A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.

Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998. (1/1440)

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker specific for the Bacillus cereus group is diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis. (2/1440)

Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group.  (+info)

Oligomerization of anthrax toxin protective antigen and binding of lethal factor during endocytic uptake into mammalian cells. (3/1440)

The protective antigen (PA) protein of anthrax toxin binds to a cellular receptor and is cleaved by cell surface furin to produce a 63-kDa fragment (PA63). The receptor-bound PA63 oligomerizes to a heptamer and acts to translocate the catalytic moieties of the toxin, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), from endosomes to the cytosol. In this report, we used nondenaturing gel electrophoresis to show that each PA63 subunit in the heptamer can bind one LF molecule. Studies using PA immobilized on a plastic surface showed that monomeric PA63 is also able to bind LF. The internalization of PA and LF by cells was studied with radiolabeled and biotinylated proteins. Uptake was relatively slow, with a half-time of 30 min. The number of moles of LF internalized was nearly equal to the number of moles of PA subunit internalized. The essential role of PA oligomerization in LF translocation was shown with PA protein cleaved at residues 313-314. The oligomers formed by these proteins during uptake into cells were not as stable when subjected to heat and detergent as were those formed by native PA. The results show that the structure of the toxin proteins and the kinetics of proteolytic activation, LF binding, and internalization are balanced in a way that allows each PA63 subunit to internalize an LF molecule. This set of proteins has evolved to achieve highly efficient internalization and membrane translocation of the catalytic components, LF and EF.  (+info)

Identification of a receptor-binding region within domain 4 of the protective antigen component of anthrax toxin. (4/1440)

Anthrax toxin from Bacillus anthracis is a three-component toxin consisting of lethal factor (LF), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA). LF and EF are the catalytic components of the toxin, whereas PA is the receptor-binding component. To identify residues of PA that are involved in interaction with the cellular receptor, two solvent-exposed loops of domain 4 of PA (amino acids [aa] 679 to 693 and 704 to 723) were mutagenized, and the altered proteins purified and tested for toxicity in the presence of LF. In addition to the intended substitutions, novel mutations were introduced by errors that occurred during PCR. Substitutions within the large loop (aa 704 to 723) had no effect on PA activity. A mutated protein, LST-35, with three substitutions in the small loop (aa 679 to 693), bound weakly to the receptor and was nontoxic. A mutated protein, LST-8, with changes in three separate regions did not bind to receptor and was nontoxic. Toxicity was greatly decreased by truncation of the C-terminal 3 to 5 aa, but not by their substitution with nonnative residues or the extension of the terminus with nonnative sequences. Comparison of the 28 mutant proteins described here showed that the large loop (aa 704 to 722) is not involved in receptor binding, whereas residues in and near the small loop (aa 679 to 693) play an important role in receptor interaction. Other regions of domain 4, in particular residues at the extreme C terminus, appear to play a role in stabilizing a conformation needed for receptor-binding activity.  (+info)

Genetic diversity in the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. (5/1440)

Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. The anthrax toxin contains three components, including the protective antigen (PA), which binds to eucaryotic cell surface receptors and mediates the transport of toxins into the cell. In this study, the entire 2,294-nucleotide protective antigen gene (pag) was sequenced from 26 of the most diverse B. anthracis strains to identify potential variation in the toxin and to further our understanding of B. anthracis evolution. Five point mutations, three synonymous and two missense, were identified. These differences correspond to six different haploid types, which translate into three different amino acid sequences. The two amino acid changes were shown to be located in an area near a highly antigenic region critical to lethal factor binding. Nested primers were used to amplify and sequence this same region of pag from necropsy samples taken from victims of the 1979 Sverdlovsk incident. This investigation uncovered five different alleles among the strains present in the tissues, including two not seen in the 26-sample survey. One of these two alleles included a novel missense mutation, again located just adjacent to the highly antigenic region. Phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of the pag corresponded with previous strain grouping based on chromosomal variation, suggesting that plasmid evolution in B. anthracis has occurred with little or no horizontal transfer between the different strains.  (+info)

Distinct affinity of binding sites for S-layer homologous domains in Clostridium thermocellum and Bacillus anthracis cell envelopes. (6/1440)

Binding parameters were determined for the SLH (S-layer homologous) domains from the Clostridium thermocellum outer layer protein OlpB, from the C. thermocellum S-layer protein SlpA, and from the Bacillus anthracis S-layer proteins EA1 and Sap, using cell walls from C. thermocellum and B. anthracis. Each SLH domain bound to C. thermocellum and B. anthracis cell walls with a different KD, ranging between 7.1 x 10(-7) and 1.8 x 10(-8) M. Cell wall binding sites for SLH domains displayed different binding specificities in C. thermocellum and B. anthracis. SLH-binding sites were not detected in cell walls of Bacillus subtilis. Cell walls of C. thermocellum lost their affinity for SLH domains after treatment with 48% hydrofluoric acid but not after treatment with formamide or dilute acid. A soluble component, extracted from C. thermocellum cells by sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment, bound the SLH domains from C. thermocellum but not those from B. anthracis proteins. A corresponding component was not found in B. anthracis.  (+info)

Autogenous regulation of the Bacillus anthracis pag operon. (7/1440)

Protective antigen (PA) is an important component of the edema and lethal toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis. PA is essential for binding the toxins to the target cell receptor and for facilitating translocation of the enzymatic toxin components, edema factor and lethal factor, across the target cell membrane. The structural gene for PA, pagA (previously known as pag), is located on the 182-kb virulence plasmid pXO1 at a locus distinct from the edema factor and lethal factor genes. Here we show that a 300-bp gene located downstream of pagA is cotranscribed with pagA and represses expression of the operon. We have designated this gene pagR (for protective antigen repressor). Two pagA mRNA transcripts were detected in cells producing PA: a short, 2.7-kb transcript corresponding to the pagA gene, and a longer, 4.2-kb transcript representing a bicistronic message derived from pagA and pagR. The 3' end of the short transcript mapped adjacent to an inverted repeat sequence, suggesting that the sequence can act as a transcription terminator. Attenuation of termination at this site results in transcription of pagR. A pagR mutant exhibited increased steady-state levels of pagA mRNA, indicating that pagR negatively controls expression of the operon. Autogenous control of the operon may involve atxA, a trans-acting positive regulator of pagA. The steady-state level of atxA mRNA was also increased in the pagR mutant. The mutant phenotype was complemented by addition of pagR in trans on a multicopy plasmid.  (+info)

Cell surface-exposed tetanus toxin fragment C produced by recombinant Bacillus anthracis protects against tetanus toxin. (8/1440)

Bacillus anthracis, the causal agent of anthrax, synthesizes two surface layer (S-layer) proteins, EA1 and Sap, which account for 5 to 10% of total protein and are expressed in vivo. A recombinant B. anthracis strain was constructed by integrating into the chromosome a translational fusion harboring the DNA fragments encoding the cell wall-targeting domain of the S-layer protein EA1 and tetanus toxin fragment C (ToxC). This construct was expressed under the control of the promoter of the S-layer component gene. The hybrid protein was stably expressed on the cell surface of the bacterium. Mice were immunized with bacilli of the corresponding strain, and the hybrid protein elicited a humoral response to ToxC. This immune response was sufficient to protect mice against tetanus toxin challenge. Thus, the strategy developed in this study may make it possible to generate multivalent live veterinary vaccines, using the S-layer protein genes as a cell surface display system.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA). T2 - Measurement of human anti-PA antibodies. AU - Iacono-Connors, L. C.. AU - Novak, J.. AU - Rossi, C.. AU - Mangiafico, J.. AU - Ksiazek, Thomas. PY - 1994/1. Y1 - 1994/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7496927. AN - SCOPUS:0027975977. VL - 1. SP - 78. EP - 82. JO - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. JF - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. SN - 1556-6811. IS - 1. ER - ...
BioAssay record AID 289164 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen 63 reconstituted in diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine lipid membranes assessed as inhibition of channel conductance at 5 uM.
Jupiter Images / iStockphoto. The bacterium Bacillus anthracis occurs worldwide, its natural habitat is the soil. The pathogen causes the often fatal ending anthrax (Anthrax) in humans and in herbivorous animals such as cows or sheep. 95 percent by a Bacillus anthracis infection lead to all cutaneous anthrax, initially manifested by a painless, itchy papules on the hands, forearms or face, the black turns later from the center. but the bacterium can other forms of anthrax as Inhalation anthrax or Gastrointestinal anthrax trigger. All three forms can include one anthrax sepsis entail that ends in a few hours fatal. The bacteria form resistant survival structures (spores), which can remain viable for decades in nature. In the body, Bacillus anthracis is a special capsule of D-glutamic acid, which protects the pathogen from the scavenger cells of the immune system.. Especially in southern Europe and South America there are often anthrax disease caused by Bacillus anthracis in farm animals. The ...
Article Identification and characterization of bacillus anthracis spores by multiparameter flow cytometry. In response to the need for methods that can rapidly detect potentially virulent Bacillus anthracis spores, we developed a two-color flow cytom...
Uchida, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Terakado, N., 1986: Virulence and immunogenicity in experimental animals of Bacillus anthracis strains harbouring or lacking 110 MDa and 60 MDa plasmids
Description of disease Bacillus anthracis. Treatment Bacillus anthracis. Symptoms and causes Bacillus anthracis Prophylaxis Bacillus anthracis
ABSTRACT. Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63 %) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P , 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P , 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheres, six out of ten White-backed ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bacillus anthracis spore and vegetative stages, photocomposite of bacteria on human skin. Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, encapsulated, spore-forming, zoonotic, rod prokaryote. It most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or tissue. In humans it causes the acute infectious disease, anthrax which can lead to septicaemia and death if left untreated. Bacillus anthracis spores can live in the soil for many years. Human anthrax has three major clinical forms: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Cutaneous anthrax is a result of introduction of the spore through the skin; inhalation anthrax through the respiratory tract; and gastrointestinal anthrax by ingestion. Magnification: x700 bacteria; x5 skin when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0087
Bacillus anthracis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause cutaneous, gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in many vertebrates, including humans. Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the respiratory form of the disease. Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in animals and humans. As with other intracellular pathogens, cell mediated immune responses (CMI) are crucial in affording protection against brucellosis. B. abortus strain RB51 has been shown to be useful in eliciting protective cell mediated immunity and humoral responses against Brucella in cattle and other animal species. Since the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis is known to induce protective antibodies, it was decided that the objective of this research was to test whether the gene encoding PA could be expressed in Brucella producing a bivalent vaccine to protect against ...
We evaluated the abilities of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequences of intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) between two highly conserved genes, 16S-23S rDNA and gyrB-gyrA ISRs, to detect variation in strains of Bacillus anthracis as well as two closely related species, B. cereus ATCC 14579 and B. mycoides ATCC 6462. For each restriction enzyme, (NotI, SfiI, and SmaI), the PFGE banding patterns for three B. anthracis strains (Ames, Vollum, and Sterne) were identical. However, closely related species could be differentiated from B. anthracis and from each other. PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA ISR yielded a 143- to 144-bp fragment, showing identical sequences for B. anthracis strains, one nucleotide deletion between B. cerus and B. anthracis, and 13 nucleotide differences between B. mycoides and B. anthracis. The gyrase ISR sequences (121 bp) in B. anthracis strains were also identical, but those in B. cereus and B. mycoides differed from that in B. anthracis by 1 and 2 ...
BioAssay record AID 329453 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of cytopathic effect in Bacillus anthracis Sterne infected mouse RAW264.7 macrophage after 6 hrs by propidium iodide exclusion assay.
In 1855, Aloys Pollender - a German Physician - published his findings on anthrax in which he described a group of stick-shaped bacteria that were present in the blood of infected animals. He is credited with recognizing the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. In 1864, Casimir Davaine - a French physician - studied the bacteria found in the blood of people infected with anthrax, and found that they physically resembled the bacteria described by Dr. Pellender, and thus concluded that the symptoms of anthrax occurred when these bacteria were present in the blood. Later in 1876, Robert Koch provided conclusive evidence that Bacillus anthracis was the cause of anthrax (Théodoridès 159 ...
Bacillus anthracis secretes the edema toxin (ET) that disrupts the cellular physiology of endothelial and immune cells, ultimately affecting the adherens
Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective antigen binding studies. Protective antigen binding studies, all performed at 37°C, evaluated criteria for receptor existence. Labelled
Anthrax, the zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is nowadays rare in northern parts of Europe including Finland and Scandinavia. Only two minor outbreaks of anthrax in 1988 and in 2004 and one sporadic infection in 2008 have been detected in animals in Finland since the 1970s. Here, we report on two Finnish B. anthracis strains that were isolated from spleen and liver of a diseased calf related to the outbreak in 1988 (strain HKI4363/88) and from a local scrotum and testicle infection of a bull in 2008 (strain BA2968). These infections occurred in two rural Finnish regions, i.e., Ostrobothnia in western Finland and Päijänne Tavastia in southern Finland, respectively. The isolates were genetically characterized by PCR-based methods such as multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome-sequence analysis (WGS). Phylogenetic comparison of the two strains HKI4363/88 and BA2968 by chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis
To obtain thermostable immunoreagents specific for the spore form of Bacillus anthracis two llamas were immunized with a combination of six different recombinant proteins. These proteins BclA, gerQ, SODA1, SOD15, BxpB and the protein p5303 have all been shown as components of the B. anthracis spore and could potentially serve as targets for the detection of spores in multiplexed biosensors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to construct a phage display library from which single domain antibodies (sdAbs) targeting each of the proteins were isolated. Unique sdAbs exhibiting nanomolar or better affinities for the recombinant proteins were obtained and most of the isolated sdAbs retained their ability to bind antigen after cycles of heating as determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SdAbs targeting the BclA and gerQ proteins were able to successfully detect bacterial spores, whether broken or intact, using a direct ELISA; the sdAbs were specific, showing binding only to B. anthracis
Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using
Bacillus anthracis The Bacillus anthracis bacillus, Bacillus anthracis, was the primary bacterium appeared to be the reason for an ailment Kochs Propose In 1877, Robert Koch developed the living being in immaculate society, exhibited its capacity to frame endospores, and
Lack of available iron is one of many environmental challenges that a bacterium encounters during infection and adaptation to iron starvation is important for the pathogen to efficiently replicate within the host. Here we define the transcriptional response of B. anthracis Sterne (34F2) to iron depleted conditions. Genome-wide transcript analysis showed that B. anthracis undergoes considerable changes in gene expression during growth in iron-depleted media, including the regulation of known and candidate virulence factors. Two genes encoding putative internalin proteins were chosen for further study. Deletion of either gene (GBAA0552 or GBAA1340) resulted in attenuation in a murine model of infection. This attenuation was amplified in a double mutant strain. These data define the transcriptional changes induced during growth in low iron conditions and illustrate the potential of this dataset in the identification of putative virulence determinants for future study.
Description: Polyclonal Bacillus anthracis antibody (Protective Antigen), Anti-Bacillus anthracis antibody (Protective Antigen), Bacillus anthracis PA antibody, Anthrax PA antibody, Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen antibody, Anthrax Protective Antigen antibody ...
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, is initiated by the entry of spores into the host body. There are three types of human infection: cutaneous, inhalational, and gastrointestinal. For each form, B. anthracis spores need to cross the cutaneous, respiratory or digestive epithelial barriers, respectively, as a first obligate step to establish infection. Anthrax is a toxi-infection: an association of toxemia and rapidly spreading infection progressing to septicemia. The pathogenicity of Bacillus anthracis mainly depends on two toxins and a capsule. The capsule protects bacilli from the immune system, thus promoting systemic dissemination. The toxins alter host cell signaling, thereby paralyzing the immune response of the host and perturbing the endocrine and endothelial systems. In this review, we will mainly focus on the events and mechanisms leading to crossing of the respiratory epithelial barrier, as the majority of studies have addressed inhalational
Product from Supplier ACR, Catalog number 3BA16-BAP104 , Product Bacillus anthracis protective antigen - Gentaur molecular products
Bacillus anthracis je povzročitelj antraksa - pogoste bolezni živine in občasno ljudi - in edini obligatni patogen iz rodu Bacillus.[1] Gre za grampozitivno, endosporogeno, paličasto bakterijo s širino od 1 do 1,2 mikrometra in dolžino od 3 do 5 µm.[1] Raste lahko v običajnem hranilnem mediju v aerobnih ali anaerobnih razmerah.[2] Bacillus anthracis je ena od maloštevilnih vrst bakterij, ki sintetizirajo polipeptidno kapsulo (poli-D-gama-glutamat). Tako kot Bordetella pertussis tudi ta vrsta tvori od kalmodulina odvisni adenilat-ciklazni eksotoksin, imenovan edemski faktor. Genotipsko in fenotipsko je podobna vrstama Bacillus cereus in Bacillus thuringiensis. Vse tri vrste imajo podobno celično velikost in obliko. Vse tvorijo ovalne spore, ki ležijo centralno v nenabreklem sporangiju. Spore B. anthracis so izjemno odporne in preživijo več desetletij ali stoletij kljub ekstremnim temperaturam, pomanjkanju hranil ali intenzivnim kemičnim dejavnikom. ...
An isolate originally labeled Bacillus megaterium CDC 684 was found to contain both pXO1 and pXO2, was non-hemolytic, sensitive to gamma-phage, and produced both the protective antigen and the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule. These phenotypes prompted Ezzell et al., (J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:223) to reclassify this isolate to Bacillus anthracis in 1990. We demonstrate that despite these B. anthracis features, the isolate is severely attenuated in a guinea pig model. This prompted whole genome sequencing and closure. The comparative analysis of CDC 684 to other sequenced B. anthracis isolates and further analysis reveals: a) CDC 684 is a close relative of a virulent strain, Vollum A0488; b) CDC 684 defines a new B. anthracis lineage (at least 51 SNPs) that includes 15 other isolates; c) the genome of CDC 684 contains a large chromosomal inversion that spans 3.3 Mbp; d) this inversion has caused a displacement of the usual spatial orientation of the origin of replication (ori) to the termination of replication
References for Abcams Anti-Bacillus anthracis protective antigen antibody [BAP0102] (HRP) (ab1990). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
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Introduction: B. anthracis is a highly fatal infectious agent in animals and humans. In this era of bioterrorism, the risk of exposing a large population to this lethal pathogen has increased dramatically. Therefore, its early and accurate diagnostic detection is essential for successful treatment and control of spread. Due to the isolation of very closely related Bacillus cereus group species, definitive molecular identification of Bacillus anthracis needs detection of specific markers for at least three different loci, one chromosome and two virulence plasmids (pXO1, and pXO2). It is difficult to find a chromosome-specific marker due to the genetic similarity among the B. cereus group species. There are several reports of the use of a B. anthraics chromosome-specific marker, but there has not been a marker which was extensively tested in vitro with many strains of the B. cereus group species, including the closely related ones to B. anthracis. In addition, most of currently reported multiplex ...
In gram-positive bacteria, CodY is an important regulator of genes whose expression changes upon nutrient limitation and acts as a repressor of virulence gene expression in some pathogenic species. Here, we report the role of CodY in Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax. Disruption of codY completely abolished virulence in a toxinogenic, noncapsulated strain, indicating that the activity of CodY is required for full virulence of B. anthracis. Global transcriptome analysis of a codY mutant and the parental strain revealed extensive differences. These differences could reflect direct control for some genes, as suggested by the presence of CodY binding sequences in their promoter regions, or indirect effects via the CodY-dependent control of other regulatory proteins or metabolic rearrangements in the codY mutant strain. The differences included reduced expression of the anthrax toxin genes in the mutant strain, which was confirmed by lacZ reporter fusions and immunoblotting. The accumulation
Bacillus anthracis forms one endospore per cell. Its spores form when its non reproductive cells are in need of specific nutrients . The spores are oval in shape and sporulation occurs within 48 hours. Bacillus anthracis requires oxygen to sporulate. Spores can tolerate heat, cold, dehydration, radiation and even antibacterials (8). The formation of spore commences when cells septate asymmetrically to create a forespore and a mother cell. After septation, the mother cell swallows the forespore and covers it with different layers. The spore is made up of several layers. These layers are the coat, the exosporium and the cortex (Figure 3). The innermost layer is the core. It contains proteins which holds the chromosome. Half of the spore is composed of the spore coat. The flexibility of the spore coat enable the spore to hold the core during germination. It protects the spore from harmful chemicals and aids germination. The cortex containing peptidoglycan protects the spore from radiation, heat and ...
Bacillus anthracis forms one endospore per cell. Its spores form when its non reproductive cells are deficient of certain nutrients . The spores are oval in shape and sporulation occurs within 48 hours. Bacillus anthracis requires oxygen to sporulate. Spores can tolerate heat, cold, dehydration, radiation and even antibacterials [8]. The formation of spore commences when cells septate asymmetrically to create a forespore and a mother cell. After septation, the mother cell swallows the forespore and covers it with different layers. The spore is made up of several layers. These layers are the coat, the exosporium and the cortex. Figure 3 reveals these layers through a transmission electron micrograph. The innermost layer is the core. It contains proteins which holds the chromosome. Half of the spore is composed of the spore coat. The flexibility of the spore coat enables the spore to hold the core especially during germination. It protects the spore from harmful chemicals and aids germination. The ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis. Protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis. (MAB0363) - Products - Abnova
The pathogen Bacillus anthracis secretes two potent toxins during anthrax infection, known as lethal factor (LF) and oedema factor (EF). Using transgenic Drosophila as a model system for the identification of pathways that might be involved in anthrax pathogenesis, Ethan Bier and colleagues show that these two toxins interact synergistically to block Rab11/Sec15 exocyst-dependent endocytic recycling, resulting in reduced Notch signalling and cadherin-dependent adhesion at the adherens junction. Tests in human endothelial cells indicate that the toxins have a similar effect on Rab11/Sec15 activity and Notch signalling. During infection, Bacillus anthracis secretes two potent toxins called lethal factor and oedema factor. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, these authors show that these toxins interact with the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst, which is involved in endocytic recycling. This interaction may explain vascular leakage during infection. Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax in
Bacillus anthracis AcpA protein: Capsule synthesis trans-acting positive regulator; involved in the regulation of encapsulation by Bacillus anthracis; MW about 57 kDa; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank U02535
Bacillus anthracis is a severe mammalian pathogen. The deoxyribonucleotides necessary for DNA replication and repair are provided via the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) enzyme. RNR is also important for spore germination and cell proliferation upon infection. We show that the expression of B. anthracis class Ib RNR responds to the environment that the pathogen encounters upon infection. We also show that several anti-proliferative agents (radical scavengers) specifically inhibit the B. anthracis RNR. Owing to the importance of RNR in the pathogenic infection process, our results highlight a promising potential to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis early during infection.. ...
Staged health picture showing the symptoms of cutaneous anthrax due to B. anthracis. This slide was created to help a person suspect an illness, not diagnose the illness, in this case anthrax was the etiologic pathogen. Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Photographed in 1963. This image was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Stock Photography of a Man with Cutaneous Bacillus Anthracis On His Face.
The misuse of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon continues to be a serious concern. Medical personnel and researchers are served well if appropriate non-pathogenic anthrax simulants can be used as countermeasures in preparative planning. While there are several accepted simulants of B. anthracis, the addition of another model organism would be beneficial. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of B. pumilus as a simulant for B. anthracis. All organisms were grown on AK Agar #2 to foster sporulation. Optimum conditions for spore formation were determined for B. pumilus as well as for currently used anthrax surrogates B. atrophaeus and B. thuringiensis. Spore dimensions were determined by scanning electron microscopy. Comparative antibody binding studies using commercially available anti-Bacillus antisera were completed with the simulants as well as with a negative control organism, Clostridium sporogenes. We report that B. pumilus sporulated readily (2.9 × 1010 viable spores per
B. anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a nonmotile, Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium approximately 4 μm by 1 μm, although under the microscope it frequently appears in chains of cells. Like other Bacillus, Bacillus anthracis is saprophyte, being able to live in vegetation, air, water and soil.[4] These bacterial cells may occur isolated, form groups of 2 or more cells in the body, or long chains in cultures.[4] In blood smears, smears of tissues or lesion fluid from diagnostic specimens, these chains are two to a few cells in length. In smears made from in vitro cultures, they can appear as endless strings of cells - responsible for the characteristic tackiness of the colonies and for the flocculating nature of broth cultures. Cell cultures appear with a large, grey and curled structure, resembling a medusa head.[4] B. anthracis have a characteristic square-ended appearance, traditionally associated with its vegetative ...
During October 19-21, 2001, four postal workers at the Brentwood Mail Processing and Distribution Center in the District of Columbia were hospitalized with inhalational anthrax; two of the workers died. The building, which was closed on October 21, was believed to have been contaminated by a letter containing Bacillus anthracis spores sent to the Hart Senate Office Building (HSOB) that had passed
✅ Answered - [B cells] [macrophages] [ciliated epithelial cells] [M cells] are the options of mcq question Each of the 3 virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis i.e. the capsule, edema toxin and lethal toxin can affect the activity of realted topics topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 0 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on Nov 25, 2018 15:01
The pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis depends on several virulence factors, including the anthrax toxin. Loss of the alternative sigma factor σI results in a coordinate decrease in expression of all three toxin subunits. Our observations suggest that loss of σI alters the activity of the master virulence regulator AtxA, but atxA transcription is unaffected by loss of σI. σI-containing RNA polymerase does not appear to directly transcribe either atxA or the toxin gene pagA. As in Bacillus subtilis, loss of σI in B. anthracis results in increased sensitivity to heat shock and transcription of sigI, encoding σI, is induced by elevated temperature. Encoded immediately downstream of and part of a bicistronic message with sigI is an anti-sigma factor, RsgI, which controls σI activity. Loss of RsgI has no direct effect on virulence gene expression. sigI appears to be expressed from both the σI and σA promoters, and transcription from the σA promoter is likely more significant to virulence regulation
Protective Antigen antibody LS-C505586 is an AP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen (PA ). Validated for ELISA and WB.
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
Bacillus anthracis can be identified on the basis of the detection of virulence factor genes located on two plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2. Thus isolates lacking both pXO1 and pXO2 are indistinguishable from closely related B. cereus group bacteria. We developed a multiplex PCR assay for characterization o …
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Anthrax merupakan penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh Bacillus anthracis yang termasuk ke dalam famili Bacillaceae. Penyakit ini dapat meninfeksi hewan terutama herbivora dan juga manusia. B. anthracis merupakan bakteri gram positif, berbentuk batang, aerobik, tidak motil, memiliki kapsul dan membentuk spora serta lebarnya 1 - 1.5 µm dan panjang 5 - 6 µm. Bakteri ini seperti barisan batang panjang dengan .... Read More » ...
The capsule of Bacillus anthracis, composed of poly-D-glutamic acid, serves as one of the principal virulence factors during anthrax infection. By virtue of its negative charge, the capsule is purported to inhibit host defence through inhibition of phagocytosis of the vegetative cells by macrophages …
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. LT induced extensive hypoxia. Crisis was due to extensive liver necrosis accompanied by pleural edema. There was no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or renal dysfunction. Instead, analyses revealed hepatic dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and vascular/oxygenation insufficiency. Of 50 cytokines analyzed, BALB/cJ mice showed rapid but transitory increases in specific factors including KC, MCP-1/JE, IL-6, MIP-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, eotaxin, FasL, and IL-1β. No changes in TNF-α occurred. The C57BL/6J mice did not mount a similar cytokine response. These factors were not ...
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. LT induced extensive hypoxia. Crisis was due to extensive liver necrosis accompanied by pleural edema. There was no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or renal dysfunction. Instead, analyses revealed hepatic dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and vascular/oxygenation insufficiency. Of 50 cytokines analyzed, BALB/cJ mice showed rapid but transitory increases in specific factors including KC, MCP-1/JE, IL-6, MIP-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, eotaxin, FasL, and IL-1β. No changes in TNF-α occurred. The C57BL/6J mice did not mount a similar cytokine response. These factors were not ...
The bacterium Bacillus anthracis causes the disease anthrax, primarily in herbivores but many mammals are susceptible to the disease. Its infective form is as a dormant spore that can lie in the soil for decades. Thus, in its cycle of infection, it spends most of the time in an inactive state and replication-induced DNA-mutations are therefore kept at a minimum. Partly due to these long periods of inactivity, all B. anthracis isolates found in the world are genetically very similar. This makes strain characterization difficult and requires high-resolution technologies. Bacillus anthracis also has similar DNA-content as other Bacillus spp. and therefore diagnostic cross-reactions are not uncommon. Anthrax incidence has steadily declined in the world during the last century but there are still endemic areas. In 2008 and in 2011 Sweden suffered two large and costly outbreaks, most likely caused by the disturbance of old anthrax epizootic graves from the 1940s and 1950s. Several studies emanated ...
Anthrax toxin. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores caused by gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. Humans are accidental hosts through the food of animal origin and animal products. Anthrax is prevelant in most parts of the globe, and cases of anthrax have been reported from almost every country. Three forms of the disease have been recognized: cutaneous (through skin), gastrointestinal (through alimentary tract), and pulmonary (by inhalation of spores). The major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis are a poly-D glutamic acid capsule and a three-component protein exotoxin. The genes coding for the toxin and the enzymes responsible for capsule production are carried on plasmid pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. The three proteins of the exotoxin are protective antigen (PA, 83 kDa), lethal factor (LF, 90 kDa), and edema factor (EF, 89 kDa). The toxins follow the A-B model with PA being the B moeity and LF/EF, the alternative A moeities. LF and EF are individually ...
"Bacillus anthracis". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56 (3): 182-7. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMC 1769905. PMID 12610093. Walker ... anthrax spore 2 μm - length of an average E. coli bacteria 3-4 μm - size of a typical yeast cell 5 μm - length of a typical ...
Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive bacteria that causes anthrax, secretes two siderophores: bacillibactin and petrobactin. ... Spencer, RC (2003). "Bacillus anthracis". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56 (3): 182-187. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMC 1769905 ...
Bergman NH (2011). Bacillus anthracis and Anthrax. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. pp. Chapter 7. ISBN 9781118148082. Retrieved 14 ... Abergel RJ, Wilson MK, Arceneaux JE, Hoette TM, Strong RK, Byers BR, Raymond KN (Dec 2006). "Anthrax pathogen evades the ... "Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle with iron-exchange from Fe-siderophore to apo-siderophore by Bacillus cereus YxeB". ...
He found that the blood of cattle that were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. Koch found ... "Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (1): 117-20. doi:10.3201/ ... In modern times, bioterrorism has included the 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack[105] and the 1993 release of anthrax by Aum ... In the 1880s, Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera, diphtheria and anthrax. ...
He found that the blood of cattle that were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. Koch found ... "Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (1): 117-20. doi:10.3201/ ... In modern times, bioterrorism has included the 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack[105] and the 1993 release of anthrax by Aum ... The organisms involved include pathogenic bacteria, causing diseases such as plague, tuberculosis and anthrax; protozoan ...
Thorne CB, Molnar DM (1955). "D-Amino acid transamination in bacillus anthracis". J. Bacteriol. 70 (4): 420-6. doi:10.1128/JB. ... Thorne CB, Gomez CG, Housewright RD (1955). "Transamination of D-amino acids by Bacillus subtilis". J. Bacteriol. 69 (3): 357- ... Yonaha K, Misono H, Yamamoto T, Soda K (1975). "D-amino acid aminotransferase of Bacillus sphaericus. Enzymologic and ... two D-glutamate biosynthetic enzymes of Bacillus sphaericus ATCC 10208". J. Bacteriol. 180 (16): 4319-23. doi:10.1128/JB.180.16 ...
In July 1993, cult members sprayed large amounts of liquid containing Bacillus anthracis spores from a cooling tower on the ... Takahashi, Hiroshi (2004). "Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 ( ... However, their plan to cause an anthrax epidemic failed. The attack resulted in a large number of complaints about bad odors ... While the finding of biological warfare agents such as anthrax and Ebola cultures was reported, those claims now appear to have ...
He found that the blood of cattle that were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. Koch found ... "Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (1): 117-20. doi:10.3201/ ... "Bacillus alcalophilus can grow at up to pH 11.5" (PDF). Picrophilus can grow at pH −0.06.[3] The piezophilic bacteria Halomonas ... In modern times, bioterrorism has included the 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack and the 1993 release of anthrax by Aum ...
2004). "Bacillus anthracis incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993". Emerg Infect Dis. 10 (1): 117-20. doi:10.3201/eid1001.030238. PMC ... PMID 15112666.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "U.S. officials declare researcher is anthrax killer". CNN.com. ...
Scanning electron micrograph of a phagocyte (yellow: neutrophil) engulfing some bacteria (orange: anthrax bacilli) ...
"Characterization of Sporulation Histidine Kinases of Bacillus anthracis". J. Bacteriol. 187 (20): 6972-81. doi:10.1128/JB. ... "Cys303 in the Histidine Kinase PhoR Is Crucial for the Phosphotransfer Reaction in the PhoPR Two-Component System in Bacillus ...
... s of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The powder found in contaminated postal ... "Decontamination of Bacillus anthracis Spores: Evaluation of Various Disinfectants". Appl Biosaf. 14 (1): 7-10. doi:10.1177/ ... The six other individuals with inhalation anthrax and all the individuals with cutaneous anthrax recovered. Had it not been for ... Anthrax in humans and animals (PDF) (4th ed.). OIE. 2008. ISBN 978-92-4-154753-6. .. ...
... particularly Bacillus cereus and the anthrax-causing bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The exosporium is the portion of the spore ... In Bacillus anthraces, salt and detergent washing of exosporium fragments can identify proteins that are likely to represent ... Redmond, C. (2004). "Identification of proteins in the exosporium of Bacillus anthracis". Microbiology. 150 (2): 355-363. doi: ... anthracis and other members of the Bacillus cereus group. The protein ywdL has been identified in B. cereus as important for ...
Bacillus megaterium for example, synthesizes a capsule composed of polypeptide and polysaccharides. Bacillus anthracis ... such as poly-D-glutamic acid in Bacillus anthracis. Because most capsules are so tightly packed, they are difficult to stain ...
Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST Nalme12 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST Nmae4 ... Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST Nalbe12 (N. alba; Mount Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia; leaf tissue) Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST ... Bacillus altitudinis strain AIMST Nre3 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST Nalbe12 ... Bacillaceae Bacillus Bacillus altitudinis strain AIMST Nae8 (N. ampullaria; Selangor, Malaysia; stem tissue) Bacillus ...
The disease is caused by gram-positive Bacillus anthracis. (B. anthracis) and is found globally. B anthracis can enter a host ... Anthrax is a disease caused via a bacterium that resides in soil, and predominately affects animals more than humans. Anthrax ...
Examples of bacterial species that can form endospores include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, ... Endospores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The powder found in contaminated postal ... "Decontamination of Bacillus anthracis Spores: Evaluation of Various Disinfectants". Applied Biosafety. 14 (1): 7-10. doi: ... The six other individuals with inhalation anthrax and all the individuals with cutaneous anthrax recovered. Had it not been for ...
Budzik JM, Oh SY, Schneewind O (December 2008). "Cell wall anchor structure of BcpA pili in Bacillus anthracis". The Journal of ... Budzik JM, Oh SY, Schneewind O (May 2009). "Sortase D forms the covalent bond that links BcpB to the tip of Bacillus cereus ... Budzik JM, Marraffini LA, Schneewind O (October 2007). "Assembly of pili on the surface of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells". ... "Amide bonds assemble pili on the surface of bacilli". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
... is a catechol-based siderophore secreted by members of the genus Bacillus, including Bacillus anthracis and ... Hotta, K; Kim, CY; Fox, DT; Koppisch, AT (July 2010). "Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition in Bacillus anthracis and related ... May, Jürgen J.; Wendrich, Thomas M.; Marahiel, Mohamed A. (2001-03-09). "The dhb Operon of Bacillus subtilisEncodes the ... Bacillus subtilis. It is involved in the chelation of ferric iron (Fe3+) from the surrounding environment and is subsequently ...
In May 1951, Stähelin was the first to observe naked anthrax bacilli protoplasts, called gymnoplasts, which had left behind ... Stähelin H (1954). "[Osmotic behavior and fusion of naked protoplasts of Bacillus anthracis]". Schweiz Z Pathol Bakteriol (in ... where he investigated the morphology and sporulation of anthrax bacilli with the help of the then-new phase-contrast microscope ... The action of phagocytes upon C14-labelled tubercle bacilli". J. Exp. Med. 104 (1): 137-50. doi:10.1084/jem.104.1.137. PMC ...
NLRP1 recognizes lethal toxin from Bacillus anthracis and muramyl dipeptide. IPAF senses flagellin from Salmonella typhimurium ...
"Computational Functionand Structural Annotations for Hypothetical proteins of Bacillus anthracis". Biofrontiers. 1 (1): 27-36. ...
An example of the B component of an AB toxin is Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) protein, B. anthracis secretes three ... Pezard C, Berche P, Mock M (October 1991). "Contribution of individual toxin components to virulence of Bacillus anthracis". ... "Sequence and analysis of the DNA encoding protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis". Gene. 69 (2): 287-300. doi:10.1016/0378- ... PA protein forms the central part of the complete anthrax toxin, and translocates the A moiety into host cells after assembling ...
In biological warfare, a distinction is also made between bio-agents as Lethal Agents (e.g., Bacillus anthracis, Francisella ...
"Bacillus anthracis comparative genome analysis in support of the Amerithrax investigation". Proceedings of the National Academy ... Fraser's work on the 2001 Amerithrax investigation led to the identification of four genetic mutations in the anthrax spores ...
In 2001 anthrax attacks, TIGR worked with the National Science Foundation and the FBI to sequence the strain of Bacillus ... "Comparative Genome Sequencing for Discovery of Novel Polymorphisms in Bacillus anthracis". Science. 296 (5575): 2028-2033. ... anthracis used in bioterrorism attacks. In June 2000, Venter founded The Center for the Advancement of Genomics (TCAG), a think ...
The Ames strain is one of 89 known strains of the anthrax bacterium (Bacillus anthracis). It was isolated from a diseased 14- ... "Bacillus anthracis virulence in Guinea pigs vaccinated with anthrax vaccine adsorbed is linked to plasmid quantities and ... Anthrax Sterne strain (34F2) of Bacillus anthracis v t e v t e. ... The only licensed human anthrax vaccine in America, Anthrax ... "Efficacy of a human anthrax vaccine in guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques against challenge by Bacillus anthracis ...
In 1876, Robert Koch had shown that Bacillus anthracis caused anthrax. In his papers published between 1878 and 1880, Pasteur ... Toussaint had developed anthrax vaccine by killing the bacilli by heating at 55°C for 10 minutes. He tested on eight dogs and ... But Pasteur found that anthrax bacillus was not easily weakened bu culturing in air as it formed spores unlike chicken cholera ... In early 1881, he discovered that growing anthrax bacilli at about 42 °C made them unable to produce spores, and he described ...
"Sizing the Bacillus anthracis PA63 Channel with Nonelectrolyte Poly(Ethylene Glycols)". Biophysical Journal. 95 (3): 1157-1164 ... The diameters of the functioning toxins such as Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Cholera toxin and others were ... Bacillus cereus, Shigella, Pasteurella - reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (principally α-staphylotoxin because of its ...
"Photogenerated glycan arrays identify immunogenic sugar moieties of Bacillus anthracis exosporium". Proteomics. 7 (2): 180-184 ...
Bacillus. *Bacillus anthracis *Anthrax. *Bacillus cereus *Food poisoning. Listeria. *Listeria monocytogenes *Listeriosis ...
The insecticidal toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been inserted into a tomato plant.[22] When field tested ... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ... Kumar, H.; Kumar, V. (2004). "Tomato expressing Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis protected against ... Safety Assessment of the Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Crystal Protein CRYIA(b) Expressed in Transgenic Tomatoes. ACS ...
Bacillus anthracis. Cohn 1872 Bacillus anthracis je povzročitelj antraksa - pogoste bolezni živine in občasno ljudi - in edini ... Bacillus anthracis. *↑ 1,0 1,1 Spencer, Robert C. (marec 2003). "Bacillus anthracis". Journal of clinical pathology. Vol. 56 no ... Bacillus anthracis je ena od maloštevilnih vrst bakterij, ki sintetizirajo polipeptidno kapsulo (poli-D-gama-glutamat). Tako ... Genotipsko in fenotipsko je podobna vrstama Bacillus cereus in Bacillus thuringiensis. Vse tri vrste imajo podobno celično ...
Bacillus. *Bacillus anthracis *Anthrax. *Bacillus cereus *Food poisoning. Listeria. *Listeria monocytogenes *Listeriosis ...
Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin discovered how to culture the tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (so called ... an anthrax one in Chamberland's hands, who also supervised the department of microbiology, while Emile Roux dealt with ... Right after he had discovered the bacillus, Koch had tried in vain to create a vaccine against it, however the injection of the ... Roux and Yersin established that they were dealing with a new type of bacillus, not only able to proliferate and abundantly ...
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis commonly - grazing herbivores such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, and pigs by ingestion, ... Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for ... "Inhalation Anthrax". cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.. ... Examples include rabies, anthrax, tularemia and West Nile virus. Thus, much of human exposure to infectious disease has been ...
Bacillus anthracis-ek, Bacillus guztien antzera, esporak (endosporak) sortzeko gaitasuna du. Espora moduan baziloek bizirik ... Lupu beltza, karbunkoa edo ikatza Bacillus anthracis bakterioak eragindako gaixotasun larria da, zoonosi bat dena. Horrek esan ... Euskaraz lupu beltza, karbunkoa edo ikatza da Bacillus anthracisek eragindako gaitzaren izena. Antraxa larruazaleko gaitza da, ...
Multiple bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria, here shown as black and bean-shaped) shown between white blood cells in urinary ... Bacillus. *Bacillus anthracis *Anthrax. *Bacillus cereus *Food poisoning. Listeria. *Listeria monocytogenes *Listeriosis ...
M. tuberculosis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus anthracis utilize mechanisms that directly kill the phagocyte.[citation ...
report that gene sequences for HIV, Ebola, Hepatitis, and Bacillus Anthracis can be uniquely identified using this technique. ...
Bacillus anthracis belongs to the Bacillus cereus group of strains.png,''Bacillus anthracis'' spada v skupino sevov ''Bacillus ... Slika:B anthracis diagram en.png,Zgradba bakterije ''Bacillus anthracis''. Slika:AnthraxBacteria.jpg,Elektronska mikrografija ... Bacillus anthracis (uredi) Redakcija: 00:53, 28. marec 2013 dodanih 89 zlogov , pred 7 leti ...
BT - Bacillus thuringiensis. *EH - Erwinia hebicola. *FP - fluorescent particle. Radiological Agent[edit]. Main article: ... TR - anthrax. *LE - plague. *UL - tularemia (schu S4). *TT - wet-type UL ...
Bacillus anthracis, which causes Anthrax.. *Bacillus subtilis is considered an model organism. It is often used in genetic ... Bacillus cereus which is responsible for a form of food poisoning.. *Bacillus thuringensis which is used in pest control. It ... Bacilli are partly or wholly aerobic. They do aerobic respiration. They are everywhere in nature. Bacillus includes both free- ... Bacillus is a genus of rod shaped bacteria. They are Gram-positive, meaning they have an extra outside cell layer. ...
Bacillus anthracis. *Bacteroides. *Bacteroidetes. *Bakteri koliform. *Bakteri komensal. *Bakteri lipofilik. *Bakteri pengurai ...
In 1876, Robert Koch had shown that Bacillus anthracis caused anthrax.[85] In his papers published between 1878 and 1880, ... In 1880, Pasteur's rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint, a veterinary surgeon, used carbolic acid to kill anthrax bacilli and ... He thought oxidizing bacteria made them less virulent.[76] In early 1881, Pasteur discovered that growing anthrax bacilli at ... Anthrax. In the 1870s, he applied this immunization method to anthrax, which affected cattle, and aroused interest in combating ...
B96.6) Bacillus fragilis (B. fragilis) as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... A22.) Anthrax. *(A23.) Brucellosis. *(A24.) Glanders and melioidosis *(A24.0) Glanders ...
B. anthracis. B. aquimaris. B. arenosi. B. arseniciselenatis. B. arsenicus. B. aurantiacus. B. arvi. B. aryabhattai. B. asahii ... Bacillus adalah genus bakteri Gram-positif berbentuk batang yang anggota dari filum Firmicutes. Spesies Bacillus dapat bersifat ... Bacillus. Foto mikroskopis Bacillus subtilis dengan pewarnaan Gram dan pembesaran 1.000x. Bentuk oval yang tidak terwarnai ... Wikimedia Commons memiliki media mengenai Bacillus.. *Bacillus genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ...
khác: Anthrax toxin · Listeriolysin O. Cầu khuẩn. Streptolysin · Leukocidin (Panton-Valentine leukocidin) · Staphylococcus ( ... Lipopolysaccharide (Lipid A) · Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin. Virulence factor. Clumping factor A · Fibronectin ...
Anthrax. Bacillus anthracis. commonly - grazing herbivores such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, and pigs. by ingestion ... Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for ... "Inhalation Anthrax". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-26.. *^ "Avian flu: Poultry to be allowed outside under new rules". BBC ... Examples include rabies, anthrax, tularemia and West Nile virus. Thus, much of human exposure to infectious disease has been ...
Bacillus anthraces. Anthrax. Was weaponized by the U.S., Soviet Union, and Iraq[6]p.26. ... Bacillus anthraces (anthrax). Mailed letters. Terrorists to attack U.S. politicians and news stations[16]. ... "Amerithrax or Anthrax Investigation". FBI.gov. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved February 8, 2016.. ... Lutwick, Larry I.; Lutwick, Suzanne M. (December 15, 2008). Beyond Anthrax: The Weaponization of Infectious Diseases. Springer ...
"Decontamination of Bacillus anthracis Spores: Evaluation of Various Disinfectants". Appl Biosaf. 14 (1): 7-10. PMC 2957119. ... Värvitud preparaat Bacillus subtilisest. Endospoorid on värvunud roheliselt ja vegetatiivne rakk punaselt ...
Bacillus anthracis. *Bacteroides. *Bacteroidetes. *Bifidobacterium. *Bradyrhizobium japonicum. *Burkholderia cenocepacia. * ...
... the class Bacilli such as the Bacillus spp. (e.g. B. anthracis, a pathogen, and B. subtilis, biotechnologically useful), lactic ... Pasteuria is now assigned to phylum Bacilli, not to phylum Planctomycetes. *^ It has been proposed to call the clade ... Low-G+C species (later renamed Firmicutes[19]) (Clostridium, Peptococcus, Bacillus, Mycoplasma) ...
The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by ... seperti Brucella abortus yang menyebabkan brucellosis pada sapi dan Bacillus anthracis yang menyebabkan antraks.[60] Untuk ... Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh Bacillus anthracis, salah satu bakteri penghasil endospora.[15] Robert Koch juga merupakan orang ... Basil (Bacillus) adalah kelompok bakteri yang berbentuk batang atau silinder, dan mempunyai variasi sebagai berikut:[20][21]* ...
Recently, NOS activity has been demonstrated in several bacterial species, including notorious pathogens Bacillus anthracis and ...
... subtilase cytotoxin because its A subunit sequence is similar to that of a subtilase-like serine protease in Bacillus anthracis ...
Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax. Anthrax vaccines. BioThrax Bordetella pertussis. Whooping cough. DPT vaccine. Boostrix, Adacel, ...
Twigg suggested that the cause was a form of anthrax, and Norman Cantor thought it may have been a combination of anthrax and ... Department there which undertook some leading-edge research on plague transmission from rat fleas to humans via the bacillus ...
Rod-shaped gram-positive Bacillus anthracis bacteria in a cerebrospinal fluid sample stand out from round white blood cells, ... Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sanguinis and in gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus.[20] ... The non-spore formers are Corynebacterium and Listeria (a coccobacillus), whereas Bacillus and Clostridium produce spores.[16] ... Two of these, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, are cocci (sphere-shaped). The remaining organisms are bacilli (rod-shaped) and ...
Describe laboratory tests for presumptive identification of B. anthracis. *Describe how to use the sentinel laboratory ... This course provides clinical laboratory scientists with information about the laboratory identification of anthrax. This ... Discuss the role of the LRN sentinel laboratory in detection of B. anthracis ...
In anthrax. …animals and humans caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that under certain conditions forms highly resistant ... In bacillus. …incidentally. A notable exception is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and domestic animals. B. ... true of the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Although usually present in abundance in factories in which rawhides and ... polysaccharides), although the capsule of Bacillus anthracis is made of polyglutamic acid. Most capsules are hydrophilic (" ...
The bacteria is found in two forms cutaneous anthrax and inhalation anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is an ... Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. ... The bacteria is found in two forms: cutaneous anthrax and inhalation anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is an infection of the skin ... Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. ...
The etiology of anthrax, based on the ontogenesis of Bacillus anthracis), Cohns Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen, vol. 2, no ... Commons ponúka multimediálne súbory na tému Bacillus anthracis. Zdroj[upraviť , upraviť kód]. *Tento článok je čiastočný alebo ... Je to jediný obligátny patogén v rode Bacillus.[1] B. anthracis je grampozitívna nepohyblivá baktéria, formujúca endospóry, v ... Bacillus anthracis.. Journal of clinical pathology, March 2003, s. 182-7. DOI: 10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMID 12610093. ...
Bacilli. › Bacillales. › Bacillaceae. › Bacillus. › Bacillus cereus group. › Bacillus anthracis. See also. › NCBI. ... Bacillus anthracis A0465. › Bacillus anthracis strain A0465. Rank i. -. Lineage i. › cellular organisms. › Bacteria. › ...
Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, i.e. B. cereus with the two plasmids, is also capable of causing anthrax. B. anthracis ... Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive and rod-shaped bacterium that causes anthrax, a deadly disease to livestock and, ... Bacillus anthracis genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Pathema-Bacillus ... Effect of the lower molecular capsule released from the cell surface of Bacillus anthracis on the pathogenesis of anthrax. J. ...
Discovery of inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis primase DnaG.. Biswas T1, Green KD, Garneau-Tsodikova S, Tsodikov OV. ... Application of this assay to DnaG from Bacillus anthracis (Ba DnaG), a dangerous pathogen, yielded several inhibitors, which ...
Improved Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis from Closely Related Species in the Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato Group Based on ... Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Bloodstream Infections by Use of a Novel Assay in the GeneXpert System Padmapriya P. ... Francisella tularensis, Bacillus anthracis, and Yersinia pestis are tier 1 select agents with the potential to rapidly cause ... Testing and for Observation of Phenotypic Diversity among Strains of the Genetically Clonal Species Bacillus anthracis Heather ...
Scientists and researchers from all over the world who work on Bacillus anthracis , the causative agent of anthrax, and B. ... International anthrax conference to explore latest scientific research findings. April 19, 2017 - ... cereus and B. thuringiensis , two closely related bacillus species, will be heading to Victoria, British Columbia, in October ...
Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is a 90-kDa zinc metalloprotease that plays an important role in the virulence of the ... LF has previously been purified from Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis. The yields and purities of these preparations ... Optimized production and purification of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor.. Park S1, Leppla SH. ... In this study, the genes encoding wild-type LF and a mutated, inactive LF (LF-E687C) were placed in an E. coli-Bacillus shuttle ...
Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis is a variant of the Bacillus cereus bacterium that has acquired plasmids similar to those of ... "Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa-Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution ... "The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis ... As a result, it is capable of causing anthrax. In 2016, it was added to the CDCs list of select agents and toxins. Bacillus ...
Reviews and ratings for wycillin when used in the treatment of cutaneous bacillus anthracis. Share your experience with this ... Reviews for Wycillin to treat Cutaneous Bacillus anthracis. No reviews have yet been submitted. Be the first to review this ... Anthrax Prophylaxis ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, doxycycline, Levaquin, levofloxacin, More.... Streptococcal Infection Levaquin ...
... Description. Isolation and presumptive identification of Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that ...
On the agar plate test, 1-5% garlic powder inhibited the growth of B. anthracis and Escherichia coli O157 used as references. A ... The antibacterial activity of garlic powder was examined against Bacillus anthracis using agar plate cultivation and test tube ... Bacteriocidal activity of garlic powder against Bacillus anthracis J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Aug;49(4):297-9. doi: ... The antibacterial activity of garlic powder was examined against Bacillus anthracis using agar plate cultivation and test tube ...
Bacillus anthracis. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: BA_1222, bclA, GBAA_1222. ... Bacillus collagen-like protein of anthracis P159S mutant. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3TYJ/pdb ... Variable Lymphocyte Receptor Recognition of the Immunodominant Glycoprotein of Bacillus anthracis Spores.. Kirchdoerfer, R.N., ... the immunodominant glycoprotein of Bacillus anthracis spores. Using a combination of crystallography, mutagenesis, and binding ...
... Atanu Sengupta, Chetan Shende, ... Atanu Sengupta, Chetan Shende, Stuart Farquharson, and Frank Inscore, "Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores Using Peptide ...
anthrax bacillus synonyms, anthrax bacillus pronunciation, anthrax bacillus translation, English dictionary definition of ... anthrax bacillus. Noun 1. anthrax bacillus - a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals ; can be used a ... anthrax bacillus. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to anthrax bacillus: Anthrax toxin, plague bacillus ... Anthrax bacillus - definition of anthrax bacillus by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/anthrax+bacillus ...
A new pathogen in Africa causes anthrax-like disease in wild and domestic animals. Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a ... Anthrax: A hidden threat to wildlife in the tropics. Anthrax, a disease so far not associated with tropical rain forests, is ... Pocket-sized anthrax detector aids global agriculture. A credit-card-sized anthrax detection cartridge developed at Sandia ... Worst anthrax outbreak in 20 years hits French farms. More than 50 cows, sheep and horses have died in Frances most serious ...
Genus: Bacillus. Species: Bacillus anthracis (8). Description and significance. Bacillus anthracis is a rod shaped bacteria ... Efficacy of Selected Hand Hygiene Agents Used to Remove Bacillus atrophaeus (a Surrogate of Bacillus anthracis) From ... 1] Anthrax: Bacillus anthracis by Russell Kightley Media. (n.d.). Russell Kightley Media: Scientific Illustrator (science ... B. anthracis is pathogenic and is associated with the disease Anthrax. Anthrax is mostly obtained by livestock, such as cattle ...
Morphogenesis of the Bacillus anthracis Spore. Rebecca Giorno, Joel Bozue, Christopher Cote, Theresa Wenzel, Krishna-Sulayman ... Morphogenesis of the Bacillus anthracis Spore. Rebecca Giorno, Joel Bozue, Christopher Cote, Theresa Wenzel, Krishna-Sulayman ... Apr in E. coli, Tcr in B. anthracis 41 pMR1. Apr in E. coli, Tcr and Kmr in B. anthracis, with extensive restriction enzyme ... Morphogenesis of the Bacillus anthracis Spore Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ...
The Bacillus anthracis coat is of particular interest because the spore is the infective particle of anthrax. We determined the ... Morphogenesis of the Bacillus anthracis Spore. Rebecca Giorno, Joel Bozue, Christopher Cote, Theresa Wenzel, Krishna-Sulayman ... Morphogenesis of the Bacillus anthracis Spore. Rebecca Giorno, Joel Bozue, Christopher Cote, Theresa Wenzel, Krishna-Sulayman ... Morphogenesis of the Bacillus anthracis Spore Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ...
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Bacillus anthracis Sterne [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Enzymes - Bacillus anthracis CDC 684. [ Brite menu , Organism menu , Download htext , Download json ] ...
Bacillus anthracis. Cohn 1872 Bacillus anthracis je povzročitelj antraksa - pogoste bolezni živine in občasno ljudi - in edini ... Bacillus anthracis. *↑ 1,0 1,1 Spencer, Robert C. (marec 2003). "Bacillus anthracis". Journal of clinical pathology. Vol. 56 no ... Bacillus anthracis je ena od maloštevilnih vrst bakterij, ki sintetizirajo polipeptidno kapsulo (poli-D-gama-glutamat). Tako ... Genotipsko in fenotipsko je podobna vrstama Bacillus cereus in Bacillus thuringiensis. Vse tri vrste imajo podobno celično ...
Outbreaks of Bacillus anthracis in animals are repeatedly reported in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In this study soil samples ... Characterization of Bacillus anthracis spores isolates from soil by biochemical and multiplex PCR analysis  ... were analysed from endemic regions of the country, and B. anthracis isolates were identified ... ...
Although Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, can be cleared from the host with antibiotics, the ongoing action ... A peptide-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for Bacillus anthracis lethal factor protease. Richard T. Cummings ... A fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay has been developed for monitoring Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) protease ... Progress in rapid screening of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor activity - May 14, 2002 ...
Anthrax is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacteria named Bacillus anthracis. Bacillus anthracis is an obligate ... "Bacillus anthracis, a bug with attitude!."2001.. 11] Stephen F Little, Bruce E Ivins. "Molecular pathogenesis of Bacillus ... Bacillus anthracis is not an invasive organism. The ways of transmission of the anthrax disease are through wounds, mucous ... The exosporium has been studied to understand the use of anthrax as a weapon. Issues about the use of Bacillus anthracis spores ...
1. Bacillus anthracis (n.). a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals (cattle and swine and sheep and ... 2. bacillus (n.). aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium; often occurring in chainlike formations; found primarily in ...
... while the other had cutaneous anthrax. Both cases had been exposed to one Bacillus anthracis-infected cow via consumption of ... One was a fatal case of cutaneous and anthrax meningoencephalitis, ... A cluster of two confirmed cases of anthrax were reported in October 2011 from a small village with a population of 3,400 ... Two cases of infection with Bacillus anthracis, Romania, October 2011 * R Popescu1, A Pistol1, L Miltaru2, D Caplan3, R Cucuiu4 ...
  • Although non-viable select agents are excluded from the select agent regulations, it has been observed that some inactivation protocols that have been used have not inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores completely, necessitating issuance of this policy statement. (cdc.gov)
  • animals and humans caused by Bacillus anthracis , a bacterium that under certain conditions forms highly resistant spores capable of persisting and retaining their virulence for many years. (britannica.com)
  • Inhalation or respiratory anthrax is an infectious disease caused by inhaling the spores of the bacterium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Inhibition of the B. anthracis Ndk mRNA results in the formation of nonviable aberrant spores. (rcsb.org)
  • Spores of Bacillus bacteria can survive for years in a dormant state, and then germinate in minutes. (phys.org)
  • B. anthracis is gram positive and is able to form spores, these spores are highly resistant and are able to sustain drastic changes in temperature, low nutrient environments, and application of harsh chemicals (including disinfectant chemicals such as 95% ethanol) over many years. (kenyon.edu)
  • it guides the assembly of the exosporium, an outer structure encasing B. anthracis but not B. subtilis spores. (asm.org)
  • Anthrax became a matter of public interest after the bioterrorist attacks in the USA during the autumn of 2001 received five letters containing small quantities of anthrax spores contaminated over 30,000 people(13). (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacillus anthracis requires oxygen to sporulate and its spores are resistant to cold, heat, radiation, desiccation and disinfectants(8) Spore formation begins with asymmetric septation then the mother cell engulfs the forespore and protects it with three layers called the coat, cortex and exosporium. (kenyon.edu)
  • Issues about the use of Bacillus anthracis spores as a weapon have resulted in efforts to understand the interactions between Bacillus anthracis and the cells of the immune system, and to develop better detectors for these spores (8). (kenyon.edu)
  • Ali Oztuna, Hasan Nazir, and Mehmet Baysallar, "Simultaneous Bacillus anthracis Spores Detection via Aminated-Poly(vinyl chloride) Coated Piezoelectric Crystal Immunosensor," Journal of Coatings , vol. 2014, Article ID 256168, 8 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Potentially, B. anthracis spores can be an effective biological weapon because of their high stability. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2001, letters containing anthrax spores caused illness in 22 persons, leading to 5 deaths in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacillus anthracis spores can live in the soil for many years. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In response to the need for methods that can rapidly detect potentially virulent Bacillus anthracis spores, we developed a two-color flow cytometric assay capable of simultaneously identifying B. anthracis spores and the presence of spore-associated protective antigen, a virulence marker for strains harboring the pXO1 plasmid. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis , a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, is initiated by the entry of spores into the host body. (frontiersin.org)
  • For each form, B. anthracis spores need to cross the cutaneous, respiratory or digestive epithelial barriers, respectively, as a first obligate step to establish infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ecology of anthrax spores: tough but not invincible. (springer.com)
  • The analysis of soil samples revealed that 11 of them were contaminated with anthrax spores, while only 8 strains were confirmed as Bacillus anthracis. (omicsonline.org)
  • Recently, a fourth fatal form has been reported in drug users as a result of injection of heroin contaminated with anthrax spores [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Thanks to the considerable ability of spores to maintain viability and pathogenicity for many decades and thanks to its low costs of production, B. anthracis is considered one of the pathogens of greatest interest as a bacteriological weapon in a possible bioterrorist attack [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. (epa.gov)
  • During an anthrax outbreak in 2014 in the endemic Pafuri region, blowflies associated with two 2-3-day-old anthrax-positive carcasses (kudu and impala) as well as surrounding vegetation were collected and investigated for the presence of B. anthracis spores. (scielo.org.za)
  • Bacillus anthracis spores were isolated from 65.5% and 25.0% of blowflies collected from the kudu and impala carcasses, respectively. (scielo.org.za)
  • No B. anthracis spores were initially isolated from leaves of the surrounding vegetation using selective media. (scielo.org.za)
  • Electron micrographs of B. subtilis, B. anthracis , and B. megaterium spores. (asmscience.org)
  • An ideal vaccine would confer simultaneous protection against spores, bacilli, and toxins. (harvard.edu)
  • Three different enrichment strategies were used for metagenomic DNA isolation, based either on the ability of B. cereus sensu lato to form heat-resistant spores, the sensitivity of B. anthracis to the PlyG lysin, or the selective amplification of environmental phages cocultured with B. anthracis . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The vegetative form of B. anthracis forms spores when nutrients in the environment, such as amino acids, nucleosides, and glucose, become depleted. (qedbio.com)
  • These spores can survive for many years and will germinate into the toxin-producing vegetative form of B. anthracis when they are exposed to a nutrient-rich environment. (qedbio.com)
  • Antigen: Detergent extract of B. anthracis spores. (qedbio.com)
  • Hence, the aim of this study is to review the natural transmission of Bacillus anthracis and investigate potential means by which soil persisting Bacillus anthracis spores reach concentrations sufficient to infect susceptible hosts. (slu.se)
  • In vivo germination of Bacillus anthracis spores during murine cutaneous infection. (inserm.fr)
  • METHODS: To investigate the early interactions between B. anthracis spores and cutaneous tissue, spores were inoculated in an intraperitoneal cell-free device in guinea pigs or into the pinna of mice. (inserm.fr)
  • Anthrax is initiated by the entry of spores into the host through the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, or the respiratory epithelium after inhalation of airborne spores ( 10 , 23 , 27 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • In the present study, two bacilli strain spores ( B. subtilis and B. cereus ) were tested for photocatalytic inactivation in water as simulators of B. anthracis spores. (iwaponline.com)
  • Taking into account that B. anthracis spores have hydrophobic properties, the photocatalytic process seems to be the method of choice in water disinfection eliminating the possibility of by products formation such as halogens. (iwaponline.com)
  • Despite differences in rPA-specific antibody titers, all immunized mice survived an injected challenge consisting of 10 3 median lethal doses of Bacillus anthracis STI spores. (asm.org)
  • These results show that rPA can be encapsulated and surface bound to polymeric microspheres without impairing its immunogenicity and also that mucosal or parenteral administration of microspheric formulations of rPA efficiently protects mice against both injected and aerosol challenges with B. anthracis spores. (asm.org)
  • Cutaneous anthrax, in which the spores infect a lesion in the skin, produces a characteristic black eschar and edema at the site of infection and can be effectively treated with antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • Gastrointestinal and pulmonary anthrax infections, caused by ingestion and inhalation of spores, respectively, are more difficult to diagnose and treat successfully as the symptoms of infection are not always apparent in time for antibiotic treatment to be effective ( 21 ), so vaccination is essential to protect individuals who are likely to be exposed. (asm.org)
  • It also has a limited duration of protection, requiring frequent boosting for continued immunity, and there is some uncertainty concerning its protective efficacy against inhaled spores of the more virulent strains of B. anthracis ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • B. anthracis spores are very resistant to various conditions. (who.int)
  • Livestock may become infected by eating or inhaling anthrax spores. (drugster.info)
  • Our findings revealed the MID of virulent B. anthracis spores in naïve goats under experimental conditions to be below 36 spores using the subcutaneous route. (up.ac.za)
  • There was a correlation between the toxin neutralizing antibody titres and protection against challenge with virulent anthrax spores (P = 0.01). (up.ac.za)
  • B. cereus has minimal toxic effects, while B. anthracis can cause very serious disease, which is mainly attributed to its two toxin plasmids which work in unison to cause disease in a host. (kenyon.edu)
  • Although Bacillus anthracis , the causative agent of anthrax, can be cleared from the host with antibiotics, the ongoing action of the secreted anthrax toxin limits the clinical efficacy of these drugs ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, a receptor-binding component designated protective antigen, and two enzymatic components termed edema factor and lethal factor (LF) ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mechanism of action of the Anthrax Toxin. (kenyon.edu)
  • The pathogenic effect of bacillus anthracis is through its capsule and through the production of toxin(EF, LF and PA)(13)(Figure 3).The lethal toxin(LT, the combination of PA and LF) and edema toxin (ET, the combination of PA and EF) are enough to produce and cause the anthrax infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. (jci.org)
  • Anthrax toxin, the major virulence factor of this organism, consists of three polypeptides: edema factor (EF), lethal factor (LF), and protective antigen (PA). (jci.org)
  • B. anthracis has 2 plasmids: the toxin-encoding pXO1 (182 kb) and capsule-encoding pXO2 (95 kb) ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In conjunction with lethal toxin and oedema toxin, whose target cells include macrophages and neutrophils, respectively, the capsule allows virulent anthrax bacilli to grow virtually unimpeded in the infected host. (nih.gov)
  • Anthrax has a very high toxin level and is used in Biologic warfare. (gentaur.com)
  • It was thought to differ from Bacillus cereus , an opportunistic pathogen and cause of food poisoning, by the presence of plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, which encode the lethal toxin complex and the poly-γ- d -glutamic acid capsule, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • This work describes a non- B. anthracis isolate that possesses the anthrax toxin genes and is capable of causing a severe inhalation anthrax-like illness. (pnas.org)
  • Although initial phenotypic and 16S rRNA analysis identified this isolate as B. cereus , the rapid generation and analysis of a high-coverage draft genome sequence revealed the presence of a circular plasmid, named pBCXO1, with 99.6% similarity with the B. anthracis toxin-encoding plasmid, pXO1. (pnas.org)
  • Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. (fraunhofer.de)
  • These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. (fraunhofer.de)
  • It begins with the binding of PA to its cell-surface receptor, ATR (Anthrax Toxin Receptor), at which point PA is cleaved and the resulting 63 kD carboxyl-terminal fragment binds to LF and EF. (genetex.com)
  • Specific for the toxin binding protein (protective antigen) of Bacillus anthracis . (genetex.com)
  • Protective antigen (PA) is one of the three proteins composing the anthrax toxin, the agent which infects many mammalian species and that may cause death. (genetex.com)
  • The anthrax toxin receptors, Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) and Capillary Morphogenesis Gene 2 (CMG2), are endothelial receptors involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis and angiogenesis that are selectively upregulated on numerous tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). (scielo.org.za)
  • The disease consists of three critical components: spore, bacillus, and toxin, elimination of any of which confers at least partial protection against anthrax. (harvard.edu)
  • One step towards this goal is our dually active vaccine, designed to destroy both bacilli and toxin. (harvard.edu)
  • Results of PCR experiments testing for the presence of the toxin genes ( 17 ) and immunoblots testing for the presence of the anthrax toxin protein-protective antigen and lethal factor in culture supernates ( 15 ) revealed a cured strain, UT223, that was pXO1 negative and pXO2 positive (Table 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Anthrax toxin produced by Bacillus anthracis is composed of three proteins: Protective Antigen (PA), Edema Factor (EF), and Lethal Factor (LF). (qedbio.com)
  • Toxicity requires the assembly of all three of these proteins, and this process is initiated when full-length PA binds to the cell surface ATR (anthrax toxin receptor). (qedbio.com)
  • Disclosed is a protein comprising a cytolethal distending toxin subunit B (CdtB) conjugated or fused to a Bacillus anthracis toxin lethal factor (LF) or a functional portion of LF. (patents.com)
  • None of these proteins are toxic by themselves and several studies indicate that the anthrax toxin has the familiar A-B enzymatic binding structure, with PA acting as the binding domain and EF and/or LF acting as the active fragments. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A major virulence determinant of anthrax is edema toxin (ET), which is formed by the combination of two proteins produced by the organism, edema factor (EF), which is an adenyl cyclase, and protective antigen (PA). (springer.com)
  • One of the three protein components of Anthrax toxin, protective antigen (PA) is the central moiety that mediates the entry of lethal factor and edema factor into the target cell. (merckmillipore.com)
  • PA binds to the cell surface via a type I membrane protein with a von Willebrand factor A domain called anthrax toxin receptor. (merckmillipore.com)
  • The Sterne 34F2 strain (tox+, cap-) therefore produces the PA, LF and EF components of the anthrax toxin but lacks the plasmid pXO2 encoding capsule formation and is therefore relatively safe, albeit with some residual virulence. (up.ac.za)
  • In this study, the genes encoding wild-type LF and a mutated, inactive LF (LF-E687C) were placed in an E. coli-Bacillus shuttle vector so that LF was produced with the protective antigen (PA) signal peptide at its N-terminus. (nih.gov)
  • Anthrax PA (Protective Antigen) and Anthrax LF (Lethal Factor), along with Anthrax EF (Edema Factor), are toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis. (genetex.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis . (abnova.com)
  • Protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis . (abnova.com)
  • One method of targeting these receptors is Protective Antigen (PA), a protein produced by B. anthracis that mediates binding and translocation of anthrax toxins into cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • This invention relates to improved methods of preparing Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) for use in vaccines. (google.com)
  • The Anthrax bacillus expresses a number of proteins responsible for the pathology of disease, including the protein toxins lethal factor (LF), oedema factor (OA) and protective antigen (PA). (technologynetworks.com)
  • Purified B. anthracis Protective Antigen (83kDa). (qedbio.com)
  • Anthrax toxins are composed of three distinct proteins, a protective antigen (PA), a lethal factor (LF) and an edema factor (EF). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Recombinant protective antigen (rPA), the dominant antigen for protection against anthrax infection, was encapsulated in poly- l -lactide 100-kDa microspheres. (asm.org)
  • Anthrax Protective Antigen, Bacillus anthracis, Recombinant, is the protective antigen that mediates the entry of anthrax lethal factor and edema factor into the target cell. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Anthrax Protective Antigen, Bacillus anthracis , Recombinant, B. anthracis - Calbiochem: Malzeme Güvenlik Bilgi Formu (MSDS) veya SDS, Analiz Sertifikası (COA) ve Kalite Uygunluk Sertifikası (COQ), dosyalar, broşürler ve diğer dokümanlar. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Recombinant, Bacillus anthracis anthrax protective antigen expressed in a specialized strain of B. anthracis . (merckmillipore.com)
  • The bacteria is found in two forms: cutaneous anthrax and inhalation anthrax. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cutaneous anthrax is an infection of the skin caused by direct contact with the bacterium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although livestock are the usual victims of this bacteria, humans can become infected with Anthrax also, it can be obtained in three different ways, intestional anthrax, cutaneous anthrax, and inhalation anthrax. (kenyon.edu)
  • One was a fatal case of cutaneous and anthrax meningoencephalitis, while the other had cutaneous anthrax. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • A large, gram-positive, rod (bacillus), Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax (Greek for "coal"), named for the black lesions of cutaneous anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • This later form with subcutaneous soft tissue edema without the pathognomonic black eschar of cutaneous anthrax suggests that "classical cutaneous" and injectional forms have very different pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, and penicillin G are currently recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration as therapeutics for inhalation and cutaneous anthrax ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Humans, especially farmers and individuals who work in slaughterhouses, may develop cutaneous anthrax through skin exposure to infected animals. (drugster.info)
  • 7 survivors had confirmed cutaneous anthrax disease. (drugster.info)
  • Features such as the location within the rod, the size and shape of the endospore, and whether or not it causes the wall of the rod to bulge out are characteristic of particular species of Bacillus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis infection has caused significant mortality in numerous mammalian species, including chimpanzees. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results show that while B. anthracis and B. subtilis rely on a core of conserved morphogenetic proteins to guide coat formation, these proteins may also be important for species-specific differences in coat morphology. (asm.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis is an obligate bacillus bacteria pathogen as other Bacillus species are nontoxic saprophytes. (kenyon.edu)
  • A variety of chromosomal markers that appear to be specific have been suggested for genotypic species determination of B. anthracis ( 13 - 18 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we used the rpoB gene as a chromosomal marker to discriminate between B. anthracis and closely related bacillus species. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic variability of Bacillus anthracis and related species. (asm.org)
  • We evaluated the abilities of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequences of intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) between two highly conserved genes, 16S-23S rDNA and gyrB-gyrA ISRs, to detect variation in strains of Bacillus anthracis as well as two closely related species, B. cereus ATCC 14579 and B. mycoides ATCC 6462. (asm.org)
  • However, closely related species could be differentiated from B. anthracis and from each other. (asm.org)
  • Given the diverse geographic origins of these B. anthracis strains, this species is very homogenous. (asm.org)
  • We conclude that methods such as PFGE and sequences of ISRs may be useful in separating B. anthracis from closely related species, but more sensitive methods are needed for strain identification of B. anthracis. (asm.org)
  • Although classification of B. anthracis and B. cereus as separate species based on molecular analysis has been questioned, they differ in phenotype and in the diseases they cause ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • These signatures have been found to be unique to Bacillus anthracis, and can be used to understand how these DNA regions are being used to make this species different from closely related Bacillus species. (energy.gov)
  • Anthrax, whose causative agent is Bacillus anthracis , is a non-contagious infectious disease that affects several animal species, the human one included. (omicsonline.org)
  • Anthrax is a zoonotic disease recognized to affect herbivores since Biblical times and has the widest range of susceptible host species of any known pathogen. (utexas.edu)
  • There are almost 200 Bacillus species that have been characterized. (asmscience.org)
  • Other Bacillus species are resistant to penicillin and do not exhibit this "String of Pearls" reaction. (asmscience.org)
  • The main insect vectors implicated with anthrax in the KNP are the blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Ch. marginalis (Braack 1985) as these species are the first (and most abundant) insects to arrive shortly after death. (scielo.org.za)
  • The type species is Bacillus subtilis . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some species are nonpathogenic, but others cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from anthrax (caused by B. anthracis ) to tuberculosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a host range analysis of a wide-ranging group of Bacillus species and related organisms, Wip1 and Wip4 were both infective only toward B. anthracis and certain B. cereus strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The presence of pXO2 ORF sequences in other Bacillus species suggests the possibility that certain pXO2 plasmid gene functions may also be present in other closely related bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For over 170 years, anthrax has been reported in African wildlife species with sporadic outbreaks across Namibia (Beyer et al. (cheetah.org)
  • Consequently, though anthrax is recognized as a primary disease of herbivores, there are no records of an in depth study on the immunogenicity and protectivity of the widely accepted strain 34F2 Sterne spore vaccine in any ruminant species. (up.ac.za)
  • B. anthracis are rod-shaped bacteria, approximately 3 to 5 μm long and 1 to 1.2 μm wide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most bacteria are surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule rather than poly-g-D-glutamic acid which provides an evolutionary advantage to B. anthracis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Koch, R. (1876) "Untersuchungen über Bakterien: V. Die Ätiologie der Milzbrand-Krankheit, begründet auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Bacillus anthracis " (Investigations into bacteria: V. The etiology of anthrax, based on the ontogenesis of Bacillus anthracis ), Cohns Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen , vol. 2, no. 2, pages 277-310 . (wikipedia.org)
  • We report the characterization and crystal structure of the enzyme from B. anthracis nucleoside diphosphate kinase (BaNdk), the first from sporulating bacteria. (rcsb.org)
  • A new antibiotic that is effective at killing anthrax and superbug MRSA bacteria could be a weapon in the fight against antibiotic resistance - and terrorism. (phys.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis is a rod shaped bacteria with a width of 1-1.2 um and a length of 3-5 um. (kenyon.edu)
  • B. anthracis is a gram-positive bacteria, indicating a very bulky cell wall which usually consists of the thick peptidoglycan layer, teichoic acids, lipoteichoic acids, capsulare polysacchrides, and crystalline cell surface proteins (often refered to as the S-layer proteins) which are often glycosylated. (kenyon.edu)
  • From the family Bacillaceae, Anthrax is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacteria named Bacillus anthracis. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacillus anthracis is an endospore forming aerobic or facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, immobile and capsulated bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bacillus anthracis spore and vegetative stages, photocomposite of bacteria on human skin and soil. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Light micrograph of the rod-shaped bacteria, Bacillus anthracis, cause of anthrax in man and animals. (sciencephoto.com)
  • 2. Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming, aerobic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that often occur in chains and include B. anthracis , the causative agent of anthrax. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacillus anthracis is a type of aerobic spore-forming bacteria that causes anthrax disease. (drugster.info)
  • Humans can also get inhalational anthrax by breathing in material contaminated with the bacteria. (drugster.info)
  • Anthrax infection is usually diagnosed by identifying the bacteria within skin blisters, blood, or other body fluids. (drugster.info)
  • Untreated B. anthracis infection is usually deadly. (wikipedia.org)
  • By not containing this macromolecule in the capsule, B. anthracis can evade a neutrophilic attack and continue to propagate infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The animals that are most prone to infection by B. anthracis are grazing herbivores such as sheep or cattle as well as other domesticated animals such as horses and mules (5) . (kenyon.edu)
  • All warm-blooded animals are susceptible to infection due to the fact that "B.anthracis" grows optimally at a temperature of 30-39 degrees celsius, covering the body temperature range of all warm-blooded animals (4) , (5) . (kenyon.edu)
  • Fatalities resulting from the recent bioterrorist attacks in the U.S. have highlighted the inadequacy of available medical treatments for anthrax infection. (pnas.org)
  • The capsule of Bacillus anthracis, composed of poly-D-glutamic acid, serves as one of the principal virulence factors during anthrax infection. (nih.gov)
  • It has not been established that spore encapsulation plays a role in the early events of anthrax infection. (nih.gov)
  • Anthrax is a toxi-infection: an association of toxemia and rapidly spreading infection progressing to septicemia. (frontiersin.org)
  • PA induces immunity to infection with anthrax. (genetex.com)
  • Rapid method for the diagnosis of Bacillus anthracis infection in clinical samples using a hand-held assay. (scielo.org.za)
  • Reservoirs for anthrax are wild and domestic grass-eating animals, most commonly sheep, goats and cattle and their proximity to humans within an agricultural setting can cause infection and disease. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Stable infection of Bacillus anthracis laboratory strains with environmental bacteriophages confers survival phenotypes in soil and earthworm intestinal niches (R. Schuch and V. A. Fischetti, PLoS One 4:e6532, 2009). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We used a combination of complement depletion along with immunodeficient mice and adoptive transfer approaches to determine the mechanisms of infection-induced protective immunity to B. anthracis . (asm.org)
  • Together, these results indicate that antibody-mediated neutralization provides significant protection in B. anthracis infection-induced immunity. (asm.org)
  • Anthrax, the disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis , occurs in three distinct forms, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary, depending upon the route of infection. (asm.org)
  • We have been able to successfully use Lentiviral vector technology to take an existing hybridoma that poorly produces a highly valued monoclonal antibody targeted to the Anthrax bacillus and create a new cell line that produces the antibody at high levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, T-cell-deficient mice generated poor antibody titers but were protected by the adoptive transfer of serum from B. anthracis -challenged mice. (asm.org)
  • This is a human monoclonal antibody intended for the prophylaxis and treatment of inhaled anthrax. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The incremental addition of structures on the forespore membranes during coat assembly in B. subtilis (A to C) and B. anthracis (E to G) and interactions between coat proteins in B. subtilis (D) and B. anthracis (H) are illustrated. (asm.org)
  • SDS-PAGE analysis of Bacillus spore coat proteins. (asm.org)
  • CotH, which directs the assembly of an important subset of coat proteins in B. subtilis , also directs coat protein deposition in B. anthracis . (asm.org)
  • For example, the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids of B. anthracis encode both the virulence genes directly responsible for anthrax and the transcriptional regulatory proteins involved in plasmid and chromosomal gene expression ( 23 , 40 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The three genes that encode the proteins that combine to form the B. anthracis toxins ( cya , lef , and pag ) are found on the pXO1 plasmid ( 16 - 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The pathogenicity of Bacillus anthracis mainly depends on two toxins and a capsule. (frontiersin.org)
  • The pathogenicity of B. anthracis mainly depends on two plasmid-encoded major virulence factors: toxins and a poly-γ-d-glutamate capsule (PDGA), anchored to the cell wall ( Candela and Fouet, 2005 ) which protects bacilli from the immune system, thus promoting systemic dissemination ( Candela and Fouet, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The genes encoding the major anthrax toxins and the poly-γ- d -glutamic acid capsule are located on two virulence plasmids, pXO1 (182 kb) and pXO2 (96 kb), respectively, and are required for full virulence ( 7 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Current remedies rely on postexposure antibiotics to eliminate bacilli and pre- and postexposure vaccination to target primarily toxins. (harvard.edu)
  • The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Inhalation anthrax may initially have an asymptomatic latent period of two months or more. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • The threat of bioterrorist use of Bacillus anthracis has focused urgent attention on the efficacy and mechanisms of protective immunity induced by available vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Existing licensed anthrax vaccines are administered parenterally and require multiple doses to induce protective immunity. (asm.org)
  • It bears close genotypic and phenotypic resemblance to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genotipsko in fenotipsko je podobna vrstama Bacillus cereus in Bacillus thuringiensis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on phenotype, it can be classed with Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis because it is difficult to differentiate this group based on their 16S rRNA sequences (10). (kenyon.edu)
  • Differentiating between B. anthracis and closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis is difficult ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The notorious animal pathogen Bacillus anthracis is considered to be a genetically monomorphic variant of the large, well-studied B. cereus sensu lato (s.l.) lineage of often ubiquitous soil organisms like B. cereus sensu stricto (referred to here as simply B. cereus ), B. thuringiensis , B. pseudomycoides , B. weihenstephanensis , and B. mycoides ( 20 , 21 , 25 , 38 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates that ranged in genomic similarity to B. anthracis , as determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, were examined by PCR for the presence of sequences similar to 47 pXO2 ORFs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal of this study was to determine if many of the novel pXO2 ORFs were unique to B. anthracis , or were conserved in other closely related Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eight of the B. cereus/B. thuringiensis isolates were found to be very closely related to all B. anthracis isolates and formed a distinct cluster. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive and rod-shaped bacterium that causes anthrax, a deadly disease to livestock and, occasionally, to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation and presumptive identification of Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax. (emsl.com)
  • From a zebra carcass on the plains of Namibia in Southern Africa, an international team of researchers has discovered a new, unusually large virus (or bacteriophage) that infects the bacterium that causes anthrax. (phys.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic gram-positive endospore-forming rod-shaped bacterium that causes anthrax. (asmscience.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax in mammals [1]. (who.int)
  • polysaccharides), although the capsule of Bacillus anthracis is made of polyglutamic acid. (britannica.com)
  • Most B. anthracis strains produce a capsule that gives colonies a slimy mucus-like appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsule protects bacilli from the immune system, thus promoting systemic dissemination. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2001. Bioterrorism-Related Inhalational Anthrax: The First 10 Cases Reported in the United States. (asmscience.org)
  • 2002. Investigation of Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax, United States, 2001: Epidemiologic Findings. (asmscience.org)
  • In response to a formal request from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the National Academies will conduct an independent review of the scientific approaches used during the investigation of the 2001 Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) mailings. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The committee will review and assess scientific evidence (studies, results, analyses, reports) considered in connection with the 2001 Bacillus anthracis mailings. (nationalacademies.org)
  • In assessing this body of information, the Committee will limit its inquiry to the scientific approaches, methodologies, and analytical techniques used during the investigation of the 2001 B. anthracis mailings. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The committee will necessarily consider the facts and data surrounding the investigation of the 2001 Bacillus anthracis mailings, the reliability of the principles and methods used by the FBI, and whether the principles and methods were applied appropriately to the facts. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The committee will not, however, undertake an assessment of the probative value of the scientific evidence in any specific component of the investigation, prosecution, or civil litigation and will offer no view on the guilt or innocence of any person(s) in connection with the 2001 B. anthracis mailings, or any other B. anthracis incidents. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis , the etiological agent of anthrax, is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Modeling the geographic distribution of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, for the contiguous United States using predictive ecological niche modeling. (springer.com)
  • Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax, an acute fatal disease among mammals. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, B. anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax, an acute fatal disease among mammals, which in recent years has become known for its use as a biological weapon ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bacillus an´thracis the causative agent of anthrax . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a serious and globally distributed zoonosis affecting a wide range of wild and domestic animals, invariably also humans. (slu.se)
  • Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is a 90-kDa zinc metalloprotease that plays an important role in the virulence of the organism. (nih.gov)
  • The B. anthracis genome is highly comparible to the organism Bacillus cereus , and the two are thought to reside in the same phylogenetic cluster. (kenyon.edu)
  • The organism can be contracted via contact with soil that has colonies of the microbe inhabiting it, or in pools of water where "B.anthracis" in spore form may be found (5) . (kenyon.edu)
  • It is caused by the soil-borne, Gram-positive, spore-forming organism Bacillus anthracis . (scielo.org.za)
  • However, Bacillus anthracis has been used as a biological weapon because of its tough resistant endospore and its ability to cause lethal inhalational anthrax. (kenyon.edu)
  • We will discuss the critical gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed to gain a comprehensive view of the initial steps of inhalational anthrax. (frontiersin.org)
  • A common finding amongst patients with inhalational anthrax is a paucity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in infected tissues in the face of abundant circulating PMNs. (springer.com)
  • Inhalational anthrax can be deadly. (drugster.info)
  • Models for coat assembly in B. subtilis and B. anthracis . (asm.org)
  • We determined the roles of several B. anthracis orthologues of Bacillus subtilis coat protein genes in spore assembly and virulence. (asm.org)
  • B. subtilis was selected for its high resistance to disinfection and B. cereus for its phylogenetic proximity to B. anthracis . (iwaponline.com)
  • This course provides clinical laboratory scientists with information about the laboratory identification of anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • These genes have been used as markers to identify B. anthracis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both environmental and clinical samples ( 7 - 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Human anthrax has three major clinical forms: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. (sciencephoto.com)
  • B. anthracis 32 is a highly β-lactamase-positive clinical isolate for which the penicillin MIC is between 64 and 128 μg/ml ( 21 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Identification of ORFs that are specific to B. anthracis are potentially useful as markers for detection of the pathogen in clinical and forensic applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the recent interest in B. anthracis pathogenesis is rooted in its potential as a bioterrorist weapon, it should be remembered that B. anthracis remains endemic throughout the world, and many people die yearly from anthrax due to environmental exposure. (asm.org)
  • Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis is a variant of the Bacillus cereus bacterium that has acquired plasmids similar to those of Bacillus anthracis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, 1 segment in each of the B. anthracis plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 was analyzed to determine the virulence status of the bacterial strains. (cdc.gov)
  • The best described virulence determinants of B. anthracis are encoded on two large plasmids (pXO1 [185 kb] and pXO2 [97 kb]) ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • The virulence for mice of B. anthracis strains cured of the 110 MDa or the 60 MDa plasmid was less than a hundredth of the parental strains harbouring these plasmids. (eurekamag.com)
  • The principal virulence factors of the B. anthracis are located on two plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2. (up.ac.za)
  • The results confirmed that 25 samples contained B. anthracis, of which 9 were virulent for mice and guinea pigs. (who.int)
  • Bacillus anthracis virulent spore challenge was done not earlier than 3 weeks after the last vaccination and survival was monitored for 14 days. (up.ac.za)
  • Those revaccinated one year after the first vaccination were fully protected from virulent anthrax spore challenge. (up.ac.za)
  • Sequences similar to the B. anthracis cap genes or their regulator, acpA , were not detected among any of the examined isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of pXO2 sequences in the other Bacillus isolates did not correlate with genomic relatedness established by AFLP analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PCR was performed using template DNA from 11 Bacillus isolates that vary in relatedness to B. anthracis with primer sets designed to amplify DNA fragments from 47 different pXO2 ORFs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Table 1 lists the isolates tested, their genomic relatedness to B. anthracis as determined by Jaccard distances calculated from AFLP profile comparisons [ 17 , 18 ], and the number of positive PCR reactions obtained for each isolate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP). (unl.edu)
  • Isolates that form the A lineage (unlike the B and C lineages) have become widely dispersed throughout the world and form the basis for the geographical disposition of "modern" anthrax. (unl.edu)
  • An archival collection of 191 different B. anthracis isolates from China provides a glimpse into the possible role of Chinese trade and commerce in the spread of certain sub-lineages of this pathogen. (unl.edu)
  • B. anthracis isolates were recovered from three canSNP sub-groups (A.Br.008/009, A.Br.Aust94, and A.Br.Vollum) in the western most portion of the large Chinese province of Xinjiang. (unl.edu)
  • Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While anthrax commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats, humans may acquire this disease as well. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Francisella tularensis , Bacillus anthracis , and Yersinia pestis are tier 1 select agents with the potential to rapidly cause severe disease. (asm.org)
  • Anthrax, a disease so far not associated with tropical rain forests, is common in the Ivory Coast's Taï National Park and is posing a serious threat to wildlife there. (phys.org)
  • Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a pathogen that causes potentially fatal disease in most mammals, including humans. (phys.org)
  • B. anthracis is pathogenic and is associated with the disease Anthrax. (kenyon.edu)
  • In 1850, Rayer and Davaine discovered the rods in the blood of anthrax-infected sheep, setting the stage for Koch to link the disease to the bacterium in 1876, after he performed a series of experiments that fulfilled what came to be known as Koch's postulates. (cdc.gov)
  • Characterizing a "new" disease: epizootic and epidemic anthrax, 1769-1780. (cdc.gov)
  • Anthrax, the disease caused by Bacillus anthracis , is a worldwide bioterrorism concern. (jci.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that causes the acute mammalian disease anthrax when endospores enter the body. (cdc.gov)
  • In humans it causes the acute infectious disease, anthrax which can lead to septicaemia and death if left untreated. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores, but all mammals, including humans, are susceptible. (frontiersin.org)
  • Anthrax in the Kruger National Park: temporal and spatial patterns of disease occurrence. (springer.com)
  • Anthrax in Albania is an endemic disease characterized by few outbreaks involving a very low number of animals. (omicsonline.org)
  • Anthrax is a serious zoonotic disease affecting mainly herbivores. (scielo.org.za)
  • Anthrax, a potentially fatal disease, is caused by Bacillus anthracis . (google.com)
  • Of particular interest is the Bacillus anthracis spore, the uptake of which is the predominant way to contract anthrax and which is legendary for its resilience in the environment and thus crucial for persistence and spread of the disease. (slu.se)
  • The inhalational form of anthrax is the most severe and is associated with rapid progression of disease and death ( 3 , 11 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Anthrax is a zoonotic disease affecting most warm-blooded mammals. (up.ac.za)
  • Primarily recognized as a disease of herbivores, it is caused by a spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. (up.ac.za)
  • The current anthrax live spore veterinary vaccine was developed by Max Sterne and its introduction in the 1940s made the control of the disease possible. (up.ac.za)
  • They do not cross-react with B. anthracis EF, LF, or spore/vegetative surface antigens. (qedbio.com)
  • With the exception of being pXO2 negative, Sterne is considered to be a prototypical B. anthracis strain ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Complete sequencing and annotation of the 96.2 kb Bacillus anthracis plasmid, pXO2, predicted 85 open reading frames (ORFs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A notable exception is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and domestic animals. (britannica.com)
  • It causes anthrax in humans and animals. (wardsci.com)
  • It seems that anthrax becomes a significant threat only when given a helping hand by humans. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Despite the standard of the developing countries, anthrax is still a serious health problem for both animals and humans [ 1 , 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The bla1 and bla2 genes were previously cloned from the B. anthracis Sterne strain and expressed in Escherichia coli ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Expression of the bla1 and bla2 genes in an archetypal Bacillus anthracis strain is insufficient for penicillin resistance. (asm.org)
  • The presence of two β-lactamase genes, bla1 and bla2 , in the penicillin-susceptible Sterne strain of B. anthracis was reported previously ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The natural host of Wip4 remained constant for 3 years and was a B. cereus strain that expressed a B. anthracis -like surface polysaccharide at septal positions on the cell surface. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The current United Kingdom-licensed anthrax vaccine is an alum-precipitated filtrate of a B. anthracis Sterne strain culture which is administered by the intramuscular (i.m.) route and occasionally causes some transient reactogenicity. (asm.org)
  • Early pre-validation data of a quantitative indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-PA antibodies was promising and should be further investigated as a tool for anthrax vaccine studies in goats. (up.ac.za)
  • B. anthracis measures about 3 to 5 μm long and 1 to 1.2 μm wide, and has a genome of 5,227,293 bp in a single circular DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. anthracis has one chromosome and its genome is 5.5 Mb in size. (kenyon.edu)
  • The first successful completion of the B. anthracis genome was published by The Institute for Genomic Research in 2003. (kenyon.edu)
  • Currently, 6 sequencing projects for the B. anthracis genome are in progress and 5 projects have been completed. (kenyon.edu)
  • The assembly consisted of 131 contigs that were ordered and concatenated with our prior knowledge of the B. anthracis and B. cereus genome sequences ( 10 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Conclusions: The design and vector construction described here provides a useful tool for high throughput experimental interrogation of the Bacillus anthracis genome and will benefit efforts to develop improved vaccines and therapeutics. (utexas.edu)
  • LF has previously been purified from Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis. (nih.gov)
  • On the agar plate test, 1-5% garlic powder inhibited the growth of B. anthracis and Escherichia coli O157 used as references. (nih.gov)
  • coliform bacilli gram-negative bacilli found in the intestinal tract that resemble Escherichia coli, particularly in the fermentation of lactose with gas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Sterne and Ames strains of Bacillus anthracis carry chromosomal genes bla1 and bla2 , which confer β-lactam resistance when expressed in Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis is a large Gram-positive , endospore-producing bacillus. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • The method comprises using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of separate loci on the Bacillus anthracis chromosome to produce a set of chromosomal DNA signatures, and using at least one of the chromosomal DNA signatures to detect genetically the Bacillus anthracis. (energy.gov)
  • Because of this resistant spore, B. anthracis is an extremely harmful pathogen that causes anthrax and is extremely difficult to treat (5) . (kenyon.edu)
  • Test on the dissemination of anthrax by Tabanus rubidus in horses and buffalo. (springer.com)
  • Pienaar 1961) have also been implicated in the dissemination of anthrax. (scielo.org.za)
  • BACKGROUND: Germination is a key step for successful Bacillus anthracis colonization and systemic dissemination. (inserm.fr)
  • A credit-card-sized anthrax detection cartridge developed at Sandia National Laboratories and recently licensed to a small business makes testing safer, easier, faster and cheaper. (phys.org)
  • It is the only permanent (obligate) pathogen within the genus Bacillus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being part of the genus Bacillus , B.anthracis primarily inhabits slightly alkaline, calcium-rich soil and grows on decaying organic matter (4) , (5) . (kenyon.edu)
  • A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the bacterial genus Bacillus . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • B. anthracis endospores, in particular, are highly resilient, surviving extremes of temperature, low-nutrient environments, and harsh chemical treatment over decades or centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of these attributes, B. anthracis endospores are extraordinarily well-suited to use (in powdered and aerosol form) as biological weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In unfavourable conditions, B. anthracis forms endospores that can remain dormant in the environment for long periods of time surviving outside the host. (scielo.org.za)
  • Contact with infected animals, animal materials, infected soil, or B. anthracis endospores used as a bioweapon. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • Around 95% of human anthax infections in nature are the cutaneous form as a result of B. anthracis endospores entering exposed skin. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • Endemic anthrax areas include warmer temperatures, higher soil moisture content and topography (15). (kenyon.edu)
  • Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis , is endemic in the Kruger National Park (KNP). (scielo.org.za)
  • Namibia, an anthrax-endemic country, is home to the world's largest and most viable free-ranging population (~3000 animals), which predominantly resides on unprotected private farmlands (Durant, 2015). (cheetah.org)
  • and gastrointestinal anthrax by ingestion. (sciencephoto.com)
  • There are three forms of anthrax: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • The Sterne and Ames strains of B. anthracis carry chromosomal genes bla1 and bla2 , which are predicted to encode a group 2a penicillinase and a functional group 3 metalloenzyme ( 6 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The success of the attenuated Sterne veterinary vaccine in 1930 resulted in a global reduction of anthrax cases in livestock in response to national vaccination programmes. (who.int)
  • Production of anti-anthrax immunoglobulins in the first month following Sterne vaccination was 400-fold higher than pre-vaccination levels with subsequent decline over time to a 50- fold difference, 14 months post vaccination. (up.ac.za)
  • B. anthracis primarily infects herbivores. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • The exosporium has been studied to understand the use of anthrax as a weapon. (kenyon.edu)
  • The Bacillus anthracis Exosporium: What's the Big "Hairy" Deal? (asmscience.org)
  • In others, such as the Bacillus cereus family, there is an additional layer that envelops the coat, called the exosporium, which is distinct from the crust. (asmscience.org)
  • Slutligen framförs möjligheten att Bacillus anthracis sporernas yttersta hölje, exosporium, binder sporerna till jordpartiklar och följaktligen kvarhålls de på det ställe där de först hamnar efter bildning. (slu.se)
  • The B. anthracis reference strains used in this study were obtained from the National Collection of Type Cultures, London, England, and the Swedish Defense Research Agency. (cdc.gov)
  • We also identify several compounds that can potentially be further optimized as potential B. anthracis inhibitors. (rcsb.org)
  • We used this technology to identify the warfare agent Bacillus anthracis by sequencing 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the rpoB gene as chromosomal markers for B. anthracis . (cdc.gov)
  • Nineteen samples of soil coming from burial sites and 11 strains of Bacillus spp isolated from died animals from different districts of Albania were examined. (omicsonline.org)
  • Bacillus sub´tilis a common saprophytic soil and water form, often occurring as a laboratory contaminant and occasionally in apparently causal relation to pathologic processes, such as conjunctivitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I provide a conceptual model of the epidemiology and outbreak ecology of anthrax and the landscape ecology of the pathogen Bacillus anthracis . (springer.com)
  • Ecology and epidemiology of anthrax in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. (springer.com)
  • The epidemiology of B. anthracis is dependent on various factors including vectors. (scielo.org.za)
  • Chrysomya albiceps and Ch. marginalis have the potential to disseminate B. anthracis to vegetation from infected carcasses and may play a role in the epidemiology of anthrax in the KNP. (scielo.org.za)
  • Considering that these theories all have their agreements and disagreements with the ecology and epidemiology of anthrax, it is reasonable to assume that all three exert an impact on spore concentrations, possibly at different degrees at various sites and regions. (slu.se)
  • Application of this assay to DnaG from Bacillus anthracis (Ba DnaG), a dangerous pathogen, yielded several inhibitors, which include agents with DNA intercalating properties (doxorubicin and tilorone) as well as those that do not intercalate into DNA (suramin). (nih.gov)
  • A fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay has been developed for monitoring Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) protease activity. (pnas.org)
  • If treated with antibiotics anthrax may be cured, if untreated it may be fatal. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The results provide a structural framework for the design of antibiotics active against B. anthracis . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Prototypical Bacillus anthracis strains are susceptible to all three of these antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • Ecology of anthrax. (springer.com)
  • Meso-scale ecology of anthrax in southern Africa: a pilot study of diversity and clustering. (springer.com)
  • Blackburn, J.K. Evaluating the spatial ecology of anthrax in North America: examining epidemiological components across multiple geographic scales using a GIS-based approach. (springer.com)
  • The ecology of anthrax in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Howsoever, the ecology of Bacillus anthracis requires further research to fully understand the mechanism responsible for transmission and spread of anthrax. (slu.se)