Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Bacillaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Picolinic AcidsEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.PeptidoglycanAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Polyglutamic Acid: A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Diaminopimelic AcidTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Glycoside Hydrolasesbeta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Hydroxyphenylazouracil: Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pimelic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.ThymineAntibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Muramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.UracilDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Artificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Tyrothricin: A polypeptide antibiotic mixture obtained from Bacillus brevis. It consists of a mixture of three tyrocidines (60%) and several gramicidins (20%) and is very toxic to blood, liver, kidneys, meninges, and the olfactory apparatus. It is used topically.Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Oligo-1,6-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC 3.2.1.10.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Bacillaceae: A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Administration, Intravesical: The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.TritiumTuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Tyrocidine: An antibiotic mixture produced by Bacillus brevis which may be separated into three components, tyrocidines A, B, and C. It is the major constituent (40-60 per cent) of tyrothricin, gramicidin accounting for the remaining 10-20 per cent active material. It is a topical antimicrobial agent, that is very toxic parenterally.Autolysis: The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Diatrizoate: A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.AmidohydrolasesGram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.L Forms: Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)NitrosoguanidinesPaintingsHydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.

A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker specific for the Bacillus cereus group is diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis. (1/3738)

Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group.  (+info)

Purification and properties of a low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus. (2/3738)

A low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC 4.2.2.2) was found in an alkaline culture of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15, purified to homogeneity, and crystallized. The enzyme had a relative molecular weight of approximately 20,300 as measured by sedimentation equilibrium, with a sedimentation coefficient (s20,w0) of 1.73 S. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 10.3, and the alpha-helical content was only 6.6%. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, the enzyme degraded polygalacturonic acid in a random manner to yield 4,5-unsaturated oligo-galacturonides and had its optimal activity around pH 10.5 and 50-55 degrees C. It also had a protopectinase-like activity on cotton fibers. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact protein (28 amino acids) and its two lysyl endopeptidase-cleaved peptide fragments (8 and 12 amino acids) had very low sequence similarity with pectate lyases reported to date. These results strongly suggest that the pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 may be a novel enzyme and belongs in a new family.  (+info)

Purification and properties of bacteriolytic enzymes from Bacillus licheniformis YS-1005 against Streptococcus mutans. (3/3738)

To find a novel lytic enzyme against cariogenic Streptococci, strains showing strong lytic activity have been screened from soil using Streptococcus mutans. A strain identified as Bacillus licheniformis secreted two kinds of lytic enzymes, which were purified by methanol precipitation, CM-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The molecular weights of these two enzymes, L27 and L45, were 27,000 and 45,000, respectively. Optimum pH and temperature of both enzymes for lytic activity were pH 8 and 37 degrees C. L27 and L45 digest the peptide linkage between L-Ala and D-Glu in peptidoglycan of Streptococcus mutans. The lytic activity was highly specific for Streptococcus mutans, suggesting their potential use as a dental care product.  (+info)

Improving the binding affinity of an antibody using molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. (4/3738)

Activated Factor X releases F1.2, a 271-amino acid peptide, from the amino terminus of prothrombin during blood coagulation. A nine-amino acid peptide, C9 (DSDRAIEGR), corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of F1.2 was synthesized and used to produce a monoclonal antibody, TA1 (K(D)) 1.22 x 10(-6) M). To model the TA1 antibody, we entered the sequence information of the cloned TA1 Fv into the antibody modeling program, ABM, which combines homology methods, conformational search procedures, and energy screening and has proved to be a reliable and reproducible antibody modeling method. Using a novel protein fusion procedure, we expressed the C9 peptide fused to the carboxyl terminus of the PENI repressor protein from Bacillus licheniformis in Escherichia coli. We constructed fusion proteins containing alanine substitutions for each amino acid in the C9 epitope. Binding studies, using the C9 alanine mutants and TA1, and spatial constraints predicted by the modeled TA1 binding cleft enabled us to establish a plausible conformation for C9 complexed with TA1. Furthermore, based on binding results of conservative amino acid substitutions in C9 and mutations in the antibody, we were able to refine the complex model and identify antibody mutations that would improve binding affinity.  (+info)

Active site characterization of the exo-N-acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminidase from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120: involvement of tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residues in catalytic activity. (5/3738)

The exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 is a homotetramer with a molecular mass of 240000 kDa. Chemical modification studies on the purified exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase revealed the involvement of a single tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate, per monomer, in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Spectral analysis and maintenance of total enzyme activities indicated that N-acetylglucosamine (competitive inhibitor) and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (substrate) prevented the modification of a single essential tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residue. Kinetic parameters of partially inactivated enzyme (by NBS/HNBB) showed the involvement of tryptophan in substrate binding while that of histidine (by photooxidation/DEPC) and carboxylate (by EDAC/WRK) in catalysis. The Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase deviates from the reported N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidases and beta-hexosaminidases that utilize anchimeric assistance in their hydrolytic mechanism.  (+info)

Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis? (6/3738)

A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme.  (+info)

Key role of barstar Cys-40 residue in the mechanism of heat denaturation of bacterial ribonuclease complexes with barstar. (7/3738)

The mechanism by which barnase and binase are stabilized in their complexes with barstar and the role of the Cys-40 residue of barstar in that stabilization have been investigated by scanning microcalorimetry. Melting of ribonuclease complexes with barstar and its Cys-82-Ala mutant is described by two 2-state transitions. The lower-temperature one corresponds to barstar denaturation and the higher-temperature transition to ribonuclease melting. The barstar mutation Cys-40-Ala, which is within the principal barnase-binding region of barstar, simplifies the melting to a single 2-state transition. The presence of residue Cys-40 in barstar results in additional stabilization of ribonuclease in the complex.  (+info)

Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of gyrB of Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, and B. anthracis and their application to the detection of B. cereus in rice. (8/3738)

As 16S rRNA sequence analysis has proven inadequate for the differentiation of Bacillus cereus from closely related species, we employed the gyrase B gene (gyrB) as a molecular diagnostic marker. The gyrB genes of B. cereus JCM 2152(T), Bacillus thuringiensis IAM 12077(T), Bacillus mycoides ATCC 6462(T), and Bacillus anthracis Pasteur #2H were cloned and sequenced. Oligonucleotide PCR primer sets were designed from within gyrB sequences of the respective bacteria for the specific amplification and differentiation of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis. The results from the amplification of gyrB sequences correlated well with results obtained with the 16S rDNA-based hybridization study but not with the results of their phenotypic characterization. Some of the reference strains of both B. cereus (three serovars) and B. thuringiensis (two serovars) were not positive in PCR amplification assays with gyrB primers. However, complete sequencing of 1.2-kb gyrB fragments of these reference strains showed that these serovars had, in fact, lower homology than their originally designated species. We developed and tested a procedure for the specific detection of the target organism in boiled rice that entailed 15 h of preenrichment followed by PCR amplification of the B. cereus-specific fragment. This method enabled us to detect an initial inoculum of 0.24 CFU of B. cereus cells per g of boiled rice food homogenate without extracting DNA. However, a simple two-step filtration step is required to remove PCR inhibitory substances.  (+info)

Comparative 16S rRNA (rDNA) sequence analyses performed on the thermophilic Bacillus species Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus revealed that these organisms are sufficiently different from the traditional Bacillus species to warrant reclassification in a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov. An analysis of 16S rRNA sequences established that these three thermoacidophiles cluster in a group that differs markedly from both the obligately thermophilic organism Bacillus stearother-mophilus and the facultatively thermophilic organism Bacillus coagulans, as well as many other common mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus species. The thermoacidophilic Bacillus species B. acidocaldarius, B. acidoterrestris, and B. cycloheptanicus also are unique in that they possess ω-alicylic fatty acid as the major natural membranous lipid component, which is a rare phenotype that has not been found in any other Bacillus species characterized to date. This phenotype, along with
Definition of bacillus globigii in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of bacillus globigii. What does bacillus globigii mean? Information and translations of bacillus globigii in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|15614886|ref|NP_243189.1| from Bacillus halodurans C-125. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
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Bacillus sporothermodurans, which was first detected in UHT milk in Germany in 1990, can affect the stability and shelf life of contaminated commercial UHT milk and cause economic losses. Due to the unusual thermal resistance of B. sporothermodurans spores, B. sporothermodurans can survive UHT treatment and proceed to grow in stored products causing instability because of their proteolytic activity (Huemer et al., 1998). This study was conducted to determine the level of B. sporothermodurans contamination in South African dairies and to understand the mechanism of B. sporothermodurans spore destruction in order to investigate ways of inactivating these spores without severe heating. The objectives were to determine the presence of Bacillus sporothermodurans in retail UHT milk along with milk from different points of a processing line and isolates from UHT milk in South Africa, UP20A and a reference strain of B. sporothermodurans, DSM 10599 from Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und ...
Summary: Flagella from Bacillus firmus RAB, an alkalophilic bacterium, were purified to homogeneity. The flagella were shown to consist of a single protein subunit (flagellin) with an apparent molecular weight of 40000. The amino acid composition of B. firmus RAB flagellin was similar to that of other bacilli except that the former had far fewer basic amino acids. The paucity of basic amino acics may render the flagella more stable at external pH values as high as 11.0.
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Bacillus licheniformis ATCC ® 14580D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Bacillus licheniformis Strain 46 TypeStrain=True Application:
The acid-soluble products of exhaustive digestion of native DNA with Bacillus laterosporus DNase consist of 6.5% of mononucleotides and 93.5% of oligonucleotides with an average chain length of 3.2. The results of viscometric studies and inactivation of transforming DNA indicate the exi...read more ...
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by ATP, the first committing step of glycolysis.
1. The properties of membrane vesicles from the extreme thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus were investigated. 2. Vesicles prepared by exposure of spheroplasts to ultrasound contained cytochromes a, b and c, and at 50°C they rapidly oxidized NADH and ascorbate in the presence of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Succinate and l-malate were oxidized more slowly, and dl-lactate, l-alanine and glycerol 1-phosphate were not oxidized. 3. In the absence of proton-conducting uncouplers the oxidation of NADH was accompanied by a net translocation of H+ into the vesicles. Hydrolysis of ATP by a dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase was accompanied by a similarly directed net translocation of H+. 4. Uncouplers (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or valinomycin plus NH4+) prevented net H+ translocation but stimulated ATP hydrolysis, NADH oxidation and ascorbate oxidation. The last result suggested an energy-conserving site in the respiratory chain between cytochrome c ...
Abstract The challenge of maintaining a cytoplasmic pH that is much lower than the external pH is central to the adaptation of extremely alkaliphilic Bacillus species to growth at ..
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|163941511|ref|YP_001646395.1| from Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42 is a free-living bacterium that competitively colonizes plant roots and stimulates plant growth by many different modes of action. The molecular basis of singular beneficial effects that this Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) exert on their hosts have been studied. To decipher the molecular cross-talk of B. amyloliquefaciens and its host plants as a whole system, an extensive proteomic approach was performed. Reference maps of the extracellular and cytosolic protein fractions were established. The highest number of secreted proteins was observed during stationary growth phase. Identified extracellular proteins belong to different functional classes, with the most prominent classes involved in carbohydrate degradation and transportation of molecules across the cell wall. Cytosolic extracts obtained from cultures grown in 1C and minimal media subjected to the 2 Dimensional Electrophoresis (2 DE), revealed 461 and 245 different protein entries, ...
Fig. S1. Predicted secondary structures of the tmRNA and associated group I intron in the chromosome of B. pseudofirmus OF4. The structures were predicted by alignment with the homologous sequences in C. botulinum (Williams, 2002) followed by manual rearrangements. Nucleotides that are conserved in both sequence and structural position in B. pseudofirmus and C. botulinum are coloured in red. The various subdomains of the tmRNA (P1-P12) and group I intron (P1-P9) are indicated. In addition, for the tmRNA, the regions forming pseudoknots are labelled (Ψ1 and Ψ4) the nucleotides encoding the proteolysis tag are underlined; for the intron, flanking exon sequences are in lower case letters.. Fig. S2. Schematic representation of the 4.5 kb group II twintron in the pBpOF4-01 plasmid of B. pseudofirmus OF4. The twintron consists of two nested group II intron retroelements, where the innermost intron (in grey) encoding the reverse transcriptase (RT) BpOF4_20224 is inserted at the catalytic site of the ...
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a Gram-positive, pathogen-suppressing and plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium. Apart from this ability, it produces a vast array of secondary metabolites, which includes both ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptides. In this work, the transcriptional activation and regulation of bacilysin biosynthesis were studied at the promoters of bac and ywfH genes. The promoter of bacilysin was identified using 5-deletion analysis. Sigma factor A (σA) was found to start transcription via conserved promoter elements (-10 and -35) of bac and ywfH genes. lacZ reporter fusion studies were performed in wild type and regulatory mutants. The results show the involvement of transcriptional regulators to activate the expression of bacilysin genes. Several global regulators such as DegU, ComA, Hpr and AbrB were identified and found to influence gene expression. In particular, I confirmed DegU binding in bac and ywfH promoters using radioactive DNase I footprinting. Furthermore, ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Global Bacillus Coagulans Industry 2021 Market Research Report analysed the current state in the definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The report also focuses on the development trends as well as history, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions etc in the international markets.. Global Bacillus Coagulans Industry 2021 Market Research Report is a professionally prepared report comprising of in-depth information as well as knowledge which is helpful to the new entrants and the established players. Key statistics on the state of the industry and the complete demand analysis of the industry is showcased in the report. Get the Exemplified Analysis for the Products of Bacillus Coagulans at: https://marketreportscenter.com/reports/489660/global-bacillus-coagulans-market-research-report-2016. The development policies, plans as well as the bill of materials, cost structures are ...
... g - Global Market Insights 2018 to 2028. The latest report on the bacillus coagulans market by Fact.MR provides key insights, on the market along with the factors contributing to the market growth. The report also offers historical data and forecast on the bacillus coagulans ma
Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.
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Consuming large doses of Bacillus coagulans deemed safe for humans. CLEVELAND (April 7, 2009) - The results of a safety study to be published in the May issue of Food and Chemical Toxicology demonstrate that the probiotic strain, GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086), is safe for human consumption, even in massive amounts. Many experts recognize the health benefits of probiotics, but some have stressed that probiotic strains must first demonstrate safety before recommendations can be made about their widespread use. The new study also sets the stage for the incorporation of GanedenBC30 into a wide variety of foods. Unlike many other probiotic strains, GanedenBC30 easily survives the challenges of food manufacturing, extreme temperatures, and the gastric environment.. Probiotics, also referred to as friendly bacteria, are becoming increasingly popular with consumers for several health benefits. However, safety studies do not exist for many strains of probiotics because there are no ...
Cellulase (endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase) (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) [ME-CELBA] - High purity recombinant Cellulase (endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase) (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. EC 3.2.1.4 CAZy Family: GH5 Recombinant. From Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate. Specific activity: ~ 80 U/mg (40oC, pH 6.0 on CM-cellulose 4M); ~ 160 U/mg (60oC, pH 6.0 on CM-cellulose 4M). Stability: | 2 years at 4oC.
Novel Gram-negative alkaliphilic strains were isolated from soil obtained from Atsuma, Hokkaido, Japan. The isolates were strictly aerobic rods that produced subterminally located ellipsoidal spores. Chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates included the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall and a DNA G+C content of 40·2-40·9 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 and the cellular fatty acid profile consisted of a significant amount of 15-C branched-chain acids, iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0. The growth rate was higher at pH 8-10 than at pH 7. Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA of 14 alkaliphilic Bacillus strains indicates that the isolated strain has an equidistant relationship to three already defined rRNA groups of alkaliphilic Bacillus species. Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as phylogenetic position as determined by 16S rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is concluded that these isolates should be designated
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP synthesis by the F0F1 ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 reconstituted into liposomes with bacteriorhodopsin. T2 - 2. Relationships between proton motive force and ATP synthesis. AU - Pitard, Bruno. AU - Richard, Peter. AU - Duñach, Mireia. AU - Rigaud, Jean Louis. PY - 1996/2. Y1 - 1996/2. N2 - The correlation between the rate of ATP synthesis and light-induced proton flux was investigated in proteoliposomes reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3. By variation of the actinic light intensity it was found that ATP synthase activity depended in a sigmoidal manner on the amplitude of the transmembrane light-induced pH gradient. Maximal rates of ATP synthesis (up to 200 nmol ATP · min-1 · mg protein-1 were obtained at saturating light intensities under a steady-state pH gradient of about pH 1.25. It was demonstrated that this was the maximal ΔpH attainable at 40°C in reconstituted proteoliposomes, due to the feedback ...
During the last decade, the use of plant-root colonizing bacteria with plant growth-promoting activity has been proven as an efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Biofertilizer and biocontrol formulations prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains are increasingly applied due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. Today, spore suspensions from natural representatives of mainly Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus pumilus are available. However, these biofertilizers, directly prepared from environmental strains, are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers (Borriss R, Bacteria in agrobiology: plant growth responses, Springer, 2011, pp. 41-76). This review will focus on several ways to improve the action of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42T, the type strain for the group of plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens strains. We
Previous DNA relatedness studies showed that strains idnentified as Bacillus mycoides segregated into two genetically distinct yet phenotypically similar groups, one being B. mycoides sensu stricto and the other, an unclassified taxon. In the present study, the taxonomic position of this second group was assessed by measuring DNA relatedness and determining phenotypic characteristics of an increased number of B. mycoides strains. Also determined was the second group's 16S RNA gene sequence. The 36 B. mycoides strains studied segregated into two genetically distinct groups showing DNA relatedness of about 30%; 18 strains represented the species proper and 18 the second group with intragroup DNA relatedness for both groups ranging from 70 to 100%. DNA relatedness to the type strains of presently recognized species with G+C contents of approximately 35 mol% (Bacillus alcalophilus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus sphaericus) ranged from 22 to 37%.
Postharvest diseases of bananas remain a significant challenge of banana exporting countries and can result in considerable losses. Adequate storage and transportation facilities are among the strategies employed to reduce losses, but chemical control has been found to be more effective and economical. Synthetic fungicides have traditionally been used to mitigate postharvest diseases caused by harmful microorganisms. However, with current global health concern, there is a public desire to utilize eco-friendly alternatives to address decay loss. A study on the bioefficacy of a commercial formulation containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D203 (Hatake™) for control of crown rot disease in Cavendish bananas, was conducted using both in vitro and in vivo screening techniques. Its potential in controlling crown rot and the efficacy of different rates were determined. Crown rot causing microorganisms were isolated and tested for antagonism by B. amyloliquefaciens strain D203. Efficacy was ...
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Products, termed Antheridiogen Factor (AF), and vesicle like sac formation factor (VLS-F) were present in a culture of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens stra..
Bacterial protease produced by submerged fermentation of a selected strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Secretion of protease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens can be inhib
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Alkalophilic Bacillus include industrially important species since they can produce many extracellular enzymes which are active and stable at high pH values.These alkaline enzymes (proteases, amylases, xylanases, cellulases, lipases and pectinases) find use in various field of industry such as leather, detergent, paper industries and waste water treatment.Isolation of diverse bacteria plays an important role in finding novel enzymes with improved characteristics. The aim of this study was therefore to screen for alkaline extracellular enzymes of alkalophilic Bacillus isolated from soil, horse feces and leather processing and to characterize these strains by phenotypic tests and by 16S-ITS rDNA based RFLP.At the end of the study, rod-shaped, endospore forming and Gram positive 116 strains were identified as Bacillus. Ten of the 116 strains were found to be obligate alkalophilic. 91 protease, 77 amylase, 18 xylanase, 3 cellulase, 74 pectinolytic enzyme (71 polygalacturonic acid degrading and 72 ...
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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain H57 was initially isolated for its ability to inhibit the growth of fungi that causes livestock feed to spoil. When applied to feed, H57 markedly reduces fungal growth for up to three months.
Bacillus Coagulans Probiotics Powder is a Gram-positive rod, catalase positive, spore-forming, motile, a facultative anaerobe. B. coagulans may appear Gram-negative when
... CLEVELAND Dec. 4 /- An independent panel of scientis...(Logo: A HREF http://www.newscom.com/cgi-bin/prnh/20041213/CLM031LOG... With so many health benefits and potential applications available for...GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 6086) is a high-survivability...,Ganeden,Biotech,Obtains,Self-Affirmed,GRAS,Status,for,Probiotic,Ingredient,,GanedenBC30,(Bacillus,coagulans,GBI-30,,6086),biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Bacillus licheniformis ATCC ® 12759™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Quality control strain Used in studies of proteinase
1I5E: Structure of product-bound Bacillus caldolyticus uracil phosphoribosyltransferase confirms ordered sequential substrate binding.
The intestinal tract contains trillions of bacteria that, when a person is healthy, coexist with us in a beneficial, symbiotic relationship. The beneficial bacteria help digest food, produce vitamins, regulate the metabolism, and facilitate a normal immune response.* Probiotic bacteria promote a healthy intestinal environment by producing lactic acid and by secreting fatty acids that are helpful to the growth of other beneficial microorganisms.* Bacillus coagulans (also known as Lactobacillus sporogenes) is a lactic acid-producing bacteria that is unique in probiotic supplementation.* While this beneficial bacteria is dormant in the bottle, it reverts to a growing bacteria in the intestines.* As a result, it resists being killed by stomach acid; in contrast, many Lactobacillus probiotics lose much of their potency before use and do not survive their transit through the stomach ...
Proteinase Ak.1 was produced during the stationary phase of Bacillus sp. Ak.1 cultures. It is a serine proteinase with a pI of 4.0, and the molecular mass was estimated to be 36.9 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was stable at 60 and 70 degrees C, with half-lives of 13 h and 19 min at 80 and 90 degrees C, respectively. Maximum proteolytic activity was observed at pH 7.5 with azocasein as a substrate, and the enzyme also cleaved the endoproteinase substrate Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-NH-Np (succinyl-alanyl-alanyl-prolyl-phenylalanine p-nitroanalide). Major cleavage sites of the insulin B chain were identified as Leu-15-Tyr-16, Gln-4-His-5, and Glu-13-Ala-14. The proteinase gene was cloned in Escherichia coli, and expression of the active enzyme was detected in the extracellular medium at 75 degrees C. The enzyme is expressed in E. coli as an inactive proproteinase at 37 degrees C and is converted to the mature enzyme by heating the cell-free media ...
Press release - Marketdesk.org - Global Bacillus Coagulans Market 2019 - Massive Industry Improvement Till 2025 - published on openPR.com
Bacillus coagulans yra bakterijų tipas. Jis naudojamas panašiai lactobacillus ir kitų Probiotikai kaip naudingas bakterijų.
LEXICARE PHARMA from Ankleshwar, Gujarat (India) is a Exporter,Manufacturer and Supplier of Bacillus Coagulans Capsules at the best price.
The problem is Id like to know if anybody have described Bacillus pasteurii as a antibiotic productor before, and in this case, what substance could be. I find no data base about this kind of information in the Web (maybe due the industrial secret?) only taxonomic and poorly descriptive bases. I will thank you very much if could link me to any interesting page in this sense ...
Members of the species Bacillus pumilus get more and more in focus of the biotechnological industry as potential new production strains. Based on secretome analysis, Bacillus pumilus strain Jo2, possessing high secretion capability, was chosen for an omics based investigation. The physiology of Bacillus pumilus cells growing either in minimal or complex medium was analyzed by a combination of proteomic and metabolomic methods. Master gels of the cytosolic and the secreted proteome covering major parts of the main metabolic pathways were created by means of 2D gel electrophoresis. Quantification of 2D gels allowed displaying the most abundant proteins in these sub-proteomes. Application of the GeLC-MS/MS technique tripled the number of identified proteins and enabled detection of many intrinsic membrane proteins. In total, 1542 proteins were identified in growing B. pumilus cells, among them 1182 cytosolic proteins, 297 membrane and lipoproteins and 63 secreted proteins. This accounts for about ...
cansSAR 3D Structure of 6DPN_A | CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BACILLUS HALODURANS RIBONUCLEASE H1 E188A IN COMPLEX WITH AN RNA/DNA HYBRID: REACTION IN 2 MM MG2+ AND 200 MM K+ FOR 200 S AT 21 C | 6DPN
Read "Plant growth promoting effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 on crop plants and influence on physiological changes in soybean under soil salinity, Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
RNA Polymerase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Infected with ϕ29 Bacteriophage: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was purified from uninfected and ϕ29-infected Bacil
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens colonizes plant roots, stimulates plant growth, and inhibits pathogen growth. Read about these bacteria now on Gardeners Path.
The focus of recent research has been directed toward the probiotic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) on the gut health of animals. However, little is known about BAs effects on piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of BA supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, inflammatory response, and microbiota of IUGR piglets. Eighteen litters of newborn piglets were selected at birth, with one normal birth weight (NBW) and two IUGR piglets in each litter (i.e., 18 NBW and 36 IUGR piglets in total). At weaning, the NBW piglet and one of the IUGR piglets were assigned to groups fed a control diet (i.e., the NBW-CON and IUGR-CON groups). The other IUGR piglet was assigned to a group fed the control diet supplemented with 2.0 g BA per kg of diet (i.e., IUGR-BA group). The piglets were thus distributed across three groups for a four-week period. IUGR reduced the growth performance of the IUGR-CON piglets compared with
Polyphasic taxonomic analysis was carried out for Bacillus sp. strain C6, as the antagonist of phytopathogenic bacteria and micromycetes. The combination of cultural, morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties of the strain has enabled researchers to refer it to the Bacillus subtilis group. It has been shown that the fatty acids of the strains cell walls were predominantly represented by branched iso- and anteiso-C15:0 and C17:0 fatty acids (over 85%), which was typical for the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens species. The molecular genetic analysis carried out on the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, and the profiling of polymorphic nucleotides have enabled researchers to refer the strain in question to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum.. The Opened International University of Human Development Ukraine ...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Bacillus sphaericus Serotype H5a5b strain 2362 is a naturally occurring bacterium that is found in the United States and throughout the world. It kills mosquito larvae when the larvae ingest the bacterial spores in moist or wet areas such as lakes, coasts, streams, swamps, and drainage ditches ...
This paper proposes a microbiological method in microtitre plates for the detection of residues of quinolones in milk. The method uses spores of Bacillus licheniformis in culture medium with a redox combination of indicators and gives a response time of 5.5 h. This method detects 92 μg L−1 of ciprofloxacin, 63 μg L−1 of danofloxacin, 109 μg L−1 of enrofloxacin, 101 μg L−1 of marbofloxacin and 109 μg L−1 of sarafloxacin in milk. Therefore, the assay is easy to develop and to use in laboratory, allowing analysis of large numbers of samples at low cost. Due to its good sensitivity to quinolones, this assay can be used as a complementary test of commercial microbiological methods and thereby improve food security ...
Bacillus pumilis was isolated and identified from limestone and the ability towards carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration was demonstrated. B. pumilus (S3 SC_1), isolated from Gua Tempurung, Gopeng, Perak was able to form calcite in the presence of calcium ions. B. pumilus was successfully characterized by using conventional biochemical characterization and 16s rDNA sequencing. Three types of experimental systems with B. pumilus, without B. pumilus and without continuous supply of CO2 with the presence of B. pumilus which could produce extracellular carbonic were studied to determine the effects of bacterially produced carbonic anhydrase (CA) by B. pumilus in removing CO2 as calcite. Through our current study, CO2 sequestration ability of B. pumilus was proven. ...
Exogenous Bacillus pumilus RNase (binase) suppresses the reproduction of reovirus serotype 1: The experimental study identified the antiviral activity of Bacill
News featured in Nuffoods Spectrum and The Telegraph.. The authors noted that LactoSpore showed remarkable immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity under co-treatment relative to post-treatment condition.. A recent peer-reviewed study reported the results of an investigation into the functional aspects of Sabinsas shelf stable probiotic Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856, known worldwide as LactoSpore®, including survival during simulated digestion. The study, Probiotic Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 spores exhibit excellent in-vitro functional efficacy in simulated gastric survival, mucosal adhesion and immunomodulation, was published in the Journal of Functional Foods (2019 Jan; 52: 100-108).. This independent study conducted by university researchers reported that LactoSpore showed remarkable ability to survive (92%) gastric and intestinal conditions and then to colonize the intestine by effectively adhering to the colonic epithelium.. Furthermore, this study also reported that LactoSpore at ...
Medium 2 plus 2% urea.. 10 ml filter-sterilized 20% urea solution is added asptically post autoclaving to 100ml cooled molten nutrent agar. The medium is then immediately dispensed aseptically. For sporulation enhancement add 10 mg/l MnSO4 x H2O.. ...
Often one of the challenges of raising children is getting them to brush their teeth. Cavities are a common problem in children. While it is undisputed that brushing and flossing help reduce the number of cavities, actually getting your children to do this is often another matter entirely. Even if you succeed at getting your kids to stop fighting brushing their teeth and they learn to do their own dental hygiene well, youre still typically stuck with kids and their love for sweet foods and juices feeding bacteria that damage their teeth.. A few months ago, I wrote an article that discussed a new development in oral health care that would help both kids and adults. My focus at the time was on the improvements for adults, but the same idea applies to kids, too. The article Mouth Probiotics Speed Canker Sore Healing and Reduce Cavities, Arthritis Pain, Heart Disease discusses the use of "oral probiotics" to seed the mouth with bacteria that reduce or prevent cavities and common ENT (ear, nose, ...
1N9C: Structure and dynamics of reduced Bacillus pasteurii cytochrome c: oxidation state dependent properties and implications for electron transfer processes
In this study just published in the journal Gut Microbes, GanedenBC30 delayed onset of symptoms and caused a quicker recovery from the infection.
Benefits: May provide relief from occasional digestive upset like diarrhea, gas and bloating. Supports gastrointestinal health. Is shelf-sta...
Benefits: May provide relief from occasional digestive upset like diarrhea, gas and bloating. Supports gastrointestinal health. Is shelf-sta...
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease ...
Companies have been trying for years, if not decades, to find a way to encapsulate cells for therapeutic use in a way that protects them from the bodys re
Companies have been trying for years, if not decades, to find a way to encapsulate cells for therapeutic use in a way that protects them from the bodys
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
16S rRNA comparisons were conducted and illustrated the relatedness of these strains to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their cell wall fatty acid contents were consequently analysed and specified a relation to the B. velezensis ecomorph. On account of the previous observations, a simple method of 16S rRNA profiling by polymorphic nucleotides was proposed to determine a group of organisms closely related to B. velezensis and B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum, for they are biologically active strains suitable for use in biotechnology. The extreme genetic plasticity of these bacteria endowed each strain with a unique spectrum of antagonistic activity.. The Opened International University of Human Development Ukraine ...
Control many bacterial and fungal plant diseases with this biorational liquid formulated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747. Click here for more details on what this product can do for you.
This Sliding Bar can be switched on or off in theme options, and can take any widget you throw at it or even fill it with your custom HTML Code. Its perfect for grabbing the attention of your viewers. Choose between 1, 2, 3 or 4 columns, set the background color, widget divider color, activate transparency, a top border or fully disable it on desktop and mobile ...
Jan 02, 2020 (The Expresswire) -- Global Bacillus Licheniformis Market is an overview of the global market is delivered with prime focus on...
Natures Bounty Probiotic 4 Billion Live Cultures Gummies Contains probiotic strain bacillus coagulans unique IS-2 that is a friendly bacteria for the digestive
FOR CORN, EACH ACCELERON® SEED APPLIED SOLUTIONS OFFERING is a combination of separate individually registered products containing the active ingredients: BASIC plus Poncho®/VOTiVO® Offering for corn: metalaxyl, prothioconazole, fluoxastrobin, clothianidin, Bacillus firmus I-1582. ELITE plus Poncho®/VOTiVO® Offering for corn: metalaxyl, clothianidin, and Bacillus firmus I-1582; prothioconazole and fluoxastrobin at rates that suppress additional diseases. BASIC Offering for corn: metalaxyl, prothioconazole, fluoxastrobin, and clothianidin. ELITE Offering for corn: metalaxyl, and clothianidin; prothioconazole and fluoxastrobin at rates that suppress additional diseases. BioRise™ Corn Offering is the on-seed application of either BioRise™ 360 ST or the separately registered seed applied products Acceleron® B-300 SAT and BioRise™ 360 ST. BioRise™ Corn Offering is included seamlessly across offerings on all class of 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 products.. FOR SOYBEANS, EACH ACCELERON® ...
Has anyone else experienced this in industrial fermentation of B. subtilis? Ive seen my cultures lose a log in viability during sporulation. Havent seen it in other bacillus species though...............Kevin ...
Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um novo bioprocesso para a síntese de lactosacarose, um candidato a prebiótico. A lactosacarose foi produzida por transgalactosilação, catalisada pela β-galactosidase de Bacillus circulans imobilizada em macroesfera de quitosana, utilizando a lactose e a sacarose como substratos. No processo de imobilização, os resultados indicam que a melhor razão entre a concentração de enzima e de suporte foi de 200 mg.g-1. A estabilidade térmica da enzima imobilizada foi determinada e comparada com a estabilidade térmica da enzima livre em temperaturas de 50, 60 e 70 °C e para esta última foi verificada a estabilidade na presença e ausência de substrato. A imobilização aumentou de 10 a 260 vezes a estabilidade térmica da enzima, sendo este efeito inversamente relacionado com a temperatura. A otimização das condições de produção indica, para a β-galactosidase imobilizada e livre, que a melhor condição de produção de lactosacarose e de ...
Bacillus coagulans has benefits, but not enough research to fully recommend it. Its often mislabeled and there are not enough non Ganeden funded studies.
Karakterisasi kitinase yang meliputi pH dan suhu optimum, Km dan Vmax telah dipelajari dari isolat Bacillus sp. BK17. Kitinase kasar dari isolat yang dikultur dalam medium garam minimum dengan kitin koloidal cair selama 5 hari dipresipitasi dengan beberapa konsentrasi amonium sulfat. Aktivitas kitinase tertinggi didapatkan pada presipitasi amonium sulfat 50% dengan aktivitas spesifik sebesar 0,545 Unit. Aktivitas enzim optimum pada pH 6 dan suhu 35 oC yaitu sebesar 0,0750 U/ml. Kitinase Bacillus sp. BK17 memiliki aktivitas sebesar 0,0112 U/ml pada gerusan miselium Sclerotium rolfsii. Enzim ini memiliki Km sebesar 0,46 μg dan Vmax sebesar 158,73 ...
Séneca, repositorio institucional de la Universidad de los Andes, que permite la conservación, el libre acceso, la consulta de documentos y datos generados por la comunidad Uniandina, como resultado de los procesos de investigación y creación académica o científica.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A2S4EP72 (A0A2S4EP72_BACAM), Ribosome-recycling factor. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Bacillus velezensis)
Bacillus species answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
SporeBiotic features clinically validated ingredients to support microbiome wellness and overall immune health. LactoSpore® (Bacillus coagulans MTCC5856) is a
Characterization of a Regulator pgsR on Endogenous Plasmid p2Sip and Its Complementation for Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Accumulation in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Kommisjonens gjennomføringsforordning (EU) 2017/173 av 1. februar 2017 om endring av forordning (EF) nr. 1292/2008 og gjennomføringsforordning (EU) nr. 887/2011 hva angår navnet på innehaveren av godkjenningen av Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 og...
Isolation and partial purification of a metabolite from a mutant strain of bacillus sp. with antibiotic activity against plant pathogenic agents . Andrés Illanes ; Luigi Ciampi ;Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 2002, 5 1. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
General Information: Environment: Soil; Isolation: Soil; Temp: Mesophile; Temp: 37C. Bacillus cellulosilyticus strain DSM 2522 is alkaliphilic strain used in industry. The strain is isolated from soil. This alkiphilic species produces alkaline cellulase. ...
مقدمه: فرایند رسوب کلسیت، در نتیجه فعالیت‌های متابولیکی میکروارگانیسم‌ها، کلسیفیکاسیون زیستی نامیده می‌شود. در این فرایند، کلسیت (CaCO3) به وسیله فعالیت‌های میکروارگانیسم‌ها بر روی دانه‌های خاک ته‌نشین شده و سبب افزایش سختی/ استحکام و کاهش فرسایش خاک می‌شود. مواد و روش‏‏ها: در این مطالعه، میزان هیدرولیز اوره و ته-نشینی کلسیت در فرایند تثبیت خاک، بوسیله باکتری Bacillus sp. HAI4 از طریق روش تاگوچی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. همچنین، تونل باد برای اندازه-گیری میزان پایداری خاک، طراحی شد. نتایج: در این پژوهش، سه فاکتور (کلرید آمونیوم، اوره و ملاس) برای بررسی
Thorne, C.B., and B.B. Kowalski. 1976. Temperate bacteriophages for Bacillus licheniformis. In Microbiology, edited by D. Schlessinger, American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C., p. 302-314. ...
A study carried out in the UK tested the effect of a direct fed microbial (DFM) on the performance of broilers compared to an antibiotic growth promoter under large scale, commercial production settings.
Also check out the Paleoclimate section, which includes references to the MWP. Medieval Warm Period. Documenting the Global Extent of the Medieval Warm Period
Un factor limitante en la producción de papa es la escasez de tubérculo semilla de papa libre de patógenos; por lo tanto, es necesario encontrar nuevas alternativas de producción de tubérculo semilla en forma eficiente ...
...  ELISA gives a fast, and reliable method to detect Bacitracin in tissue from Randox Food Diagnostics 
611536DNAArtificial SequenceDescription of Artificial Sequence Synthetic polynucleotide 1atgaaacaac aaaaacggct ttacgcccga ttgctgacgc tgttatttgc gctcatcttc 60ttgctgcctc attctgcagc ttcagcagca aatcttaatg ggacgctgat gcagtatttt 120gaatggtaca tgcccaatga cggccaacat tggaagcgtt tgcaaaacga ctcggcatat 180ttggctgaac acggtattac tgccgtctgg attcccccgg catataaggg aacgagccaa 240gcggatgtgg gctacggtgc ttacgacctt tatgatttag gggagtttca tcaaaaaggg 300acggttcgga caaagtacgg cacaaaagga gagctgcaat ctgcgatcaa aagtcttcat 360tcccgcgaca ttaacgttta cggggatgtg gtcatcaacc acaaaggcgg cgctgatgcg 420accgaagatg taaccgcggt tgaagtcgat cccgctgacc gcaaccgcgt aatttcagga 480gaacacctaa ttaaagcctg gacacatttt cattttccgg ggcgcggcag cacatacagc 540gattttaaat ggcattggta ccattttgac ggaaccgatt gggacgagtc ccgaaagctg 600aaccgcatct ataagtttca aggaaaggct tgggattggg aagtttccaa tgaaaacggc 660aactatgatt atttgatgta tgccgacatc gattatgacc atcctgatgt cgcagcagaa 720attaagagat ggggcacttg gtatgccaat gaactgcaat tggacggttt ccgtcttgat 780gctgtcaaac acattaaatt ...
Several alkalophilic Bacillus spp. strains were selected for their capacity to produce alkaline cellulases. Culture supernatants of these strains showed optimal cellulase activities between pH 8 and 9 and they were stable from pH 6 to pH 12. A cellul
There are a number of methods in which heterologous peptides and proteins can be displayed on the cell surface of bacteria. The first use of the FliC system for display was carried out by Kuwajima et al. [1] where an eleven amino acid epitope from the egg-white lysozyme was displayed on the surface of E. coli. Ezaki et al [2] and Tanskanen et al [3] both demonstrated that large polypeptides could also be displayed successfully using E. coli flagellin. These proteins included an alkaline phosphatase (471 aa) and the collagen binding region of YadA of Yersinia enterolcolitica (302 aa) respectively. To our knowledge, the display of heterologous proteins using the FliC protein from flagella has not previously been demonstrated in Gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus halodurans Alk36 is an alkalophilic, Gram-positive bacterial strain which has the inherent capability of over-expressing the FliC protein. This was harnessed as an opportunity for the development of a novel surface display system using this ...
Get the best Bacillus Coagulans Spores Soft Gelatin Capsule from Elmed Chemicals to improve your health in every way and cater to your nutritional needs.
article{139117, author = {Remaut, Han and SAFAROV, N and CIURLI, S and Van Beeumen, Jozef}, issn = {0021-9258}, journal = {JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY}, language = {eng}, number = {52}, pages = {49365--49370}, title = {Structural basis for Ni2+ transport and assembly of the urease active site by the metallochaperone UreE from Bacillus pasteurii.}, volume = {276}, year = {2001 ...
Kat has been writing about veganism, environment, and sustainability for five years. Their interests include over-analyzing the various socioeconomic forms of oppression, how that overlaps with veganism, and how the media in all of its forms reflects the current culture. Vegan and cruelty-free beauty brand Pacifica just dropped its latest collection at Target - and it includes drinkable probiotic powder you can add to water, juice, or smoothies. The new collection features four Beauty Powders, each of which contains vegan superfood ingredients said to benefit the body and mind. Seek Balance is a coconut vanilla-flavored powder packed with plant-based probiotics (bacillus coagulans, to be exact), antioxidant-rich berry powder, and coconut oil to benefit your gut health. Slay All Day contains pineapple powder, ashwaganda (a medicinal herb used in Ayurvedic medicine thats said to reduce stress), green tea, and hyaluronic acid to help you stay calm and keep your skin healthy. Glow Greens helps you ...
Shop M Sip Lax 1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans and sennosides 7.5 mg Online at a low price. Search personal care, ayurvedic, homeopathy, baby & mother care, fitness supplements and healthcare devices from Netmeds. Order and get doorstep delivery anywhere in India.
Bacillus subtilis[edit]. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis have a cAMP-independent catabolite repression ...
Bacillus thuringiensis[edit]. Constant exposure to a toxin creates evolutionary pressure for pests resistant to that toxin. ... To reduce resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, the 1996 commercialization of transgenic cotton and maize came with ... Tobacco, corn, rice and some other crops have been engineered to express genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus ... plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).[40] ...
The ability to adhere to medical devices and subsequently form biofilms is a major virulence factor associated with S. haemolyticus.[3][5][13][14] Biofilm formation increases antibiotic resistance[5][13][14] and often leads to persistent infections.[15][16] S. haemolyticus biofilms are not polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) dependent, and the lack of the ica operon (the gene cluster that encodes the production of PIA) can be used to distinguish S. haemolyticus isolates from other CoNS species.[3][12][14] Biofilm formation is influenced by a variety of factors including carbohydrates, proteins, and extracellular DNA. Detachment assays with NaIO4, proteinase K, or DNase result in 38%, 98%, and 100% detachment, respectively. The high level of detachment associated with DNase treatment has led several authors to suggest a cell-to-surface and/or cell-to-cell adhesion function for extracellular DNA. Biofilm formation also appears to be influenced by the presence of glucose and NaCl. Biofilm ...
Bacillus brevis • Bacillus Cereus • Bacillus megaterium • Bacillus subtilis • Burkholderia cepacia • Campylobacter jejuni • ...
Bacillus spp. (genus): This organism is likely to grow soy sauce ingredients, and to generate odors and ammonia. ...
Paenibacillus popilliae (formerly Bacillus popilliae) is a soil-dwelling, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium. It is ...
Bacillus cereus infection Bacillus cereus Bacterial pneumonia multiple bacteria Bacterial vaginosis List of bacterial vaginosis ...
BT - Bacillus thuringiensis. *EH - Erwinia hebicola. *FP - fluorescent particle. Radiological Agent[edit]. Main article: ...
Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii.[8] ...
Bacillus subtilis spores. 82 0.5 µm. Pseudomonas diminuta. 19146 0.45 µm. Serratia marcescens. 14756 ...
... , or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.[1] They are usually found in pairs (diplococci) and do not form spores and are nonmotile.[2] As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in healthy carriers typically colonizing the respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal cavity. However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may become pathogenic and spread to other locations to cause disease. It spreads by direct person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets and by autoinoculation in persons carrying the bacteria in their upper respiratory tracts.[3] It can be a cause of neonatal ...
Multiple bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria, here shown as black and bean-shaped) shown between white blood cells in urinary ...
The strain Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 has recently been discovered and identified as an antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic. This strain of Lactobacillus fermentum was discovered from the analysis of human fecal samples in 1994. One of the important characteristics of a probiotic microbe is the tolerance to conditions in the digestive tract. Tests conducted on the ME-3 strain in different bile concentrations found that it was able to survive without large loss in numbers. It has also been found that Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 has a tolerance to survive drops of pH levels. It can withstand a drop in values from 4.0 to 2.5 without decreasing in numbers. These characteristics of tolerance to bile concentrations and pH levels serve to classify ME-3 as a probiotic.[10] Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 has also been found to have the capability to suppress mainly gram-negative bacteria. To a lesser extent, ME-3 has also been observed to be able to suppress Enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus. ...
Wells, C. L., Wilkins, T. D. (1996). "Clostridia: Sporeforming Anaerobic Bacilli". In Baron, S.; et al. Baron's Medical ...
A new anaerobic bacillus and its relation to botulism. E. van Ermengem. Originally published as "Ueber einen neuen anaëroben ... Bacillus und seine Beziehungen zum Botulismus" in Zeitschrift für Hygiene und Infektionskrankheiten 26: 1-56, 1897". Reviews of ...
Bacilli. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Clostridium:. *tetani *Tetanospasmin. *Tetanolysin ...
Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin. Virulence. factor. *Clumping factor A. *Fibronectin binding protein A ...
bulgaricus was first identified in 1905 by Stamen Grigorov, who named it Bacillus bulgaricus.[6] ...
Bacilli. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Clostridium:. *tetani *Tetanospasmin. *Tetanolysin ...
Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin. Virulence. factor. *Clumping factor A. *Fibronectin binding protein A ...
Bacilli. *Bacillales. *Lactobacillales. *Aphragmobacteria *Erysipelotrichia *Erysipelotrichiales. *Mollicutes *Mycoplasmatales ...
... is caused by exotoxin-producing Clostridium species (most often C. perfringens, and C. novyi,[5] but less commonly C. septicum[6] or C. ramnosum),[7] which are mostly found in soil, but also found as normal gut flora, and other anaerobes (e.g., Bacteroides and anaerobic streptococci). The exotoxin is commonly found in C. perfringens type A strain and is known as alpha toxin. This alpha toxin is a lethal toxin and also known as phospholipase C (lecithinase). It increases vascular permeability and produces necrotizing activity. These environmental bacteria may enter the muscle through a wound and go on to proliferate in necrotic tissue and secrete powerful toxins. These toxins destroy nearby tissue, generating gas at the same time. Other organisms may occasionally cause gas gangrene (for example, Klebsiella pneumoniae in the context of diabetes).[8] A gas composition of 5.9% hydrogen, 3.4% carbon dioxide, 74.5% nitrogen, and 16.1% oxygen was reported in one clinical case.[9] ...
... is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. ...
... is an infection by two species in the genus Ureaplasma, Infections caused Ureaplasma urealyticum are more common than infections caused by Ureaplasma parvum. Ureaplasma and mycoplasma on cervical cultures does not indicate infidelity or sexual misconduct but infection can be found in asymptomatic women.[1]. This infection can also be transmitted vertically from an infected mother to her child before or after birth.[1] Ureaplasma spp are not part of the healthy, female vaginal microbiota. Infection with this bacterium is one cause of bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease.[2][3][4] It is a significant cause of non-gonococcal urethritis.[5] Individuals in good health are usually asymptomatic.[6]. ...
Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30-50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this 'asymptomatic infection' may also lead to development of other human pathologies. ... The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research ...
Bacillus subtilis.. The reason for this is not clear because the raw juice is thought to be more concentrated than the other ... Bacillus subtilis. was not inhibited at all. The hot water extracts of onions did not inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi. ... Bacillus subtilis. but inhibited Salmonella typhi. at 0.8gml-1 while the cold-water extract of ginger inhibited both ... Bacillus cereus,. which mainly causes diarrhoea and nausea. It has been shown to reduce the stickiness of blood platelets, ...
Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be ... Many Bacillus species are able to secrete large quantities of enzymes. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is the source of a natural ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bacillus.. *Bacillus genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ... The genus Bacillus was named in 1835 by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, to contain rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria. He had seven ...
bacillus (plural bacilli) *Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming aerobic bacteria in the genus Bacillus, some of which cause ... bacillus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français. , Hachette. *bacillus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 ... 1895, H. G. Wells, The Stolen Bacillus This again, said the Bacteriologist, slipping a glass slide under the microscope, is ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=bacillus&oldid=49991930" ...
Bacillus phage phi29 (Φ29 phage) belongs to a family of related Bacteriophages which includes, in addition to Φ29, phages PZA, ... "Assembly of Bacillus subtilis Phage Phi29. 1. Mutants in the Cistrons Coding for the Structural Proteins". European Journal of ... are the smallest Bacillus phages isolated to date and are among the smallest known dsDNA phages.[3] ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bacillus_phage_phi29&oldid=841433724" ...
Bacillus Coagulans: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... Bacillus coagulans is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth. Some research has shown that Bacillus coagulans can be safely used by ... Bacillus coagulans is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in infants and children. Some research has shown that Bacillus ... Bacillus coagulans might increase the activity of the immune system. Taking Bacillus coagulans along with medications that ...
Bacilli and close relatives denote Bacillus species and other low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, but not clostridia, mycoplasma, ... Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... 2002) in Bacillus subtilis and Its Closest Relatives: From Genes to Cells, eds Sonenshein A L, Hoch J A, Losick R(Am. Soc. ...
In bacillus. …incidentally. A notable exception is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and domestic animals. B. ... true of the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Although usually present in abundance in factories in which rawhides and ... animals and humans caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that under certain conditions forms highly resistant spores ... polysaccharides), although the capsule of Bacillus anthracis is made of polyglutamic acid. Most capsules are hydrophilic (" ...
Other articles where Francisella tularensis is discussed: tularemia: …agent is the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. The disease is primarily one of animals; human infections are incidental. It occurs naturally in many types of wildlife. In the United States the rabbit, especially the cottontail (Sylvilagus), is an important source of human infection, but other mammals, birds, and insects also…
... caused by the symbiotic microorganisms Bacillus fusiformis and Borrelia vincentii. The chief symptoms are painful, swollen, ... Other articles where Bacillus fusiformis is discussed: Vincent gingivitis: … ... caused by the symbiotic microorganisms Bacillus fusiformis and Borrelia vincentii. The chief symptoms are painful, swollen, ...
1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 W.S. Cranshaw, "Bacillus thuringiensis," Colorado State ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is "a naturally occurring bacterial disease of insects." [1] Because Bt produces a toxin that kills ... Retrieved from "https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Bacillus_thuringiensis&oldid=535596" ...
Bacillus subtilis. Definition. Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, flagellated Gram-positive soil bacterium used as a model for ...
Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis] Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,399163616,gb,AFP33255.1, ...
cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis] cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,506485019,gb,AGM16382.1, ...
Bacillus licheniformis grows rapidly in anaerobiosis on peptone medium containing NO3- which is reduced to NO2-. None of the ... The denitrifying capacity of 15 strains of Bacillus licheniformis was evaluated. In general, N2 production by the cultures on ...
Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. The bacteria is found in ... Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. The bacteria is found in ...
... any rod-shaped or cylindrical bacterium of the genus Bacillus, comprising spore-producing bacteria. See more. ... Word Origin and History for bacillus Expand. n. 1877, medical Latin, from Late Latin bacillus "wand," literally "little staff ... usually gram-positive aerobic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that often occur in chains and include Bacillus anthracis, the ... bacillus ba·cil·lus (bə-sĭləs). n. pl. ba·cil·li (-sĭlī) ...
delta-endotoxin [Bacillus thuringiensis] delta-endotoxin [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,388849916,gb,AFK79802.1, ...
Turnbull PCB, Kramer JM. Bacillus. In: Murray PM, Baron EJ, eds. Manual of clinical microbiology. 8th ed. Washington, DC: ASM ... Hoffmaster AR, Fitzgerald CC, Ribot E, Mayer LW, Popovic T. Molecular subtyping of Bacillus anthracis and the 2001 bioterrorism ... On June 9, 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) was notified of possible inadvertent exposure to Bacillus ... Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:623--7. ...
Bacilli. › Bacillales. › Bacillaceae. › Bacillus. › Bacillus subtilis group. › Bacillus mojavensis subgroup. Strains i. › s87- ... Bacillus mojavensis Roberts et al. 1994 emend. Wang et al. 2007. › CIP 104095. › DSM 9205. › IFO 15718. More » › JCM 12230. › ...
"Bacillus testis" Cimmino et al. 2016. ›Bacillus sp. SIT10. ›CSUR P1492. ›DSM 101190. ›strain SIT10. ...
... Jordan 1890. ›Bacillus sp. 3399BRRJ. More ». ›Bacillus sp. NCIM 2107. ›Bacillus sp. NCIM 5045. ›Bacillus sp ... Bacilli. › Bacillales. › Bacillaceae. › Bacillus. Strains i. › 251. › 8. › ATCC 21557 / NCIB 12336 ,ATCC 21557. › ATCC 21783 / ...
Cry50-like protein [Bacillus thuringiensis] Cry50-like protein [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,319433507,gb,ADV57668.1, ...
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Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Bacillus Genetic Stock Center;. EPS,. exopolysaccharide;. X-Gal,. 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-d-galactopyranoside. ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ...
Photoreactivation in the genus Bacillus.. Nicholson WL1.. Author information. 1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, ... Weak photoreactivation was observed in B. subtilis strain 168 (4-fold) and B. megaterium strain QM B1551 (3.4-fold). Bacillus ... thuringiensis strain NRRL-B4039 exhibited strong photoreactivation (86-fold and 70-fold respectively). Bacillus licheniformis ... radiation-induced DNA damage was examined in exponential-phase cells of six mesophilic species of the genus Bacillus. Under the ...
  • Images of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores (seen in an electron micrograph) on aluminum before and after being exposed to space on an International Space Station experiment. (universetoday.com)
  • Survival of Rock-Colonizing Organisms After 1.5 Years in Outer Space " and " Survival of Bacillus pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions . (universetoday.com)
  • Bacillus mycoides cells are usually larger than 3 micrometers, form chains of cells, can form acid from glucose, and this form is non motile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the microscope, the Bacillus cells appear as rods, and a substantial portion of the cells usually contain oval endospores at one end, making it bulge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus circulans is a soil-dwelling human pathogen which has been associated with "septicemia, mixed abscess infections, and wound infections", as well as with meningitis. (wikipedia.org)