 0.8gml-1 while the cold-water extract of ginger inhibited both ... Bacillus subtilis. , the widest zones of inhibition was obtained with Salmonella typhi. followed by Escherichia coli.. These ...
Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... 2002) in Bacillus subtilis and Its Closest Relatives: From Genes to Cells, eds Sonenshein A L, Hoch J A, Losick R(Am. Soc. ... 2002) in Bacillus subtilis and Its Closest Relatives: From Genes to Cells, eds Sonenshein A L, Hoch J A, Losick R(Am. Soc. ...
Bacillus subtilis. Definition. Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, flagellated Gram-positive soil bacterium used as a model for ...
Bacillus subtilis is a naturally occurring bacteria. It is found on fruit trees and vegetable plants as well as on wild berry ... Bacillus subtilis when properly cultivated can save garden plants from destruction by disease. ... Bacillus subtilis when properly cultivated can save garden plants from destruction by disease. Bacillus subtilis is a naturally ... Bacillus subtilis is not harmful to most animals and is not a known carcinogen to humans. Caution should be used, however, as ...
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Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Setlow, P. (in press) in Bacillus subtilis and Its Closest Relatives: From Genes to Cells, eds. Sonenshein, A. L., Hoch, J. A ...
... and studied spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. B. pumilus spores were found in an air lock between ... Images of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores (seen in an electron micrograph) on aluminum before and after being exposed to space ... B. subtilis is a spore that has been studied in other space environment experiments. ... "Survival of Bacillus pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions." ...
Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in ... Bacillus subtilis genome browser Type strain of Bacillus subtilis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... and renamed Bacillus subtilis by Ferdinand Cohn in 1872 (subtilis being the Latin for "fine"). B. subtilis cells are typically ... "up-to-date information for all genes of Bacillus subtilis" Bacillus subtilis Final Risk Assessment on EPA.gov. Archived from ...
Bacillus subtilis Info. pancham panchamaqua at vsnl.com Thu Feb 13 09:31:25 EST 2003 *Previous message: Influence of ... Sirs, Im looking for some basic information on Bacillus subtilis. Specifcally the environmental conditions & nutrients ...
The gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis,forms biofilms on solid surfaces and at air-liquid interfaces, and biofilm ... Biofilm-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis.. Chagneau C1, Saier MH Jr. ... We demonstrate that biofilm formation by B. subtilis strain JH642 can be either activated or repressed by glucose, depending on ... subtilis. In addition, our study suggests roles for glutamate synthase, GltAB, and an aminopeptidase, AmpS. The loss of these ...
Signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis sporulation.. Strauch MA1, Hoch JA.. Author information. 1. Department of Molecular ... The initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by a signal transduction system leading to activation (by ...
Bacillus+subtilis+ribonuclease at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease (EC, Proteus mirabilis RNase, ribonucleate nucleotido-2-transferase (cyclizing)) is an ... Yamasaki M, Arima K (May 1967). "Regulation of intracellular ribonuclease of Bacillus subtilis by ATP and ADP". Biochimica et ... Yamasaki M, Arima K (October 1969). "Intracellular ribonuclease of Bacillus subtilis; specific inhibition by ATP and dATP". ...
Bacillus subtilis cells are able to sense self-produced autoinducers, which gives rise to stronger quorum-sensing-mediated ... Here, we explore the existence and impact of self-sensing in the Bacillus subtilis ComQXP and Rap-Phr quorum-sensing systems. ... Private link between signal and response in Bacillus subtilis quorum sensing. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 1586-1591 (2014). ... Bareia, T., Pollak, S. & Eldar, A. Self-sensing in Bacillus subtilis quorum-sensing systems. Nat Microbiol 3, 83-89 (2018). ...
Piggot PJ, Hilbert DW (2004) Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis. Curr Opin Microbiol 7:579-586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Bacillus Subtilis Motile Bacterium Microtiter Dish Genetic Circuitry SinR Activity These keywords were added by machine and not ... Predich M, Nair G, Smith I (1992)Bacillus subtilis early sporulation genes kinA,spo0F, and spo0A are transcribed by the RNA ... Serrano M, Zilhao R, Ricca E, Ozin AJ, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO (1999) A Bacillus subtilis secreted protein with a role in ...
Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: exoA, BSU40880. EC: ... we performed biochemical and structural characterization of Bacillus subtilis AP endonuclease ExoA and compared its crystal ... Bacillus subtilis AP endonuclease ExoA. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb5CFE/pdb. *Classification: HYDROLASE. *Organism(s): Bacillus subtilis ...
Bacillus subtilis ATCC ® 11774™ Designation: NCTC 8236 TypeStrain=False Application: Assay of dihydrostreptomycin sulfate, ... Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn (ATCC® 11774™) Strain Designations: NCTC 8236 / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 1 ...
Bacillus subtilis Domain: Prokaryote Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 30° C Package: Tube ... Biosafety Level: 1 Gram Stain: Gram-Positive Shape: Bacillus (rod-shaped) ... Bacillus subtilis, Living, Tube. Item # 154921 Bacillus subtilis, Living, Tube is rated 5.0 out of 5 by 1. ... Genus and Species: Bacillus subtilis. Domain: Prokaryote. Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 30° ...
Bacillus subtilis ATCC ® 19659™ Designation: PRD 66 TypeStrain=False Application: Efficacy testing Testing Testing ... Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn (ATCC® 19659™) Strain Designations: PRD 66 [IFO 13722] / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: ...
Bacillus subtilis Domain: Prokaryote Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 30° C Package: Plate ... Biosafety Level: 1 Gram Stain: Gram-Positive Shape: Bacillus (rod-shaped) ... Genus and Species: Bacillus subtilis. Domain: Prokaryote. Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar. Optimal Growth Temperature: 30 ...
Bacillus subtilis ATCC ® 19659™ Designation: PRD 66 TypeStrain=False Application: Efficacy testing Testing Testing ... Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn (ATCC® 19659-MINI-PACK™) Add to frozen 6 ready-to-use vials of ATCC® 19659™ in glycerol ... Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn (ATCC® 19659™) Click here to learn about our Enhanced Authentication Initiative .genome_ ...
An mRNA degradation complex in Bacillus subtilis. [Martin Lehnik-Habrink; Jörg Stülke; Kai Tittmann; Wilfried Kramer] ... An mRNA degradation complex in Bacillus subtilis. Author:. Martin Lehnik-Habrink; Jörg Stülke; Kai Tittmann; Wilfried Kramer ... An mRNA degradation complex in Bacillus subtilis/Martin Lehnik-Habrink; Jörg Stülke; Kai Tittmann; Wilfried Kramer; Go ... Add tags for "An mRNA degradation complex in Bacillus subtilis". Be the first. ...
Bacillus subtilis is a gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that is often found in the soil and on various plant materials ( ... More about Bacillus Subtilis Research Paper. *. Bacillus Research Paper. 1262 Words , 6 Pages ... Bacillus subtilis is a gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that is often found in the soil and on various plant materials ( ... Bacillus Research Paper. 1262 Words , 6 Pages. Various species of the genus bacillus have been isolated from the faeces of ...
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Relationship of Bacillus subtilis clades associated with strains 168 and W23: a proposal for Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis ... Bacillus vallismortis sp. nov., a close relative of Bacillus subtilis, isolated from soil in Death Valley, California. Int. J. ... Recombination and migration rates in natural populations of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus mojavensis. Evolution 49:1081-1094. ... Restriction-modification systems in Bacillus strains related to Bacillus subtilis. Genetika 19:33-38. [In Russian.]. ...
The process of sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis proceeds through a well-defined series of morphological stages ... Molecular genetics of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis Annu Rev Genet. 1996;30:297-41. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genet.30.1.297. ... The process of sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis proceeds through a well-defined series of morphological stages ...
Bacillus subtilis final risk assessment (1997, February). In Environmental Protection Agency Website. Retrieved March 26, 2008 ... Bacillus subtilis Genome Database (2006, January 18) In Genome Net Website. Retrieved April 14, 2008 ... Bacillus subtilis Genome Project In NIMH Genome Project Database. Retrieved March 26, 2008. ... Retrieved from "http://en.citizendium.org/wiki?title=Bacillus_subtilis/External_Links&oldid=100454707" ...
Bacillus subtilisas an important host has been widely used in synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and production of ... Keggins KM, Lovett PS, Duvall EJ (1978) Molecular cloning of genetically active fragments of Bacillus DNA in Bacillus subtilis ... Schumann W (2007) Production of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis. Adv Appl Microbiol 62:137-189CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Bacillus subtilis Microbial cell factory Phase-dependent promoter Synthetic biology Electronic supplementary material. The ...
The additive Calsporin® is a preparation of viable spores of Bacillus subtilis DSM 15544, at a minimum declared concentration ... Safety and efficacy of Calsporin® (Bacillus subtilis DSM 15544) for all poultry species. ...
Bacillus subtilis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: yfkJ, BSU07880. EC: ... Crystal structure of YfkJ from Bacillus subtilis. Cao, X.F., Su, X.D.. To be published. ...
Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus subtilis; antimicrobial; bacteriocin; subtilosin Document Type: Research Article ... Isolation of the Bacillus subtilis antimicrobial peptide subtilosin from the dairy product-derived Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ... a phylogenetically close relative of Bacillus subtilis. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of overnight cultures was active ... PCR analysis was conducted to determine relatedness to other bacteriocins produced by Bacillus spp. Conclusion: The ...
  • The formation of aerial structures was robust in natural isolates but not in laboratory strains, an indication that multicellularity has been lost during domestication of B. subtilis . (pnas.org)
  • We used M-CGH to examine the genome diversity of 17 strains belonging to the nonpathogenic species Bacillus subtilis . (asm.org)
  • We have begun to address these questions by examining diverse B. subtilis strains using sequence analysis of the conserved gyrA gene and comparative genomic hybridization, a microarray-based technique for whole-genome comparison. (asm.org)
  • To explore genome diversity in B. subtilis in more detail, we first collected several strains of the two subspecies, B. subtilis subsp. (asm.org)
  • We also examined two B. subtilis strains that are thought to be closely related to the sequenced strain Bsu168 (BS5 and the "wild" Marburg strain NCIB3610), as well as the type strain of Bacillus vallismortis (DV1-F-3), the closest known relative of B. subtilis ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • As expected, B. vallismortis DV1-F-3 is phylogenetically divergent from both E. coli K-12 and all B. subtilis strains. (asm.org)
  • Chloramphenicol (5 μ g/mL) was used for selection of Bacillus strains. (hindawi.com)
  • Site-specific deoxyribonucleases in Bacillus subtilis and other Bacillus strains. (atcc.org)
  • For vitamin B2 (riboflavin), GM Bacillus subtilis production strains have been developed and are often used. (europa.eu)
  • Our recombinant B. subtilis strains overexpress the two-step heterologous pathway containing glycerol dehydratase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae . (frontiersin.org)
  • With this relatively high titer in batch, and the robustness of B. subtilis in high density fermentation conditions, we expect that our production strains may constitute a solid basis for commercial production of 3-HP. (frontiersin.org)
  • The enzyme preparation derived from these various Bacillus strains is usually added directly to the food to be processed and then removed from the final product by filtration. (inchem.org)
  • The procedure has been used successfully for isolation of high- and low-copy-number plasmids from various Bacillus subtilis strains. (qiagen.com)
  • Approaches for Improving Protein Production in Multiple Protease-Deficient Bacillus subtilis Host Strains, Advances in Applied Biotechnology Marian Petre, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/30092. (intechopen.com)
  • Novel Bacillus subtilis mutant strains having good productivity of various enzymes are provided through extensive analysis of strains that are derived from Bacillus subtilis via gene disruption. (patents.com)
  • The Bacillus subtilis mutant strains according to the present invention have genomic structures prepared by deletion of regions listed in the columns for deficient regions. (patents.com)
  • Each of these Bacillus subtilis mutant strains exerts significantly improved secretory productivity of a protein when a gene encoding such a secretory target protein is introduced so that it can be expressed, compared with a case in which the same gene is introduced into a wild-type strain. (patents.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, flagellated Gram-positive soil bacterium used as a model for endospore formation and differentiation. (nature.com)
  • Spore formation by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has long been studied as a model for cellular differentiation, but predominantly as a single cell. (pnas.org)
  • One of the best-studied pathways of microbial development is the process of endospore formation by the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis . (pnas.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. subtilis is considered the best studied Gram-positive bacterium and a model organism to study bacterial chromosome replication and cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium, rod-shaped and catalase-positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of popularity as a laboratory model organism, B. subtilis is often considered as the Gram-positive equivalent of Escherichia coli, an extensively studied Gram-negative bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis,forms biofilms on solid surfaces and at air-liquid interfaces, and biofilm development is dependent on environmental conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Here we provide a detailed review of what is currently known about biofilm formation by the motile bacterium Bacillus subtilis . (springer.com)
  • Here we analyzed the genome structure and diversity of Bacillus subtilis , a nonpathogenic, spore-forming bacterium commonly found in soil. (asm.org)
  • The process of sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis proceeds through a well-defined series of morphological stages that involve the conversion of a growing cell into a two-cell-chamber sporangium within which a spore is produced. (nih.gov)
  • The first two aims ofthis proposal focus on how the model gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis regulates two functionallyredundant cell wall hydrolases and how it coordinates their activities with cell wall synthesis and envelopeexpansion. (usda.gov)
  • A confocal micrograph showing Bacillus subtilis, a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • For this purpose, the Gram-positive bacterium B. subtilis , a well-known 'cell factory' for secreted enzymes of high commercial value, was used as a model organism. (rug.nl)
  • Populations of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis form biofilms, but this behavior is bistable in that individual bacteria within the biofilm can express genes for motility or genes for biofilm formation but generally not both at the same time. (asm.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis is a model Gram-positive bacterium in which two-dimensional electrophoresis-based studies suggest that the Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation should be present on more than a hundred proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • A long tradition of fundamental research on Bacillus subtilis , a model Gram-positive bacterium, has contributed to deciphering complex physiological and regulatory phenomena such as sporulation, natural competence, and carbon catabolite regulation. (mcponline.org)
  • A cydABCD gene cluster, similar to that in B. subtilis, was identified in the closely related bacterium Enterococcus faecalis. (lu.se)
  • The cell cycle of the Gram-positive model bacterium B. subtilis is one of the most studied and best understood, though many facets of the process remain to be worked out. (europa.eu)
  • We introduced the aprE leader-lacZ mRNA into E. coli to compare mRNA stability determinants in this bacterium and B. subtilis. (lu.se)
  • The biotransformation of antcin K, a major ergostane triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea , by Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis ) ATCC 6633 was studied. (mdpi.com)
  • This alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis B1-109 (ATCC 39,701) containing plasmid pCPC 800 [amylase gene from B. megaterium (NCIB 11568)] and regulating sequences from alpha-amylase of B. stearothermophilus (see Appendix 2) has not been previously evaluated by the Committee. (inchem.org)
  • The experiment was called PROTECT (an acronym of Resistance of spacecraft isolates to outer space for planetary protection purposes) and studied spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. (universetoday.com)
  • Images of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores (seen in an electron micrograph) on aluminum before and after being exposed to space on an International Space Station experiment. (universetoday.com)
  • Survival of Rock-Colonizing Organisms After 1.5 Years in Outer Space " and " Survival of Bacillus pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions . (universetoday.com)
  • This is due to the fact that bacilli release spores that then contaminate the narcotics during production. (ipl.org)
  • B. subtilis does produce spores, however in order for them to be present in the surrounding air and environment, you have to be in an environment that contains a substantial amount of plants in which the laboratory is not. (ipl.org)
  • So there is a possibility that some B. subtilis spores were released into the air during the preparation of the column. (ipl.org)
  • The additive Calsporin ® is a preparation of viable spores of Bacillus subtilis DSM 15544, at a minimum declared concentration of 1 × 10 10 colony forming units (CFU)/g additive. (europa.eu)
  • The additive is a preparation containing viable spores of a strain of Bacillus subtilis . (europa.eu)
  • Levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) were also significantly increased following 10 days of Bacillus subtilis CU1 consumption at a dose of two billion spores per day. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 with high temperature. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation of the Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 combined with high temperature (HPCD+HT) and to analyze the clumping effect of the spores on their HPCD+HT resistance. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The spores of B. subtilis were subjected to heat at 0.1 MPa and HPCD at 6.5-25 MPa, and 82 °C, 86 °C, and 91 °C for 0-120 min. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Starving Bacillus subtilis cells execute a gene expression program resulting in the formation of stress-resistant spores. (rice.edu)
  • During the 42-day trial, 1600 Cobb 500 male broiler chicks were fed a control or treatment diet to which Bacillus subtilis spores were added at 1x10 8 CFU per kg. (pigprogress.net)
  • 1. Antisera, prepared against extracts of cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis , were used in immunoelectrophoretic studies of the changes occurring in cell extracts during the course of spore formation. (portlandpress.com)
  • To obtain an independent and possibly more reliable estimate of a minimal protein-encoding gene set for bacteria, we systematically inactivated Bacillus subtilis genes. (pnas.org)
  • B. subtilis was chosen because it is one of the best studied bacteria ( 7 ) and is a model for low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, which include both deadly pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis , and bacteria widely used in food and industry, such as lactococci and bacilli. (pnas.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis is a naturally occurring bacteria. (ehow.com)
  • Although motility is known to be required for biofilm formation in other bacteria, this had not previously been demonstrated for B. subtilis. (nih.gov)
  • Comella, N. & Grossman, A. D. Conservation of genes and processes controlled by the quorum response in bacteria: characterization of genes controlled by the quorum-sensing transcription factor ComA in Bacillus subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis is a gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that is often found in the soil and on various plant materials (Sietske de Boer and Diderichsen 1991). (ipl.org)
  • B. subtilis bacteria are seen as being non-pathogenic and safe toward human consumption, however, often times the bacteria are associated with another strain of microorganisms that have the ability to infect humans who have been exposed to immunosuppressive drugs (Sietske de Boer and Diderichsen 1991). (ipl.org)
  • However, drug abusers and individuals who suffer from weakened immune systems make up a small percentage of the population, which is why B. subtilis is seen as a non-pathogenic bacteria . (ipl.org)
  • B. subtilis is arguably one of the best known and most extensively studied gram-positive bacteria ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • B. subtilis is an aerobic bacteria but is able to grow in anaerobic conditions, and has an ideal temperature of growth at 30-39 degrees Celsius. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacillus subtilis ​ CU1 is a spore forming bacteria positioned for support immune health, particularly in people with weakened natural defenses like the elderly. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Despite of being less frequently used as probiotics in dogs, bacteria of the genus Bacillus have the advantage of sporulating, and thereby are more resistant to environmental stress and to acid pH (BIOURGE et al. (scielo.br)
  • FLA-BS, a ~32 kDa protein, is a flagellin isolated from the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis . (invivogen.com)
  • This thesis focuses on mechanisms of mRNA stability and degradation in Bacillus subtilis, the model of Gram-positive bacteria. (lu.se)
  • The Ag-TiO2 nanoparticle coatings that have been applied on glass and venetian blind surfaces were effective in generating a loss of viability of two bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) after two hours of illumination under normal light in the visible spectrum. (doaj.org)
  • Catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis: a global regulatory mechanism for the gram-positive bacteria? (psu.edu)
  • The increased number of well-defined Bacillus species described together with the physiological diversity that they will undoubtedly represent will present a formidable challenge to the taxonomist, but the outcome should be a fascinating insight into the evolutionary history of these bacteria and perhaps of endospore formation itself. (asmscience.org)
  • Our study shows that gene dosage should be taken into account when designing synthetic circuits in B. subtilis and presumably other bacteria. (uva.nl)
  • B. subtilis has proven highly amenable to genetic manipulation, and has become widely adopted as a model organism for laboratory studies, especially of sporulation, which is a simplified example of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. subtilis is a model organism used to study bacterial chromosome replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis is an organism capable of degrading an azo dye, such as p -aminoazobenzene (pAAB), under both aerobic and anoxic conditions. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Therefore, Bacillus subtilis is used as a model organism for study of acetoin synthesis. (hindawi.com)
  • A better understanding of B. subtilis physiology and translational regulation could impact on our ability to manipulate this organism to improve the yield of these and other potential commercial products. (europa.eu)
  • In this study, we have reevaluated the potential of B. subtilis as a host organism for the heterologous production of nisin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. (pnas.org)
  • Given that repeated passage of bacterial isolates in liquid culture can select for the loss of social behaviors ( 8 ), we decided to investigate pellicle formation by natural isolates of B. subtilis . (pnas.org)
  • An unknown bacterial species cultured from the Yogu Farm™ probiotic dairy beverage was identified through 16S ribosomal RNA analysis as B. amyloliquefaciens , a phylogenetically close relative of Bacillus subtilis . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • ComX is an AI peptide, mostly known for its role in the regulation of bacterial competence and surfactant production in Bacillus subtilis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Viable B. subtilis cells were identified and DNAs of two bacterial isolates (LHL and LGL) were subjected to three whole genome sequencing (WGS) runs with different devices (MiSeq, 454 or HiSeq system). (europa.eu)
  • The effect of Bacillus subtilis on bacterial species present within the gut of broilers was investigated at Southern Poultry Research, Inc (Athens, GA, USA) in collaboration with Dr Greg F. Mathis. (pigprogress.net)
  • Bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) alpha- amylase has been in common use to control the viscosity of chocolate syrup since 1929 and in the brewing industry since 1936. (inchem.org)
  • citation needed] This species is commonly found in the upper layers of the soil and B. subtilis is thought to be a normal gut commensal in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various species of the genus bacillus have been isolated from the faeces of animals. (ipl.org)
  • Bacillus species are important members of the rumen ecosystem as they assist in the nutrition of the host. (ipl.org)
  • Bacillus species are not commonly associated with leaves but are occasionally isolated from olive tree leaves (Ercolani, 1978). (ipl.org)
  • Bacillus species is considered the best producers of α-amylase that play essential roles in starch processing industry [15]. (scirp.org)
  • Amylases isolated from different Bacillus species have significantly different properties, such as the optimum pH and temperature as well as metal ion requirements [15]. (scirp.org)
  • To develop an efficient bio-immobilization approach for the remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil, a mutant species of Bacillus subtilis (B38) was obtained by ultraviolet irradiation and selection under high concentration of cadmium (Cd) in a previous study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Species from the genus Bacillus have the ability to form endospores, dormant cellular forms that are able to survive heat and acid preservation techniques commonly used in the food industry. (uva.nl)
  • 16S rRNA analyses have placed Thermoactinomyces species firmly alongside other thermophilic Bacillus species, and the sequences show very low homology with actinomycete rRNA sequences. (asmscience.org)
  • It is possible to allocate many Bacillus species to one of six taxa that have distinguishable physiologies and, perhaps surprisingly, are generally consistent with the division of the genus based on spore morphologies. (asmscience.org)
  • That Bacillus species constitute discrete genetic and phenetic entities raises interesting questions with regard to gene exchange and the evolution of the species. (asmscience.org)
  • As a member of the genus Bacillus, B. subtilis is rod-shaped, and can form a tough, protective endospore, allowing it to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other members of the genus Bacillus, it can form an endospore, to survive extreme environmental conditions of temperature and desiccation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic trees of some members of the genus Bacillus based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis are provided in the chapter. (asmscience.org)
  • The antimicrobial properties of various extracts of Allium cepa (onions) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis that are common cause of gastrointestinal tract infections were investigated using the cup-plate diffusion method. (ispub.com)
  • However, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were more sensitive to the extract of onion bulbs compared to Bacillus subtilis which was predominantly resistant. (ispub.com)
  • Comparison between the proteins involved in chromosomal DNA replication in B. subtilis and in Escherichia coli reveals similarities and differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify critical residues involved in the NIR function, we performed biochemical and structural characterization of Bacillus subtilis AP endonuclease ExoA and compared its crystal structure with the structures of other AP endonucleases: Escherichia coli exonuclease III (Xth), human APE1, and archaeal Mth212. (rcsb.org)
  • Liliwirianis N, Wan Zuraida Wan Mohd Zain, Jamaluddin Kassim, and Shaikh Abdul Karim, "Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts against Bacillus Subtilis , Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli," E-Journal of Chemistry , vol. 8, no. (hindawi.com)
  • New shuttle vectors for Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli which allow rapid detection of inserted fragments. (psu.edu)
  • The Bacillus subtilis araR locus (mapped at about 294 ° on the genetic map) comprises two open reading frames with divergently arranged promoters, the regulatory gene, araR, encoding a repressor, and a partially cloned gene, termed araE by analogy to the Escherichia coli L-arabinose permease gene. (psu.edu)
  • Like Escherichia coli SecG, the Bacillus subtilis homologue, YvaL, dramatically stimulated the ATP-dependent translocation of precursor PhoB (prePhoB) by the B. subtilis SecA-SecYE complex. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Its ability to secrete its own proteins into the medium allows it to …show more content… subtilis is found mainly in plant and soil rich environments, it seems interesting that our B. subtilis sample was collected from the air in the microbiology laboratory. (ipl.org)
  • In Bacillus subtilis stress proteins are induced in response to different environmental conditions such as heat shock, salt stress, glucose and oxygen limitation or oxidative stress. (nih.gov)
  • In this investigation the N-terminal sequences of 13 stress proteins of B. subtilis were determined. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies showed that several extracytoplasmic proteases set limits to the biotechnological use of B. subtilis , but it was not known to what extent these proteases degrade the bacterium's own proteins. (rug.nl)
  • In a recent issue of mBio , J. Kampf and colleagues (mBio 9:e01464-18, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01464-18 ) reported the use of a combination of genetics and microfluidics to reveal that the interplay that occurs between the SinR and YmdB proteins underlies the B. subtilis choice between biofilm formation and swimming motility. (asm.org)
  • We identified 103 unique phosphopeptides from 78 B. subtilis proteins and determined 78 phosphorylation sites: 54 on serine, 16 on threonine, and eight on tyrosine. (mcponline.org)
  • Previously, 70 proteins have been assigned to the spore coat of Bacillus subtilis using SDS-PAGE, 2-DE gel approaches, protein localization studies and genome-wide transcriptome studies. (uva.nl)
  • Using LC-MS/MS we identified 55 proteins from the insoluble B. subtilis spore coat protein fraction, of which 21 are putative novel spore coat proteins not assigned to the spore coat until now. (uva.nl)
  • Identification of spore coat proteins from a B. subtilis food-spoilage isolate corroborated a generic and "applied" use of our protocol. (uva.nl)
  • B. subtilis has about 4,100 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacon, S. K., Palmer, T. M. & Grossman, A. D. Characterization of comQ and comX , two genes required for production of ComX Pheromone in Bacillus subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, 1000 of which were previously identified and mapped by classical genetic crosses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To systematically determine the functional exchangeability of translocase subunits, all of the relevant combinations of the E. coli and B. subtilis secY, secE, and secG genes were expressed in E. coli. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We applied transcriptome and proteome analyses of B. subtilis and identified eight genes upregulated in the presence of nisin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We demonstrated that the overexpression of some of these genes boosts the natural defenses of B. subtilis , which allows it to sustain higher levels of nisin in the medium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We also attempted to overcome the nisin sensitivity of B. subtilis by introducing the nisin resistance genes nisFEG and nisI from L. lactis under the control of a synthetic promoter library. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacillus subtilis subsp. (rcsb.org)
  • subtilis and B. subtilis subsp. (asm.org)
  • KEGG Genome map - Bacillus subtilis subsp. (genome.jp)
  • med (Bacillus subtilis subsp. (nih.gov)
  • EXPLANATION Riboflavin derived by a fermentation process with genetically modified Bacillus subtilis has not been previously evaluated by the Committee. (inchem.org)
  • The initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by a signal transduction system leading to activation (by phosphorylation) of the Spo0A transcription factor. (nih.gov)
  • Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is an important model system for cell cycle studies. (europa.eu)
  • Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. (portlandpress.com)
  • In the MBD project, I studied the role of translation regulation on the gene expression regulation of the factors involved in the process of spore formation in a Bacillus subtilis. (europa.eu)
  • The SpoIIIE protein of Bacillus subtilis is required for chromosome segregation during spore formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Results indicate that ComX indeed induces the expression of aprE , the gene for the major serine protease subtilisin, and stimulates overall exoprotease production in biofilms of B. subtilis PS-216 and several other B. subtilis soil isolates. (frontiersin.org)
  • They used a microfluidic platform to observe the switching patterns of individual cells based on reporter gene expression profiles over time and, with the addition of genetic analyses, gained insight into the relationship of YmdB and SinR and into their contributions to B. subtilis decision making. (asm.org)
  • Gene clusters coding for ESX systems have been identified amongst many organisms including the highly tractable model system, Bacillus subtilis. (harvard.edu)
  • Plasmid pSR1 contains the B. subtilis spoVG ribosome binding site and the E. coli lacZ gene in the same orientation as the araE region sequences and pSR2 in the opposit. (psu.edu)
  • Brings together world experts and their research on the architecture, biochemical pathways, genetic organization, and gene regulation of Bacillus subtillis. (asmscience.org)
  • Here, we investigate how genome location and gene orientation influences expression in Bacillus subtilis. (uva.nl)
  • We found that there is a strong gene dosage effect in fast growing B. subtilis cells, which can amount to a 5-fold difference in gene expression. (uva.nl)
  • The global Bacillus Subtilis market was 49 million US$ in 2018 and is expected to 95 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 8.7% between 2019 and 2025. (sbwire.com)
  • The report covers various segments of the Asia pacific bacillus subtilis market report 2018 market, to give complete assessment of the market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Market values for these segments are evaluated and presented in a comprehensive way to allow readers understand various aspects of the Asia pacific bacillus subtilis market report 2018 market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The cumulative development of these segments is expected to boost the global Asia pacific bacillus subtilis market report 2018 market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • As this market is sensitive towards government policies and regulations, regional government rules are covered to help the players in the Asia pacific bacillus subtilis market report 2018 market to grow their share. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Competitive landscape of the Asia pacific bacillus subtilis market report 2018 market is included to give the readers a brief idea about opportunities and pitfalls present for them in this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Furthermore, various trends that may affect growth of the Asia pacific bacillus subtilis market report 2018 market are included. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • While a great deal is known about B. subtilis at the molecular level, relatively little is known about its ecology and evolution. (asm.org)
  • These attractive properties, and the exceptionally well-developed methods to investigate the molecular cell biology of B. subtilis, make sporulation an extremely powerful experimental system. (europa.eu)
  • Magnuson, R., Solomon, J. & Grossman, A. D. Biochemical and genetic characterization of a competence pheromone from B. subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Enhanced Recombinant Protein Productivity by Genome Reduction in Bacillus subtilis," DNA Research 15:73-81, Oxford Univ. (patents.com)
  • Translocation of B. subtilis prePhoB, on the other hand, showed a strict dependence on the translocase subunit composition and occurred efficiently only with the homologous translocase. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • B. subtilis and E. coli cultures were grown in Luria Bertani (Hi Media Laboratories Pvt. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, a cleavage in the aprE leader mRNA that was observed in E. coli was not present in B. subtilis. (lu.se)
  • This cleavage is performed by RNase G, an endonuclease homologous to the N-terminal domain of RNase E. Our findings are consistent with the fact that B. subtilis and E. coli have different arsenals of mRNA-degrading enzymes. (lu.se)
  • on at 37°C. B. subtilis and E. coli DNA transformations were performed as previously described (23). (psu.edu)
  • E. coli SecA, but not B. subtilis SecA, supported efficient ATP-dependent translocation of the E. coli precursor OmpA (proOmpA) into inner membrane vesicles containing the hybrid SecYEG complexes, if E. coli SecY and either E. coli SecE or E. coli SecG were present. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In contrast to E. coli SecA, B. subtilis SecA binds the SecYEG complexes only with low affinity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • B. subtilis chromosome is cingular and circular. (kenyon.edu)
  • Genetic and physical maps of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. When Bacillus subtilis was grown in a medium in which sporulation occurred well-defined morphological changes were seen in thin sections of the cells. (biochemj.org)
  • An analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three loci ( rpoB , polC , and gyrA ) showed that there was considerable diversity in a collection of B. subtilis isolates obtained from desert soils ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • How different are genomes of B. subtilis isolates? (asm.org)
  • citation needed] Under stressful conditions, such as nutrient deprivation, B. subtilis undergoes the process of sporulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the potential of Bacillus subtilis as a microbial platform for bioconversion of glycerol into 3-HP. (frontiersin.org)
  • This work brings novel information on regulation of exoproteases in B. subtilis floating biofilms and reveals that these proteolytic enzymes degrade the AI signaling peptide ComX, which is also a major determinant of their expression in biofilms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fitness trade-offs in competence differentiation of Bacillus subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Biofilm-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate that biofilm formation by B. subtilis strain JH642 can be either activated or repressed by glucose, depending on the growth medium used, and that these glucose effects are at least in part mediated by the catabolite control protein, CcpA. (nih.gov)
  • Branda SS, Chu F, Kearns DB, Losick R, Kolter R (2006) A major protein component of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix. (springer.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis has the capacity to choose between two mutually exclusive lifestyles: biofilm formation and flagellum-mediated swimming motility. (asm.org)
  • These bistable B. subtilis cells are programmed to form a biofilm or to swim and thereby typify a behavior known as "bet hedging" ( 2 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • 4 ) explored the mechanisms underlying B. subtilis bet hedging with respect to biofilm formation versus flagellum-mediated swimming motility. (asm.org)
  • The present work began with an investigation of the ability of B. subtilis to form biofilms, i.e., surface-associated communities. (pnas.org)
  • Their report suggests that B. subtilis experiences selective pressure to form biofilms while maintaining reserve cell subpopulations with the capacity to swim away. (asm.org)
  • Unexpectedly, several proteases also attack components of the protein secretion machinery of B. subtilis , and this explains at least in part why multiple protease mutant cells have a generally improved capacity for protein secretion. (rug.nl)
  • New basic understanding of B. subtilis will inform and enhance our ability to predict the physiology and regulatory processes of many pathogens. (europa.eu)
  • In this report, the Asia-Pacific Bacillus Subtilis market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • B. subtilis cells are typically rod-shaped, and are about 4-10 micrometers (μm) long and 0.25-1.0 μm in diameter, with a cell volume of about 4.6 fL at stationary phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. subtilis can divide symmetrically to make two daughter cells (binary fission), or asymmetrically, producing a single endospore that can remain viable for decades and is resistant to unfavourable environmental conditions such as drought, salinity, extreme pH, radiation, and solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though, contrary to eukaryotic cells, B. subtilis PHB domain does not contribute to lipid binding. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Incorporation of the Whole Chromosomal DNA in Protoplast Lysates into Competent Cells of Bascillus subtilis," Biosci. (patents.com)
  • To purify and characterize an antimicrobial protein (bacteriocin) isolated from the dairy product-derived Bacillus amyloliquefaciens . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The antimicrobial protein isolated from B. amyloliquefaciens was shown to be subtilosin, a bacteriocin previously reported as produced only by B. subtilis . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Piazza, F., Tortosa, P. & Dubnau, D. Mutational analysis and membrane topology of ComP, a quorum-sensing histidine kinase of Bacillus subtilis controlling competence development. (nature.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis was also grown in Tris base medium (TSS) [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Aerobically grown Bacillus subtilis synthesize three terminal oxidases: one cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome caa3 and two quinol oxidases, cytochrome aa3 and cytochrome bd. (lu.se)
  • "Our study provides evidence that ​B. subtilis CU1 supplementation during the winter period may be a safe effective way to stimulate immune responses in elderly subjects," ​they concluded. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis (C-3102) improves fecal texture and odor in dogs. (scielo.br)
  • Fermentation-produced riboflavin is prepared by the controlled, submerged growth of a selected strain of B. subtilis that has been genetically modified to produce riboflavin. (inchem.org)
  • Third, B. subtilis and close relatives are important industrial organisms, responsible for the commercial production of secreted industrial enzymes, particularly various hydrolases (proteases, amylases, etc), and some small high value molecules (e.g. riboflavin). (europa.eu)
  • from A. L. Sonenshein and the Bacillus Genetic Stock Center (BGSC), Ohio State Univ. (pnas.org)
  • Bacillus Genetic Stock Center. (hindawi.com)
  • Safety and efficacy of Bacillus subtilis D. (europa.eu)
  • Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of Bacillus subtilis DSM 28343 when used in feed for pigs for fattening. (europa.eu)
  • The classification of Bacillus Subtilis includes?100 Billion CFU/g, 100-300 Billion CFU/g and ?300 Billion CFU/g. (sbwire.com)
  • The quantification of the mRNA and the analysis of the protein synthesis pattern support the initial hypothesis that the chaperones DnaK and GroEL are Hsps in B. subtilis. (nih.gov)
  • Average mRNA half-lives in B. subtilis are around 5 minutes. (lu.se)
  • Först transkriberas en gen till en molekyl kallad mRNA (budbärar-RNA, eng. (lu.se)
  • Jag har studerat mekanismer för mRNA-nedbrytning i den ofarliga jordbakterien Bacillus subtilis. (lu.se)
  • Rapoport G: Two different mechanisms mediate catabolite repression of the Bacillus subtilis levanase operon - Martin-Verstraete, Stülke, et al. (psu.edu)