Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Megacins: Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Bacillus megaterium. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Picolinic AcidsBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Pimelic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Diaminopimelic AcidDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Sporosarcina: A genus of endospore-forming bacteria in the family Planococcaceae. The species are strict or facultative anerobes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.PeptidoglycanCarbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.IndophenolHexachlorophene: A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.North CarolinaPhytophthora infestans: A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)FloridaEducational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.

Microbial catabolism of vanillate: decarboxylation to guaiacol. (1/655)

A novel catabolic transformation of vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) by microorganisms is reported. Several strains of Bacillus megaterium and a strain of Streptomyces are shown to convert vanillate to guaiacol (o-methoxyphenol) and CO2 by nonoxidative decarboxylation. Use of a modified most-probable-number procedure shows that numerous soils contain countable numbers (10(1) to 10(2) organisms per g of dry soil) of aerobic sporeformers able to convert vanillate to guaiacol. Conversion of vanillate to guaiacol by the microfloras of most-probable-number replicates was used as the criterion for scoring replicates positive or negative. Guaiacol was detected by thin-layer chromatography. These results indicate that the classic separations of catabolic pathways leading to specific ring-fashion substrates such as protocatechuate and catechol are often interconnectable by single enzymatic transformations, usually a decarboxylation.  (+info)

Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium. Concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, adenine nucleotides and nicotinamide nucleotides during germination. (2/655)

A considerable amount of evidence suggests that metabolism of germinants or metabolism stimulated by them is involved in triggering bacterial-spore germination. On the assumption that such a metabolic trigger might lead to relatively small biochemical changes in the first few minutes of germination, sensitive analytical techniques were used to detect any changes in spore components during the L-alanine-triggered germination of Bacillus megaterium KM spores. These experiments showed that no changes in spore free amino acids or ATP occurred until 2-3 min after L-alanine addition. Spores contained almost no oxo acids (pyruvate, alpha-oxoglutarate, oxaloacetate), malate or reduced NAD. These compounds were again not detectable until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is suggested, therefore, that metabolism associated with these intermediates is not involved in the triggering of germination of this organism.  (+info)

Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium. Use of L-[3H]alanine and tritiated water to detect metabolism. (3/655)

L-[2,3-3H]Alanine was used to probe for metabolism of alanine during triggering of germination of spores of Bacillus megaterium KM. No detectable incorporation of label into any compound, including water, was found, indicating that any metabolism involving the alanine germinant must be at a very low rate and also that alanine racemase is absent from spores of this strain. Spores were germinated in 3H2O to find if any of the many metabolic reactions causing irreversible incorporation of 3H into reaction products took place during triggering of germination. No incorporation was detected until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is therefore concluded that a wide variety of metabolic routes, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway and amino acid metabolism are either not involved in the reactions causing the triggering of germination or operate at an extremely low rate during this process.  (+info)

Adjuvant effect of a peptidoglycan attached covalently to a synthetic antigen provoking anti-phage antibodies. (4/655)

The synthetic antigen denoted P2-A--L, comprising the fragment P2 of the coat protein of MS-2 coliphage attached to multichain poly-DL-alanine, served for the immunization of guinea-pigs. Immunization was carried out either in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) in the presence or absence of a small molecular weight peptidoglycan prepared from Bacillus megaterium, which was checked for its adjuvant effect. The various antisera were assessed by their capacity to neutralize MS-2 bacteriophage viability. When injected in PBS or FIA, P2-A--L did not elicit any measurable anti-phage activity. Addition of the peptidoglycan by simple mixing did not bring about a significant increase in antibody production. However, when the peptidoglycan was chemically linked to the P2-A--L conjugate, it had a marked adjuvant effect when the material was administered in FIA, almost identical to the extent of the effect of Freund's complete adjuvant.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of additional low-molecular-weight basic proteins degraded during germination of Bacillus megaterium spores. (5/655)

Dormant spores Bacillus megaterium contained a group of low-molecular-weight (5,000 to 11,000) basic (pI greater than 9.4) proteins (termed D, E, F, and G proteins) which could be extracted from disrupted spores with strong acids. These proteins were distinct from the previously described A, B, and C proteins which are degraded during spore germination. However, the D, E, F, and G proteins were also rapidly degraded during spore germination, accounting for 10 to 15% of the protein degraded. Proteins similar to the D, E, F, and G species were also present in spores of other bacterial species. In B. megaterium, the D, E, F, and G proteins were low or absent (less than 15% of the spore level) in vegetative and young sporulating cells and appeared only late in sporulation. The D, E, F, and G proteins were purified to homogeneity, and all contained a high percentage of hydrophilic amino acids; one protein (G) contained 31% basic amino acids and also contained tryptophan. All four proteins were rapidly degraded in vitro by dormant spore extracts. Two proteins (D and F) were degraded in vitro by the previously described spore protease which initiates degradation of the A, B, and C proteins in vivo; the spore enzyme (s) degrading proteins E and G have not been identified.  (+info)

Membrane-bound DD-carboxypeptidase and transpeptidase activities from Bacillus megaterium KM at pH 7. General properties, substrate specificity and inhibition by beta-lactam antibiotics. (6/655)

1. The membranes from Bacillus megaterium KM contained a DD-carboxypeptidase with optimum activity under the following conditions: pH 7; ionic strength, 1.3 M; temperature, 40 degrees C and below 20 degrees C. It did not require any divalent cation, but was inactivated by Cu2+ and Hg2+. It was stimulated by 2-mercaptoethanol and low concentrations of p-chloromercuribenzoate. 2. The membrane preparation also catalyzed a simple transpeptidation reaction using as carboxyl acceptors D-alanine or glycine. 3. The conditions for optimum activity, temperature-inactivation, temperature-dependence of the activity, carboxyl donor specificity, sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics, and insensitivity to potential peptide inhibitors of both enzyme activities, was identical. The DD-carboxypeptidase showed inhibition by D-alanine and Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala. 4. The inhibition by beta-lactam antibiotic was reversible for both enzymic activities and the time-dependence for their recovery was identical. 5. The DD-carboxypeptidase was very sensitive to changes in the configuration and size of the side-chains of the C-terminal dipeptide of the substrate. Amino acid residues at the C-terminus that precluded the peptide from being a DD-carboxypeptidase substrate were not acceptors in the transpeptidation reaction. Dipeptides were not acceptors for the 'model transpeptidase'. 6. It is suggested that both activities are catalysed by the same enzyme molecule, whose physiological role is not the formation of peptide crosslinks during peptidoglycan biosynthesis.  (+info)

Effect of beta-lactam antibiotics on in vitro peptidoglycan cross-linking by a particulate fraction from Escherichia coli K-12 and Bacillus megaterium KM. (7/655)

The binding constants of several beta-lactam antibiotics towards penicillin-binding components in Escherichia coli K-12 (Spratt, Eur. J. Biochem. 72:341-352, 1977) and the antibiotic concentrations required to inhibit the peptidoglycan transpeptidase of E. coli 50% were compared. Penicillin-binding component 1B may have been the transpeptidase working in vitro. The structure-activity relationships of beta-lactam antibiotics and the mechanisms of action in E. coli and Bacillus megaterium are discussed.  (+info)

Cloning of oxetanocin A biosynthetic and resistance genes that reside on a plasmid of Bacillus megaterium strain NK84-0128. (8/655)

Bacillus megaterium strain NK84-0218 produces a potent antiviral antibiotic, oxetanocin A, which has an oxetanosyl-N-glycoside linkage to an adenine moiety. However, the oxetanocin A productivity of the original strain was unstable and low. In this study, oxetanocin A productivity and resistance was shown to be lost simultaneously when a 51.5-kb plasmid, pOXT1, was cured during cultivation. The deficiency of oxetanocin A productivity and resistance was restored by re-introduction of the pOXT1 plasmid into the cured strain. By a cloning experiment it was shown that a 6.8-kb BglI-D fragment of the pOXT1 plasmid was responsible for oxetanocin A productivity and resistance.  (+info)

Zinc release is the first quantitatively significant event detected during the triggering of Bacillus megaterium KM spore germination. Of the total spore Zn2+ pool 25% is released from non-heat-activated spores within 4 min of triggering germination. During this period only 10% of the spore population becomes irreversibly committed to germinate. The investigation of a putative role for Zn2+ in the germination trigger mechanism has established a relationship between the rate and extent of Zn2+ release and the stimulation of spore germination by heat activation. Furthermore, a correlation can be demonstrated between the extent of zinc release from spore populations and the time required to obtain 50% commitment of these populations to germinate over a wide temperature range. These findings have been used to expand a recently published model for the triggering of bacterial spore germination. ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
Bacillus megaterium ATCC ® 14581™ Designation: TypeStrain=True Application: VITEK 2 BCL Comprehensive QC Set Quality control strain
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Bacillus megaterium is a microorganism widely used in industrial biotechnology for production of enzymes and recombinant proteins, as well as in bioleaching processes. Precise understanding of its metabolism is essential for designing engineering strategies to further optimize B. megaterium for biotechnology applications. Here, we present a genome-scale metabolic model for B. megaterium DSM319, iJA1121, which is a result of a metabolic network reconciliation process. The model includes 1709 reactions, 1349 metabolites, and 1121 genes. Based on multiple-genome alignments and available genome-scale metabolic models for other Bacillus species, we constructed a draft network using an automated approach followed by manual curation. The refinements were performed using a gap-filling process. Constraint-based modeling was used to scrutinize network features. Phenotyping assays were performed in order to validate the growth behavior of the model using different substrates. To verify the model accuracy,
Genus and Species: Bacillus megaterium Domain: Prokaryote Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 30° C Package: Tube Biosafety Level: 1 Gram Stain: Gram-Positive Shape: Bacillus (rod-shaped)
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is one of Natures most complex small molecules. It is a cobalt-containing modified tetrapyrrole that plays a number of key metabolic roles in many prokaryotic systems and is also essential to the biochemistry of higher animals. However, it is made by only certain bacteria, requiring around thirty enzymatic steps for its complete de novo construction. Surprisingly, the nutrient is synthesised by one of two related, though genetically distinct, pathways that represent aerobic or anaerobic routes. The anaerobic pathway has remained poorly characterised due to the instability of the pathway intermediates to oxygen and the low activity of enzymes, and is the focus of the research reported in this thesis. The Gram-positive aerobe Bacillus megaterium has previously been used for the commercial production of cobalamin and has a complete anaerobic pathway. Several genes, (termed chi for 9,obinamide biosynthesis) from the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway have been cloned and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microsome-mediated mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in Bacillus megaterium SJ-6 his-. AU - Buch, J. K.. AU - Buch, Shilpa. AU - Dave, P. J.. PY - 1982/4. Y1 - 1982/4. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020028778&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020028778&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020028778. VL - 13. SP - 349. EP - 352. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. IS - 4. ER - ...
BioAssay record AID 1083218 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Bacillus megaterium clinical isolate at 100 ug/ml after 24 hr by disk diffusion method.
During the last decade Bacillus megaterium was systemically developed for the gram per liter production of recombinant proteins. In contrast to the usual bacterial gene expression scenario, recombinant protein production systems often rely on multicopy plasmid encoded promoters, repressors and target genes. During production of the green fluorescent model protein (GFP) as a model culture heterogeneity was observed at the single cell level using time-lapse microscopy. The two subpopulations (producing versus low-producing) were separated by cell sorting and initially analyzed for limiting components of the expression system via quantitative RT-PCR. Further cultivation of both subpopulations revealed a systematic reajustment of their subpopulation distributions, indicationg bistability. An initial model was deduced as working hypothesis to identify the molecular basis for the observed phenotype and to improve our mathematical model ...
Bacillus megaterium bacterial bulture for microbiology laboratory studies is large, easily observed, spore-forming variably motile rods found in soil and water.
Bacillus megaterium strain ATCC 14581 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer, complete sequence; and 23S ribosomal RNA gene, partial ...
|p|Terraflora™ is a novel broad-spectrum synbiotic formulated with a combination of spore form probiotics, and advanced, food-based, ancient prebiotics designed for robust support of gastrointestinal health.|/p| |p|Terraflora’s innovative strain combination introduces Ribospore™ (Bacillus pumilus) and Bacillus megaterium EM144™, microorganisms scientifically proven to effectively produce highly bioavailable antioxidants and riboflavin, right at the site of absorption. Riboflavin is an essential nutrient for maintaining a healthy digestive tract.|/p| |p|Suggested Use: Take 1-2 capsules per day with or without food, or as recommended by your healthcare professional.|br /||br /|If you are pregnant, nursing, or have a medical condition, consult your healthcare practitioner before use.|/p| |p|Ingredients:|/p| |p|Probiotic Bio-Complex: 1 Billion Viable Cells per serving|/p| |blockquote|Ribospore™ (Bacillus pumilus)|/blockquote| |blockquote|Bacillus megaterium EM144™|
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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কাঁঠাল ফলটি যেমন মজাদার তেমন তার বিচিগুলোও হয় সুস্বাদু । তাই আমরা অনেকেই কাঁঠালের বিচি খেয়ে থাকে তরকারির সাথে বা তেলে ভেজে । কিন্তু সুস্বাদুর পাশাপাশি এটি যে বেশকিছু গুনাগুণ সম্পন্ন টা আমরা অনেকেই জানি না । চলুন দেখে নেয়া যাক কাঁঠালের বিচির গুনাগুণগুলো । ১। এতে আছে এন্টি অক্সিডেন্ট । এন্টি … [Read more...] ...
P450BM3 (CYP102A1), a fatty acid hydroxylase from Bacillus megaterium, has been extensively studied over a period of almost forty years. The enzyme has been redesigned to catalyse the oxidation of non-natural substrates as diverse as pharmaceuticals, terpenes and gaseous alkanes using a variety of engineering strat
wearyellowforseth (1) 2joy-21 (1) A01 (2) A02 (2) A19 (1) A34 (3) A40 (1) acryl (13) acrylverf (100) Alcohol inks (19) Apipila-L18 (5) B.03 Mind Blown (4) B01 (1) B08 (1) B11 (1) B44 (1) Big SdP-B (17) Big SdP-B2 (2) Big SdP-G (7) Big SdP-K (13) Big SdP-O (7) Big SdP-T (2) Big SdP-V (4) birthday collab (1) BM 03 (1) BM-01 (1) BM-02 (4) BM-04 (5) BM-08 (1) BM-09 (1) BM-13 (4) BM-14 (2) BM-167 (1) BM-18 (1) BM-201 (2) BM-205 (2) BM-208 (2) BM-212 (1) BM-213 (1) BM-214 (2) BM-215 (1) BM-221 (2) BM-223 (1) BM-224 (3) BM-225 (3) BM-301 (1) BM-304 (1) BM-305 (5) BM-307 (2) BM-308 (1) BM-309 (3) BM-311 (1) BM-312 (1) BM-314 (2) BM-315 (1) BM-317 (1) BM-318 (3) BM-321 (3) BM-322 (1) BM-323 (1) BM-324 (2) BM-408 (1) BM-409 (1) BM-412 (1) BM-413 (1) BM-414 (1) BM-415 (1) BM-416 (1) BM-422 (1) BM-603 (1) BM-604 (1) BM-607 (1) BM-613 (1) BM-619 (1) BM-708 (1) BM-710 (1) bm-717 (1) BM-719 (1) BM-720 (1) BM-H01 (1) BM-H03 (3) BM-H04 (1) BM-H05 (1) BM-H06 (2) BM-H07 (1) BM-H08 (1) BM-H09 (1) BM-H12 (1) BM-H13 ...
wearyellowforseth (1) 2joy-21 (1) A01 (2) A02 (2) A19 (1) A34 (3) A40 (1) acryl (13) acrylverf (100) Alcohol inks (19) Apipila-L18 (5) B.03 Mind Blown (4) B01 (1) B08 (1) B11 (1) B44 (1) Big SdP-B (17) Big SdP-B2 (2) Big SdP-G (7) Big SdP-K (13) Big SdP-O (7) Big SdP-T (2) Big SdP-V (4) birthday collab (1) BM 03 (1) BM-01 (1) BM-02 (4) BM-04 (5) BM-08 (1) BM-09 (1) BM-13 (4) BM-14 (2) BM-167 (1) BM-18 (1) BM-201 (2) BM-205 (2) BM-208 (2) BM-212 (1) BM-213 (1) BM-214 (2) BM-215 (1) BM-221 (2) BM-223 (1) BM-224 (3) BM-225 (3) BM-301 (1) BM-304 (1) BM-305 (5) BM-307 (2) BM-308 (1) BM-309 (3) BM-311 (1) BM-312 (1) BM-314 (2) BM-315 (1) BM-317 (1) BM-318 (3) BM-321 (3) BM-322 (1) BM-323 (1) BM-324 (2) BM-408 (1) BM-409 (1) BM-412 (1) BM-413 (1) BM-414 (1) BM-415 (1) BM-416 (1) BM-422 (1) BM-603 (1) BM-604 (1) BM-607 (1) BM-613 (1) BM-619 (1) BM-708 (1) BM-710 (1) bm-717 (1) BM-719 (1) BM-720 (1) BM-H01 (1) BM-H03 (3) BM-H04 (1) BM-H05 (1) BM-H06 (2) BM-H07 (1) BM-H08 (1) BM-H09 (1) BM-H12 (1) BM-H13 ...
Rain long foretold takes a long time to pass; if it arrives on short notice, it soon will pass. For the folks I go out collecting with all hikes, digs and kayak trips are rain or shine. Safety is always top of mind and prepping for the weather is paramount. Keep yourself safe whatever part of the world you choose to explore. For forecasts of marine weather in Vancouver call 604.666.3655 or visit http://www.weatheroffice.com/ ...
Shikimic acid, the sole chemical building block for the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), is one of the potent pharmaceutical intermediates with three chiral centers. Here we report a metabolically engineered recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain with aroE (shikimate dehydrogenase) overexpression for the production of shikimic acid. In a 7 L bioreactor, 4.2 g/L shikimic acid was obtained using the recombinant strain over 0.53 g/L with the wild type. The enhancement of total shikimate dehydrogenase activity was 2.13-fold higher than the wild type. Maximum yield of shikimic acid (12.54 g/L) was obtained with fructose as carbon source. It was isolated from the fermentation broth using amberlite IRA-400 resin and 89 % purity of the product was achieved. This will add up a new organism in the armory for the fermentation based production which is better over plant based extraction and chemical synthesis of shikimic acid.
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ID BACMD_1_PE1001 STANDARD; PRT; 158 AA. AC BACMD_1_PE1001; D5DBI6; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Putative uncharacterized protein; (BACMD_1.PE1001). GN OrderedLocusNames=BMD_1107; OS BACILLUS MEGATERIUM DSM 319. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacillales; Bacillaceae; Bacillus. OX NCBI_TaxID=592022; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS BACMD_1.PE1001. CC Bacillus megaterium DSM 319 chromosome, complete genome. CC sequence. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:D5DBI6_BACMD CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000161542 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; D5DBI6; -. DR EMBL; CP001982; ADF37968.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; YP_003596318.1; NC_014103.1. DR EnsemblBacteria; EBBACT00000421253; EBBACP00000414878; EBBACG00000423985. DR GeneID; 9116498; -. DR GenomeReviews; CP001982_GR; BMD_1107. DR KEGG; bmd:BMD_1107; -. DR GeneTree; EBGT00050000004518; -. DR ...
Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different pathways. In E. coli and many organisms, pimelate thioester is derived from malonyl-ACP. The pathway starts with the methylation to malonyl-ACP methyl ester, followed by the fatty acid chain elongation cycle to form pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, which is then demethylated to form pimeloyl-ACP [MD:M00572]. Pimeloyl-ACP is converted to biotin through the final four steps in the biotin bicyclic ring assembly, which are conserved among biotin-producing organisms [MD:M00123]. In B. subtilis, biotin is derived from pimeloyl-ACP formed by oxidative cleavage of long-chain acyl-ACPs [MD:M00573]. Some bacteria synthesize biotin from pimeloyl-CoA derived from pimelate [MD:M00577]. Biotin is covalently attached to biotin-dependent ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the analysis of amino acid. Preliminary optimization of PGA production, through a series of one-variable-at-a-time (OVAT) experiments, revealed maximum PGA production of 10.5 (g/L). Statistically based experiments were applied to optimize culture conditions for production of PGA. Effect of 15 variables were examined for their significance on PGA production using Plackett-Burman factorial design. Among those variables; Na-citrate, (NH4)2SO4, glutamic acid and CaCl2.2H2O were most significant variables that encouraged PGA production, while those negatively affected were; glycerol, glucose and phosphate buffer. Significant parameters were further investigated using Box-Behnken design to define ...
1RWB: Cooperative effect of two surface amino acid mutations (Q252L and E170K) in glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus megaterium IWG3 on stabilization of its oligomeric state.
Streptococcus pyrogenes ( MIC = 100 microg/ml ), Bacillus cereus T ( MIC > 100 microg/ml ), Bacillus megaterium ( MIC = 5 microg/ml ), Bacillus subtilis ( MIC = 5 microg/ml ), Staphylococcus aureus ( MIC > 100 microg/ml ...
In the paper by Waring and Makoff, "Breakdown of Pulse-Labeled Ribonucleic Acid and Polysomes in Bacillus megaterium: Actions of Streptolydigin, Echinomycin, and Triostins," Vol. 10, No. 2, March 1974, pp. 214-224, Figs. 1 and 3 were transposed. The legends are correct on the pages where they stand, but the illustration printed as Fig. 1 should appear on p. 219 and the one printed as Fig. 3 should appear on p. 217.. ...
The Buoyancy module is key to both the Degradation and the Aggregation systems. Buoyancy is required to position our bacteria in the water column, and also to enable them to buoy the plastic aggregates. This module requires driving the expression of a gas vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicles are formed within the cell, and are hollow spaces surrounded by a wall of hydrophobic protein. These gas vesicles are permeable to gases, which diffuse into the gas vesicles, increasing its partial pressure, thereby increasing buoyancy. Gas vesicles are found largely in cyanobacteria and halophillicarchea, where they are necessary to access oxygen and light. Their formation is driven by a number of genes required for production and regulation. We are using the gas vesicle gene to attribute buoyancy to our cells so that they float on to the surface of the ocean. Our particular cluster -known as GVP is extracted from Bacillus Megaterium which contains 14 putative gens gvp-A,-P,-Q,-B,-R,-N,-F,-G,-L,-S,-K,-J,-T ...
The Buoyancy module is key to both the Degradation and the Aggregation systems. Buoyancy is required to position our bacteria in the water column, and also to enable them to buoy the plastic aggregates. This module requires driving the expression of a gas vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicles are formed within the cell, and are hollow spaces surrounded by a wall of hydrophobic protein. These gas vesicles are permeable to gases, which diffuse into the gas vesicles, increasing its partial pressure, thereby increasing buoyancy. Gas vesicles are found largely in cyanobacteria and halophillicarchea, where they are necessary to access oxygen and light. Their formation is driven by a number of genes required for production and regulation. We are using the gas vesicle gene to attribute buoyancy to our cells so that they float on to the surface of the ocean. Our particular cluster -known as GVP is extracted from Bacillus Megaterium which contains 14 putative gens gvp-A,-P,-Q,-B,-R,-N,-F,-G,-L,-S,-K,-J,-T ...
Raghupathy, Y and Natarajan, KA and Srivastava, Chandan (2016) Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. In: MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL SOLID-STATE MATERIALS, 206 . pp. 1-8. Raghupathy, Y and Natarajan, KA and Srivastava, Chandan (2016) Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. In: MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL SOLID-STATE MATERIALS, 206 . pp. 1-8. Natarajan, KA (2016) Biomineralization and Biobeneficiation of Bauxite. In: TRANSACTIONS OF THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF METALS, 69 (1). pp. 15-21. Devi, Karthiga K and Natarajan, KA (2015) Isolation and characterization of a bioflocculant from Bacillus megaterium for turbidity and arsenic removal. In: MINERALS & METALLURGICAL PROCESSING, 32 (4). pp. 222-229. Devi, Karthiga K and Natarajan, KA (2015) Production and characterization of bioflocculants for mineral processing applications. In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MINERAL ...
Generous supporters have donated more than 60 Barbie and Sindy dolls.. Nicky and Jo gave us the toys along with a selection of accessories.. They were from a collection built up over many years and are in immaculate condition.. The dolls have been listed on our eBay store.. Money generated from this act of kindness is very much appreciated.. ...
I think Barbie Dreamhouse Party might be the most sarcastic, darkly satirical game Ive ever played. And Im not even sure if Im joking at this point. When a
Copyright © 2004-2018 Florida Center for Instructional Technology. ClipArt ETC is a part of the Educational Technology Clearinghouse and is produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida. ...
Copyright © 2004-2018 Florida Center for Instructional Technology. ClipArt ETC is a part of the Educational Technology Clearinghouse and is produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida. ...
A 3-kb region, located downstream of the Lactobacillus brevis xylA gene (encoding D-xylose isomerase), was cloned in Escherichia coli TG1. The sequence revealed two open reading frames which could code for the D-xylulose kinase gene (xylB) and another gene (xylT) encoding a protein of 457 amino acids with significant similarity to the D-xylose-H+ symporters of E. coli, XylE (57%), and Bacillus megaterium, XylT (58%), to the D-xylose-Na+ symporter of Tetragenococcus halophila, XylE (57%), and to the L-arabinose-H+ symporter of E. coli, AraE (60%). The L. brevis xylABT genes showed an arrangement similar to that of the B. megaterium xylABT operon and the T. halophila xylABE operon. Southern hybridization performed with the Lactobacillus pentosus xylR gene (encoding the D-xylose repressor protein) as a probe revealed the existence of a xylR homologue in L. brevis which is not located with the xyABT locus. The existence of a functional XylR was further suggested by the presence of xylO sequences ...
A study was conducted to optically determine the viability of the Gram +, endospore-forming bacterial genera Bacillus using a hyperspectral reflectance spectrometer. Endospores are a dormant, differentiated cellular capsule form taken by select bacteria to ensure survival when environmental conditions become unfavorable. Two species of Bacillus were used for this study, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis. These endospores were killed using a chemical treatment of sodium hypochlorite or a physical treatment of heat and pressure in an autoclave. The treated samples along with viable samples were lyophilized to form a powder. A reflectance spectrometer measuring 350 nm to 2500 nm (UV to shortwave infrared) was used to collect optical data on bulk powders. The resulting spectra were analyzed using several different methods, including integration and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) to obtain optimal separability of viable and nonviable endospores. Results of this study demonstrated the
During the course of an investigation of the bacterial flora of certain garden soils in the vicinity of the Botanical Laboratory of Cambridge University, I succeeded, with the assistance of Professor Marshall Ward, an isolating a form which proved to be of rather exceptional interest on account of its large size and its marked predilection for acid saccharine culture-media. The method pursued consisted in taking samples of soil, with the usual precautions against contamination, at a depth of about an inch below the surface, and using portions of these, shaken up with distilled water, for the inoculation of gelatine cultures in Petri-dishes, either directly or after preliminary heating to almost the boiling point. The latter means served to prevent the growth of moulds, while it became apparent early in the course of the investigation that the use of certain acid media served very effectually to isolate the organism in question from other bacteria. ...
Our gene of the month is Ken and Barbie - yes, named after the dolls. Like their plastic childhood counterparts, male and female flies with a fault in the gene have no external genitals - their naughty bits start to develop but get stuck inside the body.The Ken and Barbie gene itself encodes the instructions to make a transcriptional repressor - a protein that prevents genes
... - The iconic blonde-haired, long-limbed doll named Barbie has been around for decades and the idol of little girls all over the globe, however, this ...
Wi-fi spy Barbie records childrens conversations - and could be a target for hackers, say experts Jeff Parsons www.mirror.co.uk 17 February 2015 Toymaker Mattel has announced plans to create a connected Barbie doll capable of having internet-based conversations with children Hello Barbie is the latest incarnation of the doll - and will record what your…
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Previous DNA relatedness studies showed that strains idnentified as Bacillus mycoides segregated into two genetically distinct yet phenotypically similar groups, one being B. mycoides sensu stricto and the other, an unclassified taxon. In the present study, the taxonomic position of this second group was assessed by measuring DNA relatedness and determining phenotypic characteristics of an increased number of B. mycoides strains. Also determined was the second group's 16S RNA gene sequence. The 36 B. mycoides strains studied segregated into two genetically distinct groups showing DNA relatedness of about 30%; 18 strains represented the species proper and 18 the second group with intragroup DNA relatedness for both groups ranging from 70 to 100%. DNA relatedness to the type strains of presently recognized species with G+C contents of approximately 35 mol% (Bacillus alcalophilus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus sphaericus) ranged from 22 to 37%.
This chapter reviews current information on the nature and regulation of the genes involved in the synthesis of riboflavin, biotin, folic acid, thiamine, lipoic acid, and pantothenic acid in Bacillus subtilis, and of cobalamin in Bacillus megaterium. More is known about riboflavin (rib) genes in B. subtilis than in any other microorganism. It is possible that flavin mononucleotide (FMN) itself directly regulates riboflavin gene expression, since various nucleotides, including flavin mononucleotides and riboflavin, are reported to bind specifically to RNA aptamers. Folic acid derivatives, such as tetrahydrofolate, are required as coenzymes in numerous one-carbon-atom transfer reactions in B. subtilis and other organisms. The major folic acid biosynthetic operon, located at 7°, encodes nine genes, six of which are required for folate synthesis. Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is the most structurally complex molecule of all the vitamins synthesized by bacteria. More than 30 biosynthetic genes are required for
A selection of various Gram-positive bacteria featuring the 3 basic morphological shapes. Tube cultures.Bacillus megaterium (rod)Clostridium sporogenes (rod)Lactococcus lactis (cocci in chains)Lactobacillus acidophilus (rod)Micrococcus luteus (cocci in clusters or tetrads)Sarcina aurantiaca (cocci i...
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El Segundo, CA (Ucs News) Unconfirmedsoures inside Mattel are reporting the toy maker will be recalling over 500,000 Barbie dolls. According to the Mattel staffer the popular Cheerleader costumed Dolls are suffering from a severe case of rickets.. The effected dolls were produced in China and shipped to the US and Europe in July of this year. Rickets is a disorder primarily caused by lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate, which leads to softening and weakening of the bones. While Rickets is a serious condition, a proper diet with medical supervision can quickly reverse the condition.. This is not the First time Barbie has suffered from an nutritional disorder. For many years Barbie was afflicted with both anorexia and bulimia. ...
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Ah, yes, Christmas morning wouldnt be complete without her Barbie. At first, I thought this was Barbie Repunzel, but this was her 2nd most-requested gift the Barbie Musketeer. I wanted to post this one because it shows how cute her hair looks - and yes, we get a smile. Dont worry - she did get a Barbie Repunzel and we chatted for a long time about how she should not cut her hair until she receives proper taining ...
U.S. toy maker Mattel says its new Barbie doll modeled on German Chancellor Angela Merkel will be an inspiration for young girls.
When I am on my way through toys around 11, a woman stops me and asks for my help in the Barbie section. She comments that I am a lot younger than her so I might know more about what a little girl would want. I ask her the age of the girl and she says that she is 7. Thinking to myself that is usually the age where kids have the starting notion of What I want to be when I grow Up, I point out that the Barbie I can Be... The woman stumbles with her words and looks uncomfortable and says, "Well, I dont know if that would be the best...You see..She is just...Well sick. She has cancer. So..Im just not sure about that. Maybe something more..." as she tries to find the right ...
... Netgame não yome anime network. Corsos de oram 2014 1040. 42 soldatos drive golden square shopping. Ruda dawaj na barbie.
Microbial utilization of uncommon C4 dicarboxylate L-tartrate is largely anaerobic, with aerobic L-tartrate utilization known for few bacterial species including Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides and Pseudomonas putida. Aerobic L-tartrate-utilizing microbes could be industrially relevant owing to the efficient nature of the bioprocess and catalytic versatility of tartrate dehydrogenase (TDH) responsible for aerobic catabolism of L-tartrate. Present work involves isolation and characterization of Bacillus strains capable of aerobic L-tartrate utilization and its correlation with occurrence of TDH activity. Two out of 37 isolates, IC1-G and IC1-Y were identified as Bacillus megaterium spp. showing efficient aerobic growth, utilizing ~3.7 and 2.8 mM L-tartrate respectively at the end of 48 h. Several organic acids possibly including oxalic, succinic and citric acids were secreted as by-products of L-tartrate metabolism. Utilization of L-tartrate directly correlated with induction of TDH activity by ~3.2 ...
Bacteria are one of the premier biological forces that, in combination with chemical and physical forces, drive metal availability in the environment. Bacterial spores, when found in the environment, are often considered to be dormant and metabolically inactive, in a resting state waiting for favorable conditions for them to germinate. However, this is a highly oversimplified view of spores in the environment. The surface of bacterial spores represents a potential site for chemical reactions to occur. Additionally, proteins in the outer layers (spore coats or exosporium) may also have more specific catalytic activity. As a consequence, bacterial spores can play a role in geochemical processes and may indeed find uses in various biotechnological applications. The aim of this review is to introduce the role of bacteria and bacterial spores in biogeochemical cycles and their potential use as toxic metal bioremediation agents.
Bacillus subtilis forms dormant spores upon nutrient depletion. Under favorable environmental conditions, the spore breaks its dormancy and resumes growth in a process called spore germination and outgrowth. To elucidate the physiological processes that occur during the transition of the dormant spore to an actively growing vegetative cell, we studied this process in a time-dependent manner by a combination of microscopy, analysis of extracellular metabolites, and a genome-wide analysis of transcription. The results indicate the presence of abundant levels of late sporulation transcripts in dormant spores. In addition, the results suggest the existence of a complex and well-regulated spore outgrowth program, involving the temporal expression of at least 30% of the B. subtilis genome. Copyright © 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Looking for online definition of Barbie Doll Syndrome in the Medical Dictionary? Barbie Doll Syndrome explanation free. What is Barbie Doll Syndrome? Meaning of Barbie Doll Syndrome medical term. What does Barbie Doll Syndrome mean?
Shop for Barbie dolls and toys and find fab fashions, playsets and fashion dolls. Browse Barbie dolls and toys sparkling with pinktastic fun in the Barbie toys collection including dollhouses, Barbie's Dreamhouse, fashions and doll accessories.
Whether evolution has fashioned digital devices on a large scale is still a matter of debate, but considering that our current technological mind set is digital, we may be inadvertently focusing too much attention on the possibility of a digitally driven biological cell. As a result, we may overlook the fact that not so long ago, analog was a critical aspect of man-made computational devices in the form of analog computers ([ref]). Given the flexibility of analog and its inherent ability to condense data handling to a far greater degree than its digital counterpart,1 we think that the argument that evolution has selected largely for analog-based signaling networks is a strong one. Clearly, there are cases when on/off decision making is crucial, for example, the most obvious being cell division ([refs]) and bacterial sporulation ([refs]) being another example. Boolean-based digital circuits may be employed by gene regulatory networks; however, even here the case is not certain ([refs] ...
Free Tickets to Meet Barbie Meet Barbie in person sneek peek of new Princesss movie Take home free goodie bag Dont forget to dress like an Island princess and bring your camera to take your picture with Barbie. Tickets available while supplies last! Available: AL,AR,AZ,CA,CO,CT,FL,GA,IL,IN,KY,MA,MD, MN,MO,NC,NJ,NM,OH,OK,PA,SC,TN,UT,VA,WA http://barbie.digitaltix.net ...
Barbie Thomas is a one of a kind, she is an armless body builder who has inspired the fitness world with her determination. When she was only 2-years-old, she was playing outside her apartment ...
The low frequency laser irradiates to the human body can smooth microcycle, diminish inflammation, acesodyne, i - Manufacturer - Producer - PSL40755YH
Васильев, Д.А.. Бактериофаги рода Bacillus [Электронный ресурс] : учебное пособие для подготовки аспирантов по направлению подготовки 06.06.01 - Биологические науки, профиль подготовки 03.02.03 - Микробиология; 03.01.06 - Биотехнология; направление подготовки 36.06.01 - Ветеринария и зоотехния, профиль 06.02.02 - Ветеринарная микробиология, вирусология, эпизоотология, микология с микотоксикологией и иммунология / Д. А. Васильев, Н. А. Феоктистова, С. Н. Золотухин, А.Н. Калдыркаев. - Ульяновск : УГСХА им. П.А.Столыпина, 2015. - 107 с ...
Un factor limitante en la producción de papa es la escasez de tubérculo semilla de papa libre de patógenos; por lo tanto, es necesario encontrar nuevas alternativas de producción de tubérculo semilla en forma eficiente ...
I have 2 little ones - boy (6) & girl (4) hence, the lizard & ladybug. They keep me busy and tired most of the time. They also give me constant inspiration to find things fun and silly to do with them (and for them). Email me at [email protected] ...
The perfect place for any occasion, whether it be sitting around the barbie with your mates and a few beers or finding a quiet corner to woo someone special.. ...
Prostasomes are extracellularly occurring organelles which are secreted in human semen by the prostate gland. Prostasomes have several known biological activities, but their physiological function is still unclear. In this thesis some new aspects were studied on the biological role of the prostasomes. The motility-stimulatory effect of prostasomes on cryopreserved spermatozoa was further studied by supplementing the swim-up medium with seminal prostasomes, and with prostasomes purified from a PC-3 prostate cancer cell line (PC-3 prostasomes), on fresh spermatozoa. The recovery of motile spermatozoa after swim-up increased by 50% when the swim-up medium was supplemented with prostasomes. The PC-3 prostasomes bore a functional resemblance to seminal prostasomes as regards various expressions of sperm motility promotion. Prostasomes proved to have potent antibacterial effects. The effects were not strictly confined to Bacillus megaterium since a few other bacteria were also sensitive. The high ...
Three mutant forms of the protease (GPR) that initiates degradation of small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) during germination of spores of Bacillus species have been generated. In one variant (GPR delta), the putative pro sequence removed in conversion of the GPR zymogen (termed P46) to the active enzyme (termed P41) was deleted. GPR delta was expressed in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis as a polypeptide of 41 kDa (P41) which was active both in vivo and in vitro. The other two variants had changes in the sequence around the site where the pro sequence is removed, making this sequence even more like that recognized and cleaved by GPR in its SASP substrates. One of these variants (GPRS) was synthesized as P46S in both B. subtilis and E. coli, but P46S was processed to P41S earlier in B. subtilis sporulation than was wild-type P46. The second variant (GPREI) was made as P46EI but underwent extremely rapid processing to P41EI in both E. coli and B. subtilis. Expression of elevated ...
Bacterial spore formers have been the focus of intense study for almost half a century. The most heavily studied of these is Bacillus subtilis, an internationally recognized model organism, whose physiology, biochemistry and genetics have been studied for many years. Under nutrient rich conditions, B. subtilis grows and multiplies by a process of cell expansion followed by division at mid-cell to generate identical daughter cells; however, B. subtilis also has the ability to form spores, dormant cells which are resistant to many of the chemical and physical challenges that normally kill bacteria. Although many of the basic aspects of this process are now well understood, bacterial sporulation still remains a highly attractive model for studying various cell processes at a molecular level. There are several reasons for this interest. First, some of the more complex sporulation steps are not fully understood or are only described using controversial models. Second, the extensive attention lavished on
Penicillin amidohydrolase productivity of four locally isolated bacterial species is described. Organisms were identified asEscherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sarcina lutea andBacillus megaterium. Highest enzyme productivity of 3.2 U/mL with a corresponding dry cell mass of 4.5 g/L was recorded fromS. lutea.
Pennintaan terhadap a-amilase termostabil makin meningkat terutama WltUk industri tekstil. kertas maupWl pangan. Salah satu penghasil a-amilase tennostabil ialah bakteri tennofil yang dapat diisolasi dad sumber air panas maupWl kompos. Penelitian ioi bertujuan Wltuk mengisolasi bakteri termofil penghasil a-amilase ekstraseluler dan menentukan suhu maupun pH optimum pertumbuhan dari isolat yang terpilih. Sejumlah 20 isolat bakteri ditemukan dari kompos dan dna sumber air panas. Tiga isolat dengan aktivitas amilase tertinggi (Iebih dari 1 U/ml) yaitu Bacillus sp. CW-l, Bacillus sp. CW-3, dan Bacillus sp SW-2. Ketiga isolat ill ditumbuhkan pada media produksi yang mengandung ekstrak khamir 0.5 %, bacto peptOR 0.5 %, pati kentang I %, dan CaClz 0.1 % (khusus untuk Bacillus sp. SW-2). Suhu pertumbuhan optimum Bacillus sp. CW-l dan Bacillus sp. CW-3 45OC, dan Bacillus sp. SW-2 pada 6O"c. Sedangkan pH optimum pertumbuhan untuk ketiga isolat sarna, yaitu 7.5. Aktivitas a~amilase diuktrr dengan metode ...
The doctor sits stunned for a while but eventually regains his senses. He examines the scale in earnest This is something like calcified cartilage. Amazing, its grown into a kind of plate mail! He walks to the site of the tracks. Yes, see here! I know what this creature is. Look at the way its back claws point inward. Mr. Richards, count yourself fortunate, this creature may be a juvenile! Which might explain its attacking the rail workers. Id estimate its weight as being about two tons, this creature can grow to up to eight tons if Im not mistaken. I believe that this is a creature known before only in fossil but it has been proposed they could still exist in the Americas here. He pauses for a moment, examining the scale. Yes, yes, this could be a Megatherium! He pauses again Mr. Richards, we must catch this animal ...
Over the weekend, a tea party with girls and their dolls was taken to the next level: life-sized.. On July 15 the Old Davie School Historical Museum hosted Tea With Barbie - where guests gathered for china cups full of tea, fruit, cheese and finger sandwiches as Barbie took the runway.. The event has been an annual fundraiser for the museum since 2011. This years theme was Going on Safari with Barbie. The fashion show portion featured Pajama Barbie, Bridal Barbie, Homecoming Barbie and a longtime crowd pleaser - Presidential Barbie, played by Davie Councilwoman Susan Starkey.. Barbie has always shown girls that they have choices, Old Davie School... ...
When the bacteria that cause anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) arent ravaging livestock or being used in acts of bioterrorism, they spend their lives as dormant spores. In these inert but hardy forms, the bacteria can weather tough environmental conditions while lying in wait for their next host. This is the standard explanation for what B.anthracis does…. ...
Sequence analysis (Figure 4): The sequenced PCR product generated 801 bases of high-quality reads that were used to identify the genus of the isolated colony. The chromatogram of the sequence is available as a pdf (14R_PREMIX_JF7523_18). The NCBI BLAST analysis revealed 99% identity with bases 50-850 of the 16s RNA gene of Bacillus aerius, Bacillus stratosphericus, and Bacillus altitudinis (Figure 4) ...
... - description, side Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin, dosage (Bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin), proper use of Bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin. Drugs review.
... - description, side Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin, dosage (Bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin), proper use of Bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin. Drugs review.
Barbie cup cakes edible Cake Image Personalised Birthday Decoration Party Topper in Home & Garden, Kitchen, Dining, Bar, Baking Accs. & Cake Decorating | eBay!
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The Barbie one is awesome! Im a Pampered Chef consultant, and we recommend using our large batter bowl to make a Barbie (or princess or wedding or whatever!) doll cake, as the bowls are oven safe. My personal routine includes: So, after the cake has cooled off and youve inverted it, take a clean Barbie and wrap her legs in plastic wrap, then insert her into the cake up to her waist and decorate! Does anyone know why we wrap Barbies legs in plastic first? Lots of answers are called out. I reply (either confirming or giving the correct answer) Because its terribly uncomfortable to get frosting UP THERE (pause for a moment, then lean forward and whisper) Trust me ...
SibEnzyme Endonucleases, Source: Bacillus stearothermophillus AU. One unit is required to hydrolyze 1 μg of Lambda DNA in 1 hour at 37°C in a vol. of 50 μl.
General News) Besides destroying America, one of the things that the liberals have become fairly good at is taking advantage of Hollywood and childhood icons in order to advance their … Read More ...
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Brand: PinkyDolly / Dollyeye / iFairy / Barbie (we will give by random brand in case the prescription you need is not available ). Diameter: 14.5 ...
Zabawki edukacyjne dla dzieci i niemowląt. Hurtownia zabawek w Bydgoszczy. Światowe marki w rewelacyjnych cenach: Barbie, Equestria Girls, Hot Wheels, Monster High, Nerf, Play-Doh i wiele innych.
Martina Big fino a pochi anni fa era una normalissima assistente di volo, ma di punto in bianco ha deciso di cambiare vita e di diventare tutta unaltra persona. Il suo sogno infatti era sempre stato quello di trasformarsi in una Barbie umana... ...
HydroFarm BioRighteous, 12 oz Hydro Organics BioRighteous, 12 oz (HOR00771) BioRighteous inch Microbes For Plants inch - Blend No. 2 A powder blend of beneficial soil and plant microbes. Easy and versatile to use. Can be mixed into fertilizers and soils, applied as a foliage spray, added to hydroponic reservoirs and is ideal for brewing plant teas. Can be used together with BioZeus inch Microbes for Plants inch - Blend No. 1. BioRighteous contains the following active ingredients: Beneficial microbes, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii, Bacillus laterosprorus, Bacillus licheniforms, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilis, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhizobium japonicum Manufacturers Product Information MSRP each $ 21.48 UPC 727644007720 Dimensions 15.25 x 3.5 x 11 Case Weight 11 Case Quantity 12 HydroFarm: BioRighteous, 12 oz [hf-HOR00771] - Nutrients & Supplements - Gardening
In previous reports, more than 100 phytochemical compounds of different Aristolochia species have been analyzed with their biological activities (Kuo et al., 2012; Wu et al., 2004), but total phytochemical study of the root, stem, leaf, and fruit of A. clematitis and other species of the genus has not been carried out. Aristolochia species showed antibacterial and antifungal effects against various microorganisms, such as Aristolochia indica against S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus megaterium, E. coli, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae (Farhana et al., 2016), Aristolochia bracteolata for Aspergillus flavus and Botrytis cinerea (Trayee et al., 2016), or A. trilobata, A. brevipes, Aristolochia monticola Brandegee and Aristolochia kristsagathra against S. aureus (Camporese et al., 2003; Moorthy et al., 2015; Murillo-Alvarez et al., 2001). Among the identified compounds, such as 7,9 dimethoxytariacuripyrone, licarin A and B have antimicrobial effect out of AAs (Kuo et al., ...
Other names: ATCC 14579, B. cereus, BCRC 10603, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus endorhythmos, Bacillus medusa, Bacillus sp. 2479, Bacillus sp. BS2(2013b), Bacillus sp. BV4, Bacillus sp. JKR50, Bacillus sp. JKR62, Bacillus sp. JP44SK22, Bacillus sp. JP44SK37, Bacillus sp. JP44SK43, Bacillus sp. JP44SK45, Bacillus sp. JSG1(2014), Bacillus sp. KER 17, Bacillus sp. MZ-01, Bacillus sp. PXDK-1, Bacillus sp. Pf-1, Bacillus sp. V3, Bacillus sp. mmm86, CCM 2010, CCRC 10603, CCUG 7414, CIP 66.24, DSM 31, IAM 12605, IFO 15305, JCM 2152, LMG 6923, NBRC 15305, NCCB 75008, NCIMB 9373, NCTC 2599, NRRL B-3711, VKM B-504 ...
Other names: ATCC 14579, B. cereus, BCRC 10603, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus endorhythmos, Bacillus medusa, Bacillus sp. 2479, Bacillus sp. BS2(2013b), Bacillus sp. BV4, Bacillus sp. JKR50, Bacillus sp. JKR62, Bacillus sp. JP44SK22, Bacillus sp. JP44SK37, Bacillus sp. JP44SK43, Bacillus sp. JP44SK45, Bacillus sp. JSG1(2014), Bacillus sp. KER 17, Bacillus sp. MZ-01, Bacillus sp. PXDK-1, Bacillus sp. Pf-1, Bacillus sp. V3, Bacillus sp. mmm86, CCM 2010, CCRC 10603, CCUG 7414, CIP 66.24, DSM 31, IAM 12605, IFO 15305, JCM 2152, LMG 6923, NBRC 15305, NCCB 75008, NCIMB 9373, NCTC 2599, NRRL B-3711, VKM B-504 ...
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study bacterial spores, molds, pollens, and proteins. Biosamples were prepared and deposited onto porous silver substrates. LIBS data from the individual laser shots were analyzed by principal-components analysis and were found to contain adequate information to afford discrimination among the different biomaterials. Additional discrimination within the three bacilli studied appears feasible.. © 2003 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
3,740,318 COMPOSITION OF MAITER AND PROCESS Bruce W. Churchill, Comstock Township, Kalamazoo County, Robert Steel, Kalamazoo, and David R. Buss, Portage, Mich., assignors to The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Mich. No Drawing. Filed Feb. 19, 1971, Ser. No. 117,056 Int. Cl. C12d 13/06 U.S. Cl. 195-65 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A microbiological process for preparing alkaline protease using asporogenous bacteria of the genus Bacillus. This process produces protease with substantially no viable bacterial spores. The protease enzyme is useful as an additive to detergents. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Bacterial fermentations are used extensively to prepare alkaline protease. The removal or destruction of bacterial spores in preparing protease enzymes by bacterial fermentations has been recognized as a necessary and difficult task. It is considered unwise to add large quantities of bacterial spores to detergents where they could contamimate the wash water and perhaps end up on the clothes. ...
Megatheriidae is a family of extinct ground sloths that lived from approximately 23 mya-11,000 years ago, existing for approximately 22.89 million years. Megatheriids appeared later in the Oligocene, some 30 million years ago, also in South America. The group includes the heavily built Megatherium (given its name great beast by Georges Cuvier) and Eremotherium. An early megatheriid, the more slightly built Hapalops, reached a length of about 1.2 meters. The nothrotheres have recently been placed in their own family, Nothrotheriidae. The skeletal structure of these ground sloths indicates that the animals were massive. Their thick bones and even thicker joints (especially those on the hind legs) gave their appendages tremendous power that, combined with their size and fearsome claws, provided a formidable defense against predators. The earliest megatheriid in North America was Eremotherium eomigrans which arrived 2.2 million years ago, after crossing the recently formed Panamanian land bridge. ...
Looking for Klebs-Löffler bacillus? Find out information about Klebs-Löffler bacillus. A facultatively aerobic, nonmotile species of bacteria that causes diphtheria in humans. Also known as Klebs-Loeffler bacillus Explanation of Klebs-Löffler bacillus
Ken you dig it? A movement called "Beautiful and Bald Barbie" launched a Facebook page just before Christmas in support of kids with cancer.. The group, with already more than 31,000 fans, is petitioning toy-manufacturer Mattel to build a Barbie thats undergone treatment and lost her hair.. The idea was created by friends Rebecca Sypin, a special ed. teachers aide in Lancaster, Calif., and Jane Bingham, a photographer from New Jersey. Both have been affected by the disease.. ...
Question: Dear Moriel.org I have much appreciation and thanks for the service your site provides to the Church at large. I think your article opposing...
Hexachlorophene, also known as Nabac, is an organochlorine compound that was once widely used as a disinfectant. The compound occurs as a white odorless solid, although commercial samples can be off-white and possess a slightly phenolic odor. It is insoluble in water but dissolves in acetone, ethanol, diethyl ether, and chloroform. In medicine, hexachlorophene is a useful as a topical anti-infective, anti-bacterial agent, often used in soaps and toothpaste. It is also used in agriculture as a soil fungicide, plant bactericide, and acaricide. In 1972, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) halted the production and distribution of products containing more than 1% of hexachlorophene. After that point, most products that contain hexachlorophene were available only by prescription from a doctor. The restrictions were enacted after 15 deaths in the United States and 39 deaths in France were reported following brain damage caused by hexachlorophene. At least three companies manufactured ...
HydroFarm Green Reign All Purpose, 2 lbs Hydro Organics Green Reign All Purpose, 2 lbs (HOG10222) Green Reign inch Bio-Natural Fertilizers for the Home & Garden inch inch Crafted To Keep Gardening Fun & Simple .. & Plants Thriving Naturally inch . 10 customized granular blends of all natural ingredients with mycorrhizae, beneficial microbes, and humic acid. Green Reign offers plant specific blends for all types of indoor and outdoor plants, shrubs, and trees. Contains the following non-plant food ingredients: mycorrhizae, pisolithus tinctorius, scleroderma citrinum, scleroderma cepa, rhizopogon luteolus, rhizopogon fulvigleba, rhizopogon villosulus, rhizopogon amylopogon, glomus intradices, glomus aggregatum, glomus etunicatum, humic acid from langbenite, beneficial microbes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus megaterium, azotobacter vinelandii, rhizobium japonicum, bacillus coagulans, azotobacter chroococcum, azospirillum lipoferum, pseudomonas fluorescens, bacillus laterosprorus Manufacturers Product
Hexachlorophene is a broad spectrum anti-bacterial agent. It is used in hospital scrubs, shampoos, and deodorants. Once widely used in over-the-counter products, hexachlorophene is now prescription-only, after overdose incidents in infants in France in the 1970s. It has been largely replaced by the related compound Triclosan. ...
Bacillus brevis • Bacillus Cereus • Bacillus megateriumBacillus subtilis • Burkholderia cepacia • Campylobacter jejuni • ...
Taku A, Stuckey M, Fan DP (1982). "Purification of the peptidoglycan transglycosylase of Bacillus megaterium". J. Biol. Chem. ...
ISBN 978-0-199-73438-2. Woese, C. R. (1960). "Phage induction in germinating spores of Bacillus megaterium". Radiation research ...
The site of protein synthesis in Bacillus megaterium (1958). Inside the living cell; some secrets of life (1959). Gene control ...
Bacillus megaterium strain AIMST Nre8 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. Bacillus megaterium strain AIMST Nse1 16S ... Bacillus megaterium strain AIMST Nae5 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. Bacillus megaterium strain AIMST Ngme6 ... Bacillus megaterium strain AIMST Ngme9 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. Bacillus megaterium strain AIMST Ngse10 ... Bacillus megaterium strain AIMST Nse1 (N. sanguinea; Selangor, Malaysia; leaf tissue) Bacillus megaterium strain AIMST Nse2 (N ...
Sundharadas G, Gilvarg C (1967). "Biosynthesis of alpha,epsilon-diaminopimelic acid in Bacillus megaterium". J. Biol. Chem. 242 ... 6-diaminopimelic acid by a diaminopimelate-requiring mutant of Bacillus megaterium". J. Gen. Microbiol. 115: 95-100. doi: ... Bartlett ATM; White PJ (1985). "Species of Bacillus that make a vegetative peptidoglycan containing lysine lack diaminopimelate ...
or Bacillus megaterium compared to individuals living on E.coli. The lifespan extension mediated by B. megaterium is greater ... For example, when C. elegans is grown on Bacillus megaterium or Pseudomonas mendocina, worms are more resistant to infection ... "the plcR regulon is involved in the opportunistic properties of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus in mice and insects ... Interestingly, due to its comparatively large size B. megaterium is not an optimal food source for C. elegans, resulting in a ...
Omura, H.; Wieser, M.; Nagasawa, T. (1998). "Pyrrole-2-carboxylate decarboxylase from Bacillus megaterium PYR2910, an organic- ... Wieser, M.; Yoshida, T.; Nagasawa, T. (1998). "Microbial synthesis of pyrrole-2-carboxylate by Bacillus megaterium PYR2910". ... "Carbon dioxide fixation by reversible pyrrole-2-carboxylate decarboxylase from Bacillus megaterium PYR2910". Eur. J. Biochem. ...
CbiD is an essential protein for cobalamin biosynthesis in both Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus megaterium. A deletion ... Bacillus megaterium, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Either pathway can be divided into two parts: ... identification and characterization of a Bacillus megaterium cobI operon". Biochem. J. 335 (1): 159-66. PMC 1219764 . PMID ...
2007). "Bacillus megaterium rhizobacteria promote growth and alter root-system architecture through an auxin- and ethylene- ... These roots form interactions with rhizosphere bacteria such as Bacillus megaterium. A. thaliana can complete its entire ...
Pauly HE, Pfleiderer G (1976). "D-Glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus megaterium M 1286: purification, properties and structure ...
Huang C; Chen, MW; Hsieh, JL; Lin, WH; Chen, PC; Chien, LF (2006). "Expression of mercuric reductase from Bacillus megaterium ...
H2O The enzyme from Bacillus megaterium hydroxylates a variety of 3-oxo-Delta4-steroids in position 15beta. Berg, A.; Ingelman- ... "Characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent steroid hydroxylase system present in Bacillus megaterium". J. Biol. Chem. 251 ... "Cyanobacterial electron carrier proteins as electron donors to CYP106A2 from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13368". Biochim. Biophys ...
P450 BM3 (also known as CYP102A1) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme isolated from Bacillus megaterium. BM3 has been extensively ...
Ala This enzyme participates in spore germination in Bacillus megaterium. Ponnuraj, K.; Rowland, S.; Nessi, C.; Setlow, P.; ... Jedrzejas, M.J. (2000). "Crystal structure of a novel germination protease from spores of Bacillus megaterium: Structural ...
"Activities and regulation of the enzymes of lysine biosynthesis in a lysine-excreting strain of Bacillus megaterium". J. Gen. ...
Patil AG, K PK, Mulimani VH, Veeranagouda Y, Lee K (2010). "alpha-Galactosidase from Bacillus megaterium VHM1 and its ...
Bacteria include Bacillus firmus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and Streptomyces and fungus includes ...
... and cell surface display of recombinant Sporosarcina ureae S-layer fusion proteins in Bacillus megaterium". Applied and ... Sporosarcina ureae is a type of bacteria of the genus Sporosarcina, and is closely related to the genus Bacillus. S. ureae is ... ureae is closely related to other spore-forming organisms of the Bacillus genus, an observation first noted by Beijerinck in ...
DasGupta, H.; Fan, D.P. (1979). "Purification and characterization of a carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase of Bacillus megaterium ...
... from the soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium catalyzes the NADPH-dependent hydroxylation of several long-chain fatty acids at ... of a catalytically self-sufficient 119,000-dalton cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase induced by barbiturates in Bacillus megaterium ...
... BM3 (CYP102A1) from the soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium catalyzes the NADPH-dependent hydroxylation of ... of a catalytically self-sufficient 119,000-dalton cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase induced by barbiturates in Bacillus megaterium ...
"Metabolism of 6-O-acetyl-D-glucopyranose and other monoacetyl-sugars by strains of Bacillus megaterium and other soil organisms ...
Bacillus megaterium for example, synthesizes a capsule composed of polypeptide and polysaccharides. ...
The GerN and GrmA proteins of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, respectively, are spore germination proteins that can ... "Cloning and sequencing of the spore germination gene of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 12872: similarities to the NaH-antiporter gene ... The AmhT homologue of Bacillus pseudofirmus transports both K+ and NH4+, influences ammonium homeostasis, and is required for ... an endospore germination protein of Bacillus cereus, is an Na(+)/H(+)-K(+) antiporter". Journal of Bacteriology. 183 (20): 5896 ...
PHB is produced by microorganisms (such as Ralstonia eutrophus, Methylobacterium rhodesianum or Bacillus megaterium) apparently ... Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces species can degrade PHB. Pseudomonas lemoigne, Comamonas sp. Acidovorax faecalis, ...
B. megaterium. B. mesonae. B. methanolicus. B. methylotrophicus. B. migulanus. B. mojavensis. B. mucilaginosus. B. muralis. B. ... Bacillus adalah genus bakteri Gram-positif berbentuk batang yang anggota dari filum Firmicutes. Spesies Bacillus dapat bersifat ... Bacillus. Foto mikroskopis Bacillus subtilis dengan pewarnaan Gram dan pembesaran 1.000x. Bentuk oval yang tidak terwarnai ... Wikimedia Commons memiliki media mengenai Bacillus.. *Bacillus genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ...
Fuchs studied changes in bacterial cell walls-the biosynthesis and assembly of the cell wall of bacillus megaterium. Fuchs ...
Bacillus megaterium is a rod-like, Gram-positive, mainly aerobic spore forming bacterium found in widely diverse habitats. With ... The species was described by de Bary in 1884, who called it Bacillus megaterium, but did not give an etymology. However, some ... Bacillus megaterium - from simple soil bacterium to industrial protein production host. Appl Microbial Biotechnol 76:957-967 ( ... John-Brooks, R. (1951). "Opinion 1. The Correct Spelling of the Specific Epithet in the Species Name Bacillus Megaterium De ...
Bacillus megaterium Domain: Prokaryote Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 30° C Package: Tube ... Biosafety Level: 1 Gram Stain: Gram-Positive Shape: Bacillus (rod-shaped) ... Bacillus megaterium, Living, Tube. Item # 154900 Bacillus megaterium, Living, Tube is rated 5.0 out of 5 by 1. ... Genus and Species: Bacillus megaterium. Domain: Prokaryote. Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 30 ...
Bacillus megaterium ATCC ® 14581™ Designation: TypeStrain=True Application: VITEK 2 BCL Comprehensive QC Set Quality control ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : X59070 B.megaterium spoOH gene for sigma H factor. Nucleotide (GenBank) : X16610 Bacillus megaterium ... Bacillus megaterium beta-galactosidase (mbgA) gene, complete cds. Nucleotide (GenBank) : J04832 B.megaterium cytochrome P-450: ... Bacillus megaterium de Bary Strain Designations [BCRC 10608, CCM 2007, CCUG 1817, CIP 66.20, DSM 32, HAMBI 2018, IAM 13418, JCM ...
Bacillus megaterium spores have a characteristic polar knob and equatorial ridge, or groove. During germination, the spore case ...
Bacillus megaterium ATCC ® 14581-MINI-PACK™ Designation: TypeStrain=True Application: ATCC ® 14581-MINI-PACK™ consists of 6 ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : X59070 B.megaterium spoOH gene for sigma H factor. Nucleotide (GenBank) : X16610 Bacillus megaterium ... Bacillus megaterium beta-galactosidase (mbgA) gene, complete cds. Nucleotide (GenBank) : J04832 B.megaterium cytochrome P-450: ... Bacillus megaterium de Bary (ATCC® 14581-MINI-PACK™) Strain Designations: [BCRC 10608, CCM 2007, CCUG 1817, CIP 66.20, DSM 32, ...
Bacillus megaterium bacterial bulture for microbiology laboratory studies is large, easily observed, spore-forming variably ... Bacillus megaterium. Large, easily observed, variably motile rods found in soil and water. Spore forming. Incubation ... Bacillus megaterium bacterial bulture for microbiology laboratory studies is large, easily observed, spore-forming variably ...
Copyright © 2004-2018 Florida Center for Instructional Technology. ClipArt ETC is a part of the Educational Technology Clearinghouse and is produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida. ...
"A pair of bacilli actively growing and dividing." - The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910 ...
MoBiTec provides a wide range of useful vectors for the Bacillus megaterium system, including a vector with two ribosome ... vectors for Bacillus megaterium - MoBiTec provides a wide range of useful vectors for the Bacillus megaterium system, including ... B. megaterium has proven to be an excellent alternative host to E. coli for heterologous gene expression. Unlike other bacilli ... Simultaneous Heterologous Gene Expression in Bacillus Megaterium: Vector p3STOP1623-2RBShp. Optimized high performance (hp) ...
sp,Q60136,PAC_BACME Penicillin G acylase OS=Bacillus megaterium OX=1404 GN=pac PE=1 SV=1 ... Bacillus megaterium. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and ...
Sulfur metabolism - Bacillus megaterium DSM 319 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Biotin metabolism - Bacillus megaterium WSH-002 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
... we identified strain Q3 as Bacillus megaterium. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size, and initial ... Bacillus Is the Subject Area "Bacillus" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Bacillus megaterium de Bary, 1884. Taxonomic Serial No.: 959826 (Download Help) Bacillus megaterium TSN 959826 ...
Bacillus megaterium. Bacillus sp. Leaf75. Bacillus megaterium (strain ATCC 12872 / QMB1551). Bacillus megaterium Q3. Bacillus ... Bacillus sp. FJAT-21351. Bacillus megaterium (strain WSH-002). Bacillus megaterium (strain ATCC 14581 / DSM 32 / JCM 2506 / ... Bacillus licheniformis. Bacillus sp. LM 4-2. Bacillus atrophaeus. Bacillus intestinalis. Bacillus cereus. And more. 583. ... Bacillus subtilis (strain 168). Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis. Bacillus subtilis. Bacillus subtilis BEST7613. Bacillus ...
During the past 2 decades, Bacillus megaterium has been systematically developed for the gram-per-liter scale production of ... Polar Fixation of Plasmids during Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium Results in Population Heterogeneity.. ... Polar Fixation of Plasmids during Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium Results in Population Heterogeneity ... Polar Fixation of Plasmids during Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium Results in Population Heterogeneity ...
Crystal structure of dual function transcriptional regulator MerR from Bacillus megaterium MB1. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4UA2/pdb ... bound MerR from Bacillus megaterium, corresponding respectively to the repressor and activator conformation of MerR. To our ... Bacillus megaterium. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: merR, merR1. Find proteins for Q799U3 (Bacillus megaterium) ...
1993) The genetic map of Bacillus megaterium. in Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive bacteria: biochemistry, physiology, ... 1984) Bacillus megaterium spore protein C-3: nucleotide sequence of its gene and the amino acid sequence at its spore cleavage ... Polyhydroxyalkanoate Inclusion Body-Associated Proteins and Coding Region in Bacillus megaterium Gabriel J. McCool, Maura C. ... Polyhydroxyalkanoate Inclusion Body-Associated Proteins and Coding Region in Bacillus megaterium Gabriel J. McCool, Maura C. ...
ALPHA-AMYLASE FROM BACILLUS MEGATERIUM EXPRESSED IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS 1. EXPLANATION Enzymes used for the hydrolysis of starch ... ZEMAN, N.W. (1990). Additional safety information on the amylase of Bacillus megaterium derived from Bacillus subtilis. ... See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations alpha-AMYLASE FROM BACILLUS MEGATERIUM EXPRESSED IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS (JECFA Evaluation) ... The authors concluded that the NOEL for Bacillus megaterium amylase in rats exposed in utero and for 13 weeks after weaning is ...
Energy Conservation in Bacillus megaterium. ANDREW J. DOWNS, COLIN W. JONES. Biochemical Society Transactions Jun 01, 1974, 2 ( ... Energy Conservation in Bacillus megaterium Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical Society ...
The Gram-positive aerobe Bacillus megaterium has previously been used for the commercial production of cobalamin and has a ... By studying the purified B. megaterium CbiH60 enzyme, an efficient method was developed to allow the generation of the ring- ... megaterium DSM319. One of the major bottlenecks in the anaerobic pathway is the ring contraction step, where only limited ... megaterium, by incubating combinations of purified enzymes with cobalt-factor IV and the appropriate cofactors (SAM, NADH). ...
... such as Bacillus subtilis [5], Bacillus firmus [32], Bacillus licheniformis [33], Bacillus mucilaginosus [2], Proteus mirabilis ... from Bacillus megaterium TF10 exhibit a high flocculation activity [36]. One report of a Bacillus megaterium strain producing a ... The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for Bacillus megaterium SP1 were 20 g L−1 of glucose and 0.5 g L−1 of beef extract at ... The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for Bacillus megaterium SP1 were 20 g L−1 of glucose and 0.5 g L−1 of beef extract at ...
Optimization of Fermentation Conditions and Media for Production of Glucose Isomerase from Bacillus megaterium Using Response ... Optimization of Fermentation Conditions and Media for Production of Glucose Isomerase from Bacillus megaterium Using Response ...
... in glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus megaterium IWG3 on stabilization of its oligomeric state. ... Bacillus megaterium EC#: 1.1.1.47 IUBMB Mutation: E170K, Q252L Gene Name(s): ... Cooperative Effect of Two Surface Amino Acid Mutations (Q252L and E170K) of Glucose Dehydrogenase from Bacillus megaterium IWG3 ...
Bacillus megaterium CGTase produces those three types of CDs, however, β-CD should prevail. Although waxy corn starch (CS) is ... Bacillus megaterium CGTase produces those three types of CDs, however, β-CD should prevail. Although waxy corn starch (CS) is ... B. megaterium produced a 66 kDa CGTase (Topt=50°C; pHopt=8.0), from the early exponential growth phase which lasted 36 h. The ... B. megaterium produced a 66 kDa CGTase (Topt=50°C; pHopt=8.0), from the early exponential growth phase which lasted 36 h. The ...
  • Nitrogen fixation has been demonstrated in some strains of B. megaterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method of described in can be used to isolate strains of B. megaterium from the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other bacilli strains, proteolytic degradation by external alkaline proteases is avoided. (pr.com)
  • The enzyme preparation derived from these various Bacillus strains is usually added directly to the food to be processed and then removed from the final product by filtration. (inchem.org)
  • Recently, a set of free replication vectors and genetically optimized B. megaterium strains for the intra- and extracellular production of affinity tagged recombinant proteins were developed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SUMMARY: The surface structures and serological typing of 54 strains of Bacillus megateruim were examined and compared with strain M. Morphologically the strains could be divided into 2 groups on the basis of cell size, fat content and susceptibility to enzymes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Agglutination reactions confirmed the heterogeneity of the polysaccharides in the cell wall and capsules of B. megaterium and demonstrated a further relationship between 3 of the strains, probably due to the flagellar antigen. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In our previous study, three bacterial strains, Bacillus megaterium KU143, Microbacterium testaceum KU313, and Pseudomonas protegens AS15, were selected as effective biocontrol agents against Aspergillus flavus on stored rice grains. (bvsalud.org)
  • Of these tested strains, volatiles produced by B. megaterium KU143 and P. protegens AS15 markedly inhibited mycelial growth, sporulation, and conidial germination of A. flavus on agar medium and suppressed the fungal populations in rice grains. (bvsalud.org)
  • Biological Control of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) of Wheat by Bacillus strains", Proceedings of the 1999 National Fusarium Head Blight Forum, Michigan State University, p. 60 (Abstract), 1999. (patentgenius.com)
  • During the past 2 decades, Bacillus megaterium has been systematically developed for the gram-per-liter scale production of recombinant proteins. (nih.gov)
  • This work presents the results of a study of PHA inclusion body-associated proteins and an analysis of their coding region in Bacillus megaterium 11561. (asm.org)
  • We now present the results of a study of PHA inclusion body-associated proteins from B. megaterium and the cloning and analysis of their coding region. (asm.org)
  • In particular, experiments conducted in our own laboratory using cross-homologue chimeric constructs and site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) experiments with two closely related receptor B proteins have begun to yield insights into the structure-function relationships in the Bacillus megaterium GerU receptor ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
  • This thesis demonstrates the use of functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the purification of recombinant histidine-tagged proteins directly from a growing culture of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium. (cuvillier.de)
  • Recently, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was shown to efficiently secrete recombinant proteins into the growth medium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, these parameters were very different to the optimal conditions for the expression of other proteins in B. megaterium . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, sequenced phages encode proteins associated with Bacillus pathogenesis. (peerj.com)
  • During the last years B. megaterium was continuously developed as production host for the secretion of proteins into the growth medium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During the last decade Bacillus megaterium was systemically developed for the gram per liter production of recombinant proteins. (tu-bs.de)
  • Bacillus megaterium is a microorganism widely used in industrial biotechnology for production of enzymes and recombinant proteins, as well as in bioleaching processes. (chalmers.se)
  • Over the course of various cloning and expression experiments of similar proteins, it was found that Bacillus megaterium could be a susceptible host cell for keratinase production. (diva-portal.org)
  • Several genes, (termed chi for 9,obinamide biosynthesis) from the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway have been cloned and overexpressed individually within the host B. megaterium DSM319. (bl.uk)
  • To generate the pPconst1326 constitutive vector the promoter of pyruvate dehydrogenase operon (pdhABCD, bmd_1326-1329 ) was isolated from B. megaterium DSM319 and cloned into an E. coli/ Bacillus shuttle vector. (mobitec.com)
  • Here, we report on the expression of the penicillin G amidase gene ( pga ) isolated from B. megaterium ATCC14945 in derivatives of B. megaterium DSM319. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we present a genome-scale metabolic model for B. megaterium DSM319, iJA1121, which is a result of a metabolic network reconciliation process. (chalmers.se)
  • Bacillus megaterium bacterial bulture for microbiology laboratory studies is large, easily observed, spore-forming variably motile rods found in soil and water. (flinnsci.com)
  • Bacillus megaterium , a bacterial antagonist that is effective against sheath blight of rice, was cultured using either nutrient broth, potato dextrose broth or a common household flavour enhancer. (nzpps.org)
  • Buch, JK , Buch, S & Dave, PJ 1982, ' Microsome-mediated mutagenicity of aflatoxin B 1 in Bacillus megaterium SJ-6 his - ', FEMS Microbiology Letters , vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 349-352. (elsevier.com)
  • Zinc release is the first quantitatively significant event detected during the triggering of Bacillus megaterium KM spore germination. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore, B. megaterium KU143 and P. protegens AS15 produced volatile compounds that could reduce conidial germination and germ tube elongation, as well as mycelial growth of the predominant fungi ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
  • To determine the optimum condition (c.q. optimum pH and optimum temperature), needed for the activity of penicillin acylase isolated from Bacillus meaterium. (mediamedika.net)
  • 2.2.2 Short term studies 2.2.2.1 Rat Groups of 5 male and 5 female rat (Fischer 344) were exposed to enzyme levels of either 0.0, 20.0, 60.0 or 100.0 U/g Bacillus megaterium for 14 days (equivalent to 0, 1, 3 or 5% liquid use product or approximately 0, 0.32, 0.99 or 1.57 g/kg b.w./day), in the diet (alpha-amylase 6000 U/g). (inchem.org)
  • 2.2.2.2 Dog Groups of 1 male and 1 female dog (Beagle dogs, 6-7 months of age) were exposed to enzyme levels of either 0.0, 20.0, 60.0 or 100.0 U/g Bacillus megaterium for 15 days (approximately 0, 0.12, 0.29 or 0.74 g/kg b.w./day) in the diet (alpha-amylase 6000 U/g). (inchem.org)
  • Groups of 4 male and 4 female dogs (Beagle dogs, 6-7 months of age) were exposed to enzyme at levels of 0, 20, 60 or 100 U/g Bacillus megaterium amylase based on 5100 units of amylase/g of test material for 13 weeks in the diet (approximately 0, 0.12, 0.32 or 0.57 g/kg b.w./day). (inchem.org)
  • By studying the purified B. megaterium CbiH60 enzyme, an efficient method was developed to allow the generation of the ring-contracted product cobalt-factor IV in high yields. (bl.uk)
  • Production of protease enzyme from fish guts using Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus megaterium. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Many microorganisms produce PGA, but Bacillus megaterium is one of the few that excretes the enzyme to the extra cellular medium, facilitating downstream operations. (ufscar.br)
  • Counteraction of inhibitory effects of aflatoxin in Bacillus megaterium. (cftri.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of the suppression of A. flavus aflatoxin production in rice grains using B. megaterium and P. protegens volatiles. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacillus megaterium is a rod-like, Gram-positive, mainly aerobic spore forming bacterium found in widely diverse habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bioflocculant-producing bacterium, Bacillus megaterium SP1, was isolated from biofloc in pond water and identified by using both 16S rDNA sequencing analysis and a Biolog GEN III MicroStation System. (hindawi.com)
  • The cell wall of Bacillus is a rigid structure on the outside of the cell that forms the first barrier between the bacterium and the environment, and at the same time maintains cell shape and withstands the pressure generated by the cell's turgor. (bionity.com)
  • Optimized high performance (hp) vectors for Bacillus megaterium - MoBiTec provides a wide range of useful vectors for the Bacillus megaterium system, including a vector with two ribosome binding sites (2RBS) for simultaneous dual expression. (pr.com)
  • In the group of organisms classified as microorganisms, there are simple unicellular forms (cocci, bacilli, virio and spirillae) as well as multicellular forms (filaments and sheaths). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In general, the genomes of B. megaterium KU143, M. testaceum KU313, and P. protegens AS15 contain genes related to biocontrol traits (i.e., siderophore, polyketide, phosphate solubilization, motility, and biofilm formation) that may be significant factors in the host colonization and protection against pathogenic infections ( 7 - 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Three proteolytic organisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus megaterium) were used in the production of protease and the most effective production was observed at a temperature of 45°C and pH 9. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Bacillus megaterium KU143, Microbacterium testaceum KU313, and Pseudomonas protegens AS15 from stored rice grains exhibited antifungal activity against Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. (asm.org)
  • Among them, Bacillus megaterium KU143, Microbacterium testaceum KU313, and Pseudomonas protegens AS15 were selected as potential biocontrol agents ( 3 - 5 ). (asm.org)
  • A 53-base-pair inverted repeat negatively regulates expression of the adjacent and divergently oriented cytochrome P450(BM-1) gene and its regulatory gene, bm1P1, in Bacillus megaterium. (atcc.org)
  • Due to the well-documented limitations in the application of the most prominent production host, Escherichia coli , for extracellular and high-molecular-mass protein formation, alternative production hosts, such as Bacillus megaterium , have gained growing interest ( 26 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • however, the Gram-positive B. megaterium does not produce the endotoxins associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative E. coli . (asm.org)
  • The first P xylA -based gene expression shuttle vector, pWH1520, already comprised all necessary elements for xylose-inducible gene expression in B. megaterium , as well as for replication and antibiotic-based selection in both B. megaterium and E. coli ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • The material produced by B. megaterium showed an increased specific activity compared to material produced in E. coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • High yields of functional scFv antibody fragments can be produced and secreted into the culture medium by B. megaterium , making this production system a reasonable alternative to E. coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Gram-positive aerobe Bacillus megaterium has previously been used for the commercial production of cobalamin and has a complete anaerobic pathway. (bl.uk)
  • This breakthrough then permitted the characterisation of many of the down-stream steps in the pathway to be characterised by using other purified cobalamin biosynthetic enzymes from B. megaterium, by incubating combinations of purified enzymes with cobalt-factor IV and the appropriate cofactors (SAM, NADH). (bl.uk)
  • The extracellular electron transfer (EET) mechanism of an isolated Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain (LLD-1), identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and physiological analysis, was investigated in the present study. (cas.cn)
  • Precise understanding of its metabolism is essential for designing engineering strategies to further optimize B. megaterium for biotechnology applications. (chalmers.se)
  • We conclude that the genome-scale metabolic model iJA1121 represents a useful tool for systems analysis and furthers our understanding of the metabolism of B. megaterium. (chalmers.se)
  • Aplicação da lógica fuzzi na produção de penicilina G Acilase em cultivos de Bacillus megaterium. (ufscar.br)
  • Neste trabalho realizou-se a produção do PHA poli(3- hidroxibutirato) (P3HB) em cultivos submersos da bactéria Bacillus megaterium em meio mineral, utilizando-se sacarose como fonte de carbono e sulfato de amônio como fonte de nitrogênio. (ufrgs.br)
  • Previous work has demonstrated that unidentified genes carried on one of the large indigenous plasmids are required for the assembly of the Bacillus megaterium exosporium. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we describe the biological characteristics, whole genome sequences, and annotations for two new isolates of the B. megaterium bacteriophages (BM5 and BM10), which were isolated from Egyptian soil samples. (peerj.com)
  • An easy way to isolate Bacillus is by placing non-sterile soil in a test tube with water, shaking, placing in melted Mannitol Salt Agar, and incubating at room temperature for at least a day. (bionity.com)
  • CGTase production, mainly by Bacillus sp. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the aim of this work was evaluate the AS as carbon source for CGTase production by B. megaterium in a submerged fermentation. (frontiersin.org)
  • P. fluorescens produced protease best at 3rd production of 48 and 72 hours, E. cloacae produced protease best at 3rd production at 72 hours and B. megaterium produced best at 24 hours of 3rd production. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The combination of genetic and medium optimization led to an overall 7-fold improvement of PGA production and export in B. megaterium . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, using B. megaterium to secrete homologous B. megaterium PGA directly into the growth medium should facilitate its purification and consequently decrease the downstream processing and final production costs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this contribution we tested directed molecular strategies for the stepwise improvement of PGA production and secretion using B. megaterium . (biomedcentral.com)
  • A growing population of Bacillus megaterium, prelabelled with 14C-amino acids displays protein turnover, the rate of which is influenced by the growth rate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The addition of Bacillus megaterium SP1 in aquaculture wastewater could effectively improve aquaculture water quality, promote the formation of biofloc, and then form an efficient and healthy aquaculture model based on biofloc technology. (hindawi.com)