Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Polyglutamic Acid: A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Bacillaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Alanine Racemase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.PeptidoglycanMicrobial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Aminoacyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.

Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998. (1/1440)

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker specific for the Bacillus cereus group is diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis. (2/1440)

Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group.  (+info)

Oligomerization of anthrax toxin protective antigen and binding of lethal factor during endocytic uptake into mammalian cells. (3/1440)

The protective antigen (PA) protein of anthrax toxin binds to a cellular receptor and is cleaved by cell surface furin to produce a 63-kDa fragment (PA63). The receptor-bound PA63 oligomerizes to a heptamer and acts to translocate the catalytic moieties of the toxin, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), from endosomes to the cytosol. In this report, we used nondenaturing gel electrophoresis to show that each PA63 subunit in the heptamer can bind one LF molecule. Studies using PA immobilized on a plastic surface showed that monomeric PA63 is also able to bind LF. The internalization of PA and LF by cells was studied with radiolabeled and biotinylated proteins. Uptake was relatively slow, with a half-time of 30 min. The number of moles of LF internalized was nearly equal to the number of moles of PA subunit internalized. The essential role of PA oligomerization in LF translocation was shown with PA protein cleaved at residues 313-314. The oligomers formed by these proteins during uptake into cells were not as stable when subjected to heat and detergent as were those formed by native PA. The results show that the structure of the toxin proteins and the kinetics of proteolytic activation, LF binding, and internalization are balanced in a way that allows each PA63 subunit to internalize an LF molecule. This set of proteins has evolved to achieve highly efficient internalization and membrane translocation of the catalytic components, LF and EF.  (+info)

Identification of a receptor-binding region within domain 4 of the protective antigen component of anthrax toxin. (4/1440)

Anthrax toxin from Bacillus anthracis is a three-component toxin consisting of lethal factor (LF), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA). LF and EF are the catalytic components of the toxin, whereas PA is the receptor-binding component. To identify residues of PA that are involved in interaction with the cellular receptor, two solvent-exposed loops of domain 4 of PA (amino acids [aa] 679 to 693 and 704 to 723) were mutagenized, and the altered proteins purified and tested for toxicity in the presence of LF. In addition to the intended substitutions, novel mutations were introduced by errors that occurred during PCR. Substitutions within the large loop (aa 704 to 723) had no effect on PA activity. A mutated protein, LST-35, with three substitutions in the small loop (aa 679 to 693), bound weakly to the receptor and was nontoxic. A mutated protein, LST-8, with changes in three separate regions did not bind to receptor and was nontoxic. Toxicity was greatly decreased by truncation of the C-terminal 3 to 5 aa, but not by their substitution with nonnative residues or the extension of the terminus with nonnative sequences. Comparison of the 28 mutant proteins described here showed that the large loop (aa 704 to 722) is not involved in receptor binding, whereas residues in and near the small loop (aa 679 to 693) play an important role in receptor interaction. Other regions of domain 4, in particular residues at the extreme C terminus, appear to play a role in stabilizing a conformation needed for receptor-binding activity.  (+info)

Genetic diversity in the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. (5/1440)

Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. The anthrax toxin contains three components, including the protective antigen (PA), which binds to eucaryotic cell surface receptors and mediates the transport of toxins into the cell. In this study, the entire 2,294-nucleotide protective antigen gene (pag) was sequenced from 26 of the most diverse B. anthracis strains to identify potential variation in the toxin and to further our understanding of B. anthracis evolution. Five point mutations, three synonymous and two missense, were identified. These differences correspond to six different haploid types, which translate into three different amino acid sequences. The two amino acid changes were shown to be located in an area near a highly antigenic region critical to lethal factor binding. Nested primers were used to amplify and sequence this same region of pag from necropsy samples taken from victims of the 1979 Sverdlovsk incident. This investigation uncovered five different alleles among the strains present in the tissues, including two not seen in the 26-sample survey. One of these two alleles included a novel missense mutation, again located just adjacent to the highly antigenic region. Phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of the pag corresponded with previous strain grouping based on chromosomal variation, suggesting that plasmid evolution in B. anthracis has occurred with little or no horizontal transfer between the different strains.  (+info)

Distinct affinity of binding sites for S-layer homologous domains in Clostridium thermocellum and Bacillus anthracis cell envelopes. (6/1440)

Binding parameters were determined for the SLH (S-layer homologous) domains from the Clostridium thermocellum outer layer protein OlpB, from the C. thermocellum S-layer protein SlpA, and from the Bacillus anthracis S-layer proteins EA1 and Sap, using cell walls from C. thermocellum and B. anthracis. Each SLH domain bound to C. thermocellum and B. anthracis cell walls with a different KD, ranging between 7.1 x 10(-7) and 1.8 x 10(-8) M. Cell wall binding sites for SLH domains displayed different binding specificities in C. thermocellum and B. anthracis. SLH-binding sites were not detected in cell walls of Bacillus subtilis. Cell walls of C. thermocellum lost their affinity for SLH domains after treatment with 48% hydrofluoric acid but not after treatment with formamide or dilute acid. A soluble component, extracted from C. thermocellum cells by sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment, bound the SLH domains from C. thermocellum but not those from B. anthracis proteins. A corresponding component was not found in B. anthracis.  (+info)

Autogenous regulation of the Bacillus anthracis pag operon. (7/1440)

Protective antigen (PA) is an important component of the edema and lethal toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis. PA is essential for binding the toxins to the target cell receptor and for facilitating translocation of the enzymatic toxin components, edema factor and lethal factor, across the target cell membrane. The structural gene for PA, pagA (previously known as pag), is located on the 182-kb virulence plasmid pXO1 at a locus distinct from the edema factor and lethal factor genes. Here we show that a 300-bp gene located downstream of pagA is cotranscribed with pagA and represses expression of the operon. We have designated this gene pagR (for protective antigen repressor). Two pagA mRNA transcripts were detected in cells producing PA: a short, 2.7-kb transcript corresponding to the pagA gene, and a longer, 4.2-kb transcript representing a bicistronic message derived from pagA and pagR. The 3' end of the short transcript mapped adjacent to an inverted repeat sequence, suggesting that the sequence can act as a transcription terminator. Attenuation of termination at this site results in transcription of pagR. A pagR mutant exhibited increased steady-state levels of pagA mRNA, indicating that pagR negatively controls expression of the operon. Autogenous control of the operon may involve atxA, a trans-acting positive regulator of pagA. The steady-state level of atxA mRNA was also increased in the pagR mutant. The mutant phenotype was complemented by addition of pagR in trans on a multicopy plasmid.  (+info)

Cell surface-exposed tetanus toxin fragment C produced by recombinant Bacillus anthracis protects against tetanus toxin. (8/1440)

Bacillus anthracis, the causal agent of anthrax, synthesizes two surface layer (S-layer) proteins, EA1 and Sap, which account for 5 to 10% of total protein and are expressed in vivo. A recombinant B. anthracis strain was constructed by integrating into the chromosome a translational fusion harboring the DNA fragments encoding the cell wall-targeting domain of the S-layer protein EA1 and tetanus toxin fragment C (ToxC). This construct was expressed under the control of the promoter of the S-layer component gene. The hybrid protein was stably expressed on the cell surface of the bacterium. Mice were immunized with bacilli of the corresponding strain, and the hybrid protein elicited a humoral response to ToxC. This immune response was sufficient to protect mice against tetanus toxin challenge. Thus, the strategy developed in this study may make it possible to generate multivalent live veterinary vaccines, using the S-layer protein genes as a cell surface display system.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA). T2 - Measurement of human anti-PA antibodies. AU - Iacono-Connors, L. C.. AU - Novak, J.. AU - Rossi, C.. AU - Mangiafico, J.. AU - Ksiazek, Thomas. PY - 1994/1. Y1 - 1994/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7496927. AN - SCOPUS:0027975977. VL - 1. SP - 78. EP - 82. JO - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. JF - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. SN - 1556-6811. IS - 1. ER - ...
BioAssay record AID 289164 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen 63 reconstituted in diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine lipid membranes assessed as inhibition of channel conductance at 5 uM.
Jupiter Images / iStockphoto. The bacterium Bacillus anthracis occurs worldwide, its natural habitat is the soil. The pathogen causes the often fatal ending anthrax (Anthrax) in humans and in herbivorous animals such as cows or sheep. 95 percent by a Bacillus anthracis infection lead to all cutaneous anthrax, initially manifested by a painless, itchy papules on the hands, forearms or face, the black turns later from the center. but the bacterium can other forms of anthrax as Inhalation anthrax or Gastrointestinal anthrax trigger. All three forms can include one anthrax sepsis entail that ends in a few hours fatal. The bacteria form resistant survival structures (spores), which can remain viable for decades in nature. In the body, Bacillus anthracis is a special capsule of D-glutamic acid, which protects the pathogen from the scavenger cells of the immune system.. Especially in southern Europe and South America there are often anthrax disease caused by Bacillus anthracis in farm animals. The ...
Article Identification and characterization of bacillus anthracis spores by multiparameter flow cytometry. In response to the need for methods that can rapidly detect potentially virulent Bacillus anthracis spores, we developed a two-color flow cytom...
Uchida, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Terakado, N., 1986: Virulence and immunogenicity in experimental animals of Bacillus anthracis strains harbouring or lacking 110 MDa and 60 MDa plasmids
Description of disease Bacillus anthracis. Treatment Bacillus anthracis. Symptoms and causes Bacillus anthracis Prophylaxis Bacillus anthracis
ABSTRACT. Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63 %) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P , 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P , 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheres, six out of ten White-backed ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bacillus anthracis spore and vegetative stages, photocomposite of bacteria on human skin. Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, encapsulated, spore-forming, zoonotic, rod prokaryote. It most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or tissue. In humans it causes the acute infectious disease, anthrax which can lead to septicaemia and death if left untreated. Bacillus anthracis spores can live in the soil for many years. Human anthrax has three major clinical forms: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Cutaneous anthrax is a result of introduction of the spore through the skin; inhalation anthrax through the respiratory tract; and gastrointestinal anthrax by ingestion. Magnification: x700 bacteria; x5 skin when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0087
Bacillus anthracis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause cutaneous, gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in many vertebrates, including humans. Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the respiratory form of the disease. Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in animals and humans. As with other intracellular pathogens, cell mediated immune responses (CMI) are crucial in affording protection against brucellosis. B. abortus strain RB51 has been shown to be useful in eliciting protective cell mediated immunity and humoral responses against Brucella in cattle and other animal species. Since the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis is known to induce protective antibodies, it was decided that the objective of this research was to test whether the gene encoding PA could be expressed in Brucella producing a bivalent vaccine to protect against ...
We evaluated the abilities of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequences of intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) between two highly conserved genes, 16S-23S rDNA and gyrB-gyrA ISRs, to detect variation in strains of Bacillus anthracis as well as two closely related species, B. cereus ATCC 14579 and B. mycoides ATCC 6462. For each restriction enzyme, (NotI, SfiI, and SmaI), the PFGE banding patterns for three B. anthracis strains (Ames, Vollum, and Sterne) were identical. However, closely related species could be differentiated from B. anthracis and from each other. PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA ISR yielded a 143- to 144-bp fragment, showing identical sequences for B. anthracis strains, one nucleotide deletion between B. cerus and B. anthracis, and 13 nucleotide differences between B. mycoides and B. anthracis. The gyrase ISR sequences (121 bp) in B. anthracis strains were also identical, but those in B. cereus and B. mycoides differed from that in B. anthracis by 1 and 2 ...
BioAssay record AID 329453 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of cytopathic effect in Bacillus anthracis Sterne infected mouse RAW264.7 macrophage after 6 hrs by propidium iodide exclusion assay.
In 1855, Aloys Pollender - a German Physician - published his findings on anthrax in which he described a group of stick-shaped bacteria that were present in the blood of infected animals. He is credited with recognizing the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. In 1864, Casimir Davaine - a French physician - studied the bacteria found in the blood of people infected with anthrax, and found that they physically resembled the bacteria described by Dr. Pellender, and thus concluded that the symptoms of anthrax occurred when these bacteria were present in the blood. Later in 1876, Robert Koch provided conclusive evidence that Bacillus anthracis was the cause of anthrax (Théodoridès 159 ...
Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective antigen binding studies. Protective antigen binding studies, all performed at 37°C, evaluated criteria for receptor existence. Labelled
Anthrax, the zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is nowadays rare in northern parts of Europe including Finland and Scandinavia. Only two minor outbreaks of anthrax in 1988 and in 2004 and one sporadic infection in 2008 have been detected in animals in Finland since the 1970s. Here, we report on two Finnish B. anthracis strains that were isolated from spleen and liver of a diseased calf related to the outbreak in 1988 (strain HKI4363/88) and from a local scrotum and testicle infection of a bull in 2008 (strain BA2968). These infections occurred in two rural Finnish regions, i.e., Ostrobothnia in western Finland and Päijänne Tavastia in southern Finland, respectively. The isolates were genetically characterized by PCR-based methods such as multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome-sequence analysis (WGS). Phylogenetic comparison of the two strains HKI4363/88 and BA2968 by chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis
To obtain thermostable immunoreagents specific for the spore form of Bacillus anthracis two llamas were immunized with a combination of six different recombinant proteins. These proteins BclA, gerQ, SODA1, SOD15, BxpB and the protein p5303 have all been shown as components of the B. anthracis spore and could potentially serve as targets for the detection of spores in multiplexed biosensors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to construct a phage display library from which single domain antibodies (sdAbs) targeting each of the proteins were isolated. Unique sdAbs exhibiting nanomolar or better affinities for the recombinant proteins were obtained and most of the isolated sdAbs retained their ability to bind antigen after cycles of heating as determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SdAbs targeting the BclA and gerQ proteins were able to successfully detect bacterial spores, whether broken or intact, using a direct ELISA; the sdAbs were specific, showing binding only to B. anthracis
Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using
... The Bacillus anthracis bacillus, Bacillus anthracis, was the primary bacterium appeared to be the reason for an ailment Kochs Propose In 1877, Robert Koch developed the living being in immaculate society, exhibited its capacity to frame endospores, and
Lack of available iron is one of many environmental challenges that a bacterium encounters during infection and adaptation to iron starvation is important for the pathogen to efficiently replicate within the host. Here we define the transcriptional response of B. anthracis Sterne (34F2) to iron depleted conditions. Genome-wide transcript analysis showed that B. anthracis undergoes considerable changes in gene expression during growth in iron-depleted media, including the regulation of known and candidate virulence factors. Two genes encoding putative internalin proteins were chosen for further study. Deletion of either gene (GBAA0552 or GBAA1340) resulted in attenuation in a murine model of infection. This attenuation was amplified in a double mutant strain. These data define the transcriptional changes induced during growth in low iron conditions and illustrate the potential of this dataset in the identification of putative virulence determinants for future study.
Description: Polyclonal Bacillus anthracis antibody (Protective Antigen), Anti-Bacillus anthracis antibody (Protective Antigen), Bacillus anthracis PA antibody, Anthrax PA antibody, Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen antibody, Anthrax Protective Antigen antibody ...
Product from Supplier ACR, Catalog number 3BA16-BAP104 , Product Bacillus anthracis protective antigen - Gentaur molecular products
References for Abcams Anti-Bacillus anthracis protective antigen antibody [BAP0102] (HRP) (ab1990). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
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Bacillus anthracis forms one endospore per cell. Its spores form when its non reproductive cells are deficient of certain nutrients . The spores are oval in shape and sporulation occurs within 48 hours. Bacillus anthracis requires oxygen to sporulate. Spores can tolerate heat, cold, dehydration, radiation and even antibacterials [8]. The formation of spore commences when cells septate asymmetrically to create a forespore and a mother cell. After septation, the mother cell swallows the forespore and covers it with different layers. The spore is made up of several layers. These layers are the coat, the exosporium and the cortex. Figure 3 reveals these layers through a transmission electron micrograph. The innermost layer is the core. It contains proteins which holds the chromosome. Half of the spore is composed of the spore coat. The flexibility of the spore coat enables the spore to hold the core especially during germination. It protects the spore from harmful chemicals and aids germination. The ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis. Protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis. (MAB0363) - Products - Abnova
The pathogen Bacillus anthracis secretes two potent toxins during anthrax infection, known as lethal factor (LF) and oedema factor (EF). Using transgenic Drosophila as a model system for the identification of pathways that might be involved in anthrax pathogenesis, Ethan Bier and colleagues show that these two toxins interact synergistically to block Rab11/Sec15 exocyst-dependent endocytic recycling, resulting in reduced Notch signalling and cadherin-dependent adhesion at the adherens junction. Tests in human endothelial cells indicate that the toxins have a similar effect on Rab11/Sec15 activity and Notch signalling. During infection, Bacillus anthracis secretes two potent toxins called lethal factor and oedema factor. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, these authors show that these toxins interact with the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst, which is involved in endocytic recycling. This interaction may explain vascular leakage during infection. Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax in
Bacillus anthracis AcpA protein: Capsule synthesis trans-acting positive regulator; involved in the regulation of encapsulation by Bacillus anthracis; MW about 57 kDa; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank U02535
Bacillus anthracis is a severe mammalian pathogen. The deoxyribonucleotides necessary for DNA replication and repair are provided via the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) enzyme. RNR is also important for spore germination and cell proliferation upon infection. We show that the expression of B. anthracis class Ib RNR responds to the environment that the pathogen encounters upon infection. We also show that several anti-proliferative agents (radical scavengers) specifically inhibit the B. anthracis RNR. Owing to the importance of RNR in the pathogenic infection process, our results highlight a promising potential to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis early during infection.. ...
Staged health picture showing the symptoms of cutaneous anthrax due to B. anthracis. This slide was created to help a person suspect an illness, not diagnose the illness, in this case anthrax was the etiologic pathogen. Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Photographed in 1963. This image was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Stock Photography of a Man with Cutaneous Bacillus Anthracis On His Face.
The misuse of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon continues to be a serious concern. Medical personnel and researchers are served well if appropriate non-pathogenic anthrax simulants can be used as countermeasures in preparative planning. While there are several accepted simulants of B. anthracis, the addition of another model organism would be beneficial. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of B. pumilus as a simulant for B. anthracis. All organisms were grown on AK Agar #2 to foster sporulation. Optimum conditions for spore formation were determined for B. pumilus as well as for currently used anthrax surrogates B. atrophaeus and B. thuringiensis. Spore dimensions were determined by scanning electron microscopy. Comparative antibody binding studies using commercially available anti-Bacillus antisera were completed with the simulants as well as with a negative control organism, Clostridium sporogenes. We report that B. pumilus sporulated readily (2.9 × 1010 viable spores per
B. anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a nonmotile, Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium approximately 4 μm by 1 μm, although under the microscope it frequently appears in chains of cells. Like other Bacillus, Bacillus anthracis is saprophyte, being able to live in vegetation, air, water and soil.[4] These bacterial cells may occur isolated, form groups of 2 or more cells in the body, or long chains in cultures.[4] In blood smears, smears of tissues or lesion fluid from diagnostic specimens, these chains are two to a few cells in length. In smears made from in vitro cultures, they can appear as endless strings of cells - responsible for the characteristic tackiness of the colonies and for the flocculating nature of broth cultures. Cell cultures appear with a large, grey and curled structure, resembling a "medusa head".[4] B. anthracis have a characteristic square-ended appearance, traditionally associated with its vegetative ...
During October 19-21, 2001, four postal workers at the Brentwood Mail Processing and Distribution Center in the District of Columbia were hospitalized with inhalational anthrax; two of the workers died. The building, which was closed on October 21, was believed to have been contaminated by a letter containing Bacillus anthracis spores sent to the Hart Senate Office Building (HSOB) that had passed
Protective Antigen antibody LS-C505586 is an AP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen (PA ). Validated for ELISA and WB.
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
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Anthrax merupakan penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh Bacillus anthracis yang termasuk ke dalam famili Bacillaceae. Penyakit ini dapat meninfeksi hewan terutama herbivora dan juga manusia. B. anthracis merupakan bakteri gram positif, berbentuk batang, aerobik, tidak motil, memiliki kapsul dan membentuk spora serta lebarnya 1 - 1.5 µm dan panjang 5 - 6 µm. Bakteri ini seperti barisan batang panjang dengan .... Read More » ...
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. LT induced extensive hypoxia. Crisis was due to extensive liver necrosis accompanied by pleural edema. There was no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or renal dysfunction. Instead, analyses revealed hepatic dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and vascular/oxygenation insufficiency. Of 50 cytokines analyzed, BALB/cJ mice showed rapid but transitory increases in specific factors including KC, MCP-1/JE, IL-6, MIP-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, eotaxin, FasL, and IL-1β. No changes in TNF-α occurred. The C57BL/6J mice did not mount a similar cytokine response. These factors were not ...
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. LT induced extensive hypoxia. Crisis was due to extensive liver necrosis accompanied by pleural edema. There was no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or renal dysfunction. Instead, analyses revealed hepatic dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and vascular/oxygenation insufficiency. Of 50 cytokines analyzed, BALB/cJ mice showed rapid but transitory increases in specific factors including KC, MCP-1/JE, IL-6, MIP-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, eotaxin, FasL, and IL-1β. No changes in TNF-α occurred. The C57BL/6J mice did not mount a similar cytokine response. These factors were not ...
The bacterium Bacillus anthracis causes the disease anthrax, primarily in herbivores but many mammals are susceptible to the disease. Its infective form is as a dormant spore that can lie in the soil for decades. Thus, in its cycle of infection, it spends most of the time in an inactive state and replication-induced DNA-mutations are therefore kept at a minimum. Partly due to these long periods of inactivity, all B. anthracis isolates found in the world are genetically very similar. This makes strain characterization difficult and requires high-resolution technologies. Bacillus anthracis also has similar DNA-content as other Bacillus spp. and therefore diagnostic cross-reactions are not uncommon. Anthrax incidence has steadily declined in the world during the last century but there are still endemic areas. In 2008 and in 2011 Sweden suffered two large and costly outbreaks, most likely caused by the disturbance of old anthrax epizootic graves from the 1940s and 1950s. Several studies emanated ...
Anthrax toxin. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores caused by gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. Humans are accidental hosts through the food of animal origin and animal products. Anthrax is prevelant in most parts of the globe, and cases of anthrax have been reported from almost every country. Three forms of the disease have been recognized: cutaneous (through skin), gastrointestinal (through alimentary tract), and pulmonary (by inhalation of spores). The major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis are a poly-D glutamic acid capsule and a three-component protein exotoxin. The genes coding for the toxin and the enzymes responsible for capsule production are carried on plasmid pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. The three proteins of the exotoxin are protective antigen (PA, 83 kDa), lethal factor (LF, 90 kDa), and edema factor (EF, 89 kDa). The toxins follow the A-B model with PA being the B moeity and LF/EF, the alternative A moeities. LF and EF are individually ...
csaB gene analysis clustered 198 strains of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis into two groups related to mammalian and insect hosts, respectively. Mammal-related group I strains also have more S-layer homology (SLH) protein genes than group II strains. This indicates that csaB-based differentiation reflects selective pressure from animal hosts. ...
Bacillus anthracis may caused anthrax. Bacillus anthracis is a gram positive rod with the formation of the spores. Bacillus anthracis may present with virulence factors such as protective antigen, lethal factor ( mitogen activated protein kinase kinase
The genome of Bacillus cereus contains 26 Nudix hydrolase genes, second only to its closest relative, Bacillus anthracis which has 30. All 26 genes have been cloned, 25 have been expressed, and 21 produced soluble proteins suitable for analysis. Substrates for 16 of the enzymes were identified; these included ADP-ribose, diadenosine polyphosphates, sugar nucleotides, and deoxynucleoside triphosphates. One of the enzymes was a CDP-choline pyrophosphatase, the first Nudix hydrolase active on this substrate. Furthermore, as a result of this and previous work we have identified a new sub-family of the Nudix hydrolase superfamily recognizable by a specific amino acid motif outside of the Nudix box.
Whilst various remedial human monoclonal antibodies have been developed to treat the potentially life-threatening systemic complications associated with anthrax infection, an optimal and universally effective administration route has yet to be established. In the later stages of infection when antibody administration by injection is more likely to fail one possible route to improve outcome is via the use of an antibody-bound, adsorbent haemoperfusion device. We report here the development of an adsorbent macroporous polymer column containing immobilised B. anthracis exotoxin-specific antibodies, PANG (a non-glycosylated, version of a plant-produced human monoclonal antibody) and Valortim (a fully human monoclonal N-linked glycosylated antibody), for removal of anthrax protective antigen (PA) from freshly frozen human plasma and human whole blood. In addition, we have demonstrated that continuous extracorporeal blood recirculation through a Valortim-bound haemoperfusion column significantly ...
Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an accurate, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum (C. P. Quinn, V. A. Semenova, C. M. Elie et al., Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:1103-1110, 2002). The ELISA had a minimum detectable con
Bacillus anthracis genome organization in light of whole transcriptome sequencing Emerging knowledge of whole prokaryotic transcriptomes could validate a number of theoretical concepts introduced in the early days of genomics. What are the rules connecting gene expression levels with sequence determinants such as quantitative scores of promoters and terminators? Are translation efficiency measures, e.g. codon adaptation index and RBS score related to gene expression? We used the whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of a bacterial pathogen Bacillus anthracis to assess correlation of gene expression level with promoter, terminator and RBS scores, codon adaptation index, as well as with a new measure of gene translational efficiency, average translation speed. We compared computational predictions of operon topologies with the transcript borders inferred from RNA-Seq reads. Transcriptome mapping may also improve existing gene annotation. Upon assessment of accuracy of current annotation of protein-coding
Forty clinical isolates of Bacillus anthracis were studied. The MIC90 values of penicillin G, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin were 0.016, 0.03, 0.06, 0.06 and 0.12 mg/l, respectively. Susceptibilities suggest that the quinolones may also be considered as an alternative therapy for anthrax. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. ...
4. Request to: (1) Allow the Importation of Various Unlisted Species of a Bacterium, Burkholderia, Unlisted Bacteriophage, Gamma Phage for Bacillus anthracis, and Various Species of a Bacterium, Brucella, and a Virus, Rabies Virus, on the List of Restricted Microorganisms (Part A), by Emergency Permit for Emergency Preparedness; (2) Establish Permit Conditions for Various Unlisted Species of a Bacterium, Burkholderia, Unlisted Bacteriophage, Gamma Phage for Bacillus anthracis, and Various Species of a Bacterium, Brucella, and a Virus, Rabies Virus, on the List of Restricted Microorganisms (Part A), by Emergency Permit for Emergency ...
BA-Stk1 is a serine/threonine kinase (STK) expressed by Bacillus anthracis. In previous studies, we found that BA-Stk1 activity is modulated through dephosphorylation by a partner phosphatase, BA-Stp1. In this study, we identified critical phosphorylation regions of BA-Stk1 and determined the contributions of these phosphodomains to autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation. The data indicate that BA-Stk1 undergoes trans-autophosphorylation within a regulatory domain, referred to as the activation loop, which carries eight putative regulatory serine and threonine residues. We identified activation loop mutants that impacted kinase activity in three different manners: regulation of autophosphorylation (T162), regulation of substrate phosphorylation (T159 and S169), and regulation of overall kinase activity (T163). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of the phosphorylation profile of each mutant revealed a second site of phosphorylation on the kinase that was influenced by the
U.S. EPA. Development and Verification of Rapid Viability Polymerase Chain Reaction (RV-PCR) Protocols for Bacillus anthracis - For Application to Air Filters, Water, and Surface Samples . U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-10/156, 2011.. ...
Phylogeography of Bacillus anthracis in the Country of Georgia Shows Evidence of Population Structuring and Is Dissimilar to Other Regional Genotypes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Reviews and ratings for wycillin when used in the treatment of cutaneous bacillus anthracis. Share your experience with this medication by writing a review.
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A common finding amongst patients with inhalational anthrax is a paucity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in infected tissues in the face of abundant circulating PMNs. A major virulence determinant of anthrax is edema toxin (ET), which is formed by the combination of two proteins produced by the organism, edema factor (EF), which is an adenyl cyclase, and protective antigen (PA). Since cAMP, a product of adenyl cyclase, is known to enhance endothelial barrier integrity, we asked whether ET might decrease extravasation of PMNs into tissues through closure of the paracellular pathway through which PMNs traverse. Pretreatment of human microvascular endothelial cell(EC)s of the lung (HMVEC-L) with ET decreased interleukin (IL)-8-driven transendothelial migration (TEM) of PMNs with a maximal reduction of nearly 60%. This effect required the presence of both EF and PA. Conversely, ET did not diminish PMN chemotaxis in an EC-free system. Pretreatment of subconfluent HMVEC-Ls decreased transendothelial 14
Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor antibody [5F502.2] for WB. Anti-Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor mAb (GTX13814). 100% Ab-Assurance.
Protective antigen (PA)-centered vaccines work in avoiding the development of fatal anthrax disease both in human beings and in relevant pet models. CFU/ml). Furthermore, we display that while PA vaccination was effective against a subcutaneous spore problem, it didnt shield rabbits against systemic problems (intravenous shot of vegetative bacterias) using the wild-type Vollum stress or a toxin-deficient mutant. To check the chance that extra proteins, that are secreted by the bacteria under pathogenicity-stimulating conditions virulence, the immunomodulating toxins (1, 2) and the phagocytosis-protecting capsule (3). The toxins consist of lethal factor (LF), a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-degrading metalloprotease, and edema factor (EF), a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase, which combined with protective antigen (PA), a heptamer-forming transport protein, form lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), respectively. The toxin components are encoded on the virulence plasmid pXO1 and ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C3LAL0 (QUEC_BACAC), 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine synthase. Bacillus anthracis (strain CDC 684 / NRRL 3495)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C3L786 (TRMD_BACAC), tRNA (guanine-N(1)-)-methyltransferase. Bacillus anthracis (strain CDC 684 / NRRL 3495)
CIPROFLOXACIN FOR PROPHYLAXIS OF CLINICAL DISEASE DUE TO INHALED B. anthracis. Anti-Infectives Advisory Committee Meeting July 28, 2000 Andrea Meyerhoff MD MSc DTMH Division of Special Pathogens, US FDA. Overview. Inhalational anthrax Drugs for anthrax Microbiology of Bacillus anthracis...
Vaccines are one of the most successful medical interventions of the past millennium (1). Millions of lives have been saved by mass administration of vaccines against deadly pathogens such as smallpox and flu. However, effective vaccines are still lacking for many pathogens, including biothreat agents such as the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis that causes anthrax and the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes plague. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), these two organisms are two of the Tier 1 select agents that pose the greatest threat to national security (2). Both are highly virulent resulting in mortality (as high as 100%) of the subjects within 3 to 6 days of infection. The organisms can be weaponized and transmitted through inhalation of aerosolized droplets and can be disseminated relatively easily for the purposes of biological warfare or bioterrorism (3, 4). Designing a vaccine that can protect the public against these threats is ...
Date: Mon, 15 Mar 2010 11:58:06 -0400 Subject: lambda lunch update: SEMINAR TODAY Lambda Lunch update, 3/15/10: 3/15/10, 3:00 PM, Bldg 10/Lipsett Auditorium: Luciano Marraffini (Stadtman finalist candidate, Northwestern Univ) "Self vs. non-self discrimination during CRISPR immunity against horizontal gene transfer" 3/18/10*: Kiyoshi Mizuuchi "How do bacteria find the middle of a cell? A case study of ATP-driven dynamic bio-patterning two-protein systems" 3/25/10*: Ferric Fang "Antimicrobial Actions of Nitric Oxide" (Laurie Waters) 4/1/10*: Nick Bergman (National Biodefense Analysis and Coutnermeasures Center (NBACC)) "Structure and complexity of the bacterial transcriptome" (Maureen Kiley) 4/6/10, 11:30 AM, 37/2nd floor conf. room: Chuck Turnbough (U. Ala.) "Structure and function of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium" (Bob Weisberg) 4/8/10*: Wayne Outten (U of SC) "Cross-talk between iron metabolism and biofilm formation in E. coli" (Gigi Storz) 4/15/10*: Joerg Vogel (Susan Gottesman) 4/21/10: ...
Anthrax, caused by the Gram-positive, spore forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a disease with naturally occurring outbreaks in many parts of the world, primarily in domestic and wild herbivores. Due to the movement of people and stock, B. anthracis could, however, be at transportation hubs including airports. The continuous threat to national and international security from a biological agent release, or hoax attack, is a very real concern. Sensitive, robust and rapid (hours-day) methods to identify biological agents, including B. anthracis, and distinguish pathogenic from non-pathogenic species, is an essential cornerstone to national security. The aim of this project was to determine the presence of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport using two massively parallel sequencing (MPS) approaches and compare with previous results using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 targeting movement of people, ...
In this study, events leading to LT-induced death of BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mouse strains were analyzed in detail. Despite harboring toxin-sensitive and resistant macrophages, both strains are susceptible to anthrax infection (17, 25) and, as reported here, to LT. BALB/cJ mice succumb more rapidly, but both strains experience a similar course of disease, with hypoxia-mediated necrosis of liver and metaphyseal bone marrow as hallmarks of crisis, accompanied by pleural effusions. Contrary to previous hypotheses (18), hallmarks of cytokine-induced shock such as inflammation, fibrin clots and associated thrombosis, DIC, neutrophil margination and associated endothelial cell damage, renal dysfunction, and TNF-α production are absent in LT-treated mice. Despite an early transitory production of other cytokines in BALB/cJ, no inflammatory cascade develops. C57BL/6J, which do not mount this response, display similar although delayed pathology and subsequent death. The data indicate that LT induces ...
Four confirmed U.S. cases of anthrax have resulted from intentional use of Bacillus anthracis spores. These are the first confirmed cases of anthrax associated with intentional exposure. For rapid identification of threat agents, such as B. anthracis, states should have access to the Laboratory Response Network for Bioterrorism which links state and local public health laboratories with advanced capacity laboratories. Recommended regimens for postexposure prophylaxis are available. This report includes information on the three clinical forms of anthrax (inhalation, gastrointestinal and cutaneous); recommended postexposure treatment regimens; handling letters/packages and environmental management of exposed areas; handling laboratory specimens possibly infected with anthrax (for healthcare providers); and handling anthrax and other biological agent threats (for the general public ...
Antibiotic treatment may fail to protect individuals, if not started early enough, after infection with Bacillus anthracis, due to the continuing activity of toxins that the bacterium produces. Stable and easily stored inhibitors of the edema factor toxin (EF), an adenylyl cyclase, could save lives in the event of an outbreak, due to natural causes or a bioweapon attack. The toxins basic activity is to convert ATP to cAMP, and it is thus in principle a simple phosphatase, which means that many mammalian enzymes, including intracellular adenylcyclases, may have a similar activity. While nucleotide based inhibitors, similar to its natural substrate, ATP, were identified early, these compounds had low activity and specificity for EF. We used a combined structural and computational approach to choose small organic molecules in large, web-based compound libraries that would, based on docking scores, bind to residues within the substrate binding pocket of EF. A family of fluorenone-based inhibitors was
On September 14, 2016, CDC published an Interim Final Rule adding B. cereus biovar anthracis to the list of HHS select agents and toxins to be regulated as Tier 1 agent. The regulation was published in the Federal Register and CDC will be accepting public comment on the addition of the agent for the next 60 days.. B. cereus biovar anthracis is an emerging pathogen that has properties very similar to Bacillus anthracis (which is currently regulated as a Tier 1 agent). The agent has been isolated from great apes with anthrax-like disease in several countries in Africa. This Interim Final Rule amends the HHS list of select agents and toxins​, while simultaneously undertaking a public comment period. Given the potential for safety and security concerns due to its similarities to Bacillus anthracis, CDC believes that it is important to regulate this agent now while it appears to be limited in distribution.. The Federal Experts Security Advisory Panel (FESAP) also provided policy and technical input ...
Since the fall 2001 distribution of letters containing Bacillus anthracis spores via the US postal system, increased attention has been paid to the evaluation and management of bioterrorism-related illness. Similarly, the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and other infectious diseases, along with the ongoing threat of global influenza pandemics, have fostered intensive interest in the evaluation and management of emerging infections both in the US and internationally. Data to this end are often limited, however, in that while many such diseases exist in nature, human illness may only rarely occur. The primary purpose of this protocol is to apply standardized, documented, and carefully monitored evaluation and prophylactic and treatment measures in the event of suspected or confirmed exposure to the causative agent of any disease of bioterrorism concern (whether of natural or deliberate origin), to agents under study in biodefense-related research laboratories, or to emerging ...
4ELH: Structure-activity relationship guides enantiomeric preference among potent inhibitors of B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase
The work built on a previously commercialized E. coli strain invented by Berkmen, called "SHuffle," which could make shorter, simpler proteins such as antibody fragments that had less therapeutic value than their full-sized, monoclonal antibody counterparts. Now, the researchers report producing full-length antibodies using the specially engineered SHuffle bacterium, including ones that fight the avian flu virus, the anthrax pathogen Bacillus anthracis, and a replica of the therapeutic antibody Herceptin that is used to treat breast cancer ...
During the last decade the use of titanium dioxide has been the focus of water purification studies for photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds. Various
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is exposed to host-mediated antibacterial activities, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), during the early stages of its disease process. The ability to resist these host-mediated insults is an essential characteristic of a successful pathogen while it is generally assumed that non-pathogenic environmental bacteria succumb to these antimicrobial activities. In order to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms that pathogens use to resist host-mediated oxidative stress, we have compared the oxidative stress responses of B. anthracis and B. subtilis, a well-studied environmental bacterium. Among the four putative catalases encoded by B. anthracis we identified KatB as the main vegetative catalase. Comparative analysis of catalase production in B. anthracis and B. subtilis in response to superoxide and peroxide stress reveals different expression profiles, even though both are regulated by the PerR repressor that senses and responds to ...
Catalyzes the conversion of N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (N5-CAIR) to 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR).
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
If chemical attacks are frightening, a biological weapon poses an even worse nightmare. Chemical agents are inanimate, but bacteria, viruses and other live agents may be contagious and reproductive. If established in the environment, they may multiply. Unlike any other weapon, they can become more dangerous over time.. Bacillus anthracis: Rod-shaped, gram-positive, anaerobic, sporulating microorganism, the spores constituting the usual infective form. Causes anthrax. If bacteria are inhaled, symptoms may develop in 2 to 3 days. Initial symptoms resembling common respiratory infection are followed by high fever, vomiting, joint ache and labored breathing, and internal and external bleeding lesions. Exposure may be fatal. Vaccines and antibiotics provide some protection unless exposure is very high. This is the most dangerous bacteria a terrorist could use since, once released, it will present a problem for decades. Gruinard Island, off the coast of Scotland, remained infected with anthrax spores ...
Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to changes in their environment or in their intracellular state. Each two-component system consists of a sensor protein-histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the prototypical two-component pathway, the sensor HK phosphorylates its own conserved His residue in response to a signal(s) in the environment. Subsequently, the phosphoryl group of HK is transferred onto a specific Asp residue on the RR. The activated RR can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Two-component pathways thus often enable cells to sense and respond to stimuli by inducing changes in transcription ...
M1.MC.4754) A 61-year-old male presents to the emergency department complaining of malaise. He reports a two-day history of rapidly progressive fatigue, malaise, fever, and dyspnea. The patient immigrated from Finland five years ago and works on a large farm. His past medical history is notable for diabetes mellitus and emphysema. He takes metformin, salmeterol, and tiotropium. He has a 40 pack-year smoking history. His temperature is 102.3°F (39.1°C), blood pressure is 90/50 mmHg, pulse is 130/min, respirations are 30/min, and oxygen saturation is 92% on room air. Physical examination is notable for rales at the bilateral lung bases. Chest radiography reveals a widened mediastinum and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. He is subsequently admitted and started on broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. However, his fever rapidly progresses and he perishes the following day. Results from a blood culture taken on admission are shown in Figure A. The pathogen responsible for this ...
Dr.Purushothaman [LivingInWellbeing], (Visionary & Director, Centre for Human Perfection, a Centre par Excellence for Mind Programming & Applied Life Themes), M.B.B.S; D.T.M&H; MS; PhD (Psycho) is currently working as a General Surgeon, Spiritual Scientist, Positive Psychologist, Life & Happiness Coach, Positive Health & Wellbeing Trainer, Mentor, Motivator, Master Mind Programmer,A Writer & Consultant to various National & International Organizations.. Authors [email protected] Amazon Authors [email protected] Google Submit Your Article. Manage Your Stress. Join Our Site. ...
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Bacillus anthracis is a severe mammalian pathogen. The deoxyribonucleotides necessary for DNA replication and repair are provided via the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) enzyme. RNR is also important for spore germination and cell proliferation upon infection. We show that the expression of B. anthracis class Ib RNR responds to the environment that the pathogen encounters upon infection. We also show that several anti-proliferative agents (radical scavengers) specifically inhibit the B. anthracis RNR. Owing to the importance of RNR in the pathogenic infection process, our results highlight a promising potential to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis early during infection.. ...
When the bacteria that cause anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) arent ravaging livestock or being used in acts of bioterrorism, they spend their lives as dormant spores. In these inert but hardy forms, the bacteria can weather tough environmental conditions while lying in wait for their next host. This is the standard explanation for what B.anthracis does…. ...
Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-forming rod capable of causing cutaneous, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. It has a number of virulence factors of which, the two toxins are of great importance ...
H, in which B denotes Arg or Lys, H denotes a hydrophobic amino acid, and x is any amino acid. The only known protein substrates are mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases. Other name(s): lethal toxin. Comments: From the bacterium Bacilus anthracis that causes anthrax. One of three proteins that are collectively termed anthrax toxin. Cleaves several MAP kinase kinases near their N-termini, preventing them from phosphorylating the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases. In peptidase family M34.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 477950-41-7. References:. 1. Pannifer, A.D., Wong, T.Y., Schwarzenbacher, R., Renatus, M., Petosa, C., Bienkowska, J., Lacy, D.B., Collier, R.J., Park, S., Leppla, S.H., Hanna, P. and Liddington, R.C. Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor. Nature 414 (2001) 229-233. [PMID: 11700563] ...
Bacteria. Computer artwork of a multitude of rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria. Many bacteria have this shape, including Escherichia coli, which can cause food poisoning, and Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax. - Stock Image B220/1819
Bacillus anthracis is the bacterium that causes anthrax. It is a pernicious little bug, which can survive in soil for long periods of time. It can get stuck to grass, where it is eaten by a cow, sheep or other such creatures. It then multiplies, secreting virulence factors which ultimately lead to the death of the host, which can take weeks. over this time, the host can spread the bacteria over a wide area through faeces ...
Bacillus anthracis is an endospore-forming bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax. During the course of the disease, endospores are taken up by alveolar macrophages where they germinate in phagolysosomal compartment. Vegetative cells then escape from the macrophage, eventually infecting blood.This strain (96-10355; K1256) is a human isolate from U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. (EBI Integr8 ...
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that is classified as a Category A select agent. The current paradigm in anthrax literature labels the alveolar macrophage ...
Anthrax toxins and capsules, which are encoded by genes located on pXO1 and pXO2, respectively, are major virulence factors of . Our previous studies demonstrated that exposure to high-temperatures is unable to abolish the pXO1 plasmid of the Pasteur II strain, but the growth of the strain was obviously slower than that of the Sterne strain and wild-type virulent strain. To elucidate a potential regulatory mechanism of slowing growth, we employed comparative genome and bioinformatic analysis and revealed a unique SNP (G to T) at the 143135 bp position in pXO1 that is possibly involved in the mediation of growth of Pasteur II. However, the T to G mutation in did not result in any change of the amino acid sequence. A predominant nucleotide G existed at the 143135 bp in pXO1 of 100 wild-type isolates and 9 isolates documented in GenBank, whereas T replaced G in pXO1 of the Pasteur II strain. Further analysis indicate that the SNP is located in a gene between 143042 and 143173 bp, and that it ...
ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHORS REQUEST.] Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium and the etiological agent of anthrax. Spore formation is essential for ...
Anthrax is an infection in animals seen in the skin, lungs, and intestines. It is caused by the bacteria called Bacillus anthracis, and it can affect humans. While anthrax is … Read More ...
Bacillus, Bacillus Anthracis, Virulence, Macrophages, Strain, Kinase, Clostridium, Clostridium Difficile, Strains, Edema, Glycogen, Cells, Genes, Regulation, Anthrax, Mouse, Phosphorylation, Cell, Disease, Infection
More conventional laboratory technologies can also produce There are many reasons behind the spread of biowar- organisms resistant to antibiotics order acivir pills 200 mg on line, routine vaccines purchase acivir pills 200 mg on line, and thera- fare technology purchase 200 mg acivir pills with mastercard. Both technologies can produce organisms that cannot tives; some governments may resort to selling bits of be detected by antibody-based sensor systems buy acivir pills 200mg on-line. In addition discount 200 mg acivir pills otc, scientists in politi- weapons are those that use smallpox (caused by the Variola cally repressive or unstable countries may be forced to par- virus), anthrax (caused by Bacillus anthracis), and plague ticipate in research that eventually ends up in the hands of (caused by Yersinia pestis). With the advent of ful than a conventional weapon because its effects can be far- vaccines and antibiotics, few U. In 1979, after an accident experience to readily recognize these ...
After today, the city will never be the same. As commuters leave work and children hurry home, a squad of terrorists launches a silent attack on the city. The weapon of choice is the Bacillus anthracis bacterium, anthrax, lethal at high concentrations. As terrorists throw bottles of the bacteria onto the subway tracks, tens of thousands of spores swirl into the air and infect the unknowing commuters. These commuters, who will soon be known as victims, head into the weekend, unaware that they are sick. And once they realize they have been infected with the bacteria, it is already too late.. It was a beautiful fall weekend and people tried to enjoy the last of the warm weather. By Sunday, however, a number of people started to feel sick. To some, the symptoms felt just like a cold. Most take over-the-counter flu medicine, but others head to their doctors. MONDAY:. DAY 4. Monday morning, three days after the attack, hundreds of people are now flowing into emergency rooms. By the afternoon, ...
SELAMAT DATANG DI THREAD ANE Sebelumnya tolong dibantu ini ya :ngakak :rate5 :rate5 :rate5 :rate5 :rate5 Tujuan ane bikin Thread ini hanya untuk berbagi ilmu, :cool Langsung saja ya gan ... APA ITU VIRUS ANTRAKS? Antraks atau anthrax adalah penyakit menular akut dan sangat mematikan yang disebabkan bakteri Bacillus anthracis dalam bentuknya yang paling ganas. Antraks bermakna batubara
3QFF: Elucidation of the bicarbonate binding site and insights into the carboxylation mechanism of (N(5))-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthase (PurK) from Bacillus anthracis.
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Celice imunskega sistema uporabljajo defenzine za lažje uničenje fagocitiranih bakterij. Večina defenzinov se veže na celično membrano oz. plazmalemo bakterije, kjer tvori kanale oz. pore, skozi katere začnejo izhajati iz bakterij pomembni ioni in hranilne molekule. Afiniteta vezave na plazmalemo bakterij je večja od vezave na vretenčarsko celico, saj je koncentracija negativno nabitih fosfolipidov na površini plazmaleme bakterij večja od plazmaleme vretenčarjev, kar predstavlja zaščitni mehanizem za funkcionalne, telesu lastne celice.[5] Pri vrečarjih so pomembni pri mladičih, saj imunski sistem pri njih ni še dokončno razvit. Defenzine pridobijo preko materinega mleka. Nekateri alfa-defenzini, kot je HNP-1, poleg tega delujejo kot reverzibilni nekompetitivni inhibitorji metaloproteaze, imenovane letalni faktor (LF), ki jo izdeluje bacil Bacillus anthracis.[6] Človeški genom vsebuje gene za theta-defenzine, vendar le-ti nosijo zapis za stop kodon na napačnem mestu, kar okrni ...
Cardiology news, research and treatment articles offering cardiology healthcare professionals cardiology information and resources to keep them informed.
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Background Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis are bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax, lethal acute pneumonic disease, and bubonic plague, respectively, and are listed as NIAID Category A priority pathogens for possible use as biological weapons. However, the interactions between human proteins and proteins in these bacteria remain poorly characterized leading to an incomplete understanding of their pathogenesis and mechanisms of immune evasion. Methodology In this study, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assay to identify physical interactions between human proteins and proteins from each of these three pathogens. From more than 250,000 screens performed, we identified 3,073 human-B. anthracis, 1,383 human-F. tularensis, and 4,059 human-Y. pestis protein-protein interactions including interactions involving 304 B. anthracis, 52 F. tularensis, and 330 Y. pestis proteins that are uncharacterized. Computational analysis revealed that pathogen proteins
Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive bacteria that causes anthrax, secretes two siderophores: bacillibactin and petrobactin. ... Spencer, RC (2003). "Bacillus anthracis". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56 (3): 182-187. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMC 1769905 ...
Bergman NH (2011). Bacillus anthracis and Anthrax. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. pp. Chapter 7. ISBN 9781118148082. Retrieved 14 ... Abergel RJ, Wilson MK, Arceneaux JE, Hoette TM, Strong RK, Byers BR, Raymond KN (Dec 2006). "Anthrax pathogen evades the ... "Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle with iron-exchange from Fe-siderophore to apo-siderophore by Bacillus cereus YxeB". ...
He found that the blood of cattle that were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. Koch found ... "Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (1): 117-20. doi:10.3201/ ... In modern times, bioterrorism has included the 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack[105] and the 1993 release of anthrax by Aum ... The organisms involved include pathogenic bacteria, causing diseases such as plague, tuberculosis and anthrax; protozoan ...
THORNE CB, MOLNAR DM (1955). "D-Amino acid transamination in bacillus anthracis". J. Bacteriol. 70 (4): 420-6. PMC 386242 . ... THORNE CB, GOMEZ CG, HOUSEWRIGHT RD (1955). "Transamination of D-amino acids by Bacillus subtilis". J. Bacteriol. 69 (3): 357- ... Yonaha K, Misono H, Yamamoto T, Soda K (1975). "D-amino acid aminotransferase of Bacillus sphaericus. Enzymologic and ... two D-glutamate biosynthetic enzymes of Bacillus sphaericus ATCC 10208". J. Bacteriol. 180 (16): 4319-23. PMC 107435 . PMID ...
Scanning electron micrograph of a phagocyte (yellow: neutrophil) engulfing some bacteria (orange: anthrax bacilli) ...
"Characterization of Sporulation Histidine Kinases of Bacillus anthracis". J. Bacteriol. 187 (20): 6972-81. doi:10.1128/JB. ... "Cys303 in the Histidine Kinase PhoR Is Crucial for the Phosphotransfer Reaction in the PhoPR Two-Component System in Bacillus ...
... s of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The powder found in contaminated postal ... "Decontamination of Bacillus anthracis Spores: Evaluation of Various Disinfectants". Appl Biosaf. 14 (1): 7-10. doi:10.1177/ ... The six other individuals with inhalation anthrax and all the individuals with cutaneous anthrax recovered. Had it not been for ... Anthrax in humans and animals (PDF) (4th ed.). OIE. 2008. ISBN 978-92-4-154753-6. .. ...
... particularly Bacillus cereus and the anthrax-causing bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The exosporium is the portion of the spore ... In Bacillus anthraces, salt and detergent washing of exosporium fragments can identify proteins that are likely to represent ... Redmond, C. (2004). "Identification of proteins in the exosporium of Bacillus anthracis". Microbiology. 150 (2): 355-363. doi: ... anthracis and other members of the Bacillus cereus group. The protein ywdL has been identified in B. cereus as important for ...
Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST Nalme12 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST Nmae4 ... Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST Nalbe12 (N. alba; Mount Jerai, Kedah, Malaysia; leaf tissue) Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST ... Bacillus altitudinis strain AIMST Nre3 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NCBI. Bacillus anthracis strain AIMST Nalbe12 ... Bacillaceae Bacillus Bacillus altitudinis strain AIMST Nae8 (N. ampullaria; Selangor, Malaysia; stem tissue) Bacillus ...
The disease is caused by gram-positive Bacillus anthracis. (B. anthracis) and is found globally. B anthracis can enter a host ... Anthrax is a disease caused via a bacterium that resides in soil, and predominately affects animals more than humans. Anthrax ...
... s of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The powder found in contaminated postal ... "Decontamination of Bacillus anthracis Spores: Evaluation of Various Disinfectants". Appl Biosaf. 14 (1): 7-10. PMC 2957119 . ... The six other individuals with inhalation anthrax and all the individuals with cutaneous anthrax recovered. Had it not been for ... To kill most anthrax spores, standard household bleach (with 10% sodium hypochlorite) must be in contact with the spores for at ...
Budzik JM, Oh SY, Schneewind O (December 2008). "Cell wall anchor structure of BcpA pili in Bacillus anthracis". The Journal of ... Budzik JM, Oh SY, Schneewind O (May 2009). "Sortase D forms the covalent bond that links BcpB to the tip of Bacillus cereus ... Budzik JM, Marraffini LA, Schneewind O (October 2007). "Assembly of pili on the surface of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells". ... "Amide bonds assemble pili on the surface of bacilli". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
... is a catechol-based siderophore secreted by members of the genus Bacillus, including Bacillus anthracis and ... Hotta, K; Kim, CY; Fox, DT; Koppisch, AT (July 2010). "Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition in Bacillus anthracis and related ... Bacillus subtilis. It is involved in the chelation of ferric iron (Fe3+) from the surrounding environment and is subsequently ...
In May 1951, Stähelin was the first to observe naked anthrax bacilli protoplasts, called gymnoplasts, which had left behind ... Stähelin H (1954). "[Osmotic behavior and fusion of naked protoplasts of Bacillus anthracis]". Schweiz Z Pathol Bakteriol (in ... where he investigated the morphology and sporulation of anthrax bacilli with the help of the then-new phase contrast microscope ... The action of phagocytes upon C14-labelled tubercle bacilli". J. Exp. Med. 104 (1): 137-50. doi:10.1084/jem.104.1.137. PMC ...
NLRP1 recognizes lethal toxin from Bacillus anthracis and muramyl dipeptide. IPAF senses flagellin from Salmonella typhimurium ...
An example of the B component of an AB toxin is Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) protein, B. anthracis secretes three ... Pezard C, Berche P, Mock M (October 1991). "Contribution of individual toxin components to virulence of Bacillus anthracis". ... "Sequence and analysis of the DNA encoding protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis". Gene. 69 (2): 287-300. doi:10.1016/0378- ... PA protein forms the central part of the complete anthrax toxin, and translocates the A moiety into host cells after assembling ...
In biological warfare, a distinction is also made between bio-agents as Lethal Agents (e.g., Bacillus anthracis, Francisella ...
In 2001 anthrax attacks, TIGR worked with the National Science Foundation and the FBI to sequence the strain of Bacillus ... "Comparative Genome Sequencing for Discovery of Novel Polymorphisms in Bacillus anthracis". Science. 296 (5575): 2028-2033. doi: ... anthracis used in bioterrorism attacks. In June 2000, Venter founded The Center for the Advancement of Genomics (TCAG), a think ...
The Ames strain is one of 89 known strains of the anthrax bacterium (Bacillus anthracis). It was isolated from a diseased 14- ... "Bacillus anthracis comparative genome analysis in support of the Amerithrax investigation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108 (12 ... The Ames strain came to wide public attention in association with the 2001 anthrax attacks. Seven letters mailed to media ... The Ames Strain One Anthrax Answer: Ames Strain Not From Iowa The Ames strain: What's in a name?. ...
Some specific species include Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, and Bacillus anthracis. Although the ability to respire ... This enzyme in Gram-positive Bacillus differs from that of Gram-negative bacteria since it is anchored to the membrane of the ... Dissimilatory As(+5)-respiring prokaryotes consist of a diverse phylogenetic group, including Chrysiogenes, Bacillus, ... These organisms group together phylogenetically as follows: • Sulfurospirillum arsenophilum • Shewanella barnesii • Bacillus ...
"Comparative Genome Sequencing for Discovery of Novel Polymorphisms in Bacillus anthracis". Science. 296 (5575): 2028-2033. doi: ... In 2001-2002, he and his colleagues sequenced the anthrax that was used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. They published their ...
Potential anthrax treatment[edit]. Structural alignment of dihydrofolate reductase from Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR), ... "Structure-activity relationships of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis dihydrofolate reductase: toward the identification ... Dihydrofolate reductase from Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) a validated drug target in the treatment of the infectious disease, ... "Targeted mutations of Bacillus anthracis dihydrofolate reductase condense complex structure−activity relationships". Journal of ...
In Bacillus anthracis this enzyme is a target of potential antibiotic discovery. The reaction in vitamin K synthesis that ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Tian, Suk, Cai, Crich, Mesecar (25 November 2008). "Bacillus anthracis o- ... Other organisms that contain this pathway are eukaryotic bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis. Organisms that contain a pathway ...
"Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis". J ... 2003). "Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis". Nature. 423 (6935): 87-91. ... 2003). "The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria". Nature. 423 (6935): 81-6. ... genome sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 reveals metabolic adaptations and a large plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis ...
Welz R, Breaker RR (April 2007). "Ligand binding and gene control characteristics of tandem riboswitches in Bacillus anthracis ...
Bacillus. *Bacillus anthracis *Anthrax. *Bacillus cereus *Food poisoning. Listeria. *Listeria monocytogenes *Listeriosis ...
In anthrax. …animals and humans caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that under certain conditions forms highly resistant ... In bacillus. …incidentally. A notable exception is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and domestic animals. B. ... true of the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Although usually present in abundance in factories in which rawhides and ... polysaccharides), although the capsule of Bacillus anthracis is made of polyglutamic acid. Most capsules are hydrophilic (" ...
The bacteria is found in two forms cutaneous anthrax and inhalation anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is an ... Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. ... The bacteria is found in two forms: cutaneous anthrax and inhalation anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is an infection of the skin ... Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. ...
Molecular subtyping of Bacillus anthracis and the 2001 bioterrorism-associated anthrax outbreak, United States. Emerg Infect ... Inadvertent Laboratory Exposure to Bacillus anthracis --- California, 2004. On June 9, 2004, the California Department of ... Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:623--7. ... to Bacillus anthracis spores at Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI), where workers were evaluating the ...
Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax-a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans-and the only ... The etiology of anthrax, based on the ontogenesis of Bacillus anthracis), Cohns Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen, vol. 2, no ... along with anthrax lethal factor. It bears close genotypical and phenotypical resemblance to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus ... "Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis H9401, an Isolate from a Korean Patient with Anthrax". Journal of Bacteriology. ...
Bacilli. › Bacillales. › Bacillaceae. › Bacillus. › Bacillus cereus group. › Bacillus anthracis. See also. › NCBI. ... Bacillus anthracis A0465. › Bacillus anthracis strain A0465. Rank i. -. Lineage i. › cellular organisms. › Bacteria. › ...
Bacillus anthracis Australia 94. ›Bacillus anthracis str. A0039. ›Bacillus anthracis strain Australia 94. ... Bacilli. › Bacillales. › Bacillaceae. › Bacillus. › Bacillus cereus group. › Bacillus anthracis. See also. › NCBI. ...
Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis is a variant of the Bacillus cereus bacterium that has acquired plasmids similar to those of ... "Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa-Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution ... "The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis ... As a result, it is capable of causing anthrax. In 2016, it was added to the CDCs list of select agents and toxins. Bacillus ...
Discovery of inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis primase DnaG.. Biswas T1, Green KD, Garneau-Tsodikova S, Tsodikov OV. ... Application of this assay to DnaG from Bacillus anthracis (Ba DnaG), a dangerous pathogen, yielded several inhibitors, which ...
Improved Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis from Closely Related Species in the Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato Group Based on ... Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Bloodstream Infections by Use of a Novel Assay in the GeneXpert System Padmapriya P. ... Francisella tularensis, Bacillus anthracis, and Yersinia pestis are tier 1 select agents with the potential to rapidly cause ... Testing and for Observation of Phenotypic Diversity among Strains of the Genetically Clonal Species Bacillus anthracis Heather ...
Scientists and researchers from all over the world who work on Bacillus anthracis , the causative agent of anthrax, and B. ... International anthrax conference to explore latest scientific research findings. April 19, 2017 - ... cereus and B. thuringiensis , two closely related bacillus species, will be heading to Victoria, British Columbia, in October ...
Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is a 90-kDa zinc metalloprotease that plays an important role in the virulence of the ... LF has previously been purified from Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis. The yields and purities of these preparations ... Optimized production and purification of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor.. Park S1, Leppla SH. ... In this study, the genes encoding wild-type LF and a mutated, inactive LF (LF-E687C) were placed in an E. coli-Bacillus shuttle ...
Early Bacillus anthracis-macrophage interactions: intracellular survival survival and escape.. Dixon TC1, Fadl AA, Koehler TM, ... This suggests that Mphi release of anthrax bacilli is atxA regulated. The putative escape genes may be located on the ... This study describes early intracellular events occurring during the establishment phase of Bacillus anthracis infections. ... Anthrax infections are initiated by dormant endospores gaining access to the mammalian host and becoming engulfed by regional ...
Ca-asp bound X-ray structure and inhibition of Bacillus anthracis dihydroorotase (DHOase).. Rice, A.J., Lei, H., Santarsiero, B ... Here, we present the crystal structure of Class I Bacillus anthracis DHOase with Ca-asp in the active site, which shows the ... B. anthracis DHOase is also a potential antibacterial drug target. In order to identify prospective inhibitors, we performed ... We also identify several compounds that can potentially be further optimized as potential B. anthracis inhibitors. ...
Reviews and ratings for wycillin when used in the treatment of cutaneous bacillus anthracis. Share your experience with this ... Reviews for Wycillin to treat Cutaneous Bacillus anthracis. No reviews have yet been submitted. Be the first to review this ... Anthrax Prophylaxis ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, doxycycline, Levaquin, levofloxacin, More.... Streptococcal Infection Levaquin ...
To identify a site or source of Bacillus anthracis exposure that has resulted in a case(s) of anthrax * To trace the route of ... anthracis), background occurrence of B. anthracis spores in the environment, or previously aerosolized B. anthracis that has ... Notice to Readers: Interim Guidelines for Investigation of and Response to Bacillus Anthracis Exposures. Environmental Sampling ... Collection of nasal swabs for culture of B. anthracis is not indicated: * To diagnose anthrax * To determine a persons risk of ...
Characteristics of Anthrax Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis ... One type of ADS that tests specifically for Bacillus anthracis is being deployed in hundreds of postal distribution centers ... Hazard evaluation and technical assistance report: NIOSH evaluation of air sampling methodologies for Bacillus anthracis in a ... Secondary aerosolization of viable Bacillus anthracis spores in a contaminated US Senate office. JAMA 2002;288:2853--8. ...
Bacillus anthracis. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: BA_1222, bclA, GBAA_1222. ... Bacillus collagen-like protein of anthracis P159S mutant. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3TYJ/pdb ... Variable Lymphocyte Receptor Recognition of the Immunodominant Glycoprotein of Bacillus anthracis Spores.. Kirchdoerfer, R.N., ... the immunodominant glycoprotein of Bacillus anthracis spores. Using a combination of crystallography, mutagenesis, and binding ...
... Atanu Sengupta, Chetan Shende, ... Atanu Sengupta, Chetan Shende, Stuart Farquharson, and Frank Inscore, "Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores Using Peptide ...
anthrax bacillus synonyms, anthrax bacillus pronunciation, anthrax bacillus translation, English dictionary definition of ... anthrax bacillus. Noun 1. anthrax bacillus - a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals ; can be used a ... anthrax bacillus. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to anthrax bacillus: Anthrax toxin, plague bacillus ... Anthrax bacillus - definition of anthrax bacillus by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/anthrax+bacillus ...
A new pathogen in Africa causes anthrax-like disease in wild and domestic animals. Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a ... Anthrax: A hidden threat to wildlife in the tropics. Anthrax, a disease so far not associated with tropical rain forests, is ... Pocket-sized anthrax detector aids global agriculture. A credit-card-sized anthrax detection cartridge developed at Sandia ... Worst anthrax outbreak in 20 years hits French farms. More than 50 cows, sheep and horses have died in Frances most serious ...
Genus: Bacillus. Species: Bacillus anthracis (8). Description and significance. Bacillus anthracis is a rod shaped bacteria ... Efficacy of Selected Hand Hygiene Agents Used to Remove Bacillus atrophaeus (a Surrogate of Bacillus anthracis) From ... 1] Anthrax: Bacillus anthracis by Russell Kightley Media. (n.d.). Russell Kightley Media: Scientific Illustrator (science ... B. anthracis is pathogenic and is associated with the disease Anthrax. Anthrax is mostly obtained by livestock, such as cattle ...
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Bacillus anthracis Sterne [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Enzymes - Bacillus anthracis CDC 684. [ Brite menu , Organism menu , Download htext , Download json ] ...
The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis ... Isolated from chimpanzees that had died with clinical symptoms of anthrax in Tai National Park, Cote dIvoire (CI) in 2001 and ...
Domain specificity of the human antibody response to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen.. Reason DC1, Ullal A, Liberato J, ... Protective antigen (PA) is the cell surface recognition moiety of the Bacillus anthracis A-B toxin system, and the active ... Domain specificity of the human antibody response to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen ... Domain specificity of the human antibody response to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen ...
  • The B. anthracis genome is highly comparible to the organism Bacillus cereus , and the two are thought to reside in the same phylogenetic cluster. (kenyon.edu)
  • The organism can be contracted via contact with soil that has colonies of the microbe inhabiting it, or in pools of water where "B.anthracis" in spore form may be found (5) . (kenyon.edu)
  • Its original and still most prominent use is as a surrogate organism for pathogenic B. anthracis, beginning in the U.S. bio-weapons program, as its pigmentation readily facilitated discrimination from non-pigmented background organisms in environmental samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delafond is remembered for pioneer microscopic research of Bacillus anthracis, the causative organism of anthrax. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between smallpox vaccination and anthrax or chicken cholera vaccination was that the weakened form of the latter two disease organisms had been "generated artificially", so a naturally weak form of the disease organism did not need to be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis confirmed that the isolates were genotype 62, consistent with B. anthracis Ames strain ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In instances in which the specific B. anthracis strain has been shown to be penicillin-sensitive, prophylactic therapy with amoxicillin, 500 mg three times a day for 60 days, may be considered. (cdc.gov)
  • B. anthracis Pasteur strain is also on the list of select agents and toxins but is not a Tier 1 agent. (selectagents.gov)
  • Genomic signatures of strain selection and enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ames strain is one of 89 known strains of the anthrax bacterium (Bacillus anthracis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Seven letters mailed to media outlets and US Senators on September 18, 2001 and October 9, 2001 contained anthrax bacteria of this particular strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ames Strain One Anthrax Answer: Ames Strain Not From Iowa The Ames strain: What's in a name? (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigen (immunologically active) portions are produced from culture filtrates of a toxigenic, but avirulent, nonencapsulated mutant - known as V770-NP1-R - of the B. anthracis Vollum strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Austrian-South African immunologist Max Sterne (1905-1997) developed an attenuated live animal vaccine in 1935 that is still employed and derivatives of his strain account for almost all veterinary anthrax vaccines used in the world today. (wikipedia.org)
  • With little help from colleagues, Sterne performed small-scale experiments which isolated the "Sterne strain" (34F2) of anthrax which became, and remains today, the basis of most of the improved livestock anthrax vaccines throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other forms of Anthrax, the Vollum strain becomes more virulent with exposure to more hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its use for good to develop vaccines against anthrax, the Vollum strain is still highly dangerous and is thought to have been the strain that the Iraqi government possessed during the Gulf War. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthracimycin was first noted for its potent activity against Bacillus anthracis (strain UM23C1-1), which is known to cause the human infectious disease anthrax, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.031 ug/mL. (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales, which contain several well-known pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis (the cause of anthrax). (wikipedia.org)
  • On June 9, 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) was notified of possible inadvertent exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI), where workers were evaluating the immune response of mice to B. anthracis . (cdc.gov)
  • Throughout the 19th century, Anthrax was an infection that involved several very important medical developments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The animals that are most prone to infection by B. anthracis are grazing herbivores such as sheep or cattle as well as other domesticated animals such as horses and mules (5) . (kenyon.edu)
  • All warm-blooded animals are susceptible to infection due to the fact that "B.anthracis" grows optimally at a temperature of 30-39 degrees celsius, covering the body temperature range of all warm-blooded animals (4) , (5) . (kenyon.edu)
  • Fatalities resulting from the recent bioterrorist attacks in the U.S. have highlighted the inadequacy of available medical treatments for anthrax infection. (pnas.org)
  • The pathogenic effect of bacillus anthracis is through its capsule and through the production of toxin(EF, LF and PA)(13)(Figure 3).The lethal toxin(LT, the combination of PA and LF) and edema toxin (ET, the combination of PA and EF) are enough to produce and cause the anthrax infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • 13) The lethal toxin(LT, the combination of PA and LF) and edema toxin (ET, the combination of PA and EF) are sufficient to produce many of the symptoms of anthrax infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • For intestinal infection, the risk of death is 25 to 75%, while respiratory anthrax has a mortality of 50 to 80%, even with treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sarcoptes anthracis was classified by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1901 after first occurrences of infection on Asian Tufted Deers. (wikipedia.org)
  • They act as a vector that carries and transmits anthrax to their hosts causing an infection, which often results in death because the immune system was weakened by scabies before. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doxycycline is also used as a prophylactic treatment for infection by Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and is effective against Yersinia pestis, the infectious agent of bubonic plague. (wikipedia.org)
  • The findings underscore the importance of using appropriate biosafety practices and performing adequate sterility testing when working with material believed to contain inactivated B. anthracis organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • The California LRN confirmed that the organisms isolated were B. anthracis by using polymerase chain reaction and gamma phage lysis assay. (cdc.gov)
  • The first vaccine containing live organisms was Louis Pasteur's veterinary anthrax vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, penicillins are likely to be effective for preventing anthrax, a setting where relatively few organisms are present. (cdc.gov)
  • The pathway o-succinylbenzoate CoA ligase belongs to is called 1, 4-dihydroxy-2-napthoate biosynthesis I. Other organisms that contain this pathway are eukaryotic bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other organisms such as Bacillus pumilus, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results confirmed that 25 samples contained B. anthracis, of which 9 were virulent for mice and guinea pigs. (who.int)
  • The M36 Vollum was reliably virulent, as opposed to other newly mutated strains, and thus it was chosen along with other Vollum derived strains to be used as tests for the effectiveness of newly developed vaccines against anthrax. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybridization assays, PCR amplification, and DNA sequencing were used to determine whether pXO1 open reading frame (ORF) sequences were present in other bacilli and more distantly related bacterial genera. (asm.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis harbors the 181.7-kb plasmid pXO1, which is essential to manifestation of the disease anthrax ( 25 , 35 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Isolates of B. anthracis implicated in the current bioterrorist attacks are susceptible to penicillin in laboratory tests, but may contain penicillinase activity ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Twelve days after the contaminated letter sent to HSOB passed through the facility, eight (7%) of 114 surface wipe samples were positive for isolates of B. anthracis . (cdc.gov)
  • None of the wipe samples collected in the administration area or in the customer service area was positive for isolates of B. anthracis . (cdc.gov)
  • LF has previously been purified from Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of PemK in Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis was bacteriostatic whereas the concomitant expression of PemI reversed the growth arrest. (nih.gov)
  • Koch was the first person to isolate the cholera and the anthrax bacillus and won the 1905 Nobel Prize in 1905 for his discovery and investigations into the tuberculosis bacillus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Following Pasteur's model after his return, he joined Ilya Mechnikov in organizing an Odessa bacteriological station for rabies vaccination studies and research on combating cattle plague and cholera, diagnosing sputum for tuberculosis, and preparing anthrax vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamaleya's proposal for using killed bacilli in anti-cholera vaccines was later successfully applied on a wide scale as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1870s, the French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) applied his previous method of immunizing chickens against chicken cholera to anthrax, which affected cattle, and thereby aroused widespread interest in combating other diseases with the same approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The riboswitches are present in pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, Vibrio cholerae (which causes cholera) and Bacillus anthracis (which causes anthrax). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, a betanin-europium(III) complex has been used to detect calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores, including Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus. (wikipedia.org)
  • His first position after graduation was at the Institute of Microbiology of the University of Basel (1951-1954) where he investigated the morphology and sporulation of anthrax bacilli with the help of the then-new phase contrast microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA ISR yielded a 143- to 144-bp fragment, showing identical sequences for B. anthracis strains, one nucleotide deletion between B. cerus and B. anthracis, and 13 nucleotide differences between B. mycoides and B. anthracis. (asm.org)
  • The gyrase ISR sequences (121 bp) in B. anthracis strains were also identical, but those in B. cereus and B. mycoides differed from that in B. anthracis by 1 and 2 nucleotides, respectively, and from each other by only 1 nucleotide. (asm.org)
  • From a zebra carcass on the plains of Namibia in Southern Africa, an international team of researchers has discovered a new, unusually large virus (or bacteriophage) that infects the bacterium that causes anthrax. (phys.org)
  • In September, 2001 letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and two U.S. Senators, killing five people and infecting 17 others. (wikipedia.org)