RNA, Ribosomal, 18S
Preparation of antibodies directed to the Babesia ovata- or Theileria sergenti-parasitized erythrocytes. (1/319)To investigate the surface antigens of the bovine red blood cells (RBCs) parasitized by Babesia ovata or Theileria sergenti, attempts were made to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with BALB/c mice. Comparable numbers of hybridomas producing anti-piroplasm mAbs, as well as anti-bovine RBC mAbs, were obtained from the mice immunized with B. ovata- or T. sergenti-PRBCs. However, mAbs directed to the surface of parasitized RBCs (PRBCs) were obtained only from the mice immunized with B. ovata-PRBCs, but not from those immunized with T. sergenti-PRBCs. When serum samples from the immunized mice and the infected cattle were examined, antibodies recognizing B. ovata-PRBC surface were detected in the sera against B. ovata, but analogous antibodies were undetectable in the sera against T. sergenti, despite that the sera showed substantial antibody titers to T. sergenti piroplasms. The results suggest that significant antigenic modifications occur on the surface of B. ovata-PRBCs, but not on the surface of T. sergenti-PRBCs. (+info)
Detection of enzootic babesiosis in baboons (Papio cynocephalus) and phylogenetic evidence supporting synonymy of the genera Entopolypoides and Babesia. (2/319)Blood smear evaluation of two baboons (Papio cynocephalus) experiencing acute hemolytic crises following experimental stem cell transplantation revealed numerous intraerythrocytic organisms typical of the genus Babesia. Both animals had received whole-blood transfusions from two baboon donors, one of which was subsequently found to display rare trophozoites of Entopolypoides macaci. An investigation was then undertaken to determine the prevalence of hematozoa in baboons held in our primate colony and to determine the relationship, if any, between the involved species. Analysis of thick and thin blood films from 65 healthy baboons (23 originating from our breeding facility, 26 originating from an out-of-state breeding facility, and 16 imported from Africa) for hematozoa revealed rare E. macaci parasites in 31%, with respective prevalences of 39, 35, and 12%. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene sequences amplified from peripheral blood of a baboon chronically infected with E. macaci demonstrated this parasite to be most closely related to Babesia microti (97.9% sequence similarity); sera from infected animals did not react in indirect fluorescent-antibody tests with Babesia microti antigen, however, suggesting that they represent different species. These results support an emerging view that the genus Entopolypoides Mayer 1933 is synonymous with that of the genus Babesia Starcovici 1893 and that the morphological variation noted among intracellular forms is a function of alteration in host immune status. The presence of an underrecognized, but highly enzootic, Babesia sp. in baboons may result in substantial, unanticipated impact on research programs. The similarity of this parasite to the known human pathogen B. microti may also pose risks to humans undergoing xenotransplantation, mandating effective screening of donor animals. (+info)
Simultaneous detection of bovine Theileria and Babesia species by reverse line blot hybridization. (3/319)A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. The assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rRNA gene V4 hypervariable regions of all Theileria and Babesia species. PCR products obtained from blood samples were hybridized to a membrane onto which nine species-specific oligonucleotides were covalently linked. Cross-reactions were not observed between any of the tested species. No DNA sequences from Bos taurus or other hemoparasites (Trypanosoma species, Cowdria ruminantium, Anaplasma marginale, and Ehrlichia species) were amplified. The sensitivity of the assay was determined at 0.000001% parasitemia, enabling detection of the carrier state of most parasites. Mixed DNAs from five different parasites were correctly identified. Moreover, blood samples from cattle experimentally infected with two different parasites reacted only with the corresponding species-specific oligonucleotides. Finally, RLB was used to screen blood samples collected from carrier cattle in two regions of Spain. T. annulata, T. orientalis, and B. bigemina were identified in these samples. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection of all bovine tick-borne protozoan parasites. We recommend its use for integrated epidemiological monitoring of tick-borne disease, since RLB can also be used for screening ticks and can easily be expanded to include additional hemoparasite species. (+info)
Southern extension of the range of human babesiosis in the eastern United States. (4/319)We sought evidence of babesiosis in three residents of New Jersey who were suspected of local acquisition of Babesia microti infection. We tested serial blood samples from these residents for B. microti antibodies and amplifiable DNA by using immunofluorescent antibody and PCR techniques. All three residents experienced symptoms suggestive of acute babesiosis. The sera of each of the patients reacted against babesial antigen at a titer fourfold or higher in sequentially collected blood samples. PCR-amplifiable DNA, characteristic of B. microti, was detected in their blood. These data suggest that human B. microti infections were acquired recently in New Jersey, extending the range of this piroplasmosis in the northeastern United States. (+info)
Detection of equine antibodies to babesia caballi by recombinant B. caballi rhoptry-associated protein 1 in a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (5/319)A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed for detection of equine antibodies specific for Babesia caballi. The assay used recombinant B. caballi rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) and monoclonal antibody (MAb) 79/17.18.5, which is reactive with a peptide epitope of a native 60-kDa B. caballi antigen. The gene encoding the recombinant antigen was sequenced, and database analysis revealed that the gene product is a rhoptry-associated protein. Cloning and expression of a truncated copy of the gene demonstrated that MAb 79/17.18.5 reacts with the C-terminal repeat region of the protein. The cELISA was used to evaluate 302 equine serum samples previously tested for antibodies to B. caballi by a standardized complement fixation test (CFT). The results of cELISA and CFT were 73% concordant. Seventy-two of the 77 serum samples with discordant results were CFT negative and cELISA positive. Further evaluation of the serum samples with discordant results by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) demonstrated that at a serum dilution of 1:200, 48 of the CFT-negative and cELISA-positive serum samples contained antibodies reactive with B. caballi RAP-1. Four of five CFT-positive and cELISA-negative serum samples contained antibodies reactive with B. caballi when they were tested by IFA. These data indicate that following infection with B. caballi, horses consistently produce antibody to the RAP-1 epitope defined by MAb 79/17.18.5, and when used in the cELISA format, recombinant RAP-1 is a useful antigen for the serologic detection of anti-B. caballi antibodies. (+info)
Isolation of a new subspecies, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, from a cattle rancher: identity with isolates found in conjunction with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti among naturally infected mice. (6/319)Bacteremia with fever due to a novel subspecies of Bartonella vinsonii was found in a cattle rancher. The subspecies shared major characteristics of the genus Bartonella in terms of most biochemical features and cellular fatty acid profile, but it was distinguishable from other subspecies of B. vinsonii by good growth on heart infusion agar supplemented with X factor and by its pattern of enzymatic hydrolysis of peptide substrates. DNA relatedness studies verified that the isolate belonged to the genus Bartonella and that it was genotypically related to B. vinsonii. The highest level of relatedness was observed with recently characterized strains from naturally infected mice that were coinfected with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti. We propose the name Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis subsp. nov. as the new subspecies to accommodate these human and murine isolates. (+info)
Coinfection with multiple tick-borne pathogens in a Walker Hound kennel in North Carolina. (7/319)Both dogs and humans can be coinfected with various Ehrlichia, Bartonella, Rickettsia, and Babesia species. We investigated a kennel of sick Walker Hounds and their owners in southeastern North Carolina for evidence of tick-borne infections and associated risk factors. A high degree of coinfection was documented in the dog population. Of the 27 dogs, 26 were seroreactive to an Ehrlichia sp., 16 to Babesia canis, and 25 to Bartonella vinsonii, and 22 seroconverted to Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. According to PCR results, 15 dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis, 9 with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 8 with Ehrlichia ewingii, 3 with Ehrlichia equi, 9 with Ehrlichia platys, 20 with a Rickettsia species, 16 with a Bartonella species, and 7 with B. canis. The detection of DNA from any Ehrlichia species was associated with clinical illness and with concurrent B. canis infection (by PCR). Both E. canis and an uncharacterized Rickettsia species appeared to result in chronic or recurrent infection. Death in the dog population was associated with living in a dirt lot rather than the concrete kennel. Of 23 people on whom serologic testing was conducted, eight were seroreactive to Bartonella henselae, one to E. chaffeensis, and one to R. rickettsii antigen; however, none had clinical or hematologic abnormalities consistent with illness caused by these organisms. We conclude that kennel dogs with heavy tick exposure can be infected at a high rate with multiple, potentially zoonotic, tick-borne pathogens. In addition, our findings further illustrate the utility of PCR for documenting coinfection with tick-transmitted pathogens. (+info)
Development of Babesia gibsoni in the midgut of larval tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. (8/319)Studies were made on the development of Babesia gibsoni in the midgut of the larval tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Six hr after repletion, merozoites of B. gibsoni, freed from erythrocytes, were observed in the midgut contents of the tick. After that, within 24 hr, those merozoites were transformed into the ring-forms which were relatively large, 2-3 microns in diameter. Later, the ring forms developed into the spherical forms which were subelliptical in shape and 4-6 microns in diameter. Within 2-4 days, the elongated forms, 5-8 microns in length, were found. At this time, some of the binucleated fusion form has assumed a form intermediate between the spherical and elongated-forms. About 5-6 days after repletion, large round or elliptic zygotes, 8-10 microns in diameter, were observed in the tick gut. (+info)
Symptoms of babesiosis can vary in severity and may include:
* Muscle and joint pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
In severe cases, babesiosis can lead to complications such as:
* Hemolytic anemia (breakdown of red blood cells)
* Kidney failure
* Respiratory distress syndrome
* Septic shock
Babesiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:
* Blood smear
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Treatment for babesiosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as azithromycin and atovaquone, or clindamycin and primaquine. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.
Prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protecting against tick bites through measures such as:
* Using insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin
* Wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and tucking pant legs into socks
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors
* Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly
Early detection and treatment of babesiosis can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.
Some common tick-borne diseases include:
1. Lyme disease: This is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States, and it is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and a distinctive rash, and if left untreated, can lead to joint pain, swelling, and long-term health problems.
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and a rash with tiny red spots. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
3. Babesiosis: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the parasite Babesia, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and fatigue. It can be particularly dangerous for people with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly or those with chronic illnesses.
4. Anaplasmosis: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle pain. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
5. Powassan virus disease: This is a rare tick-borne disease caused by the Powassan virus, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and confusion. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
Prevention of tick-borne diseases includes protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and doing regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of tick-borne diseases can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.
It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
The disease is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, which introduces the parasite into the host's bloodstream. The parasites then multiply within the host's cells, causing damage to the red blood cells and other organs.
There are several species of Theileria that can cause theileriosis, with different species affecting different regions and livestock populations. The most common species is Theileria parva, which is found in sub-Saharan Africa and causes East Coast fever. Other species include Theileria sergenti, which is found in southern Africa, and Theileria taurotragus, which affects wild buffalo.
Theileriosis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and observation of the parasites in the host's bloodstream. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as antibiotics to prevent secondary infections, and in some cases, medication to reduce the number of parasites in the host's body.
Prevention is key to controlling theileriosis, and this includes using acaricides to kill ticks, vaccination, and maintaining good herd health practices. In areas where the disease is common, it is important to monitor livestock regularly for signs of the disease and take prompt action if any are detected.
In summary, theileriosis is a parasitic infection caused by Theileria protozoa that affects cattle and other bovines, causing a range of symptoms including fever, anemia, weight loss, and edema. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick and can be diagnosed through laboratory tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves supportive care and medication to reduce the number of parasites in the host's body, while prevention strategies include the use of acaricides, vaccination, and good herd health practices.
Synonyms: tick bites, tick infestations, tick-borne illnesses, tick-transmitted diseases.
Types of Tick Infestations:
1. Lyme disease: Caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a distinctive skin rash.
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash with small purple spots.
3. Tick-borne relapsing fever: Caused by the bacterium Borrelia duttoni, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected soft tick (Ornithodoros moenia). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash with small purple spots.
4. Babesiosis: Caused by the parasite Babesia microti, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, chills, and fatigue.
5. Anaplasmosis: Caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and muscle aches.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Exposure to ticks: The risk of developing tick-borne diseases is high in areas where ticks are common, such as wooded or grassy areas with long grass or leaf litter.
2. Warm weather: Ticks are most active during warm weather, especially in the spring and summer months.
3. Outdoor activities: People who engage in outdoor activities, such as hiking, camping, or gardening, are at higher risk of exposure to ticks.
4. Poor tick awareness: Not knowing how to protect yourself from ticks or not being aware of the risks of tick-borne diseases can increase your likelihood of getting sick.
5. Lack of tick prevention measures: Failing to use tick repellents, wear protective clothing, or perform regular tick checks can increase your risk of exposure to ticks and tick-borne diseases.
Prevention and Treatment:
1. Tick awareness: Learn how to identify ticks, the risks of tick-borne diseases, and how to protect yourself from ticks.
2. Use tick repellents: Apply tick repellents to your skin and clothing before going outdoors, especially in areas where ticks are common.
3. Wear protective clothing: Wear long sleeves, pants, and closed-toe shoes to cover your skin and make it harder for ticks to attach to you.
4. Perform regular tick checks: Check yourself, children, and pets frequently for ticks when returning indoors, especially after spending time outdoors in areas where ticks are common.
5. Remove attached ticks: If you find a tick on your body, remove it promptly and correctly to reduce the risk of infection.
6. Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear: Treating your clothing and gear with permethrin can help repel ticks and reduce the risk of infection.
7. Vaccination: There are vaccines available for some tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, which can help protect against these illnesses.
8. Early treatment: If you suspect that you have been bitten by a tick and develop symptoms of a tick-borne disease, seek medical attention promptly. Early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.
It's important to note that not all ticks carry diseases, but it's always better to be safe than sorry. By following these tips, you can reduce your risk of tick bites and the potential for tick-borne illnesses.
Some common horse diseases include:
1. Equine Influenza (EI): A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the equine influenza virus. It can cause fever, coughing, and nasal discharge.
2. Strangles: A bacterial infection of the lymph nodes, which can cause swelling of the neck and difficulty breathing.
3. West Nile Virus (WNV): A viral infection that can cause fever, weakness, and loss of coordination. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and can be fatal in some cases.
4. Tetanus: A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which can cause muscle stiffness, spasms, and rigidity.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be fatal if left untreated. It is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through a bite.
6. Cushing's Disease: A hormonal disorder caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause weight gain, muscle wasting, and other health issues.
7. Laminitis: An inflammation of the laminae, the tissues that connect the hoof to the bone. It can be caused by obesity, overeating, or excessive exercise.
8. Navicular Syndrome: A condition that affects the navicular bone and surrounding tissue, causing pain and lameness in the foot.
9. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
10. Colic: A general term for abdominal pain, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including gas, impaction, or twisting of the intestines.
These are just a few examples of the many potential health issues that can affect horses. Regular veterinary care and proper management can help prevent many of these conditions, and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.
1. Dictionary of Medical Microbiology, Second Edition. Edited by A. S. Chakrabarti and S. K. Das. Springer, 2012.
2. Medical Microbiology, Fourth Edition. Edited by P. R. Murray, K. S. N air, and M. J. Laurence. Mosby, 2014.
The symptoms of anaplasmosis can range from mild to severe and typically develop within 1-2 weeks after a tick bite. Mild symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Severe symptoms can include bleeding disorders, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), renal failure, respiratory distress, and cardiovascular complications.
Anaplasmosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Laboratory tests may include blood smears, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests, and serologic tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the bacteria.
Treatment for anaplasmosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as respiratory distress, renal failure, and cardiovascular problems.
Prevention of anaplasmosis includes avoiding tick habitats, using protective clothing and insect repellents when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks on oneself and pets. It is also important to be aware of the risks of anaplasmosis in areas where the disease is prevalent and to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms develop after a tick bite.
Zoonoses (zoonosis) refers to infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can be spread through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
Examples of Zoonoses
Some common examples of zoonoses include:
1. Rabies: a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal, typically dogs, bats, or raccoons.
2. Lyme disease: a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
3. Toxoplasmosis: a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated cat feces or undercooked meat.
4. Leptospirosis: a bacterial infection caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is spread to humans through contact with contaminated water or soil.
5. Avian influenza (bird flu): a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces.
Transmission of Zoonoses
Zoonoses can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including:
1. Direct contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
2. Contact with contaminated soil, water, or other environmental sources.
3. Through vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas.
4. By consuming contaminated food or water.
5. Through close contact with an infected person or animal.
Prevention of Zoonoses
Preventing the transmission of zoonoses requires a combination of personal protective measures, good hygiene practices, and careful handling of animals and animal products. Some strategies for preventing zoonoses include:
1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with animals or their waste.
2. Avoiding direct contact with wild animals and avoiding touching or feeding stray animals.
3. Cooking meat and eggs thoroughly to kill harmful bacteria.
4. Keeping pets up to date on vaccinations and preventative care.
5. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly poultry and pork.
6. Using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where vectors are prevalent.
7. Implementing proper sanitation and hygiene practices in animal housing and husbandry.
8. Implementing strict biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities to prevent the spread of disease.
9. Providing education and training to individuals working with animals or in areas where zoonoses are prevalent.
10. Monitoring for and reporting cases of zoonotic disease to help track and control outbreaks.
Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, posing a significant risk to human health and animal welfare. Understanding the causes, transmission, and prevention of zoonoses is essential for protecting both humans and animals from these diseases. By implementing appropriate measures such as avoiding contact with wild animals, cooking meat thoroughly, keeping pets up to date on vaccinations, and implementing proper sanitation and biosecurity practices, we can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and protect public health and animal welfare.
1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): This is a severe respiratory disease caused by the hantavirus, which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms of HPS can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Leptospirosis: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Leptospira, which is found in the urine of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
3. Rat-bite fever: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Streptobacillus moniliformis, which is found in the saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes.
4. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM): This is a viral infection caused by the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
5. Tularemia: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes.
These are just a few examples of the many diseases that can be transmitted to humans through contact with rodents. It is important to take precautions when handling or removing rodents, as they can pose a serious health risk. If you suspect that you have been exposed to a rodent-borne disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible.
Babesia sp. 'North Carolina dog'
George Stuart Graham-Smith
List of Plasmodium species
Ticks of domestic animals
Transfusion transmitted infection
Texas fever (disambiguation)
Memorial Blood Centers
List of parasitic organisms
Ver por tema "Babesia"
See who reacted to this (176949) - Daughter's Update: Buhner's bartonella/babesia protocols - PANS / PANDAS (Lyme included) -...
Detection of Babesia and Anaplasma species in rabbits from Texas and Georgia, USA - PubMed
Atovaquone plus cholestyramine in patients coinfected with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi refractory to other...
Experimental Babesia rossi infection induces hemolytic, metabolic, and viral response pathways in the canine host - PubMed
Babesiosis ( Babesia spp.)| CDC
Severe Babesia microti Infection in an Immunocompetent Host in Pennsylvania<...
Babesia | lymestorm
Babesia microti p41
Babesia: Understanding the parasite and co-infection of Lyme disease.
Transfusion-Transmitted Diseases: Overview, Bacterial Infections, Viral Infections
Babesia life cycle - Outbreak News Today
News - Tagged 'babesia' - Quality Oils Wholesale
Transfusion-Transmitted Diseases: Overview, Bacterial Infections, Viral Infections
Rez korijena Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (100g), Babesia, Lymeova bolest
What Is Babesia? Definition & Meaning Of Babesia - Folkabulary
Babesia equi One-Step PCR - 150 Reactions | Gentaur Group
Babesia behnkei sp. nov., a novel Babesia species infecting isolated populations of Wagner's gerbil, Dipodillus dasyurus, from...
Babesia, Yeast Treatment Update and My First Myers' Cocktail - Tired of Lyme
Babesia and Lyme - it's worse than you think - Daniel Cameron, MD, MPH
CDC - Parasites - Parasitic Information for Specific Groups
Transcriptome and Proteome Response of Rhipicephalus annulatus Tick Vector to Babesia bigemina Infection - GHTM
NATURAL TREATMENTS FOR LYME COINFECTIONS: Anaplasma, Babesia, and Ehrlichia by Stephen Buhner | Green Dragon Botanicals
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine - Keyword Lyme disease
Table - Babesia microti Infection, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA - Volume 19, Number 7-July 2013 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
NIAID Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
- Babesia microti in a thin blood smear. (cdc.gov)
- Atovaquone plus cholestyramine in patients coinfected with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi refractory to other treatment. (druglib.com)
- Ten percent of US patients with Lyme disease are coinfected with Babesia microti. (druglib.com)
- Babesia microti p41 was found to be expressed in all developmental stages of the merozoites and is considered an immunogenic protein. (bbisolutions.com)
- Morphological investigations were conducted for the comparison of trophozoites of the novel species of Babesia with the B. microti King's 67 reference strain. (biomedcentral.com)
- Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by a parasite called Babesia microti and spread by the black-legged tick, otherwise known as the deer tick. (yahoo.com)
- The tick that serves as the vector for Babesia microti is called Ixodes scapularis . (cdc.gov)
- The cause was identified as Babesia microti and the disease became known as "Nantucket fever. (cdc.gov)
- Babesia microti cases cluster mainly along the coastal northeastern region and the upper midwestern regions of the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Human babesiosis from 5 prefectures (Hokkaido, Iwate, for 08-22 (GenBank accession no. caused by Babesia divergens , a zoo- Tochigi, Nagano, and Miyazaki) were KC465978), within a clade also hold- notic pathogen of bovines in Europe, positive for Babesia rDNA (online ing the B. divergens strains (human is an emerging tickborne disease ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Babesiosis ( Babesia spp. (cdc.gov)
- Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused among others by the protozoan Babesia canis . (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, at least 1 deer likely had Europe ( 1 ), the United States ( 2 - 5 ), GACACTAG-3) for the first and Babesia and Theileria spp. (cdc.gov)
- Although a number of new species of Babesia/Theileria have been described recently, there are still relatively few reports of species from Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
- Piroplasmosis caused by tick-borne hemoprotozoans of several Theileria and Babesia species has a major impact on livestock production worldwide. (unl.pt)
- A reverse line blotting assay that includes genus- and species-specific probes for Theileria and Babesia species was used to assess the occurrence of these parasites in blood samples collected from 1407 healthy bovines throughout mainland Portugal. (unl.pt)
- Babesia: Understanding the parasite and co-infection of Lyme disease. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- Babesia is extremely different from Lyme in that it is a malaria type microscopic parasite and Lyme is a bacterial spirochete. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- When learning about Babesia or any of Lyme co-infections take it slow. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- Babesia is a malaria type infection that often accompanies Lyme disease. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- One can be infected with Babesia by the same tick that infected you with Lyme disease. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- One study indicates over ½ of Babesia sufferers also have Lyme disease. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- If you have Babesia and Lyme, Babesia could make all of your Lyme symptoms up to three times worse. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- Individuals who present malaria symptoms (Malaria symptoms include night or day sweats, air hunger, cough not associated with anything else) in addition to Lyme symptoms should consider testing for Babesia. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- Individuals who are also not getting better with Lyme treatment should be tested for Babesia. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- The following 75 symptoms are presented so you can separate Lyme symptoms from Babesia symptoms. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- The symptoms in bold are both a Lyme and a Babesia symptom. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- Because you probably acquired Babesia at the same time as Lyme symptoms are going to be hard to decipher. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- The parasite that causes Babesia invades and then destroys red blood cells. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- Rhipicephalus annulatus is one of the main vectors of Babesia bigemina which has a massive impact on animal health. (unl.pt)
- Among them 406 were differently represented in response to Babesia infection. (unl.pt)
- The omics data obtained suggested that Babesia infection lead to a reduction in the levels of mRNA and proteins ( n = 237 transcripts, n = 212 proteins) when compared to uninfected controls. (unl.pt)
- Knockdown of gp80 , dapk-1 , and bi-1 led to a significant increase in Babesia infection levels while hsp and QtRibosyl knockdown resulted in a non-significant decrease of infection levels when compared to the respective controls. (unl.pt)
- These results advanced our understanding of tick- Babesia molecular interactions, and suggested new tick antigens as putative targets for vaccination to control tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. (unl.pt)
- Just over the past five years that we've been doing this, we've seen an increase over time in the infection rate for Babesia," he said. (yahoo.com)
- In this study based on the evaluation of morphology and phylogenetic relationships, we describe a novel species from Wagner's gerbil, Babesia behnkei n. sp. (biomedcentral.com)
- A novel species of Babesia was identified in two isolated populations of D. dasyurus . (biomedcentral.com)
- Currently there are over 120 recognized species of Babesia described from various parts of the world. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is pertinent that new species of Babesia (and presumably also other haemoparasites) are often discovered at post-mortem examinations, especially in the case of endangered host species such as the sable antelope and the black rhinoceros. (biomedcentral.com)
- In Babesia infections, infected red blood cells (rbcs) are normal in size. (cdc.gov)
- Babesia organisms lack pigment. (cdc.gov)
- Think transfusions) There are over 100 strains of Babesia. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- The sequence for a cluster encompassing Babesia spp. (cdc.gov)
- 7 ) Babesia can be passed by tick bite and by the blood supply. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- Babesia affects the red blood cells. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- Has anyone else made it though Babesia treatment this way? (healingwell.com)
- I was asked to compose an article about Babesia for a Facebook group. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- Doctors are going to be really looking for the malaria symptoms when trying to determine if Babesia is an issue. (lymewellnessdiy.com)
- A malaria-like syndrome due to Babesia microti infection has been recognized in parts of the northeastern United States for more than three decades. (medscape.com)
- Two cases of Babesia microti infection have recently been reported from Massachusetts. (cdc.gov)
- Seroprevalence of Babesia microti infection in Canadian blood donors. (nih.gov)
- The tick vector that transmits A phagocytophilum also transmits other pathogens, and coinfections with Borrelia burgdorferi or Babesia microti have been described. (medscape.com)
- Fay and Rausch 1969 revisited: Babesia microti in Alaskan small mammals. (nih.gov)
- Babesia microti: from Mice to Ticks to an Increasing Number of Highly Susceptible Humans. (nih.gov)
- Seroprevalence of Babesia microti in blood donors from Babesia-endemic areas of the northeastern United States: 2000 through 2007. (nih.gov)