A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A polypeptide antibiotic mixture obtained from Bacillus brevis. It consists of a mixture of three tyrocidines (60%) and several gramicidins (20%) and is very toxic to blood, liver, kidneys, meninges, and the olfactory apparatus. It is used topically.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
An antibiotic mixture produced by Bacillus brevis which may be separated into three components, tyrocidines A, B, and C. It is the major constituent (40-60 per cent) of tyrothricin, gramicidin accounting for the remaining 10-20 per cent active material. It is a topical antimicrobial agent, that is very toxic parenterally.
The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.

A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker specific for the Bacillus cereus group is diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis. (1/3738)

Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group.  (+info)

Purification and properties of a low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus. (2/3738)

A low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC was found in an alkaline culture of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15, purified to homogeneity, and crystallized. The enzyme had a relative molecular weight of approximately 20,300 as measured by sedimentation equilibrium, with a sedimentation coefficient (s20,w0) of 1.73 S. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 10.3, and the alpha-helical content was only 6.6%. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, the enzyme degraded polygalacturonic acid in a random manner to yield 4,5-unsaturated oligo-galacturonides and had its optimal activity around pH 10.5 and 50-55 degrees C. It also had a protopectinase-like activity on cotton fibers. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact protein (28 amino acids) and its two lysyl endopeptidase-cleaved peptide fragments (8 and 12 amino acids) had very low sequence similarity with pectate lyases reported to date. These results strongly suggest that the pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 may be a novel enzyme and belongs in a new family.  (+info)

Purification and properties of bacteriolytic enzymes from Bacillus licheniformis YS-1005 against Streptococcus mutans. (3/3738)

To find a novel lytic enzyme against cariogenic Streptococci, strains showing strong lytic activity have been screened from soil using Streptococcus mutans. A strain identified as Bacillus licheniformis secreted two kinds of lytic enzymes, which were purified by methanol precipitation, CM-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The molecular weights of these two enzymes, L27 and L45, were 27,000 and 45,000, respectively. Optimum pH and temperature of both enzymes for lytic activity were pH 8 and 37 degrees C. L27 and L45 digest the peptide linkage between L-Ala and D-Glu in peptidoglycan of Streptococcus mutans. The lytic activity was highly specific for Streptococcus mutans, suggesting their potential use as a dental care product.  (+info)

Improving the binding affinity of an antibody using molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. (4/3738)

Activated Factor X releases F1.2, a 271-amino acid peptide, from the amino terminus of prothrombin during blood coagulation. A nine-amino acid peptide, C9 (DSDRAIEGR), corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of F1.2 was synthesized and used to produce a monoclonal antibody, TA1 (K(D)) 1.22 x 10(-6) M). To model the TA1 antibody, we entered the sequence information of the cloned TA1 Fv into the antibody modeling program, ABM, which combines homology methods, conformational search procedures, and energy screening and has proved to be a reliable and reproducible antibody modeling method. Using a novel protein fusion procedure, we expressed the C9 peptide fused to the carboxyl terminus of the PENI repressor protein from Bacillus licheniformis in Escherichia coli. We constructed fusion proteins containing alanine substitutions for each amino acid in the C9 epitope. Binding studies, using the C9 alanine mutants and TA1, and spatial constraints predicted by the modeled TA1 binding cleft enabled us to establish a plausible conformation for C9 complexed with TA1. Furthermore, based on binding results of conservative amino acid substitutions in C9 and mutations in the antibody, we were able to refine the complex model and identify antibody mutations that would improve binding affinity.  (+info)

Active site characterization of the exo-N-acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminidase from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120: involvement of tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residues in catalytic activity. (5/3738)

The exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (EC from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 is a homotetramer with a molecular mass of 240000 kDa. Chemical modification studies on the purified exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase revealed the involvement of a single tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate, per monomer, in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Spectral analysis and maintenance of total enzyme activities indicated that N-acetylglucosamine (competitive inhibitor) and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (substrate) prevented the modification of a single essential tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residue. Kinetic parameters of partially inactivated enzyme (by NBS/HNBB) showed the involvement of tryptophan in substrate binding while that of histidine (by photooxidation/DEPC) and carboxylate (by EDAC/WRK) in catalysis. The Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase deviates from the reported N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidases and beta-hexosaminidases that utilize anchimeric assistance in their hydrolytic mechanism.  (+info)

Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis? (6/3738)

A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme.  (+info)

Key role of barstar Cys-40 residue in the mechanism of heat denaturation of bacterial ribonuclease complexes with barstar. (7/3738)

The mechanism by which barnase and binase are stabilized in their complexes with barstar and the role of the Cys-40 residue of barstar in that stabilization have been investigated by scanning microcalorimetry. Melting of ribonuclease complexes with barstar and its Cys-82-Ala mutant is described by two 2-state transitions. The lower-temperature one corresponds to barstar denaturation and the higher-temperature transition to ribonuclease melting. The barstar mutation Cys-40-Ala, which is within the principal barnase-binding region of barstar, simplifies the melting to a single 2-state transition. The presence of residue Cys-40 in barstar results in additional stabilization of ribonuclease in the complex.  (+info)

Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of gyrB of Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, and B. anthracis and their application to the detection of B. cereus in rice. (8/3738)

As 16S rRNA sequence analysis has proven inadequate for the differentiation of Bacillus cereus from closely related species, we employed the gyrase B gene (gyrB) as a molecular diagnostic marker. The gyrB genes of B. cereus JCM 2152(T), Bacillus thuringiensis IAM 12077(T), Bacillus mycoides ATCC 6462(T), and Bacillus anthracis Pasteur #2H were cloned and sequenced. Oligonucleotide PCR primer sets were designed from within gyrB sequences of the respective bacteria for the specific amplification and differentiation of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis. The results from the amplification of gyrB sequences correlated well with results obtained with the 16S rDNA-based hybridization study but not with the results of their phenotypic characterization. Some of the reference strains of both B. cereus (three serovars) and B. thuringiensis (two serovars) were not positive in PCR amplification assays with gyrB primers. However, complete sequencing of 1.2-kb gyrB fragments of these reference strains showed that these serovars had, in fact, lower homology than their originally designated species. We developed and tested a procedure for the specific detection of the target organism in boiled rice that entailed 15 h of preenrichment followed by PCR amplification of the B. cereus-specific fragment. This method enabled us to detect an initial inoculum of 0.24 CFU of B. cereus cells per g of boiled rice food homogenate without extracting DNA. However, a simple two-step filtration step is required to remove PCR inhibitory substances.  (+info)

Comparative 16S rRNA (rDNA) sequence analyses performed on the thermophilic Bacillus species Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus revealed that these organisms are sufficiently different from the traditional Bacillus species to warrant reclassification in a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov. An analysis of 16S rRNA sequences established that these three thermoacidophiles cluster in a group that differs markedly from both the obligately thermophilic organism Bacillus stearother-mophilus and the facultatively thermophilic organism Bacillus coagulans, as well as many other common mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus species. The thermoacidophilic Bacillus species B. acidocaldarius, B. acidoterrestris, and B. cycloheptanicus also are unique in that they possess ω-alicylic fatty acid as the major natural membranous lipid component, which is a rare phenotype that has not been found in any other Bacillus species characterized to date. This phenotype, along with
Definition of bacillus globigii in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of bacillus globigii. What does bacillus globigii mean? Information and translations of bacillus globigii in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Category: Animal, Bacillus, Probiotics. Paenibacillus polymyxa is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen. The species may also beknown as Bacillus polymyxa. It is found in soil, plant roots, and marine sediments.Bacillus polymyxa is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen.. ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|15614886|ref|NP_243189.1| from Bacillus halodurans C-125. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
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Bacillus sporothermodurans, which was first detected in UHT milk in Germany in 1990, can affect the stability and shelf life of contaminated commercial UHT milk and cause economic losses. Due to the unusual thermal resistance of B. sporothermodurans spores, B. sporothermodurans can survive UHT treatment and proceed to grow in stored products causing instability because of their proteolytic activity (Huemer et al., 1998). This study was conducted to determine the level of B. sporothermodurans contamination in South African dairies and to understand the mechanism of B. sporothermodurans spore destruction in order to investigate ways of inactivating these spores without severe heating. The objectives were to determine the presence of Bacillus sporothermodurans in retail UHT milk along with milk from different points of a processing line and isolates from UHT milk in South Africa, UP20A and a reference strain of B. sporothermodurans, DSM 10599 from Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und ...
Summary: Flagella from Bacillus firmus RAB, an alkalophilic bacterium, were purified to homogeneity. The flagella were shown to consist of a single protein subunit (flagellin) with an apparent molecular weight of 40000. The amino acid composition of B. firmus RAB flagellin was similar to that of other bacilli except that the former had far fewer basic amino acids. The paucity of basic amino acics may render the flagella more stable at external pH values as high as 11.0.
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Electron micrographs of negatively stained preparations of cell walls of Bacillus polymyxa have been investigated by optical diffraction and optical filtering techniques. Images of single layers of the cell wall, from which the noise has been filtered optically, show hollow, square-shaped morphological units arranged on a square lattice of side 100 Å. Single-layer images showing the same pattern have been filtered from moiré patterns arising from two overlapping single layers. The morphological units are composed of four smaller subunits. The optical diffraction patterns from regions of two overlapping layers show extra reflexions which are attributed to multiple electron scattering. ...
Bacillus licheniformis ATCC ® 14580D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Bacillus licheniformis Strain 46 TypeStrain=True Application:
The acid-soluble products of exhaustive digestion of native DNA with Bacillus laterosporus DNase consist of 6.5% of mononucleotides and 93.5% of oligonucleotides with an average chain length of 3.2. The results of viscometric studies and inactivation of transforming DNA indicate the exi...read more ...
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by ATP, the first committing step of glycolysis.
1. The properties of membrane vesicles from the extreme thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus were investigated. 2. Vesicles prepared by exposure of spheroplasts to ultrasound contained cytochromes a, b and c, and at 50°C they rapidly oxidized NADH and ascorbate in the presence of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Succinate and l-malate were oxidized more slowly, and dl-lactate, l-alanine and glycerol 1-phosphate were not oxidized. 3. In the absence of proton-conducting uncouplers the oxidation of NADH was accompanied by a net translocation of H+ into the vesicles. Hydrolysis of ATP by a dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase was accompanied by a similarly directed net translocation of H+. 4. Uncouplers (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or valinomycin plus NH4+) prevented net H+ translocation but stimulated ATP hydrolysis, NADH oxidation and ascorbate oxidation. The last result suggested an energy-conserving site in the respiratory chain between cytochrome c ...
Using an insect model to assess correlation between temperature and virulence in Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Bacillus cereus ...
Abstract The challenge of maintaining a cytoplasmic pH that is much lower than the external pH is central to the adaptation of extremely alkaliphilic Bacillus species to growth at ..
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|163941511|ref|YP_001646395.1| from Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42 is a free-living bacterium that competitively colonizes plant roots and stimulates plant growth by many different modes of action. The molecular basis of singular beneficial effects that this Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) exert on their hosts have been studied. To decipher the molecular cross-talk of B. amyloliquefaciens and its host plants as a whole system, an extensive proteomic approach was performed. Reference maps of the extracellular and cytosolic protein fractions were established. The highest number of secreted proteins was observed during stationary growth phase. Identified extracellular proteins belong to different functional classes, with the most prominent classes involved in carbohydrate degradation and transportation of molecules across the cell wall. Cytosolic extracts obtained from cultures grown in 1C and minimal media subjected to the 2 Dimensional Electrophoresis (2 DE), revealed 461 and 245 different protein entries, ...
Fig. S1. Predicted secondary structures of the tmRNA and associated group I intron in the chromosome of B. pseudofirmus OF4. The structures were predicted by alignment with the homologous sequences in C. botulinum (Williams, 2002) followed by manual rearrangements. Nucleotides that are conserved in both sequence and structural position in B. pseudofirmus and C. botulinum are coloured in red. The various subdomains of the tmRNA (P1-P12) and group I intron (P1-P9) are indicated. In addition, for the tmRNA, the regions forming pseudoknots are labelled (Ψ1 and Ψ4) the nucleotides encoding the proteolysis tag are underlined; for the intron, flanking exon sequences are in lower case letters.. Fig. S2. Schematic representation of the 4.5 kb group II twintron in the pBpOF4-01 plasmid of B. pseudofirmus OF4. The twintron consists of two nested group II intron retroelements, where the innermost intron (in grey) encoding the reverse transcriptase (RT) BpOF4_20224 is inserted at the catalytic site of the ...
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a Gram-positive, pathogen-suppressing and plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium. Apart from this ability, it produces a vast array of secondary metabolites, which includes both ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptides. In this work, the transcriptional activation and regulation of bacilysin biosynthesis were studied at the promoters of bac and ywfH genes. The promoter of bacilysin was identified using 5-deletion analysis. Sigma factor A (σA) was found to start transcription via conserved promoter elements (-10 and -35) of bac and ywfH genes. lacZ reporter fusion studies were performed in wild type and regulatory mutants. The results show the involvement of transcriptional regulators to activate the expression of bacilysin genes. Several global regulators such as DegU, ComA, Hpr and AbrB were identified and found to influence gene expression. In particular, I confirmed DegU binding in bac and ywfH promoters using radioactive DNase I footprinting. Furthermore, ...
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Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.
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Consuming large doses of Bacillus coagulans deemed safe for humans. CLEVELAND (April 7, 2009) - The results of a safety study to be published in the May issue of Food and Chemical Toxicology demonstrate that the probiotic strain, GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086), is safe for human consumption, even in massive amounts. Many experts recognize the health benefits of probiotics, but some have stressed that probiotic strains must first demonstrate safety before recommendations can be made about their widespread use. The new study also sets the stage for the incorporation of GanedenBC30 into a wide variety of foods. Unlike many other probiotic strains, GanedenBC30 easily survives the challenges of food manufacturing, extreme temperatures, and the gastric environment.. Probiotics, also referred to as friendly bacteria, are becoming increasingly popular with consumers for several health benefits. However, safety studies do not exist for many strains of probiotics because there are no ...
Cellulase (endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase) (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) [ME-CELBA] - High purity recombinant Cellulase (endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase) (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. EC CAZy Family: GH5 Recombinant. From Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In 3.2 M ammonium sulphate. Specific activity: ~ 80 U/mg (40oC, pH 6.0 on CM-cellulose 4M); ~ 160 U/mg (60oC, pH 6.0 on CM-cellulose 4M). Stability: | 2 years at 4oC.
Novel Gram-negative alkaliphilic strains were isolated from soil obtained from Atsuma, Hokkaido, Japan. The isolates were strictly aerobic rods that produced subterminally located ellipsoidal spores. Chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates included the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall and a DNA G+C content of 40·2-40·9 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 and the cellular fatty acid profile consisted of a significant amount of 15-C branched-chain acids, iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0. The growth rate was higher at pH 8-10 than at pH 7. Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA of 14 alkaliphilic Bacillus strains indicates that the isolated strain has an equidistant relationship to three already defined rRNA groups of alkaliphilic Bacillus species. Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as phylogenetic position as determined by 16S rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is concluded that these isolates should be designated
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP synthesis by the F0F1 ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 reconstituted into liposomes with bacteriorhodopsin. T2 - 2. Relationships between proton motive force and ATP synthesis. AU - Pitard, Bruno. AU - Richard, Peter. AU - Duñach, Mireia. AU - Rigaud, Jean Louis. PY - 1996/2. Y1 - 1996/2. N2 - The correlation between the rate of ATP synthesis and light-induced proton flux was investigated in proteoliposomes reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3. By variation of the actinic light intensity it was found that ATP synthase activity depended in a sigmoidal manner on the amplitude of the transmembrane light-induced pH gradient. Maximal rates of ATP synthesis (up to 200 nmol ATP · min-1 · mg protein-1 were obtained at saturating light intensities under a steady-state pH gradient of about pH 1.25. It was demonstrated that this was the maximal ΔpH attainable at 40°C in reconstituted proteoliposomes, due to the feedback ...
During the last decade, the use of plant-root colonizing bacteria with plant growth-promoting activity has been proven as an efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Biofertilizer and biocontrol formulations prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains are increasingly applied due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. Today, spore suspensions from natural representatives of mainly Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus pumilus are available. However, these biofertilizers, directly prepared from environmental strains, are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers (Borriss R, Bacteria in agrobiology: plant growth responses, Springer, 2011, pp. 41-76). This review will focus on several ways to improve the action of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42T, the type strain for the group of plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens strains. We
Previous DNA relatedness studies showed that strains idnentified as Bacillus mycoides segregated into two genetically distinct yet phenotypically similar groups, one being B. mycoides sensu stricto and the other, an unclassified taxon. In the present study, the taxonomic position of this second group was assessed by measuring DNA relatedness and determining phenotypic characteristics of an increased number of B. mycoides strains. Also determined was the second group's 16S RNA gene sequence. The 36 B. mycoides strains studied segregated into two genetically distinct groups showing DNA relatedness of about 30%; 18 strains represented the species proper and 18 the second group with intragroup DNA relatedness for both groups ranging from 70 to 100%. DNA relatedness to the type strains of presently recognized species with G+C contents of approximately 35 mol% (Bacillus alcalophilus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus sphaericus) ranged from 22 to 37%.
Postharvest diseases of bananas remain a significant challenge of banana exporting countries and can result in considerable losses. Adequate storage and transportation facilities are among the strategies employed to reduce losses, but chemical control has been found to be more effective and economical. Synthetic fungicides have traditionally been used to mitigate postharvest diseases caused by harmful microorganisms. However, with current global health concern, there is a public desire to utilize eco-friendly alternatives to address decay loss. A study on the bioefficacy of a commercial formulation containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D203 (Hatake™) for control of crown rot disease in Cavendish bananas, was conducted using both in vitro and in vivo screening techniques. Its potential in controlling crown rot and the efficacy of different rates were determined. Crown rot causing microorganisms were isolated and tested for antagonism by B. amyloliquefaciens strain D203. Efficacy was ...
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Products, termed Antheridiogen Factor (AF), and vesicle like sac formation factor (VLS-F) were present in a culture of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens stra..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of native-starch-degrading enzymes by a Bacillus firmus/lentus strain. AU - Wijbenga, Dirk-Jan. AU - Beldman, Gerrit. AU - Veen, Anko. AU - Binnema, Doede. PY - 1991/5/1. Y1 - 1991/5/1. N2 - A bacterium belonging to the Bacillus firmus/lentus-complex and capable of growth on native potato starch was isolated from sludge of a pilot plant unit for potato-starch production. Utilization of a crude enzyme preparation obtained from the culture fluid after growth of the microorganism on native starch, resulted in complete degradation of native starch granules from potato, maize and wheat at a temperature of 37°C. Glucose was found as a major product. Production of maltose, maltotriose and maltotetraose was also observed. Native-starch-degrading activity (NSDA) could be selectively adsorbed on potato-starch granules, whereas soluble-starch-degrading activity (SSDA) remained mainly in solution. The use of such a starch-adsorbed enzyme preparation on native starch resulted in a ...
Bacterial protease produced by submerged fermentation of a selected strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Secretion of protease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens can be inhib
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Alkalophilic Bacillus include industrially important species since they can produce many extracellular enzymes which are active and stable at high pH values.These alkaline enzymes (proteases, amylases, xylanases, cellulases, lipases and pectinases) find use in various field of industry such as leather, detergent, paper industries and waste water treatment.Isolation of diverse bacteria plays an important role in finding novel enzymes with improved characteristics. The aim of this study was therefore to screen for alkaline extracellular enzymes of alkalophilic Bacillus isolated from soil, horse feces and leather processing and to characterize these strains by phenotypic tests and by 16S-ITS rDNA based RFLP.At the end of the study, rod-shaped, endospore forming and Gram positive 116 strains were identified as Bacillus. Ten of the 116 strains were found to be obligate alkalophilic. 91 protease, 77 amylase, 18 xylanase, 3 cellulase, 74 pectinolytic enzyme (71 polygalacturonic acid degrading and 72 ...
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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain H57 was initially isolated for its ability to inhibit the growth of fungi that causes livestock feed to spoil. When applied to feed, H57 markedly reduces fungal growth for up to three months.
Name: Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis von Neubeck et al. 2016. Category: Species. Proposed as: sp. nov.. Etymology: wei.hen.ste.pha.nensis N.L. masc./fem. adj. weihenstephanensis, pertaining to Freising/ Weihenstephan in southern Germany, where the type strain was isolated Gender: feminine Type strain: DSM 29166; LMG 28437; WS4993 See detailed strain information at ...
Bacillus Coagulans Probiotics Powder is a Gram-positive rod, catalase positive, spore-forming, motile, a facultative anaerobe. B. coagulans may appear Gram-negative when
Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) is a remarkably interesting type of good bacteria that is also a probiotic that produces lactic acid. This probiotic produces spores during a reproductive cycle, so it is able to be dormant and survive under circumstances that kill other probiotics.
... CLEVELAND Dec. 4 /- An independent panel of scientis...(Logo: A HREF http://www.newscom.com/cgi-bin/prnh/20041213/CLM031LOG... With so many health benefits and potential applications available for...GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 6086) is a high-survivability...,Ganeden,Biotech,Obtains,Self-Affirmed,GRAS,Status,for,Probiotic,Ingredient,,GanedenBC30,(Bacillus,coagulans,GBI-30,,6086),biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Despite its widespread use for roads, asphalt presents significant problems related to the environment (due to the use of bitumen compounds), sustainability (due to the use of oil) and its variable price, which makes it necessary to consider at least new materials for road construction. It is possible that the future of more sustainable and economical road construction lies in a bacterium called Bacillus Pasteurii, which combined with sand produces solid sandstone very quickly, forming a ready-to-use pavement ...
In addition to its use in food and cosmetics, lactic acid is increasingly used as a starting material for production of bio-based, renewable plastics [1-3]. Optically pure lactic acid required by the bioplastics industry is currently produced only by bacterial fermentation of sugars [3,4]. The main sugars currently used in such fermentations are glucose derived from corn starch or sucrose from sugar cane, sugar beets, etc. With increasing demand for renewable bio-based plastics, there is a shift away from food-based carbohydrates to non-food carbohydrates such as lignocellulosic biomass for lactic acid production [5,6]. Commercial fungal cellulases play a central role in the conversion of cellulose to glucose before fermentation to lactic acid and these enzymes function optimally at 50°C and pH 5.0 [7-10]. By matching the fungal enzyme activity optimum with that of the growth and fermentation optimum of the microbial biocatalyst, such as Bacillus coagulans, the amount of fungal cellulases ...
Looking for online definition of Bacillus polymyxa in the Medical Dictionary? Bacillus polymyxa explanation free. What is Bacillus polymyxa? Meaning of Bacillus polymyxa medical term. What does Bacillus polymyxa mean?
Introduction: Increased usage and improper management of electronic wastes result in immense environmental pollution. Although conventional techniques are well known for heavy metals removal from the environment, their high cost and severe environmental consequences indicate the urgent requirement of cost-effective methods of heavy metals uptake. Bioaccumulation can be considered as an alternative to the traditional methods in terms of their cost-effectiveness and maximum recovery of the metal ions. Materials and Methods: This study deals with the isolation of heavy metals tolerant Gram-positive bacterial strain, Bacillus licheniformis JAJ3, and its application in bioaccumulation of copper, lead, and nickel and bioleaching of heavy metals from electronic waste. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to identify the bacterial strain. The accumulation study was carried out in a liquid medium and analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Bioleaching activity was checked using the one-step procedure. For
611536DNAArtificial SequenceDescription of Artificial Sequence Synthetic polynucleotide 1atgaaacaac aaaaacggct ttacgcccga ttgctgacgc tgttatttgc gctcatcttc 60ttgctgcctc attctgcagc ttcagcagca aatcttaatg ggacgctgat gcagtatttt 120gaatggtaca tgcccaatga cggccaacat tggaagcgtt tgcaaaacga ctcggcatat 180ttggctgaac acggtattac tgccgtctgg attcccccgg catataaggg aacgagccaa 240gcggatgtgg gctacggtgc ttacgacctt tatgatttag gggagtttca tcaaaaaggg 300acggttcgga caaagtacgg cacaaaagga gagctgcaat ctgcgatcaa aagtcttcat 360tcccgcgaca ttaacgttta cggggatgtg gtcatcaacc acaaaggcgg cgctgatgcg 420accgaagatg taaccgcggt tgaagtcgat cccgctgacc gcaaccgcgt aatttcagga 480gaacacctaa ttaaagcctg gacacatttt cattttccgg ggcgcggcag cacatacagc 540gattttaaat ggcattggta ccattttgac ggaaccgatt gggacgagtc ccgaaagctg 600aaccgcatct ataagtttca aggaaaggct tgggattggg aagtttccaa tgaaaacggc 660aactatgatt atttgatgta tgccgacatc gattatgacc atcctgatgt cgcagcagaa 720attaagagat ggggcacttg gtatgccaat gaactgcaat tggacggttt ccgtcttgat 780gctgtcaaac acattaaatt ...
In this work, 246 Bacillus sphaericus strains were evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to select the most effective ones to be used as the basis of a national product. All strains were isolated from different regions of Brazil and they are stored in a Bacillus spp. collection at Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology. The selected strains were characterized by biochemical and molecular methods. Based on selective bioassays, 87 strains were identified as toxic to one or both target species. All of these strains contain genes that encode the 42, 51 kDa proteins that constitute the binary toxin and the 100 kDa Mtx1 toxin. All toxic strains presented a very high LC50 against A. aegypti, so, a product based on any of these B. sphaericus strains would not be recommended for use in programmes to control A. aegypti. S201 had highest activity against C. quinquefasciatus, presenting the lowest LC50 and LC90 in bioassays.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification and characterization of a novel β-agarase from an alkalophilic bacterium, Alteromonas sp. E-1. AU - Kirimura, Kohtaro. AU - Masuda, Noriyoshi. AU - Iwasaki, Yousuke. AU - Nakagawa, Hiroyuki. AU - Kobayashi, Reijiro. AU - Usami, Shoji. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - A novel β-agarase (EC was purified from an agar-degrading alkalophilic bacterium, Alteromonas sp. E-1 isolated from the soil. This enzyme was obtained from a cell-free extract after sonication and purified 40.9-fold through treatment with streptomycin, ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatography on anion-exchange and gel filtration columns. The molecular weight was estimated to be 82 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 180 kDa by Superdex 200 gel filtration. The enzyme was inhibited by Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Zn2+ and Hg2+, and activated by K+, Na+ and EDTA, and its optimum pH and temperature for agarose degradation were 7.5 and 40°C, respectively. This ̄-agarase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Its Application in Fructose-6-Phosphate Production. AU - Sigdel, Sujan. AU - Singh, Ranjitha. AU - Kim, Tae Su. AU - Li, Jinglin. AU - Kim, Sang Yong. AU - Kim, In Won. AU - Jung, Woo Suk. AU - Pan, Cheol Ho. AU - Kang, Yun Chan. AU - Lee, Jung Kul. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Baikara et al. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/7/14. Y1 - 2015/7/14. N2 - The BaM6PI gene encoding a mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (M6PI, EC was cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM7 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme activity of BaM6PI was optimal at pH and temperature of 7.5 and 70°C, respectively, with a kcat/Km of 13,900 s-1 mM-1 for mannose-6-phosphate (M6P). The purified BaM6PI demonstrated the highest catalytic efficiency of all characterized M6PIs. Although M6PIs have been characterized from several other sources, BaM6PI is ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Thermotolerant Bacillus licheniformis TY7 produces optically active l-lactic acid from kitchen refuse under open condition. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Asghari SM,Khajeh K,Ranjbar B,Sajedi RH,et al. (2004). Comparative studies on trifluoroethanol (TFE) state of a thermophilic alpha-amylase and its mesophilic counterpart: limited proteolysis, conformational analysis, aggregation and reactivation of the enzymes. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 34: 173-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2004.03.006 PMid:15225989 Azad MA, Bae JH, Kim JS, Lim JK, et al. (2009). Isolation and characterization of a novel thermostable alpha-amylase from Korean pine seeds. N. Biotechnol. 26: 143-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2009.09.006 PMid:19772955 Declerck N, Machius M, Wiegand G, Huber R, et al. (2000). Probing structural determinants specifying high thermostability in Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase. J. Mol. Biol. 301: 1041-1057. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.2000.4025 PMid:10966804 Dong Y,Liu Y,Chen Y,Niu D,et al. (2008). Purification and characterization of thermostable amylases from two bacterial species. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 48: 169-175. ...
Several alkalophilic Bacillus spp. strains were selected for their capacity to produce alkaline cellulases. Culture supernatants of these strains showed optimal cellulase activities between pH 8 and 9 and they were stable from pH 6 to pH 12. A cellul
There are a number of methods in which heterologous peptides and proteins can be displayed on the cell surface of bacteria. The first use of the FliC system for display was carried out by Kuwajima et al. [1] where an eleven amino acid epitope from the egg-white lysozyme was displayed on the surface of E. coli. Ezaki et al [2] and Tanskanen et al [3] both demonstrated that large polypeptides could also be displayed successfully using E. coli flagellin. These proteins included an alkaline phosphatase (471 aa) and the collagen binding region of YadA of Yersinia enterolcolitica (302 aa) respectively. To our knowledge, the display of heterologous proteins using the FliC protein from flagella has not previously been demonstrated in Gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus halodurans Alk36 is an alkalophilic, Gram-positive bacterial strain which has the inherent capability of over-expressing the FliC protein. This was harnessed as an opportunity for the development of a novel surface display system using this ...
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Lactic acid producing bacteria (such as Bacillus coagulans) probiotics demonstrate immunomodulating and anti inflammatory effects and the ability to lessen the symptoms of arthritis in humans.. Bacillus Coagulans: A Viable Adjunct Therapy For Relieving Symptoms Of Rheumatoid Arthritis According To A Randomised, Controlled Trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010, 10:1. David R Mandel, Katy Eichas, Judith Holmes.. The results of this pilot study suggest that adjunctive treatment with Bacillus coagulans probiotic appeared to be safe and effective for patients suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis. The trial results showed that Bacillus coagulans improved pain symptoms and increased mobility in subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis.. ...
article{139117, author = {Remaut, Han and SAFAROV, N and CIURLI, S and Van Beeumen, Jozef}, issn = {0021-9258}, journal = {JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY}, language = {eng}, number = {52}, pages = {49365--49370}, title = {Structural basis for Ni2+ transport and assembly of the urease active site by the metallochaperone UreE from Bacillus pasteurii.}, volume = {276}, year = {2001 ...
Kat has been writing about veganism, environment, and sustainability for five years. Their interests include over-analyzing the various socioeconomic forms of oppression, how that overlaps with veganism, and how the media in all of its forms reflects the current culture. Vegan and cruelty-free beauty brand Pacifica just dropped its latest collection at Target - and it includes drinkable probiotic powder you can add to water, juice, or smoothies. The new collection features four Beauty Powders, each of which contains vegan superfood ingredients said to benefit the body and mind. Seek Balance is a coconut vanilla-flavored powder packed with plant-based probiotics (bacillus coagulans, to be exact), antioxidant-rich berry powder, and coconut oil to benefit your gut health. Slay All Day contains pineapple powder, ashwaganda (a medicinal herb used in Ayurvedic medicine thats said to reduce stress), green tea, and hyaluronic acid to help you stay calm and keep your skin healthy. Glow Greens helps you ...
Shop M Sip Lax 1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans and sennosides 7.5 mg Online at a low price. Search personal care, ayurvedic, homeopathy, baby & mother care, fitness supplements and healthcare devices from Netmeds. Order and get doorstep delivery anywhere in India.
Product Name:alpha-Galactosidase 4A from Bacillus halodurans CAS Number: Catalouge Number:BIZY1000 Purity: Commodity Code:99999999 MDL Number: Notes:alpha-Galactosidases are enzymes that participate in the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose. Family: GH4. E.C.: Architecture: GH4. Main activity:alpha-Galactosidase. Synonyms:
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food ...
The consequence of simultaneous and sequential inoculation of T. asperellum and B. amyloliquefaciens cultures with respect to growth rate, differential expression of vital genes and metabolites were examined. The competition was observed between T. asperellum and B. amyloliquefaciens under co-cultivation. The proliferation of Trichoderma was reduced in the simultaneous inoculation (TB1) method, possibly due to the fastest growth of Bacillus. Both T. asperellum and B. amyloliquefaciens were proliferated in sequential inoculation method (TB2). The sequential inoculation method (TB2) upregulated the expression of metabolites and vital genes (sporulation, secondary metabolites, mycoparasitism enzymes and antioxidants) in Trichoderma and downregulated in Bacillus and vice versa in co-inoculation method (TB1). The metabolic changes in the co-culture promoted the maize plant growth and defense potential under normal and biotic stress conditions. The metabolites produced by the co-culture of T. asperellum and B
Article Biological decolorization of industrial dyes by |italic|Candida tropicalis|/italic| and |italic|Bacillus firmus|/italic|. Disperse dyes are chiefly used by textile industries for the coloration of polyester and cellulose triacetate and their ...
ID Q5WE67_BACSK Unreviewed; 277 AA. AC Q5WE67; DT 23-NOV-2004, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 23-NOV-2004, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 69. DE SubName: Full=ATP-dependent DNA ligase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAD65343.1}; DE EC= {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAD65343.1}; GN Name=ligB {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAD65343.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=ABC2809 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAD65343.1}; OS Bacillus clausii (strain KSM-K16). OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Bacillaceae; Bacillus. OX NCBI_TaxID=66692 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAD65343.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001168}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001168} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=KSM-K16 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001168}; RA Takaki Y., Kageyama Y., Shimamura S., Suzuki H., Nishi S., Hatada Y., RA Kawai S., Ito S., Horikoshi K.; RT The complete genome sequence of the alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii RT KSM-K16.; RL Submitted (OCT-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. CC ...
Abstract: A factorial design experiment was conducted on field to investigate the effects of inoculation with AM fungi (Glomus mosseae), phosphate solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus polymyxa) and soil yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on growth, phosphorus content and yield of onion plants in calcareous soil under different levels of phosphorus fertilization (P1: 50, P2: 100 and P3: 200 kg ha-1). Results showed that inoculation with G. mosseae or B. polymyxa significantly (p = 0.05) increased plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights, average bulb diameter and total yield. The highest total yield and average bulb diameter were obtained from the inoculation treatment of AM fungus G. mosseae, recording 14.4 and 40.8% increases, respectively over the uninoculated control. Also, inoculation with AM fungus (G. mosseae) had a significant increase in all mineral content in onion plant compared with uninoculated control or other biofertilizers inoculation treatments ...
The objectives of this investigation were to produce a novel chitosanase for application in industries and waste treatment. The transformation of chitinous biowaste into valuable bioactive chitooligomers (COS) is one of the most exciting applications of chitosanase. An amphiprotic novel chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides TKU038 using squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium was retrieved from a Taiwan soil sample, which was purified by column chromatography, and characterized by biochemical protocol. Extracellular chitosanase (CS038) was purified to 130-fold with a 35% yield, and its molecular mass was roughly 48 kDa. CS038 was stable over a wide range of pH values (4-10) at 50 °C and exhibited an optimal temperature of 50 °C. Interestingly, the optimum pH values were estimated as 6 and 10, whereas CS038 exhibited chitosan-degrading activity (100% and 94%, respectively). CS038 had Km and Vmax values of 0.098 mg/mL and 1.336 U/min, separately, using different concentrations of water-soluble chitosan. A
CLEVELAND, OH (January 8, 2008) - New Jersey based ingredient supplier, P.L. Thomas (PLT) announced today that it has partnered with Ganeden, Inc to represent the probiotic ingredient, GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) to the food and beverage industry.. GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) is a kosher, self-affirmed GRAS certified high-survivability strain of the probiotic, Bacillus coagulans. In addition to food products, GanedenBC30 is currently used in a broad range of applications including dietary supplements, animal health products, feminine hygiene and topical applications. GanedenBC30 is unique because it is shielded by a natural organic layer which protects the probiotic cells from the harsh manufacturing processes, do not require refrigeration and survive gastric acidity. Overall, GanedenBC30 has shown to be heartier than other probiotic strains and exhibits excellent stability, offering more flexibility in manufacturing and delivery systems.. GanedenBC30 can be ...
This is a bit of fun I did with my children to show them the dangers of eating too many sweets. Bacteria are commonly used as poweful sensors for toxins and environmental pollutants so for this experiment I fed some Gummy Bear sweets to the spreading soil bacterium Bacillus mycoides. As you can see from…
Deo, Namita and Natarajan, KA and Somasundaran, P (2001) Mechanisms of adhesion of Paenibacillus polymyxa onto hematite, corundum and quartz. In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, 62 (1-4). pp. 27-39. Natarajan, KA and Deo, Namita (2001) Role of bacterial interaction and bioreagents in iron ore flotation. In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, 62 (1-4). pp. 143-157. Deo, Namita and Natarajan, KA and Rao, Hanumantha K and Forssberg, KSE (1999) Biodegradation of some organic reagents from mineral process effluents. In: Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Toward the Mining of the 21st Century - Proceedings of the International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium, JUN 20-23, 1999, Madrid, Spain. Deo, Namita and Vasan, SS and Modak, Jayant M and Natarajan, KA (1999) Selective biodissolution of calcium and iron from bauxite in the presence of Bacillus polymyxa. In: Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Toward the Mining of the 21st Century - Proceedings of the International ...
2.4x) was achieved between PM and 1-MM duplexes at the dissociation temperature at which 50% of the probe-target duplexes remained intact. This provided excellent differentiation among representatives of different Bacillus species, both individually and in mixtures of two or three. The overall pattern of hybridization derived from this hierarchical probe set also provided a clear chip fingerprint for each of these closely related Bacillus species.>. Optimization of an oligonucleotide microchip for microbial identification studies: a non-equilibrium dissociation approach. Liu WT, Mirzabekov AD, Stahl DA. Environmental microbiology. 2001. Pubmed ...
2.4x) was achieved between PM and 1-MM duplexes at the dissociation temperature at which 50% of the probe-target duplexes remained intact. This provided excellent differentiation among representatives of different Bacillus species, both individually and in mixtures of two or three. The overall pattern of hybridization derived from this hierarchical probe set also provided a clear chip fingerprint for each of these closely related Bacillus species.>. Optimization of an oligonucleotide microchip for microbial identification studies: a non-equilibrium dissociation approach. Liu WT, Mirzabekov AD, Stahl DA. Environmental microbiology. 2001. Pubmed ...
Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC) retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions. B. coagulans MTCC 5856(LactoSpore®) is a probiotic endospore which can survive for decades in hostile environments without dividing. In the present study, we explored the use of flow cytometry to enumerate the viable count of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 under acidic and alkaline conditions, high temperature and in commercial formulations like compressed tablets and capsules. Flow cytometry (FCM) was comparable to plate count method when the spores were counted at
A comprehensive metabolic network that considers 147 reaction fluxes and 105 metabolites is used in a mass-Aux-balance-based stoichiometric model for Bacillus licheniformis for serine alkaline protease (SAP) overproduction. The theoretical capacity analysis leading to optimized SAP overproduction was carried out by using a linear constrained optimization technique for several specific growth rates and the variation of the fluxes were calculated by fixing the sole carbon source citrates uptake rate at 10 mmol/gDW/h. The theoretical data-based capacity analysis was conducted by using the model in combination with the off-line extracellular analyses of the dry cell and the metabolites that were citrate, organic acids, amino acids, and SAP; and the variations in the intracellular fluxes were obtained for the three periods of the batch bioprocess. The flux distribution maps of the analyses showed that the tricarboxylic acid cycle was active and the cells utilized the gluconeogenesis pathway, the ...
Supported by crystallography studies, secreted ribonuclease of|i| Bacillus pumilus|/i| (binase) has long been considered to be monomeric in form. Recent evidence obtained using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography suggests that binase is in fact dimeric. To eliminate ambiguity and contradictions in the data we have measured conformational changes, hypochromic effect, and hydrodynamic radius of binase. The immutability of binase secondary structure upon transition from low to high protein concentration was registered, suggesting the binase dimerization immediately after translocation through the cell membrane and leading to detection of binase dimers only in the culture fluid regardless of ribonuclease concentration. Our results made it necessary to take a fresh look at the binase stability and cytotoxicity towards virus-infected or tumor cells.
Bacillus sphaericus, an obligate alkalophile, overproduces extracellular alkaline proteases. Kinetics of growth and protease production by this organism were analyzed to identify parameters that control protease synthesis. Results showed protease production to be both growth and non-growth associated although a major portion of the enzyme was secreted in post exponential phases. The initial concentration of glucose and nitrogen sources significantly affected cell growth and enzyme secretion. Fed-batch cultures were performed to maximize protease activity in a bioreactor. By using suitable feeding strategies, the protease activity and its productivity in a fed-batch process was increased by 44% over that in batch process, primarily due to the longer maintenance of increased rates of growth and enzyme production by providing continuous and controlled supply of additional substrate and nutrients.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Bacillus licheniformis RM44 was isolated from hot spring near Karachi and screened forthe production of extracellular amylase Amy RM44. Amy RM44 was purified to homogeneityon a single step by affinity chromatography using insoluble corn starch. The molecular weightof Amy RM44 was estimated to be 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE and zymographic analysis. Nine foldpurification was achieved with the specific activity of 870 U/mg that provides the total yieldof the enzyme up to 31%. Studies on purified AmyRM44 characterization revealed that theoptimum temperature of enzyme was 100 ºC. Amy RM44 was proved to be highly thermostableas it retained 50% activity after 2 h at 100 ºC. Amy RM44 was stable over wide range of pHwith optimum activity at pH 5. Enzyme activity was not significantly inhibited by SDS andEDTA. Amy RM44 also exhibited its activity towards various carbohydrates such as dextrin,pullulan, α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin, and γ-cyclodextrin.
Biotechnologically produced 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a potential starting material for industrial bulk chemicals such as butadiene or methyl ethyl ketone which are currently produced from fossil feedstocks. So far, the highest 2,3-BDO concentrations have been obtained with risk group 2 microorganisms. In this study, three risk group 1 microorganisms are presented that are so far unknown for an efficient production of 2,3-BDO. The strains Bacillus atrophaeus NRS-213, Bacillus mojavensis B-14698, and Bacillus vallismortis B-14891 were evaluated regarding their ability to produce high 2,3-BDO concentrations with a broad range of different carbon sources ...
Quorum sensing molecules (QSMs) are involved in the regulation of complicated processes helping bacterial populations respond to changes in their cell-density. Although the QS gene cluster (comQXPA) has been identified in the genome sequence of some bacilli, the QS system B. licheniformis has not been investigated in detail, and its QSM (ComX pheromone) has not been identified. Given the importance of this antagonistic bacterium as an industrial workhorse, this study was aimed to elucidate B. licheniformis NCIMB-8874 QS. The results obtained from bioinformatics studies on the whole genome sequence of this strain confirmed the presence of essential quorum sensing-related genes. Although polymorphism was verified in three proteins of this cluster, ComQ, precursor-ComX and ComP, the transcription factor ComA was confirmed as the most conserved protein. The cell-cell communication of B. licheniformis NCIMB-8874 was investigated through further elucidation of the ComX pheromone as 13-amino acid ...
A wall-plus-membrane preparation from a Bacillus licheniformis mutant incorporated radioactivity from a peptidoglycan precursor in which the free amino group of diaminopimelic acid was blocked by 14C-labelled acetyl group. This incorporation was penicillin-sensitive. The enzymically degraded product contained cross-linked dimers, showing that newly synthesized peptidoglycan chains had been cross-linked to the pre-existing cell wall.. ...
Bacillus licheniformis GL174 is a culturable endophytic strain isolated from Vitis vinifera cultivar Glera, the grapevine mainly cultivated for the Prosecco wine production. This strain was previously demonstrated to possess some specific plant growth promoting traits but its endophytic attitude and its role in biocontrol was only partially explored. In this study, the potential biocontrol action of the strain was investigated in vitro and in vivo and, by genome sequence analyses, putative functions involved in biocontrol and plant-bacteria interaction were assessed. Firstly, to confirm the endophytic behavior of the strain, its ability to colonize grapevine tissues was demonstrated and its biocontrol properties were analyzed. Antagonism test results showed that the strain could reduce and inhibit the mycelium growth of diverse plant pathogens in vitro and in vivo. The strain was demonstrated to produce different molecules of the lipopeptide class; moreover, its genome was sequenced, and analysis of the
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J.M. Risse, K. Friehs, and E. Flaschel, Recycling of Biomass Resulting from Fermentation Processes with Bacillus licheniformis, Chem. Eng. Technol., vol. 24, 2001, pp. 141-145 ...
You Are Here: Branched chain amino acids maintain the molecular weight of poly(γ-glutamic acid) of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945 during the fermentation. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Large exopenicillinase, initial extracellular form detected in cultures of Bacillus licheniformis. by K. Izui et al.
1JWQ: The Structure of the catalytic domain of N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, a cell wall hydrolase from Bacillus polymyxa var.colistinus and its resemblance to the structure of carboxypeptidases
It is a single-celled organism that is part of the plant kingdom.This yeast is unique because it can act both as a bacterium and a fungus. In a healthy intestine, it exist as single cell form, called a bud. When the intestinal environment changes, the buds transform themselves into a filiform shape that allows penetration of the intestinal wall, with resulting colonization over the entire body. It is therefore very IMPORTANT to keep the candida transformation and the candida growth controlled by the presence of important bacteria such as Bacillus laterosporus BOD and the Lactobacillus Acidophilus, two very important beneficial intestinal bacteria. What does candida use for food?. As food passes through the stomach into the intestine, carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, which become the primary energy source for the body. The candida yeast robs the body of its primary energy source-sugar. candida also feeds on B vitamins to accelerate its growth. In this sense Candida actually be ...
Ubiquinone (UQ), also called coenzyme Q, and plastoquinone (PQ) are electron carriers in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, respectively. The quinoid nucleus of ubiquinone is derived from the shikimate pathway; 4-hydroxybenzoate is directly formed from chorismate in bacteria, while it can be formed from either chorismate or tyrosine in yeast. The following biosynthesis of terpenoid moiety involves reactions of prenylation, decarboxylation, and three hydroxylations alternating with three methylations. The order of these reactions are somewhat different between bacteria and yeast. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2), and tocopherol (vitamin E) are fat-soluble vitamins. Phylloquinone is a compound present in all photosynthetic plants serving as a cofactor for photosystem I-mediated electron transport. Menaquinone is an obligatory component of the electron-transfer pathway in bacteria ...
BC30 is a unique and patented strain of probiotic with a protective, spore-like protein coating that allows it to withstand the harsh acidic environment of the stomach to reach the intestines. The benefits that have been clinically shown include:. • reducing minor abdominal discomfort and bloating*. • supporting key aspects of innate immune defense mechanisms*. In a study at an independent laboratory for survival in a simulated gastric environment, BC30 survived at least 100 times better compared to the leading probiotic product and leading yogurt products. The superior survivability enables BC30 to be temperature stable in formats which other probiotics may not be.. BC30 has a trusted safety profile ...
Bacillus subtilis[edit]. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis have a cAMP-independent catabolite repression ...
Bacillus thuringiensis[edit]. Constant exposure to a toxin creates evolutionary pressure for pests resistant to that toxin. ... To reduce resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, the 1996 commercialization of transgenic cotton and maize came with ... Tobacco, corn, rice and some other crops have been engineered to express genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus ... plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).[40] ...
Branda, SS; González-Pastor, JE; Ben-Yehuda, S; Losick, R; Kolter, R (2001). "Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis". ... Shank, EA; Klepac-Ceraj, V; Collado-Torres, L; Powers, GE; Losick, R; Kolter (2011). "Bacillus subtilis forming biofilms are ... van Gestel, J; Vlamakis, H; Kolter; Collectives, Cell (2015). "Bacillus subtilis Uses Division of Labor to Migrate". PLOS Biol ... Lyons NA, Kolter R. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species. mBio. ...
... releasing many more bacilli into the bloodstream to be transferred to the entire body. Once in the blood stream, these bacilli ... Bacillus spp. are quite large in size (3 to 4 μm long), they may grow in long chains, and they stain Gram-positive. To confirm ... Bacillus anthracis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacterium about 1 by 9 μm in size. It was shown to ... Bacillus spp. usually grow within 24 hours of incubation at 35 °C, in ambient air (room temperature) or in 5% CO2. If ...
A common polypeptide antibiotic is bacitracin, derived from the bacteria; Bacillus subtilis. As a therapeutic drug, it has ... Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic derived from a bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and acts against bacteria through the ...
Bacillus sp. producing unusually radiation (and peroxide) resistant spores, have been isolated from spacecraft assembly ... Link L, Sawyer J, Venkateswaran K, Nicholson W (February 2004). "Extreme spore UV resistance of Bacillus pumilus isolates ... September 2007). "Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032". PLOS ONE. 2 ( ... resistant spores of Bacillus pumilus from a spacecraft assembly facility". Astrobiology. 5 (3): 391-405. Bibcode:2005AsBio...5 ...
"Bacillus anthracis". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56 (3): 182-7. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMC 1769905. PMID 12610093. Walker ...
Spencer, RC (2003). "Bacillus anthracis". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56 (3): 182-187. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMC 1769905 ... Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive bacteria that causes anthrax, secretes two siderophores: bacillibactin and petrobactin. ...
In Bacillus subtilis, this riboswitch is found upstream of the gcvT operon which controls glycine degradation. It is thought ... Babina AM, Lea NE, Meyer MM (October 2017). "Bacillus subtilis". mBio. 8 (5). doi:10.1128/mBio.01602-17. PMC 5666159. PMID ...
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin BRACE trial[change , change source]. The University of Melbourne and Murdoch Children's Research ... Over the years, scientists saw that the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine did not only protect people from tuberculosis. It ... The scientists at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute and University of Melbourne are studying the Bacillus Calmette- ... Institute are studying a vaccine that works against tuberculosis, the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine. It is a live-bacterium ...
Insecticide, Bacillus and nematode treatments must be repeated three times at an interval of about ten days, because they ... Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki is a bacterium which produces an insect-specific endotoxin which perforates the ...
Wang, QF; Li, W; Liu, YL; Cao, HH; Li, Z; Guo, GQ (May 2007). "Bacillus qingdaonensis sp. nov., a moderately haloalkaliphilic ... and Bacillus halochares as Salibacterium halochares comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... nov., a bacterium isolated from a salt pan, reclassification of Bacillus qingdaonensis as Salibacterium qingdaonense comb. nov ...
Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus macauensis, Bacillus nanhaiensis, Bacillus rigui, Bacillus solisalsi and Bacillus gelatini in the ... Liu, H; Zhou, Y; Liu, R; Zhang, KY; Lai, R (June 2009). "Bacillus solisalsi sp. nov., a halotolerant, alkaliphilic bacterium ...
Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus macauensis, Bacillus nanhaiensis, Bacillus rigui, Bacillus solisalsi and Bacillus gelatini in the ... Zhang, T; Fan, X; Hanada, S; Kamagata, Y; Fang, HH (February 2006). "Bacillus macauensis sp. nov., a long-chain bacterium ...
Qiu, F.; Zhang, X.; Liu, L.; Sun, L.; Schumann, P.; Song, W. (1 April 2009). "Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. and Bacillus ... "Reclassification of Bacillus beijingensis Qiu et al. 2009 and Bacillus ginsengi Qiu et al. 2009 as Bhargavaea beijingensis comb ...
named Morgan's bacillus, Bacillus morganii. In 1936, though, Rauss renamed B. morganii as Proteus morganii. Fulton, in 1943, ... Morganella morganii was first described by a British bacteriologist H. de R. Morgan in 1906 as Morgan's bacillus. Morgan ... Pulaski, E. J.; Deitz, G. W. (1940). "Morgan's bacillus septicemia". Journal of the American Medical Association. 115 (11): 922 ...
Bacillus fumarioli from Cryptogam Ridge. Bacillus thermoantarcticus from Cryptogam Ridge, later renamed to Bacillus ... 1 February 1996). ""Bacillus thermoantarcticus" sp. nov., from Mount Melbourne, Antarctica: a novel thermophilic species". ... 2002-08-09). Applications and Systematics of Bacillus and Relatives (1 ed.). Wiley. doi:10.1002/9780470696743. ISBN 978-0-632- ... corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov ...
Márquez, MC; Carrasco, IJ; de la Haba, RR; Jones, BE; Grant, WD; Ventosa, A (September 2011). "Bacillus locisalis sp. nov., a ... nov., isolated from Lonar soda lake, India, and a proposal for reclassification of Bacillus locisalis as Salisediminibacterium ...
nov., Bacillus formosus sp. nov., nom. rev., and Bacillus borstelensis sp. nov., nom. rev". International Journal of Systematic ... Shida, O.; Takagi, H.; Kadowaki, K.; Udaka, S.; Nakamura, L.; Komagata, K. (January 1995). "Proposal of Bacillus reuszeri sp. ...
Bacteria that test positive for cleaving indole from tryptophan include: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas punctata, Bacillus ... most Bacillus sp., Bordetella sp., Enterobacter sp., most Haemophilus sp., most Klebsiella sp., Neisseria sp., Mannheimia ...
Thermophilic Bacillus sp. TT96 is found in soil and can degrade PES. Mesophilic PES degrading microorganisms were found in the ... Bacillus and Paenibacillus species; strain KT102; a relative of Bacillus pumilus was the most capable of degrading PES film. ...
Chen, YG; Zhang, YQ; Wang, YX; Liu, ZX; Klenk, HP; Xiao, HD; Tang, SK; Cui, XL; Li, WJ (December 2009). "Bacillus neizhouensis ... and Bacillus neizhouensis as Salipaludibacillus neizhouensis comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... a novel alkali tolerant bacterium, reclassification of Bacillus agaradhaerens as Salipaludibacillus agaradhaerens comb. nov. ...
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (HD-1) can produce a parasporal crystal in the form of a toxic inclusion body. Proteins ... Turell, M. J.; Knudson, G. B. (1987-08-01). "Mechanical transmission of Bacillus anthracis by stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans ... Yamamoto, Takashi; McLaughlin, Roy E. (1981-11-30). "Isolation of a protein from the parasporal crystal of Bacillus ... Experimental studies also established that the species is capable of mechanical transmission of Bacillus anthracis. ...
nov., reassignment of Bacillus iranensis (Bagheri et al. 2012) as Alteribacillus iranensis comb. nov. and emended description ... Bagheri, M; Didari, M; Amoozegar, MA; Schumann, P; Sánchez-Porro, C; Mehrshad, M; Ventosa, A (April 2012). "Bacillus iranensis ...
"Bacillus stearothermophilus NEUF2011". Microbe wiki. Chandler, M.; Bird, R.E.; Caro, L. (May 1975). "The replication time of ...
nov., Bacillus isronensis sp. nov. and Bacillus aryabhattai sp. nov., isolated from cryotubes used for collecting air from ... Bacillus isronensis (named after ISRO) and Bacillus aryabhattai (named after the ancient Indian mathematician, Aryabhata). ... 30% of Bacillus subtilis spores survived the nearly 6 years exposure when embedded in salt crystals, whereas 80% survived in ... At least one report finds that endospores from a type of Bacillus bacteria found in Morocco can survive being heated to 420 °C ...
and Bacillus sp. for kraft lignin decolorization from pulp paper mill waste". The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology. ...
and Bacillus halochares as Salibacterium halochares comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... nov., a bacterium isolated from a salt pan, reclassification of Bacillus qingdaonensis as Salibacterium qingdaonense comb. nov ... "Bacillus halochares sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a solar saltern". International Journal of Systematic and ...
Arahal, DR; Márquez, MC; Volcani, BE; Schleifer, KH; Ventosa, A (April 1999). "Bacillus marismortui sp. nov., a new moderately ...
nov., Bacillus isronensis sp. nov. and Bacillus aryabhattai sp. nov., isolated from cryotubes used for collecting air from the ... "Re-classification of Bacillus isronensis Shivaji et al., 2009 as a member of the genus Solibacillus as Solibacillus isronensis ...
Bacillus subtilis.. The reason for this is not clear because the raw juice is thought to be more concentrated than the other ... Bacillus subtilis. was not inhibited at all. The hot water extracts of onions did not inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi. ... Bacillus subtilis. but inhibited Salmonella typhi. at 0.8gml-1 while the cold-water extract of ginger inhibited both ... Bacillus cereus,. which mainly causes diarrhoea and nausea. It has been shown to reduce the stickiness of blood platelets, ...
Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be ... Many Bacillus species are able to secrete large quantities of enzymes. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is the source of a natural ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bacillus.. *Bacillus genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ... The genus Bacillus was named in 1835 by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, to contain rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria. He had seven ...
bacillus (plural bacilli) *Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming aerobic bacteria in the genus Bacillus, some of which cause ... bacillus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français. , Hachette. *bacillus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 ... 1895, H. G. Wells, The Stolen Bacillus This again, said the Bacteriologist, slipping a glass slide under the microscope, is ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=bacillus&oldid=49991930" ...
Bacillus phage phi29 (Φ29 phage) belongs to a family of related Bacteriophages which includes, in addition to Φ29, phages PZA, ... "Assembly of Bacillus subtilis Phage Phi29. 1. Mutants in the Cistrons Coding for the Structural Proteins". European Journal of ... are the smallest Bacillus phages isolated to date and are among the smallest known dsDNA phages.[3] ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bacillus_phage_phi29&oldid=841433724" ...
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium that has the ability to produce protein parasporal cystalline inclusions, which are ... Bacillus thuringiensis. Bibliographic information. World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Gen ve 27, ... IPCS; WHO; bacilli; pesticide spraying; toxicology; agriculture; insecticides. Descriptors (secondary). literature survey; ...
Bacillus coagulans is used by some people as a type of good bacteria, similar to probiotics. It may be beneficial for ... When taken by mouth: Bacillus coagulans is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth. Research shows that Bacillus coagulans in doses ... B. Coagulans, Bacillus Bacteria, Bacillus Probiotics, Bactéries Bacilles, Bactéries à Gram Positif Sporogènes, Bactérie Gram ... Taking antibiotics along with Bacillus coagulans might reduce the potential benefits of Bacillus coagulans. To avoid this ...
Bacilli and close relatives denote Bacillus species and other low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, but not clostridia, mycoplasma, ... Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. K. Kobayashi, S. D. Ehrlich, A. Albertini, G. Amati, K. K. Andersen, M. Arnaud, K. Asai, S. ... 2002) in Bacillus subtilis and Its Closest Relatives: From Genes to Cells, eds Sonenshein A L, Hoch J A, Losick R(Am. Soc. ...
In bacillus. …incidentally. A notable exception is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and domestic animals. B. ... true of the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Although usually present in abundance in factories in which rawhides and ... animals and humans caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that under certain conditions forms highly resistant spores ... polysaccharides), although the capsule of Bacillus anthracis is made of polyglutamic acid. Most capsules are hydrophilic (" ...
... caused by the symbiotic microorganisms Bacillus fusiformis and Borrelia vincentii. The chief symptoms are painful, swollen, ... Other articles where Bacillus fusiformis is discussed: Vincent gingivitis: … ... caused by the symbiotic microorganisms Bacillus fusiformis and Borrelia vincentii. The chief symptoms are painful, swollen, ...
Bacillus subtilis. Definition. Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, flagellated Gram-positive soil bacterium used as a model for ...
Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis] Cry1Ib, partial [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,399163616,gb,AFP33255.1, ...
cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis] cry protein [Bacillus thuringiensis]. gi,506485019,gb,AGM16382.1, ...
... any rod-shaped or cylindrical bacterium of the genus Bacillus, comprising spore-producing bacteria. See more. ... Word Origin and History for bacillus Expand. n. 1877, medical Latin, from Late Latin bacillus "wand," literally "little staff ... usually gram-positive aerobic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that often occur in chains and include Bacillus anthracis, the ... bacillus ba·cil·lus (bə-sĭləs). n. pl. ba·cil·li (-sĭlī) ...
Bacillus subtilis is a naturally occurring bacteria. It is found on fruit trees and vegetable plants as well as on wild berry ... Bacillus subtilis when properly cultivated can save garden plants from destruction by disease. ... Bacillus subtilis when properly cultivated can save garden plants from destruction by disease. Bacillus subtilis is a naturally ... Bacillus subtilis is not harmful to most animals and is not a known carcinogen to humans. Caution should be used, however, as ...
Turnbull PCB, Kramer JM. Bacillus. In: Murray PM, Baron EJ, eds. Manual of clinical microbiology. 8th ed. Washington, DC: ASM ... Hoffmaster AR, Fitzgerald CC, Ribot E, Mayer LW, Popovic T. Molecular subtyping of Bacillus anthracis and the 2001 bioterrorism ... On June 9, 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) was notified of possible inadvertent exposure to Bacillus ... Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:623--7. ...
Bacilli. › Bacillales. › Bacillaceae. › Bacillus. › Bacillus subtilis group. › Bacillus mojavensis subgroup. Strains i. › s87- ... Bacillus mojavensis Roberts et al. 1994 emend. Wang et al. 2007. › CIP 104095. › DSM 9205. › IFO 15718. More » › JCM 12230. › ...
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Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ... Bacillus Genetic Stock Center;. EPS,. exopolysaccharide;. X-Gal,. 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-d-galactopyranoside. ... Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis. Steven S. Branda, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Sigal Ben-Yehuda, Richard Losick ...
... and studied spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. B. pumilus spores were found in an air lock between ... Images of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores (seen in an electron micrograph) on aluminum before and after being exposed to space ... "Survival of Bacillus pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions." ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
... http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/ABSTRACTS/Bacillus_coagulans_Monograph.shtml ... Bacillus coagulans is a gram-positive, spore-forming, microaerophilic, lactic-acid producing bacillus. It was originally ... Bacillus coagulans: Monograph This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.. Send all comments or additions to: [email protected] ... Antifungal activity of Bacillus coagulans against Fusarium sp. Acta Microbiol Pol 2002;51:275-283 *. Kim YM, et al. Studies on ...
Commons ponúka multimediálne súbory na tému Bacillus anthracis. Zdroj[upraviť , upraviť kód]. *Tento článok je čiastočný alebo ... Je to jediný obligátny patogén v rode Bacillus.[1] B. anthracis je grampozitívna nepohyblivá baktéria, formujúca endospóry, v ... Bacillus anthracis.. Journal of clinical pathology, March 2003, s. 182-7. DOI: 10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMID 12610093. ... Bacillus anthracis je baktéria spôsobujúca slezinovú sneť (antrax), bežné infekčné ochorenie dobytka prenosné aj na človeka. ...
Bacillus sphaericus is an obligate aerobe bacterium used as a larvicide for mosquito control of the Anopheles and Culex genera ... Bacillus sphaericus is an obligate aerobe bacterium used as a larvicide for mosquito control of the Anopheles and Culex genera ... Bacillus sphaericus is an obligate aerobe bacterium used as a larvicide for mosquito control of the Anopheles and Culex genera ... Bacillus sphaericus is a gram positive bacterium, with rod shaped cells that form chains. (en) ...
Bacillus thuringiensis Taxonomy (NIH). *Bacillus thuringiensis genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics ... Bacillus thuringiensis General Fact Sheet (National Pesticide Information Center). *Bacillus thuringiensis Technical Fact Sheet ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genellikle biyolojik pestisit olarak kullanılan, Gram-pozitif, toprakta yaşayan bir bakteridir.[1] ... De Maagd, R; Bravo, A; Crickmore, N (2001). "How Bacillus thuringiensis has evolved specific toxins to colonize the insect ...
Bacillus selenitireducens is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... Bacillus selenitireducens is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... Bacillus selenitireducens is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... About: Bacillus selenitireducens An Entity of Type : species, from Named Graph : http://dbpedia.org, within Data Space : ...
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccine. pronounced as (ba sil us kal met gay rayn) ...
Gärtners bacillus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ...
Definition of Koch-Weeks bacillus. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
For instance, the standard B.t. (Bacillus thuringiensis)is effective against caterpillars of all kinds. BTSD (B.t. var. san ...
  • The antimicrobial properties of various extracts of Allium cepa (onions) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis that are common cause of gastrointestinal tract infections were investigated using the cup-plate diffusion method. (ispub.com)
  • However, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were more sensitive to the extract of onion bulbs compared to Bacillus subtilis which was predominantly resistant. (ispub.com)
  • Colonies of the model species Bacillus subtilis on an agar plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis is one of the best understood prokaryotes, in terms of molecular and cellular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assembly of Bacillus subtilis Phage Phi29. (wikipedia.org)
  • To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. (pnas.org)
  • To obtain an independent and possibly more reliable estimate of a minimal protein-encoding gene set for bacteria, we systematically inactivated Bacillus subtilis genes. (pnas.org)
  • B. subtilis was chosen because it is one of the best studied bacteria ( 7 ) and is a model for low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, which include both deadly pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis , and bacteria widely used in food and industry, such as lactococci and bacilli. (pnas.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, flagellated Gram-positive soil bacterium used as a model for endospore formation and differentiation. (nature.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis when properly cultivated can save garden plants from destruction by disease. (ehow.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis is a naturally occurring bacteria. (ehow.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis is not harmful to most animals and is not a known carcinogen to humans. (ehow.com)
  • Dip a cotton swab into the Bacillus subtilis starter or sample. (ehow.com)
  • Spread the Bacillus subtilis sample on the cotton swab across the prepared Petri dish. (ehow.com)
  • Allow the Bacillus subtilis to grow for approximately four days undisturbed. (ehow.com)
  • Spore formation by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has long been studied as a model for cellular differentiation, but predominantly as a single cell. (pnas.org)
  • One of the best-studied pathways of microbial development is the process of endospore formation by the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis . (pnas.org)
  • The experiment was called PROTECT (an acronym of Resistance of spacecraft isolates to outer space for planetary protection purposes) and studied spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. (universetoday.com)
  • Here, we explore the existence and impact of self-sensing in the Bacillus subtilis ComQXP and Rap-Phr quorum-sensing systems. (nature.com)
  • Pottathil, M. & Lazazzera, B. A. The extracellular Phr peptide-Rap phosphatase signaling circuit of Bacillus subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Grossman, A. D. Genetic networks controlling the initiation of sporulation and the development of genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Comella, N. & Grossman, A. D. Conservation of genes and processes controlled by the quorum response in bacteria: characterization of genes controlled by the quorum-sensing transcription factor ComA in Bacillus subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Fitness trade-offs in competence differentiation of Bacillus subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Johnsen, P. J., Dubnau, D. & Levin, B. R. Episodic selection and the maintenance of competence and natural transformation in Bacillus subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Bacon, S. K., Palmer, T. M. & Grossman, A. D. Characterization of comQ and comX , two genes required for production of ComX Pheromone in Bacillus subtilis . (nature.com)
  • Piazza, F., Tortosa, P. & Dubnau, D. Mutational analysis and membrane topology of ComP, a quorum-sensing histidine kinase of Bacillus subtilis controlling competence development. (nature.com)
  • Private link between signal and response in Bacillus subtilis quorum sensing. (nature.com)
  • Here we provide a detailed review of what is currently known about biofilm formation by the motile bacterium Bacillus subtilis . (springer.com)
  • Branda SS, Chu F, Kearns DB, Losick R, Kolter R (2006) A major protein component of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix. (springer.com)
  • Fritze D, Pukall R. Reclassification of bioindicator strains Bacillus subtilis DSM 675 and Bacillus subtilis DSM 2277 as Bacillus atrophaeus. (atcc.org)
  • Bacteria Identificacion E2 Bacillus brevis B14 Bacillus megaterium B1 Bacillus licheniformis B2 Bacillus subtilis B4 Bacillus cereus BR Bacillus megaterium Figura 12. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To identify critical residues involved in the NIR function, we performed biochemical and structural characterization of Bacillus subtilis AP endonuclease ExoA and compared its crystal structure with the structures of other AP endonucleases: Escherichia coli exonuclease III (Xth), human APE1, and archaeal Mth212. (rcsb.org)
  • Research on Bacillus subtilis has been at the forefront of bacterial molecular biology and cytology, and the organism is a model for differentiation, gene/protein regulation, and cell cycle events in bacteria. (bionity.com)
  • In certain bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis , the outermost of these structures is a multilayered protein shell, called the coat. (apsnet.org)
  • Bagyan I and Setlow P (2002) Localization of the cortex lytic enzyme CwlJ in spores of Bacillus subtilis. (els.net)
  • 2012) Analysis of the effects of a gerP mutation on the germination of spores of Bacillus subtilis. (els.net)
  • Bacillus subtilis is a gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that is often found in the soil and on various plant materials (Sietske de Boer and Diderichsen 1991). (ipl.org)
  • The additive contains viable spores of two strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and a single strain of Bacillus subtilis and is intended to be used with pigs for fattening and minor porcine species at a minimum inclusion level of 1.5 × 10 8 colony forming units (CFU)/kg complete feedingstuffs. (europa.eu)
  • Detergent granules containing enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis . (kenyon.edu)
  • The sequence for the genome of Bacillus subtilis was completed in 1997 and was the first published sequence for a single-living bacterium. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacillus subtilis has a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium shown to synthesize antifungal peptides. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacillus subtilis in the spore-formation phase. (kenyon.edu)
  • Still others, namely Bacillus subtilis , inhabit the rhizosphere, which is the interface between plant roots and the surrounding soil. (kenyon.edu)
  • It has recently been shown that Bacillus subtilis engages in cannibalism. (kenyon.edu)
  • We used M-CGH to examine the genome diversity of 17 strains belonging to the nonpathogenic species Bacillus subtilis . (asm.org)
  • Here we analyzed the genome structure and diversity of Bacillus subtilis , a nonpathogenic, spore-forming bacterium commonly found in soil. (asm.org)
  • We also examined two B. subtilis strains that are thought to be closely related to the sequenced strain Bsu168 (BS5 and the "wild" Marburg strain NCIB3610), as well as the type strain of Bacillus vallismortis (DV1-F-3), the closest known relative of B. subtilis ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • The process of sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis proceeds through a well-defined series of morphological stages that involve the conversion of a growing cell into a two-cell-chamber sporangium within which a spore is produced. (nih.gov)
  • A hand-picked, annotated list of Web resources about Bacillus subtilis . (citizendium.org)
  • SO2: At concentrations similar to those found in wine (150 ppm, pH 3.0-6.5), bisulfite has not been found to be mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis (Khoudokormoff, 1978). (ucdavis.edu)
  • Bacillus subtilis é un dos procariotas mellor coñecidos en canto á súa bioloxía molecular e celular. (wikipedia.org)
  • As investigacións con Bacillus subtilis estiveron en primeiro plano no estudo da bioloxía molecular bacteriana, e o organismo úsase como modelo para estudar a regulación de xenes e proteínas, e o ciclo celular das bacterias. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. subtilis foi a primeira bacteria na que se identificou o papel dun citoesqueleto baseado en proteínas similares á actina na determinación da forma da célula e se estudou a síntese do peptidoglicano que forma a parede, na cal se descubriu o conxunto completo de encimas que interveñen na mesma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis as an important host has been widely used in synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and production of industrial enzymes. (springer.com)
  • Anagnostopoulos C, Spizizen J (1961) Requirements for transformation in Bacillus subtilis . (springer.com)
  • Atalla A, Schumann W (2003) The pst operon of Bacillus subtilis is specifically induced by alkali stress. (springer.com)
  • Fukuyama Y, Kiriyama Y, Kodama M, Iwaki H, Hosozawa S, Aki S, Matsui K (2001) DBTBS: a database of Bacillus subtilis promoters and transcription factors. (springer.com)
  • Geissendorfer M, Hillen W (1990) Regulated expression of heterologous genes in Bacillus subtilis using the Tn10 encoded tet regulatory elements. (springer.com)
  • Guan C, Cui W, Cheng J, Zhou L, Liu Z, Zhou Z (2016) Development of an efficient autoinducible expression system by promoter engineering in Bacillus subtilis . (springer.com)
  • Isolation of the Bacillus subtilis antimicrobial peptide subtilos. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • An unknown bacterial species cultured from the Yogu Farm™ probiotic dairy beverage was identified through 16S ribosomal RNA analysis as B. amyloliquefaciens , a phylogenetically close relative of Bacillus subtilis . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Methylene blue (MB) commonly found in the textile industry effluent has been chosen as a model dye to investigate bioremediation using Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Reacts with spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. (abcam.com)
  • Purified spores of Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 9372). (abcam.com)
  • Kinetics of p-Aminoazobenzene Degradation by Bacillus subtilis Un. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis is an organism capable of degrading an azo dye, such as p -aminoazobenzene (pAAB), under both aerobic and anoxic conditions. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis , obarvane po Gramu. (wikipedia.org)
  • For rod-shaped bacteria in general, see Bacillus (shape) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive , rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of various rod - shaped , spore - forming aerobic bacteria in the genus Bacillus , some of which cause disease . (wiktionary.org)
  • Bacillus coagulans is a type of bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Unlike lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus or bifidobacteria, Bacillus coagulans forms spores. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spores are an important factor in telling Bacillus coagulans apart from other lactic acid bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early research shows that taking a combination probiotic containing Bacillus coagulans and other bacteria three times daily, along with the drug norfloxacin, does not decrease a person's risk of developing SBP. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ltd.) containing Bacillus coagulans and fructo-oligosaccharides daily for 15 days of every month for 6 months might modestly decrease stomach pain and gas in people with potentially harmful bacteria in the intestine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anthrax, or bacillus anthracis, is spore-forming bacteria found in soil that most commonly affects cattle. (dictionary.com)
  • 1877, medical Latin, from Late Latin bacillus "wand," literally "little staff," diminutive of baculum "a stick," from PIE root *bak- "staff," also source of Greek bakterion (see bacteria ). (dictionary.com)
  • Any of various rod-shaped, usually gram-positive aerobic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that often occur in chains and include Bacillus anthracis , the causative agent of anthrax. (dictionary.com)
  • Koch, R. (1876) "Untersuchungen über Bakterien: V. Die Ätiologie der Milzbrand-Krankheit, begründet auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Bacillus anthracis " (Investigations into bacteria: V. The etiology of anthrax, based on the ontogenesis of Bacillus anthracis ), Cohns Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen , vol. 2, no. 2, pages 277-310 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus (Latin "stick") is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, a member of the phylum Firmicutes, with 266 named species. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the plural Bacilli is the name of the class of bacteria to which this genus belongs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Bacillus was named in 1835 by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, to contain rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus was later amended by Ferdinand Cohn to further describe them as spore-forming, Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Bacillus , capitalized and italicized, specifically refers to the genus, the word 'bacillus' may also be used to describe any rod-shaped bacterium, and in this sense, bacilli are found in many different taxonomic groups of bacteria. (bionity.com)
  • Likewise, Bacilli refers to the particular class Bacillus belongs to, while bacilli are any rod-shaped bacteria. (bionity.com)
  • Bacillus coagulans is a type of bacteria with supposed probiotic properties, i.e., it is a microorganism that could have health benefits due to similarities to good bacteria naturally found in the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • As a spore forming bacteria, Bacillus coagulans is able to withstand extreme conditions. (wisegeek.com)
  • Some bacteria presumed to be of the genus Bacillus . (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacilli are an extremely diverse group of bacteria that include both the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) as well as several species that synthesize important antibiotics. (kenyon.edu)
  • An easier way is for the bacteria to produce antibiotics that destroy neighboring bacilli, so that their contents may be digested allowing for the survival of a few of the bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • A parede celular de Bacillus é unha estrutura protectora que rodea a membrana plasmática da célula, que lle dá á bacteria unha tinguidura grampositiva . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram positive bacteria that during sporulation synthesizes large quantities of a protein that kills insects when ingested (Hofte and Whiteley, 1989). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis is a soil bacterium, like many of its kin in the the Firmicutes , a group of largely Gram-positive bacteria. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A bacillus (plural bacilli) is a rod-shaped cylindrical bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Bacilli are found in many different taxonomic groups of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the name Bacillus is capitalized and italicized , it refers to a specific genus of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis é unha especie bacteriana grampositiva , que vive no solo, usada comunmente como pesticida biolóxico (como bacteria completa ou só a toxina Cry extraída dela). (wikipedia.org)
  • 18. A harmful bacterium-controlling method, comprising administrating the Bacillus thuringiensis to an animal requiring the control of harmful bacteria. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Bacillus species can be obligate aerobes (oxygen reliant), or facultative anaerobes (having the ability to be aerobic or anaerobic). (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Ubiquitous in nature, Bacillus includes both free-living (nonparasitic) and parasitic pathogenic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species of Bacillus can produce copious amounts of enzymes which are used in different industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other species of Bacillus are important pathogens, causing anthrax and food poisoning . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many Bacillus species are able to secrete large quantities of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus species are almost ubiquitous in nature, e.g. in soil, but also occur in extreme environments such as high pH ( B. alcalophilus ), high temperature ( B. thermophilus ), or high salt ( B. halodurans ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Some species of Bacillus are naturally competent for DNA uptake by transformation . (wikipedia.org)
  • An easy way to isolate Bacillus species is by placing nonsterile soil in a test tube with water, shaking, placing in melted mannitol salt agar , and incubating at room temperature for at least a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium that has the ability to produce protein parasporal cystalline inclusions, which are toxic to the larvae of certain insect species. (ilo.org)
  • Cultured Bacillus species test positive for the enzyme catalase if oxygen has been used or is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the spores of many Bacillus species are resistant to heat, radiation, disinfectants, and desiccation, they are difficult to eliminate from medical and pharmaceutical materials and are a frequent cause of contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus species are well known in the food industries as troublesome spoilage organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species of Bacillus can produce copious amounts of enzymes, which are used in various industries, such as in the production of alpha amylase used in starch hydrolysis and the protease subtilisin used in detergents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Bacillus species can synthesize and secrete lipopeptides, in particular surfactins and mycosubtilins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other genera associated with the early history of microbiology, such as Pseudomonas and Vibrio, the 266 species of Bacillus are ubiquitous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) to produce a guidance document for the assessment of the toxigenic potential of Bacillus species used in animal nutrition. (europa.eu)
  • Bacillus species are either obligate or facultative aerobes , and test positive for the enzyme catalase . (bionity.com)
  • In response to starvation, metabolically active vegetative cells of Bacillus species differentiate into specialised, highly resistant dormant cells called spores. (els.net)
  • Bacillus species have a survival mechanism called sporulation that is a developmental process, which results in a metabolically inactive cell (spore). (els.net)
  • Differences in germination receptors and nutrient stimulus exist among Bacillus species. (els.net)
  • Various species of the genus bacillus have been isolated from the faeces of animals. (ipl.org)
  • Bacillus species are important members of the rumen ecosystem as they assist in the nutrition of the host. (ipl.org)
  • Bacillus species are not commonly associated with leaves but are occasionally isolated from olive tree leaves (Ercolani, 1978). (ipl.org)
  • Species in the genus Bacillus can be thermophilic, psychrophilic, acidophilic, alkaliphilic, halotolerant, or halophilic and are capable at growing at pH values, temperatures, and salt concentrations where few other organisms can survive. (kenyon.edu)
  • Although the most well known of the bacilli are the pathogenic species, most Bacillus are saprophytes that make their living off of decaying matter. (kenyon.edu)
  • These species are closely related and should be placed within one species, except for Bacillus anthracis that possesses specific large virulence plasmids. (highveld.com)
  • Other species of Bacillus produce antibiotics in an effort to thwart their bacterial competition, so perhaps Bt-toxin is a way to avoid occasional insect annihilation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Antiserum is unabsorbed and may cross-react with other Bacillus species. (abcam.com)
  • For the insect genus, see Bacillus (insect) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Three proposals have been presented as representing the phylogeny of the genus Bacillus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the metabolic diversity in the genus Bacillus , bacilli are able to colonize a variety of habitats ranging from soil and insects to humans. (kenyon.edu)
  • The genera Bacillus and Clostridium constitute the family Bacillaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus je rod gram pozitivne , štapićaste bakterije i član razdela Firmicutes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus é o nome dun xénero de bacterias grampositivas con forma bacilar , membro do filo Firmicutes . (wikipedia.org)
  • People take Bacillus coagulans for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diarrhea, gas, airway infections, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bacillus coagulans produces lactic acid and is often misclassified as lactobacillus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In fact, some commercial products containing Bacillus coagulans are marketed as Lactobacillus sporogenes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clinical research shows that taking Bacillus coagulans daily for 56-90 days improves quality of life and decreases bloating, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and the number of bowel movements in people with diarrhea-predominant IBS. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other clinical research shows that taking a specific combination product (Colinox, DMG Italia SRL) containing Bacillus coagulans and simethicone three times daily for 4 weeks improves bloating and discomfort in people with IBS. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early research shows that taking Bacillus coagulans twice daily for 4 weeks can improve abdominal pain and discomfort in people who tend to have constipation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early research in babies 6-24 months of age with diarrhea shows that taking Bacillus coagulans for up to 5 days doesn't alleviate diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But taking Bacillus coagulans does seem to improve diarrhea and stomach pain in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early research in newborn babies shows that taking Bacillus coagulans daily for one year decreases the child's risk of developing rotavirus diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early evidence in people who have gas after eating shows that taking a specific combination supplement containing Bacillus coagulans and a blend of enzymes daily for 4 weeks does not improve bloating or gas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early research shows that taking Bacillus coagulans helps treat stomach ulcers caused by H. pylori. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early research shows that taking Bacillus coagulans daily for 8 weeks can reduce symptoms of burping, belching, and sour taste. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other research shows that taking Bacillus coagulans twice daily for 4 weeks reduces stomach pain and bloating. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early research shows that taking Bacillus coagulans daily for 60 days in addition to normal treatment can reduce pain, but does not reduce the number of painful or swollen joints in people with RA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bacillus coagulans also does not improve the ability to perform activities of daily living in people with RA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Early research in these babies shows that taking Bacillus coagulans daily until leaving the hospital does not prevent necrotizing enterocolitis or death. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, taking Bacillus coagulans does increase the number of babies that are able to tolerate food. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bacillus coagulans is a notable exception which, due to its sporulated form, survives without special handling and proliferates in the gastrointestinal environment. (chiro.org)
  • 3 ] In 1957, the organism was reclassified in Bergey s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology based on its biochemical properties, and the current correct nomenclature is Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans). (chiro.org)
  • What is Bacillus Coagulans? (wisegeek.com)
  • Manufacturers of products containing Bacillus coagulans also claim that it is extremely durable and more likely than other probiotics to reach the intestines alive. (wisegeek.com)
  • The microorganism Bacillus coagulans is found in several probiotic supplements currently on the market. (wisegeek.com)
  • Bacillus coagulans is a bacterium that produces lactic acid, which is a necessary substance in the human body. (wisegeek.com)
  • Bacillus coagulans is also reputed to be supportive of immune system functioning. (wisegeek.com)
  • The use of Bacillus coagulans as a probiotic for humans requires further research. (wisegeek.com)
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  • O xénero Bacillus foi denominado así en 1835 por Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (que tamén nomeou o xénero, hoxe considerado inválido, Bacterium sete anos antes) e contiña inicialmente bacterias con forma de bastón, e despois foi emendado por Ferdinand Cohn para que incluíse bacterias formadoras de esporas, grampositivas ou variables, con forma bacilar. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992) had isolated two gramicidin-S hyperproducing strains of Bacillus brevis , which secreted the product up to 350 ug/ml, while the mutant B. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacillus isolates possessing high surface tension activity and five reference strains were subjected to amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). (hindawi.com)
  • Some strains of the Bacillus cereus group are able to grow at refrigeration temperatures. (highveld.com)
  • Bacillus megaterium spores have a characteristic polar knob and equatorial ridge, or groove. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacillus megaterium bacterial bulture for microbiology laboratory studies is large, easily observed, spore-forming variably motile rods found in soil and water. (flinnsci.com)
  • Bacillus/Soybean Ferment Extract is an extract of the product obtained by the fermentation of soybeans by the organism Bacillus. (ewg.org)
  • In 2019, it was found in a hyperalkaline spring in Zambales (Philippines) a bacterial consortium of a strain of Bacillus pseudofirmus with Bacillus agaradhaerens that can biodegrade LDPE plastic. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aerobic endospore-forming bacterium, tentatively identified as a strain (JJ-lb) of Bacillus macerans, was isolated by enrichment on 4-hydroxybenzoate (4HBA), using as an inoculum soil taken from a 50 degrees C Iadho hot spring. (nih.gov)
  • thuringiensis BGSC 4A3 strain, a Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Novel transformation vectors containing novel chimeric genes allow the introduction of exogenous DNA fragments coding for polypeptide toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis or having substantial sequence homology to a gene coding for a polypeptide toxin as described herein and expression of the chimeric. (google.com)
  • This suggests that these virulence-enhancing genes are not specifically unique to Bacillus anthracis , but rather are part of the common array of genes of the B. cereus group (of which B. anthracis , B. cereus , and B. thuringiensis are all a part). (kenyon.edu)
  • Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin reduces the risk of progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized clinical trials. (medscape.com)
  • Ikeda N, Honda I, Yano I, Koyama A, Toida I. Bacillus calmette-guerin Tokyo172 substrain for superficial bladder cancer: characterization and antitumor effect. (medscape.com)
  • Maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy for recurrent TA, T1 and carcinoma in situ transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a randomized Southwest Oncology Group Study. (medscape.com)
  • Palou J, Laguna P, Millán-Rodríguez F, Hall RR, Salvador-Bayarri J, Vicente-Rodríguez J. Control group and maintenance treatment with bacillus Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ and/or high grade bladder tumors. (medscape.com)
  • What is Bacillus Calmette-Guerin bladder treatment? (reference.com)
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guerin bladder treatment is a medication used to treat bladder cancer. (reference.com)
  • Is hair loss a side effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment? (reference.com)
  • We have been able to successfully use Lentiviral vector technology to take an existing hybridoma that poorly produces a highly valued monoclonal antibody targeted to the Anthrax bacillus and create a new cell line that produces the antibody at high levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 1876, Koch, using suspended drop culture techniques, was able to trace the complete life cycle of the anthrax bacillus for the first time in history. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Koch was the first person to isolate the cholera and the anthrax bacillus and won the 1905 Nobel Prize in 1905 for his discovery and investigations into the tuberculosis bacillus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is the source of a natural antibiotic protein barnase (a ribonuclease ), alpha amylase used in starch hydrolysis, the protease subtilisin used with detergents, and the BamH1 restriction enzyme used in DNA research. (wikipedia.org)
  • or a truncated portion of a 130 kD crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis sotto. (google.com)
  • The genome of Bacillus anthracis is 5,227,293 base pairs long with 5,508 predicted protein-coding regions. (kenyon.edu)
  • To purify and characterize an antimicrobial protein (bacteriocin) isolated from the dairy product-derived Bacillus amyloliquefaciens . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Antiproliferative protein from Bacillus thuringiensis var. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention provides an isolated and purified protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies thuringiensis, having a molecular weight of approximately 20 kDa of SDS-PAGE, said protein having the partial amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID No. 1, and wherein said protein displays cytotoxic effects against tumor cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • More specifically, the present invention relates to the isolation, purification and characterization of a novel antiproliferative protein from Bacillus thuringiensis var. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis took advantage of important insect cellular proteins, such as chaperones, involved in maintaining protein homeostasis, to enhance its insecticidal activity. (asm.org)
  • They are Cry protein crystals made by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis . (scientificamerican.com)
  • Bacillus sphaericus is an obligate aerobe bacterium used as a larvicide for mosquito control of the Anopheles and Culex genera. (dbpedia.org)
  • Bacillus sphaericus is a gram positive bacterium, with rod shaped cells that form chains. (dbpedia.org)
  • https://tr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bacillus_thuringiensis&oldid=20992437 " adresinden alındı. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus amyloliquefaciens é a fonte da proteína antibiótica natural barnase (unha ribonuclease ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation and presumptive identification of Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax. (emsl.com)
  • Bacilli , which are abundant in the soil, form highly resistant dormant cell types, called spores, in response to starvation. (apsnet.org)
  • Bacillus cereus is a normal soil inhabitant and is frequently isolated from a variety of foods, including vegetables, dairy products and meat. (highveld.com)
  • Bacillus popilliae is a Gram-positive bacterium which attacks only the Japanese beetle ( Popillia japonica ). (everything2.com)
  • Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, facultatively aerobic sporeformer whose cells are large rods and whose spores do not swell the sporangium. (abcam.com)
  • Images of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores (seen in an electron micrograph) on aluminum before and after being exposed to space on an International Space Station experiment. (universetoday.com)
  • Survival of Rock-Colonizing Organisms After 1.5 Years in Outer Space " and " Survival of Bacillus pumilus Spores for a Prolonged Period of Time in Real Space Conditions . (universetoday.com)
  • In this study, the effect of Bacillus pumilus 3-19 proteolytic enzymes on the structure of 7-day-old S. marcescens biofilms was examined. (hindawi.com)
  • A portion of the Bacillus thuringiensis genome was incorporated into corn (and cotton) crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this course is to introduce Next-Generation Sequencing (including technique, algorithms, methods, sequence mapping tools, data analyses) and Design of NGS experiments and workflow of Bacillus thuringiensis genome sequencing, assembly and annotation. (icgeb.org)
  • Dean, D. H. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins. (orst.edu)
  • For the bacterial class, see Bacilli . (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. A harmful bacterium control agent according to claim 1, wherein the Bacillus thuringiensis has an ability of bacterial self-induced factor inactivation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A correlation between the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus spp. (hindawi.com)
  • Using the Bacillus cereus group as a model, a conceptual framework for the. (asm.org)
  • Although non-viable select agents are excluded from the select agent regulations, it has been observed that some inactivation protocols that have been used have not inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores completely, necessitating issuance of this policy statement. (cdc.gov)
  • Carr KA, Janes BK and Hanna PC (2010) Role of the gerP operon in germination and outgrowth of Bacillus anthracis spores. (els.net)
  • A lunchtime reading group held in conjunction with the exhibition Audible Bacillus . (wesleyan.edu)
  • Take a closer look at the Audible Bacillus exhibition by joining a 45-minute tour, led by Wesleyan University gallery guides. (wesleyan.edu)
  • 2007). Bacillus: Cellular and Molecular Biology , 1st ed. (bionity.com)
  • Bacillus: Cellular and Molecular Biology (Graumann P, ed.) . (bionity.com)
  • Clinical symptoms during those pandemics resemble those associated with modern plague, whose etiological agent is the Gram-negative bacillus, Yersinia pestis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Francisella tularensis , Bacillus anthracis , and Yersinia pestis are tier 1 select agents with the potential to rapidly cause severe disease. (asm.org)
  • whereby the chimeric gene can be expressed in the cell as an insect controlling amount of an insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis polyopeptide toxin with toxicity to Lepidoptera insects. (google.com)
  • Overview of the major events of nutrient‐mediated Bacillus spore germination. (els.net)
  • Bacillus pseudofirmus is a facultative anaerobe bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 67 kDa toxin shares a significant structural homology with toxins from various other subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • whereas it is only 39% identical to Bacillus thuringiensis kursataki toxin (Waalwijk et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • My purpose here is not to stoke that debate, but to show you what an amazing thing the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin is in the state of nature. (scientificamerican.com)
  • 4. A harmful bacterium control agent according to claim 1, wherein the Bacillus thuringiensis is a Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The first proposal, presented in 2003, is a Bacillus-specific study, with the most diversity covered using 16S and the ITS regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diversity among biosurfactant producing Bacillus spp. (hindawi.com)
  • Present work revealed that diversity exists in distribution of Bacillus spp. (hindawi.com)
  • For survival in harsh environments, bacilli can form spores, but it is very costly to them energy-wise. (kenyon.edu)
  • However, consumer interest in precooked chilled food products with a long shelf life may lead to products well suited for Bacillus cereus survival and growth. (highveld.com)
  • Hansen, B. M. Long-Term Survival and Germination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. (orst.edu)
  • Key players involved in the germination of Bacillus spores and general structure of layers (sizes not to scale). (els.net)
  • Proposed model of germination receptor pathways in Bacillus anthracis . (els.net)
  • Chesnokova ON, McPherson SA, Steichen CT and Turnbough CL (2009) The spore‐specific alanine racemase of Bacillus anthracis and its role in suppressing germination during spore development. (els.net)