Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Papio anubis: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE with a somewhat different social structure than PAPIO HAMADRYAS. They inhabit several areas in Africa south of the Sahara.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Papio hamadryas: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Papio ursinus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.United StatesSocial Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Theropithecus: A genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. The genus consists of only one species, Theropithecus gelada.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Social Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Social Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.PrimatesSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Papio papio: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, often used as an animal model for cognitive studies.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Primate Diseases: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Loneliness: The state of feeling sad or dejected as a result of lack of companionship or being separated from others.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.Higher Nervous Activity: A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
Vervets live in social groups ranging from 10 to 70 individuals, with males changing groups at the time of sexual maturity. The ... Within groups, aggression is directed primarily at individuals that are lower on the hierarchy. Once an individual is three ... every member of the group will inspect the infant at least once by touching or sniffing. While all group members participate in ... Vervet monkeys have four confirmed predators: leopards, eagles, pythons, and baboons. The sighting of each predator elicits an ...
Wild equine social systems come in two forms; a harem system with tight-knit groups consisting of one adult male or stallion, ... Plains zebra groups gather into large herds and may create temporarily stable subgroups within a herd, allowing individuals to ... Among females in a harem, a linear dominance hierarchy exists based on the time at which they join the group. Harems travel in ... The term equine refers to any member of this genus, including horses. Like Equidae more broadly, Equus has numerous extinct ...
... mating behavior varies greatly depending on the social structure of the troop. In the mixed groups of savanna baboons, ... baboons show more interest in this exchange than those between members of the same family or when a higher-ranking baboon takes ... Other baboon species have a more promiscuous structure with a strict dominance hierarchy based on the matriline. The hamadryas ... Baboons can determine from vocal exchanges what the dominance relations are between individuals. When a confrontation occurs ...
... arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system. In social ... Field studies of olive baboons in Kenyaseem to support this hypothesis as it has been observed that dominant individuals tended ... Pair-wise interactions have been observed to promote social hierarchies within groups of animals where individuals with ... That is, it predicts that one group member's behaviours will elicit a predictable set of actions from other group members. ...
... monkeys live in multiple male/multiple female groups, which can be as large as 76 individuals. The group hierarchy ... and are groomed by subordinate members of the group. They exhibit female philopatry, a social system whereby the females remain ... Physical affection is important between family members. Chlorocebus monkeys are, along with chimpanzees and baboons, the most ... The dominance hierarchy also comes into play, as the offspring of the more dominant group members get preferential treatment. ...
At the core of social structures are males, which roam around, protect group members, and search for food. Males remain in ... The common chimpanzee lives in groups which range in size from 15 to 150 members, although individuals travel and forage in ... Social hierarchies among adult females tend to be weaker. Nevertheless, the status of an adult female may be important for her ... Other mammalian prey include red-tailed monkeys, yellow baboons, blue duikers, bushbucks, and common warthogs. Despite the fact ...
The olive baboon lives in groups of 15 to 150, made up of a few males, many females, and their young. Each baboon has a social ... Frequently, when older baboons drop in the social hierarchy, they move to another tribe. The younger males who pushed them down ... The olive baboon (Papio anubis), also called the Anubis baboon, is a member of the family Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys). ... Individuals are more likely to follow when multiple decision-makers agree on what direction to go rather than simply following ...
While researchers have found that individuals in one-male groups of hamadryas baboons exhibit a pattern of social relationships ... However, when a new male successfully enters a one-male group, the social hierarchy will be changed depending on the previously ... provide evidence of feeding advantages for male and female members of one-male groups. However, the findings of feeding ... There are costs and benefits for individuals living in one-male groups. As well, individuals within one-male groups can ...
... may be useful in terms of explaining the types of social behaviors we see within certain groups and not others. Finally, social ... 2009). "Cyclicity in the structure of female baboon social networks". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 63: 1015-1021. doi: ... are better suited to lead group travel and therefore tend to exhibit these signaling behaviors more than other group members. ... Nodes can represent a wide-array of biological units, from individual organisms to individual neurons in the brain. Two ...
Individuals within groups are rivals for mates while those from neighboring groups are competitors for food and resources. ... Unlike most other social mongoose species, all females in a banded mongoose group can breed. They all enter oestrus around 10 ... During this time they are guarded by these helpers while the other group member go on their foraging trips. After four weeks, ... There is generally no strict hierarchy in mongoose groups and aggression is low. Sometimes, mongoose may squabble over food. ...
Within the band, members are closely related and between the units there is no social hierarchy. Bands usually break apart ... Geladas live in a complex multilevel society similar to that of the hamadryas baboon. The smallest and most basic groups are ... When herds form, juveniles and infants may gather into play groups of around ten individuals. When males reach puberty, they ... Geladas are actually not baboons (baboons are all taxonomic members of the genus Papio) but members of their own genus ...
The members of a social group interact mainly within their own group and to a lesser degree with those of higher or lower ... Social status hierarchies have been documented in a wide range of animals: apes, baboons, wolves, cows/bulls, hens, even fish, ... Social dominance hierarchy emerges from individual survival-seeking behaviors. Status inconsistency is a situation where an ... social and political) Ranked society Social class Social inequality Social stratification Socioeconomic status Sociometric ...
... is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, to create a ranking ... Field studies of olive baboons in Kenya seem to support this hypothesis as it has been observed that dominant individuals ... Pair-wise interactions have been observed to promote social hierarchies within groups of animals where individuals with ... Spectrum of social orders. In an egalitarian society, all members are equal. In a linear hierarchy (pecking order), each member ...
In wild savannah baboons, social affiliations are shown to augment fitness by increasing tolerance from more dominant group ... A related term, allogrooming, indicates social grooming between members of the same species. Grooming is a major social ... individuals form close social connections dubbed "friendships." In primates especially, grooming is known to have major social ... animal consolation behavior whereby the primates engage in establishing and maintaining alliances through dominance hierarchies ...
The mood of individual group members. Group members with leaders in a positive mood experience more positive mood than do group ... Schmid Mast, M (2002). "Female dominance hierarchies: Are they any different from males'?". Personality and Social Psychology ... from ants and bees to baboons and chimpanzees. They suggest that leadership has a long evolutionary history and that the same ... Group affective tone is an aggregate of the moods of the individual members of the group and refers to mood at the group level ...
This leads to reproductive skew within a social group, with some individuals having more offspring than others. The cost of ... When group members are closely related, independent breeding opportunities are poor, and detection of mating and pregnancy is ... Since infant mortality in Amboseli yellow baboons depends in part on the number and ages of other infants born into the group, ... GC data for meerkats does not support a correlation between high GC levels and a subordinate position in the social hierarchy. ...
I. (2007). Animal Intelligence: From Individual to Social Cognition. Cambridge University Press Reznikova, Zh. I. (1999). " ... Given the choice between two groups of differing size, the angelfish will choose the larger of the two groups. This can be seen ... Ravens are members of the corvidae family, which is widely regarded as having high cognitive abilities. These birds have been ... Baboons can learn to recognize words; Monkeys' ability suggests that reading taps into general systems of pattern recognition ...
Males leave their natal groups when they are six years old and stay along the boundary of the social group. Mandrills will make ... somewhat surpassing even the largest baboons such as chacma baboon and olive baboons in average weight even considering its ... Charles Darwin wrote in The Descent of Man that "no other member in the whole class of mammals is coloured in so extraordinary ... The largest horde verifiably observed in this way contained over 1,300 individuals, in Lopé National Park, Gabon-the largest ...
Within a social group there is a balance between cooperation and competition. Cooperative behaviors include social grooming ( ... this group consists of apes and humans and there is no single common name for all the members of the group. One remedy is to ... This social structure can also be observed in the hamadryas baboon, spider monkeys and the bonobo. The gelada has a similar ... Specifically, individual females must be heterozygous for two alleles of the opsin gene (red and green) located on the same ...
Human beings, writes social anthropologist Ernest Gellner, are not genetically programmed to be members of this or that social ... For these reasons social evolution refers not only to the evolution of social relationships between individuals but also to ... Social Evolution. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings, p. vii. Robin Dunbar originally studied gelada baboons in the wild ... If females formed the core of these early groups, and language evolved to bond these groups, it naturally follows that the ...
He quotes one of the leading members of the Nazi party on his views of Jews. this time. He quotes one of the leading members of ... 9. Extermination: The killing of an entire group. This term is most commonly used to describe the killing of an entire group of ... The National County For The Social Studies awarded him The Carter G Woodson Book award in 1989. He received the secondary level ... The Nazi's created a hierarchy in which "sub-humans," such as Jews, were ranked below animals and thusly treated that way. ...
Argentina: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA Bolivia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA Brazil: People: ... Social norms and values had an effect on the constructing of maps. During colonialism map-makers used rhetoric in their ... Africans ceased to set indigenous cultural goals and standards, and lost full command of training young members of the society ... baboons, and monkeys, thus differentiating colonized Africans from what were viewed as the features of the evolutionarily ...
Warneken's subjects rapidly figured out which individual in the group was the best rope puller and assigned it the bulk of the ... In primates, grooming is a social activity that strengthens relationships. The amount of grooming taking place between members ... If the anguishing baboon mother made any type of call at all, the infant would instantly recognise her and run to her position ... Observations have repeatedly demonstrated that female apes and monkeys also form stable dominance hierarchies and alliances ...
They are a social animal, living in groups that consist of a single dominant male and multiple females. The dominant male has a ... the idea that individuals behave for the good of the group or species; compare with gene-centered view of evolution), and the ... Classical ethology held that conspecifics (members of the same species) rarely killed each other. By the 1980s it had gained ... Examples include, but are not limited to; white-footed mice, hamsters, lions, langurs, baboons, and macaques. Along with mating ...
... members of the Front de Libération de la Côte des Somalis also clashed with the Gendarmerie National Intervention Group over a ... Internet users comprised around 99,000 individuals (2015). The internet country top-level domain is .dj. Tourism in Djibouti is ... There are two official languages in Djibouti: Arabic (Afroasiatic) and French (Indo-European). Arabic is of social, cultural ... Other characteristic mammals are Grevy's zebra, hamadryas baboon and Hunter's antelope. The warthog, a vulnerable species, is ...
Within groups, aggression is directed primarily at individuals that are lower on the hierarchy. Once an individual is three ... Vervets live in social groups ranging from 10 to 70 individuals, with males moving to other groups at the time of sexual ... every member of the group will inspect the infant at least once by touching or sniffing. While all group members participate in ... Vervet monkeys have four confirmed predators: leopards, eagles, pythons, and baboons. The sighting of each predator elicits an ...
... vocalizations and social organization of baboons for their book Baboon Metaphysics. ... Baboons are interesting, however, from a social perspective. Their groups number up to 100 individuals and are therefore ... and a linear hierarchy of females and their offspring that can be stable for generations. Daily life in a baboon group includes ... Baboons are members of the genus Papio, Old World monkeys that shared a common ancestor with humans roughly 30 million years ...
... thesis research in the Altmann lab focused on intergroup relations and between-group dominance hierarchies in Amboseli baboons. ... Nga is interested in the causes and consequences of individual-based variation in social behavior of wild primates. For her PhD ... Jacinta is interested in the physiological causes and consquences of social behavior in social primates, particularly baboons ( ... Patrick studies the role of social organization and group structure in reproduction, with a bias in male animals using the ...
Vervets live in social groups ranging from 10 to 70 individuals, with males changing groups at the time of sexual maturity. The ... Within groups, aggression is directed primarily at individuals that are lower on the hierarchy. Once an individual is three ... every member of the group will inspect the infant at least once by touching or sniffing. While all group members participate in ... Vervet monkeys have four confirmed predators: leopards, eagles, pythons, and baboons. The sighting of each predator elicits an ...
Wild equine social systems come in two forms; a harem system with tight-knit groups consisting of one adult male or stallion, ... Plains zebra groups gather into large herds and may create temporarily stable subgroups within a herd, allowing individuals to ... Among females in a harem, a linear dominance hierarchy exists based on the time at which they join the group. Harems travel in ... The term equine refers to any member of this genus, including horses. Like Equidae more broadly, Equus has numerous extinct ...
Baboon mating behavior varies greatly depending on the social structure. In the mixed groups of savannah baboons, each male can ... the baboons are considered Old World monkeys. Baboons are some of the largest non-hominid members of the primate order; only ... The other baboon species have a more promiscuous structure with a strict dominance hierarchy based on the female maternal line ... Baboons can determine from vocal exchanges what the dominant relationships between individuals are. When a confrontation occurs ...
... according to a new study of wild baboons led by a Princeton University ecologist. A new study has found that in wild baboon ... Being at the very top of a social hierarchy may be more costly than previously thought, ... The study involved 125 adult male members of five social groups of fully wild-living baboons in Kenyas Amboseli Basin. ... The findings have implications in the study of social hierarchies and of the impact of social dominance on health and well- ...
... complex social systems: its hard to miss the similarities between monkeys and humans. They are always fun to watch since their ... The group usually follows, even though many subordinate members cannot gain access to that particular resource. Baboons ... Located primarily in southern Africa, the chacma baboon has a wide variety of social behaviors, including a dominance hierarchy ... Dominance does play a role in group foraging decisions. A dominant individual (usually the alpha male) leads the group to ...
... mating behavior varies greatly depending on the social structure. In the mixed groups of savannah baboons, each male can ... BABOON. The baboons are some of the largest non-hominid members of the primate order; only the Mandrill and the Drill are ... The other baboon species have a more promiscuous structure with a strict dominance hierarchy based on the female matriline. The ... Baboons can determine from vocal exchanges what the dominance relations between individuals are. When a confrontation occurs ...
There are, however, examples of violent behaviour which occurs within groups of individuals who otherwise cooperate to live, ... Examples are in the establishment and maintenance of dominance hierarchies, or in infanticide, where (usually) incoming males ... have significant social bonds and may also be related, and that is the primary focus of this paper. Examples are in the ... There are, however, examples of violent behaviour which occurs within groups of individuals who otherwise cooperate to live, ...
Second, female baboons, who are more fully integrated into their social groups (Silk et al. 2003) and have stronger social ... If so, infants who are reared from birth in small peer groups may (falsely) label all members of their groups as maternal kin. ... individuals and to conduct continuous, long-term observations of social groups (Matsuzawa & McGrew 2008). These observations ... it has been pointed out that the rates of intervention in baboon groups with very stable dominance hierarchies are often quite ...
... high-ranking individuals have more social interactions with other members of their group. Elevated social contacts directly ... Spotted hyenas are highly social animals that live in socially structured clans and have strict dominance hierarchies. Mothers ... In many mammalian societies, such as baboons and spotted hyenas, ... Social status influences infection risk and disease-induced ... "To our knowledge, our study is the first to disentangle the importance of social processes for individual exposure and resource ...
Multimale-multifemale groups commonly have a dominance hierarchy among both males and females. Each individual is ranked ... hamadryas baboons, geladas, langurs, howler monkeys,. gorillas, and some humans. multimale-multifemale group. savanna baboons, ... All other community members defer to them. A females rank in the hierarchy stays with her throughout life. However, most young ... Non-human Primate Social Group Composition. While there is considerable variation in social group composition among the ...
... which are normally the oldest group members. All group members cooperate both in raising the pups and in guarding the group ... A strict hierarchy is observed among same-sex animals within a group, with a dominant pair of alpha male and female, ... This is a highly social species, living in extended family groups of two to thirty animals. Thats why all the time we saw them ... I like Baboons way of looking very much. It always remind me of the book Baboon Metaphysics by Cheney and Seyfarth, two ...
the social group into which an individual is born. Nematode member of the class Nematoda which includes 12,000 species of worm- ... process of securing a position in the linear dominance hierarchy of a social group ... members of the Old World monkey family Cercopithecinae including langurs, baboons, guenons, and macaques ... social group composed of individuals of widely varying ages. Multi-male/multi-female a social group comprised of multiple ...
... the individual can maintain his/her reputation as a trusted group member who accepts social norms (16). ... as social beings focused on what such events mean for how we are perceived by others and where we stand in the social hierarchy ... baboons, rats, rabbits, crayfish, wolves, elephants, seals, and salamanders (5, 11, 12). These findings raise the possibility ... The determination of hierarchy in pairs and in a group. J Gerontol 49:161-198. ...
While females have strong social bonds in the group, a female will only interact with at most three other members of her unit.[ ... Mori, U. (1979). "Ecological and sociological studies of gelada baboons. Individual relationships within a unit". Contributions ... members are closely related and between the units there is no social hierarchy. Bands usually break apart every eight to nine ... Geladas are actually not baboons (baboons are all taxonomic members of the genus Papio) but members of their own genus ...
Many social animals form linear dominance hierarchies, with a clear rank order among group members. Such hierarchies can ... Using long-term data on wild baboons, we provide novel evidence that individuals living in intermediate-sized groups have ... Amboseli Baboon Research Project. Search. Search. News » Archives » 2015. Group Living: For Baboons Intermediate Size is ... which favors smaller groups) and between-group competition (which favors larger groups) suggests that intermediate sized groups ...
Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, to create a ranking ... Field studies of olive baboons in Kenya seem to support this hypothesis as it has been observed that dominant individuals ... Pair-wise interactions have been observed to promote social hierarchies within groups of animals where individuals with ... Spectrum of social orders. In an egalitarian society, all members are equal. In a linear hierarchy (pecking order), each member ...
and social stratification based on a hereditary caste system. A herd of elephants has a small group of dominant individuals - ... a number of sycophantic baboons kowtow to the dominant male baboon and become part of the central hierarchy. These baboons can ... We have pecking orders within many of our groups. Democratically we elect presidents, vice-presidents, and committee members in ... You use dominance to illustrate how social hierarchy works; I say the purpose of social hierarchy is to select good leaders. ...
... is marked by readily recognizable differences in the social environments experienced by individual group members. The causes ... 1997) Hypercortisolism associated with social subordinance or social isolation among wild baboons. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54:1137- ... social hierarchies are known to influence gene expression in other organisms. Dominance rank ascendancy in social cichlids, for ... from 49 female rhesus macaques in 10 replicate social groups, using the Illumina HT-12 BeadChip. Each social group was composed ...
The family members with the authority to do so is generally determined by this hierarchy:,br /,Spouse. If no spouse, then… ... Many people believe that this practice would condone late-term abortions, which some individuals and groups find morally ... Social responsibility and the idea of "the gift of life" are popularized by UNOS and other organizations that seek to promote ... Experiments with baboon hearts and pig liver transplants have received extensive media attention in the past. One cautionary ...
... group limit reflects how many social relationships its individuals can manage cognitively. Bermans observations suggested that ... Changes in its hierarchy usually came slowly and subtly. But when Novak and Mallott started looking around, they realized that ... baboons, and gorillas, turned up "nothing, nothing, nothing." The science is young, and not all the data is in. But so far, ... attacks from new troop members if they play their cards wrong, and predation during any time they lack a gangs or troops ...
Cheney and Seyfarth outline the baboons complex social hierarchy within their society, which is largely dependent on birth, ... how individuals might evaluate other individuals with respect to group membership and behavioral reciprocity, and whether or ... University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, psychology faculty member, 1985-, including as professor of psychology and chair of ... With Dorothy L. Cheney)Baboon Metaphysics: The Evolution of a Social Mind, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 2007. ...
... a member of the Acquisition Team. On behalf of the Lismore Regional Gallery the group has taken on the challenge of raising $ ... we had the good fortune that group goals and individual goals aligned for the first time in the great apes… [this] eventually ... compared to African baboons. "Baboon leaders are particularly motivated by the enormous status, power and financial reward of ... Book Review - the Social Leap Book Review "Preferences that dont fit your abilities are as debilitating as limbs that dont ...
... species of primates individuals are aware of the social relationships, including kin relations, of other group members. As in ... For example, female dominance hierarchies are well documented in most macaque and baboon species (Angst, 1975; Bernstein, 1966 ... Chepko-Sade, BD, and Sade, DS (1979) Patterns of group splitting within matrilineal kinship groups: A study of social group ... Stammbach, E (1978) On social differentiation in groups of captive female hamadryas baboons. Behaviour 67:322-338. Strum, S ( ...
BehaviorWild-livingAmboseli BaboonMalesInteractionsOrganizationChimpanzeesMale BaboonsData on wild baboonsLong dog-like muzzlesMonkeysTroopAnubisRigid hierarchiesHamadryas baboonLinear dominanceChacma baboonPopulationsMammalsGorillasDominantOkavango DeltaSavannahSeyfarthLiveStablePrimate groupsBottom of the hierarchyHyenasMaternal social statusAfricaDominance rankGuineaPatternsNatalAlbertsGibbonsCharacteristicsHabitatPhysiologicalFemaleStrict hierarchyCaninePhysiologySocialitySocietiesOccurAnimalMetaphysics
- Laurence is involved in the study of hormone-behavior relationship in yellow baboons. (princeton.edu)
- Baboons are likely to be good models to provide insights for identifying the ideal position in a complex society under different conditions," Altmann said of the study's potential insights into research on human behavior. (princeton.edu)
- Baboon mating behavior varies greatly depending on the social structure. (worldanimalfoundation.org)
- In some forest living primates, contact between groups of the same species is in the form of a specialized territorial defense behavior. (palomar.edu)
- The biological mechanisms associated with these effects are therefore of great interest, both for understanding the evolutionary impacts of social behavior and in the context of human health. (pnas.org)
- Characterizing the mechanisms underlying these effects is therefore a priority not only in the study of evolution and behavior but also for understanding the protective and pathological effects of the social environment in our own lives. (pnas.org)
- Robert M. Seyfarth is a psychologist and educator whose research focuses on the social behavior, vocal communication, and cognition of nonhuman primates in their natural habitat. (encyclopedia.com)
- Different mating systems, in conjunction with dispersal behavior, are hypothesized to produce particular patterns of kin association in primate groups. (docme.ru)
- There are a variety of proposed mechanisms by which social grooming behavior has been hypothesized to increase fitness. (wikipedia.org)
- Social grooming behavior has been shown to elicit an array of health benefits in a variety of species. (wikipedia.org)
- Social grooming is critical for vampire bats especially, since it is necessary for them to maintain food-sharing relationships in order to sustain their food regurgitation sharing behavior. (wikipedia.org)
- Now we know better-the subtlety of social behavior in female chimpanzees belies a complex set of strategies that allow them to navi - gate the costs and benefits of group life. (friendsofanimals.org)
- Social Behavior. (motherhoodinpointoffact.com)
- Scientists have long recognized the value of studying some our closest genetic cousins, the baboon animal mother, in gaining information to better understand human behavior. (motherhoodinpointoffact.com)
- The resulting book, " A Primate's Memoir: A Neuroscientist's Unconventional Life Among the Baboons " contains as much about human behavior in the wild as it does of the behavior of baboons. (motherhoodinpointoffact.com)
- According to a review in the New York Times, his observations led him to challenge the view that social dominance was achieved through a combination of high testosterone levels and aggressive behavior. (motherhoodinpointoffact.com)
- Furthermore, male behavior was unrelated to natal group. (docme.ru)
- While Sapolsky was disturbed by the behavior of the baboons--this was nature, red in tooth and claw--he realized that their cruelty presented an opportunity to investi- gate the biological effects of social upheaval. (scienceblogs.com)
- In all species, social behavior is complex and varied. (animaldiversity.org)
- The special attachment of infant and mother is not typical of infants and fathers, even when males and infants are part of the same group This does not mean that males do not display nurturing behavior to the young. (naturalchild.org)
- Baboons display considerable paternal behavior. (naturalchild.org)
- Reproductive behavior in P. cynocephalus is closely tied to social organization. (animaldiversity.org)
- They were also inferior to nonisolated dogs in social behavior, even when reared with a companion in their isolation chambers (Melzack & Thompson 1956). (aavs.org)
- Primatologists have been studying baboons for decades, so we already know a lot about their social organization, mating systems, and behavior. (amacad.org)
- Females spend a good part of their day grooming, a behavior that is thought to cement social bonds. (amacad.org)
- I had worked in Amboseli in the early 1980s and knew that the ABRP conducted systematic observations of female social behavior and collected information about various aspects of female reproductive behavior. (amacad.org)
- Evidence for personality conformity, not social niche specialization in social jays McCune, Kelsey;Jablonski, Piotr;Lee, Sang-im;Ha, Renee 2018-04-18 00:00:00 Abstract Animal personality traits are defined as consistent individual differences in behavior over time and across contexts. (deepdyve.com)
- An animal personality trait is defined as a behavior that differs among individuals, but is consistent within an individual over time and across contexts (Gosling 2001). (deepdyve.com)
- 2017) leading to consistent, constrained behavioral responses, and this can cause non-adaptive individual behavior in certain situations. (deepdyve.com)
- 2011). If the behavior of a group mate is consistent over time and across different contexts then the result of future interactions can be predicted based on past experience with that individual (Dall et al. (deepdyve.com)
- These baboons present but one example of homologous animal rhetorics that can help us better understand the cognitive underpinnings of rhetorical behavior. (brill.com)
- In animal behavior, dominance is defined as a relationship between individuals that is established through force, aggression and submission in order to establish priority access to all desired resources (food, the opposite sex, preferred resting spots, etc). (drsophiayin.com)
- Female Reproductive Advertisement and Social Factors Affecting the Sexual Behavior of Captive Spider Monkeys, by R. Pastor-Nieto. (brown.edu)
- She is responsible for uploading and maintaining the Princeton portion of the long-term, multifaceted database for the Amboseli Baboon Research Project. (princeton.edu)
- Catherine first joined the Altmann lab in 2004, working as the database manager for the Amboseli Baboon Research Project. (princeton.edu)
- As part of her project, she is using the long-term GIS data from the Amboseli Baboon Research Project to investigate home range attributes, resource distribution, and movement patterns in the Amboseli baboon population. (princeton.edu)
- Vervets live in social groups ranging from 10 to 70 individuals, with males changing groups at the time of sexual maturity. (wikipedia.org)
- When males reach sexual maturity, they move to a neighboring group. (wikipedia.org)
- Groups that had previously transferred males show significantly less aggression upon the arrival of another male. (wikipedia.org)
- In almost every case, males migrate to adjacent groups. (wikipedia.org)
- A new study, "Life at the Top: Rank and Stress in Wild Male Baboons," published in the July 15 issue of the journal Science found that in wild baboon populations, the highest-ranking, or alpha, males have higher stress-hormone levels than the highly ranked males below them, known as beta males -- even during periods of stability. (princeton.edu)
- In a finding that has implications in the study of social hierarchies, researchers led by Princeton ecologist Laurence Gesquiere have learned that the highest-ranking, or alpha, males in wild baboon populations suffer higher stress levels than their lower-ranked counterparts. (princeton.edu)
- The data collected in the study is five to 10 times greater in duration, number of groups and number of individual males than any data previously available for any nonhuman primate, which allowed researchers to control for important variables that might have affected stress hormones, said Gesquiere. (princeton.edu)
- According to study co-author and Duke University biology professor Susan Alberts, the large sample size and lengthy period of observation also meant the results didn't depend on characteristics of particular individual males, but rather reflect the long-term effects of dominance rank. (princeton.edu)
- Examples are in the establishment and maintenance of dominance hierarchies, or in infanticide, where (usually) incoming males attempt to kill existing infants in a group. (frontiersin.org)
- For example, in a large group with many males, it may be very challenging for the highest-ranking male to dominate all the mating opportunities, so some mate sharing probably exists. (wikipedia.org)
- In chacma baboons , the high-ranking males have the first access to vertebrate prey that has been caught by the group, and in yellow baboons the dominant males feed for longer without being interrupted. (wikipedia.org)
- In baboons , higher-ranking males have the highest reproductive success due to increased female acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
- In this system, researchers have observed that dominant males receive more grooming while grooming others less, thereby indicating that less dominant males groom more dominant individuals to maintain relationships. (wikipedia.org)
- These social relationships serve to aid cooperation and facilitate protection against combative groups composed of other males, which can oftentimes cause physical harm. (wikipedia.org)
- Within a troop, adult males form a dominance hierarchy that is established and maintained by threat and aggression. (sanbi.org)
- At sexual maturity, young males tend to migrate between groups - usually in the company of a sibling or peer. (sanbi.org)
- Female social roles, to some researchers, were confined to motherhood or sexual attraction to males. (friendsofanimals.org)
- However, it remains unclear whether variation in strength and fighting ability between males or social constructs such as winner-and-loser effects more strongly influence how dominance is determined in a social group. (springer.com)
- The males with the lowest stress hormone levels, including the most dominant ones, rather than engaging in frequent aggression, instead engaged more often in cooperative social behaviors such as grooming and other positive interactions. (motherhoodinpointoffact.com)
- He began to notice, for instance, that the males at the bottom of the hierarchy were thinner and more skittish. (scienceblogs.com)
- Within these groups, males rest and travel together with varying frequencies. (bioone.org)
- However, the length of social bonds and genetic relationships among group males are unknown. (bioone.org)
- We quantify characteristics of male social groups for raccoons in southern Texas, examine the genetic structure of the population, and finally test whether variation in relatedness within groups is related to the frequency or length of association between males. (bioone.org)
- Mean band-sharing coefficient for males within groups was not different (1-tailed P = 0.376) from males between groups. (bioone.org)
- Males are often protective of the group, but not specifically of their own offspring. (naturalchild.org)
- The opportunity for primate males to interact with infants is to a great extent determined by the nature of the group in which they live. (naturalchild.org)
- For example, males may form alliances with other males, subverting the normal dominance hierarchy. (animaldiversity.org)
- Baboons form large multi-male, multi-female groups from which males disperse at puberty. (amacad.org)
- In some groups, several males share dominance. (chimpworlds.com)
- Sometimes the latter prevents others from copulating with a female, and sometimes they mate with males from other groups. (chimpworlds.com)
- Marcus is interested in the interactions between female Amboseli baboon dominance rank plasticity and steroid hormone levels--with a focus on testosterone and glucocorticoids. (princeton.edu)
- A large proportion of interactions occur between individuals which are similarly ranked and closely related. (wikipedia.org)
- Interactions between different groups are variable, ranging from highly aggressive to friendly. (wikipedia.org)
- These interactions are generally between unrelated individuals with no social connection. (frontiersin.org)
- In many mammalian societies, such as baboons and spotted hyenas, high-ranking individuals have more social interactions with other members of their group. (fv-berlin.de)
- Based on repetitive interactions a social order is created that is subject to change each time a dominant animal is challenged by a subordinate one. (wikipedia.org)
- Wittenberger, 1980),it is nevertheless well documented that, in many mammalian groups, female social interactions are predominately kin-structured. (docme.ru)
- In wild savannah baboons, social affiliations are shown to augment fitness by increasing tolerance from more dominant group members and increasing the chance of obtaining aid from conspecifics during instances of within-group contest interactions. (wikipedia.org)
- In populations where individuals spend time together and have repeated interactions with others in their social group, dominance hierarchies may emerge as a product of male-male competition. (springer.com)
- Traditionally ethologists referred to the structure that resulted from the interactions of members of a group as a dominance hierarchy. (mmilani.com)
- Because of this, many ethologists now refer to the structure of social interactions as dominance relationships because this more accurately reflects their dynamic integrated rather than fixed linear nature. (mmilani.com)
- As Cheney & Seyfarth (2007) have show in baboons, interactions in primate groups are cognitively highly demanding and require sophisticated representational and predictive abilities, because of the intricate and complex networks and 'friendships' they inherit. (blogspot.com)
- Chimpanzees, it appears, integrate memories of social interactions from different sources to make inferences about current interactions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- This ability is crucial for connecting triadic social interactions across time, a requirement for predicting aggressive support even after a time delay. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Relationships involving oneself are based on one's own social interactions and could be a result of emotional [ 16 - 18 ] or cognitive experience [ 19 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Eavesdropping, through observing others' social interactions, is widespread through the animal kingdom [ 20 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Thus, our analyses indicate that in the models social interactions may be simpler than in reality and models may miss social processes (e.g., third-party awareness). (deepdyve.com)
- 2012). In such systems, individual recognition and repeated interactions between certain group members may promote the emergence of reciprocation, i.e., the exchange of beneficial behaviors over long-time periods. (deepdyve.com)
- Emotional bookkeeping means that individuals develop, through social interactions, a specific emotionally mediated attitude toward each group member, and whether or not they exchange a service with a group member depends on the type of affiliative relationship associated with it (Schino and Aureli 2009). (deepdyve.com)
- This mechanism assumes that the balance between services given and received results from repeated interactions between individuals sharing a common or symmetrical variable-e.g., spatial proximity, kinship, rank, age, etc. (de Waal and Luttrell 1988). (deepdyve.com)
- However, there were few efforts to actually test this idea, partly because it seemed unlikely that we would be able to link the short-term benefits that individuals derive from social interactions, such as grooming or greetings, to long-term differences in their fitness. (amacad.org)
- Social relationships are abstractions that represent the history of interactions among individuals. (amacad.org)
- While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important to explain variation in call usage than grouping patterns or group size. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, in social groups inflexible behavioral phenotypes might be favored as this could lead to more predictable social interactions. (deepdyve.com)
- Genetic kinship has emerged as the primary organizing force in the evolution of primate social organization and the patterning of social behaviour in non-human primate groups. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Or are linear hierarchies the product of social self-organization processes such as winner and loser effects - i.e. the phenomenon in which winners become more likely to win in subsequent encounters, and losers become more likely to lose? (nd.edu)
- Here, we present the first evidence for social self-organization processes in a wild animal population. (nd.edu)
- Tribalism worked well for them for millions of years, but there came a time when they decided to experiment with a new social organization (called civilization) that was hierarchal rather than tribal. (filmsforaction.org)
- Some research claims that our line of human survived while others did not because of our superior social organization. (sciencechatforum.com)
- I think what emotions have to do with our social organization is worth our consideration. (sciencechatforum.com)
- In the beginning of this thread I was thinking about our evolution and the different human lines and what our social organization had to do with us winning the competition. (sciencechatforum.com)
- Indeed, the noted researchers who filmed Baboon Social Organization (1963) only induced what they called "latent" dominance behaviour by artificial feeding, while forest baboons placed in cages and fed with clumps of food that had to be competed for showed a great increase in fighting, aggression, and dominance behaviour. (prodejce.cz)
- Kummer H (1968) Social organization of hamadryas baboons. (springer.com)
- Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. (biomedcentral.com)
- pubdate 2015-02-14 18:50:17 +0000 #title Manifesto against Labour #author Krisis-Group #LISTtitle Manifesto against Labour #SORTauthors Krisis-Group #SORTtopics anti-work, marxist, not anarchist, labor, self-determination, autonomy, organization, economics #date 31st of December, 1999 #source Retrieved on February 9th, 2015 from http://www.krisis.org/1999/manifesto-against-labour #lang en *** 1. (theanarchistlibrary.org)
- Similarly, chimpanzees, with whom humans share ninety-nine percent of our genes and from whom we may have diverged as little as five million years ago, are highly social animals who display a very low degree of male dominance, hierarchy, or aggression. (prodejce.cz)
- Some chimpanzees have been seen attacking and eating chimpanzees from other groups, but it is not part of their usual diet. (chimpworlds.com)
- Chimpanzees live in medium or large groups, from 5 to 150 members, but when looking for food or traveling, they usually split into smaller groups. (chimpworlds.com)
- Boehm is a social anthropologist who has also studied the behaviour of wild chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania, made famous by Jane Goodall. (wordpress.com)
- Social network changes during space restriction in zoo chimpanzees. (ljmu.ac.uk)
- Xenotransplantation of organs from chimpanzees and baboons has been avoided, however, because of ethical concerns and fear of transmission of deadly viruses (see Biologic Barriers to Xenotransplantation). (medscape.com)
- Patty's thesis explored the ways in which the physical and social environment affects endogenous levels of estrogens in subadult and adult male baboons. (princeton.edu)
- The study involved 125 adult male baboons in Kenya's Amboseli Basin. (princeton.edu)
- Direct correlations between measures of social connectedness (which focuses on social grooming) and median survival time for both female and male baboons were modeled. (wikipedia.org)
- Using long-term data on wild baboons, we provide novel evidence that individuals living in intermediate-sized groups have energetically optimal space-use strategies and lower glucocorticoid (stress hormone) concentrations than individuals in either large or small groups. (nd.edu)
- One such study, which collected 16 years of behavioral data on wild baboons, highlights the effects that sociality has on infant survival. (wikipedia.org)
- studies done on vervet monkeys involve their communication and alarm calls, specifically in regard to kin and group recognition and particular predator sightings. (wikipedia.org)
- These calluses are nerveless, hairless pads of skin which provide for the sitting comfort of the baboon (and other Old World monkeys ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Baboons are some of the world's largest monkeys. (traveltoeat.com)
- The baboon, like other Old World monkeys, does not have a prehensile (gripping) tail, but it is still able to climb when necessary. (traveltoeat.com)
- Leaf-eaters, such as colobus monkeys and langurs, tend to form smaller social groupings since there is little competition for their food. (palomar.edu)
- He has conducted research on free-ranging baboons in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, vervet monkeys in Amboseli National Park in Kenya, and mountain gorillas in Rwanda. (encyclopedia.com)
- To collect enough data, the authors focused on eleven social groups of monkeys and monitored their demographic changes with a special interest in gathering data on what their vocalizations mean within their communities. (encyclopedia.com)
- Seyfarth and Cheney show that monkeys are much more complex than we used to think, in their use of vocalizations and in their treatment of social companions. (encyclopedia.com)
- The Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) is a primate of the family Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys), closely related to baboons and most closely related to mandrills. (pilotguides.com)
- the time devoted to social grooming is linearly related to group size among the Old World monkeys and apes. (skadi.net)
- Eggs, meat and even carrion are occasional foods, but in spite of this, they can be pretty good hunters when chasing small duikers and monkeys like colobus and baboons. (chimpworlds.com)
- This is because confrontations between different families or rank challenges can have a wider impact on the whole troop than an internal conflict in a family or a baboon reinforcing its dominance. (worldanimalfoundation.org)
- Sapolsky slowly introduced himself to a troop of baboons, letting them adjust to his presence. (scienceblogs.com)
- In the tradition of Jane Goodall and Dian Fossey, Robert Sapolsky, a foremost science writer and recipient of a MacArthur Genius Grant, tells the mesmerizing story of his twenty-one years in remote Kenya with a troop of Savannah baboons. (simonandschuster.com)
- An exhilarating account of Sapolsky's twenty-one-year study of a troop of rambunctious baboons in Kenya, A Primate's Memoir interweaves serious scientific observations with wry commentary about the challenges and pleasures of living in the wilds of the Serengeti-for man and beast alike. (simonandschuster.com)
- I joined the baboon troop during my twenty-first year. (simonandschuster.com)
- So I made plans to join the baboon troop. (simonandschuster.com)
- You might think that, like wolves in a pack, baboons in a troop, or lions in a pride, the way to take charge of a dominant-aggressive dog is by calm, assertive force or even violence. (drsophiayin.com)
- Even the lowest member of the troop is included. (typepad.com)
- The post-orbital constriction of these animals is less pronounced than in anubis and chacma baboons. (animaldiversity.org)
- The tail of Ibean baboons resembles that of P. anubis , with the proximal portion extending straight out from the rump, and the distal 3/4 falling limp, as if the tail has been broken. (animaldiversity.org)
- Yellow baboons have a somewhat "pointed" nose, and are thinner through the chest than are anubis baboons . (animaldiversity.org)
- The Chacma baboon can be 120 cm (47 inches) and weigh 40 kg (90 lb), while the biggest Guinea baboon is 50 cm (20 inches) and weighs only 14 kg (30 lb). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The chacma baboon is omnivorous with a preference for fruits, while also eating insects, seeds, grass, smaller vertebrate animals, and fungi (the desert truffle Kalaharituber pfeilii). (traveltoeat.com)
- The greatest sexual dimorphism in size occurs within hamadryas and chacma baboon populatons. (animaldiversity.org)
- The findings have implications in the study of social hierarchies and of the impact of social dominance on health and well-being, a subject of interest among researchers who study human and other animal populations. (princeton.edu)
- The Palearctic populations of P. hamadryas have been present for the length of recorded history in the region, but are thought to have been introduced by humans, possibly though a shipwreck, or through importation of these "sacred" baboons sometime during the past 4000 years. (animaldiversity.org)
- All these definitions in mammals implicate that one individual is consistently recognized as the group leader over time, i.e. across multiple moving episodes. (plos.org)
- In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. (biomedcentral.com)
- Mature Nile crocodiles eat anything from fish and turtles, which they crack open with their powerful jaws, to larger mammals including baboons, hyenas, impalas and wildebeest. (animals-pictures-dictionary.com)
- A dominant individual (usually the alpha male) leads the group to easily monopolized resources. (traveltoeat.com)
- The dominant individuals in these groups fill themselves up first and fill up more quickly, so they spend less time foraging, which reduces the risk of predation. (wikipedia.org)
- The male dominant savannah baboons live in game parks where predators and humans are concentrated in numbers far beyond those likely in aboriginal conditions. (prodejce.cz)
- In their next book, Baboon Metaphysics, Seyfarth and Cheney draw on their work in Botswana's Okavango Delta to not only clarify the workings of baboon society but also to try and establish how much awareness that baboons have of their own social situations and the greater world, that is, their surrounding habitat. (encyclopedia.com)
- Baboons in captivity have been known to live up to 45 years, while in the wild their life expectancy is about 30 years. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Humans also live in stratified societies, and social status is well known to be associated with some but not all health outcomes in humans. (princeton.edu)
- Spotted hyenas are highly social animals that live in socially structured clans and have strict dominance hierarchies. (fv-berlin.de)
- Grooming is a major social activity, and a means by which animals who live in close proximity may bond and reinforce social structures, family links, and build companionships. (wikipedia.org)
- They live in large groups up to thirty and it is the second smallest monkey. (pilotguides.com)
- They live in groups called hordes. (pilotguides.com)
- Baboons may live in large or small multi-male, multi-female troops, or single male harems. (animaldiversity.org)
- In animals that live in herds, male and female are both part of a group but there is little contact between them. (naturalchild.org)
- Male and female also live together in animal groups that hunt in packs. (naturalchild.org)
- Animals that live in groups often encounter threats, and informing others could potentially save lives. (mpg.de)
- In the most general of terms, animals which prefer to live in groups are referred to as social, compared to solitary animals which spend much of their time alone. (mmilani.com)
- Mandrills live in mixed groups of up to 40, which come together to form troops of more than 600 individuals. (eol.org)
- Or is health the social product of how we live in society? (sustainlv.org)
- Marx and Engels considered that what we are, and how we behave and interact with one another and with the rest of the natural world, is veiled over by the social and economic conditions under which all humans now live. (wordpress.com)
- How we react to our social environment creates our ego and constructs the reality that each of us live in. (typepad.com)
- An important insight from our study is that the top position in some animal -- and possibly human -- societies has unique costs and benefits associated with it, ones that may persist both when social orders experience some major perturbations as well as when they are stable," said lead author Laurence Gesquiere , an associate research scholar in Princeton's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology . (princeton.edu)
- Groups of gibbons with more stable social networks formed grooming networks that were significantly more complex, while groups with low stability networks formed far fewer grooming pairs. (wikipedia.org)
- Key features of all baboon habitats include stable sources of water, and some type of elevated sleeping site. (animaldiversity.org)
- In addition, other mechanisms, including contingent reciprocity and mutualism, could contribute to the nepotistic biases observed in non-human primate groups. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Lemurs have evolved to cope with an extremely seasonal environment and their adaptations give them a level of diversity that rivals that of all other primate groups. (pilotguides.com)
- Now it is most widely called the "Social Brain Hypothesis" to emphasize the general complexity of primate groups including all arising affordances (Dunbar 1998, Dunbar & Shultz 2007). (blogspot.com)
- The scientists used two decades of detailed demographic, social and infection data from individually recognized hyenas in three clans in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. (fv-berlin.de)
- Marescot L*, Benhaiem S*, Gimenez O, Hofer H, Lebreton JD, Olarte-Castillo XA, Kramer-Schadt S**, East M** (2018): Social status mediates the fitness costs of infection with canine distemper virus in Serengeti spotted hyenas. (fv-berlin.de)
- Using this paradigm, we show that dominance rank results in a widespread, yet plastic, imprint on gene regulation, such that peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression data alone predict social status with 80% accuracy. (pnas.org)
- In settings in which hierarchies are strongly enforced or subordinates have little social support, low dominance rank can lead to chronic stress, immune compromise, and reproductive dysregulation ( 3 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
- To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. (biomedcentral.com)
- In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. (biomedcentral.com)
- Now enrolled as a Ph.D. student, she plans to focus her graduate research on using GIS/GPS technology to examine spatial and temporal distribution patterns of baboons. (princeton.edu)
- Humans are an exception in that we form a variety of social group patterns. (palomar.edu)
- Most remarkably, MPA degraded the chemical patterns that encode honest information about genetic constitution, including individual diversity (heterozygosity) and pairwise relatedness to conspecifics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Despite this variability, individual lemurs also maintain tractable semiochemical patterns across years, facilitating the long-term recognition of individuals [ 22 , 24 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The emotional bookkeeping model seemed on average to fit slightly better the social networks metrics observed in empirical data, but failed to reproduce some grooming patterns. (deepdyve.com)
- Patterns of reciprocation have been extensively studied in primate social systems-e.g., grooming and support in fights-and their ultimate functions and proximate mechanisms largely debated. (deepdyve.com)
- However, the psychology may change when one taxon evolves a different style of cooperation from that of its sister group, as we will argue for humans and great apes, which could lead to convergent evolution with other taxa that evolved similar patterns of cooperation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- They have been noted for having human-like characteristics, such as hypertension, anxiety, and social and dependent alcohol use. (wikipedia.org)
- Given the benefits and costs of possessing a JESIKA YADAV within a hierarchal group, there are certain characteristics of individuals, groups, and environments that determine whether an individual will benefit from a high rank. (wikipedia.org)
- Individual characteristics include whether or not high rank gives them access to valuable resources such as mates and food. (wikipedia.org)
- It is suggested that language evolved to allow individuals to learn about the behavioural characteristics of other group members more rapidly than is possible by direct observation alone. (skadi.net)
- Habitat loss due to overgrazing, agricultural expansion, irrigation projects and overall human settlement growth is also a threat to baboons. (worldanimalfoundation.org)
- To determine whether a grouping is social or not, it is necessary to examine the distribution of the animal within the limits of its needed habitat. (enacademic.com)
- Interestingly, many of these rank-associated effects are detectable even in the absence of rank-related asymmetries in access to resources, suggesting that the stress of social subordinacy alone can trigger a physiological response. (pnas.org)
- Much remains unresolved, however, about the physical intermediates that link the social environment with immunological and physiological changes, especially on the molecular level. (pnas.org)
- She primarily handles data pertaining to female baboons, as well as weather data and initial proofing of most data as it arrives from the field team in Kenya. (princeton.edu)
- Between unrelated individuals, there is female competition for grooming members of high-ranking families, presumably to gain more access to resources. (wikipedia.org)
- Monogamous groups consist of an adult male and female with their children. (palomar.edu)
- Up until recently, the nature of female chimpanzee social relation - ships was shrouded in mystery. (friendsofanimals.org)
- Dependable female groups offer stability and perhaps even joy in an unpredictable environments. (friendsofanimals.org)
- In ungulates, leadership is commonly attributed to a single individual, usually an old female, although leaders can change according to the type of movement [ 6 - 8 ]. (plos.org)
- Comparisons between treatment groups revealed several indicator compounds that could reliably signal female reproductive status to conspecifics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Bachmann C, Kummer H (1980) Male assessment of female choice in hamadryas baboons. (springer.com)
- Most notably during reproduction, intersexual group dynamics reflect a balance between female choice for optimal mates and male competition for mating access. (springer.com)
- A positive relationship is established between infant survival to one year and a composite sociality index, a measure of sociality based on proximity and social grooming. (wikipedia.org)
- Evidence has also been provided for the effect of sociality on adult survival in wild baboons. (wikipedia.org)
- This general argument implies that sociality will have fitness consequences for the individual. (amacad.org)
- Our results were exciting because they linked sociality with fitness consequences for the first time, and supported the hypothesis that social bonds may be an adaptive means to cope with competitive pressures. (amacad.org)
- I'm not aware of any animal societies that routinely discriminate against a group for irrational reasons. (sciencechatforum.com)
- Variation in the social environment is a fundamental component of many vertebrate societies. (pnas.org)
- Extrapolation from this regression equation yields a predicted group size for modern humans very similar to that of certain hunter-gatherer and traditional horticulturalist societies. (skadi.net)
- In fission-fusion societies, group size and composition change dynamically, reflecting social preferences and pressures. (springer.com)
- The use of on-board devices for gathering animal trajectory data has also led to the measuring of leadership in terms of initiations of new trajectories by one individual, which are then followed by other group members [ 20 - 22 ]. (plos.org)
- The baboon animal mother plays an important role in the social structure of baboon troops, which usually consist of up to 150 members. (motherhoodinpointoffact.com)
- While at one time or another, everyone in the group may elicit a subordinate response from one particular member, that animal isn't constantly bullied by everyone. (mmilani.com)
- These experiments have been considered to be animal models of social isolation, mental illness, or even normal development. (aavs.org)
- If an animal's niche is locally distributed, the animal may be found clumped, even if it is not particularly social. (enacademic.com)
- this situation usually is truly social in the sense that each animal interacts with its neighbours so as to keep them at a certain short distance. (enacademic.com)
- The group size identified by this relationship appears to refer to the maximum number of individuals with whom an animal can maintain social relationships by personal contact. (skadi.net)
- For example, the screams and grunts that are heard up to 2 kilometers away are a warning of the presence of another animal, and others can recognize which member of the group emit them. (chimpworlds.com)
- He who understands baboon would do more towards metaphysics than Locke. (npr.org)
- Despite this active intellectual life, however, it seems unlikely that he or anyone else had ever combined the words "baboon" and "metaphysics" in the same sentence. (npr.org)
- With Dorothy L. Cheney) Baboon Metaphysics: The Evolution of a Social Mind, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 2007. (encyclopedia.com)