Molecular Sequence Data
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Amino Acid Sequence
Biological Warfare Agents
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Colony Count, Microbial
Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998. (1/1440)From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax. (+info)
A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker specific for the Bacillus cereus group is diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis. (2/1440)Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group. (+info)
Oligomerization of anthrax toxin protective antigen and binding of lethal factor during endocytic uptake into mammalian cells. (3/1440)The protective antigen (PA) protein of anthrax toxin binds to a cellular receptor and is cleaved by cell surface furin to produce a 63-kDa fragment (PA63). The receptor-bound PA63 oligomerizes to a heptamer and acts to translocate the catalytic moieties of the toxin, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), from endosomes to the cytosol. In this report, we used nondenaturing gel electrophoresis to show that each PA63 subunit in the heptamer can bind one LF molecule. Studies using PA immobilized on a plastic surface showed that monomeric PA63 is also able to bind LF. The internalization of PA and LF by cells was studied with radiolabeled and biotinylated proteins. Uptake was relatively slow, with a half-time of 30 min. The number of moles of LF internalized was nearly equal to the number of moles of PA subunit internalized. The essential role of PA oligomerization in LF translocation was shown with PA protein cleaved at residues 313-314. The oligomers formed by these proteins during uptake into cells were not as stable when subjected to heat and detergent as were those formed by native PA. The results show that the structure of the toxin proteins and the kinetics of proteolytic activation, LF binding, and internalization are balanced in a way that allows each PA63 subunit to internalize an LF molecule. This set of proteins has evolved to achieve highly efficient internalization and membrane translocation of the catalytic components, LF and EF. (+info)
Identification of a receptor-binding region within domain 4 of the protective antigen component of anthrax toxin. (4/1440)Anthrax toxin from Bacillus anthracis is a three-component toxin consisting of lethal factor (LF), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA). LF and EF are the catalytic components of the toxin, whereas PA is the receptor-binding component. To identify residues of PA that are involved in interaction with the cellular receptor, two solvent-exposed loops of domain 4 of PA (amino acids [aa] 679 to 693 and 704 to 723) were mutagenized, and the altered proteins purified and tested for toxicity in the presence of LF. In addition to the intended substitutions, novel mutations were introduced by errors that occurred during PCR. Substitutions within the large loop (aa 704 to 723) had no effect on PA activity. A mutated protein, LST-35, with three substitutions in the small loop (aa 679 to 693), bound weakly to the receptor and was nontoxic. A mutated protein, LST-8, with changes in three separate regions did not bind to receptor and was nontoxic. Toxicity was greatly decreased by truncation of the C-terminal 3 to 5 aa, but not by their substitution with nonnative residues or the extension of the terminus with nonnative sequences. Comparison of the 28 mutant proteins described here showed that the large loop (aa 704 to 722) is not involved in receptor binding, whereas residues in and near the small loop (aa 679 to 693) play an important role in receptor interaction. Other regions of domain 4, in particular residues at the extreme C terminus, appear to play a role in stabilizing a conformation needed for receptor-binding activity. (+info)
Genetic diversity in the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. (5/1440)Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. The anthrax toxin contains three components, including the protective antigen (PA), which binds to eucaryotic cell surface receptors and mediates the transport of toxins into the cell. In this study, the entire 2,294-nucleotide protective antigen gene (pag) was sequenced from 26 of the most diverse B. anthracis strains to identify potential variation in the toxin and to further our understanding of B. anthracis evolution. Five point mutations, three synonymous and two missense, were identified. These differences correspond to six different haploid types, which translate into three different amino acid sequences. The two amino acid changes were shown to be located in an area near a highly antigenic region critical to lethal factor binding. Nested primers were used to amplify and sequence this same region of pag from necropsy samples taken from victims of the 1979 Sverdlovsk incident. This investigation uncovered five different alleles among the strains present in the tissues, including two not seen in the 26-sample survey. One of these two alleles included a novel missense mutation, again located just adjacent to the highly antigenic region. Phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of the pag corresponded with previous strain grouping based on chromosomal variation, suggesting that plasmid evolution in B. anthracis has occurred with little or no horizontal transfer between the different strains. (+info)
Distinct affinity of binding sites for S-layer homologous domains in Clostridium thermocellum and Bacillus anthracis cell envelopes. (6/1440)Binding parameters were determined for the SLH (S-layer homologous) domains from the Clostridium thermocellum outer layer protein OlpB, from the C. thermocellum S-layer protein SlpA, and from the Bacillus anthracis S-layer proteins EA1 and Sap, using cell walls from C. thermocellum and B. anthracis. Each SLH domain bound to C. thermocellum and B. anthracis cell walls with a different KD, ranging between 7.1 x 10(-7) and 1.8 x 10(-8) M. Cell wall binding sites for SLH domains displayed different binding specificities in C. thermocellum and B. anthracis. SLH-binding sites were not detected in cell walls of Bacillus subtilis. Cell walls of C. thermocellum lost their affinity for SLH domains after treatment with 48% hydrofluoric acid but not after treatment with formamide or dilute acid. A soluble component, extracted from C. thermocellum cells by sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment, bound the SLH domains from C. thermocellum but not those from B. anthracis proteins. A corresponding component was not found in B. anthracis. (+info)
Autogenous regulation of the Bacillus anthracis pag operon. (7/1440)Protective antigen (PA) is an important component of the edema and lethal toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis. PA is essential for binding the toxins to the target cell receptor and for facilitating translocation of the enzymatic toxin components, edema factor and lethal factor, across the target cell membrane. The structural gene for PA, pagA (previously known as pag), is located on the 182-kb virulence plasmid pXO1 at a locus distinct from the edema factor and lethal factor genes. Here we show that a 300-bp gene located downstream of pagA is cotranscribed with pagA and represses expression of the operon. We have designated this gene pagR (for protective antigen repressor). Two pagA mRNA transcripts were detected in cells producing PA: a short, 2.7-kb transcript corresponding to the pagA gene, and a longer, 4.2-kb transcript representing a bicistronic message derived from pagA and pagR. The 3' end of the short transcript mapped adjacent to an inverted repeat sequence, suggesting that the sequence can act as a transcription terminator. Attenuation of termination at this site results in transcription of pagR. A pagR mutant exhibited increased steady-state levels of pagA mRNA, indicating that pagR negatively controls expression of the operon. Autogenous control of the operon may involve atxA, a trans-acting positive regulator of pagA. The steady-state level of atxA mRNA was also increased in the pagR mutant. The mutant phenotype was complemented by addition of pagR in trans on a multicopy plasmid. (+info)
Cell surface-exposed tetanus toxin fragment C produced by recombinant Bacillus anthracis protects against tetanus toxin. (8/1440)Bacillus anthracis, the causal agent of anthrax, synthesizes two surface layer (S-layer) proteins, EA1 and Sap, which account for 5 to 10% of total protein and are expressed in vivo. A recombinant B. anthracis strain was constructed by integrating into the chromosome a translational fusion harboring the DNA fragments encoding the cell wall-targeting domain of the S-layer protein EA1 and tetanus toxin fragment C (ToxC). This construct was expressed under the control of the promoter of the S-layer component gene. The hybrid protein was stably expressed on the cell surface of the bacterium. Mice were immunized with bacilli of the corresponding strain, and the hybrid protein elicited a humoral response to ToxC. This immune response was sufficient to protect mice against tetanus toxin challenge. Thus, the strategy developed in this study may make it possible to generate multivalent live veterinary vaccines, using the S-layer protein genes as a cell surface display system. (+info)
There are three main forms of anthrax:
1. Cutaneous (skin) anthrax: This is the most common form of the disease and causes skin lesions that can progress to severe inflammation and scarring.
2. Inhalational (lung) anthrax: This is the most deadly form of the disease and causes serious respiratory problems, including fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
3. Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax: This form of the disease causes symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.
Anthrax can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the timing of treatment.
Prevention of anthrax primarily involves vaccination of animals and control of animal products to prevent the spread of the bacteria. In addition, public health measures such as surveillance and quarantine can help prevent the spread of the disease to humans.
The medical management of anthrax involves a combination of antibiotics, supportive care, and wound management. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing serious complications and death.
1. Impetigo: A highly contagious infection that causes red sores on the face, arms, and legs. It is most commonly seen in children and is usually treated with antibiotics.
2. Cellulitis: A bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth. It is often caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus bacteria and may require hospitalization for treatment.
3. MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus): A type of staph infection that is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin and soft tissue infections. It is often seen in hospitals and healthcare settings and can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces.
4. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes red, raised borders on the skin, often on the face, legs, or arms. It is caused by Streptococcus bacteria and may require antibiotics to treat.
5. Folliculitis: An infection of the hair follicles that can cause redness, swelling, and pus-filled bumps. It is often caused by Staphylococcus bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
6. Boils: A type of abscess that forms when a hair follicle or oil gland becomes infected. They can be caused by either Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria and may require draining and antibiotics to treat.
7. Carbuncles: A type of boil that is larger and more severe, often requiring surgical drainage and antibiotics to treat.
8. Erythrasma: A mild infection that causes small, red patches on the skin. It is caused by Corynebacterium bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
9. Cellulitis: An infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. It is often caused by Staphylococcus bacteria and may require antibiotics to treat.
10. Impetigo: A highly contagious infection that causes red sores or blisters on the skin, often around the nose, mouth, or limbs. It is caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
These are just a few examples of common skin infections and there are many more types that can occur. If you suspect you or someone else has a skin infection, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.
1. Tuberculosis (TB): This is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is a member of the Bacillaceae family. TB can affect the lungs, brain, kidneys, and other organs, and can be transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
2. Leprosy: This is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which is also a member of the Bacillaceae family. Leprosy can cause skin lesions, nerve damage, and muscle weakness, and can be transmitted through close contact with an infected person.
3. Actinomycosis: This is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, which is a member of the Bacillaceae family. Actinomycosis can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, and can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and weight loss.
4. Cat-scratch disease: This is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae, which is a member of the Bacillaceae family. Cat-scratch disease is typically transmitted through the scratch or bite of an infected cat, and can cause symptoms such as swollen lymph nodes, fever, and fatigue.
5. Lung abscess: This is a type of lung infection caused by various bacteria, including some members of the Bacillaceae family. Lung abscess can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and fever, and can be life-threatening if left untreated.
Overall, Bacillaceae infections can have serious consequences if left untreated, so it is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone else may have a bacterial infection caused by these bacteria.
Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis
Orders of magnitude (length)
Walter James Nungester
2001 anthrax attacks
Dennis Wallace Watson
List of bioterrorist incidents
List of Nepenthes endophyte species
Hartmann F. Stähelin
Rhodesia and weapons of mass destruction
Deseret Test Center
Sverdlovsk anthrax leak
Iraqi biological weapons program
List of German inventors and discoverers
Kissing the shuttle
History of medicine
Innate immune system
Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer
Humboldt University of Berlin
Multiple loci VNTR analysis
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Etymologia: Bacillus anthracis - Volume 20, Number 9-September 2014 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
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- Because anthrax is non-contagious, can be deadly, and can form durable, long-lived spores, it has long been considered a prime candidate for weaponization. (giantmicrobes.com)
- In addition, high levels of exposure to anthrax spores are required to cause infection, and most wide-spread dispersion methods would significantly dilute spore concentration. (giantmicrobes.com)
- Inhaling anthrax spores affects the lungs, and it is very frequently fatal. (giantmicrobes.com)
- Inhalation or respiratory anthrax is an infectious disease caused by inhaling the spores of the bacterium. (medlineplus.gov)
- Anthrax Seasons' are characterized by hot-dry weather which stresses animals and reduces their innate resistance to infection allowing low doses of spores to be infective. (nih.gov)
- Makino SI , Cheun HI , Watarai M , Uchida I , Takeshi K . Detection of anthrax spores from the air by real-time PCR. (cdc.gov)
- This study suggests that multiplex PCR can be used as a reliable alternative for the detection of B. anthracis spores. (who.int)
- B. anthracis spores are very resistant to various conditions. (who.int)
- To assess potential for early detection of oral infection by B. anthracis spores for preparedness of a bioterrorism attack. (bvsalud.org)
- Anthrax is a disease caused by infection with spores from the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. (elsevierpure.com)
- Authorities believe that the melting permafrost unburied a reindeer that died of anthrax 75 years ago, causing the release of anthrax spores. (medicinenet.com)
- However, in the soil, where they live, anthrax organisms exist in a dormant form called spores. (medicinenet.com)
- If the spores of anthrax are inhaled, they migrate to lymph glands in the chest where they proliferate, spread, and produce toxins that often cause death. (medicinenet.com)
- Okinaka RT , Cloud K , Hampton O , Hoffmaster AR , Hill KK , Keim P , Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. (cdc.gov)
- Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 contains a single large plasmid (pBc10987), of approximately 208 kb, that is similar in gene content and organization to B.anthracis pXO1 but is lacking the pathogenicity-associated island containing the anthrax lethal and edema toxin complex genes. (nih.gov)
- The lethality of anthrax is primarily the result of the effects of anthrax toxin, which has 3 components: a receptor-binding protein known as "protective antigen" (PA) and 2 catalytic proteins known as "lethal factor" (LF) and "edema factor" (EF). (nih.gov)
- All of these five neutralizing mAbs protected animals from anthrax toxin challenge. (nih.gov)
- Toxin-containing vesicles were also visualized inside B. anthracis-infected macrophages. (elsevier.com)
- ELISA and immunoblot analysisof vesicle preparations confirmed the presence of B. anthracis toxin components. (elsevier.com)
- Our results indicate that toxin secretion in B. anthracis is, at least, partially vesicle-associated, thus allowing concentrated delivery of toxin componentstotarget host cells, a mechanism that may increase toxin potency. (elsevier.com)
- When B. anthracis is grown in laboratory culture, the highest expression of the anthrax toxin genes occurs during entry into stationary phase, suggesting that nutrient limitation is an environmental cue which induces toxin production. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Recent studies identified the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin (ATR), a type I membrane protein. (elsevierpure.com)
- Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax in mammals . (who.int)
- Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax disease and exerts its deleterious effects by the release of three exotoxins, i.e. lethal factor, protective antigen and edema factor (EF), a highly active calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase (AC). (uni-regensburg.de)
- What causes anthrax poisoning? (medicinenet.com)
- Anthrax comes from the Greek: Anthrax = coal because of the black and inflamed appearance of cutaneous anthrax. (giantmicrobes.com)
- This skin infection, called cutaneous anthrax, is the most common and the least deadly form of the disease. (giantmicrobes.com)
- The bacteria is found in two forms: cutaneous anthrax and inhalation anthrax. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cutaneous anthrax is an infection of the skin caused by direct contact with the bacterium. (medlineplus.gov)
- A large, gram-positive, rod (bacillus), Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax (Greek for "coal"), named for the black lesions of cutaneous anthrax. (cdc.gov)
Spore-forming bacterium tha1
- Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. (medlineplus.gov)
- Outbreaks of Bacillus anthracis in animals are repeatedly reported in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
- Spore concentration and modified host resistance as cause of anthrax outbreaks: A practitioner's perspective. (nih.gov)
- Patra G , Vaissaire J , Weber-Levy M , Le Doujet C , Mock M . Molecular characterization of Bacillus strains involved in outbreaks of anthrax in France in 1997. (cdc.gov)
- This study aimed to identify positive samples during the 2015-2020 Uganda anthrax outbreaks. (populationmedicine.eu)
- Following the anthrax outbreaks, sixteen (16) districts submitted biological specimens to the NADDEC laboratory for human and animal diagnosis. (populationmedicine.eu)
Agent of anthrax2
- Though the word "anthrax" conjures up fearsome thoughts of biological weapons, anthrax is a once-common disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which is often found in soil. (giantmicrobes.com)
- In 1850, Rayer and Davaine discovered the rods in the blood of anthrax-infected sheep, setting the stage for Koch to link the disease to the bacterium in 1876, after he performed a series of experiments that fulfilled what came to be known as Koch's postulates. (cdc.gov)
- While other investigators discovered the anthrax bacillus, it was a German physician and scientist, Dr. Robert Koch, who proved that the anthrax bacterium was the cause of a disease that affected farm animals in his community. (medicinenet.com)
- In Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and other bacteria, accumulation of this molecule leads to down-regulation of stable RNA synthesis and upregulation of the expression of genes involved in survival under nutrient-poor conditions. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Anthrax is an infection by bacteria, Bacillus anthracis , usually transmitted from animals. (medicinenet.com)
- In combination with the previously known vrrA locus, these markers provide discrimination power to genetically characterize B, anthracis isolates. (nau.edu)
- Marker similarity and differences among diverse isolates have identified seven major diversity groups that may represent the only world-wide B. anthracis clones. (nau.edu)
- All B. anthracis isolates (n=65) were correctly and unambiguously identified. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- The efficacy of BioThrax for post-exposure prophylaxis is based solely on studies in animal models of inhalational anthrax. (nih.gov)
- By contrast, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax infections - which result from ingesting or inhaling anthrax - can be deadly. (giantmicrobes.com)
- Stevens, a photo editor at the tabloid the Sun, was suffering from inhalational anthrax, a rare, deadly disease. (foreignpolicy.com)
- Coming so soon after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the unusual inhalational anthrax case caused understandable concern, but the CDC investigators thought it unlikely to be bioterrorism. (foreignpolicy.com)
- No one could get inhalational anthrax from contaminated water. (foreignpolicy.com)
- Makino SI , Iinuma-Okada Y , Maruyama T , Ezaki T , Sasakawa C , Yoshikawa M . Direct detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in animals by polymerase chain reaction. (cdc.gov)
- Lee MA , Brightwell G , Leslie D , Bird H , Hamilton A . Fluorescent detection techniques for real-time multiplex strand specific detection of Bacillus anthracis using rapid PCR. (cdc.gov)
- Qi Y , Patra G , Liang X , Williams LE , Rose S , Redkar RJ , Utilization of the rpoB gene as a specific chromosomal marker for real-time PCR detection of Bacillus anthracis. (cdc.gov)
- ICANN 2009, Part I, LNCS 5768, download bacillus anthracis and anthrax Kadobayashi, Y Hierarchical Core Vector Machines for Network Intrusion Detection, Proc. (onlinezeitung-24.de)
- The laboratory study used saliva with a range of initial anthrax concentrations, to compare detection by direct observation from conventional blood agar culture and by anthrax -specific PCR after a shorter culture in BHI broth. (bvsalud.org)
- Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are important diagnostic markers for the detection and differentiation of Bacillus anthracis. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Bacillus anthracis pXO1 plasmid sequence conservation among closely related bacterial species. (cdc.gov)
- Ramisse V , Patra G , Garrigue H , Guesdon GL , Mock M . Identification and characterization of Bacillus anthracis by multiplex PCR analysis of sequences on plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 and chromosomal DNA. (cdc.gov)
- The chromosomal similarity of B.cereus ATCC 10987 to B.anthracis Ames, as well as the fact that it contains a large pXO1-like plasmid, may make it a possible model for studying B.anthracis plasmid biology and regulatory cross-talk. (nih.gov)
- Jackson PJ , Hugh-Jones ME , Adair DM , Green G , Hill KK , Kuske CR , PCR analysis of tissue samples from the 1979 Sverdlovsk anthrax victims: the presence of multiple Bacillus anthracis strains in different victims. (cdc.gov)
- Two assays targeting B. anthracis-specific SNPs in the plcR and gyrA genes were designed for each method and used to genotype a panel of 155 Bacilli strains. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Sampling may be conducted in hospitals to assess infection risk, in the workplace to characterize air quality, or in response to a specific threat such as the potential release of a pathogen such as Bacillus anthracis or the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) coronavirus. (rsc.org)
- Un test d'amplification en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) multiplex a également été mis au point pour identifier les isolats, et il s'est avéré que cette autre solution constituait un test diagnostique rapide, sensible et précis. (who.int)
- We report the isolation of extracellular vesicles from the supernatants of Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive bacillus that is a powerful agent for biological warfare. (elsevier.com)
- Indeed, the fifth plague of the Bible (widespread death of livestock) may be a description of an anthrax outbreak - as well as the sixth plague, which describes the skin boils typically found after human exposure to infected animals or animal products. (giantmicrobes.com)
- While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. (frontiersin.org)
- Diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. (frontiersin.org)
- Demonstration of a capsule plasmid in Bacillus anthracis. (cdc.gov)
- The Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA is a master regulator that controls transcription of more than a hundred genes including those encoding major virulence factors and capsule biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
- Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA and effects of phosphorylated histidines on multimerization and activity. (nih.gov)
- The stringent response of Bacillus anthracis contributes to sporulation but not to virulence. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- BioThrax is a vaccine indicated for the active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by Bacillus anthracis in persons 18 through 65 years of age. (nih.gov)
- Pregnancy registry available, contact BioThrax (Anthrax) Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry (Phone: 1-619-553-9255). (nih.gov)
- A limited quantity of anthrax vaccine is currently available to individuals with an elevated risk of infection (such as military personnel and veterinarians). (giantmicrobes.com)
- The success of the attenuated Sterne veterinary vaccine in 1930 resulted in a global reduction of anthrax cases in livestock in response to national vaccination programmes. (who.int)
- Although production of an efficient anthrax vaccine is an ultimate goal, the benefits of vaccination can be expected only if a large proportion of the population at risk is immunized. (nih.gov)
- Nonpathogenic Bacillus subtilis var. (rsc.org)
- Comparison of the chromosomes demonstrated that B.cereus ATCC 10987 was more similar to B.anthracis Ames than B.cereus ATCC 14579, while containing a number of unique metabolic capabilities such as urease and xylose utilization and lacking the ability to utilize nitrate and nitrite. (nih.gov)
- Antibodies to the capsule have been shown to enhance phagocytosis and killing of encapsulated bacilli. (nih.gov)
- Touching diseased animals or animal products affects the skin, and anthrax presents itself as boils or lesions with black centers. (giantmicrobes.com)
- These results suggest that the ATR/TEM8 expression pattern that we describe here is highly relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of anthrax infection. (elsevierpure.com)
- In recent years, anthrax has received a great deal of attention as it has become clear that the infection can also be spread by a bioterrorist attack or by biological warfare. (medicinenet.com)
- What are risk factors for anthrax infection? (medicinenet.com)
Positive for anthrax3
- 70.5' of Human and animal tissues tested positive for anthrax (Table 1). (populationmedicine.eu)
- The samples from Stevens's computer keyboard and mail slot tested positive for anthrax. (foreignpolicy.com)
- The biopsy results on 38-year-old Erin O'Connor, assistant to NBC news anchor Tom Brokaw, were positive for anthrax. (foreignpolicy.com)
- Post-exposure prophylaxis of disease following suspected or confirmed Bacillus anthracis exposure, when administered in conjunction with recommended antibacterial drugs. (nih.gov)
- In addition, experimental evidence suggests that immediate treatment with antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin can provide an effective response to anthrax exposure - and help ward off a modern outbreak of biblical proportions. (giantmicrobes.com)
- Anthrax, whether resulting from natural or bioterrorist-associated exposure, is a constant threat to human health. (nih.gov)
- Here we report the 3-D structure of the GH25 enzyme from Bacillus anthracis at 1.4A resolution. (rcsb.org)
- Koch isolated Bacillus anthracis and verified that it caused the anthrax disease. (giantmicrobes.com)
- Researchers from the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases , in collaboration with Dr. Theresa M. Koehler from the University of Texas at Houston, characterized the AtxA protein from B. anthracis . (nih.gov)
- Like other infectious diseases, the incubation period for anthrax is quite variable and it may be weeks before an infected individual feels sick. (medicinenet.com)
- What kinds of diseases does anthrax cause? (medicinenet.com)
- The major function of scavengers is to open the carcass, spill fluids, and thereby aid bacilli dispersal and initiate sporulation. (nih.gov)
- The contribution of the stringent response to efficient sporulation of B. anthracis is notable, as this suggests that the stringent response may contribute to the persistence of B. anthracis in the natural environment. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a widespread zoonotic disease affecting humans and mammals. (populationmedicine.eu)
- Ramisse V , Patra G , Vaissaire J , Mock M . The Ba813 chromosomal DNA sequence effectively traces the whole Bacillus anthracis community. (cdc.gov)
- Anthrax is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis that normally affects animals, especially ruminants (such as goats, cattle, sheep, and horses). (medicinenet.com)
- They could reliably detect B. anthracis in contaminated organs containing as little as 10(3)CFU/ml, corresponding to a few genome equivalents per reaction. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Indeed, ATR/TEM8 is highly and selectively expressed in the epithelial cells lining those organs that constitute the anthrax toxin's sites of entry, i.e., the lung, the skin, and the intestine. (elsevierpure.com)
- The HRM and Tm-shift applications described here represent valuable tools for specific identification of B. anthracis at reduced cost. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- While anthrax commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats, humans may acquire this disease as well. (medlineplus.gov)
- Anthrax causes skin, lung, and bowel disease and can be deadly. (medicinenet.com)