Bacillaceae: A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.Bacillaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Bacteria, AerobicBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Brevibacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae. Most strains have been isolated from the natural environment, particularly soils.Paenibacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae.Virgibacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family BACILLACEAE. They have been isolated from salty environments, food, water, and clinical specimens.Geobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacteria in the family BACILLACEAE.Polymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Trimethoprim Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Bromobenzenes: Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Bacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, phylum Firmicutes.Capparaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, that are mostly herbs and shrubs growing in warm arid regions. Several produce GLUCOSINOLATES.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.

Paenibacillus dendritiformis sp. nov., proposal for a new pattern-forming species and its localization within a phylogenetic cluster. (1/325)

A new strain capable of forming distinctive patterns during colony development was identified by using a combination of phenotypic characterization, fatty acid analysis and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain formed either a branched, tip-splitting colony morphology (referred to as the T morphotype) or a chiral pattern exhibiting thinner branches with distinctive curling patterns (referred to as the C morphotype). Isolates of the T morphotype exhibited sequence identities greater than 97% to Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus JCM 7540. Phylogenetic analysis placed the T morphotype within the Paenibacillus cluster on a phylogenetic tree. On the basis of unique colony morphology and distinctive phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the pattern-forming isolates should be placed within a new species of Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus dendritiformis sp. nov., the type strain of which is T168T (= 30A1T).  (+info)

Facklamia languida sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens. (2/325)

Three strains of a gram-positive catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus-shaped organism originating from human clinical samples were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Sequencing of genes encoding 16S rRNA showed that the strains are phylogenetically closely related (99.9 to 100% sequence similarity) and represent a new subline within the genus Facklamia. The unknown bacterium was readily distinguished from all currently described species of the genus Facklamia (viz., Facklamia hominis, Facklamia ignava, and Facklamia sourekii) by biochemical tests and electrophoretic analysis of whole-cell proteins. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as Facklamia languida sp. nov. The type strain of F. languida is CCUG 37842.  (+info)

Organization of genes for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in gram--positive bacteria. (3/325)

Clusters of genes encoding enzymes for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis were cloned from Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Brevibacillus brevis and Paenibacillus macerans. The sequences of all hemX genes found, and of a 6.3 kbp hem gene cluster from P. macerans, were determined. The structure of the hem gene clusters was compared to that of other Gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus and Brevibacillus species have a conserved organization of the genes hemAXCDBL, required for biosynthesis of uroporphyrinogen III (UroIII) from glutamyl-tRNA. In P. macerans, the hem genes for UroIII synthesis are also closely linked but their organization is different: there is no hemX gene and the gene cluster also contains genes, cysG8 and cysG(A)-hemD, encoding the enzymes required for synthesis of sirohaem from UroIII. Bacillus subtilis contains genes for three proteins, NasF, YInD and YInF, with sequence similarity to Escherichia coli CysG, which is a multi-functional protein catalysing sirohaem synthesis from UroIII. It is shown that YInF is required for sirohaem synthesis and probably catalyses the precorrin-2 to sirohaem conversion. YInD probably catalyses precorrin-2 synthesis from UroIII and NasF seems to be specific for nitrite reduction.  (+info)

Evidence for production of a new lantibiotic (butyrivibriocin OR79A) by the ruminal anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens OR79: characterization of the structural gene encoding butyrivibriocin OR79A. (4/325)

The ruminal anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens OR79 produces a bacteriocin-like activity demonstrating a very broad spectrum of activity. An inhibitor was isolated from spent culture fluid by a combination of ammonium sulfate and acidic precipitations, reverse-phase chromatography, and high-resolution gel filtration. N-terminal analysis of the isolated inhibitor yielded a 15-amino-acid sequence (G-N/Q-G/P-V-I-L-X-I-X-H-E-X-S-M-N). Two different amino acid residues were detected in the second and third positions from the N terminus, indicating the presence of two distinct peptides. A gene with significant homology to one combination of the determined N-terminal sequence was cloned, and expression of the gene was confirmed by Northern blotting. The gene (bvi79A) encoded a prepeptide of 47 amino acids and a mature peptide, butyrivibriocin OR79A, of 25 amino acids. Significant sequence homology was found between this peptide and previously reported lantibiotics containing the double-glycine leader peptidase processing site. Immediately downstream of bvi79A was a second, partial open reading frame encoding a peptide with significant homology to proteins which are believed to be involved in the synthesis of lanthionine residues. These findings indicate that the isolated inhibitory peptides represent new lantibiotics. Results from both total and N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that the second peptide was identical to butyrivibriocin OR79A except for amino acid substitutions in positions 2 and 3 of the mature lantibiotic. Only a single coding region was detected when restriction enzyme digests of total DNA were probed either with an oligonucleotide based on the 5' region of bvi79A or with degenerate oligonucleotides based on the predicted sequence of the second peptide.  (+info)

The binding site for an inhibitor of squalene:hopene cyclase determined using photoaffinity labeling and molecular modeling. (5/325)

BACKGROUND: The squalene:hopene cyclases (SHCs) are bacterial enzymes that convert squalene into hopanoids, a function analogous to the action of oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) in eukaryotic steroid and triterpenoid biosynthesis. We have identified the binding site for a selective, potent, photoactivatable inhibitor of an SHC. RESULTS: SHC from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius was specifically labeled by [3H]Ro48-8071, a benzophenone-containing hypocholesteremic drug. Edman degradation of a peptide fragment of covalently modified SHC confirmed that Ala44 was specifically modified. Molecular modeling, using X-ray-derived protein coordinates and a single point constraint for the inhibitor, suggested several geometries by which Ro48-8071 could occupy the active site. CONCLUSIONS: A covalent complex of a potent inhibitor with a squalene cyclase has been characterized. The amino acid modification and molecular modeling suggest that Ro48-8071 binds at the junction between the central cavity and substrate entry channel, therefore inhibiting access of the substrate to the active site.  (+info)

Comparative phylogeny of rrs and nifH genes in the Bacillaceae. (6/325)

The rrs (16S rDNA) gene sequences of nitrogen-fixing endospore-forming bacilli isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat and maize were determined in order to infer their phylogenetic position in the Bacillaceae. These rhizosphere strains form a monophyletic cluster with Paenibacillus azotofixans, Paenibacillus polymyxa and Paenibacillus macerans. Two of them (RSA19 and TOD45) had previously been identified as Bacillus circulans (group 2) by phenotypic characterization (API 50CH). Evidence for nitrogen fixation by P. azotofixans, P. polymyxa, P. macerans and putative B. circulans strains RSA19 and TOD45 was provided by acetylene-reduction activity, and confirmed by amplifying and sequencing a nifH fragment (370 nt). The phylogenetic tree of nifH-derived amino acid sequences was compared to the phylogenetic tree of rrs sequences. All Paenibacillus nifH sequences formed a coherent cluster distinct from that of related nitrogen-fixing anaerobic clostridia and Gram-positive high-G+C-content frankiae. The nifH gene was neither detected in the B. circulans type strain (ATCC 4513T) nor in the type strains of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus alcalophilus, Bacillus simplex, Brevibacillus brevis and Paenibacillus validus. Accordingly, nitrogen fixation among aerobic endospore-forming Firmicutes seems to be restricted to a subset of species in the genus Paenibacillus.  (+info)

Culturable populations of Sporomusa spp. and Desulfovibrio spp. in the anoxic bulk soil of flooded rice microcosms. (7/325)

Most-probable-number (MPN) counts were made of homoacetogenic and other bacteria present in the anoxic flooded bulk soil of laboratory microcosms containing 90- to 95-day-old rice plants. MPN counts with substrates known to be useful for the selective enrichment or the cultivation of homoacetogenic bacteria (betaine, ethylene glycol, 2, 3-butanediol, and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate) gave counts of 2.3 x 10(3) to 2.8 x 10(5) cells per g of dry soil. Homoacetogens isolated from the terminal positive steps of these dilution cultures belonged to the genus Sporomusa. Counts with succinate, ethanol, and lactate gave much higher MPNs of 5.9 x 10(5) to 3.4 x 10(7) cells per g of dry soil and led to the isolation of Desulfovibrio spp. Counting experiments on lactate and ethanol which included Methanospirillum hungatei in the medium gave MPNs of 2.3 x 10(6) to 7.5 x 10(8) cells per g of dry soil and led to the isolation of Sporomusa spp. The latter strains could grow with betaine, ethylene glycol, 2, 3-butanediol, and/or 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, but apparently most cells of Sporomusa spp. did not initiate growth in counting experiments with those substrates. Spores apparently accounted for 2. 2% or less of the culturable bacteria. It appears that culturable Desulfovibrio spp. and Sporomusa spp. were present in approximately equal numbers in the bulk soil. Multiple, phylogenetically-distinct, phenotypically-different, strains of each genus were found in the same soil system.  (+info)

Distribution and evolution of the xylanase genes xynA and xynB and their homologues in strains of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. (8/325)

The ruminal bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is being engineered by the introduction of heterologous xylanase genes in an attempt to improve the utilization of plant material in ruminants. However, relatively little is known about the diversity and distribution of the native xylanase genes in strains of B. fibrisolvens. In order to identify the most appropriate hosts for such modifications, the xylanase genotypes of 28 strains from the three 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) subgroups of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens have been investigated. Only 4 of the 20 strains from 16S rDNA group 2 contained homologues of the strain Bu49 xynA gene. However, these four xynA-containing strains, and two other group 2 strains, contained members of a second xylanase gene family clearly related to xynA (subfamily I). Homologues of xynB, a second previously described xylanase gene from B. fibrisolvens, were identified only in three of the seven group 1 strains and not in the group 2 and 3 strains. However, six of the group 1 strains contained one or more members of the two subfamilies of homologues of xynA. The distribution of genes and the nucleotide sequence relationships between the members of the two xynA subfamilies are consistent with the progenitor of all strains of B. fibrisolvens having contained a xynA subfamily I gene. Since many xylanolytic strains of B. fibrisolvens did not contain members of either of the xynA subfamilies or of the xynB family, at least one additional xylanase gene family remains to be identified in B. fibrisolvens.  (+info)

Symbiobacterium toebii is a commensal symbiotic thermophile that absolutely requires its partner bacterium Geobacillus toebii for growth. Despite development of an independent cultivation method using cell-free extracts, the growth of Symbiobacterium remains unknown due to our poor understanding of the symbiotic relationship with its partner bacterium. Here, we investigated the interrelationship between these two bacteria for growth of S. toebii using different cell-free extracts of G. toebii. Symbiobacterium toebii growth-supporting factors were constitutively produced through almost all growth phases and under different oxygen tensions in G. toebii, indicating that the factor may be essential components for growth of G. toebii as well as S. toebii. The growing conditions of G. toebii under different oxygen tension dramatically affected to the initial growth of S. toebii and the retarded lag phase was completely shortened by reducing agent, L-cysteine indicating an evidence of commensal interaction of
The control of Aedes aegypti is usually based on chemical insecticides, but the overuse of these compounds has led to increased resistance. The binary toxin produced by Lysinibacillus sphaericus in the final stages of sporulation is used for mosquito control due to its specificity against the culicid larvae; however, it has been proved that Ae. aegypti is refractory for this toxin. Currently, there is no evidence of the use of L. sphaericus vegetative cells for mosquito biocontrol. Therefore, in this study, the vegetative cells of three L. sphaericus strains were assessed against a field-collected Ae. aegypti, resistant to temephos, and the reference Rockefeller strain. Vegetative cells of L. sphaericus 2362, III(3)7 and OT4b.25 produced between 90% and 100% of larvae mortality in the reference Rockefeller strain. Effective concentrations of each L. sphaericus strain for the four larval stages ranged from 1.4 to 2 × 107 CFU/ml. Likewise, a consortium of L. sphaericus assessed against a field-collected
Lysinibacillus sphaericus (reclassified - previously known as Bacillus sphaericus) is a Gram-positive, mesophilic, rod-shaped bacterium commonly found on soil. It can form resistant endospores that are tolerant to high temperatures, chemicals and ultraviolet light and can remain viable for long periods of time. It is of particular interest to the World Health Organization due to the larvicide effect of some strains against two mosquitoes genera (Culex and Anopheles), more effective than Bacillus thuringiensis, frequently used as a biological pest control. Its important to highlight that its uneffective against Aedes aegypti, an important vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses. Within the species L. sphaericus it exists five homology groups (I-V), with group II further dividing into subgroups IIA and IIB. Due to the low levels of homology between groups, it has been suggested that each might represent a distinct species, but owing to a lack of research on this topic, all remain designated as ...
Ellibs Ebookstore - Ebook: Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus - Author: Crickmore, Neil (#editor) - Price: 163,65€
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The most distinguishing feature of most members of the family Bacillaceae (phylum Firmicutes) is their ability to form endospores that provide high resistance to heat, radiation, chemicals, and drought, allowing these bacteria to survive adverse conditions for a prolonged period of time. Bacillaceae are widely distributed in natural environments, and their habitats are as varied as the niches humans have thought to sample. Over the years of microbiological research, members of this family have been found in soil, sediment, and air, as well as in unconventional environments such as clean rooms in the Kennedy Space Center, a vaccine-producing company, and even human blood ( 1 - 3 ). Moreover, members of the Bacillaceae have been detected in freshwater and marine ecosystems, in activated sludge, in human and animal systems, and in various foods (including fermented foods), but recently also in extreme environments such as hot solid and liquid systems (compost and hot springs, respectively), salt lakes, and
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
The Bacillaceae are a family of rod-shaped, usually Gram-positive bacteria that produce endospores and are commonly found in spores. Genera commonly is identified as bacillus. The Bacillus are aerobic bacteria, peritrichously flagellated and are either motile or non motile. Most are non-pathogenic; however, the most common pathogen of the species is Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax. ...
Initial step of β-oxidation is catalyzed by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in prokaryotes and mitochondria, while acyl-CoA oxidase primarily functions in the peroxisomes of eukaryotes. Oxidase reaction accompanies emission of toxic by-product reactive oxygen molecules including superoxide anion, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities are essential to detoxify them in the peroxisomes. Although there is an argument about whether primitive life was born and evolved under high temperature conditions, thermophilic archaea apparently share living systems with both bacteria and eukaryotes. We hypothesized that alkane degradation pathways in thermophilic microorganisms could be premature and useful to understand their evolution. An extremely thermophilic and alkane degrading Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23 was previously isolated from a deep subsurface oil reservoir in Japan. In the present study, we identified novel membrane proteins (P16, P21) and superoxide dismutase (P24) whose production levels were
Arabinanases are glycosidases that hydrolyse α-(1→5)- arabinofuranosidic linkages found in the backbone of the pectic polysaccharide arabinan. Here we describe the biochemical characterization and the enzyme-substrate crystal structure of an inverting family 43 arabinanase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 (AbnB). Based on viscosity and reducing power measurements, and based on product analysis for the hydrolysis of linear arabinan by AbnB, the enzyme works in an endo mode of action. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies of a catalytic mutant with various arabino-oligosaccharides suggested that the enzyme active site can accommodate at least five arabinose units. The crystal structure of AbnB was determined at 1.06 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution, revealing a single five-bladed-β-propeller fold domain. Co-crystallization of catalytic mutants of the enzyme with different substrates allowed us to obtain complex structures of AbnBE201A with arabinotriose and AbnBD147A with arabinobiose. ...
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC ® 10149™ Designation: NRS T15 TypeStrain=False Application: Assay of lactam antibiotics beta-lactam antibiotics This strain is recommended by ATCC for use in the tests described in AOAC Official Methods 982.15, 982.18, and 988.08 where only the taxon is specified. Food testing
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC ® 10149™ Designation: NRS T15 TypeStrain=False Application: Assay of lactam antibiotics beta-lactam antibiotics This strain is recommended by ATCC for use in the tests described in AOAC Official Methods 982.15, 982.18, and 988.08 where only the taxon is specified. Food testing
A moderately thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacillus, which had been reported and designated BLx ( Haruta et al., 2002 ), was isolated from a semi-continuous decomposing system of kitchen refuse. Cells of strain BLxT were strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile and spore forming. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were approximately 50 °C and pH 8-9. Strain BLxT was able to grow at NaCl concentrations from 0·5 to 7·5 %, with optimum growth at 0·5 % NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the major fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain BLxT was positioned in an independent lineage within the cluster that includes the genera Virgibacillus and Lentibacillus in Bacillus rRNA group 1. Strain BLxT exhibited 16S rDNA similarity of 92·8-94·8 % to Virgibacillus species and 92·3 % to Lentibacillus salicampi. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses supported the classification of strain BLxT in a novel genus and species. Cerasibacillus quisquiliarum gen
Anaerococcus is a genus of bacteria. Its type species is Anaerococcus prevotii. These bacteria are Gram-positive, anaerobic, indole-negative cocci. Its genome was sequenced in August 2009. It can cause infection and is a normal part of the human microbiome. It is a pathogen of humans found in ovarian abscesses, chronic wounds and vaginal discharge. It can be present in urinary tract infections, chronic ulcers, pleural empyema, blood infections, and soft tissue infections. It is involved in polymicrobial infections. Anaerococcus senegalensis Anaerococcus murdochii Anaerococcus vaginalis Anaerococcus tetradius Anaerococcus prevotii Anaerococcus octavius Anaerococcus lactolyticus Parte, A.C. "Anaerococcus". Retrieved 27 March 2017. "BacMap". Retrieved 27 March 2017. Murphy, Elizabeth Carmel; Frick, Inga-Maria (2013). "Gram-positive anaerobic cocci - commensals and opportunistic pathogens". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 37 (4): 520-553. doi:10.1111/1574-6976.12005. ISSN 1574-6976 ...
The gene encoding the GK0453 protein (gi:56418988) was amplified via PCR using G. kaustophilus HTA426 genomic DNA and was cloned into the pET-15b expression vector (Merck Novagen, Darmstadt, Germany). The tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease recognition sequence was inserted in the N-terminal tag region of the expression vector, which was then introduced into the Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) strain (Merck Novagen, Darmstadt, Germany). The recombinant strain was cultured in 5 l LB medium containing 30 µg ml−1 chloramphenicol and 50 µg ml−1 ampicillin. The harvested cells (23.3 g) were lysed by sonication on ice in 35 ml of 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 8.0 containing 500 mM NaCl, 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol and 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The cell lysate was heat-treated at 343 K for 13 min and then centrifuged at 15 000g for 30 min at 277 K. The supernatant was applied onto a HisTrap HP column (GE Healthcare Biosciences) equilibrated with 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 8.0 containing 500 mM NaCl ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [J W Swearingen, D E Fuentes, M A Araya, M F Plishker, C P Saavedra, T G Chasteen, C C Vásquez].
General Information: Anoxybacillus flavithermus, formerly Bacillus flavothermus, was isolated from a hot spring in New Zealand. This organism can tolerate a pH of up to 9.0. Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. ...
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SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2egg.1. Crystal Structure of Shikimate 5-Dehydrogenase (AroE) from Geobacillus kaustophilus
isolates originating from thermal springs water of Zara and Main in Jordan. The isolate was as spore-forming bacilli. Species was chosen for further studies due to its ability to grow in minimal salt media and high ability to secrete extracellular protease enzymes during growth on suitable media such as skimmed milk.. Morphological studies conducted on the strain showed interesting observations that can be summarized as follows:. The bacterial isolate WI is rod shaped, and motile by peritrichous flagella (fig 1).. The formation of spheroplasts seen in the isolated cluster is an important characteristic during the decline phase of growth.. The chemotaxonomic methods employed did not allow further differentiation below the level of the genus.. The new isolate is aerobic catalase-producing microorganism, distinguished by the formation of terminal cylindrical endospore, characterizing members of the family Bacillaceae.. The WI has great ability to ferment different types of sugars and carbon ...
1K9D: Crystal Structures of Geobacillus stearothermophilus {alpha}-Glucuronidase Complexed with Its Substrate and Products: MECHANISTIC IMPLICATIONS.
1K9D: Crystal Structures of Geobacillus stearothermophilus {alpha}-Glucuronidase Complexed with Its Substrate and Products: MECHANISTIC IMPLICATIONS.
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Bacillaceae; Bacillus; Bacillus ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Bacillaceae; Bacillus; group; Bacillus ...
A new high-alkaline protease (ALTP) was purified to homogeneity from a culture of the strictly anaerobic and extremely alkaliphilic Alkaliphilus transvaale
Author. By Mogahid M. El Hassan, Kanury V.S. Rao, Zaved Siddique, Dinesh S. Kumar, Rashmi Tickoo, Nageeb S. Saeed, Moawia M. Mukhtar, Mohamed E. Hamid .. Abstracts. Nocardia africana is a pulmonary pathogen which has been recently isolated from human in Sudan. There is great need for proteomic investigations but they are sparse at present. First attempts on N. africana SD 769 (DSM44491) visualized 74 protein of molecular weights between 10 -250 kDa and isoelectric points between 4 7. Due to the limited database information, identified proteins were assigned by homology to sequences from the other bacterial species such as Staphylococcus aureus, Oceanobacillus iheyensis, N. farcinica and Yersinia pestis References. FULL Text ...
A thermostable extracellular lipase of Geobacillus sp. strain T1 was cloned in a prokaryotic system. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,251 bp in length which codes for a polypeptide of 416 amino acid residues. The polypeptide was composed of a signal peptide (28 amino acids) and a mature protein of 388 amino acids. Instead of Gly, Ala was substituted as the first residue of the conserved pentapeptide Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly. Successful gene expression was obtained with pBAD, pRSET, pET, and pGEX as under the control of araBAD, T7, T7 lac, and tac promoters, respectively. Among them, pGEX had a specific activity of 30.19 Umg−1 which corresponds to 2927.15 Ug−1 of wet cells after optimization. The recombinant lipase had an optimum temperature and pH of 65°C and pH 9, respectively. It was stable up to 65°C at pH 7 and active over a wide pH range (pH 6-11). This study presents a rapid cloning and overexpression, aimed at improving the enzyme yield for successful industrial ...
The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group consists of six species (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis). While classical microbial taxonomy proposed these organisms as distinct species, newer molecular phylogenies and comparative genome sequencing suggests that these organisms should be classified as a single species (thus, we will refer to these organisms collectively as the Bc species-group). How do we account for the underlying similarity of these phenotypically diverse microbes? It has been established for some time that the most rapidly evolving and evolutionarily flexible portions of the bacterial genome are regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks. Other studies have suggested that the sigma factor gene family of these organisms has diverged and expanded significantly relative to their ancestors; sigma factors are those portions of the bacterial transcriptional apparatus that control RNA polymerase recognition for promoter
This is a homepage of the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE).Information on Brevibacillus brevis NBRC 100599 (= 47) of Biotechnology Field is published.
ID A0A0F6BI10_GEOS0 Unreviewed; 115 AA. AC A0A0F6BI10; DT 24-JUN-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUN-2015, sequence version 1. DT 11-DEC-2019, entry version 22. DE RecName: Full=DUF3870 domain-containing protein {ECO:0000259,Pfam:PF12986}; GN OrderedLocusNames=GY4MC1_0212 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADP73061.1}; OS Geobacillus sp. (strain Y4.1MC1). OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Bacillaceae; Geobacillus; OC unclassified Geobacillus. OX NCBI_TaxID=581103 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADP73061.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADP73061.1} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Y4.1MC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADP73061.1}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Copeland A., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Bruce D., Goodwin L., RA Pitluck S., Chertkov O., Zhang X., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia R., Land M., RA Hauser L., Jeffries C., Kyrpides N., Ivanova N., Ovchinnikova G., Brumm P., RA Mead D., Woyke T.; RT "Complete sequence of chromosome of Geobacillus sp. Y4.1MC1."; RL Submitted ...
Halophilic bacteria grow over a wide range of salt concentrations. In this study we aimed to isolate and screen out the halophilic bacteria and to determine their activity for production of the bioactive compounds. A total of 50 water, sediments and soil samples were collected from Maharlu salt lake in southern region of Fars-Iran and subjected for isolation of the bioactive compound producing Halophilic bacteria. The results obtained indicated that out of all isolates, three strains could produce the bioactive compounds. The isolates were molecular (16SrRNA) identified as Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacterium Culaeen. Furthermore, structural analysis of the bioactive compounds was carried out in order to achieve maximum information concerning to them. The results obtained illustrated the existence of glycoprotein in all the bioactive compounds. Although, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillusniger and Mucor…. were sensitive to all the bioactive compounds, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
ID A0A0F6BHF6_GEOS0 Unreviewed; 450 AA. AC A0A0F6BHF6; DT 24-JUN-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUN-2015, sequence version 1. DT 11-DEC-2019, entry version 34. DE RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000577, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS01081161}; GN Name=dnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377}; GN OrderedLocusNames=GY4MC1_0001 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADP72857.1}; OS Geobacillus sp. (strain Y4.1MC1). OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Bacillaceae; Geobacillus; OC unclassified Geobacillus. OX NCBI_TaxID=581103 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADP72857.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADP72857.1} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Y4.1MC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ADP72857.1}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Copeland A., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Bruce D., Goodwin L., RA Pitluck S., Chertkov O., Zhang X., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia R., Land M., RA Hauser L., Jeffries C., Kyrpides N., Ivanova N., ...
YAO, Haiyan; REN, Yuan; WEI, Chaohai y YUE, Siyang. Biodegradation characterisation and kinetics of m-cresol by Lysinibacillus cresolivorans. Water SA [online]. 2011, vol.37, n.1, pp.15-20. ISSN 1816-7950.. A novel strain of m-cresol-degrading bacterium, named as Lysinibacillus cresolivorans, was isolated from aerobic sludge from a coking wastewater treatment plant. This bacterium is able to utilise m-cresol as its sole source of carbon and energy. The optimal pH for growth is 6.8 ~ 7.3 and the optimal temperature is 35ºC. Compared to organic nitrogen sources, inorganic nitrogen sources were easily utilised for the m-cresol biodegradation. The degradation rate of m-cresol at different starting concentrations was analysed with zero-order kinetic characteristics. When the initial concentration of m-cresol was 224.2 mg·ℓ-1, the reaction rate reached a maximum at 46.80 mg·(ℓ·h)-1.The cell growth kinetics was also investigated with initial m-cresol concentrations varying from 0 to 1 200 ...
Abstract: The crystal structure has been determined of the F1-catalytic domain of the ATP synthase from Mycobacterium smegmatis which hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) very poorly. The structure of the α3β3-component of the catalytic domain is similar to those in active F1-ATPases in Escherichia coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, its ε-subunit differs from those in these two active bacterial F1-ATPases as an ATP molecule is not bound to the two α-helices forming its C-terminal domain, probably because they are shorter than those in active enzymes and they lack an amino acid that contributes to the ATP binding site in active enzymes. In E. coli and G. stearothermophilus, the α-helices adopt an "up" state where the α-helices enter the α3β3-domain and prevent the rotor from turning. The mycobacterial F1-ATPase is most similar to the F1-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum, which also hydrolyzes ATP poorly. The βE-subunits in both enzymes are in the usual "open" ...
Isolation of hydrocarbon-degrading strain and culture condition. Approximately 2 g crude oil sample, collected from the Liaohe oilfield in the northeast of China, was suspended in 50 ml sterile water containing 0.15 g Tween-80 and 10 glass beads in diameter of 0.5 cm and shaken at 60°C and 120 rev/min. After the crude oil was completely emulsified, an aliquot of 10 ml emulsified crude oil was inoculated into 100 ml nutrient broth and incubated at 60°C and 120 rev/min for 2 days. The liquid culture was transferred into fresh nutrient broth at 10% inoculum and incubated in the same conditions for another 2 days. After five cycles of such transformation and incubation for bacterial enrichment, a 10-fold serial dilution of the enriched culture with sterile saline was spread on the selective medium plates. All plates were incubated at 60°C for 48 h. Colonies with different colony characteristics were selected from the selective medium plates and incubated in 100 ml of the liquid selective medium ...
With a very low "D-Value" data for the gold standard medical grade spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus of 2.3 - 2.6 D-Value (meaning a 90% kill within only 2.3 to 2.6 minutes of treatment), it wont take long to high level disinfect surfaces, including complex surface geometries, even in large process areas. Altapures system is easily scalable for any application or treatment area both large or small.. Altapures high level disinfection products is able to rapidly achieve clinically proven "No Growth" results on ALL treated room surfaces tested for: Bacterial Spores, Virus, & Vegetative Bacteria.. In addition, Altapures submicron sized droplets provide a gas-like diffusion of the treatment agent throughout the room, where the Altacare ™ cold sterilant is deposited as an "extremely thin film".. The result is a touch free / no touch high level disinfection system that is able to reach "no growth cultures" on ALL treated surfaces, even in large rooms, for bacteria such as but not limited ...
A Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic, spore-forming and rod-shaped motile bacterium with peritrichous flagellae, designated strain S1203T, was isolated from the sediment of the northern Okinawa Trough. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain S1203T formed a lineage within the family Bacillaceae that was distinct from the most closely related genera Bacillus, Bhargavaea, Planomicrobium and Virgibacillus with gene sequence similarities ranging from 86.2 to 93.76 %. Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 4-8 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7.0-8.0 and 25-32 °C. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was based on meso-diaminopimelic acid and unsaturated menaquinone with seven isoprene units (MK-7) as the predominant respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids (>10 % of total fatty acids) were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0.The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
2.0 2.1 Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (2011). "Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.". Species 2000: Reading, UK. Ginkuhà 24 september 2012. ...
1] Fujii, T., Narikawa, T., Takeda, K., Kato, J., Biotransformation of various alkanes using the Escherichia coli expressing an alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia sp. TF6. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 68(10) 2171-2177 (2004) [2] Liu Li, Xueqian Liu, Wen Yang, Feng Xu, Wei Wang, Lu Feng, Mark Bartlam, Lei Wang and Zihe Rao. Crystal Structure of Long-Chain Alkane Monooxygenase (LadA) in Complex with Coenzyme FMN: Unveiling the Long-Chain Alkane Hydroxylase. Journal of molecular biology, 376: 453-465 (2008) [3] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Mitsuru Haruki, Tadayuki Imanaka, Masaaki Morikawa & Shigenori Kanaya. Gene Cloning of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Thermophilic Alkane-Degrading Bacillus thermoleovorans B23. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 91(1):100-102 (2001) [4] Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Shigenori Kanaya, Masaaki Morikawa. Gene cloning and characterization of an aldehyde dehydrogenase from long-chain alkane-degrading Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23. ...
Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.
Definition : Serology reagents intended to detect toxins from or antigens or antibodies to species of Clostridium, a genus of bacteria of the family Bacillaceae. These bacteria are part of the normal colon flora in humans; some species may grow in large numbers and produce a protein exotoxin in sufficient amounts to cause gas gangrene and/or necrotizing colitis.. Entry Terms : "Necrotizing Bacteria Diagnostic Reagents" , "Botulism Diagnostic Reagents" , "Clostridium Species Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Gangrene Diagnostic Reagents" , "Gas Gangrene Diagnostic Reagents" , "Enterocolitis Diagnostic Reagents" , "Clostridium tetani Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Reagents, Serology, Bacteria, Clostridium Species". UMDC code : 21787 ...
Understanding how the flexibility inherent in protein structures is related to their amazing catalytic power is a timely question that has applications in drug development and protein design. My review in 2008 in Nature Chemical Biology discusses this concept extensively. I and my students are working on understanding this important problem in two model systems: Dihydrofolate reductase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (DHFR) and Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (IGPS). Working on one of these projects, a student will be trained in mutagenesis, protein expression and purification, attachment of probes to proteins, enzyme kinetics, ligand binding measurements and computational modeling of enzyme kinetics ...
We isolated a moderately halophilic lipase-producing bacterium from the saline soil. Based on the morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, the isolate PT-11 was postulated to be a novel species identified as Oceanobacillus rekensis PT-11. The lipase was purified 2.50-fold by Q-Sepharose FF and SP-Sepharose FF chromatography and its molecular mass was estimated to be 23.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE. It was highly active over the broad temperature ranging from 10 to 35°C and showed up to 80% of the maximum activity at 10°C indicating the lipase to be a typical cold-adapted enzyme. The enzyme activity was slightly enhanced by Na+, Li+ and K+. Incubation with detergents, such as Tween-20 and Tween-80, slightly inhibited the enzyme activity; while Triton X-100decreased the enzyme activity. The enzyme was fairly stable in the presence of long-chain alcohols but was highly denatured in hydrophilic solvents such as acetone or short-chain alcohols (C1-C3).
The present study investigated the potential of thermophilic bacteria isolated from hot springs to simultaneously produce protease and amylase enzymes. Amo
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Arcobacter halophilus.
Ansari F., P. Prayuenyong and I.E. Tothill. 2007. Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene by Shewanella putrefaciens. J. Bio.l Phys. Chem. 7:75-78. [Link]. Ardakani M.R., A. Aminsefat, B. Rasekh, F. Yazdiyan, B. Zargar, M. Zarei and H. Najafzadeh. 2010. Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene by a newly isolated Stenotrophomonas maltophila strain Kho1. WASJ. 10:272-2778. [Link]. Bahuguna A., M.K. Lily, A. Munjal, R.N. Singh and K. Dangwal. 2011. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil. J. Env. Sci. 23:975-982. [PubMED]. Berg J.M., J. Tymoczko and L. Stryer. 2007. Biochemistry. Freeman and company, New York.. Borgne S.L. and R. Quintero. 2003. Biotechnological processes for the refining of petroleum. Fuel process technol. 81:155-169. [Link]. Bustos-Jaimes I., G. Amador, G. Castorena and S. Le Borgne. 2003. Genotypic characterization of sulfur-oxidative desulfurizing bacterial strains isolated from Mexican ...
Background Lantibiotics are lanthionine-containing, post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides. thermodenitrificans NG80-2 and Geobacillus sp. G11MC16 have become conserved extremely. Both LanAs are 100% similar as well as the homology between these, as well as the connected B and Cs certainly, and the related G. kaustophilus HTA426 protein over is certainly discussed. It was mentioned how the lanB of Geobacillus sp. G11MC16 can be evidently frameshifted (G11MC16DRAFT_2955 (176aa) and G11MC16DRAFT_2954 (848aa)) but that is not the situation in G. thermodenitrificans NG80-2 (GTNG_0266). Recognition of book Staphylococcus-connected lantibiotic gene clustersThe staphylococci are non-sporeforming, nonmotile Firmicutes. The genus Staphylococcus consists of 33 species, many of that are live and safe normally about your skin and mucous membranes of human beings and additional organisms. However, staphylococci may also result in a wide selection of illnesses either through toxin creation or ...
Altapure is an innovative technology and manufacturing company dedicated to providing ultrasonic based products for high-level disinfection and sterilization.. The company was founded in 2004 to develop and offer the best engineered products and solutions to reduce the risk of biological contamination found in medical institutions, clean rooms, food processing facilities, hotels, schools, emergency response vehicles, public transportation systems, and structures used to store agricultural crops.. Altapures first commercialized product was the HJ-30i ™, which was launched in 2012. Altapures newest product, the AP-4 ™, was launched in 2017, and is an enhanced automated and touchless high-level disinfection sub-micron aerosol system providing a safe process and rapid "100% Kill" and "No Growth", for spores, viruses, and vegetative bacteria, such as but not limited to: Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, VRE, MRSA, Bacillus atrophaeus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Polio virus, ...
A new immobilization method for enzymes is presented to facilitate synthetic applications in aqueous as well as organic media. The enzyme Alanine racemase (AlaR) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was cloned, overexpressed and then immobilized on a silica-coated thin-layer chromatography plate to create an enzyme surface. The enzyme, fused to a His(6)-tag at its N-terminal, was tethered to the chemically modified silica-coated TLC plate through cobalt ions. The immobilized enzyme showed unaltered kinetic parameters in small-scale stirred reactions and retained its activity after rinsing, drying, freezing or immersion in n-hexane. This practical method is a first step towards a general immobilization method for synthesis applications with any enzyme suitable for His(6)-tagging.. ...
Anthrax merupakan penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh Bacillus anthracis yang termasuk ke dalam famili Bacillaceae. Penyakit ini dapat meninfeksi hewan terutama herbivora dan juga manusia. B. anthracis merupakan bakteri gram positif, berbentuk batang, aerobik, tidak motil, memiliki kapsul dan membentuk spora serta lebarnya 1 - 1.5 µm dan panjang 5 - 6 µm. Bakteri ini seperti barisan batang panjang dengan .... Read More » ...
Salt Lake Regional Medical Ctr has a job for Surgical Support Tech II (SDS)- Full time - SLRMC, 576196944 in Salt Lake City, UT. View job details and apply for the job.
We did a spontaneous Salt Lake Hike last night. Last minute salt lake hikes are the best.... not much planning involved. We live 3 miles aways from Mill Creek Canyon, so we hopped in the car and headed towards the mountain. The hike is about 2 miles up and great for advanced beginners. I wouldnt…
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Virgibacillus halodenitrificans genes for 16S ribosomal RNA, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 23S ribosomal RNA, partial and complete sequence, clone: ...
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Definition : Serology reagents intended to detect exotoxins from Clostridium difficile, a species of bacterium of the family Bacillaceae. Clostridium difficile bacteria are part of the normal colon flora in humans; they grow in large numbers and produce a protein exotoxin in sufficient amounts to cause pseudomembranous enterocolitis in patients receiving certain antibiotic (e.g., lincomycin) treatments.. Entry Terms : "Enterocolitis Diagnostic Reagents" , "Clostridium difficile Toxin Detection Reagents" , "Reagents, Clostridium difficile Toxin" , "Reagents, Serology, Bacteria, Clostridium difficile, Toxin". UMDC code : 17327 ...
Exiguobacterium sp. RMA utilized 4-chloroindole as its sole source of carbon and energy. The effect of initial concentrations of substrate on the 4-chloroindole degradation was studied and observed that strain PMA was capable of degrading 4-chloroindole up to concentration of 0.5 mM. The degradation pathway of 4-chloroindole was studied for Exiguobacterium sp. PMA based on metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 4-Chloroindole was initially dehalogenated to indole that was further degraded via isatin, anthranilic acid, and salicylic acid. The potential of strain PMA to degrade 4-chloroindole in soil was monitored using soil microcosms, and it was observed that the cells of strain PMA efficiently degraded 4-chloroindole in the soil. The results of microcosm studies show that strain PMA may be used for bioremediation of 4-chloroindole-contaminated sites. This is the first report of the bacterial degradation of 4-chloroindole. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Accepted name: dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxyglucose reductase. Reaction: dTDP-α-D-fucopyranose + NAD(P)+ = dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucose + NAD(P)H + H+. For diagram of reaction click here.. Glossary: dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucose = dTDP-6-deoxy-α-D-xylo-hexopyranos-4-ulose = thymidine 5-[3-(6-deoxy-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl-4-ulose) diphosphate]. Other name(s): dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose reductase; dTDP-D-fucose:NADP+ oxidoreductase; Fcf1; dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-hex-4-ulopyranose reductase. Systematic name: dTDP-α-D-fucopyranose:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. Comments: The enzymes from the Gram-negative bacteria Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Escherichia coli O52 are involved in activation of fucose for incorporation into capsular polysaccharide O-antigens [1,3]. The enzyme from the Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus tepidamans is involved in activation of fucose for incorporation into the organisms S-layer [2].The enzyme from Escherichia coli O52 has a higher catalytic efficiency with ...
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters over a wide salt-concentration range (1-4 M NaCl). In order to clarify the structural basis of its halophilic characteristics and its wide-range adaptation to salt concentration, the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1 Å resolution. The unit cell of HaAP contained one dimer unit corresponding to the biological unit. The monomer structure of HaAP contains a domain comprised of an 11-stranded β-sheet core with 19 surrounding α-helices similar to those of APs from other species, and a unique `crown domain containing an extended `arm structure that participates in formation of a hydrophobic cluster at the entrance to the substrate-binding site. The HaAP structure also displays a unique distribution of negatively charged residues and hydrophobic residues in comparison to other known AP structures. AP from Vibrio sp. G15-21 ...
A Coleção de Culturas do Gênero Bacillus e Gêneros Correlatos, CCGB, é composta por um acervo de 1726 estirpes liofilizadas e possui atualmente 13.120 cópias em frascos-ampola, em constante manutenção. São Quarenta e sete espécies de Bacillus e cinco gêneros correlatos, abrangendo novos gêneros de esporulados aeróbios, aeróbios facultativos, Gram-positivos, como Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Rummellibacillus e Geobacillus. Também mantém culturas "tipo" e, ou, de referência, empregadas em estudos taxonômicos de interesse para a saúde humana e para as áreas de indústria e ensino. A CCGB, criada no final da década de 70, está localizada no Laboratório de Fisiologia Bacteriana, LFB, do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz. A Coleção participa de convênios com instituições públicas nacionais, internacionais e empresas privadas, além de participar de diversos projetos em âmbito nacional e internacional. A CCGB realiza diversos serviços tais como: ...
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The Kachchh Peninsula, Gujarat, western India, contains a series of Neogene terrestrial and marine deposits overlying Palaeogene, Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks. Previous studies based on rare and scattered occurrences of terrestrial mammals suggested that only Early and basal Middle Miocene strata were represented in the Neogene of the region, but recent field research has extended the fossil register into the Late Miocene, with taxa such as Hipparion, Kachchhchoerus salinus and Tetraconodon indicus being represented at Tapar and Pasuda. The aim of this contribution is to describe the new collections of mammals from Kachchh in order to refine the biochronology of the deposits. A review of previously known faunas is included to complete the terrestrial Neogene biostratigraphy of the Kachchh sediments.. ...
Front Salt Lake City is a unique, energetic gathering of some of the most innovative product teams. Its 2 days of real-world, from-the-treaches case... ...
Ive been training for the Califoronia International Marathon (CIM) in Sacramento, California on 02 Dec, focusing primarily to this point on endurance. When two weeks ago I was able to do a 19.6 mile run then follow it up the next day with a 7.5 mile run, I decided my endurance was on track, and I could indulge in a race to check my speed. I saw the Bridge to Bridge had changed its traditional 12 km long course to a "certified" 10 km this year due to construction. I couldnt resist, as Ive got a goal of breaking 40 min for 10 km (I guess 48 min for 12 km would also qualify, but thats less likely to happen): I registered. The race started at the Ferry Building in San Francisco, around 4 km from where I live, so I decided to run to the start as warm-up. This is the most warm-up Ive ever given myself in a running race: in the past Ive taken the approach that miles running take more out of the tank then the advantage gained in priming the engine, so a "warm-up" run is counter-productive. But ...
A strain of Exiguobacterium aurantiacum ATCC49676 was found to be of great potential to produce lactic acid (LA). In order to screen the metabolites that might regulate or affect the acid yield, a relative higher LA production condition was defined through full factorial experiment design. Fresh cultures harvested from the basic and the higher LA production conditions were subjected to metabolic fingerprint analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Significance analysis indicated a distinct change of an intercellular metabolite-L-glutamic acid (Glu). When ATCC49676 was treated by Glu, LA yield declined with the increasing added Glu concentrations. Relative enzyme quantification confirmed that Glu decreased the intracellular lactate dehydrogenase content. This study proved the merit of metabolic fingerprint analysis in exploring the phenotype specific intracellular metabolite and its potential roles in improving industrial fermentation efficiencies ...
Dajkovic, A, Tesson B, Chauhan S, Courtin P, Keary R, Flores P, Marliere C, Filipe SR, Chapot-Chartier M-P, Carballido-Lopez R. 2017. Hydrolysis of Peptidoglycan is Modulated by Amidation of meso-Diaminopimelic Acid and Mg2+ in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol. 104:972-988 ...
Anaerococcus senegalensis strain JC48T (= CSUR P156 = DSM25366) is the type strain of A. senegalensis sp. nov. This bacterium is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, indole-negative coccus that was isolated from the stool of a healthy Senegalese patient as part of a "culturomics" study aimed at cultivating individually all species within human feces.. Defining bacterial species is a matter of debate. This is notably due to the elevated cost and poor reproducibility and inter-laboratory comparability of the "gold standard" DNA-DNA hybridization and G+C content determination [1]. In contrast, the development of PCR and sequencing methods is now widely available and cost-effective, which profoundly changes the way Archaea, Bacteria and are classified. Using 16S rRNA sequences with internationally-validated cutoff values enabled the taxonomic classification or reclassification of hundreds of taxa [2]. More recently, high throughput genome sequencing and mass spectrometric analyses of bacteria gave ...
Various additional conserved connections were found, although these appeared far more family-specific. For instance, in the order Lactobacillales a genomic association with the genes of the two glutamine ABC transporter encoding variants glnP H Q or glnQHMP were identified, whereas this association appeared to be replaced by one with the sodium/proton amino acid symporters encoded by gltT (glutamate, [47]) and alsT[15] in various species within the family of the Bacillaceae. The AlsT protein is very similar to GlnT, a cation-glutamine symporter, i.e. showing a high degree of sequence conservation and having about the same length and the same number of predicted transmembrane helices. Although the protein is sometimes referred to as an alanine transporter, AlsT could well be a cation-glutamine or asparagine symporter.. Other associations that were conserved included that with the gdh gene (encoding glutamate dehydrogenase) and the citBZ-icd operon (encoding aconitase, citrate synthase and ...
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Real estate has always been a much flourishing sector. It is the ideal place for investment. If you are an investor and looking forward investing then real estate will be the ideal place. This is the place where you will never experience any loss. Investment in the real estate market of Salt Lake City, Kolkata ...
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Phenotypic studies, as well as the reaction of Paenibacillus durum genomic DNA with a 16S ribosomal DNA (sequence of variable regions V1 to V4)-based Paenibacillus azotofixans-specific PCR system and oligonucleotide probe, the presence of sequences homologous to Klebsiella pneumoniae nifKDH in both P. durum and P. azotofixans, and the results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments performed with the P. durum and P. azotofixans type strains and one additional P. durum strain, showed that these two species form a homogeneous group. In addition, evidence was found for the presence of nif genes in P. durum, and P. durum was shown to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Therefore, the names P. durum and P. azotofixans should be considered synonyms. As P. durum was capable of fixing nitrogen and fixation without inhibition by nitrate is a major characteristic of the group, we propose that P. durum be included in the species P. azotofixans.
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... refers tae a taxonomic class o bacteria. It includes twa orders, Bacillales an Lactobacillales, which contain several well-kent pathogens sucn as Bacillus anthracis (the cause o anthrax). ...
Bacillaceae ·. Genus. Bacillus. Tipe taksonomi. Bacillus subtilis. Spesies. B. acidiceler. B. acidicola. B. acidiproducens. B. ...
Bacillales: Bacillaceae (Bacillus) · Listeriaceae (Listeria) · Staphylococcaceae (Staphylococcus, Gemella, Jeotgalicoccus). ...
Bacillaceae, and Spirillaceae but also Trichobacterinae for filamentous bacteria; Orla-Jensen[24] established 2 orders: ...
Bacillaceae. Xénero: Bacillus. Cohn 1872 Especies Numerosas, incluíndo:. B. alcalophilus. B. alvei. B. aminovorans. B. ...
Bacillaceae. Rod: Bacillus. Cohn 1872 Vrste Bacillus anthracis. Bacillus cereus. Bacillus coagulans. Bacillus natto. Bacillus ...
Bacillales: Bacillaceae (Bacillus) · Listeriaceae (Listeria) · Staphylococcaceae (Staphylococcus, Gemella, Jeotgalicoccus). ...
Bacillaceae. Genus:. Bacillus. Cohn, 1872[1]. Species. B. acidiceler. B. acidicola. B. acidiproducens. B. acidocaldarius. B. ...
Bacillaceae. Perekond:. Batsill Bacillus. Cohn, 1872[1]. Batsill (Bacillus) on grampositiivsete pulgakujuliste bakterite ...
... is a genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae. Parte, A.C. "Aquibacillus". www.bacterio.net. "Aquibacillus ...
... is a facultative anaerobe genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae with one known species (Caldibacillus ...
The Bacillaceae are a family of Gram-positive, heterotrophic, rod-shaped bacteria that may produce endospores. Motile members ... Some Bacillaceae are aerobic, while others are facultative or strict anaerobes. Most are not pathogenic, but Bacillus species ... Some Bacillaceae, such as the genera Filobacillus, Lentibacillus, and Halobacillus, stain Gram-negative or Gram-variable, but ... However, this term is a misnomer because it does not distinguish between class Bacilli, order Bacillales, family Bacillaceae, ...
... chemolithoautotrophic and non-spore-forming genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae. Parte, A.C. "Marinococcus". www. ...
nov., a member of the family Bacillaceae, isolated from sludge compost". International journal of systematic and evolutionary ... and spore-forming genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae with one known species (Compostibacillus humi). ...
... rod-shaped and facultatively anaerobic genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae. Amphibacillus have a low GC-content. ...
... is a genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae with one known species (Falsibacillus pallidus). Parte, A.C ...
... is an extremely thermophilic genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae. Parte, A.C. "Calditerricola". www ...
... is a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming and motile genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae. Parte, A.C ...
The Bacillaceae-1 RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics within bacteria in the family bacillaceae ...
... bacillaceae infections MeSH C01.252.410.090.072 --- anthrax MeSH C01.252.410.110 --- bifidobacteriales infections MeSH C01.252. ...
... is a thermophilic and facultatively chemolithoautotrophic genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae ...
... aerobic and motile genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae with one known species (Halalkalibacillus halophilus). ...
... is a moderately halophilic, rod-shaped and non-motile genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae with ... nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium of the family Bacillaceae isolated from a saline lake". International journal of ...
Phelps RJ, McKillip JL (June 2002). "Enterotoxin production in natural isolates of Bacillaceae outside the Bacillus cereus ...
... is an aerobic and spore-forming genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae. Parte, A.C. " ...
... is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped and motile bacteria genus from the family of Bacillaceae with a peritrichous ...
Schmidt TR, Scott EJ, Dyer DW: Whole-genome phylogenies of the family Bacillaceae and expansion of the sigma factor gene family ...
G. kaustophilus, from the Bacillaceae family, was isolated from deep-sea sediment from the Mariana Trench (Takami et al., 1997 ...
Uncurated}} ==Classification== Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli Order: Bacillales Family: Bacillaceae [[File: ...
The Bacillaceae family members are a good source of bacteria for bioprocessing and biotransformation involving whole cells or ... Comparisons to some other members of Bacillaceae and possible future applications of Anoxybacillus are also discussed. ...
The obtained consensus sequences for XylR-binding sites in the Bacillaceae genomes (groups 5, 6 and 7 on the XylR protein tree ... Predicted DNA motifs of XylR regulators from other groups on the tree were partially similar to that from the Bacillaceae. ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Terrabacteria group › Firmicutes › Bacilli › Bacillales › Bacillaceae › Bacillus › Bacillus ...
Anthrax is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacteria named Bacillus anthracis from the family Bacillaceae. It is the ... bacteria named Bacillus anthracis from the family Bacillaceae. It is the only obligate bacillus pathogen in vertebrates as ...
... spore-forming rod in the family Bacillaceae, Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Terrabacteria group › Firmicutes › Bacilli › Bacillales › Bacillaceae › Bacillus › Bacillus ...
All isolates belong to the classes Clostridia and Bacilli, and within these classes to the families Bacillaceae, ...
Host Lineage: Bacillus anthracis; Bacillus; Bacillaceae; Bacillales; Firmicutes; Bacteria. General Information: This organism ...
16S rRNA gene sequence similarities suggested distant relationships with other members of the family Bacillaceae (,95.8 %), ... 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities suggested distant relationships with other members of the family Bacillaceae (,95.8 %), ...
Host Lineage: Bacillus cereus; Bacillus; Bacillaceae; Bacillales; Firmicutes; Bacteria. General Information: This strain ( ...
... in 2014 in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health found that treadmills also harbor bacillaceae ...
Consistently, ICC values for Streptococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Bacillaceae are were significantly greater in MZ than DZ ... Bacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Bacteroidaceae. The majority (72.9%) of the OTUs had higher ICC values within MZ than DZ ... Bacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Bacteroidaceae in this study. ...
OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacillales; Bacillaceae; Bacillus; Bacillus cereus OC group. OX NCBI_TaxID=405532; RN [0] RP -.; RG ...
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The higher distribution of the detoxification family Clostridiaceae, Bacillaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae was found in the ...
Bacillaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Aves , Cromo/farmacologia , Plumas/química , Chumbo/farmacologia , Animais , Poluição ... Bacterial assemblages mainly consisted of sporulated bacilli in the Bacillaceae family (65.7 % of the identified morphotypes). ...
Aerobic bacteria (organism) {27471002 , SNOMED-CT } Family Bacillaceae (organism) {114251000 , SNOMED-CT } Gram-positive spore- ...
Esterases/isolation & purification , Lipase/isolation & purification , Metagenomics , Amino Acid Sequence , Bacillaceae/ ...
Family Bacillaceae (organism) {114251000 , SNOMED-CT } Genus Alicyclobacillus (organism) {114110006 , SNOMED-CT } Genus ...
Bacillaceae/physiology , Bacteria/physiology , Food , Klebsiella/metabolism , Klebsiella/physiology , Nitrates , Potassium , ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales; Bacillaceae; Bacillus; Bacillus ...
Seventy-two strains of bacteria of the families Bacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae were investigated for ...
  • Microbial loads, for over 80% samples, ranged from 1.0 × 10 2 to 2.8 × 10 5 CFU/g tea: most of identified microorganisms were classified as Bacillaceae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infants with appropriate growth had a greater abundance of Veillonellaceae in study weeks two through nine and Streptococcaceae , Peptostreptococcaceae , Micrococcaceae , Lachnospiraceae , and Bacillaceae over various intervals. (cdc.gov)
  • The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes-Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria-Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria-Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes-Cytophagaceae. (rehabcentersnetwork.com)