A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A polypeptide antibiotic mixture obtained from Bacillus brevis. It consists of a mixture of three tyrocidines (60%) and several gramicidins (20%) and is very toxic to blood, liver, kidneys, meninges, and the olfactory apparatus. It is used topically.
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC 3.2.1.10.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
An antibiotic mixture produced by Bacillus brevis which may be separated into three components, tyrocidines A, B, and C. It is the major constituent (40-60 per cent) of tyrothricin, gramicidin accounting for the remaining 10-20 per cent active material. It is a topical antimicrobial agent, that is very toxic parenterally.
The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.

A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker specific for the Bacillus cereus group is diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis. (1/3738)

Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group.  (+info)

Purification and properties of a low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus. (2/3738)

A low-molecular-weight, high-alkaline pectate lyase (pectate transeliminase, EC 4.2.2.2) was found in an alkaline culture of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15, purified to homogeneity, and crystallized. The enzyme had a relative molecular weight of approximately 20,300 as measured by sedimentation equilibrium, with a sedimentation coefficient (s20,w0) of 1.73 S. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 10.3, and the alpha-helical content was only 6.6%. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, the enzyme degraded polygalacturonic acid in a random manner to yield 4,5-unsaturated oligo-galacturonides and had its optimal activity around pH 10.5 and 50-55 degrees C. It also had a protopectinase-like activity on cotton fibers. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact protein (28 amino acids) and its two lysyl endopeptidase-cleaved peptide fragments (8 and 12 amino acids) had very low sequence similarity with pectate lyases reported to date. These results strongly suggest that the pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 may be a novel enzyme and belongs in a new family.  (+info)

Purification and properties of bacteriolytic enzymes from Bacillus licheniformis YS-1005 against Streptococcus mutans. (3/3738)

To find a novel lytic enzyme against cariogenic Streptococci, strains showing strong lytic activity have been screened from soil using Streptococcus mutans. A strain identified as Bacillus licheniformis secreted two kinds of lytic enzymes, which were purified by methanol precipitation, CM-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The molecular weights of these two enzymes, L27 and L45, were 27,000 and 45,000, respectively. Optimum pH and temperature of both enzymes for lytic activity were pH 8 and 37 degrees C. L27 and L45 digest the peptide linkage between L-Ala and D-Glu in peptidoglycan of Streptococcus mutans. The lytic activity was highly specific for Streptococcus mutans, suggesting their potential use as a dental care product.  (+info)

Improving the binding affinity of an antibody using molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. (4/3738)

Activated Factor X releases F1.2, a 271-amino acid peptide, from the amino terminus of prothrombin during blood coagulation. A nine-amino acid peptide, C9 (DSDRAIEGR), corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of F1.2 was synthesized and used to produce a monoclonal antibody, TA1 (K(D)) 1.22 x 10(-6) M). To model the TA1 antibody, we entered the sequence information of the cloned TA1 Fv into the antibody modeling program, ABM, which combines homology methods, conformational search procedures, and energy screening and has proved to be a reliable and reproducible antibody modeling method. Using a novel protein fusion procedure, we expressed the C9 peptide fused to the carboxyl terminus of the PENI repressor protein from Bacillus licheniformis in Escherichia coli. We constructed fusion proteins containing alanine substitutions for each amino acid in the C9 epitope. Binding studies, using the C9 alanine mutants and TA1, and spatial constraints predicted by the modeled TA1 binding cleft enabled us to establish a plausible conformation for C9 complexed with TA1. Furthermore, based on binding results of conservative amino acid substitutions in C9 and mutations in the antibody, we were able to refine the complex model and identify antibody mutations that would improve binding affinity.  (+info)

Active site characterization of the exo-N-acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminidase from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120: involvement of tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residues in catalytic activity. (5/3738)

The exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 is a homotetramer with a molecular mass of 240000 kDa. Chemical modification studies on the purified exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase revealed the involvement of a single tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate, per monomer, in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Spectral analysis and maintenance of total enzyme activities indicated that N-acetylglucosamine (competitive inhibitor) and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (substrate) prevented the modification of a single essential tryptophan, histidine and carboxylate residue. Kinetic parameters of partially inactivated enzyme (by NBS/HNBB) showed the involvement of tryptophan in substrate binding while that of histidine (by photooxidation/DEPC) and carboxylate (by EDAC/WRK) in catalysis. The Bacillus sp. NCIM 5120 exo-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase deviates from the reported N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidases and beta-hexosaminidases that utilize anchimeric assistance in their hydrolytic mechanism.  (+info)

Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis? (6/3738)

A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme.  (+info)

Key role of barstar Cys-40 residue in the mechanism of heat denaturation of bacterial ribonuclease complexes with barstar. (7/3738)

The mechanism by which barnase and binase are stabilized in their complexes with barstar and the role of the Cys-40 residue of barstar in that stabilization have been investigated by scanning microcalorimetry. Melting of ribonuclease complexes with barstar and its Cys-82-Ala mutant is described by two 2-state transitions. The lower-temperature one corresponds to barstar denaturation and the higher-temperature transition to ribonuclease melting. The barstar mutation Cys-40-Ala, which is within the principal barnase-binding region of barstar, simplifies the melting to a single 2-state transition. The presence of residue Cys-40 in barstar results in additional stabilization of ribonuclease in the complex.  (+info)

Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of gyrB of Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, and B. anthracis and their application to the detection of B. cereus in rice. (8/3738)

As 16S rRNA sequence analysis has proven inadequate for the differentiation of Bacillus cereus from closely related species, we employed the gyrase B gene (gyrB) as a molecular diagnostic marker. The gyrB genes of B. cereus JCM 2152(T), Bacillus thuringiensis IAM 12077(T), Bacillus mycoides ATCC 6462(T), and Bacillus anthracis Pasteur #2H were cloned and sequenced. Oligonucleotide PCR primer sets were designed from within gyrB sequences of the respective bacteria for the specific amplification and differentiation of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis. The results from the amplification of gyrB sequences correlated well with results obtained with the 16S rDNA-based hybridization study but not with the results of their phenotypic characterization. Some of the reference strains of both B. cereus (three serovars) and B. thuringiensis (two serovars) were not positive in PCR amplification assays with gyrB primers. However, complete sequencing of 1.2-kb gyrB fragments of these reference strains showed that these serovars had, in fact, lower homology than their originally designated species. We developed and tested a procedure for the specific detection of the target organism in boiled rice that entailed 15 h of preenrichment followed by PCR amplification of the B. cereus-specific fragment. This method enabled us to detect an initial inoculum of 0.24 CFU of B. cereus cells per g of boiled rice food homogenate without extracting DNA. However, a simple two-step filtration step is required to remove PCR inhibitory substances.  (+info)

There are three main forms of anthrax:

1. Cutaneous (skin) anthrax: This is the most common form of the disease and causes skin lesions that can progress to severe inflammation and scarring.
2. Inhalational (lung) anthrax: This is the most deadly form of the disease and causes serious respiratory problems, including fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
3. Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax: This form of the disease causes symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.

Anthrax can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the timing of treatment.

Prevention of anthrax primarily involves vaccination of animals and control of animal products to prevent the spread of the bacteria. In addition, public health measures such as surveillance and quarantine can help prevent the spread of the disease to humans.

The medical management of anthrax involves a combination of antibiotics, supportive care, and wound management. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing serious complications and death.

1. Tuberculosis (TB): This is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is a member of the Bacillaceae family. TB can affect the lungs, brain, kidneys, and other organs, and can be transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
2. Leprosy: This is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which is also a member of the Bacillaceae family. Leprosy can cause skin lesions, nerve damage, and muscle weakness, and can be transmitted through close contact with an infected person.
3. Actinomycosis: This is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, which is a member of the Bacillaceae family. Actinomycosis can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, and can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and weight loss.
4. Cat-scratch disease: This is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae, which is a member of the Bacillaceae family. Cat-scratch disease is typically transmitted through the scratch or bite of an infected cat, and can cause symptoms such as swollen lymph nodes, fever, and fatigue.
5. Lung abscess: This is a type of lung infection caused by various bacteria, including some members of the Bacillaceae family. Lung abscess can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and fever, and can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Overall, Bacillaceae infections can have serious consequences if left untreated, so it is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone else may have a bacterial infection caused by these bacteria.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.

Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:

* Pneumonia
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Meningitis
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis

Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:

* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.

Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.

There are two main forms of TB:

1. Active TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are actively growing and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and fatigue. Active TB can be contagious and can spread to others if not treated properly.
2. Latent TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are present in the body but are not actively growing or causing symptoms. People with latent TB do not feel sick and are not contagious, but they can still become sick with active TB if their immune system is weakened.

TB is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries where access to healthcare may be limited. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging, and laboratory tests such as skin tests or blood tests. Treatment for TB typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in curing the disease if taken properly. However, drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged in some parts of the world, making treatment more challenging.

Preventive measures against TB include:

1. Vaccination with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of the disease but not against latent TB.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, especially if they are coughing or sneezing.
3. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing and regularly washing hands.
4. Getting regular screenings for TB if you are in a high-risk group, such as healthcare workers or people with weakened immune systems.
5. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, utensils, or drinking glasses with people who have active TB.

Overall, while TB is a serious disease that can be challenging to treat and prevent, with the right measures in place, it is possible to reduce its impact on public health and improve outcomes for those affected by the disease.

Pulmonary tuberculosis typically affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, or spine. The symptoms of pulmonary TB include coughing for more than three weeks, chest pain, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Pulmonary tuberculosis is diagnosed by a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and radiologic imaging, such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment for pulmonary TB usually involves a combination of antibiotics and medications to manage symptoms.

Preventive measures for pulmonary tuberculosis include screening for latent TB infection in high-risk populations, such as healthcare workers and individuals with HIV/AIDS, and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in countries where it is available.

Overall, pulmonary tuberculosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and death.

In the medical field, autolysis is a term used to describe the self-destruction or breakdown of cells or tissues within an organism. This process occurs naturally in response to various forms of cellular stress, such as exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, and it is also involved in the immune system's removal of dead cells and debris. Autolysis can be triggered by a variety of factors, including oxidative stress, heat shock, and exposure to certain enzymes or toxins.

There are several types of autolysis, including:

1. Autophagy: a process by which cells break down and recycle their own components, such as proteins and organelles, in order to maintain cellular homeostasis and survive under conditions of limited nutrient availability.
2. Necrosis: a form of autolysis that occurs as a result of cellular injury or stress, leading to the release of harmful substances into the surrounding tissue and triggering an inflammatory response.
3. Apoptosis: a programmed form of cell death that involves the breakdown of cells and their components, and is involved in various physiological processes, such as development and immune system function.
4. Lipofuscinogenesis: a process by which lipid-rich organelles undergo autolysis, leading to the formation of lipofuscin, a type of cellular waste product.
5. Chaperone-mediated autophagy: a process by which proteins are broken down and recycled in the presence of chaperone proteins, which help to fold and stabilize the target proteins.

Autolysis can be studied using various techniques, including:

1. Light microscopy: a technique that uses visible light to visualize cells and their components, allowing researchers to observe the effects of autolysis on cellular structures.
2. Electron microscopy: a technique that uses a beam of electrons to produce high-resolution images of cells and their components, allowing researchers to observe the ultrastructure of cells and the effects of autolysis at the molecular level.
3. Biochemical assays: techniques that measure the levels of specific cellular components or metabolites in order to assess the progress of autolysis.
4. Gene expression analysis: a technique that measures the levels of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in order to assess the activity of genes involved in autolysis.
5. Proteomics: a technique that measures the levels and modifications of specific proteins in order to assess the effects of autolysis on protein turnover and degradation.

Autolysis plays an important role in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cellular detoxification: Autolysis can help to remove damaged or misfolded proteins, which can be toxic to cells, by breaking them down into smaller peptides and amino acids that can be further degraded.
2. Cellular renewal: Autolysis can help to remove old or damaged cellular components, such as organelles and protein aggregates, and recycle their building blocks to support the synthesis of new cellular components.
3. Cellular defense: Autolysis can help to protect cells against pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, by breaking down and removing infected cellular components.
4. Apoptosis: Autolysis is involved in the execution of apoptosis, a programmed form of cell death that is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing cancer.

Dysregulation of autolysis has been implicated in various diseases, including:

1. Cancer: Autolysis can promote the growth and survival of cancer cells by providing them with a source of energy and building blocks for protein synthesis.
2. Neurodegenerative diseases: Autolysis can contribute to the degeneration of neurons in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
3. Infectious diseases: Autolysis can help pathogens to evade the host immune system by breaking down and removing infected cellular components.
4. Aging: Dysregulation of autolysis has been implicated in the aging process, as it can lead to the accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins and the degradation of cellular components.

Overall, autolysis is a complex and highly regulated process that plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and responding to environmental stressors. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of autolysis and its implications for human health and disease.

Types of Mycobacterium Infections:

1. Tuberculosis (TB): This is the most common Mycobacterium infection and is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body such as the brain, kidneys, and spine.
2. Leprosy: This is a chronic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, which primarily affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes. It is also known as Hansen's disease.
3. Buruli ulcer: This is a skin infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium ulcerans, which is found in wet environments such as rivers, lakes, and swamps.
4. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC): This is a group of bacteria that can cause a variety of diseases, including lung disease, disseminated disease, and cardiovascular disease.
5. Mycobacterium abscessus: This is a type of bacteria that can cause skin and soft tissue infections, as well as respiratory and disseminated diseases.

Symptoms of Mycobacterium Infections:

The symptoms of Mycobacterium infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. Some common symptoms include:

* Coughing or difficulty breathing (in TB infections)
* Skin lesions or ulcers (in leprosy and Buruli ulcer)
* Fever, chills, and fatigue (in all types of Mycobacterium infections)
* Swollen lymph nodes (in all types of Mycobacterium infections)
* Joint pain or swelling (in some cases)
* Weight loss and loss of appetite (in severe cases)

Diagnosis of Mycobacterium Infections:

Diagnosing a Mycobacterium infection can be challenging, as the bacteria are slow-growing and require specialized culture techniques. Some common methods for diagnosing Mycobacterium infections include:

* Skin scrapings or biopsies (for leprosy and Buruli ulcer)
* Sputum or lung biopsy (for TB)
* Blood tests (for disseminated disease)
* Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans (to evaluate the extent of the infection)

Treatment of Mycobacterium Infections:

The treatment of Mycobacterium infections depends on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. Some common treatments include:

* Antibiotics: For TB, the standard treatment is a combination of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for at least 6 months. For leprosy, the standard treatment is a combination of rifampin, dapsone, and clofazimine for at least 12 months.
* Surgery: For Buruli ulcer, surgical debridement of the affected skin and tissue is often necessary.
* Supportive care: Patients with severe forms of the disease may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and wound care.

Prevention of Mycobacterium Infections:

Preventing the spread of Mycobacterium infections is crucial for controlling these diseases. Some common prevention measures include:

* Vaccination: For TB, vaccination with the BCG vaccine is recommended for infants and young children in high-risk areas.
* Screening: Screening for TB and leprosy is important for early detection and treatment of cases.
* Contact tracing: Identifying and testing individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has been diagnosed with TB or leprosy can help prevent the spread of the disease.
* Infection control measures: Healthcare workers should follow strict infection control measures when caring for patients with Mycobacterium infections to prevent transmission to others.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick: Avoiding close contact with people who are sick with TB or leprosy can help prevent the spread of the disease.
* Covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing: Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing can help prevent the spread of TB bacteria.
* Properly disposing of contaminated materials: Properly disposing of contaminated materials, such as used tissues and surfaces soiled with respiratory secretions, can help prevent the spread of TB bacteria.

It is important to note that while these measures can help control the spread of Mycobacterium infections, they are not foolproof and should be combined with other prevention measures, such as early detection and treatment of cases, to effectively control these diseases.

Leprosy can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Skin lesions: Leprosy can cause skin lesions, including lighter or darker patches on the skin, and thickening of the skin.
2. Nerve damage: The bacteria can damage the nerves, leading to numbness, pain, and muscle weakness.
3. Eye problems: Leprosy can cause eye inflammation, vision loss, and dryness of the eyes.
4. Respiratory problems: In severe cases, leprosy can cause breathing difficulties and respiratory failure.
5. Enlarged lymph nodes: The lymph nodes may become enlarged in some cases.
6. Joint pain and swelling: Leprosy can cause joint pain and swelling.
7. Neuritis: Inflammation of the nerves can occur, leading to pain, numbness, and tingling sensations.
8. Ulcers: Leprosy can cause ulcers on the skin and mucous membranes.

Leprosy is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other medications to manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged nerves.

Leprosy can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, close contact with an infected person, or through contaminated objects such as clothing or bedding. However, leprosy is not highly contagious and the risk of transmission is low if proper precautions are taken.

While there is no cure for leprosy, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications and disability. However, due to the stigma surrounding the disease, many people may delay seeking medical attention, leading to a higher risk of long-term complications.

Overall, while leprosy is a serious disease, it is also a preventable and treatable one. With proper awareness and education, we can work towards reducing the stigma surrounding leprosy and ensuring that those affected receive the medical attention they need.

1. Impetigo: A highly contagious infection that causes red sores on the face, arms, and legs. It is most commonly seen in children and is usually treated with antibiotics.
2. Cellulitis: A bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth. It is often caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus bacteria and may require hospitalization for treatment.
3. MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus): A type of staph infection that is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin and soft tissue infections. It is often seen in hospitals and healthcare settings and can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces.
4. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes red, raised borders on the skin, often on the face, legs, or arms. It is caused by Streptococcus bacteria and may require antibiotics to treat.
5. Folliculitis: An infection of the hair follicles that can cause redness, swelling, and pus-filled bumps. It is often caused by Staphylococcus bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
6. Boils: A type of abscess that forms when a hair follicle or oil gland becomes infected. They can be caused by either Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria and may require draining and antibiotics to treat.
7. Carbuncles: A type of boil that is larger and more severe, often requiring surgical drainage and antibiotics to treat.
8. Erythrasma: A mild infection that causes small, red patches on the skin. It is caused by Corynebacterium bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
9. Cellulitis: An infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. It is often caused by Staphylococcus bacteria and may require antibiotics to treat.
10. Impetigo: A highly contagious infection that causes red sores or blisters on the skin, often around the nose, mouth, or limbs. It is caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.

These are just a few examples of common skin infections and there are many more types that can occur. If you suspect you or someone else has a skin infection, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.

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nov., Bacillus aerophilus sp. nov., Bacillus stratosphericus sp. nov. and Bacillus altitudinis sp. nov., isolated from ... "Bacillus altitudinis" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Bacillus altitudinis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... "Optimization of cellulase production by Bacillus altitudinis APS MSU and Bacillus licheniformis APS2 MSU, gut isolates of fish ... Bacillus, Bacteria described in 2006, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ...
... is a gram positive, thermophilic, methylotrophic member of the genus Bacillus. The most well ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Bacillus, Bacteria ... C by Mutants of a Newly Isolated and Characterized Methylotrophic Bacillus sp". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 56 (4 ... production by genetically engineered Bacillus methanolicus strains". Industrial Crops and Products. 106: 12-20. doi:10.1016/j. ...
"Bacillus gaemokensis" at the Encyclopedia of Life WORMS entry Type strain of Bacillus gaemokensis at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Bacillus gaemokensis is a bacterium. It is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming organism with the type strain BL3-6T ... "Bacillus gaemokensis sp. nov., isolated from foreshore tidal flat sediment from the Yellow Sea". The Journal of Microbiology. ... Bacillus gaemokensis sp. nov., Isolated from Foreshore Tidal Flat Sediment from the Yellow Sea". Journal of Microbiology. 50 (3 ...
"Bacillus sonorensis" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Bacillus sonorensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... "Bacillus sonorensis sp. nov., a close relative of Bacillus licheniformis, isolated from soil in the Sonoran Desert, Arizona". ... Bacillus, Bacteria described in 2001, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ... Bacillus sonorensis is a species of bacteria with type strain L87-10T (= NRRL B-23154T). Its genome has been sequenced. S.I. ...
nov., Bacillus aerophilus sp. nov., Bacillus stratosphericus sp. nov. and Bacillus altitudinis sp. nov., isolated from ... Bacillus, Bacteria described in 2006, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ... Bacillus aerophilus is a species of bacteria first isolated from cryogenic tubes used for collecting air samples from high ... "Bacillus aerophilus" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
"Bacillus vallismortis" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Bacillus vallismortis at BacDive - the Bacterial ... "Bacillus vallismortis sp. nov., a close relative of Bacillus subtilis, isolated from soil in Death Valley, California". Int J ... Bacillus, Bacteria described in 1996, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ... Bacillus vallismortis is a species of bacteria, with type strain DV1-F-3 (5 NRRLB-14890). Roberts MS, Nakamura LK, Cohan FM ( ...
... genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Pathema-Bacillus ... It bears close genotypic and phenotypic resemblance to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. All three species share ... "A Comparative Analysis of the Core Proteomes within and among the Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus Evolutionary Groups ... "What Sets Bacillus anthracis Apart from Other Bacillus Species?". Annual Review of Microbiology. 63 (1): 451-476. doi:10.1146/ ...
... , known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in ... Bacillus globigii, a closely related but phylogenetically distinct species now known as Bacillus atrophaeus was used as a ... Bacillus subtilis genome browser Type strain of Bacillus subtilis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Wikipedia ... Noirot P (2007). "Replication of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome". In Graumann P (ed.). Bacillus: Cellular and Molecular ...
nov., Bacillus aerophilus sp. nov., Bacillus stratosphericus sp. nov. and Bacillus altitudinis sp. nov., isolated from ... Bacillus, Bacteria described in 2006, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ... Bacillus aerius is a species of bacteria first isolated from cryogenic tubes used for collecting air samples from high ... "Bacillus aerius" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the genus Bacillus. However, Bacillus oleronius has Gram-positive ... Bacillus marinus Bacillus lentimorbus Kuhnigk, Thomas; Borst, Eva-Maria; Breunig, Alfred; Konig, Helmut; Collins, Matthew D; ... Type strain of Bacillus oleronius at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Bacillus, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ...
Bacillus, Bacteria described in 2008, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ... Bacillus coahuilensis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming bacterium. This species was isolated from water ... Type strain of Bacillus coahuilensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... "Bacillus coahuilensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic species from a desiccation lagoon in the Cuatro Cienegas Valley in ...
"Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus ... Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a species of bacterium in the genus Bacillus that is the source of the BamHI restriction enzyme. ... Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was discovered in soil 1943 by a Japanese scientist named Fukumoto, who gave the bacterium its name ... Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is considered a root-colonizing biocontrol bacterium, and is used to fight some plant root pathogens ...
... is a species of bacteria within the genus Bacillus. Some strains of this species are very alkaline-tolerant and ... Bacillus, Bacteria described in 1933, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ... Type strain of Bacillus firmus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... alkaline protease from Bacillus firmus CAS 7 by microbial conversion of marine wastes and molecular mechanism underlying ...
Bacillus, Bacteria described in 1995, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ... Bacillus clarkii is a facultative anaerobe bacterium. It is a gram positive, alkaliphilic and alkalitolerant, aerobic endospore ... and proposal for an emended genus Bacillus limiting it only to the members of the Subtilis and Cereus clades of species". ... UniProt entry Type strain of Bacillus clarkii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
"Reclassification of bioindicator strains Bacillus subtilis DSM 675 and Bacillus subtilis DSM 2277 as Bacillus atrophaeus". ... "Bacillus atrophaeus" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Bacillus atrophaeus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Nakamura, L. K. (1989). "Taxonomic Relationship of Black-pigmented Bacillus subtilis Strains and a Proposal for Bacillus ... Bacillus, Bacteria described in 1989, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ...
A bacillus (pl. bacilli), also called a bacilliform bacterium or often just a rod (when the context makes the sense clear), is ... However, the name Bacillus, capitalized and italicized, refers to a specific genus of bacteria. The name Bacilli, capitalized ... "Gram Negative Bacilli". NYU School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. "Gram negative bacilli". ... Diplobacilli: Two bacilli arranged side by side with each other. Streptobacilli: Bacilli arranged in chains. Coccobacillus: ...
... is a facultative anaerobe bacterium. It is a gram positive, alkaliphilic and alkalitolerant, aerobic ... Nielsen, P.; Fritze, D.; Priest, F. G. (1995). "Phenetic diversity of alkaliphilic Bacillus strains: proposal for nine new ...
... is a species of ground beetle in the subfamily Scaritinae. It was described by Hermann Rudolph Schaum in ...
... is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Terebridae, the auger snails. The length ... Media related to Impages bacillus at Wikimedia Commons Deshayes G.P. (1859). A general review of the genus Terebra, and a ... 1267 pp Terryn Y. & Keppens M. (2020). A re-evaluation of the taxa Hastula hectica (Linnaeus, 1758) and Hastula bacillus ( ... Hastula bacillus (Deshayes, 1859). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia. ...
Vilas-Bôas GT, Peruca AP, Arantes OM (June 2007). "Biology and taxonomy of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bacillus cereus. Wikispecies has information related to Bacillus cereus. Bacillus cereus ... January 2013). "Bacillus cytotoxicus sp. nov. is a novel thermotolerant species of the Bacillus cereus group occasionally ... Kolstø AB, Tourasse NJ, Økstad OA (2009). "What sets Bacillus anthracis apart from other Bacillus species?". Annual Review of ...
"Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis infection in a patient with oesophageal perforation". Journal of Medical ... 2009 Bacillus licheniformis genome Type strain of Bacillus licheniformis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ( ... "Comparative growth analysis of the facultative anaerobes Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Escherichia coli". ... Bacillus licheniformis is a bacterium commonly found in the soil. It is found on bird feathers, especially chest and back ...
Bacillus marinus Bacillus lentimorbus Bacillus oleronius Priest FG (1993) Systematics and Ecology of Bacillus. In: Sonenshein ... Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming bacillus commonly found in soil. Bacillus pumilus spores-with the ... Potekhina N.V. "Phosphate Containing Cell Wall Polymers of Bacilli" Biochem 2011 (76) 745. "Bacillus pumilus strain GB 34 ( ... Bacillus pumilus (ATCC 27142) may be utilized (as a biological indicator or 'BI' for short) to monitor Gamma, Electron Beam (E- ...
... is a Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming bacillus. Originally isolated from human intestines and described in ... Bacillus, Bacteria described in 1919, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ... purification and properties of new restriction endonucleases from Bacillus badius and Bacillus lentus". Microbiological ... doi:10.1007/s12010-014-0800-y. Type strain of Bacillus badius at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles ...
Media related to Bacillus rossius at Wikimedia Commons Phasmid Study Group: Bacillus rossius Bacillus rossius at phasmatodea. ... A stick bug Bacillus atticus atticus, the endemic Bacillus of Greece "Bacillus rossius". Global Biodiversity Information ... The European stick insect (Bacillus rossius) also called the European stick bug or the European walking stick and the ... Sungaya Verlag, Berlin 2012, S. 73, ISBN 978-3-943592-00-9 "Bacillus rossius at bugsincyberspace.com". Archived from the ...
1984 Bacillus rossius - Rossi, 1788 - type species Bacillus whitei - Nascetti & Bullini, 1981 Bacillus atticus atticus is an ... 1882 Bacillus grandii - Nascetti & Bullini, 1982 Bacillus inermis - (Thunberg, 1815) Bacillus lynceorum - Bullini, Nascetti & ... Bacillus is a stick insect genus, common in Europe and North Africa. The Phasmida Species File lists: Bacillus atticus - ... List of Phasmatodea of Australia: Bacillus peristhenellus is a synonym of Hyrtacus caurus (Tepper, 1905). Phasmida Species File ...
Outbreaks of Bacillus anthracis in animals are repeatedly reported in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In this study soil samples ... Characterization of Bacillus anthracis spores isolates from soil by biochemical and multiplex PCR analysis  ...
... [This is taken from Eugene Fields The Love Affairs of a Bibliomaniac.] ... it is he who discovered the bacillus librorum, and, what is still more important and still more to his glory, it is he who ...
Bacillus coagulans is used by some people as a type of good bacteria, similar to probiotics. It may be beneficial for ... B. Coagulans, Bacillus Bacteria, Bacillus Probiotics, Bactéries Bacilles, Bactéries à Gram Positif Sporogènes, Bactérie Gram ... Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) is a type of probiotic ("good" bacteria). It isnt naturally found in the body, but it ... The effectiveness ratings for BACILLUS COAGULANS are as follows:. Possibly effective for.... *Constipation. Taking B. coagulans ...
In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten ,i,Bacillus subtilis,/i, strains previously identified as ... Fermentation processes by ,i,Bacillus subtilis,/i, using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical ... Bacillus,/i, are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and ... J. L. Giongo, Caracterização e aplicação de proteases produzidas por linhagens de Bacillus sp [thesis], Universidade Federal do ...
The Structure of a family 25 Glycosyl hydrolase from Bacillus anthracis. ... Here we report the 3-D structure of the GH25 enzyme from Bacillus anthracis at 1.4A resolution. We show that the active center ... The Crystal Structure of a Family Gh25 Lysozyme from Bacillus Anthracis Implies a Neighboring-Group Catalytic Mechanism with ... The Structure of a family 25 Glycosyl hydrolase from Bacillus anthracis.. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/pdb2WAG/pdb ...
Timeline for Species Bacillus halmapalus [TaxId:79882] from b.71.1.1 Bacterial alpha-Amylase: *Species Bacillus halmapalus [ ... PDB entry in Species: Bacillus halmapalus [TaxId: 79882]:. *Domain(s) for 1w9x: *. Domain d1w9xa1: 1w9x A:399-485 [120799]. ... Species Bacillus halmapalus [TaxId:79882] [141551] (1 PDB entry). Uniprot P19571 432-518 ... Lineage for Species: Bacillus halmapalus [TaxId: 79882]. *Root: SCOPe 2.08 *. Class b: All beta proteins [48724] (180 folds). ...
... On 4 June 2010, the Centre for Food Safety (CFS) released its Food Safety Report for April. ... Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogenic bacterium ubiquitous in the environment. It can form heat-resistant spores and ... Excessive level of Bacillus cereus was found in a milk drink that requires refrigeration. Immediately after the results were ... Consuming food contaminated with Bacillus cereus or its toxin may cause food poisoning symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhoea ...
Guidelines for production of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 and Bacillus sphaericus / editors, H. T. Dulmage ... [‎et al.]‎  ... Safety tests on mice with Bacillus sphaericus serotype H-5a,5b, strain 2362 / H. de Barjac ... [‎et al.]‎  ... Informal Consultation on the Development of Bacillus Sphaericus as a Microbial Larvicide (‎1985: Geneva)‎; UNDP/World Bank/WHO ... Informal consultation on the development of Bacillus sphaericus as a microbial larvicide, Geneva, 7-11 October 1985  ...
Bacillus bacteria, as a treatment for bacterial gut infections. Bacillus given orally stopped colonizing pathogenic ... Oral Probiotic Bacillus Prevents Enterococcal Sepsis in Mouse Study. NIAID intramural scientists have shared an unexpected ... Oral Probiotic Bacillus Prevents Enterococcal Sepsis in Mouse Study. NIAID Now , November 24, 2021 ... In 2018 the same NIAID researchers, led by Michael Otto, Ph.D., published findings showing that people who had Bacillus in ...
Offspring from Sequential Matings between Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible Heliothis ... "Offspring from Sequential Matings between Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible Heliothis ... "Offspring from Sequential Matings between Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible Heliothis ... We designed a series of experiments to determine whether Bacillus thuringiensis susceptibility is maintained when an H. ...
Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase ... Hurtle W, Bode E, Kulesh DA, Kaplan RS, Garrison J, Bridge D, Detection of the Bacillus anthracis gyrA gene by using a minor ... Pearson T, Busch JD, Ravel J, Read TD, Rhoton SD, URen JM, Phylogenetic discovery bias in Bacillus anthracis using single- ... Identification of Bacillus anthracis by API tests. J Med Microbiol. 1985;20:75-85. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Spinal Epidural Abscess Due to Friedlanders Bacillus. Robert Katzman, William A. Sibley ...
Bacillus cereus 03BB102). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
... and Protein Functionalization in Bacillus subtilis. In: ACS Synthetic Biology, Vol. 9, No. 3: pp. 486-493 ... using the amber suppression method and their efficient secretion in the biotechnological relevant expression host Bacillus ...
Helgason E, Okstad OA, Caugant DA, Johansen HA, Fouet A, Mock M, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus ... Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Microbiol Immunol. ... Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase ... Turnbull PC, Hutson RA, Ward MJ, Jones MN, Quinn CP, Finnie NJ, Bacillus anthracis but not always anthrax. J Appl Bacteriol. ...
... a non-lethal dairy isolate in the same genetic subgroup as Bacillus anthracis. Comparison of the chromosomes demonstrated that ... We sequenced the complete genome of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, ... Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 contains a single large plasmid ( ... The genome sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 reveals metabolic adaptations and a large plasmid related to Bacillus ... We sequenced the complete genome of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, a non-lethal dairy isolate in the same genetic subgroup as ...
Ectoine Synthesis and Proline Uptake are Involved in Osmoadaptation of an Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. U-21. $0.00. ... Ectoine Synthesis and Proline Uptake are Involved in Osmoadaptation of an Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. U-21 quantity. ... Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain U-21 belongs to Bacillus halodurans. ... the effects of hypersaline treatment on accumulation of compatible solute in alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. U-21 have been ...
Molecular Characterization and Batch Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis as Biocontrol Agent, II ... Comparative analysis of 23S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Bacillus anthracis and emetic Bacillus cereus determined by PCR- ... Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase ... ln biomass (X) in g L-1 as a function of time in the exponential growth phase of batch cultivation of Bacillus subtilis isolate ...
Charakterisierung der essentiellen Eisen-Schwefel-Cluster Biosynthesekomponenten des Suf-Systems in Bacillus subtilis Eisen- ...
Bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Reference. Fisher AJ, Rosenstiel TN, Shirk MC, Fall R. Nonradioactive assay for cellular ... Wild-type Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051) was grown in a glucose-Tryptone salts medium (F medium). ...
Metabolic Fluxes during Strong Carbon Catabolite Repression by Malate in Bacillus subtilis. * Mendeley ...
Transfer and expression of the genes of Bacillus branched chain alpha-oxo acid decarboxylase in Lycopersicun esculentum ... Transfer and expression of the genes of Bacillus branched chain alpha-oxo acid decarboxylase in Lycopersicun esculentum ...
Production and some properties of the thermostable feruloyl esterase and xylanase from Bacillus pumilus * Y Xue ... Keywords: Bacillus pumilus, feruloyl esterase, xylanase, production, partial characterization Abstract. This paper reports the ... enhanced production of extracellular thermostable feruloyl esterase and xylanase from Bacillus pumilus by optimization of ...
2021 guidelines for treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology ... Guidelines for the treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli were published in December 2021 by the European ... Cite this: Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Clinical Practice Guidelines (ESCMID, 2021) - Medscape - Jan ... Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Clinical Practice Guidelines (ESCMID, 2021). European Society of ...
Antagonism of Bacillus subtilis Against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Lactuca sativa ... Antagonism of Bacillus subtilis Against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Lactuca sativa. * Fernando Monteiro ... The objectives of this study were select and test the efficiency of the Bacillus subtilis strain and its metabolites against ...
Study Gram-Positive Branching Filamentous Bacilli flashcards from Jason Worley's class online, or in Brainscape's ... Gram-Positive Branching Filamentous Bacilli Flashcards Preview T2 - Sketchy - Micro (Complete Review) :!: , Gram-Positive ...
van Schaik W, van der Voort M, Molenaar D, Moezelaar R, de Vos WM, Abee T. Identification of the sigma(B) regulon of Bacillus ... Identification of the sigma(B) regulon of Bacillus cereus and conservation of sigma(B)-regulated genes in low-GC-content gram- ... Identification of the sigma(B) regulon of Bacillus cereus and conservation of sigma(B)-regulated genes in low-GC-content gram- ... Identification of the sigma(B) regulon of Bacillus cereus and conservation of sigma(B)-regulated genes in low-GC-content gram- ...
klebs-loeffler bacillus - خَنّاق کا ایک جَوثُومَہ - Find meaning and translation in Urdu to English to Urdu dictionary having ... Klebs-loeffler bacillus. خَنّاق کا ایک ج
Characterization of Bacillus anthracis spores isolates from soil by biochemical and multiplex PCR analysis ... Relationship of Bacillus subtilis clades associated with strains 168 and W23: a proposal for Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis ... Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis and other "Bacillus cereus group" bacteria using IS231-derived sequences. FEMS ... Characterization of Bacillus anthracis spores isolates from soil by biochemical and multiplex PCR analysis ...
  • In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacillus subtilis secretes different lipases that vary according to growth and environmental conditions, pH, and amino acid supply [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this research project was to study the production of amylases, proteases, and lipases by Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers, including the use of cassava wastewater as culture medium. (hindawi.com)
  • The strains of Bacillus subtilis assessed in this study were ATCC 21332 from the American Type Culture Collection and LB2B, LB115, LB117, LB1a, LB5a, LB114, LB262, LB157, and LB2a from the culture collection of the Bioflavors Laboratory (DCA/FEA/Unicamp). (hindawi.com)
  • Here we report a general strategy that allows the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into target proteins using the amber suppression method and their efficient secretion in the biotechnological relevant expression host Bacillus subtilis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Fourteen Bacillus subtilis isolates (B1 to B14) obtained from different Egyptian sites had different antagonistic and inhibitory effect against six fungal isolates belonging to four different genera, Rhizoctonia solani , Helminthosporium sp. (scialert.net)
  • The objectives of this study were select and test the efficiency of the Bacillus subtilis strain and its metabolites against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in all stages of its cycle. (ccsenet.org)
  • In fact, the easiness of culture of Bacillus subtilis , as well as its natural ability to incorporate naked DNA into its genome from the environment, has made this bacteria an excellent model organism. (phylomedb.org)
  • Enterococcal bacteremia in mice is prevented by oral administration of probiotic Bacillus spores. (nih.gov)
  • Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that causes the acute mammalian disease anthrax when endospores enter the body. (cdc.gov)
  • Turnbull PC , Hutson RA , Ward MJ , Jones MN , Quinn CP , Finnie NJ , Bacillus anthracis but not always anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • Okinaka RT , Cloud K , Hampton O , Hoffmaster AR , Hill KK , Keim P , Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. (cdc.gov)
  • Patra G , Vaissaire J , Weber-Levy M , Le Doujet C , Mock M . Molecular characterization of Bacillus strains involved in outbreaks of anthrax in France in 1997. (cdc.gov)
  • Jackson PJ , Hugh-Jones ME , Adair DM , Green G , Hill KK , Kuske CR , PCR analysis of tissue samples from the 1979 Sverdlovsk anthrax victims: the presence of multiple Bacillus anthracis strains in different victims. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 contains a single large plasmid (pBc10987), of approximately 208 kb, that is similar in gene content and organization to B.anthracis pXO1 but is lacking the pathogenicity-associated island containing the anthrax lethal and edema toxin complex genes. (nih.gov)
  • Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax in mammals [1]. (who.int)
  • Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax disease and exerts its deleterious effects by the release of three exotoxins, i.e. lethal factor, protective antigen and edema factor (EF), a highly active calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase (AC). (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Excessive level of Bacillus cereus was found in a milk drink that requires refrigeration. (gov.hk)
  • Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogenic bacterium ubiquitous in the environment. (gov.hk)
  • Consuming food contaminated with Bacillus cereus or its toxin may cause food poisoning symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhoea. (gov.hk)
  • We sequenced the complete genome of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, a non-lethal dairy isolate in the same genetic subgroup as Bacillus anthracis. (nih.gov)
  • Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) is a type of probiotic ("good" bacteria). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. (hindawi.com)
  • NIAID intramural scientists have shared an unexpected finding in their continuing study of a common probiotic digestive supplement, Bacillus bacteria, as a treatment for bacterial gut infections. (nih.gov)
  • In order to explore the behavior of alkaliphilic bacteria in hypersaline conditions, the effects of hypersaline treatment on accumulation of compatible solute in alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. (novapublishers.com)
  • The species of the genus Bacillus are known to be producers of enzymes of industrial interest. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we used the rpoB gene as a chromosomal marker to discriminate between B. anthracis and closely related bacillus species. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacillus anthracis pXO1 plasmid sequence conservation among closely related bacterial species. (cdc.gov)
  • used the RAPD technique to distinguish between seven Bacillus species. (scialert.net)
  • Bacillus species were the most common isolates from the children blood samples with malnutrition. (who.int)
  • Ramisse V , Patra G , Garrigue H , Guesdon GL , Mock M . Identification and characterization of Bacillus anthracis by multiplex PCR analysis of sequences on plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 and chromosomal DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • We studied 4 B. anthracis -specific rpoB SNPs located at positions 911, 912, 913, and 914 in duplex sequencing reactions by using a unique sequencing primer for each desired SNP in a collection of 17 anthracis and 10 non-anthracis Bacillus strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacterial control of mosquitoes and black flies : biochemistry, genetics and applications of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and bacillus sphaericus / Huguette de Barjac, Donald J. Sutherland, editors. (who.int)
  • Bacillus sphaericus : étude de l' activité larvicide vis à vis d' Anopheles stephensi, essai d' isolement et de caractérisation d' un facteur toxique / par Catherine Bourgouin. (who.int)
  • Etude du pouvoir pathogène de Bacillus thuringiensis var Israelensis sur les larves de culicidae (diptères nématocères : mise au point d'un titrage biologique / par Isabelle Larget. (who.int)
  • Cristallogénèse de Bacillus thuringiensis var. (who.int)
  • Lee MA , Brightwell G , Leslie D , Bird H , Hamilton A . Fluorescent detection techniques for real-time multiplex strand specific detection of Bacillus anthracis using rapid PCR. (cdc.gov)
  • Un test d'amplification en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) multiplex a également été mis au point pour identifier les isolats, et il s'est avéré que cette autre solution constituait un test diagnostique rapide, sensible et précis. (who.int)
  • Cite this: Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Clinical Practice Guidelines (ESCMID, 2021) - Medscape - Jan 31, 2022. (medscape.com)
  • Organism-specific therapeutic regimens for chronic rhinosinusitis are outlined below, including those for Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae and/or Moraxella catarrhalis , Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , anaerobic and micoaerophilic gram positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. (medscape.com)
  • Molecular cloning and gene regulation in bacilli / edited by A.T. Ganesan, Shing Chang, James A. Hoch. (who.int)
  • Outbreaks of Bacillus anthracis in animals are repeatedly reported in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • Bacillus given orally stopped colonizing pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis from spreading into the bloodstream and causing a system-wide infection known as sepsis. (nih.gov)
  • The thermostable proteases produced by Bacillus spp. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper reports the enhanced production of extracellular thermostable feruloyl esterase and xylanase from Bacillus pumilus by optimization of inducing carbon sources. (ajol.info)
  • Here we report the 3-D structure of the GH25 enzyme from Bacillus anthracis at 1.4A resolution. (rcsb.org)
  • Demonstration of a capsule plasmid in Bacillus anthracis. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6068 decreases upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract symptoms in healthy Mexican scholar-aged children by modulating immune-related proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Makino SI , Iinuma-Okada Y , Maruyama T , Ezaki T , Sasakawa C , Yoshikawa M . Direct detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in animals by polymerase chain reaction. (cdc.gov)
  • Qi Y , Patra G , Liang X , Williams LE , Rose S , Redkar RJ , Utilization of the rpoB gene as a specific chromosomal marker for real-time PCR detection of Bacillus anthracis. (cdc.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain U-21 belongs to Bacillus halodurans. (novapublishers.com)
  • Studies on production of entomopathogenic bacilli affecting mosquitoes with emphasis on the use of local materials / by Jason A. N. Obeta. (who.int)
  • Tuberculous spondylitis following intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for bladder cancer surgically treated through the anterior approach. (bvsalud.org)
  • We used this technology to identify the warfare agent Bacillus anthracis by sequencing 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the rpoB gene as chromosomal markers for B. anthracis . (cdc.gov)
  • Effect of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2 with Lactulose on Functional Constipation in Adults: a Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like in the 2018 study of S. aureus , the scientists subsequently learned precisely how E. faecalis moves from the gut to the bloodstream and how Bacillus potentially could prevent that movement. (nih.gov)
  • These data represent administrative and official Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, to protect against severe forms of tuberculosis, coverage reported annually through the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on Immunization (JRF). (who.int)
  • however, for commercial applications, they are generally derived from Bacillus [ 1 , 3 - 6 ], such as B. licheniformis , B. stearothermophilus, and B. amyloliquefaciens . (hindawi.com)
  • Although patients with tuberculosis also generate larger particles containing numerous bacilli, these particles do not serve as effective vehicles for transmission of infection because they do not remain airborne, and if inhaled, do not reach alveoli. (cdc.gov)
  • The main amylases produced by Bacillus are resistant to heat, which is commercially important because numerous processes require high temperatures. (hindawi.com)