Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Bacillaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.PeptidoglycanBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Picolinic AcidsPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Diaminopimelic AcidHydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Glycoside HydrolasesProbiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)PhenazinesProtein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 18.104.22.168.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Shivaji, S. (2005). "Bacillus arsenicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium isolated from a siderite concretion in West ... Ljungdahl, Lars G. (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95592-5. Berkeley, ... and proposal to reclassify Bacillus arsenicus, Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus macauensis, Bacillus nanhaiensis, Bacillus rigui, ... Fictibacillus arsenicus, also known as Bacillus arsenicus, is a bacterium. It is Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod- ...
... the most common agents include Gram-negative bacilli (e.g., Escherichia coli) and anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Bacteroides ... gram negative bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria. Beta-lactams with beta lactamase inhibitors can also be used, examples include ... Again, in most cases, mixed bacteria are isolated; the most common agents include cutaneous species such as Staphylococcus ... Out of the cephalosporins, cefoxitin and cefotetan can be used to cover gram positive bacteria, ...
Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli chapter in Baron's Medical Microbiology (online at the NCBI bookshelf). Fusobacterium From ... Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming bacteria, similar to Bacteroides. Individual cells are ... The bacterium is a big anchor for biofilms. It is susceptible to clindamycin. In contrast to Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium ... Alice Park (18 October 2011). "A Surprising Link Between Bacteria and Colon Cancer". Time.com. Retrieved 18 October 2011. " ...
Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, rod-shaped facultative anaerobic bacterium that does not produce spores. The bacterium is ... Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacterium. It is closely related to Bacillus and Staphylococcus. It is a rod-shaped, ... Gram-positive bacteria have a cell layer made of peptidoglycan and stains purple. Gram-negative bacteria also contains ... to classify bacteria into mesophilic and thermophilic. All bacteria have their own optimum environmental surroundings and ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic bacteria. Bacteroides species are nonendospore-forming bacilli, and ... A recent report found temperature plays a major role in the amount of time the bacteria will persist in the environment, the ... "A new study has found that there is a three-way relationship between a type of gut bacteria, cortisol, and brain metabolites. ... "Gut bacteria influence the brain indirectly, study shows". Medical News Today. Retrieved 2018-01-07. Slonczewski, Joan L.; ...
Organisms that are rarely found are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative aerobic bacilli, and anaerobic bacteria. P. ... Brook I (2005). "The role of anaerobic bacteria in acute and chronic mastoiditis". Anaerobe. 11: 252-7. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe. ... aureus and anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp. ) are the most common ... can be switched to more specific antibiotics directed at the eradication of the recovered aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Long- ...
International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes
... and Cytophaga-like bacteria; Gram-negative anaerobic rods; Family Halobacteriaceae; Family Halomonadaceae; Genus Leptospira; ... These include the following: Aeromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae and related organisms; Genera Agrobacterium and Rhizobium; Bacillus ... The ICSP is also integral to the production of the publication of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (the ... IUMS has now agreed to transfer copyright of future versions of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (to be ...
Acute infectious thyroiditis
The majority of anaerobic organisms involved with AIT are susceptible to penicillin. Certain Gram-negative bacilli (ex: ... Despite the thyroid gland being extremely resistant to infection, it is still susceptible to infection by various bacteria. The ... Patients who have undergone recent penicillin therapy have demonstrated an increase in beta-lactamase-producing (anaerobic and ... Empirical broad spectrum antimicrobial treatment provides preliminary coverage for a variety of bacteria, including S. aureus ...
Its structure is rod-like (bacilli), and it is made motile by peritrichous flagella (covering the whole body of the bacteria). ... E. vulneris is facultatively anaerobic, and is not spore-forming. Optimal growth occurs at 35-37 °C, and can colonize on a ... This bacterium can colonize in the respiratory tract, genital tract, stool, and urinary tract. However, E. vulneris is most ... Escherichia vulneris is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the same genus as E. coli. E. vulneris is a fermentative, ...
... prod.hopkins-abxguide.org/pathogens/bacteria/anaerobic_gram-neg._bacilli/bacteroides_fragilis.html?contentInstanceId=255919 ... Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. It is part of the normal flora of the ... Bacteroides infections at eMedicine Brook I (June 2010). "The role of anaerobic bacteria in bacteremia". Anaerobe. 16 (3): 183- ... List of oncogenic bacteria Infectious causes of cancer Pathogenic bacteria Kuwahara T, Yamashita A, Hirakawa H, et al. (October ...
The genus Paenibacillus comprises facultative anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria originally included within the genus ... Bacillus and then reclassified as a separate genus in 1993. Bacteria in the genus have been detected in a variety of ... In Bacteria as Multicellular Organisms Edited by Shapiro JA, Dworkin M. New York: Oxford University Press; 1997: 394-416 Ben- ... The bacteria collectively sense the environment and execute distributed information processing to glean and assess relevant ...
The genus Paenibacillus comprises facultative anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria originally included within the genus ... Bacillus and then reclassified as a separate genus in 1993. Bacteria belonging to this genus have been detected in a variety of ... plant pathogenic bacteria and even important anaerobic pathogens as Clostridium botulinium. P. dendritiformis is a social ... Bacteria as Multicellular Organisms New York: Oxford University Press; 1997:394-416. Ben-Jacob E, Levine H. Self-engineering ...
... by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a large anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that forms ... In all cases, illness is caused by the botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium C. botulinum in anaerobic conditions and not ... When the bacteria are under stress, they develop spores, which are inert. Their natural habitats are in the soil, in the silt ... The bacterium then produces the toxin, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. The consumption of honey during the first year ...
... is a genus of facultative anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria, originally included within the genus Bacillus ... plant pathogenic bacteria, and even important anaerobic pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum. More specifically, several ... bacteria: The colony diameter is 5 cm and the colors indicate the bacterial density (bright yellow for high density). The ... Bacteria belonging to this genus have been detected in a variety of environments, such as: soil, water, rhizosphere, vegetable ...
Anaerobic pathway in which cobalt insertion is the first committed step towards cobalamin synthesis; found in Salmonella ... In bacteria and archaea, these enzymes include methionine synthase, ribonucleotide reductase, glutamate and methylmalonyl-CoA ... CbiD is an essential protein for cobalamin biosynthesis in both Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus megaterium. A deletion ... Several of these enzymes are pathway-specific: CbiD, CbiG, and CbiK are specific to the anaerobic route of S. typhimurium, ...
Anaerobic bacteria are not as susceptible to tetracyclines as are aerobic bacteria. Doxycycline is also used as a prophylactic ... treatment for infection by Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and is effective against Yersinia pestis, the infectious agent of ... Chow, Anthony W.; Patten, Valerie; Guze, Lucien B. (1975-01-01). "Comparative Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria to ... Oxytetracycline (Terramycin) was discovered shortly afterwards by AC Finlay et al.; it came from a similar soil bacterium named ...
... is a Gram-positive, spore forming, anaerobic bacillus found in the soil and the gut of many animal species ... Aerotolerance is a term applied to describe strains of anaerobic bacteria that can tolerate oxygen and exhibit growth to some ... Clostridium tertium is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Although it can be considered an uncommon pathogen in ... A negative catalase test is an easy tool to differentiate C. tertium from Bacillus spp., which are catalase positive. Also, C. ...
... formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic ... When both bacteria are placed together into a nasal cavity, within 2 weeks, only H. influenzae survives. When either is placed ... The bacterium was mistakenly considered to be the cause of influenza until 1933 when the viral cause of influenza became ... Because the method relies on antigen rather than viable bacteria, the results are not disrupted by prior antibiotic use. It ...
... (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore- ... In addition, laboratories can diagnose the bacteria by determining the number of bacteria in the feces. Within the 48 hours ... However, diagnosis can be made using a stool culture test, in which the feces is tested for toxins produced by the bacteria. ... "Bacteria that killed 3 at Antioch Thanksgiving dinner pinpointed". SFGate. Retrieved 2016-12-20. "Mother, son sue eatery for ...
Frederick George Novy
Among his other work, he performed studies of anaerobic bacteria, investigated an outbreak of the bubonic plague in San ... "The Toxic Products of the Bacillus of Hog Cholera". The following year, he completed the work needed to receive his M.D. He was ... Francisco during 1900, researched anaphylotoxin, and studied the metabolism of microorganisms-especially the tubercle bacillus ...
Acute infectious thyroiditis
The majority of anaerobic organisms involved with AIT are susceptible to penicillin. Certain Gram-negative bacilli (ex: ... anaerobic and aerobic) bacteria. Clindamycin, or a combination of metronidazole and a macrolide, or a penicillin combined with ... Despite the thyroid gland being extremely resistant to infection, it is still susceptible to infection by various bacteria. ... The cause can be almost any bacterium. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and ...
... under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. They are usually found in pairs ( ... For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may ... It spreads by direct person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets and by autoinoculation in persons carrying the bacteria ...
... a study of the role of anaerobic bacteria". Br. J. Dermatol. 116 (1): 31-7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1987.tb05788.x. PMID ... Early lesions may be colonized or infected by, Bacillus fusiformis (Vincent's organism), anaerobes and spirochaetes. Later, ... by entry of tetanus bacilli through the ulcer. There is now considerable evidence to suggest that this disease ...
Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ... Bacteria having a centrally placed endospore include Bacillus cereus. Sometimes the endospore can be so large the cell can be ... Endospores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The powder found in contaminated postal ... 1967). "The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis". Nature. 390 (6657): 249-56. doi:10.1038 ...
Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ... Actinomycetales are generally gram-positive and anaerobic and have mycelium in a filamentous and branching growth pattern. Some ... Bacilli. *Bacillales. *Lactobacillales. *Aphragmobacteria *Erysipelotrichia *Erysipelotrichiales. *Mollicutes *Mycoplasmatales ... Actinomycetales bacteria can be infected by bacteriophages, which are called actinophages. Actinomycetales can range from ...
Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Alcaligenes). Bacteria grown in liquid cultures often form colloidal suspensions. ... The wort contains all the nutrients required for yeast growth, and under anaerobic conditions, alcohol is produced. When the ... Hektoen enteric agar is selective for Gram-negative bacteria.. *Mannitol salt agar is selective for Gram-positive bacteria and ... They remain solid, as very few bacteria are able to decompose agar (the exception being some species in the genera: Cytophaga, ...
18 June 2002). "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". Journal of General and Applied Microbiology. 48 ... Bacillus spp. (genus): This organism is likely to grow soy sauce ingredients, and to generate odors and ammonia. ... Due to the high salinity of HLF moromi, only anaerobic halophile can survive in the medium. Beside the 15-30 °C temperature ... Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid and yeast makes ethanol, which through aging and secondary ...
Multidomain cellulases are widespread among many taxonomic groups, however, cellulases from anaerobic bacteria, found in ... January 2008). "Purification and characterization of cellulase produced by Bacillus amyoliquefaciens DL-3 utilizing rice hull ... Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the ... In many bacteria, cellulases in-vivo are complex enzyme structures organized in supramolecular complexes, the cellulosomes. ...
Despite having the name Oenococcus, under the microscope, the bacterium has a bacillus (shape) rod shape. The bacteria is a ... exists currently to suggest that malolactic fermentation runs more smoothly in aerobic conditions than in complete anaerobic ... Lactic acid bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid as an indirect means of creating energy for the bacteria by ... a b c d Sibylle Krieger "The History of Malolactic Bacteria in Wine Archived 2012-09-15 at the Wayback Machine pgs 15-21. ...
Sporeforming Anaerobic Bacilli". In Baron S. Baron's Medical Microbiology. Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2 ... anaerobic soil bacteria. The etiology of the disease was further elucidated in 1884 by Antonio Carle and Giorgio Rattone, two ... tetani being an anaerobic bacterium, it and its endospores thrive in environments that lack oxygen, such as a puncture wound. ... objects that accumulate rust are often found outdoors or in places that harbour anaerobic bacteria. Additionally, the rough ...
However, as oxygen is also important for plant respiration, storing plant materials in anaerobic conditions produces unpleasant ... bacillithiol in some Gram-positive bacteria, or by trypanothione in the Kinetoplastids. ... "Bacillithiol is an antioxidant thiol produced in Bacilli". Nature Chemical Biology. 5 (9): 625-627. doi:10.1038/nchembio.189 ... "Biosynthesis and functions of bacillithiol, a major low-molecular-weight thiol in Bacilli". Proceedings of the National ...
THE PROKARYOTIC CELL: BACTERIA". Retrieved 1 May 2011.. *^ a b c d e f g h White, D. (2007). The physiology and biochemistry of ... "The permeability of the wall fabric of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis". Journal of Bacteriology. 178 (3): 768-73. PMC ... The peptidoglycan layer is substantially thicker in Gram-positive bacteria (20 to 80 nanometers) than in Gram-negative bacteria ... Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, ...
It contains only 7 genera of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria, known colloquially as Green sulfur bacteria. The ... the class Bacilli such as the Bacillus spp. (e.g. B. anthracis, a pathogen, and B. subtilis, biotechnologically useful), lactic ... Purple Bacteria and their relatives (later renamed Proteobacteria) *alpha subdivision (purple non-sulfur bacteria, ... In that system, bacteria are members of the domain Bacteria and "phylum" is the rank below domain, since the rank "kingdom" ...
Wells, C. L., Wilkins, T. D. (1996). "Clostridia: Sporeforming Anaerobic Bacilli". In Baron, S.; et al. Baron's Medical ... anaerobic soil bacteria. The etiology of the disease was further elucidated in 1884 by Antonio Carle and Giorgio Rattone, two ... tetani being an anaerobic bacterium, it and its endospores thrive in environments that lack oxygen, such as a puncture wound. ... objects that accumulate rust are often found outdoors or in places that harbour anaerobic bacteria. Additionally, the rough ...
When these bacteria divide, they do so along two axes, so form clumps of bacteria. This is as opposed to streptococci, which ... Staphylococcus species can be differentiated from other aerobic and facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci by several ... Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales. Under the ... Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, for they can be produced by bacteria growing in improperly stored ...
... bacterium, bacillus, coccus, agent or the name of their phylum) e.g. cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) or Lyme disease ... anaerobic phototrophs, orders: Rhodospirillales and Chlorobiales ... Bacillus-a genus of spore-forming rod shaped bacteria first ... Bacillus cereus group: close and polyphyleticEdit. Main article: Bacillus cereus. In a similar way, the Bacillus species (= ... Purple sulfur bacteria are members of the order Chromatiales. *low G+C Gram-positive bacteria are members of the phylum ...
A new anaerobic bacillus and its relation to botulism. E. van Ermengem. Originally published as "Ueber einen neuen anaëroben ... where exposure to an anaerobic environment allows the spores to germinate, after which the bacteria can multiply and produce ... Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. butyricum, C. baratii and C ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. It ...
"Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria" (PDF). Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (1): 49- ... "Antibiotic resistance among gram-negative bacilli in US intensive care units: implications for fluoroquinolone use". JAMA: The ... "Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria" (PDF). Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (1): 49- ... For many gram-negative bacteria, DNA gyrase is the target, whereas topoisomerase IV is the target for many gram-positive ...
... anaerobic bacteria isolated from a deep borehole in granite in Sweden". PNAS. 91 (5): 1810-3. Bibcode:1994PNAS...91.1810S. doi: ... He found that the blood of cattle that were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. Koch found ... Bacteria are microscopic, with a few extremely rare exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis. Bacteria function and ... They evolved from symbiotic bacteria and retain a remnant genome. Like bacteria, plant cells have cell walls, and contain ...
... is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of ... As facultative anaerobic organism, Salmonella uses oxygen to make ATP in aerobic environment (i.e., when oxygen is available). ... This article is about the bacteria. For the disease caused by such bacteria, see Salmonellosis. ... Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ...
Carbol fuchsin is sometimes substituted for safranin since it more intensely stains anaerobic bacteria, but it is less commonly ... It includes many well-known genera such as Bacillus, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Clostridium.[19 ... Gram-positive bacteria. Main article: Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria generally have a single membrane ( ... Gram-negative bacteria. Main article: Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria generally possess a thin layer of ...
Bakterya, ang malayang ensiklopedya
"Bacteria [plural], bacterium [singular], Some Medical Terms, Diseases". The New Book of Knowledge (Ang Bagong Aklat ng Kaalaman ... Bacillus, Clostridium o Enterobacteriaceae Ang mga Photoautotrophs ay pangkat ng mga bakterya na gumagamit ng sinag ng araw ... na may anaerobic strata sa lawa o mainit na bukal na sagana sa sulfate. ... Ang bakterya (Ingles: bacteria (IPA: /bækˈtɪəriə/) [maramihan] o bacterium [isahan]) ay isa sa mga pangunahing grupo ng ...
... aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Like other genera associated with the early history of microbiology, such as ... bacillus) bacteria. He had seven years earlier named the genus Bacterium. Bacillus was later amended by Ferdinand Cohn to ... Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be ... For rod-shaped bacteria in general, see Bacillus (shape). For the insect genus, see Bacillus (insect). ...
... waxy lipid layer like acid-fast bacteria. When counter stain is applied, non-acid-fast bacteria pick it up and become blue ( ... Acid-fast bacilli are bright red after staining. Fungi. Ziehl-Neelsen staining is a type of narrow spectrum fungal stain ... Acid-fast bacteria retain carbol fuchsin so they appear red. Modifications. *1% sulfuric acid alcohol for actinomycetes, ... These acids resist staining by ordinary methods such as a Gram stain. It can also be used to stain a few other bacteria, ...
Enterococcus - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sensitive strains of these bacteria can be treated with ampicillin, penicillin and vancomycin. Urinary tract infections can ... Enterococci are "facultative anaerobic organisms". This means they can live in both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environments.[2 ... Enterococcus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ...
Ahmed I, Yokota A, Fujiwara T (March 2007). "A novel highly boron tolerant bacterium, Bacillus boroniphilus sp. nov., isolated ... A facultative anaerobe can tolerate anaerobic and aerobic conditions; however, an obligate anaerobe would die in the presence ... The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. This bacterium can also survive cold, ... Bacillus, Clostridium paradoxum Ionizing radiation. Cosmic rays, X-rays, radioactive decay. 1,500 to 6,000 Gy. Deinococcus ...
ന്യുമോണിയ - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
Anaerobic bacteria) ഒക്കെ കൂടിക്കലർന്ന ഒരു അണുസംഘാതത്തെയാണ്. വായിൽ നിന്ന് ശ്വാസകോശത്തിൽ കടക്കുന്ന അണുക്കൾക്ക് ചില പ്രത്യേകതകൾ ... ഗ്രാം അഭിരഞ്ജക ദണ്ഡാകാര ബാക്റ്റീരിയ (Gram +ve bacilli). ആന്ത്രാക്സ് ബാസിലസ് ഗ്രാം അനഭിരഞ്ജക ഗോളാഭ ബാക്റ്റീരിയ (Gram -ve cocci) ... ഗ്രാം അനഭിരഞ്ജക ദണ്ഡാകാര ബാക്റ്റീരിയ (Gram -ve bacilli). ക്ലെബ്സിയെല്ല ന്യുമോണിയേ, സ്യൂഡോമൊണാസ് ജാതികൾ, എസ്ചെറീഷ്യ കോളൈ, ... ചിലപഠനങ്ങൾ സൂചിപ്പിക്കുന്നതു ...
... and Bacilli) and many different types of rare bacteria. Other types of rare organisms were discovered inside the navels of ... Holland KT, Cunliffe WJ, Roberts CD (1977). "Acne vulgaris: an investigation into the number of anaerobic diphtheroids and ... Bacteria. Scanning electron microscope image of Staphylococcus epidermidis one of roughly a thousand bacteria species ... Transient bacteria (bacteria that does not reproduce) forms the majority of the organisms found in the navel, and an ...
សារពាង្គកាយ - វិគីភីឌា
2001). The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Springer. ... BBCNews, 18 December 2002, 'Space bugs' grown in lab Citat: "Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri...Engyodontium album ... "បង្ហាញ Lucas ដែលជា anaerobic , CO 2 -fixing, ក្រុមហ៊ុន H 2 -dependent ជាមួយនឹងការ ផ្លូវឈើ Ljungdahl (ការកាត់បន្ថយ Acetyl- ... Bacteria present a problem with their diversity...Protista present a problem with their diversity...", ...
Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with an abdominal stab wound | Revista Argentina de Microbiología
... a selective medium for anaerobic bacteria and thioglycolate broth. Again, abundant gram positive bacilli developed. ... Bacillus cereus sensu lato,Bacillus anthracis,Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Bacillus ... Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with an abdominal stab wound Bacteriemia por Bacillus cereus en paciente con herida de ... Bacillus cereus is a gram positive, facultatively anaerobic, spore-forming rod widely distributed environmentally, with no ...
HARMFUL BACTERIUM CONTROL AGENT CONTAINING BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS - Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd.
Through inhibition of the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and inactivation of bacterial self-induced factors, the balance ... The digestive tract of the human is in a microaerobic or anaerobic condition, so the bacterium can proliferate satisfactorily ... Bacillus subtilis NBRC3336, Bacillus clausii DSM2512, Bacillus clausii DSM2515, Bacillus clausii DSM2525, and Bacillus clausii ... Bacillus coagulans NBRC12583, Bacillus coagulans DSM2312, Bacillus subtilis NBRC3009, Bacillus subtilis NBRC3025, Bacillus ...
Bacillus selenitireducens - Wikipedia
Ljungdahl, Lars G. (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95592-5. Berkeley, ... Bacillus selenitireducens is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... Bacillus selenitireducens at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Bacillus selenitireducens at BacDive - the Bacterial ... nov., and Bacillus selenitireducens , sp. nov.: two haloalkaliphiles from Mono Lake, California that respire oxyanions of ...
Fictibacillus arsenicus - Wikipedia
Shivaji, S. (2005). "Bacillus arsenicus sp. nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium isolated from a siderite concretion in West ... Ljungdahl, Lars G. (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95592-5. Berkeley, ... and proposal to reclassify Bacillus arsenicus, Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus macauensis, Bacillus nanhaiensis, Bacillus rigui, ... Fictibacillus arsenicus, also known as Bacillus arsenicus, is a bacterium. It is Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod- ...
Bacteria (Example) - MindMeister
Anaerobic Gram Negative Cocci, Anaerobic Gram Positive Rod, Aerobic Gram Positive Rod, Anaerobic Gram Negative Bacilli, ... Obligate intracellular bacteria, Aerobic Gram Positive Cocci, Anaerobic Gram Positive Cocci, Aerobic Gram Negative Cocci, ... Bacillus. 7.5.1. B.cereus. 7.5.2. B.anthracis. 7.6. Listeria. 7.7. Erysipelothrix. 8. Anaerobic Gram Negative Bacilli. 8.1. ... Bacteria. by Jeng Ja 1. Obligate intracellular bacteria. 1.1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae. 1.2. Ureaplasma. 1.3. Chlamydia. 1.3.1. C. ...
DailyMed - BENZODOX 30 KIT- doxycycline tablets and advanced acne wash kit
Gram-Positive Bacteria Bacillus anthracis Streptococcus pneumoniae Anaerobic Bacteria Clostridium species. Fusobacterium ... Anaerobic Techniques For anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to doxycycline can be determined by a standardized test method. ... 5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; ... Other Bacteria Nocardiae and other Actinomyces species. Borrelia recurrentis Chlamydophila psittaci Chlamydia trachomatis ...
DailyMed - DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE- doxycycline hyclate tablet, film coated
Gram-Positive Bacteria. Bacillus anthracis Streptococcus pneumoniae Anaerobic Bacteria. Clostridium species. Fusobacterium ... Anaerobic Techniques. For anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to doxycycline can be determined by a standardized test method ... Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; ... Bacteria*. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration. (mcg/mL). Zone Diameter. (mm). Agar Dilution. (mcg/mL). ...
Ampicillin Capsules - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Gram-Positive Bacteria. Anaerobic Bacteria. Bacillus anthracis. Corynebacterium xerosis. Clostridium spp.. Susceptibility Test ... At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to ... Ampicillin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical ... However the efficacy of ampicillin in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate ...
Frontiers | Diversifying Anaerobic Respiration Strategies to Compete in the Rhizosphere | Environmental Science
Anaerobic respiration has been deeply studied, and the genes involved in anaerobic respiration have been identified. However, ... Anaerobic respiration has been deeply studied, and the genes involved in anaerobic respiration have been identified. However, ... Anaerobic respiration appears to be a key process for the functioning of an ecosystem and interactions between plants and ... Anaerobic respiration flexibility contributes to the rhizosphere competence of microbes. Indeed, a wide range of compounds that ...
INDIA, A PROGRAMME OF INVESTIGATIONS ON THE HYDROBIOLOGY OF FISH PONDS
H. For anaerobic nitrogen fixation. Among the anaerobic nitrogen fixing bacteria, Clostridium spp. is important. One bacillus ... Proteins are used as energy and nutrient sources by a group of anaerobic bacteria releasing sulphide highly poisonous for the ... C. For oligocarbophilic bacteria. *. A medium for oligocarbophilic bacteria is prepared by dissolving 15 g of agar in 1 000 cm3 ... The number of bacteria (N) in the sample is calculated using the formula:. Where. S. =. area of the working surface on the ...
British Library EThOS: Elucidation of the anaerobic biosynthesis of vitamin B12 in Bacillus megaterium
However, it is made by only certain bacteria, requiring around thirty enzymatic steps for its complete de novo construction. ... pathways that represent aerobic or anaerobic routes. The anaerobic pathway has remained poorly characterised due to the ... One of the major bottlenecks in the anaerobic pathway is the ring contraction step, where only limited yields « 5 %) of product ... The exposition of the anaerobic pathway has been interpreted with respect to the chemical logic of the metabolic process and ...
Diversity and Ubiquity of Bacteria Capable of Utilizing Humic Substances as Electron Donors for Anaerobic Respiration | Applied...
Bacillus subtilis, K00637 ; Stigmatella erecta, AJ233933 ; Geobacter humireducens, AF019932 ; Pseudomonas flavescens, U01916 ; ... Diversity and Ubiquity of Bacteria Capable of Utilizing Humic Substances as Electron Donors for Anaerobic Respiration. John D. ... Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced humic substances (HS) can be reoxidized by anaerobic bacteria such as Geobacter ... Diversity and Ubiquity of Bacteria Capable of Utilizing Humic Substances as Electron Donors for Anaerobic Respiration ...
AquaFit4Use - Fouling and Corrosion Parameters | Biofilm | Surfactant
Hughes-van Kregten 1988). 1997) MICROORGANISMS Aerobic bacterias that produces spores (Bacillus). anaerobic bacterias ( ... Principal microorganisms in water process are bacterias. yeasts and algae. PTS. Anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium produce ... manganese-depositing bacteria (Hyphomicrobium) and iron depositing bacteria (Gallionella). Most of heterotrophic bacteria ( ... Aerobic bacteria are more often in process waters although sometimes when oxygen is low anaerobic bacteria are predominant. As ...
Article 2: Major Groups of Disease-Causing Bacteria (Worksheet) Flashcards by Christopher Hauglid | Brainscape
Major Groups of Disease-Causing Bacteria (Worksheet) flashcards from Christopher Hauglid ... Anaerobic Spore-Forming:. -Clostridium. Aerobic:. -Bacillus. -Listeria. -Corynebacterium 9 Positive vs Negative Anaerobic ... Which bacteria are not usually gram stained and why? (4 of them from worksheet) ... Article 2: Major Groups of Disease-Causing Bacteria (Worksheet) Flashcards Preview Microbiology Exam 1 , Article 2: Major ...
Free Chiropractic Flashcards about Micro Ex3
What are the Gram-positive rods, spore forming bacteria? Which is anaerobic?. Bacillus, Clostridium (anaerobic). ... Which bacteria are coagulase positive?. S. aureus. Which bacteria can cause UTI?. E.coli, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, E. ... Which bacteria does not have a cell wall?. Mycoplasma. What is the difference between Staphylococcus and Streptococcus?. Staph ... What are the anaerobic Gram negative rods?. Bacteroids, Fusobacterium. What are the Acid-fast, Gram-positive rods?. ...
Module MSE-2019: Medical Microbiology, Bangor University
... anaerobic Clostridium species; aerobic spore forming species of the Bacillus group including Bacillus anthracis; Mycobacterium ... The study of some major groups of bacteria and parasites of importance in human infection. Understanding of the key concepts ... The major groups of bacteria that will be studied will include the Gram positive Staphylococcal and Streptococcal species; the ... information gained to understand the pathological changes that occur in clinical infections caused by some of the bacteria and ...
Establishment of specific pathogen-free guinea-pig colonies using limited-flora guinea-pigs associated with conventional guinea...
... guinea-pigs were produced by inoculation of hysterectomy-derived GF guinea-pigs with various combinations of cecal bacteria of ... Bacillus / growth & development * Bacteria, Anaerobic / growth & development * Bacteroidaceae / growth & development * ... which consists mainly of the anaerobic bacteria, was not changed over a long period, and the flora composition became similar ... However, the mortality of LF guinea-pigs inoculated with the anaerobic growth on EG plates injected with 10(-5) dilution of ...
Isolation of an anaerobic intestinal bacterium capable of cleaving the C-ring of the isoflavonoid daidzein.
A gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, strain HGH 136, capable of conversion of the isoflavonoid daidzein, was isolated and ... Colonic bacteria were screened for bacteria involved in the conversion of phytoestrogens. ... 6598914 - Motile curved bacilli. isolation and investigation.. 3804444 - Absence of significant cellulase activity in microbial ... Colonic bacteria were screened for bacteria involved in the conversion of phytoestrogens. A gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, ...
Nitrogen Fixation | Encyclopedia.com
Nitrogen fixation is conducted by a variety of bacteria, both as free-living organisms and in symbiotic association with plants ... The free-living bacteria include both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including some species that are photosynthetic. ... Free-living nitrogen-fixing soil and aquatic bacteria include Azotobacter species, Bacillus species, Clostridium species, and ... A large number of free-living bacteria of anaerobic environments have the ability to fix nitrogen, including the genus ...
Microbial Diversity in Soil under Potato Cultivation from Cold Desert Himalaya, India
The bacteria were tentatively identified as species of ,i,Bacillus,/i, and ,i,Pseudomonas,,/i, while the majority of the fungal ... 25 morphologically distinct microbial isolates belonging to Gram +ve and Gram −ve bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi including ... Off white, entire, and slimy colony with 6 mm dia; Gram +ve bacilli arranged in short chains; facultative anaerobic. Bacillus ... The bacteria were tentatively identified as species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas, while the majority of the fungal isolates ...
Isolation and characterisation of bacteria from the haloalkaline Lake Elmenteita, Kenya | SpringerLink
Culture-independent studies show that soda lake environments harbour diverse groups of bacteria and archaea. In this study ... nov., new alkaliphilic, facultatively anaerobic, saccharolytic bacilli from Lake Magadi. Microbiology 70:711-722 (English ... nov., a facultatively anaerobic sporeforming xylan-digesting bacterium which lacks cytochrome, quinone, and catalase. Int J Sys ... nov., novel alkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes in China and East Africa. Extremophiles 8:193-200CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Anaerobes Flashcards by year -2 | Brainscape
Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract contents of a flathead mullet ( Mugil cephalus) | SpringerLink
nov., a red, facultatively anaerobic, marine bacterium isolated from sea water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:479-484PubMed ... to Bacillus aerophilus 28KT, Bacillus stratosphericus 41KF2aT and Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631T, followed by Bacillus ... nov., Bacillus aerophilus sp. nov., Bacillus stratosphericus sp. nov. and Bacillus altitudinis sp. nov., isolated from ... Oguntoyinbo F (2007) Monitoring of marine Bacillus diversity among the bacteria community of sea water. Afr J Biotechnol 6:163- ...
Testing for Bacteria and Fungi in Cell Cultures | Sigma-Aldrich
Anaerobic nutrient broth Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (20ml aliquots) (TGM) *Positive control organisms e.g. *Bacillus subtilis ... Test broths containing bacteria or fungi show turbidity. Criteria for a Negative Result. Test broths should be clear and show ... Control organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes and Candida albicans) are available from the National Collection ... For each of the positive control organisms inoculate 2 x aerobic broths and 2 x anaerobic broths (e.g. 0.1ml control at 100 cfu ...
Bacterial and Fungal Infections in Persons Who Inject Drugs - Western New York, 2017 | MMWR
... unspecified anaerobic gram-negative cocci; 10 gram-positive bacteria including Actinomyces spp. (two), coagulase negative ... and unspecified gram-positive bacilli.. †† Infection types are not mutually exclusive, with the exception of bacteremia without ... 12 gram-negative bacteria including Enterobacter cloacae (two), Eikenella corrodens, Escherichia coli, Leclercia spp., ... Staphylococcus (two [possible contaminants]), Aerococcus viridans, Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Granulicatella spp., ...
Little Doubt This Acne Bacteria Plays A Role In Prostate Cancer
... anaerobic gram-positive bacilli responsible for inflammatory acne.When someone mentions cancer in men, most will immediately ... Propionibacterium acnes, anaerobic gram-positive bacilli responsible for inflammatory acne.. When someone mentions cancer in ... When an unwelcome bacterium or virus enters a restricted area such as the prostate, the cells may respond by trying to kill the ... MORE:acnebacteriablogblogscancerCancer causesCancer TreatmenthealthinfectionsinflammationLivingpropionibacterium-acnesprostate ...
Bacteria. - Dr. Sayeed Ahmad
... and Bacillus (aerobic). Enteric. Rod-shaped, gram-negative, aerobic but can live in certain anaerobic conditions; produce ... Round bacteria are called cocci, and rod-shaped ones are bacilli. Bacteria that look like bent rods are vibrios. There are two ... How bacteria obtain food.. Most kinds of bacteria, called heterotrophic bacteria, feed on other organisms. Some species, known ... The life of bacteria. Where bacteria live. Bacteria live almost everywhere, even in places where other forms of life cannot ...
Black Sea anaerobic bacterium, SEM - Stock Image C032/2268 - Science Photo Library
... of Marine anaerobic bacillus bacterium with spinae. This bacterium is an unidentified rod-shaped bacterium from the Black Sea ( ... The bacterium has non-cellular appendages called spinae that likely help the bacterium stay suspended in the water column. The ... of Marine anaerobic bacillus bacterium with spinae. This bacterium is an unidentified rod-shaped bacterium from the Black Sea ( ... Keywords: 03black, 281048b, alpha, anaerobic, anoxic, appendage, appendages, bacilli, bacillus, bacteria, bacterioplankton, ...
Gas bacillus | Define Gas bacillus at Dictionary.com
... any of several pathogenic bacilli, especially of the genus Clostridium, that produce gas in infected tissue. See more. ... An anaerobic, gram-negative, motile bacterium of the genus Clostridium that causes gas gangrene in humans. ... any of several pathogenic bacilli, especially of the genus Clostridium, that produce gas in infected tissue. ...
First Report of Clostridium lavalense Isolated in Human Blood Cultures
The bacterium was initially identified as,i, Clostridium butyricum,/i, using anaerobic manual identification panel. 16S rRNA ... Gram-positive sporulated bacillus. Empirical antibiotherapy with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam was initiated. The patient ... gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed the bacterium to be,i, Clostridium lavalense,/i,, a recently described species ... Anaerobic blood culture bottles revealed the presence of an anaerobic, ...
Plant Production and Delivery System for Recombinant Proteins as Protein-Flour or Protein-Oil Compositions - University of...
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming bacterium. The cry gene family ... Israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus against Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. J ... Bacteria are grown overnight at 37° C. in 10 ml of full strength (3% w/v) Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB). In the morning 1 ml of this ... For example, Bacillus thuringiensis toxins like the B.t. Cry1Ac that kill moth larvae and B.t.-Boosters like CR9-MPED ( ...
MicroorganismAnthracisStaphylococcusStreptococcusEscherichiaCorynebacteriumFusobacteriumCocciCatalase positiveFacultativelyFacultative anaerobicSalmonellaEnterococcusVibrioPropionibacteriumIsolatesIntestinalStrainThuringiensisMotileSpecies of anaerobicSpore formingMegateriumMicroorganismsAntibioticsLactic-acid bacImportance of anaerobicHarmful bacteriaPeptostreptococcusCharacterizationAerobic or anaerobicColiBiosynthesisCharacteristicsRespirationProcessed for aerobicCommensal bacteriaAntibioticPathwaysIntestinesCausative agentInfectionFecal samples
- Here we present comprehensive structure analysis of two putative PGKs from Bacillus anthracis str. (rcsb.org)
- The crystal structure of PGK from Bacillus anthracis str. (rcsb.org)
- 2. Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming, aerobic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that often occur in chains and include B. anthracis , the causative agent of anthrax. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Both compounds display pH-dependent activity against selected Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987. (wur.nl)
- This growth environment is shared by other bacteria such as the acne-causing bacteria, P. granulosum (which is found at one hundredth of P. acnes population) and Staphylococcus epidermis . (progressivehealth.com)
- Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are the Number 1 cause of hospital infections. (khouse.org)
- coliform bacilli gram-negative bacilli found in the intestinal tract that resemble Escherichia coli, particularly in the fermentation of lactose with gas. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod, Escherichia coli was named for Theodor Escherich, a German-Austrian pediatrician. (cdc.gov)
- Escherichia coli (E. coli), often listed in water quality analyses, is one species of fecal coliform bacteria. (agwt.org)
- Bacillus species 83(54.52%), Micrococcus spp 2(1.31%), Escherichia coli 36(23.53%), Proteus vulgaris 4(9.80%), Lactobacillus acidophilus 7(4.56%), Enterobacter aerogenes 15(9.80%) and Alcaligen faecalis 6(3.92%) were the bacteria species isolated. (ispub.com)
- Escherichia coli is generally presumed to live in a mutualistic manner in the intestine of the body, because it pays us "rent" with the vitamins that are derived from the bacteria. (answersingenesis.org)
- Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium ), gram-positive bacteria (e.g. (coursehero.com)
- is an aggressive non-spore forming cocci bacteria. (scielo.br)
- Actinomyces spp.Anaerobic and microaerophilic Gram-positive cocci, including: Peptococcus spp. (chemistdirect.co.uk)
- Acidaminococcus fermentans belongs to the group of strictly anaerobic gram-negative cocci. (asm.org)
- No β-lactamase has been described previously for anaerobic gram-negative cocci (including Veillonella , Acidaminococcus , and Megasphaera ). (asm.org)
- To our knowledge, this is the first β-lactamase found in anaerobic gram-negative cocci. (asm.org)
- Morphologically, they are characterized as cocci or bacilli (rods). (dentalcare.com)
- Ultimately, facultative and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative cocci and bacilli predominate in all types of odontogenic infections (Table 1). (dentalcare.com)
- The bacterium was observed to be Gram positive, oxidase and catalase positive, rod shaped, and motile by subpolar flagella. (springer.com)
- Gram-negative bacilli growth both-aerobic-and-anaerobic catalase-positive oxidase-negative ( Salmonella enterica subsp . (yahoo.com)
- 7 It is a facultative-anaerobic, catalase-positive bacterium that produces incomplete beta hemolysis when cultured. (uspharmacist.com)
- Guffanti AA, Finkelthal O, Hicks DB, Falk L, Sidhu A, Garro A, Krulwich TA (1986) Isolation and characterization of new facultatively alkalophilic strains of Bacillus . (springer.com)
- Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming bacterium. (asm.org)
- Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. (asm.org)
- The cause is the bacterium Salmonella enterica subsp . (yahoo.com)
- enterica is a subspecies of Salmonella enterica , the rod-shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium. (yahoo.com)
- Salmonella bacteria were first discovered by an American scientist, Dr. Daniel E. Salmon in 1884. (yahoo.com)
- Dr. Salmon isolated the bacteria from the intestines of a pig and called it Salmonella choleraesui. (yahoo.com)
- Salmonella enterica are rod shaped Gram-negative bacteria. (yahoo.com)
- Acabo de modificar 1 ligazóns externas en Salmonella enterica subsp . (yahoo.com)
- found in Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus megaterium, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. (ebi.ac.uk)
- In LC, detected bacteria were aerobic Enterococcus and anaerobic gram-positive Bacillus that was detected even after the irrigation. (sages.org)
- Propionibacterium acnes, anaerobic gram-positive bacilli responsible for inflammatory acne. (huffingtonpost.ca)
- Propionibacterium species are nonsporulating, gram-positive anaerobic bacilli that are considered commensal bacteria on the skin. (medscape.com)
- Propionibacterium acnes is the most important acne-causing bacteria. (progressivehealth.com)
- All factors causing acne involve hormones such as androgens and acne-causing bacteria such as Propionibacterium acnes . (progressivehealth.com)
- Propionibacterium acnes is a rod-shaped, anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium. (progressivehealth.com)
- Isolation and characterization of 14 additional genes specifying the anaerobic biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in Propionibacterium freudenreichii (P. shermanii). (ebi.ac.uk)
- Ampicillin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical infections, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. (drugs.com)
- 25 morphologically distinct microbial isolates belonging to Gram +ve and Gram −ve bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi including yeast were isolated. (hindawi.com)
- The bacteria were tentatively identified as species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas, while the majority of the fungal isolates belonged to the species of Penicillium . (hindawi.com)
- 153 bacteria isolates made up of seven species of bacteria were made from the five vegetable groups. (ispub.com)
- Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli were recovered in conjunction with 55% of anaerobic isolates. (nih.gov)
- Although seven cases with anaerobic isolates received initially inadequate antimicrobial therapy, six had effective clinical response. (nih.gov)
- Recently, we have reported on the application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing to the identification of clinical isolates with ambiguous biochemical profiles ( 23 , 24 , 26 , 27 ) and a bacterium that was noncultivable ( 6 ). (asm.org)
- Isolation of an anaerobic intestinal bacterium capable of cleaving the C-ring of the isoflavonoid daidzein. (biomedsearch.com)
- Intestinal bacteria also produce some vitamins needed by the body. (homeoint.org)
- The key enzyme, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase is not found in any other Gram-positive intestinal bacteria and therefore, provides an ideal target for a diagnostic test. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- thuringiensis BGSC 4A3 strain, a Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (freepatentsonline.com)
- A study reported exopolysaccharides released into the surrounding environment by the probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans RK-02 had significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Because P. acnes is found on the skin with or without acne present, experts are not quite sure whether a virulent strain of the bacterium is transferred to the skin or whether it is the harmless, commensal strain that later mutates into the acne-causing strain. (progressivehealth.com)
- Kitasato sent his Hong Kong strain to Koch's laboratory and in 1897 published a third paper, in Japanese, on plague bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
- Lactobacillus acidophilus is the most common bacteria strain used in commercial yogurts and some studies show it creates an acidic environment that inhibits harmful bacteria in the digestive tract. (agwt.org)
- This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain ( Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150-100 NP kg ha −1 ) and half dose (75-50 NP kg ha −1 ) of fertilizers. (scielo.br)
- The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. (scielo.br)
- Production of Biosurfactant by Bacillus Licheniformis Strain JF-2 (S.C. Lin et al. (elsevier.com)
- 2. A harmful bacterium control agent according to claim 1, wherein the Bacillus thuringiensis has a bile acid resistance. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 3. A harmful bacterium control agent according to claim 1, wherein the Bacillus thuringiensis has an ability of bacterial self-induced factor inactivation. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 4. A harmful bacterium control agent according to claim 1, wherein the Bacillus thuringiensis is a Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 18. A harmful bacterium-controlling method, comprising administrating the Bacillus thuringiensis to an animal requiring the control of harmful bacteria. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 19. A harmful bacterium-controlling method according to claim 18, wherein the Bacillus thuringiensis has a bile acid resistance. (freepatentsonline.com)
- A portion of the Bacillus thuringiensis genome was incorporated into corn (and cotton) crops. (wikipedia.org)
- In a study of occupational exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis , 20 exposed greenhouse workers were examined for Bacillus cereus -like bacteria in fecal samples and on biomonitoring filters. (asm.org)
- Bacteria with the following characteristics were isolated from eight individuals: intracellular crystalline inclusions characteristic of B. thuringiensis , genes for and production of B. cereus enterotoxins, and positivity for cry11 as determined by PCR. (asm.org)
- These proteinaceous inclusions are the basis for the commercial use of B. thuringiensis as an insecticide, and since the beginning of the 1950s, this bacterium has been used increasingly against various insect pests. (asm.org)
- However, in recent years, the close relationship between B. thuringiensis and the bacterium Bacillus cereus , one bacterial species responsible for food poisoning, has been confirmed ( 4 , 11 , 37 , 48 ). (asm.org)
- In this study, the bacteria initially identified as B. cereus were later found to be B. thuringiensis . (asm.org)
Species of anaerobic2
- The Gram-positive aerobe Bacillus megaterium has previously been used for the commercial production of cobalamin and has a complete anaerobic pathway. (bl.uk)
- Decolorization of azo dye by two bacterial species Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus has been analyzed using mineral effluent, consisting of known concentration of the dye in ZZ medium. (omicsonline.org)
- Optimal condition for Bacillus cereus was found to be 1% sucrose, 0.25% peptone, pH 7, temperature 37°C and 8% inoculum and that for Bacillus megaterium was found to be glucose 1%, 0.25% yeast extract, pH 6, temperature 37°C and 10% inoculum. (omicsonline.org)
- The study has confirmed the potential of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium in the decolorization of Azo dye and opened scope for future analysis of their performance in the treatment of textile effluent. (omicsonline.org)
- Eukaryotes and aerobic bacteria like Bacillus megaterium employ an aerobic pathway using both NADPH and O2. (coursehero.com)
- Antibiotics can kill or weaken disease-causing bacteria. (homeoint.org)
- However, extensive use of antibiotics may encourage the spread of bacteria resistant to the drugs. (homeoint.org)
- determines the growth of a bacterium in the presence of antibiotics and classifies it as susceptible, resistant or intermediate. (biomerieux.com)
Importance of anaerobic1
- Harmful bacteria prevent the body from functioning properly by destroying healthy cells. (homeoint.org)
- The skin, and the membranes that line the digestive and respiratory systems, prevent most harmful bacteria from entering the rest of the body. (homeoint.org)
- When harmful bacteria do enter the body, white blood cells surround and attack them. (homeoint.org)
Aerobic or anaerobic1
- For example, the study of bacteria has helped researchers understand how certain characteristics are inherited. (homeoint.org)
- further classification of bacteria is based on cell wall characteristics (see Gram's stain Gram's stain, laboratory staining technique that distinguishes between two groups of bacteria by the identification of differences in the structure of their cell walls. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Anaerobic respiration flexibility contributes to the rhizosphere competence of microbes. (frontiersin.org)
- Indeed, a wide range of compounds that are available in the rhizosphere can serve as alternative terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration such as nitrates, iron, carbon compounds, sulfur, metalloids, and radionuclides. (frontiersin.org)
- Anaerobic respiration has been deeply studied, and the genes involved in anaerobic respiration have been identified. (frontiersin.org)
- However, aqueous environment and paddy soils are the most studied environments for anaerobic respiration, even if we provide evidence in this review that anaerobic respiration also occurs in the plant rhizosphere. (frontiersin.org)
- Indeed, we provide evidence by performing a BLAST analysis on metatranscriptomic data that genes involved in iron, sulfur, arsenate and selenate anaerobic respiration are expressed in the rhizosphere, underscoring that the rhizosphere environment is suitable for the establishment of anaerobic respiration. (frontiersin.org)
- We thus focus this review on current research concerning the different types of anaerobic respiration that occur in the rhizosphere. (frontiersin.org)
- We also discuss the flexibility of anaerobic respiration as a fundamental trait for the microbial colonization of roots, environmental and ecological adaptation, persistence and bioremediation in the rhizosphere. (frontiersin.org)
- Anaerobic respiration appears to be a key process for the functioning of an ecosystem and interactions between plants and microbes. (frontiersin.org)
Processed for aerobic1
- The exposition of the anaerobic pathway has been interpreted with respect to the chemical logic of the metabolic process and the evolution of multifaceted biochemical pathways. (bl.uk)
- Either pathway can be divided into two parts: (1) corrin ring synthesis (differs in aerobic and anaerobic pathways) and (2) adenosylation of corrin ring, attachment of aminopropanol arm, and assembly of the nucleotide loop (common to both pathways) [ PMID: 11215515 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Certain kinds of bacteria live in the intestines of human beings and other animals. (homeoint.org)
- Many bacteria live on the skin and in the mouth, intestines, and breathing passages. (homeoint.org)
- The group includes bacteria that occur naturally in the intestines of warm-blooded animals (fecal coliform) and non-fecal coliform. (agwt.org)
- It is generally believed that prebiotics provide "food" to probiotics, which can be decomposed and absorbed by beneficial bacteria in the intestines, and promote the growth and reproduction of beneficial bacteria. (selfgrowth.com)
- Bacillus an´thracis the causative agent of anthrax . (thefreedictionary.com)
- In many aerobic and/or anaerobic bacterial cases, hearing or traumatic processes serve as the causative agent. (scielo.br)
- Abscesses in the central nervous system are a challenge for neurosurgeons, because of the delicate draining procedure, and for microbiologists that must identify the causative agent that, in many cases, is underdiagnosed due to contamination of the sampling procedure and/or difficulties in the cultivation of the purulent fluid especially in anaerobic conditions 3 . (scielo.br)
- The study of some major groups of bacteria and parasites of importance in human infection. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Despite the thyroid gland being extremely resistant to infection, it is still susceptible to infection by various bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- Once it enters the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the bacterium internalizes within the host's epithelial cells, where it multiplies and initiates the processes of infection. (uspharmacist.com)