A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
One of ANTIPROTOZOAL AGENTS used especially against BABESIA in livestock. Toxicity has been reported.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain bruceosides and bruceanols (quassinoids). The astringent seeds have been used to treat dysentery in southeastern Asia.
An effective trypanocidal agent.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.

Preparation of antibodies directed to the Babesia ovata- or Theileria sergenti-parasitized erythrocytes. (1/385)

To investigate the surface antigens of the bovine red blood cells (RBCs) parasitized by Babesia ovata or Theileria sergenti, attempts were made to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with BALB/c mice. Comparable numbers of hybridomas producing anti-piroplasm mAbs, as well as anti-bovine RBC mAbs, were obtained from the mice immunized with B. ovata- or T. sergenti-PRBCs. However, mAbs directed to the surface of parasitized RBCs (PRBCs) were obtained only from the mice immunized with B. ovata-PRBCs, but not from those immunized with T. sergenti-PRBCs. When serum samples from the immunized mice and the infected cattle were examined, antibodies recognizing B. ovata-PRBC surface were detected in the sera against B. ovata, but analogous antibodies were undetectable in the sera against T. sergenti, despite that the sera showed substantial antibody titers to T. sergenti piroplasms. The results suggest that significant antigenic modifications occur on the surface of B. ovata-PRBCs, but not on the surface of T. sergenti-PRBCs.  (+info)

Detection of enzootic babesiosis in baboons (Papio cynocephalus) and phylogenetic evidence supporting synonymy of the genera Entopolypoides and Babesia. (2/385)

Blood smear evaluation of two baboons (Papio cynocephalus) experiencing acute hemolytic crises following experimental stem cell transplantation revealed numerous intraerythrocytic organisms typical of the genus Babesia. Both animals had received whole-blood transfusions from two baboon donors, one of which was subsequently found to display rare trophozoites of Entopolypoides macaci. An investigation was then undertaken to determine the prevalence of hematozoa in baboons held in our primate colony and to determine the relationship, if any, between the involved species. Analysis of thick and thin blood films from 65 healthy baboons (23 originating from our breeding facility, 26 originating from an out-of-state breeding facility, and 16 imported from Africa) for hematozoa revealed rare E. macaci parasites in 31%, with respective prevalences of 39, 35, and 12%. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene sequences amplified from peripheral blood of a baboon chronically infected with E. macaci demonstrated this parasite to be most closely related to Babesia microti (97.9% sequence similarity); sera from infected animals did not react in indirect fluorescent-antibody tests with Babesia microti antigen, however, suggesting that they represent different species. These results support an emerging view that the genus Entopolypoides Mayer 1933 is synonymous with that of the genus Babesia Starcovici 1893 and that the morphological variation noted among intracellular forms is a function of alteration in host immune status. The presence of an underrecognized, but highly enzootic, Babesia sp. in baboons may result in substantial, unanticipated impact on research programs. The similarity of this parasite to the known human pathogen B. microti may also pose risks to humans undergoing xenotransplantation, mandating effective screening of donor animals.  (+info)

Simultaneous detection of bovine Theileria and Babesia species by reverse line blot hybridization. (3/385)

A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. The assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rRNA gene V4 hypervariable regions of all Theileria and Babesia species. PCR products obtained from blood samples were hybridized to a membrane onto which nine species-specific oligonucleotides were covalently linked. Cross-reactions were not observed between any of the tested species. No DNA sequences from Bos taurus or other hemoparasites (Trypanosoma species, Cowdria ruminantium, Anaplasma marginale, and Ehrlichia species) were amplified. The sensitivity of the assay was determined at 0.000001% parasitemia, enabling detection of the carrier state of most parasites. Mixed DNAs from five different parasites were correctly identified. Moreover, blood samples from cattle experimentally infected with two different parasites reacted only with the corresponding species-specific oligonucleotides. Finally, RLB was used to screen blood samples collected from carrier cattle in two regions of Spain. T. annulata, T. orientalis, and B. bigemina were identified in these samples. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection of all bovine tick-borne protozoan parasites. We recommend its use for integrated epidemiological monitoring of tick-borne disease, since RLB can also be used for screening ticks and can easily be expanded to include additional hemoparasite species.  (+info)

Southern extension of the range of human babesiosis in the eastern United States. (4/385)

We sought evidence of babesiosis in three residents of New Jersey who were suspected of local acquisition of Babesia microti infection. We tested serial blood samples from these residents for B. microti antibodies and amplifiable DNA by using immunofluorescent antibody and PCR techniques. All three residents experienced symptoms suggestive of acute babesiosis. The sera of each of the patients reacted against babesial antigen at a titer fourfold or higher in sequentially collected blood samples. PCR-amplifiable DNA, characteristic of B. microti, was detected in their blood. These data suggest that human B. microti infections were acquired recently in New Jersey, extending the range of this piroplasmosis in the northeastern United States.  (+info)

Detection of equine antibodies to babesia caballi by recombinant B. caballi rhoptry-associated protein 1 in a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (5/385)

A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed for detection of equine antibodies specific for Babesia caballi. The assay used recombinant B. caballi rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) and monoclonal antibody (MAb) 79/17.18.5, which is reactive with a peptide epitope of a native 60-kDa B. caballi antigen. The gene encoding the recombinant antigen was sequenced, and database analysis revealed that the gene product is a rhoptry-associated protein. Cloning and expression of a truncated copy of the gene demonstrated that MAb 79/17.18.5 reacts with the C-terminal repeat region of the protein. The cELISA was used to evaluate 302 equine serum samples previously tested for antibodies to B. caballi by a standardized complement fixation test (CFT). The results of cELISA and CFT were 73% concordant. Seventy-two of the 77 serum samples with discordant results were CFT negative and cELISA positive. Further evaluation of the serum samples with discordant results by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) demonstrated that at a serum dilution of 1:200, 48 of the CFT-negative and cELISA-positive serum samples contained antibodies reactive with B. caballi RAP-1. Four of five CFT-positive and cELISA-negative serum samples contained antibodies reactive with B. caballi when they were tested by IFA. These data indicate that following infection with B. caballi, horses consistently produce antibody to the RAP-1 epitope defined by MAb 79/17.18.5, and when used in the cELISA format, recombinant RAP-1 is a useful antigen for the serologic detection of anti-B. caballi antibodies.  (+info)

Roles of CD4(+) T cells and gamma interferon in protective immunity against Babesia microti infection in mice. (6/385)

Babesia microti produces a self-limiting infection in mice, and recovered mice are resistant to reinfection. In the present study, the role of T cells in protective immunity against challenge infection was examined. BALB/c mice which recovered from primary infection showed strong protective immunity against challenge infection. In contrast, nude mice which failed to control the primary infection and were cured with an antibabesial drug did not show protection against challenge infection. Treatment of immune mice with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (MAb) diminished the protective immunity against challenge infection, but treatment with anti-CD8 MAb had no effect on the protection. Transfer of CD4(+) T-cell-depleted spleen cells resulted in higher parasitemia than transfer of CD8(+) T-cell-depleted spleen cells. A high level of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), which was produced by CD4(+) T cells, was observed for the culture supernatant of spleen cells from immune mice, and treatment of immune mice with anti-IFN-gamma MAb partially reduced the protection. Moreover, no protection against challenge infection was found in IFN-gamma-deficient mice. On the other hand, treatment of immune mice with MAbs against interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, or tumor necrosis factor alpha did not affect protective immunity. These results suggest essential requirements for CD4(+) T cells and IFN-gamma in protective immunity against challenge infection with B. microti.  (+info)

Infection with agents of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, lyme disease, and babesiosis in wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut. (7/385)

White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were captured in southern Connecticut during 1997 and 1998 to determine the prevalence of infections caused by granulocytic Ehrlichia sp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and Babesia microti. Of the 50 mice captured and recaptured, 25 of 47 (53.2%) and 23 of 48 (47.9%) contained antibodies to the BDS or NCH-1 Ehrlichia strains, respectively, as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining methods. The majority (83.3%) of 48 mice also contained antibodies to B. burgdorferi, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, 20 of 26 (76.9%) contained antibodies to B. microti by IFA staining methods. In nested PCR tests using the 16S rRNA gene, the DNA of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent was detected in 17 of 47 mice (36.2%), but only 4 (23.5%) of these 17 mice were PCR positive at each capture. Antibody-positive reactions to granulocytic Ehrlichia sp. organisms were detected in 17 of 23 (73. 9%) of the PCR-positive mice. The sequences from PCR products from nine positive blood samples were identical to the HGE agent. Ehrlichia spp. were cultured from three of five mice captured in April 1998, including one that was PCR positive in April 1997. In addition, 2 of 14 larval Ixodes scapularis pools, which were attached to two PCR-positive mice, contained DNA of the HGE agent. A high percentage of white-footed mice are infected or have been infected naturally by the HGE agent with low-level persistent infection or frequent reinfection in some individual mice. However, the changes noted in the presence of DNA and antibodies in repeated blood and serum samples from individual mice over several months of field collection suggests that infection with granulocytic Ehrlichia is transient in most wild P. leucopus.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of a 48-kilodalton Babesia caballi merozoite rhoptry protein and potential use of the recombinant antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (8/385)

A cDNA expression library prepared from Babesia caballi merozoite mRNA was screened with a monoclonal antibody BC11D against the rhoptry protein of B. caballi merozoite. A cDNA encoding a 48-kDa protein of B. caballi was cloned and designated BC48. The complete nucleotide sequence of the BC48 gene had 1,828 bp and was shown to contain no intron. Southern blotting analysis indicated that the BC48 gene contained more than two copies in the B. caballi genome. Computer analysis suggested that this sequence contained an open reading frame of 1,374 bp with a coding capacity of approximately 52 kDa. The recombinant protein expressed by the vaccinia virus vector in horse cells had an apparent molecular mass of 48 kDa, which was the same as that of the native B. caballi 48-kDa protein. Moreover, recombinant proteins expressed by the pGEX4T expression vector in Escherichia coli as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins were used for antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA was able to differentiate very clearly between B. caballi-infected horse sera and B. equi-infected horse sera or noninfected normal horse sera. These results suggest that this simple and highly sensitive test might be applicable to the detection of B. caballi-infected horses in the field.  (+info)

Symptoms of babesiosis can vary in severity and may include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle and joint pain
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)

In severe cases, babesiosis can lead to complications such as:

* Hemolytic anemia (breakdown of red blood cells)
* Kidney failure
* Respiratory distress syndrome
* Septic shock

Babesiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

* Blood smear
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Treatment for babesiosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as azithromycin and atovaquone, or clindamycin and primaquine. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.

Prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protecting against tick bites through measures such as:

* Using insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin
* Wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and tucking pant legs into socks
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors
* Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly

Early detection and treatment of babesiosis can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Some common tick-borne diseases include:

1. Lyme disease: This is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States, and it is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and a distinctive rash, and if left untreated, can lead to joint pain, swelling, and long-term health problems.
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and a rash with tiny red spots. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
3. Babesiosis: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the parasite Babesia, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and fatigue. It can be particularly dangerous for people with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly or those with chronic illnesses.
4. Anaplasmosis: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle pain. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
5. Powassan virus disease: This is a rare tick-borne disease caused by the Powassan virus, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and confusion. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.

Prevention of tick-borne diseases includes protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and doing regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of tick-borne diseases can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Synonyms: tick bites, tick infestations, tick-borne illnesses, tick-transmitted diseases.

Antonyms: none.

Types of Tick Infestations:

1. Lyme disease: Caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a distinctive skin rash.
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash with small purple spots.
3. Tick-borne relapsing fever: Caused by the bacterium Borrelia duttoni, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected soft tick (Ornithodoros moenia). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash with small purple spots.
4. Babesiosis: Caused by the parasite Babesia microti, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, chills, and fatigue.
5. Anaplasmosis: Caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and muscle aches.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Exposure to ticks: The risk of developing tick-borne diseases is high in areas where ticks are common, such as wooded or grassy areas with long grass or leaf litter.
2. Warm weather: Ticks are most active during warm weather, especially in the spring and summer months.
3. Outdoor activities: People who engage in outdoor activities, such as hiking, camping, or gardening, are at higher risk of exposure to ticks.
4. Poor tick awareness: Not knowing how to protect yourself from ticks or not being aware of the risks of tick-borne diseases can increase your likelihood of getting sick.
5. Lack of tick prevention measures: Failing to use tick repellents, wear protective clothing, or perform regular tick checks can increase your risk of exposure to ticks and tick-borne diseases.

Prevention and Treatment:

1. Tick awareness: Learn how to identify ticks, the risks of tick-borne diseases, and how to protect yourself from ticks.
2. Use tick repellents: Apply tick repellents to your skin and clothing before going outdoors, especially in areas where ticks are common.
3. Wear protective clothing: Wear long sleeves, pants, and closed-toe shoes to cover your skin and make it harder for ticks to attach to you.
4. Perform regular tick checks: Check yourself, children, and pets frequently for ticks when returning indoors, especially after spending time outdoors in areas where ticks are common.
5. Remove attached ticks: If you find a tick on your body, remove it promptly and correctly to reduce the risk of infection.
6. Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear: Treating your clothing and gear with permethrin can help repel ticks and reduce the risk of infection.
7. Vaccination: There are vaccines available for some tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, which can help protect against these illnesses.
8. Early treatment: If you suspect that you have been bitten by a tick and develop symptoms of a tick-borne disease, seek medical attention promptly. Early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

It's important to note that not all ticks carry diseases, but it's always better to be safe than sorry. By following these tips, you can reduce your risk of tick bites and the potential for tick-borne illnesses.

1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.

It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.

Zoonoses (zoonosis) refers to infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can be spread through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Examples of Zoonoses

Some common examples of zoonoses include:

1. Rabies: a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal, typically dogs, bats, or raccoons.
2. Lyme disease: a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
3. Toxoplasmosis: a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated cat feces or undercooked meat.
4. Leptospirosis: a bacterial infection caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is spread to humans through contact with contaminated water or soil.
5. Avian influenza (bird flu): a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces.

Transmission of Zoonoses

Zoonoses can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including:

1. Direct contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
2. Contact with contaminated soil, water, or other environmental sources.
3. Through vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas.
4. By consuming contaminated food or water.
5. Through close contact with an infected person or animal.

Prevention of Zoonoses

Preventing the transmission of zoonoses requires a combination of personal protective measures, good hygiene practices, and careful handling of animals and animal products. Some strategies for preventing zoonoses include:

1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with animals or their waste.
2. Avoiding direct contact with wild animals and avoiding touching or feeding stray animals.
3. Cooking meat and eggs thoroughly to kill harmful bacteria.
4. Keeping pets up to date on vaccinations and preventative care.
5. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly poultry and pork.
6. Using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where vectors are prevalent.
7. Implementing proper sanitation and hygiene practices in animal housing and husbandry.
8. Implementing strict biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities to prevent the spread of disease.
9. Providing education and training to individuals working with animals or in areas where zoonoses are prevalent.
10. Monitoring for and reporting cases of zoonotic disease to help track and control outbreaks.


Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, posing a significant risk to human health and animal welfare. Understanding the causes, transmission, and prevention of zoonoses is essential for protecting both humans and animals from these diseases. By implementing appropriate measures such as avoiding contact with wild animals, cooking meat thoroughly, keeping pets up to date on vaccinations, and implementing proper sanitation and biosecurity practices, we can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and protect public health and animal welfare.

Symptoms of ehrlichiosis typically begin within one to two weeks after the tick bite and may include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and rash. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause more serious complications, such as respiratory distress, liver failure, and kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect the bacterial DNA in the blood. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria that cause ehrlichiosis.

Prevention of ehrlichiosis primarily involves avoiding tick habitats and using tick-repellent clothing and insecticides to prevent tick bites. Early detection and treatment of ehrlichiosis can help reduce the risk of serious complications and improve outcomes for infected individuals.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.


1. Dictionary of Medical Microbiology, Second Edition. Edited by A. S. Chakrabarti and S. K. Das. Springer, 2012.
2. Medical Microbiology, Fourth Edition. Edited by P. R. Murray, K. S. N air, and M. J. Laurence. Mosby, 2014.

Lyme disease is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms.

Prevention of Lyme disease involves protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of Lyme disease can help to prevent long-term complications, such as joint inflammation and neurological problems.

In this definition, we have used technical terms such as 'bacterial infection', 'blacklegged tick', 'Borrelia burgdorferi', and 'antibiotics' to provide a more detailed understanding of the medical concept.

The symptoms of anaplasmosis can range from mild to severe and typically develop within 1-2 weeks after a tick bite. Mild symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Severe symptoms can include bleeding disorders, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), renal failure, respiratory distress, and cardiovascular complications.

Anaplasmosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Laboratory tests may include blood smears, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests, and serologic tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the bacteria.

Treatment for anaplasmosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as respiratory distress, renal failure, and cardiovascular problems.

Prevention of anaplasmosis includes avoiding tick habitats, using protective clothing and insect repellents when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks on oneself and pets. It is also important to be aware of the risks of anaplasmosis in areas where the disease is prevalent and to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms develop after a tick bite.

In Europe, B. divergens is the primary cause of infectious babesiosis and is transmitted by I. ricinus. Babesiosis has emerged ... Babesiosis is a vector-borne illness usually transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. B. microti uses the same tick vector as ... Human babesiosis transmission via tick bite is most common in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and parts of Europe ... "Tick fever (bovine babesiosis)". Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2012. Kim JY, Cho SH, Joo HN ...
The combination of clindamycin and quinine is the standard treatment for severe babesiosis. Clindamycin may also be used to ... Homer MJ, Aguilar-Delfin I, Telford SR, Krause PJ, Persing DH (July 2000). "Babesiosis". Clin Microbiol Rev. 13 (3): 451-69. ...
... also increases the severity of babesiosis, Splenectomized patients are more susceptible to contracting babesiosis ... "Babesiosis". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. 2009-02-19. Archived from ... 204: Babesiosis". Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 17e. McGraw-Hill's Access Medicine. ISBN 978-0071466332. Working ...
B. microti is responsible for the disease babesiosis, a malaria-like disease which also causes fever and hemolysis. The life ... Vannier, Edouard; Krause, Peter J. (21 June 2012). "Human Babesiosis". New England Journal of Medicine. 366 (25): 2397-2407. ... "Vaccines against bovine babesiosis: where we are now and possible roads ahead". Parasitology. 141 (12): 1563-1592. doi:10.1017/ ...
"About Babesiosis". CDC Parasites. Retrieved 19 June 2018. Sinwar, Prabhu (December 2014). "Overwhelming post splenectomy ... Another source of infection are species of Babesia, which are tick-borne parasites that cause babesiosis. Infection with ... Rosner, F. (April 1984). "Babesiosis in splenectomized adults. Review of 22 reported cases". American Journal of Medicine. 76 ( ...
... is used in livestock veterinary cases of babesiosis in cattle, especially if imidocarb resistance is a concern. " ... November 2000). "Atovaquone and azithromycin for the treatment of babesiosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (20): 1454-8. doi:10.1056/ ... Vial, Henri J.; Gorenflot, A. (2006). "Chemotherapy against babesiosis". Veterinary Parasitology. 138 (1-2): 147-160. doi: ...
Horses suffer babesiosis or biliary fever when infected by Ba. equi or B. caballi. This occurs in many countries where vector ... Dalgliesh, R. J.; Jorgensen, W. K.; de Vos, A. J. (March 1990). "Australian frozen vaccines for the control of babesiosis and ... de Vos, A.J. (1 December 1979). "Epidemiology and control of bovine babesiosis in South Africa". Journal of the South African ... Babesia bovis protozoa are transmitted by R. microplus and cause babesiosis or redwater fever in cattle throughout the tropics ...
"Canine Babesiosis" (PDF). Canine Babesiosis: 1141. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-06. Halos ... "Canine Babesiosis" (PDF). Canine Babesiosis: 1144. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-06. ... "Canine Babesiosis" (PDF). Canine Babesiosis: 1146. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-06. ( ... signs of babesiosis may recur. Vaccines to prevent B. canis are not available in North America,[citation needed] but in France ...
Piroplasmosis, or babesiosis, unknown in Britain, is a malaria-like disease caused by a protozoan parasite. At one stage in its ... This was a finding of great economic importance, and trypan blue became the standard treatment for piroplasmosis/babesiosis for ... Carmichael, J. (1956). "Treatment and control of babesiosis". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 64 (2): 147-151. ... Imes, George D.; Neafie, Ronald C.; Chiricosta, Francis M. (2011). Babesiosis (Piroplasmosis) (PDF) (Report). Washington, D.C ...
It is the main agent of bovine babesiosis, or "redwater fever", in Europe. Young cattle are less susceptible. The current ... Uguen, C; Girard, L; Brasseur, P; Leblay, R (1997). "La babésiose humaine en 1997" [Human Babesiosis in 1997]. La Revue de ... "Babesiosis in Immunocompetent Patients, Europe". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (1): 114-6. doi:10.3201/eid1701.100737. PMC ...
Babesia microti is transmitted by ixodes ticks and causes babesiosis. Transfusion-associated babesiosis has been documented. ... 18 October 2011). "Transfusion-Associated Babesiosis in the United States: A Description of Cases". Annals of Internal Medicine ... 2020 Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of Babesiosis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 72 (2): e49-e64. doi:10.1093/cid/ ...
Babesiosis Equine piroplasmosis Manwell RD (1964). "The Genus Dactylosoma". The Journal of Protozoology. 11 (4): 526-530. doi: ...
Leo Bogart, 84, American sociologist, babesiosis. Giuseppe Caprio, 90, Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Jason ...
This includes babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniasis and leptospirosis. This disease may be transmitted by blood transfusion. ...
... and transmission by ticks of bovine babesiosis. He also did research on yeast and plant diseases such as: the role of ...
Babesiosis* is spread by members of the family Ixodidae, or hard ticks. The two species of the genus Babesia that affect dogs ... Babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia in dogs. Neosporosis* is caused by Neospora caninum Protothecosis in dogs is caused by a ... babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. They can also cause a neurological disorder known as tick paralysis. Mites Ear mites are ... infections such as ehrlichiosis or babesiosis, and rarely, neonatal isoerythrolysis. The behavioral condition pica, especially ...
In sheep causes babesiosis disease, called "sheep babesiosis". Babesia motasi is quite big protozoa. Length 2,5-5 µm, usually ...
In dogs, symptoms of canine ehrlichiosis include lameness and fever; those for babesiosis include fever, anorexia, and anemia. ...
The disease it and other members of the genus Babesia cause is a hemolytic anemia known as babesiosis and colloquially called ... ISBN 978-0-07-146633-2. Current status of Bovine babesiosis worldwide at OIE. WAHID Interface - OIE World Animal Health ...
Babesiosis is a rare tickborne infection. Patients should check themselves or have themselves inspected for tick bites if they ...
Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F. (1995). "Molecular basis for vaccine development against anaplasmosis and babesiosis". ...
In cattle, it causes babesiosis, also called "Texas fever". Its length is 4-5 µm and its width is 2-3 µm. Usually, it has an ...
Jean Byrne died in 2015 of babesiosis, aged 88. Byrne died on January 4, 2018, in Livingston, New Jersey, of a lung infection ...
January 2008). "Splenic infarction in human babesiosis: two cases and discussion". Clin. Infect. Dis. 46 (1): e8-11. doi: ... or babesiosis), inherited clotting disorders (thrombophilia, such as Factor V Leiden, antiphospholipid syndrome), malignancy ( ...
The person had been splenectomized, as were all people diagnosed with babesiosis until 1969, when the first case of babesiosis ... Treatment for babesiosis consisted of primaquine (1 mg/kg PO q24h for 10 days; primaquine phosphate 1.76%m/v in stabilized ... Prevalence of babesiosis in malaria-endemic regions remains unknown due to the likelihood of misdiagnosis as malaria. As the ... It was believed to be a disease that only affected nonhuman mammals, but in 1957, the first case of babesiosis was seen in a ...
... is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis. This includes the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium ...
Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are also carried by the deer mouse. While wild populations are sometimes studied, Peromyscus ...
In horses, it causes the babesiosis disease, called "equine babesiosis". Its length is 2.5-5 µm, while its width is 2 µm. It is ...
4: Toxoplasmosis and Babesiosis in Asia; Edit-in-chief: Yano A; Vol Edit: Yano A, Nam H-W, Anuar A K, Shen J, Saito A & ...
Kuttler, KL (1980). "Pharmacotherapeutics of drugs used in treatment of anaplasmosis and babesiosis". Journal of the American ... babesiosis) and other parasites. Hashemi-Fesharki, R (1977). "Studies on imidocarb dihydrochloride in experimental Babesia ovis ...
Education and information about Babesiosis, babseia microti, ticks, ixodes scapularis,fact sheets, prevention and control, ... MMWR (May 31, 2019) - Babesiosis Surveillance - United States, 2011-2015. MMWR (July 13, 2012) - Babesiosis Surveillance - 18 ... Babesiosis is caused by microscopic parasites that infect red blood cells and are spread by certain ticks. In the United States ... Babesiosis is preventable, if simple steps are taken to reduce exposure to ticks. ...
Babesiosis is a tick-borne malarialike illness caused by species of the intraerythrocytic protozoan Babesia. Humans are ... Babesiosis elicits a B-cell response and a T-cell response. Patients with acute babesiosis may have an increase in T-suppressor ... Babesiosis was a reportable condition in 40 out of 50 states in 2018. Of those, 28 states reported cases of babesiosis during ... encoded search term (Babesiosis) and Babesiosis What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Immunodiagnosis of the haemosporidial infections such as babesiosis / by Miodrag Ristic  Ristic, Miodrag; World Health ...
Severe Babesiosis in Immunocompetent Man, Spain, 2011 Luis M. Gonzalez, Susana Rojo, Fernando Gonzalez-Camacho, Daniel Luque, ...
Learn about diagnosis and specialist referrals for Babesiosis. ... Members of the medical team for Babesiosis may include:. ...
Access Babesiosis ( Babesia spp.) case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
Human babesiosis caused by Babesia duncani is an emerging infectious disease in the U.S. and is often undetected because ... Most physicians are aware of Lyme disease but not of babesiosis.". Next the team plans to study how B. duncani survives in the ... All cases of human babesiosis reported in the United States have been linked to either Babesia microti, B. duncani, or a B. ... But with hikes come insect bites and on the increase in North America is babesiosis, a malaria-like disease spread especially ...
babesiosis. Precision Diagnosis for Tick-Borne Diseases? Posted on June 26th, 2018. by Dr. Francis Collins ... Tags: arachnids, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Heartland virus disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human ...
Access Babesiosis MMGs and related artifacts that are available for all public health reporting jurisdictions to use to ... Babesiosis Message Mapping Guide Babesiosis Message Mapping Guide Print Please find below message mapping guide documents and ... Annotated Babesiosis Case Report Form (05/14/2019). * Babesiosis MMG Implementation Frequently Asked Questions v1 (10/18/2021) ... Babesiosis v1.0.1 Message Mapping Guide and Test Case Scenarios (07/21/21) ...
Babesiosis. Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites that infect red blood cells. Many different species (types ... Learn more on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention babesiosis site. ...
Cases of babesiosis - a tick-borne disease that can cause flu-like symptoms - are on the rise in the Northeast, according to ... What is babesiosis?. Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by a parasite called Babesia microti and spread by the black- ... Cases of babesiosis - a tick-borne disease that can cause flulike symptoms - are on the rise in the Northeast, according to the ... Cases of babesiosis are increasing in the Northeast. This month, the CDC warned about a significant increase in tick-borne ...
Canine babesiosis is a worldwide, primarily tick-borne, protozoal disease. Weve rounded up five important points before ... Canine babesiosis is a worldwide, primarily tick-borne, protozoal disease. The disease is predominantly characterized by a ... Canine babesiosis is frequently accompanied by Ehrlichia canis. *Accurate species classification is important for providing the ... In clinic PCR tests, such as PCRun® provide a rapid, sensitive, and species-specific diagnosis of canine babesiosis allowing to ...
Topic: Babesiosis. (Please note that the documents listed below are sorted by date.). Lyme Disease; 1991:01:01. This page last ...
Babesiosis Babesiosis in Vermont is caused by an infection with a parasite called Babesia microti. It... ... It is spread by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks, the same tick that transmits Lyme disease, babesiosis, Borrelia ...
Babesiosis MMG. Version 1.1 of the Babesiosis MMG has now posted. All value sets associated with this guide are in the PHIN ... Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) Babesiosis Case Notification View version 5. The changes include:. *Format ...
One tiny tick bite can cause serious but treatable diseases such as Lyme or babesiosis. Follow these tips to avoid being a ... Babesiosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education ...
One tiny tick bite can cause serious but treatable diseases such as Lyme or babesiosis. Follow these tips to avoid being a ... Babesiosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education ...
... babesiosis, tularemia, and Powassan virus disease all increased from 48,610 cases in 2016 to 59,349 cases in 2017. ...
Babesiosis is an emerging infection. Babesiosis is an emerging TBD, with an increasing number of cases reported both in the ... Babesiosis. Background. Babesiosis is a worldwide disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia (Vannier & Krause ... Human babesiosis; B. miyamotoi infection. 3. November 5, 2021. Dennis Dixon (SC co-chair), Sunil Sood (SC co-chair), Linden Hu ... Endemic babesiosis due to B. ventorum and B. crassa-like agent occur in northeastern China and B. microti in southwestern China ...
Babesiosis. Zimmer AJ, Simonsen KA. Zimmer AJ, et al. 2022 Aug 1. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls ...
Babesiosis [‎1]‎. Bacillus [‎8]‎. Bacillus anthracis [‎1]‎. Bacillus thuringiensis [‎39]‎. Back Pain [‎7]‎. ...
Babesiosis. Total. 669. 0.46. 1,125. 0.80. 26. 1,820. Confirmed. 600. 0.42. 1,007. 0.72. 24. 1,631. ...
Babesiosis. Campylobacteriosis. Current. week. Previous 52 weeks. Cum. 2016. Cum. 2015. Current. week. Previous 52 weeks. Cum. ...
Babesiosis. (Export Data). (PDF). Botulism. Foodborne. (Export Data). (PDF). Infant. (Export Data). (PDF). ...

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