Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Capitalism: A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Picolinic AcidsBacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Hydroxyphenylazouracil: Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.PeptidoglycanKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.ThymineLipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.UracilAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Diatrizoate: A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.TritiumAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Polyglutamic Acid: A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.NitrosoguanidinesMuramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Glycoside HydrolasesGram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Aspartate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.

Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (1/8455)

A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (2/8455)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (3/8455)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

In vivo and in vitro processing of the Bacillus subtilis transcript coding for glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyltransferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (4/8455)

In Bacillus subtilis, the adjacent genes gltX, cysE, and cysS encoding respectively glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyl-transferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, are transcribed as an operon but a gltX probe reveals only the presence of a monocistronic gltX mRNA (Gagnon et al., 1994, J Biol Chem 269:7473-7482). The transcript of the gltX-cysE intergenic region contains putative alternative secondary structures forming a p-independent terminator or an antiterminator, and a conserved sequence (T-box) found in the leader of most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and many amino acid biosynthesis genes in B. subtilis and in other Gram-positive eubacteria. The transcription of these genes is initiated 45 nt upstream from the first codon of gltX and is under the control of a sigmaA-type promoter. Analysis of the in vivo transcript of this operon revealed a cleavage site immediately downstream from the p-independent terminator structure. In vitro transcription analysis, using RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, B. subtilis, and that encoded by the T7 phage, in the presence of various RNase inhibitors, shows the same cleavage. This processing generates mRNAs whose 5'-end half-lives differ by a factor of 2 in rich medium, and leaves putative secondary structures at the 3' end of the gltX transcript and at the 5' end of the cysE/S mRNA, which may be involved in the stabilization of these mRNAs. By its mechanism and its position, this cleavage differs from that of the other known transcripts encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in B. subtilis.  (+info)

Structural basis of multidrug recognition by BmrR, a transcription activator of a multidrug transporter. (5/8455)

Multidrug-efflux transporters demonstrate an unusual ability to recognize multiple structurally dissimilar toxins. A comparable ability to bind diverse hydrophobic cationic drugs is characteristic of the Bacillus subtilis transcription regulator BmrR, which upon drug binding activates expression of the multidrug transporter Bmr. Crystal structures of the multidrug-binding domain of BmrR (2.7 A resolution) and of its complex with the drug tetraphenylphosphonium (2.8 A resolution) revealed a drug-induced unfolding and relocation of an alpha helix, which exposes an internal drug-binding pocket. Tetraphenylphosphonium binding is mediated by stacking and van der Waals contacts with multiple hydrophobic residues of the pocket and by an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged drug and a buried glutamate residue, which is the key to cation selectivity. Similar binding principles may be used by other multidrug-binding proteins.  (+info)

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (6/8455)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. (7/8455)

The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi was unexpectedly found to be as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself. The susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as that of B. burgdorferi, to diacetyl chloramphenicol were then assayed in different media. All three species were susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol when growth media were supplemented with rabbit serum or, to a lesser extent, human serum. Susceptibility of E. coli and B. subtilis to diacetyl chloramphenicol was not observed in the absence of serum, when horse serum was used, or when the rabbit or human serum was heated first. In the presence of 10% rabbit serum, a strain of E. coli bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had a fourfold-lower resistance to chloramphenicol than in the absence of serum. A plate bioassay for chloramphenicol activity showed the conversion by rabbit, mouse, and human sera but not bacterial cell extracts or heated serum of diacetyl chloramphenicol to an inhibitory compound. Deacetylation of acetyl chloramphenicol by serum components was demonstrated by using fluorescent substrates and thin-layer chromatography. These studies indicate that esterases of serum can convert diacetyl chloramphenicol back to an active antibiotic, and thus, in vitro findings may not accurately reflect the level of chloramphenicol resistance by cat-bearing bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

Transient gene asymmetry during sporulation and establishment of cell specificity in Bacillus subtilis. (8/8455)

Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is initiated by an asymmetric division generating two cells of different size and fate. During a short interval, the smaller forespore harbors only 30% of the chromosome until the remaining part is translocated across the septum. We demonstrate that moving the gene for sigmaF, the forespore-specific transcription factor, in the trapped region of the chromosome is sufficient to produce spores in the absence of the essential activators SpoIIAA and SpoIIE. We propose that transient genetic asymmetry is the device that releases SpoIIE phosphatase activity in the forespore and establishes cell specificity.  (+info)

*Bacillus subtilis

... Final Risk Assessment on EPA.gov Bacillus subtilis genome browser Type strain of Bacillus subtilis at BacDive ... Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in ... and renamed Bacillus subtilis by Ferdinand Cohn in 1872 (subtilis being the Latin for 'fine'). B. subtilis cells are typically ... Media related to Bacillus subtilis at Wikimedia Commons SubtiWiki "up-to-date information for all genes of Bacillus subtilis" ...

*Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease

... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease (EC 3.1.27.2, Proteus mirabilis RNase, ribonucleate nucleotido-2'-transferase (cyclizing)) is an ... Yamasaki, M.; Arima, K. (1967). "Regulation of intracellular ribonuclease of Bacillus subtilis by ATP and ADP". Biochim. ... Yamasaki, M.; Arima, K. (1969). "Intracellular ribonuclease of Bacillus subtilis; specific inhibition by ATP and dATP". Biochem ...

*Bacillus subtilis BSR sRNAs

In a screen of the Bacillus subtilis genome for genes encoding ncRNAs, Saito et al. focused on 123 intergenic regions (IGRs) ... "Novel small RNA-encoding genes in the intergenic regions of Bacillus subtilis". Gene. 428 (1-2): 2-8. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ... subtilis, indicating that their own promoters independently express small RNAs. Under non-stressed condition, depletion of the ...

*Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

Institut Pasteur SubtilisWiki Bacillus subtilis - Parts Registry Video - Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis Biology portal. ... Bacillus Sporophyte Bacillus subtilis Stephens, Craig (1998). "Bacterial sporulation: A question of commitment?". Current ... Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that is naturally found in soil and vegetation, and is known for its ... "Mathematical Modelling of the Sporulation-Initiation Network in Bacillus Subtilis Revealing the Dual Role of the Putative ...

*Soil steam sterilization

Bacillus subtilis, etc.). Different types of such steam application are also available in practice, including substrate ...

*Polyhydroxyalkanoates

Recombinant Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1 and Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1AB were used in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates ... "Bioconversion of fish solid waste into PHB using Bacillus subtilis based submerged fermentation process". Environmental ... "Bacillus and biopolymer: Prospects and challenges". Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports. 12: 206-13. doi:10.1016/j.bbrep. ...

*Minimal genome

Essential Bacillus subtilis genes., in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 4678-4683 (April 15, 2003) Kowalski, Heather. "First Self- ... subtilis, where the data comes from Genome News Network The organisms listed in this table have been systematically tested for ...

*Sexual polarity

Šrogl, M. (5 March 1965). "Intraspecific transformation in Bacillus subtilis". Folia Microbiologica. 11 (1): 39-42. Retrieved 6 ...

*Glycine oxidase

Job, V.; Marcone, G.L.; Pilone, M.S.; Pollegioni, L. (2002). "Glycine oxidase from Bacillus subtilis. Characterization of a new ... Nishiya, Y.; Imanaka, T. (1998). "Purification and characterization of a novel glycine oxidase from Bacillus subtilis". FEBS ...

*Bacillus phage phi29

"Assembly of Bacillus subtilis Phage Phi29. 1. Mutants in the Cistrons Coding for the Structural Proteins". European Journal of ... Bacillus phage phi29 (Φ29 phage) belongs to a family of related Bacteriophages which includes, in addition to Φ29, phages PZA, ... Φ15, BS32, B103, M2Y (M2), Nf and GA-1. These phages, which form part of the Podoviridae family, are the smallest Bacillus ...

*Origin and function of meiosis

For instance, transformation occurs near the end of logarithmic growth, when amino acids become limiting in Bacillus subtilis, ... Anagnostopoulos C, Spizizen J (May 1961). "Requirements for Transformation in Bacillus Subtilis". Journal of Bacteriology. 81 ( ...

*Swarming motility

Kearns, Daniel B.; Losick, Richard (2004). "Swarming motility in undomesticated Bacillus subtilis". Molecular Microbiology. 49 ... "Branched swarming patterns on a synthetic medium formed by wild-type Bacillus subtilis strain 3610: detection of different ... "Single-cell analysis in situ in a Bacillus subtilis swarming community identifies distinct spatially separated subpopulations ... Bacillus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Vibrio and Escherichia. This multicellular behavior has been mostly observed in ...

*Heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase

Takahashi I, Ogura K, Seto S (1980). "Heptaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Bacillus subtilis". J. Biol. Chem. 255 (10): ...

*Bacterial growth

Anagnostopoulos C, Spizizen J (1961). "REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS". J. Bacteriol. 81 (5): 741-6. PMC ... as in Bacillus subtilis and in other bacteria. Natural genetic transformation is a form of DNA transfer that appears to be an ...

*Transformation (genetics)

Competence development in Bacillus subtilis requires expression of about 40 genes. The DNA integrated into the host chromosome ... Saito Y, Taguchi H, Akamatsu T (April 2006). "DNA taken into Bacillus subtilis competent cells by lysed-protoplast ... Anagnostopoulos C, Spizizen J (May 1961). "REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS". Journal of Bacteriology. 81 ( ... Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sanguinis and in Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. It has also been ...

*Long-term experiment

Bacillus subtilis). The experiment comprises two oak wooden boxes containing duplicate samples, to be kept at the University of ...

*Prephenate dehydrogenase

"Prephenate Dehydrogenase - TyrA - Bacillus Subtilis (strain 168)."Prephenate Dehydrogenase - TyrA - Bacillus Subtilis (strain ...

*Arabinan endo-1,5-alpha-L-arabinosidase

Kaji, A.; Saheki, T. (1975). "Endo-arabinanase from Bacillus subtilis F-11". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 410: 354-360. doi:10.1016/ ... Purification and partial characterization of a wall-degrading endo-arabinase and an arabinosidase from Bacillus subtilis". ... from Bacillus subtilis". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 241: 41-48. doi:10.1016/j.femsle.2004.10.003. PMID 15556708. Arabinan endo-1,5- ...

*DnaD

In Bacillus subtilis, genetic analysis has revealed three primosomal proteins, DnaB, DnaD, and DnaI, that have no obvious ... DnaD alone and the DnaD/DnaB complex then interact with PriA of Bacillus subtilis at several DNA sites. This suggests that the ... Ishigo-oka, D.; Ogasawara, N.; Moriya, S. (2001). "DnaD Protein of Bacillus subtilis Interacts with DnaA, the Initiator Protein ... Marsin, S.; McGovern, S.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Bruand, C.; Polard, P. (2001). "Early Steps of Bacillus subtilis Primosome Assembly ...

*Heteroscorpine

HS-1 also has antimicrobial effects on some bacterial species, i.e. Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas ...

*Toxin-antitoxin system

subscription required) Silvaggi JM, Perkins JB, Losick R (October 2005). "Small Untranslated RNA Antitoxin in Bacillus subtilis ...

*Enterobactin

"Bacillibactin-Mediated Iron Transport in Bacillus Subtilis". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (1): 22-23. doi:10.1021/ja055898c. PMID ...

*Rsa RNA

... in Macrococcus caseolyticus and Bacillus. In Bacillus subtilis, RsaE had previously been identified as ncr22. RsaE is also ... RsaE was shown to be regulated by the presence of nitric oxide (NO). In Bacillus subtilis it controls expression of genes with ... Irnov I, Sharma CM, Vogel J, Winkler WC (June 2010). "Identification of regulatory RNAs in Bacillus subtilis". Nucleic Acids ... Langbein I, Bachem S, Stülke J (November 1999). "Specific interaction of the RNA-binding domain of the bacillus subtilis ...

*TxpA-RatA toxin-antitoxin system

The TxpA/RatA toxin-antitoxin system was first identified in Bacillus subtilis. It consists of a non-coding 222nt sRNA called ... "RNA expression analysis using an antisense Bacillus subtilis genome array". J. Bacteriol. 183 (24): 7371-80. doi:10.1128/JB. ... "Small untranslated RNA antitoxin in Bacillus subtilis". J. Bacteriol. 187 (19): 6641-50. doi:10.1128/JB.187.19.6641-6650.2005. ... subtilis genome, in a 728-nucleotide region between genes yqdB (later renamed TxpA) and yqbM. Initially, Affymetrix microarrays ...

*Alanine dehydrogenase

"Enzymic properties of alanine dehydrogenase of Bacillus subtilis". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 96: 248-62. doi:10.1016/0926- ...

*Halobacterium salinarum

... show the definite archaeal nature of this halophile with additional similarities to the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and ...
Other. Table of Content:. Chapter One Global Bacillus Subtilis Market Overview. 1.1Global Bacillus Subtilis Market Sales Volume Revenue and Price 2012-2022. 1.2 Bacillus Subtilis, by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.1 Global Bacillus Subtilis Sales Market Share by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.2 Global Bacillus Subtilis Revenue Market Share by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.3 Global Bacillus Subtilis Price by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.4 100 Billion CFU/g. 1.2.5 100-300 Billion CFU/g. 1.2.6 300 Billion CFU/g. Make an Enquiry @ http://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=enquiry&repid=1256588. About Market Research Hub:. Market Research Hub (MRH) is a next-generation reseller of Research Reports and analysis. MRHs expansive collection of pharmaceutical market research reports has been carefully curated to help key personnel and decision makers across industry verticals to clearly visualize their operating environment and take strategic steps.. MRH functions as an integrated platform for the ...
0141] FIGS. 5A to 5E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 1. FIGS. 6A to 6E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans as well as Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 3. FIG. 7 is a bar chart showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis when treated with micelles formed from Example 2. Example 2 does not show a strong inhibition effect towards bacterial growth, having a MIC of higher than 66.4 micromole/L against Bacillus subtilis (FIG. 7). This is attributed to the polymer with the longest hydrophobic block precipitating ...
Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC ® 6633D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii strain NRS 231 TypeStrain=False Application: Food testing
A characteristic feature of biofilm formation is the production of a protective extracellular polymeric matrix. In the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the biofilm matrix is synthesized by the products of the epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO operon (hereafter called the eps operon) and yqxM-sipW-tasA loci. Transcription from these operons is repressed by two key regulators, AbrB and SinR. Relief of inhibition is necessary to allow biofilm formation to proceed. Here we present data indicating that Abh, a sequence and structural homologue of AbrB, regulates biofilm architecture by B. subtilis when colony morphology and pellicle formation are assessed. Data indicating that abh expression is dependent on the environmental signals that stimulate the activity of the extracytoplasmic function sigma-factor sigma(X) are shown. We demonstrate that expression of slrR, the proposed activator of yqxM transcription, is positively controlled by Abh. Furthermore, Abh is shown to activate transcription from the ...
Source: Bacillus subtilis: A Healthy Probiotic Strain by Dr. Edward Group Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that is found in soil and the gut of humans and some types of animals. Also known as Bacillus uniflagellatus, Bacillus globigii, and Bacillus natto, Bacillus subtilis is commonly included in probiotic supplement formulations. Its a useful and beneficial probiotic that supports digestion, enzyme production, and helps…
Summary The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is well-known for its contributions to agricultural, medical, and food biotechnology and for the production of recombinant proteins. At present, about 60% of the commercially available technical enzymes are produced by Bacillus species. Furthermore, a large body of information concerning transcription, translation, protein folding and secretion mechanisms, genetic manipulation, and large-scale fermentation has been acquired. But so far, efficient and inexpensive expression vectors for B. subtilis are still missing. To fill this gap, a glycine-inducible expression system and a lysine-autoinducible one were explored and IPTG-inducible expression plasmids that allow overexpression and purification of proteins were constructed and analyzed. Furthermore, a technique with a useful promoter-probe plasmid to analyze strong promoters in B. subtilis was established, which allowed to study promoter and mRNA stabilizing elements to enhance the transcript ...
Spores of foodborne pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus are widely distributed in nature. Presence of those spores in food products, particularly C. botulinum spores in vacuum packed, ready-to-eat low-acid products, is a great safety concern. The research here described is a first effort towards understanding the role of the spore coat proteins in the inactivation of bacterial spore using high pressure processing. This study proposes a coat protein solubilization methodology using non-ionic detergents minimizing protein damage and compatible with spectroscopy methods. The methodology developed here was compared with approaches proposed in the literature with respect to protein yield, protein fractions identified, amino acid composition and suitability with spectroscopy techniques for the further analysis of coat proteins. Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 spore coat proteins were solubilized (n=3) using octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP) at room ...
Bacillus subtilis uses two-component signal transduction systems to sense intra- and extracellular stimuli to adapt to fluctuating environmental situations. Regulator aspartate phosphatases (Raps) have important roles in these processes, as they can dephosphorylate certain response-regulators, and are themselves subject to cell-density-controlled inhibition by secreted Phr (phosphate regulator) peptides. Eleven chromosomal genes encode this family of phosphatases, but in addition, certain strains contain endogenous plasmids with genes for homologous Rap-Phr systems. Plasmid pTA1060 encodes Rap60 and its antagonistic signalling molecule Phr60. Strikingly, expression of Rap60 in B. subtilis 168 strongly repressed the production of proteolytic enzymes. In fact, the transcription of the aprE gene, encoding a major extracellular protease, was shown to be decreased upon Rap60 expression, whereas this effect could be antagonized by the extracellular addition of synthetic Phr60 pentapeptide. Finally,
Seair Exim Provides details of Bacillus subtilis HS Code along With description and shipment records for Bacillus subtilis import and export.
Of 130 strains classified as Bacillus subtilis, 60 fermented lactose and utilized gluconate slowly. High deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness values of 70 to 100% to the type strain (NRRL B-14393) of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens indicated these organisms to be strains of that species. The 70 remaining strains did not ferment lactose, utilized gluconate strongly, and were highly related genetically to the type strain (NRRL NRS-744) of B. subtilis. Lactose fermentation was observed in a standard medium containing 2% lactose instead of the usual 0.5%. Low deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness values of 25 to 37% established that neither group was related to B. pumilus, B. coagulans, B. firmus, or B. licheniformis. The results indicated that lactose fermentation and gluconate utilization are characteristics that can differentiate between B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens.
Bacillus subtilis can secrete active substances, activate plant defense systems, enhance crop immunity and disease resistance, and reduce or eliminate the harm of pathogenic bacteria to plants. It can also promote the growth and development of a variety of plant seeds, seedlings, roots, and enhance the disease resistance of plants, thereby indirectly reducing the occurrence of diseases. For example, Bacillus subtilis increase the formation of auxin (IAA, IBA), stimulates crop roots development, and enhances photosynthesis. At the same time, it converts materials that are difficult to absorb in the soil into materials that are easily absorbed by crops, promotes the absorption and utilization of nutrients by crops, and improves the utilization rate of fertilizers. ...
The previously identified spoIIS locus encodes a toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis. It comprises two genes, spoIISA encoding a toxin and spoIISB encoding an antitoxin, which lies adjacent to each other on the chromosome. Each of the spoIIS coding sequences is preceded by a promoter region and the two genes together constitute an operon. The function of SpoIISA is unknown, although it has been shown that the absence of SpoIISB or loss of its function leads to a block in sporulation at stage II. The cytoplasmic membrane has been proposed as the target of the SpoIISA toxin. Heterologously expressed SpoIISA-SpoIISB was shown to be functional in Escherichia coli, where again the cytoplasmic membrane was the most probable target for SpoIISA toxicity. Here we analyzed the effects of SpoIISA production during vegetative growth of B. subtilis and during sporulation by following the levels of SpoIISA. SpoIISA levels increase at the point of entry into stationary phase of cell cultures grown in
Cytochromes of c-type contain covalently bound haem and in bacteria are located on the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic membrane. More than eight different gene products have been identified as being specifically required for the synthesis of cytochromes c in Gram-negative bacteria. Corresponding genes are not found in the genome sequences of Gram-positive bacteria. Using two random mutagenesis approaches, we have searched for cytochrome c biogenesis genes in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Three genes, resB, resC and ccdA, were identified. CcdA has been found previously and is required for a late step in cytochrome c synthesis and also plays a role in spore synthesis. No function has previously been assigned for ResB and ResC but these predicted membrane proteins show sequence similarity to proteins required for cytochrome c synthesis in chloroplasts. Attempts to inactivate resB and resC in B. subtilis have indicated that these genes are essential for growth. We demonstrate ...
A biofilm is a complex community of cells enveloped in a self-produced polymeric matrix. Entry into a biofilm is exquisitely controlled at the level of transcription and in the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis it requires the concerted efforts of three major transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to transcriptional control, B. subtilis utilizes post-translational modifications to control biofilm formation; specifically through phosphorylation of tyrosine residues. Through our work we have assigned novel roles during biofilm formation to two proteins; the protein tyrosine kinase PtkA and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpZ. Furthermore by introducing amino acid point mutations within the catalytic domains of PtkA and PtpZ we have identified that the kinase and phosphatase activities, respectively, are essential for function. PtkA contains a conserved C-terminal tyrosine cluster that is the site of autophosphorylation; however, our in vivo analysis demonstrates that ...
Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006655) was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere and characterized for potato plant growth promoting potential. The strain utilized both Ca-phosphate and Na-phytate in vitro and produced 6.48 μg mL-1 indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium. P-solubilization after 240 h was 66.4 μg mL-1 alongwith the production of 19.3 μg mL-1 gluconic acid and 5.3 μg mL-1 malic acid. The extracellular phytase activity was higher (4.3 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein) than the cell-associated phytase activity (1.6 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein). B. subtilis strain KPS-11 utilized 40 carbon sources and showed resistance against 20 chemicals in GENIII micro-plate system demonstrating its metabolic
On July 17, 2009 the U.S. Food & Drug Adminsitration (FDA) in association withLuv N Care, LTD issued an urgent, nationwide recall of various gel filled baby/infant teeters after the FDA discovered that some lots of the Nuby, Cottontails and Playschool Teethers contained Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans.. The Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans bacteria generally do not cause illness in healthy babies, however if a baby has a weakened immune system the results of ingesting wither forms of the Bacillus bacteria could lead to serious health problems.. If your child or somebody you know has gotten sick after ingesting any of the contaminated teether liquid, you should speak with a qualified medical professional immediately. You should then contact us for a free confidential case review, as you may be entitled to compensation for your childs injuries. ...
Inactivation kinetics for Bacillus subtilis endospores for (△) pure argon, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen i
Biodegradable plastics can be made from polylactate, which is a polymer made from lactic acid. This compound can be produced from renewable resources as substrates using microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a GRAS microorganism (g enerally r egarded a s s afe) by the FDA. B. subtilis produces and secretes different kind of enzymes, such as proteases, cellulases, xylanases and amylases to utilize carbon sources more complex than the monosaccharides present in the environment. Thus, B. subtilis could be potentially used to hydrolyze carbohydrate polymers contained in lignocellulosic biomass to produce chemical commodities. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic fraction of agroindustrial wastes produces cellobiose and a lower amount of glucose. Under aerobic conditions, B. subtilis grows using cellobiose as substrate. In this study, we proved that under non-aerated conditions, B. subtilis ferments cellobiose to produce L-lactate with 82% of the theoretical yield,
article{b934b2b3-a5c6-4edc-b815-40c3fe1ef9c9, abstract = {Bacteria use a number of mechanisms for coping with the toxic effects exerted by nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives. Here we show that the flavohemoglobin encoded by the hmp gene has a vital role in an adaptive response to protect the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis from nitrosative stress. We further show that nitrosative stress induced by the nitrosonium cation donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) leads to deactivation of the transcriptional repressor NsrR, resulting in derepression of hmp. Nitrosative stress induces the sigma B-controlled general stress regulon. However, a sigB null mutant did not show increased sensitivity to SNP, suggesting that the sigma B-dependent stress proteins are involved in a nonspecific protection against stress whereas the Hmp flavohemoglobin plays a central role in detoxification. Mutations in the yjbIH operon, which encodes a truncated hemoglobin (YjbI) and a predicted 34-kDa cytosolic protein of unknown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of σ(B) levels and activity in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Benson, A. K.. AU - Haldenwang, W. G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The sigB operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes σ(B) plus three additional proteins (RsbV, RsbW, and RsbX) that regulate σ(B) activity. Using an anti- σ(B) monoclonal antibody to monitor the levels of σ(B) protein, P(SPAC) to control the expression of the sigB operon, and a ctc-lacZ reporter system to monitor σ(B) activity, we observed that the rsbV and rsbW products control σ(B) activity at the ctc promoter independently of their effects on σ(B) levels. In contrast, RsbX was found to have no effect on expression of ctc when the sigB operon was controlled by P(SPAC). The data are consistent with RsbV and RsbW being regulators of σ(B) activity and RsbX acting primarily as a negative regulator of sigB operon expression. Evidence that stationary- phase induction of the σ(B)-dependent ctc promoter is accomplished by a reduction in ...
Abstract: Bacillus subtilis has long been a model bacterium for understanding biological mechanisms, such as fatty acid catabolism and polyketide biosynthesis. Our interest in the latter was centered on the polyketide synthase (PKS) mechanism responsible for ß-branching polyketides. The unique structural moiety is attributed to a HMG-CoA synthase homolog, such as the pksG gene in B. subtilis. The first goal was a metagenomic survey of local soils, using the conserved pksG homolog sequence as a genetic marker. After optimizing techniques for the extraction and purification of environmental DNA, the ß-branching polyketide population was not detected in any local soil samples. While working with a pksG homolog, an apparent sequence anomaly prompted us to verify the taxonomic classification of B. subtilis research strains ATCC 39374 and 39320. Comparison of DNA sequences (pksG homologs, hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA and rDNA) and species-specific genes showed the two ATCC strains are more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence that a single monomer of Spx can productively interact with RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Lin, Ann A.. AU - Zuber, Peter. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Spx activates transcription initiation in Bacillus subtilis by directly interacting with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase(RNAP) holoenzyme- subunit, which generates a complex that recognizes the promoter regions of genes within the Spxregulon. Many Gram-positive species possess multiple paralogs of Spx, suggesting that two paralogous forms of Spx could simultaneouslycontact RNAP. The composition of Spx/RNAP was examined in vitro using an Spx variant (SpxδCHA) bearing a 12-amino-acid deletion of the C terminus (SpxδC) and a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag and Spxc-Myc, a full-length Spx with aC-terminal myelocytomatosis oncoprotein (c-Myc) epitope tag. All Spx/RNAP complexes bearing deletion or C-terminal-taggedvariants were transcriptionally active in vivo and in vitro. Reaction mixtures ...
Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, 1000 of which were previously identified and mapped by classical genetic crosses. Comparison of these experimentally determined positions to th
Bacillus subtilis comC protein: Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader peptide processing enzyme; has prepilin peptidase (EC 3.4.23.43) as well as N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-) activities; amino acid sequence given in first source; may be a component of the DNA-processing apparatus of competent cells; cleaves pre-comGC; homologous to pilD protein; member of protease/transmethylase family; isolated from Bacillus subtilis; Do not confuse with comC, a peptide competence factor
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B. AU - Joshi, Sanket. AU - Bharucha, Chirag. AU - Desai, Anjana J.. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 °C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil ...
Bacillus subtilis spoVK protein: from Bacillus subtilis; MW 36 kDa; expressed only in mother cell from sequentially active promoters; amino acid sequence given in first source
Structure of a Bacillus subtilis endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene.: The nucleotide sequence of the portion of a Bacillus subtilis (strain PAP115) 3 kb Pst I fragmen
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Bacillus subtilis ATCC ® 87098™ Designation: pK19mobsacB plamid in E. coli SCS110 TypeStrain=False Application: Integrating vector Mobilizable vector Produces protein levansucrase Vector containing primer sites useful for sequencing Vector permitting visual detection of recombinants
The Bacillus subtilis σ W regulon is induced by different stresses that most probably affect integrity of the cell envelope. The activity of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor σ W is modulated by the transmembrane anti-sigma factor RsiW, which undergoes stress-induced degradation in a process known as regulated intramembrane proteolysis, finally resulting in the release of σ W and the transcription of σ W-controlled genes. Mutations in the ecsA gene, which encodes an ATP binding cassette (ABC) of an ABC transporter of unknown function, block site-2 proteolysis of RsiW by the intramembrane cleaving protease RasP (YluC). In addition, degradation of the cell division protein FtsL, which represents a second RasP substrate, is blocked in an ecsA-negative strain. The defect in σ W induction of an ecsA-knockout strain could be partly suppressed by overproducing RasP. A B. subtilis rasP-knockout strain displayed the same pleiotropic phenotype as an ecsA knockout, namely defects in processing
1FSP: High-resolution NMR structure and backbone dynamics of the Bacillus subtilis response regulator, Spo0F: implications for phosphorylation and molecular recognition.
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are required in the synthesis of the cell wall of bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, PBPs play important roles in the life cycle, including both vegetative growth and sporulation, and contribute to the formation of the different structures of vegetative cell wall and spore cortex. The B. subtilis genome sequencing project revealed there were two uncharacterized genes, ykuA and yrrR, with extensive sequence similarity to class B PBPs. These two genes are renamed and referred to henceforth as pbpH and pbpI, respectively. A sequence alignment of the predicted product of pbpH against the microbial protein database demonstrated that the most similar protein in B. subtilis is PBP2A and in E. coli is PBP2. This suggested that PbpH belongs to a group of the genes required for maintaining the rod shape of the cell. Study of a pbpH-lacZ fusion showed that pbpH was expressed weakly during vegetative growth and the expression reached the highest level at the transition from ...
Intracellular serine protease-1 (ISP-1) from Bacillus subtilis had been previously purified to homogeneity. The purified protease (Mr = 31,000) had undergone processing to remove 17 to 20 amino-terminal amino acid residues. Then observations and a number of other studies led to the proposal that ISP-1 is synthesized in B. subtilis cells as an inactive precursor, which may undergo activation by amino-terminal processing. To examine these questions, monospecific polyclonal antibodies against ISP-1 were raised. A variety of procedures for extracting ISP-1 from cells under conditions that prevent proteolysis in vitro were evaluated by immunobloting and ISP-1 activity assays. ISP-1 was found to be always produced in a form (Mr = 34,000) that was larger than the purified form. This larger form was readily converted to the smaller form in vitro in crude extracts at pH 8.5 in the presence of Ca$\sp{2+}$ ions. It was also found that the appearance of ISP-1 activity and immunologically cross-reactive ...
A fixed gene copy number is important for the in silico construction of engineered synthetic networks. However, the copy number of integrated genes depends on their genomic location. This gene dosage effect is rarely addressed in synthetic biology. Two studies in Escherichia colipresented conflicting data on the impact of gene dosage. Here, we investigate how genome location and gene orientation influences expression in Bacillus subtilis. An important difference with the E. coli studies is that we used an unbiased genome integration approach mediated by random transposon insertion. We found that there is a strong gene dosage effect in fast growing B. subtilis cells, which can amount to a 5-fold difference in gene expression. In contrast, gene orientation with respect to DNA replication direction does not influence gene expression. Our study shows that gene dosage should be taken into account when designing synthetic circuits in B. subtilis and presumably other bacteria.. ...
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are
Acid and base environmental stress respones were investigated in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis AG174 cultures in buffered potassium-modified Luria broth were switched from pH 8.5 to pH 6.0 and recovered growth rapidly, whereas cultures switched from pH 6.0 to pH 8.5 showed a long lag time. Log-phase cultures at pH 6.0 survived 60 to 100% at pH 4.5, whereas cells grown at pH 7.0 survived |5%. Thus, growth in a moderate acid or base induced adaptation to a more extreme acid or base, respectively. Expression indices from Affymetrix chip hybridization were obtained for 4.095 protein-encoding open reading frames of B. subtilis grown at external pH 6, pH 7, and pH 9. Growth at pH 6 upregulated acetoin production (alsDS), dehydrogenases (adhA, ald, fdhD, and gabD), and decarboxylases (psd and speA). Acide upregulated malate metabolism (maeN), metal export (czcDO and cadA), oxidative stress (catalase katA; OYE family namA), and the SigX extracytoplasmic stress regulon. Growth at pH 9 upregulated arginine
article{15a70f88-5605-4029-8620-57102abad8ae, abstract = {Little is known about c-type cytochromosomes in Gram-positive bacteria in contrast to the wealth of information available on this type of cytochrome in Gram-negative bacteria and in eucaryotes. In the present work, the strictly aerobic bacterium Bacillus subtilis was analyzed for subcellular localization and number of different cytochromes c. In vivo labeling with radioactive 5-aminolevulinic acid, a precursor to heme, showed that the proteins containing covalently bound heme are predominantly found in the membranes fraction. One major membrane-bound cytochrome c of about 15 kDa and with an .alpha.-band absorption peak in the reduced state at 550 nm was analyzed in more detail. Cytochrome c-550 has the properties of an integral membrane protein. The physiological function of this relatively high redox potential cytochrome is not known. Its structural gene, cccA, was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in B. subtilis. The gene maps ...
Robust colony formation by Bacillus subtilis is recognized as one of the sessile, multicellular lifestyles of this bacterium. Numerous pathways and genes are responsible for the architecturally complex colony structure development. Cells in the biofilm colony secrete extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and protein components (TasA and the hydrophobin BslA) that hold them together and provide a protective hydrophobic shield. Cells also secrete surfactin with antimicrobial as well as surface tension reducing properties that aid cells to colonize the solid surface. Depending on the environmental conditions, these secreted components of the colony biofilm can also promote the flagellum-independent surface spreading of B. subtilis, called sliding. In this study, we emphasize the influence of Ca2+ in the medium on colony expansion of B. subtilis. Interestingly, the availability of Ca2+ has no major impact on the induction of complex colony morphology. However, in the absence of this divalent ion, peripheral
Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has become widely accepted as a model organism for studies on Gram-positive bacteria. A deeper insight into the physiology of this prokaryote requires advanced studies of its metabolism. To provide a reliable basis for metabolome investigations, a validated experimental protocol is needed since the quality of the analytical sample and the final data are strongly affected by the sampling steps. To ensure that the sample analyzed precisely reflects the biological condition of interest, outside biases have to be avoided during sample preparation. Procedures for sampling, quenching, extraction of metabolites, cell disruption, as well as metabolite leakage were tested and optimized for B. subtilis. In particular the energy status of the bacterial cell, characterized by the adenylate energy charge, was used to evaluate sampling accuracy. Moreover, the results of the present study demonstrate that the cultivation medium can affect the efficiency of the developed sampling
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p | 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p | 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p | 0.05) malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium
PRINCETON, N.J. (Nov. 26, 2019)-Arm & Hammer Animal and Food Production announces the discovery of two new beneficial Bacillus strains, Bacillus subtilis 839 and Bacillus subtilis 4976. The new strains will be incorporated into ARM & HAMMER™ Targeted Microbial Solutions™ available in CERTILLUS™ products for poultry, swine and cattle producers.. Both new strains have antimicrobial activity against harmful bacteria that are prevalent within the livestock and poultry industries. Bacillus subtilis 839 is effective against diverse E. coli species in both ruminants and poultry. Bacillus subtilis 4976 offers activity against E. coli, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens and other clostridial bacteria that are common in poultry, swine, and beef and dairy cattle.. "Commercial development of these strains is integral to helping our customers address pathogenic disease and food safety threats," says Dr. Xandra Smith, ARM & HAMMER manager of microbial ecology and genetics. "Through our commitment to ...
1. When Bacillus subtilis was grown in a medium in which sporulation occurred well-defined morphological changes were seen in thin sections of the cells. 2. Over a period of 7·5hr. beginning 2hr. after the initiation of sporulation the following major stages were observed: axial nuclear-filament formation, spore-septum formation, release of the fore-spore within the cell, development of the cortex around the fore-spore, the laying down of the spore coat and the completion of the corrugated spore coat before release of the spore from the mother cell. 3. The appearance of refractile bodies and 2,6-dipicolinic acid and the development of heat-resistance began between 5 and 6·5hr. after initiation of sporulation. 4. The appearance of 2,6-dipicolinic acid and the onset of refractility appeared to coincide with a diminution of electron density in the spore core and cortex. 5. Heat-resistance was associated with the terminal stage, the completion of the spore coat. 6. The spore coat was composed of ...
A considerable amount of Mn2+-stimulated DNAase (deoxyribonuclease) activity is released by Bacillus subtilis 168 during sporulation in a glucose-deficient medium; much smaller amounts are released during starvation for phosphate or nitrogen. Protein synthesis is required. Two forms of evidence are presented that production of the DNAase is associated with events late in stage II of sporulation. 19 Thymidine starvation, which inhibits the biochemical events associated with sporulation, also inhibits release of the DNAase. 2. Several asporogenous mutants blocked at stage II or earlier and unable to produce alkaline phosphatase (a stage-II event) do not produce the enzyme. Mutants blocked towards the end of stage II or later produce both enzymes. During sporulation of the wild-type strain, the DNAase appears about 1 h after alkaline phosphatase. The results suggest that production of the DNAase is controlled by a still-undiscovered stage-II genetic locus. ...
Wilking, J. N. ; Zaburdaev, V. ; De Volder, M. ; Losick, R. ; Brenner, M. P. ; Weitz, D. A. Liquid transport facilitated by channels in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2013, 110, 848-852.
Glycine Oxidase H244K, Bacillus subtilis recombinant protein, Glycine oxidase, glycine oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating), GO validated in (PBV11404r-250), Abgent
3-hydroxypropanoic acid (3-HP) is an important biomass-derivable platform chemical that can be converted into a number of industrially relevant compounds. There have been several attempts to produce 3-HP from renewable sources in cell factories, focusing mainly on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant progress made in this field, commercially exploitable large-scale production of 3-HP in microbial strains has still not been achieved. In this study we investigated the potential of Bacillus subtilis as a microbial platform for bioconversion of glycerol into 3-HP. Our recombinant B. subtilis strains overexpress the two-step heterologous pathway containing glycerol dehydratase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae. Genetic engineering, driven by in silico optimization, and optimization of cultivation conditions resulted in a 3-HP titer of 10 g/L, in a standard batch cultivation. Our findings provide the first report of successful introduction
DnaA protein (a trans-acting element) and its binding sequence, DnaA-box: (a cis-acting element) are two elements essential for the initiation of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria. Recently these two elements have been found to be conserved in three Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Mycoplasma capricolum) as well as in Gram-negative pseudomonads. DnaA protein was also found to be essential in the initiation of the replication of the B. subtilis chromosome, and regions containing multiple repeats of DnaA-box (DnaA-box region) are found to be active as autonomously replicating elements both in B. subtilis and pseudomonads. In this MicroReview we compare first the structures of these DnaA-box regions and their locations on the chromosome and then functional aspects of DnaA protein and DnaA-box regions in the initiation and regulation of chromosomal replication. From these observations we propose evolutionary relationships between ...
Growth under conditions of salt stress has important effects on the synthesis of degradative enzymes in Bacillus subtilis. Salt stress strongly stimulates the expression of sacB, encoding levansucrase (about ninefold), and downregulates the expression of aprE, encoding alkaline protease (about sixfold). It is suggested that the DegS-DegU two-component system is involved in sensing salt stress. Moreover, it has been shown that the level of sacB expression strongly depends on the growth conditions; its expression level is about eightfold higher in cells grown on agar plates than in cells grown in liquid medium. ...
Attributes soil organism spore former heat resistant Produces amylase protase subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) - fibrinolytic activity 1 gamma-polyglutamic acid (PGA) - calcium absorption 1, acts as dietary fibre to reduce cholesterol 1 bacteriocin Uses Digestive health Natural fungicide for edible plants 3 Anti-fungal activity 3 Anti-bacterial activity 3 Traditional Foods fermented with bacillus subtilis Natto…
Bidnenko, V., Shi, L., Kobir, A., Ventroux, M., Pigeonneau, N., Henry, C., Trubuil, A., Noirot-Gros, M.-F. and Mijakovic, I. (2013), Bacillus subtilis serine/threonine protein kinase YabT is involved in spore development via phosphorylation of a bacterial recombinase. Molecular Microbiology, 88: 921-935. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12233 ...
The procedure has been used successfully for isolation of high- and low-copy-number plasmids from various Bacillus subtilis strains. Yield of plasmid DNA was typically 10-20 µg plasmid DNA from 100 ml culture ...
Delobbe A, Chalumeau H, Gay P (1975) Existence of two alternative pathways for fructose and sorbitol metabolism in Bacillus subtilis Marburg. Eur J Biochem 51:503-10.[PMID:168069 ...
In this paper in Molecular Microbiology, we describe our results that show that SpoIIQ and SpoIIIAH form a complex in C. difficile. This complex is essential for forespore engulfment and, surprisingly, also seems to be required for late stages of spore morphogenesis and gene expression control. This work highlights key differences between C. difficile and the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, paving the way to a better understanding of sporulation mechanisms in C. difficile.
Endospore formation in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis initiates in response to nutrient depletion and involves a series of morphological changes that result in the creation of a dormant spore. Early in this developmental process, the cell undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces the larger mother cell and smaller forespore, the latter destined to become the mature spore. The mother cell septal membrane then engulfs the forespore, at which time an essential channel, the so-called feeding-tube apparatus, is thought to cross both membranes to create a direct conduit between the cells ...
The goal of this research was to isolate and identify the thermostable alkaline protease producing bacteria among several native Iranian microorganisms. At the end of screening program, a Bacillus subtilis BP-36 strain producing thermophilic alkaline protease was isolated from a hot spring in Ardebil province. The target enzyme was purified using a one-step Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) protocol involving 22% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG)-10,000, and 18% (w/w) citrate with a yield of 39.7%, specific activity of 2600 U/mg and purification factor of 4.8. It was shown to have a molecular weight of 40 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified thermophile enzyme was stable in alkaline pH range (9.0-11.0) with the optimum pH of 9.0. It was highly stable at 60 °C and retained 100% activity even after 90 minutes, suggesting that it belong to the family of thermophilous. Collectively, our obtained data revealed that the thermophilic protease produced by B.
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
Bacillus subtilis TnrA is a global regulator that responds to the availability of nitrogen sources and both activates and represses many genes during nitrogen-limited growth. In order to obtain a holistic view of the gene regulation depending on TnrA, we performed a genome-wide screening for TnrA-re …
The CssRS two-component system responds to heat and secretion stresses in Bacillus subtilis by controlling expression of HtrA and HtrB chaperone-type proteases and positively autoregulating its own expression. Here we report on the features of the CssS extracellular loop domain that are involved in signal perception and on CssS subcellular localization. Individual regions of the CssS extracellular loop domain contribute differently to signal perception and activation. The conserved hydrophilic 26-amino-acid segment juxtaposed to transmembrane helix 1 is involved in the switch between the deactivated and activated states, while the conserved 19-amino-acid hydrophobic segment juxtaposed to transmembrane 2 is required for signal perception and/or transduction. Perturbing the size of the extracellular loop domain increases CssS kinase activity and makes it unresponsive to secretion stress. CssS is localized primarily at the septum but is also found in a punctate pattern with lower intensity ...
This paper reviews the results from hybrid quantum/classical molecular dynamics simulations of the hydride transfer reaction catalysed by wild-type (WT) and mutant Escherichia coli and WT Bacillus subtilis dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Nuclear quantum effects such as zero point energy and hydrogen tunnelling are significant in these reactions and substantially decrease the free energy barrier. The donor-acceptor distance decreases to ca 2.7 Å at transition-state configurations to enable the hydride transfer. A network of coupled motions representing conformational changes along the collective reaction coordinate facilitates the hydride transfer reaction by decreasing the donor-acceptor distance and providing a favourable geometric and electrostatic environment. Recent single-molecule experiments confirm that at least some of these thermally averaged equilibrium conformational changes occur on the millisecond time-scale of the hydride transfer. Distal mutations can lead to non-local structural ...
枯草桿菌 ( Bacillus subtilis )F29-3 能產生一種抗絲狀真菌的抗生素--fengymy- cin (fengycin) 。 本論文是利用轉位子 (transposon)Tn917, 作為快速選殖fengy- mycin合成基因的工具。 首先, 將帶有Tn917 的質體pTV1以原生質體轉形法送入枯草桿菌F29-3 中。並以紅黴 素誘使Tn917 發生轉位作用。篩選得十株不產生fengymycin的突變株。再將帶有pBR3 22-Tn917融合的線狀質體pTV20 轉形到已除去pTV1的四株突變株中, 並發生同源置換 重組作用 (homologously replacemental recombination),而將抗氯黴素基因及pBR3 22的DNA 序列由pTV20 置換到突變株的Tn917 中。篩選抗氯黴素的轉形株。 將轉形株 FEX11, FEX31, FEX51, 及FEX71 的染色體分別以ECORI(或SphI) 切割, 這 些片段再自身圈接 (self-ligation), 並轉形到 E. coli HB101中, 篩選抗安黴素 ( 或抗安黴素加氯黴素) 的 E. coli HB101菌株。經DNA 雜交試驗 (DNA hybridizati- on ), 證實, 送入 E. coli ...
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The regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is a fundamental process in prokaryotes. Among the different kind of mechanisms modulating gene transcription, the one based on DNA binding transcription factors, is the most extensively studied and the results, for a great number of model organisms, have been compiled making it possible the in silico construction of their corresponding transcriptional regulatory networks and the analysis of the biological relationships of the components of these intricate networks, that allows to elucidate the significant aspects of their organization and evolution. We present a thorough review of each regulatory element that constitutes the transcriptional regulatory network of Bacillus subtilis. For facilitating the discussion, we organized the network in topological modules. Our study highlight the importance of σ factors, some of them acting as master regulators which characterize modules by inter- or intra-connecting them and play a key role in the
Dajkovic, A, Tesson B, Chauhan S, Courtin P, Keary R, Flores P, Marliere C, Filipe SR, Chapot-Chartier M-P, Carballido-Lopez R. 2017. Hydrolysis of Peptidoglycan is Modulated by Amidation of meso-Diaminopimelic Acid and Mg2+ in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol. 104:972-988 ...
It is a fascinating phenomenon that in genetically identical bacteria populations of Bacillus subtilis, a distinct DNA uptake phenotype called the competence phenotype may emerge in 10-20% of the population. Many aspects of the phenomenon are believed to be due to the variable expression of critical genes: a stochastic occurrence termed
BioAssay record AID 772019 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis NRRL B-543 after 24 hrs by agar diffusion method.
Histochemical studies and electron microscopy of Bacillus subtilis revealed the presence of ATPase in various subcellular fractions. The enzyme was preferentially localized in mesosomes, cytoplasmic membrane, periplasmic space, and cell wall ...
Random Tn917 mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis followed by selection of lipoic acid auxotrophs led to the isolation of the cysH gene. The gene was sequenced and found to encode a phosphoadenylylsulfate sulfotransferase with a molecular mass of 27 kDa. Expression of lacZ fused to the cysH promoter was repressed by cysteine and sulfide and induced by sulfur limitation, indicating that cysH is controlled at the level of transcription. ...
BioAssay record AID 626597 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 by microtiter broth dilution method.
TY - GEN. T1 - Analysis of a trimeric complex involving chorismate synthase from Bacillus subtilis. AU - Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.. AU - Amrhein, Nikolaus. AU - Macheroux, Peter. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 749. EP - 752. BT - Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium. PB - Rudolf Weber. CY - Berlin. ER - ...
Lindi von Mutius co-authored the article "Binding of the Bacillus Subtilis LexA protein to the SOS operator" in the Oxford Journal of Nucleic Acids Research in 2005 ...
Two hundred fifty-five pigs, weaned at 4 wk of age, were used in an experiment to compare the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and antibiotics as growth promoters for swine from nursery to finishing. Treatments were a ...
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[119 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2017-2022 China Bacillus Subtilis Market Report (Status and Outlook) report by LP Information INC. ...
Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to changes in their environment or in their intracellular state. Each two-component system consists of a sensor protein-histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the prototypical two-component pathway, the sensor HK phosphorylates its own conserved His residue in response to a signal(s) in the environment. Subsequently, the phosphoryl group of HK is transferred onto a specific Asp residue on the RR. The activated RR can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Two-component pathways thus often enable cells to sense and respond to stimuli by inducing changes in transcription ...
The present investigation was aimed at the synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzoxazole, a series of Schiffs bases 1-[α-(arylidine hydrazino) acetyl]-2-mercaptobenzoxazole 2MB-2a-e and 2-[(aryl)-3-(acetyl amino)-1, 3-thiazolidine-4-ones]-2-mercaptobenzoxazole 2MB-3a have been synthesized from 2-mercaptobenzoxazole and compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by agar diffusion method. The structures of the all synthesized compounds have been determined by their IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. All the compounds have showed moderate to promising antibacterial and antifungal activities, against Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Streptomyces griseus (MTCC 1540) and Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (MTCC 443) and for antifungal activity against Ashbya gossypii (MTCC 358) and Aspergillus niger (MTCC 282).. [PDF] , ...
1) Kunst F, et al. (1997) The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis.. Nature 390(6657):249-56 PubMed: 9384377 ...
In the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the checkpoint protein DisA (DNA integrity scanning protein A) scans the bacterial chromosome at the onset of sporulation; it localizes at sites of DNA damage to temporarily block sporulation and allow the bacterium to repair the damage before proceeding. Witte et al. performed structural analysis of Thermotoga maritima DisA and determined that it formed an octameric complex; intriguingly, they found bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) bound to the purified complex. When nucleotide-deprived DisA was crystallized in the presence of Mg2+-ATPγS, the crystals were again bound to c-di-AMP, indicating that DisA could act as a diadenylate cyclase. c-di-GMP is known to act as a signaling molecule in bacteria; however, fluorescence anisotropy titration analysis revealed that the binding affinity of fluorescently labeled ATP for both T. maritima and B. subtilis DisA was about 20 times greater than that of fluorescently labeled GTP. ...
Bacillus subtilis is a non-pathogenic soil bacterium and the prevalent model organism for all low GC Gram-positive bacteria. When B. subtilis cells are starved, they initiate a developmental program that culminates in the formation of highly resistant endospores (also referred to as spores). Endospore formation (sporulation) constitutes a relatively simple developmental system in which the generation of distinct cell types can be investigated experimentally. In previous work in the laboratory of Prof. Richard Losick at Harvard University, we have used a variety of genomics techniques to identify most, if not all, of the genes that are specifically turned on during the process of sporulation in B. subtilis. However, the function of many of these newly-identified genes remains undetermined.. 1. B. subtilis spore coat composition and assembly during sporulation. In my laboratory, our characterization of newly-identified sporulation genes focuses on genes involved in the formation of the outermost ...
Our research seeks to elucidate the molecular basis for the temporal and spatial control of cell division. From bacteria to yeast to humans, cell division is initiated by the formation of a ring of a cytoskeletal protein at the nascent division site. This ring establishes the location of the division septum and serves as a framework for assembly of the division apparatus. In bacteria this ring is composed of the essential tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ. In response to an unidentified cell cycle signal, FtsZ polymerizes into a ring structure that serves as a framework on which the division machinery is assembled. As division proceeds, the FtsZ ring constricts, like a drawstring, at the leading edge of the invaginating septum. We focus our research on the regulatory networks that govern FtsZ ring formation in three model organisms, the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, and the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. To date, the signals that couple FtsZ ring formation and constriction to the cell cycle ...
The soil organism Bacillus subtilis has the ability to take up DNA from its environment and, provided there is homology, recombine it into its genome. This process is called transformation. In order for the bacterium to be transformed it must be in a specific physiological state called competence. During the competent state specific proteins are synthesized which are required for the binding and transport of the DNA molecule into the competent cell. It has been found that as transformability increases many competence specific proteins localize to the poles of the rod shaped Bacillus subtilis bacterium and as transformability declines the competence proteins delocalize. These proteins colocalize and interact and seem to form a complex that helps internalize the DNA molecule, preferentially at the poles of the cell. Jeanette Hahn s focus is understanding how the polar localization and delocalization of the competence proteins occurs. Localization seems to occur via a diffusion and capture ...
Bacilli are an extremely diverse group of bacteria that include both the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) as well as several species that synthesize important antibiotics. In addition to medical uses bacillus ,spores, due to their extreme tolerance to both heat and disinfectants, are used to test heat sterilization techniques and chemical disinfectants. Bacilli are also used in the detergent manufacturing industry for their ability to synthesize important enzymes.The sequence for the genome of Bacillus subtilis was completed in 1997 and was the first published sequence for a single-living bacterium. The genome is 4.2 Mega-base pairs long with with 4100 protein-coding regions. Bacillus subtilis has a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium shown to synthesize antifungal peptides. This ability has lead to the use of B. subtilis in biocontrol. B. subtilis has been shown to increase crop yields, although it has not been shown whether this is because it enhances plant growth, or inhibits ...
Bacilli are an extremely diverse group of bacteria that include both the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) as well as several species that synthesize important antibiotics. In addition to medical uses bacillus ,spores, due to their extreme tolerance to both heat and disinfectants, are used to test heat sterilization techniques and chemical disinfectants. Bacilli are also used in the detergent manufacturing industry for their ability to synthesize important enzymes.The sequence for the genome of Bacillus subtilis was completed in 1997 and was the first published sequence for a single-living bacterium. The genome is 4.2 Mega-base pairs long with with 4100 protein-coding regions. Bacillus subtilis has a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium shown to synthesize antifungal peptides. This ability has lead to the use of B. subtilis in biocontrol. B. subtilis has been shown to increase crop yields, although it has not been shown whether this is because it enhances plant growth, or inhibits ...
A computer search of DNA sequence databases revealed that BPG2-related genes occur in the genomes of other plants, including green algae, mosses and rice, and also in the common soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Plants arose from a union of two organisms, including the bacterial ancestor of chloroplasts, which explains why chloroplasts have their own genomes.. "The fact that BPG2-related genes are conserved in bacteria suggests that the BPG2 gene family arose early in the evolution of life on Earth," explains Nakano. "We hope to genetically engineer plants to increase the expression of BPG2 so as to promote chloroplast and photosynthesis activity, which in future could potentially increase the productivity of agricultural crops and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in Earths atmosphere.". The corresponding author for this highlight is based at the Plant Chemical Biology Research Unit, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute. Journal information Komatsu, T., Kawaide, H., Saito, C., Yamagami, A., ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Involved in the degradation of arabinan and is a key enzyme in the complete degradation of the plant cell wall. Catalyzes the internal cleavage of alpha-(1->5)-L-arabinofuranosyl residues of the alpha-1,5-L-arabinan to produce arabino-oligosaccharides and L-arabinose. It is also active toward linear branched sugar beet arabinan, and pectin from apple.
Peptidase S8 family domain in Vpr-like proteins. The maturation of the peptide antibiotic (lantibiotic) subtilin in Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 includes posttranslational modifications of the propeptide and proteolytic cleavage of the leader peptide. Vpr was identified as one of the proteases, along with WprA, that are capable of processing subtilin. Asp, Ser, His triadPeptidases S8 or Subtilases are a serine endo- and exo-peptidase clan. They have an Asp/His/Ser catalytic triad similar to that found in trypsin-like proteases, but do not share their three-dimensional structure and are not homologous to trypsin. The stability of subtilases may be enhanced by calcium, some members have been shown to bind up to 4 ions via binding sites with different affinity. Some members of this clan contain disulfide bonds. These enzymes can be intra- and extracellular, some function at extreme temperatures and pH values. ...
This chapter reviews the molecular biology and genetics of gram-positive endoproteases, focusing on Bacillus subtilis proteases. Microbial endoproteases are generally classified into four categories based on their mechanisms of action. The genes for seven different extracellular proteases have been cloned and characterized in B. subtilis. Two proteases have been isolated from sporulating or stationary-phase cells of B. subtilis. The first-characterized and most abundant intracellular protease was a serine protease originally called intracellular serine protease (ISP); now called ISP-1. The activity of this enzyme increases dramatically 2 to 3 h after the onset of sporulation. From the large number of proteases described in various gram-positive bacterial species, this chapter deals with only those extracellular proteases from other gram-positive bacteria that have been most extensively studied and whose genes have been cloned and characterized. In summary, gram-positive bacteria have evolved the
Several related concepts make use of similar words, and the ambiguity can create considerable confusion. The term "Bacillus" (capitalized and italicized) is also the name of a genus that, among many other genera, falls within the class Bacilli.. Also, "bacillus" (or the plural "bacilli") can be a generic term to describe the morphology of any rod-shaped bacterium. This general term does not mean that the subject is a member of class Bacilli or genus Bacillus. Thus, it does not necessarily imply a similar group of characteristics. Not all members of class Bacilli are rod-shaped (Staphylococcus is spherical), and many other rod-shaped bacteria that do not fall within that class (Clostridium kamina dalla kotta is rod-shaped but very different taxonomically) exist. Moreover, the general term "bacillus" does not necessarily indicate the Gram-positive staining common to class Bacilli. For example, E. coli is a rod-shaped bacterium that could, therefore, be described as "a bacillus", but it stains ...
VerticalNews reported that the Sydney University research team of Raja Mahanama, Aydin Berenjian, Dr John Kavanagh and A/Prof Fariba Dehghani have completed studies which resulted in significant increase in Vitamin Menaquinone-7! "Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), plays a significant role on preventing osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases", Natto, the richest known source of MK-7, is traditionally produced via Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) by Bacillus subtilis on cooked soy beans. "Our researchers reported a threefold increase in MK-7 concentration through the use of a mixture of soy protein granules and nixtamalized corn grits using response surface methodology approach" this value is the highest concentration reported so far ...
AB - Cell-free transcription-translation systems were originally applied towards in vitro protein production. More recently, synthetic biology is enabling these systems to be used within a systematic design context for prototyping DNA regulatory elements, genetic logic circuits and biosynthetic pathways. The Gram-positive soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, is an established model organism of industrial importance. To this end, we developed several B. subtilis-based cell-free systems. Our improved B. subtilis WB800N-based system was capable of producing 0.8 µM GFP, which gave a ~72x fold-improvement when compared with a B. subtilis 168 cell-free system. Our improved system was applied towards the prototyping of a B. subtilis promoter library in which we engineered several promoters, derived from the wild-type Pgrac (σA) promoter, that display a range of comparable in vitro and in vivo transcriptional activities. Additionally, we demonstrate the cell-free characterisation of an inducible ...
One mechanism that regulates competence development in B. subtilis is quorum sensing. Quorum sensing is a mechanism by which cells use small, intercellular signaling molecules to monitor the concentration of other related cells. B. subtilis cells become competent when they sense they are surrounded by a threshold concentration of related B. subtilis cells. This regulation is likely beneficial to the cells because it limits competence development to conditions when DNA from closely related B. subtilis cells is more likely to be present. B. subtilis cells evaluate the concentration of related cells present by producing and responding to small signaling peptides. Previous work had shown that two signaling peptides regulate competence development. My work identified two additional signaling peptides that regulate competence. All four signaling peptides interact with different cellular targets and the expression of the signaling peptides as well as their target proteins are regulated by a variety of ...
One mechanism that regulates competence development in B. subtilis is quorum sensing. Quorum sensing is a mechanism by which cells use small, intercellular signaling molecules to monitor the concentration of other related cells. B. subtilis cells become competent when they sense they are surrounded by a threshold concentration of related B. subtilis cells. This regulation is likely beneficial to the cells because it limits competence development to conditions when DNA from closely related B. subtilis cells is more likely to be present. B. subtilis cells evaluate the concentration of related cells present by producing and responding to small signaling peptides. Previous work had shown that two signaling peptides regulate competence development. My work identified two additional signaling peptides that regulate competence. All four signaling peptides interact with different cellular targets and the expression of the signaling peptides as well as their target proteins are regulated by a variety of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We recently isolated a tumoricidal peptide from Natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food. In the present study, antimicrobial activity of the Natto peptide was examined. The peptide consisted of 45 amino acid residues, and its structure was predicted to be rich in α-helix. It excreted antimicrobial activity only against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis group (B. subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus licheniformis). Lesser antimicrobial activity was observed for Streptococcus species other than S. pneumoniae. Hemolysate or hemin was required for the antimicrobial activity of the peptide. The Natto peptide damages the cell membrane of B. subtilis. On the other hand, chain morphology was induced in S. pneumoniae, which is naturally diplococcus, during the early phases of the Natto peptide treatment; following that the cells were rapidly lysed. This suggested that the Natto peptide displayed a novel narrow spectrum of bactericidal activity and inhibited cell separation during cell
1A4X: Adaptation of an enzyme to regulatory function: structure of Bacillus subtilis PyrR, a pyr RNA-binding attenuation protein and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase.
Bacillus subtilis is a gram positive, sporulating bacteria often utilized in industry as a producer of high quality enzymes and proteins [1].
A close relative of Bacillus subtilis isolated from local soil samples was previously shown to inhibit the growth of E. coli and S. epidermidis when grown competitively using a cross streak method. Organic extracts from this bacteria has been tested against several ESKAPE pathogens using both direct application and TLC-bioautography. Further work to isolate and test the antimicrobial compounds produced by this bacteria closely related to Bacillus subtilis will be discussed. B. subtilis has been found in both soil samples and in the human gastrointestinal tract. It has been widely studied and used. For example, it has been used as an alternative medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract diseases.
Levanase (EC 3.2.1.65, levan hydrolase, 2,6-beta-D-fructan fructanohydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name (2->6)-beta-D-fructan fructanohydrolase. This enzyme catal
The activation of additional promoter sites by production of an alternative sigma subunit for RNA polymerase is a common strategy for the coordinate regulation of gene expression. Many alternative sigma factors control genes for specialized, and often narrowly distributed, functions. For example, most of the alternative sigma factors in Bacillus subtilis control genes necessary for endospore formation. In contrast, the B. subtilis sigma D protein controls the expression of genes important for flagellar-based motility and chemotaxis, a form of locomotion very broadly distributed in the eubacteria. A homologous sigma factor, sigma F, controls a similar group of motility genes in the enteric bacteria. The conservation of both promoter specificity and genetic function in these two regulons allowed us to test the ability of a B. subtilis sigma factor to function within an Escherichia coli host. We demonstrate that expression of the B. subtilis sigD gene restores motility to an E. coli strain mutant ...
Enzyme amylase as an antagonist component of Bacillus subtilis B315 against potato Ralstonia solanacearum. One of the antagonist mechanism of Bacillus subtilis B315 is that it produced secundary me...
Antagonistic effect of seven isolates of Bacillus subtilis has been examined in dual culture tests against Rhizopus nigricans, the incitant of papaya (Carica papaya L.) frult-rot. Isolate AF 1 which caused maximum inhibition (9.6 mm) was grown in potato dextrose broth for 96 h and cell-free culture filtrate was used to study the inhibition. The concentrated extract of culture filtrate of the antagonist was diluted to indicate 0-40 per cent in potato dextrose agar and Richards solution. There was 93% inhibition at 40 per cent in both the media. Germinated spores formed clumps in Richards solution at and above 20 per cent concentration of the antagonistic culture filtrate, but failed to produce sporangia. Concentrated extract induced formation of bulbous structures in hyphae. Biological control of papaya fruit-rot was achieved by dipping the fruits in cell suspension of B. subtilis or in the culture filtrate, 24 h before treatment with R. nigricans. ...
Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) in the porphyrin pathway is the target site of the peroxidizing herbicides such as carfentrazone-ethyl and oxyfluorfen. In an attempt to develop herbicide-resistant plants, transgenic rice plants were generated via expression of herbicide-insensitive Bacillus subtilis Protox gene fused to the transit sequence for targeting to the plastid using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. Homozygous transgenic rice lines of T₃ generation selected by hygromycin resistance test were examined if they are resistant to the herbicides carfentrazone-ethyl and oxyfluorfen. The homozygous transgenic lines had single copy insertion of B. subtilis Protox gene into their genomes and express its mRNA. Compared to wild-type rice, the transgenic lines were less susceptible to the herbicides when examined with respect to growth, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll loss and lipid peroxidation. The in vitro Protox activities in transgenic lines were about 56 % higher than those in ...
Bacillus cereus from the Bacillus cereus group species, which consist of: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus pseudomycoides is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial foodborne pathogens. Growth of B. cereus results in production of several highly active toxins therefore, consumption of food containing 105-106 bacteria (spores)/g or toxins, is sufficient to cause emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is milk and mixed food products that include milk powder, thus is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. In this study 138 strains of B. cereus group spp. were characterized based on their phenotypic and genotypic features. The study developed unique DNA primers for use in PCR and these were then tested via real-time PCR (RT-PCR): (i) the motB gene encoding the flagellar motor protein MotB was used as a PCR primer target. (ii) New primers and probes, targeting ...
The methanolic extracts of different parts of the two medicinal plants Pistacia integerrima Stewart Ex Brandis (Anacardiaceae) and Debregeasia salicifolia Rendle (Urticaceae) were studied for in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial study was carried against various species of bacteria. Gram positive bacteria consisted of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative of Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and itrobacter. The antioxidant study was performed through DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity using ascorbic acid as standard. Roots and bark showed high zones of inhibition at low concentrations while the leaves showed activity at high dose concentrations of the crude extracts. Debregeasia salicifolia was effective against Bacillus subtilis with zone of inhibition 17.50 mm and at a dose of 150 μg. The highest zone of inhibition was shown by Pistacia integerrima leaves up to 28.00 mm against Citrobacter at ...
Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501 produced β-lactam antibiotics when fermented with different agro-wastes: cassava shavings, corncob, sawdust and sugarcane pulp. In vitro antibacterial activity of the culture extracts was tested against four clinical bacterial isolates, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the culture extracts and standard drug (commercial Benzyl Penicillin) inhibited the growth B. subtilis and E. coli; the potency varied with carbon source. Antibacterial activity of extracts from cultures containing cassava shavings and sugarcane pulp was comparable with that of the standard drug. The MIC against the susceptible organisms was 0.20mg/ml for the standard drug and ranged from 0.40 to 1.50mg/ml for the culture extracts. Neither the culture extracts nor the standard drug inhibited K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa; the bacterial strains produced β-lactamase enzymes. Cassava shavings and sugarcane pulp are indicated as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrolysis of olive mill waste to enhance rhamnolipids and surfactin production. AU - Ramírez, IM. AU - Vaz, DA. AU - Banat, Ibrahim M. AU - Marchant, Roger. AU - Alameda, EJ. AU - Román, MG. PY - 2016/1/13. Y1 - 2016/1/13. N2 - The aim of this work was to demonstrate the effectiveness of hydrolysis pretreatment of olive mill (OMW) waste before use as a carbon source in biosurfactant production by fermentation. Three hydrolysis methods were assessed: enzymatic hydrolysis, acid pretreatment plus enzymatic hydrolysis, and acid hydrolysis. Fermentation was carried out using two bacterial species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Our results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis was the best pretreatment, yielding up to 29.5 and 13.7 mg/L of rhamnolipids and surfactins respectively. Glucose did not show significant differences in comparison to enzymatically hydrolysed OMW. At the best conditions found rhamnolipids and surfactins reached concentrations of 299 and 26.5 ...
Heat shock of dormant spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 at 100 or 80 degrees C for short times, the so-called activation or breaking of dormancy, was investigated by separating the resulting spores by buoyant density centrifugation into a band at 1.240 g/ml that was distinct from another band at 1.340 g/ml, the same density as the original spores. The proportion of spores at 1.240 g/ml became larger when the original dormant spores were heated for a longer period of time, but integument-stripped dormant spores were quickly and completely converted to spores with a band at 1.240 g/ml. The spores with bands at both 1.240 and 1.340 g/ml were germinable faster than the original dormant spores and thus were considered to be activated. The spores with a band at 1.240 g/ml, which were considered to be fully activated, were apparently permeabilized, with a resulting complete depletion of dipicolinic acid, partial depletion of minerals, susceptibility to lysozyme action, permeation of the ...

Internet Scientific PublicationsInternet Scientific Publications

Bacillus subtilis.. The reason for this is not clear because the raw juice is thought to be more concentrated than the other ... Bacillus subtilis. was not inhibited at all. The hot water extracts of onions did not inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi. ... Bacillus subtilis. but inhibited Salmonella typhi. at 0.8gml-1 while the cold-water extract of ginger inhibited both ... Bacillus subtilis. , the widest zones of inhibition was obtained with Salmonella typhi. followed by Escherichia coli.. These ...
more infohttp://ispub.com/IJTM/3/2/11056

Bacillus subtilis - WikipediaBacillus subtilis - Wikipedia

Bacillus subtilis Final Risk Assessment on EPA.gov Bacillus subtilis genome browser Type strain of Bacillus subtilis at BacDive ... Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in ... and renamed Bacillus subtilis by Ferdinand Cohn in 1872 (subtilis being the Latin for fine). B. subtilis cells are typically ... Media related to Bacillus subtilis at Wikimedia Commons SubtiWiki "up-to-date information for all genes of Bacillus subtilis" ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus_subtilis

Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease - WikipediaBacillus subtilis ribonuclease - Wikipedia

Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease (EC 3.1.27.2, Proteus mirabilis RNase, ribonucleate nucleotido-2-transferase (cyclizing)) is an ... Yamasaki, M.; Arima, K. (1967). "Regulation of intracellular ribonuclease of Bacillus subtilis by ATP and ADP". Biochim. ... Yamasaki, M.; Arima, K. (1969). "Intracellular ribonuclease of Bacillus subtilis; specific inhibition by ATP and dATP". Biochem ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus_subtilis_ribonuclease

Bacillus subtilis  InfoBacillus subtilis Info

Bacillus subtilis Info. pancham panchamaqua at vsnl.com Thu Feb 13 09:31:25 EST 2003 *Previous message: Influence of ... Sirs, Im looking for some basic information on Bacillus subtilis. Specifcally the environmental conditions & nutrients ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/microbio/2003-February/022029.html

Essential Bacillus subtilis genes | PNASEssential Bacillus subtilis genes | PNAS

Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... 2002) in Bacillus subtilis and Its Closest Relatives: From Genes to Cells, eds Sonenshein A L, Hoch J A, Losick R(Am. Soc. ... 2002) in Bacillus subtilis and Its Closest Relatives: From Genes to Cells, eds Sonenshein A L, Hoch J A, Losick R(Am. Soc. ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/100/8/4678

bacillus subtilis Archives - Universe Todaybacillus subtilis Archives - Universe Today

... and studied spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. B. pumilus spores were found in an air lock between ... Images of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores (seen in an electron micrograph) on aluminum before and after being exposed to space ... B. subtilis is a spore that has been studied in other space environment experiments. ... "Survival of Bacillus pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions." ...
more infohttps://www.universetoday.com/tag/bacillus-subtilis/

Bacillus subtilis - Latest research and news | NatureBacillus subtilis - Latest research and news | Nature

Bacillus subtilis. Definition. Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, flagellated Gram-positive soil bacterium used as a model for ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/subjects/bacillus-subtilis?error=cookies_not_supported&code=e6f34c0e-f47d-4741-9e88-df92a3b2e270

Bacillus subtilis tagged stories - MIT Technology ReviewBacillus subtilis tagged stories - MIT Technology Review

The mission of MIT Technology Review is to bring about better-informed and more conscious decisions about technology through authoritative, influential, and trustworthy journalism.
more infohttps://www.technologyreview.com/g/bacillus-subtilis/

Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis | PNASFruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis | PNAS

Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Setlow, P. (in press) in Bacillus subtilis and Its Closest Relatives: From Genes to Cells, eds. Sonenshein, A. L., Hoch, J. A ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/98/20/11621?ijkey=0291c107e352dade10ef5eb5cabcf49af6e02b8b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Bacillus subtilis, Living, Tube | Carolina.comBacillus subtilis, Living, Tube | Carolina.com

Bacillus subtilis Domain: Prokaryote Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 30° C Package: Tube ... Biosafety Level: 1 Gram Stain: Gram-Positive Shape: Bacillus (rod-shaped) ... Bacillus subtilis, Living, Tube. Item # 154921 Bacillus subtilis, Living, Tube is rated 5.0 out of 5 by 1. ... Genus and Species: Bacillus subtilis. Domain: Prokaryote. Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 30° ...
more infohttps://www.carolina.com/bacteria/bacillus-subtilis-living-tube/154921.pr

Biofilm-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis.  - PubMed - NCBIBiofilm-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis. - PubMed - NCBI

The gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis,forms biofilms on solid surfaces and at air-liquid interfaces, and biofilm ... Biofilm-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis.. Chagneau C1, Saier MH Jr. ... We demonstrate that biofilm formation by B. subtilis strain JH642 can be either activated or repressed by glucose, depending on ... subtilis. In addition, our study suggests roles for glutamate synthase, GltAB, and an aminopeptidase, AmpS. The loss of these ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16088219?dopt=Abstract

Signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis sporulation.  - PubMed - NCBISignal transduction in Bacillus subtilis sporulation. - PubMed - NCBI

Signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis sporulation.. Strauch MA1, Hoch JA.. Author information. 1. Department of Molecular ... The initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by a signal transduction system leading to activation (by ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8504245?dopt=Abstract

Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn ATCC ® 11774™Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn ATCC ® 11774™

Bacillus subtilis ATCC ® 11774™ Designation: NCTC 8236 TypeStrain=False Application: Assay of dihydrostreptomycin sulfate, ... Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn (ATCC® 11774™) Strain Designations: NCTC 8236 / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 1 ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/By_Focus_Area/Quality_Control_Strains/Pharmaceutical_and_Personal_Care/11774.aspx?slp=1

Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn ATCC ® 19659™Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn ATCC ® 19659™

Bacillus subtilis ATCC ® 19659™ Designation: PRD 66 TypeStrain=False Application: Efficacy testing Testing Testing ... Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn (ATCC® 19659™) Strain Designations: PRD 66 [IFO 13722] / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Quality_Control_Strains/Pharmaceutical_and_Personal_Care/19659.aspx?p=1&rel=%7B0%7D

Bacillus subtilis - External Links - CitizendiumBacillus subtilis - External Links - Citizendium

Bacillus subtilis final risk assessment (1997, February). In Environmental Protection Agency Website. Retrieved March 26, 2008 ... Bacillus subtilis Genome Database (2006, January 18) In Genome Net Website. Retrieved April 14, 2008 ... Bacillus subtilis Genome Project In NIMH Genome Project Database. Retrieved March 26, 2008. ... Retrieved from "http://en.citizendium.org/wiki?title=Bacillus_subtilis/External_Links&oldid=100454707" ...
more infohttp://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Bacillus_subtilis/External_Links

Biofilm Development with an Emphasis on Bacillus subtilis | SpringerLinkBiofilm Development with an Emphasis on Bacillus subtilis | SpringerLink

Piggot PJ, Hilbert DW (2004) Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis. Curr Opin Microbiol 7:579-586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Bacillus Subtilis Motile Bacterium Microtiter Dish Genetic Circuitry SinR Activity These keywords were added by machine and not ... Predich M, Nair G, Smith I (1992)Bacillus subtilis early sporulation genes kinA,spo0F, and spo0A are transcribed by the RNA ... Serrano M, Zilhao R, Ricca E, Ozin AJ, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO (1999) A Bacillus subtilis secreted protein with a role in ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-540-75418-3_1

Growth and differentiation of Bacillus subtilis under microgravitiy | SpringerLinkGrowth and differentiation of Bacillus subtilis under microgravitiy | SpringerLink

Bacillus Bacillus Subtilis These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00367283

Bacillus subtilis Genome Diversity | Journal of BacteriologyBacillus subtilis Genome Diversity | Journal of Bacteriology

Relationship of Bacillus subtilis clades associated with strains 168 and W23: a proposal for Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis ... Bacillus vallismortis sp. nov., a close relative of Bacillus subtilis, isolated from soil in Death Valley, California. Int. J. ... Recombination and migration rates in natural populations of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus mojavensis. Evolution 49:1081-1094. ... Restriction-modification systems in Bacillus strains related to Bacillus subtilis. Genetika 19:33-38. [In Russian.]. ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/189/3/1163?ijkey=97ebb1b8dccb0460d75f2ef59670592573bf1a75&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Bacillus subtilis using acetyl phosphateBacillus subtilis using acetyl phosphate

... Two-component signal transduction pathways enable bacterium to sense and answer the ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/blog/2015/05/04/11075-Bacillus-subtilis-using-acetyl-phosphate.html

Bacillus Subtilis Soil Project - microbewikiBacillus Subtilis Soil Project - microbewiki

Bacillus Subtilis Soil Project. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 03:07, 1 May 2018 by ... Retrieved from "https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Bacillus_Subtilis_Soil_Project&oldid=135039" ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Bacillus_Subtilis_Soil_Project&oldid=135039

Ebola Virus Stock Photo & More Pictures of Bacillus Subtilis | iStockEbola Virus Stock Photo & More Pictures of Bacillus Subtilis | iStock

And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Bacillus Subtilis photos available for quick and ...
more infohttps://www.istockphoto.com/photo/ebola-virus-gm519826101-49671934

Ebola Virus Stock Photo & More Pictures of Bacillus Subtilis | iStockEbola Virus Stock Photo & More Pictures of Bacillus Subtilis | iStock

And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Bacillus Subtilis photos available for quick and ...
more infohttps://www.istockphoto.com/my/photo/ebola-virus-gm519826101-49671934

Bacillus subtilis : Science World ReportBacillus subtilis : Science World Report

Science World Report reports, explores and interprets the results of human endeavour from the eyes of the researcher and the interested public.
more infohttps://www.scienceworldreport.com/tags/bacillus-subtilis

Image 2383680: bacillus subtilis from Crestock Stock PhotosImage 2383680: bacillus subtilis from Crestock Stock Photos

3d rendered close up of isolated bacillus subtilis by Eraxion from Crestock Stock Photos ... 3d, bacillus, bacteria, biology, macro, medical, micro, microbiology, science, sem, subtilis, 400-04157133 ... Image Description: 3d rendered close up of isolated bacillus subtilis Camera Data: n/a ...
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Bacillus subtilis CU1 shows immune support for the elderlyBacillus subtilis CU1 shows immune support for the elderly

Supplements containing Lesaffre Human Cares Bacillus subtilis CU1 probiotic strain may reduce the frequency of upper ... Bacillus subtilis​ CU1 is a spore forming bacteria positioned for support immune health, particularly in people with weakened ... Bacillus subtilis CU1 shows immune support for the elderly. By Stephen Daniells ... "Probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis CU1 stimulates immune system of elderly during common infectious disease period: a ...
more infohttps://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Article/2016/03/17/Bacillus-subtilis-CU1-shows-immune-support-for-the-elderly
  • citation needed] This species is commonly found in the upper layers of the soil, and evidence exists that B. subtilis is a normal gut commensal in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of aerial structures was robust in natural isolates but not in laboratory strains, an indication that multicellularity has been lost during domestication of B. subtilis . (pnas.org)
  • We used M-CGH to examine the genome diversity of 17 strains belonging to the nonpathogenic species Bacillus subtilis . (asm.org)
  • We have begun to address these questions by examining diverse B. subtilis strains using sequence analysis of the conserved gyrA gene and comparative genomic hybridization, a microarray-based technique for whole-genome comparison. (asm.org)
  • To explore genome diversity in B. subtilis in more detail, we first collected several strains of the two subspecies, B. subtilis subsp. (asm.org)
  • As expected, B. vallismortis DV1-F-3 is phylogenetically divergent from both E. coli K-12 and all B. subtilis strains. (asm.org)
  • Given that repeated passage of bacterial isolates in liquid culture can select for the loss of social behaviors ( 8 ), we decided to investigate pellicle formation by natural isolates of B. subtilis . (pnas.org)
  • An analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three loci ( rpoB , polC , and gyrA ) showed that there was considerable diversity in a collection of B. subtilis isolates obtained from desert soils ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • How different are genomes of B. subtilis isolates? (asm.org)
  • An unknown bacterial species cultured from the Yogu Farm™ probiotic dairy beverage was identified through 16S ribosomal RNA analysis as B. amyloliquefaciens , a phylogenetically close relative of Bacillus subtilis . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The antimicrobial properties of various extracts of Allium cepa (onions) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis that are common cause of gastrointestinal tract infections were investigated using the cup-plate diffusion method. (ispub.com)
  • However, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were more sensitive to the extract of onion bulbs compared to Bacillus subtilis which was predominantly resistant. (ispub.com)
  • Comparison between the proteins involved in chromosomal DNA replication in B. subtilis and in Escherichia coli reveals similarities and differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • A member of the genus Bacillus, B. subtilis is rod-shaped, and can form a tough, protective endospore, allowing it to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other members of the genus Bacillus, it can form an endospore, to survive extreme environmental conditions of temperature and desiccation. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. subtilis can divide symmetrically to make two daughter cells (binary fission), or asymmetrically, producing a single endospore that can remain viable for decades and is resistant to unfavourable environmental conditions such as drought, salinity, extreme pH, radiation, and solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. subtilis cells are typically rod-shaped, and are about 4-10 micrometers (μm) long and 0.25-1.0 μm in diameter, with a cell volume of about 4.6 fL at stationary phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a great deal is known about B. subtilis at the molecular level, relatively little is known about its ecology and evolution. (asm.org)
  • Branda SS, Chu F, Kearns DB, Losick R, Kolter R (2006) A major protein component of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix. (springer.com)
  • To purify and characterize an antimicrobial protein (bacteriocin) isolated from the dairy product-derived Bacillus amyloliquefaciens . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The antimicrobial protein isolated from B. amyloliquefaciens was shown to be subtilosin, a bacteriocin previously reported as produced only by B. subtilis . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Kinetic experiments were carried out with a pure culture of B. subtilis and a mathematical model that accurately describes both biodegradation of pAAB under anoxic conditions and the denitrification process under both carbon- and nitrate- or nitrite-limited conditions is developed. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • B. subtilis is heavily flagellated, which gives it the ability to move quickly in liquids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present work began with an investigation of the ability of B. subtilis to form biofilms, i.e., surface-associated communities. (pnas.org)
  • "Our study provides evidence that ​B. subtilis CU1 supplementation during the winter period may be a safe effective way to stimulate immune responses in elderly subjects," ​they concluded. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • B. subtilis has historically been classified as an obligate aerobe, though evidence exists that it is a facultative anaerobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. subtilis has been linked to grow in higher elevations and act as an identifier for both eco-adaptability and honey bee health. (wikipedia.org)
  • "Increased SIgA levels of 87 % and 45 % in feces and saliva respectively are most probably of physiological significance in ameliorating the health status of seniors receiving B. subtilis CU1," ​ the researchers wrote. (nutraingredients-usa.com)