Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Characterization of mouse and human B7-H3 genes. (1/88)

T cell activation and immune function are regulated by costimulatory molecules of the B7 superfamily. Human B7-H3 is a recent addition to this family and has been shown to mediate T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production. In this work we describe the identification of the mouse B7-H3 homolog, which is ubiquitously expressed in a variety of tissues. Activated CD4 and CD8 T cells express a putative receptor that can be recognized by soluble mouse B7-H3-Ig molecules. While the mouse B7-H3 gene was found to contain a single copy, we discovered a novel isoform of human B7-H3 (named as B7-H3b hereafter) with four Ig-like domains that results from gene duplication and differential splicing. B7-H3b is the major isoform expressed in several tissues. This structural information suggests a genetic variation of the B7-H3 gene in mammalian species.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of human 4Ig-B7-H3, a member of the B7 family with four Ig-like domains. (2/88)

In an effort to characterize molecules with immunoregulatory potential, we raised mAbs to human dendritic cells. We selected an Ab that recognizes a molecule that is induced on monocytes differentiated in vitro toward dendritic cells. Retroviral expression cloning identified this molecule as B7-H3, a member of the B7 family described recently. In contrast to an earlier report, in which B7-H3 was described as a molecule consisting of two Ig-like domains, our cDNA encoded a type I membrane protein with four Ig-like domains, and the molecule identified by us was therefore named 4Ig-B7-H3. mRNA analysis as well as Western blotting experiments performed by us did not reveal evidence for a small B7-H3. B7-H3 is not expressed on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, or granulocytes. Upon in vitro stimulation, the expression of B7-H3 is induced on T cells, B cells, and NK cells. A number of different approaches were used to investigate the function of human B7-H3. In contrast to an earlier report, our data do not support a costimulatory role of B7-H3 in anti-CD3-mediated activation of the TCR-complex resulting in T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production.  (+info)

Murine B7-H3 is a negative regulator of T cells. (3/88)

T cell activation is regulated by the innate immune system through positive and negative costimulatory molecules. B7-H3 is a novel B7-like molecule with a putative receptor on activated T cells. Human B7-H3 was first described as a positive costimulator, most potently inducing IFN-gamma production and cellular immunity. In this study we examined the expression and function of mouse B7-H3. B7-H3 is mostly expressed on professional APCs; its expression on dendritic cells appears to be up-regulated by LPS. In contrast to human B7-H3, we found that mouse B7-H3 protein inhibited T cell activation and effector cytokine production. An antagonistic mAb to B7-H3 enhanced T cell proliferation in vitro and led to exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in vivo. Therefore, mouse B7-H3 serves as a negative regulator of T cell activation and function.  (+info)

Identification of 4Ig-B7-H3 as a neuroblastoma-associated molecule that exerts a protective role from an NK cell-mediated lysis. (4/88)

In this study, in an attempt to identify neuroblastoma-associated surface antigens, we generated mAbs against the ACN neuroblastoma cell line. A mAb was selected (5B14) that reacted with all neuroblastoma cell lines analyzed and allowed detection of tumor cell infiltrates in bone marrow aspirates from neuroblastoma patients. In cytofluorimetric analysis, unlike anti-disialoganglioside mAb, 5B14 mAb did not display reactivity with normal bone marrow hematopoietic cell precursors, thus representing a highly specific marker for identifying neuroblastoma cells. Molecular analysis revealed that the 5B14 mAb-reactive surface glycoprotein corresponded to the recently identified 4Ig-B7-H3 molecule. Remarkably, mAb-mediated masking of the 4Ig-B7-H3 molecule on cell transfectants or on freshly isolated neuroblastoma cells resulted in enhancement of natural killer-mediated lysis of these target cells. These data suggest that 4Ig-B7-H3 molecules expressed at the tumor cell surface can exert a protective role from natural killer-mediated lysis by interacting with a still undefined inhibitory receptor expressed on natural killer cells.  (+info)

The immune regulatory protein B7-H3 promotes osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization. (5/88)

B7-H3, a member of the B7 family of the Ig superfamily proteins, is expressed on the surface of the antigen-presenting cells and down-regulates T cell functions by engaging an unknown counterreceptor on T cells. Although B7-H3 is ubiquitously expressed, its potential nonimmune functions have not been addressed. We found that B7-H3 is highly expressed in developing bones during embryogenesis and that its expression increases as osteoblast precursor cells differentiate into mature osteoblasts. In vitro bone formation by osteoblastic cells was inhibited when B7-H3 function was interrupted by the soluble recombinant protein B7-H3-Fc. Analysis of calvarial cells derived from neonatal B7-H3 knockout (KO) mice revealed normal numbers of osteoblast precursor cells possessing a normal proliferative capacity. However, the B7-H3-deficient calvarial cells exhibited impaired osteogenic differentiation, resulting in decreased mineralized bone formation in vitro. These results suggest that B7-H3 is required for the later phase of osteoblast differentiation. Although B7-H3 KO mice had no gross skeletal abnormalities, they displayed a lower bone mineral density in cortical (but not trabecular) bones compared with WT controls. Consistent with the reduced bone mineral density, the femurs of B7-H3 KO mice were more susceptible to bone fracture compared with those of WT mice. Taken together, these results indicate that B7-H3 and its unknown counterreceptor play a positive regulatory role in bone formation. In addition, our findings identified B7-H3 as another molecule that has a dual role in the bone-immune interface.  (+info)

B7-H3 enhances tumor immunity in vivo by costimulating rapid clonal expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ cytolytic T cells. (6/88)

B7-H3 is a B7 family molecule with T cell costimulatory function in vitro. The in vivo role of B7-H3 in the stimulation of tumor immunity is unclear. We report here that expression of B7-H3 by transfection of the mouse P815 tumor line enhances its immunogenicity, leading to the regression of tumors and amplification of a tumor-specific CD8+ CTL response in syngeneic mice. Tumor cells engineered to express B7-H3 elicit a rapid clonal expansion of P1A tumor Ag-specific CD8+ CTL in lymphoid organs in vivo and acquire the ability to directly stimulate T cell growth, division, and development of cytolytic activity in vitro. Our results thus establish a role for B7-H3 in the costimulation of T cell immune responses in vivo.  (+info)

Constitutive and inducible expression of b7 family of ligands by human airway epithelial cells. (7/88)

Activated T cells have been implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma and physically interact with epithelial cells in the airways. We now report that human airway epithelial cells display significant constitutive cell-surface expression of costimulatory ligands, B7-H1, B7-H2, B7-H3, and B7-DC. Expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC was selectively induced by stimulation of either BEAS2B or primary nasal epithelial cells (PNEC) with interferon (IFN)-gamma (100 ng/ml). The combination of IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (100 ng/ml) selectively induced expression better than IFN-gamma alone. Fluticasone treatment (10(-7) M) reduced the baseline expression and inhibited the induction of B7-H1 and B7-DC in BEAS2B cells. In vitro exposure of PNEC to IFN-gamma also resulted in selective induction of B7-H1 and B7-DC. Monoclonal antibody blockade of B7-H1 or B7-DC enhanced IFN-gamma expression by purified T cells in co-culture experiments, suggesting that these two B7 homologs inhibit T cell responses at the mucosal surface. Immunohistochemical staining of human sinonasal surgical tissue confirmed the presence of B7-H1, B7-H2, and B7-H3 in the epithelial cell layer, especially in samples from patients diagnosed with Samter's Triad, a severe form of CRS. Real-time PCR analysis of sinonasal tissue revealed elevated levels of B7-H1 and B7-DC in CRS compared with controls. These results demonstrate that epithelial cells express functional B7 costimulatory molecules and that expression of selected B7 family members is inducible in vitro and in vivo. Epithelial B7 homologs could play a role in regulation of lymphocytic activity at mucosal surfaces.  (+info)

The immunomodulatory proteins B7-DC, B7-H2, and B7-H3 are differentially expressed across gestation in the human placenta. (8/88)

Placental trophoblast cells form a cellular barrier between the potentially immunogenic fetus and maternal leukocytes. Trophoblasts subvert maternal immunity by producing surface-bound and soluble factors that interact with maternal leukocytes. Here, we describe the distribution of three members of the expanding family of B7 immunomodulatory molecules: B7-DC, B7-H2, and B7-H3. B7-DC and B7-H3 inhibit antigen-stimulated lymphocyte activation while B7-H2 serves in a regulatory capacity, often promoting a Th2 immunophenotype. First trimester and term placentas, purified trophoblast cells, choriocarcinoma cell lines, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were analyzed for B7 family RNA and protein expression. Transcripts and proteins for all three B7s were present throughout gestation but were differentially expressed within the trophoblast and the stroma. Whereas B7-DC was prominent on the syncytiotrophoblast of early placenta, it was absent from the trophoblast at term. In contrast, B7-H2 and B7-H3 were prominent on the extravillous trophoblast throughout gestation. Lastly, stromal cells, including macrophages and endothelial cells, differentially expressed B7-DC, B7-H2, and B7-H3, depending on gestational age. Thus, all three of these newly discovered B7 proteins are differentially positioned at the maternal-fetal interface such that they could steer maternal leukocytes away from a harmful immune response and toward a favorable one.  (+info)

*HLA-B61

B61 is a split antigen serotype that recognizes certain B40 serotypes. Ways JP, Lawlor DA, Wan AM, Parham P (1987). "A ... transposable epitope of HLA-B7, B40 molecules". Immunogenetics. 25 (5): 323-8. doi:10.1007/BF00404425. PMID 2437025. Marsh SG, ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ...

*CD28

Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... B7-1 and B7-2 regulation of tyrosine kinase adaptor molecules". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (3): 1591-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.3.1591. ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ...

*VTCN1

"B7-H4, a molecule of the B7 family, negatively regulates T cell immunity". Immunity. 18 (6): 849-61. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(03) ... These proteins are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and interact with ligands (e.g., CD28; MIM 186760) on T ... "Genomic organization and expression analysis of B7-H4, an immune inhibitory molecule of the B7 family". Journal of Immunology. ... Kryczek I, Wei S, Zou L, Zhu G, Mottram P, Xu H, Chen L, Zou W (July 2006). "Cutting edge: induction of B7-H4 on APCs through ...

*HLA-B54

B54 is a split antigen from the B22 broad antigen, sister serotypes are B55 and B56. The serotype identifies the more common ... a family of molecules with identity to HLA-B7 in the alpha 1-helix". J. Immunol. 148 (4): 1155-62. PMID 1737933. Marsh SG, ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403-7. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID 12753660. External link in ,title= (help). ...

*Joel N. Blankson

"The CD28/B7 pathway costimulates the response of primary murine T cells to superantigens as well as to conventional antigens". ... antigens in HIV-1-infected patients with immune reconstitution". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 183 (4): 657-661. doi: ... "Superantigens and conventional antigens induce different responses in alpha beta T-cell receptor transgenic mice". Immunology. ...

*Immune checkpoint

Mao Y, Li W, Chen K, Xie Y, Liu Q, Yao M, Duan W, Zhou X, Liang R, Tao M (February 20, 2015). "B7-H1 and B7-H3 are independent ... CD27 - This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. ... B7-H3's receptors have not yet been identified. B7-H4 - also called VTCN1, is expressed by tumor cells and tumor-associated ... "B7-H3 is a potent inhibitor of human T-cell activation: No evidence for B7-H3 and TREML2 interaction". Eur J Immunol. 39 (7): ...

*HLA-Cw7

The class I region of these supertype is HLA A1-B8 haplotype, HLA A3-B7, HLA-A2-B7 and HLA A24-B7. Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, ... HLA-Cw7 (Cw7) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-C serotype group. (For more general information on HLA serotypes ... Cw7 in Europe is part of the AH8.1 and HLA B7-DR15-DQ6 haplotypes. ... Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96-112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European ...

*Autocrine signalling

MHC complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7:CD28 costimulatory signal. Upon activation, "low-affinity" ...

*Programmed cell death protein 1

Wang S, Bajorath J, Flies DB, Dong H, Honjo T, Chen L (May 2003). "Molecular modeling and functional mapping of B7-H1 and B7-DC ... Agata Y, Kawasaki A, Nishimura H, Ishida Y, Tsubata T, Yagita H, Honjo T (May 1996). "Expression of the PD-1 antigen on the ... "Differential binding properties of B7-H1 and B7-DC to programmed death-1". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... PD-1 has two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, which are members of the B7 family. PD-L1 protein is upregulated on macrophages and ...

*CTL-mediated cytotoxicity

... a costimulatory signal is transmitted by the interaction between CD28 and B7 of the precursor cell and the licensed antigen ... In the second phase, affector CTLs destroy target cells by recognizing the antigen-MHC class I complex. In phase one, effector ... This results in proliferation and differentiation of the antigen-activated precursor cell into a functional effector CTL. In ... This step allows the cell to become licensed to an antigen presenting cell. Second, ...

*HLA-A23

A23 is a split antigen of the broad antigen HLA-A9 and it is a sister serotype of HLA-A24. A23 is common in Africa and regions ... A23-B7 is found in N.Afr. and S.Afr non-caucasians. A23-B44 is found in Albania, Zimbabwe, Morocco, Spain and Danes. A23-B58 is ... "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic cell hybrids: requirement for beta2 microglobulin". Tissue Antigens. 11 ... HLA-A23 (A23) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ...

*T cell

Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... which in turn outcompetes CD28 for binding to the B7 proteins. This is a checkpoint mechanism to prevent over activation of the ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[57] Antigen ... Antigen discrimination[edit]. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...

*Human leukocyte antigen

A*03:01 ; C*07:02 ; B*07:02 ; DRB1*15:01 ; DQA1*01:02 ; DQB1*06:02 (By serotyping A3-Cw7-B7-DR15-DQ6 or the older version "A3- ... HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. ... List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions. References[edit]. *^ Galbraith W, Wagner MC, Chao ... which in turn stimulate antibody-producing B-cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. Self-antigens are suppressed ...

*Tremelimumab

... blocks the binding of the antigen-presenting cell ligands B7.1 and B7.2 to CTLA-4, resulting in inhibition of B7- ... resulting in a B7-CD28-mediated T-cell activation unopposed by B7-CTLA-4-mediated inhibition. Unlike Ipilimumab (another fully ...

*CD86

Cluster of Differentiation 86 (also known as CD86 and B7-2) is a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides ... Chang TT, Kuchroo VK, Sharpe AH (2002). "Role of the B7-CD28/CTLA-4 pathway in autoimmune disease". Current Directions in ... "Molecular cloning and expression of early T cell costimulatory molecule-1 and its characterization as B7-2 molecule". Journal ...

*Abatacept

In order for T cells to be activated and attack an antigen, that antigen must be presented to the T cell by an antigen- ... also known as B7-1 and B7-2). Abatacept binds to the CD80 and CD86 molecule, and prevents the second signal. Without the second ... For signal 2, the APC must present a B7 protein on its cell surface to a CD28 protein on the surface of the T cell. These two ... Abatacept prevents antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from delivering the co-stimulatory signal. This prevents the T cells from ...

*T cell

Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... which in turn outcompetes CD28 for binding to the B7 proteins. This is a checkpoint mechanism to prevent over activation of the ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial ... The second signal licenses the T cell to respond to an antigen. Without it, the T cell becomes anergic, and it becomes more ...

*HLA-B67

1994). "HLA-B67: a member of the HLA-B16 family that expresses the ME1 epitope". Tissue Antigens. 43 (1): 38-43. doi:10.1111/j. ... and B7, B22, or B27. (For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial) Marsh SG, Albert ED, Bodmer WF, et al. (2005). " ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403-7. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID 12753660. External link in ,title= (help). ... "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMID ...

*DNA vaccination

The antigen-presenting cell then travels to the lymph nodes and presents the antigen peptide and costimulatory molecule ... CTL responses can be enhanced by co-inoculation with co-stimulatory molecules such as B7-1 or B7-2 for DNA vaccines against ... This is true for intracellular and plasma membrane-bound antigens, but not for secreted antigens, which seem to generate TH2 ... Secreted or plasma membrane-bound antigens are more effective at inducing antibody responses than cytosolic antigens, while ...

*HLA-A*02

A*02:Cw*16 is associated with increased higher viral load in HIV A2-B7 (Node in Netherlands) A2-B5 A2-B51 A2-B52 A2-B8 A2-B13 ... Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, Barnstable CJ, Solomon E, Bodmer WF (Feb 1978). "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic ... HLA-A*02 (A*02) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ... ISBN 0-19-931641-4. Komlos L, Klein T, Korostishevsky M (Aug 2007). "HLA-A2 class I antigens in couples with recurrent ...

*Immune tolerance

Interaction with B7 on T cells Downregulation of CD80/CD86 costimultory molecules on antigen presenting cells upon interaction ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ...

*CTLA-4

... also called B7-1 and B7-2 respectively, on antigen-presenting cells. CTLA-4 binds CD80 and CD86 with greater affinity and ... work has suggested that CTLA-4 may function in vivo by capturing and removing B7-1 and B7-2 from the membranes of antigen- ... It acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The CTLA-4 protein is encoded ... Chang TT, Kuchroo VK, Sharpe AH (2002). "Role of the B7-CD28/CTLA-4 pathway in autoimmune disease". Curr. Dir. Autoimmun. 5: ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... hla-a3 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380 --- hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050 ... hla-a3 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.400.380 --- hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.705.552.400.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050 ... hla-a3 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.450.380 --- hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.705.552.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ...

*Outline of immunology

Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Dimers Cytoadhesin receptor Integrin alpha6beta4 Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa - Heterodimer: ITGA2B / ITGB3 ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...

*HLA-B7

For terminology help see: HLA-serotype tutorial) B7, previously HL-A7, was one of the first 'HL-A' antigens recognized, largely ... B7 is found in two major haplotypes in Europe, where it reaches peak frequency in Ireland. One haplotype A3-B7-DR15-DQ1 can be ... B7 is a risk factor for cervical cancer, sarcoidosis, and early-onset spondylarthropathies.[citation needed] HLA-B7 along with ... HLA-B7 (B7) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*07 gene products. ( ...

*HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2

"Tissue Antigens. 64 (5): 575-80. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00310.x. PMID 15496200.. ... This compares with 25% of Cw7-B7 that extend to A3::DQ6 [4] Of 25 potential genetic recombinants of A1::DQ2, none exceed 10% of ... A1::DQ2 is not the longest haplotype, but the longest, HLA A3-Cw7-B7-DR15-DQ6 (A3::DQ6), had already undergone significant ... An A1::DQ2 appears in India, however its major antigen genes superficially resemble European A1-B8 and it appears to be a ...
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Purpose: Over the past four decades there have been minimal improvements in outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma (OS). New targets and novel therapies are needed to improve outcomes for these patients. In this study, we sought to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic utility of the immune checkpoint inhibitor HHLA2 in OS.. Experimental Design: HHLA2 expression was evaluated in two cohorts of OS patients using a tumor microarray (TMA) (n = 62) and whole slides (n = 48). HHLA2 expression was assessed in primary tumor specimens and metastatic disease, and correlated with the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and event free survival.. Results: HHLA2 was expressed in 68% of OS tumors in the TMA and in 54% in the second cohort. HHLA2 was expressed in almost all metastatic disease specimens and was more prevalent than in primary specimens without known metastases (93% vs 53%, p = 0.02). TILs were present in 75% of all osteosarcoma specimens. Patients whose tumors were ≥25% or ...
Apoptosis can be induced be different pathways including the interaction TNF ligand with their receptors at the plasma membrane or the activation of the BCl-2 family molecules.
THE IgM B-CELL RECEPTOR a a THE IgM B-CELL RECEPTOR antigen binding mIg molecule H L V b a Ig-a/Ig-b heterodimer Signal transduction Lyn Kinases Syk Btk SHP-1 Phosphatases SLP-65/BLNK PLC HS1 Vav Adaptors + substrates
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A reminder that the next Vista Member Forum meeting is taking place on Saturday 30th January at the Vista Shop on Hotel Street, from 10am to 12.30pm. ...
Microsoft is introducing small but significant modification to the Windows Vista End-User License Agreement (EULA) for Windows Anytime Upgrade. Customers who purchase a retail copy of Windows Vista and
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s question on why anti-virus software wont feature in Vista by saying the answer was "complicated", but not based on technical concerns. Curiously, basic anti-spyware protection - via Windows Defender - will feature in Vista.. Vista will also include a major revamp of Internet Explorer (IE 7), features designed to thwart phishing, and group policy management features that make it easier to control the use of USB devices. Windows built-in firewall will be revamped to filter malicious traffic originating from a Vista PC as well as ingress filtering, the half on the equation that came with Windows XP.. Allchin said security in Vista is far improved from Windows XP SP2, whose heavily touted security features include technology that has made computer worms (though not Trojans based on the recent Windows Meta File vulnerability) less of a problem. "SP2 was a very good system, but compared to Vista its night and day," Allchin said.. In a separate Q&A session, Allchin was grilled by Redmonds local ...
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In the current study, we report a crucial role for TLT-1 in regulating leukocyte activation and modulating sepsis-induced acute inflammatory response. A 17-aa residue of its extracellular domain mediates this effect. Whereas treml-1−/− mice are particularly susceptible to infection with the development of an intense inflammatory state that translated into organ damage and rapid mortality, LR17 administration confers a strong protection.. Until recently, the role of TLT-1 has remained unclear. TLT-1 is exclusively expressed in platelets, colocalized with CD62P in α-granules of resting platelets. Upon activation, TLT-1 is quickly exposed on the membrane (24) and subsequently cleaved, leading to the release of a soluble fragment. Structural analysis of the extracellular domain of TLT-1 suggests the existence of several distinct potential ligand binding sites (27). The first TLT-1 ligand was recently identified to be fibrinogen, positioning TLT-1 as a regulator of hemostasis by facilitating ...
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Vista Use, Multiple Problems [Closed] - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: Hi there , so I came across you guys last night after nearly throwing a fit at my Pc ...... I have thought about just re-starting the whole shebang , but Im loathe to do so as I have so much I need to keep and nowhere to put it all ........ here goes .... System start up - sometimes it doesnt load , I then have to re-start it . - When it does start it can take up to 10 minutes , or more . It mak...
We already know that Windows Vista offers tremendous improvements in usability, but isnt that good a choice for gaming - at least not yet. How is its application performance compared to Windows XP?
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One of the nice little features in Windows Vista that you dont think about is the graph of drive space for your drive icons, so you can visually see at a glance how much space is used. Theres no reason to upgrade for this feature, especially since some programmers created a small utility for XP that gives you the same functionality.
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Twenty-one years after Windows ignited the PC revolution, at least according to Microsoft, analysts are at odds over just how well Redmonds newest operating system will go down.. The UKs very own Ovum has delivered a cheery assessment apparently predicting Windows Vista will out-sell Windows XP in its first year.. Software practice head David Mitchell expects 15 per cent of PC users will adopt Windows Vista during the operating systems first year, compared to between 12 and 14 per cent for Windows XP, which launched in October 2001.. "That would make it the fastest moving operating system ever," according to Mitchell.. Across the pond, Gartner is somewhat cooler. The mega analyst believes less than 10 per cent of PCs will run Windows Vista in the first 12 months.. Its the latest sober Gartner prediction on Windows Vistas prospects, following the prediction Windows Vista would not "significantly" affect PC sales next year.. The great unknown in all this is the affect Microsofts staggered ...
The studies presented are the first to describe the structure, function, and expression of human VISTA, a novel, hematopoietically expressed negative checkpoint regulator. Structurally, VISTA is a novel PD-L1-like ligand, with only one IgV domain and whose structure still is not fully resolved. Studies with a newly produced anti-human VISTA mAbs show that human VISTA is highly expressed on myeloid cells with reduced expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Functionally, human VISTA-Ig is profoundly suppressive on both resting and activated human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We propose VISTA as a promising new target for cancer immunotherapy, either as a single target or in combination with other immunotherapeutic strategies.. VISTA has an interesting expression pattern, with greatest mRNA detected in either hematopoietic tissues (i.e., spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood) or those tissues with significant infiltration by leukocytes (Fig. 1). This suggests that VISTA is likely to have important ...
hggs writes According to Stephen Toulouse at Microsoft, because of the possible virus threat that targets Monad the shell will not be included in Windows Vista. CNet is reporting that, even though Monad is not to be included on Vista, it will be included on a major server operating system for serv...
there was s registry edit for XP that let you define the num lock state before login.. in Vista the same registry path does not exist, also no MS article...
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Researchers at anti-virus market leader Symantec join those who contend that security features built into Vistas kernel could retard innovation of new desktop defense technologies, and other aftermarket Windows applications.
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The epithelial cells lining the intestinal mucosa separate the underlying tissue from components of the intestinal lumen. Innate immunity mediated by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) provides rapid protective functions against microorganisms. Innate immunity also participates in orchestrating adaptive immunity. Key components in innate defence are defensins.. To study the production of defensins and how it is affected by intestinal inflammation IECs were isolated from the small and large intestines of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn´s disease (MbC), celiac disease (CD), and from controls, and analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoflow cytometry. Defensin expressing cells were also studied by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.. Normally, only small intestinal Paneth cells express human α-defensin 5 (HD-5) and HD-6. In UC colon IECs, HD-5, HD-6, and lysozyme mRNAs were expressed at high levels. In Crohn´s colitis colon the levels of HD-5 and ...
Bf2 freeze with 8600m GS and vista 64 - posted in Games: All was well running BF2 on vista 64 bit using 8600m GS card... Well I decided to do a clean install of vista from scratch so I reinstaled vista 64 , added sp1, updated all drivers to the latest from HP website , so basically the machine was the same config that it was before i decided to clean it up. Then I installed Bf2 and patched up to 1.41 But all was not well. I am now encountering the same problem as many have had over the...
Zan Lynx. I installed Vista SP1 on a new system I just built last week. It took quite a while!. First the Vista install. That isnt bad, actually. It asks about four questions and does its thing.. But after that, I installed the motherboard drivers, which took longer than Vista! The installer had to reboot the system after each driver set, it looked like.. Then the video drivers. That was pretty quick but needed another reboot.. The the Bluray drivers and software. Actually, this hasnt happened yet and is really upsetting me. Apparently Windows and everything is just fine running a SATA Bluray drive from the motherboards second SATA controller, but the Bluray drive diagnostics and the playback software dont believe it exists. Bah. I need to somehow convince the Bluray drive and the RAID-0 to share the primary controller while its BIOS is set to RAID instead of AHCI.. Then after that is the adventure of installing each piece of useful software and updating it. This takes *ages*.. In Linux, ...
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mytrip wrote to mention a C|Net article stating that Vista will not have a security backdoor after all. From the article: The suggestion is that we are working with governments to create a back door so that they can always access BitLocker-encrypted data, Niels Ferguson, a developer and cryptogra...
SanDisk, a maker of Solid Stated Drives (SSD), said on Monday that Vista is not optimized for those kinds of drives, and suitable SSDs wont be available until late this year or next year.
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The purpose of the study is to evaluate the ability of Rituximab maintenance therapy to prolong progression free survival in patients with chronic lymph
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Now having listed all of these concerns, dont forget that about half the respondents were happy with Vista - some even ecstatic! On the positive side, users who installed Vista did find it easy and faster than XP. Allan noted this positive aspect: "I also have really liked the performance enhancement "Superfetch" provides. I first noticed it playing STALKER, because I started playing on XP, later I switched to Vista. After playing most every day for about a week, my load times dropped dramatically. Instead of waiting 3-4 minutes for the game to load, it went down to about 30 seconds.. Superfetch really spreads its wings with 4 GB too! Most reviews Ive read say that 2 GB is the sweat spot, but Ive found 4 GB is much better if you use lots of different applications all the time, because it can load so much more in advance. Id really like to upgrade to 8 GB, but Ive seen loads of posts describing disappointment over an 8 GB upgrade.". Brandons take:. "The biggest improvement of Vista over XP ...
Ive contracted Vista Home Security 2012 virus onto my computer. Ive googled solutions on how to fix the problem but all the sites it takes me to look shady and just tell me to download Vista Home Security 2012 Removal Tool which is only Spyware ...
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Human VISTA / B7-H5 / PD-1H protein (7126-B7) is manufactured by R&D Systems, over 95% purity. Reproducible results in bioactivity assays. Learn More...
Windows 7 and Vista 64-bit by design does not allow you to load any unsigned drivers. This security feature does provide some protection against rootkits, but many author of a freeware cannot afford to sign their driver files. Here are 4 ways to load unsigned drivers in x64 Windows.
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Learn how UAC operates behind the scenes. Use the Elevate package to start multiple elevated processes but only display one UAC elevation dialog from a non-elevated process.; Author: Thomas Hruska; Updated: 22 Mar 2008; Section: Windows Security; Chapter: Platforms, Frameworks & Libraries; Updated: 22 Mar 2008
Lab Tests in 10 Easy Steps at Vista Health System 1. Your physician writes an order for a lab test. 2. Vista Health System performs lab test from 6 a.m. - 7 p.m. Monday - Friday. You do not need an appointment. Walk-ins are gladly accepted. Please bring: the written order from your physician, a picture ID and insurance cards. 3. Vista Health System is conveniently located at 1324 N. Sheridan Road, Waukegan. Please use the free valet service. When you arrive at Vista you will go to Out Patient Registrati...

A new gene coding for an antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human renal carcinoma.

 | DIAL.pr -...A new gene coding for an antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human renal carcinoma. | DIAL.pr -...

This antigen is presented by HLA-B7 and is encoded by a new gene that we have named RAGE1. No expression of RAGE1 was found in ... Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antigen Presentation ; Antigens, Neoplasm - analysis - genetics - immunology ; Base Sequence ; ... HLA-B7 Antigen - immunology ; Humans ; Kidney Neoplasms - immunology ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ; Molecular Sequence ... A new gene coding for an antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human renal carcinoma.. In: ...
more infohttps://dial.uclouvain.be/pr/boreal/object/boreal:29598

Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Can Induce B7-Independent Antigen-Specific Development of IL-4-Producing T Cells from Naive CD4 T...Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Can Induce B7-Independent Antigen-Specific Development of IL-4-Producing T Cells from Naive CD4 T...

CD4-dependent host protection is B7-1/B7-2 independent after Nb inoculation. B7-1/B7-2+/+ and B7-1/B7-2−/− BALB/c mice (five ... BALB/c mice compared with B7-1/B7-2+/+ BALB/c mice after Nb inoculation. a, B7-1/B7-2+/+ and B7-1/B7-2−/− BALB/c mice were bled ... rather than using B7-1/B7-2-deficient mice, CTLA4Ig was used to block B7-1/B7-2 interactions in WT B7-1/B7-1+/+ BALB/c mice in ... To examine whether the host protective Th2 response was intact in mice deficient in B7-1 and B7-2, B7-1/B7-2−/− and B7-1/B7-2 ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/169/12/6959

Binding of the B cell activation antigen B7 to CD28 costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation. | JEMBinding of the B cell activation antigen B7 to CD28 costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation. | JEM

Binding of the B cell activation antigen B7 to CD28 costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation.. P S ... Binding of the B cell activation antigen B7 to CD28 costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 mRNA accumulation. ... Here we show that CD28 is the primary receptor for B7 on activated peripheral blood T cells, that CD28 binds to B7 in the ... B7 Ig also inhibited CD28-mediated cellular adhesion. The function of CD28-B7 interactions during T cell activation was ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/173/3/721?ijkey=980a6ff8e3df23c6f9b84c4f9f4a9b5a523e21db&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Pipeline Review, H2...T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Pipeline Review, H2...

Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7. ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Pipeline Review, H2 ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Cluster of ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) pipeline Target ...
more infohttps://www.reportbuyer.com/product/5227151/t-lymphocyte-activation-antigen-cd80-activation-b7-1-antigen-or-ctla-4-counter-receptor-b7-1-or-cd80-pipeline-review-h2-2018.html

A major costimulatory molecule on antigen-presenting cells, CTLA4 ligand A, is distinct from B7. | Journal of Experimental...A major costimulatory molecule on antigen-presenting cells, CTLA4 ligand A, is distinct from B7. | Journal of Experimental...

... on antigen-presenting cells are not encoded by the B7 gene. CTLA4 ligand A also differs from B7 in cellular distribution and in ... A major costimulatory molecule on antigen-presenting cells, CTLA4 ligand A, is distinct from B7. Y Wu Y Wu ... Y Wu, Y Guo, Y Liu; A major costimulatory molecule on antigen-presenting cells, CTLA4 ligand A, is distinct from B7.. J Exp Med ... Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) Blockade Accelerates the Acute Rejection of Cardiac Allografts in CD28-deficient Mice ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jem/article/178/5/1789/57486/A-major-costimulatory-molecule-on-antigen

Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Papain-Solubilized Human Histocompatibility Antigen, HLA-B7. 1. Isolation and Amino Acid...Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Papain-Solubilized Human Histocompatibility Antigen, HLA-B7. 1. Isolation and Amino Acid...

T1 - Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Papain-Solubilized Human Histocompatibility Antigen, HLA-B7. 1. Isolation and Amino Acid ... Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Papain-Solubilized Human Histocompatibility Antigen, HLA-B7. 1. Isolation and Amino Acid ... Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Papain-Solubilized Human Histocompatibility Antigen, HLA-B7. 1. Isolation and Amino Acid ... Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Papain-Solubilized Human Histocompatibility Antigen, HLA-B7. 1. Isolation and Amino Acid ...
more infohttps://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/complete-amino-acid-sequence-of-a-papain-solubilized-human-histoc

ELISA Kit for B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) - Human - BioTecNika PrimeELISA Kit for B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) - Human - BioTecNika Prime

ELISA Kit for B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) - Human ... Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7 ... This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2). ... Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7- ...
more infohttps://labs.biotecnika.org/products/elisa-kit-for-b-lymphocyte-activation-antigen-b7-2-lab7-2-human

100ug-Anti-B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) cat.: PAA824Mu01-100ug - AniGenetics100ug-Anti-B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) cat.: PAA824Mu01-100ug - AniGenetics

CD86; B7-2; B70; FUN-1; CD28LG2; CD28 Antigen Ligand 2,B7-2 Antigen; CTLA-4 counter-receptor B7.2 ... Freeze thaw will destroy a percentage in every cycle and should be avoided.Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native ... 100ug-Anti-B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) 100ug-Anti-B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2). ...
more infohttps://anigenetics.com/antigen/9-cloud-clone-corp/13479-100ug-anti-b-lymphocyte-activation-antigen-b7-2-lab7-2

LEGENDplex Human TGF-alpha Capture Bead B7, 13XLEGENDplex Human TGF-alpha Capture Bead B7, 13X

Human TGF-α Capture Bead B7, 13X - LEGENDplex™ Human Growth Factor Mix and Match Panel Capture Beads are intended for use with ... Antigen Details Biology Area Cell Biology, Signal Transduction, Stem Cells Molecular Family Growth Factors, Cytokines/ ...
more infohttps://www.biolegend.com/en-us/products/legendplex-human-tgf-alpha-capture-bead-b7--13x-11821

LEGENDplex Mouse CXCL5 LIX Capture Bead B7, 13XLEGENDplex Mouse CXCL5 LIX Capture Bead B7, 13X

Capture Bead B7, 13X - LEGENDplex™ Mouse Proinflammatory Chemokine Mix and Match Panel Capture Beads are intended for use with ... Antigen Details Biology Area Immunology, Innate Immunity Molecular Family Cytokines/Chemokines Gene ID 20311 View all products ...
more infohttps://biolegend.com/en-us/products/legendplex-mouse-cxcl5-lix-capture-bead-b7--13x-10057

LEGENDplex Human TFF3 Capture Bead B7, 13XLEGENDplex Human TFF3 Capture Bead B7, 13X

p,LEGENDplex™ Human TFF3 Capture Bead B7, 13X is suitable for use in the following Mix and Match Panels:,br /,,br /,,u,Human ... Antigen Details Molecular Family Enzymes and Regulators Gene ID 7033 View all products for this Gene ID UniProt View ... LEGENDplex™ Human TFF3 Capture Bead B7, 13X is suitable for use in the following Mix and Match Panels:. Human Kidney Function ...
more infohttps://www.biolegend.com/fr-ch/products/legendplex-human-tff3-capture-bead-b7--13x-14468

B7-H4 Peptides and Proteins: Novus BiologicalsB7-H4 Peptides and Proteins: Novus Biologicals

Browse our B7-H4 Peptides and Proteins all backed by our Guarantee+. ... B7-H4 Peptides and Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... Recombinant Protein Antigen (1). clear. Has Sample Size. *. No ... Our B7-H4 Peptides and B7-H4 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. Use the list below to choose the B7-H4 ... B7-H4 Proteins. We offer B7-H4 Peptides and B7-H4 Proteins for use in common research applications: Blocking/Neutralizing, ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/proteins/b7-h4

PD-L1 expression is characteristic of a subset of aggressive B-cell lymphomas and virus-associated malignancies.  - PubMed -...PD-L1 expression is characteristic of a subset of aggressive B-cell lymphomas and virus-associated malignancies. - PubMed -...

B7-H1 Antigen. Grant support. *U54 CA163125/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an immunomodulatory molecule expressed by antigen-presenting cells and select tumors ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23674495

PD-L1 expression is characteristic of a subset of aggressive B-cell lymphomas and virus-associated malignancies.  - PubMed -...PD-L1 expression is characteristic of a subset of aggressive B-cell lymphomas and virus-associated malignancies. - PubMed -...

B7-H1 Antigen. Grant support. *U54 CA163125/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an immunomodulatory molecule expressed by antigen-presenting cells and select tumors ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23674495

CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1) Mouse anti-Human, eFluor(T) 450, Clone: MIH1, eBioscience
 | Fisher ScientificCD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1) Mouse anti-Human, eFluor(T) 450, Clone: MIH1, eBioscience | Fisher Scientific

B7-H1) Mouse anti-Human, eFluor(T) 450, Clone: MIH1, eBioscience Mouse Monoclonal Antibody ... Antigen. CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1). Target Species. Human. Isotype. IgG1, kappa. ... B7-H1 is a ligand for PD-1. Interaction of PD-1 with either PD-L1 (B7-H1) or PD-L2 (B7-DC) results in inhibition of T and B ... Description: The MIH1 monoclonal antibody reacts with human B7-H1, also known as PD-L1. B7-H1, a member of the B7 family, has a ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.com/shop/products/cd274-b7-h1-mouse-anti-human-efluor-450-clone-mih1-ebioscience-2/p-7091205

CD80 (B7-1) Armenian Hamster anti-Canine, Mouse, Porcine, PerCP-eFluor
 | Fisher ScientificCD80 (B7-1) Armenian Hamster anti-Canine, Mouse, Porcine, PerCP-eFluor | Fisher Scientific

B7-1) Armenian Hamster anti-Canine, Mouse, Porcine, PerCP-eFluor 710, Clone: 16-10A1, eBioscience 25 µg; PerCP-eFluor 710 ... In addition, activated T cells express this antigen. CD80 has high affinity for binding to two T cell surface antigens, CD28 ... In addition, activated T cells express this antigen. CD80 has high affinity for binding to two T cell surface antigens, CD28 ... CD80 (B7-1) Armenian Hamster anti-Canine, Mouse, Porcine, PerCP-eFluor 710, Clone: 16-10A1, eBioscience ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.com/shop/products/cd80-b7-1-armenian-hamster-anti-mouse-percp-efluor-710-clone-16-10a1-ebioscience-2/501130765

T lymphocyte co-signaling pathways of the B7-CD28 family.T lymphocyte co-signaling pathways of the B7-CD28 family.

The past years have witnessed significant advance in our understanding of critical roles of T cell co-signals in B7-CD28 family ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD28; 0/Antigens, CD80; 0/Antigens, CD86; 0/Antigens, Differentiation; 0/Antigens, Differentiation ... Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD28 / immunology*. Antigens, CD80 / immunology*. Antigens, CD86 / immunology*. Antigens, ... Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. Humans. Lymphocyte Activation. Receptors, Immunologic / immunology. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/T-lymphocyte-co-signaling-pathways/16212919.html

Patent US6677313 - Method for gene therapy using nucleic acid loaded polymeric microparticles - Google PatentsPatent US6677313 - Method for gene therapy using nucleic acid loaded polymeric microparticles - Google Patents

associated antigens by B7-. transfected lethally irradiated. allogeneic melanoma cell. lines (Phase I study). ... wherein the antigen is selected from the group consisting of a viral antigen and a tumor antigen. ... including genes encoding viral antigens, tumor antigens, cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor) and inducers of cytokines (e.g ... 9. The method of anyone of claims 1-3, wherein the gene encodes an antigen. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6677313?dq=5754119

Patent US20040009185 - Enhancing the immune response to an antigen by presensitzing with an ... - Google PatentsPatent US20040009185 - Enhancing the immune response to an antigen by presensitzing with an ... - Google Patents

The antigen may be a tumour associated antigen, pathogenic organism antigen, autoimmune antigen, immunogenic fragment thereof, ... subsequently followed by administration of an inducing agent-antigen mixture. ... Modified Cea/B7 Vector. US20090162427 *. Mar 6, 2009. Jun 25, 2009. National Jewish Medical And Research. Vaccines using ... Protein antigens include both self antigens, such as tumor antigens and autoimmune antigens as well as non self antigens such ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US20040009185

J27-B7  ATCC ® CRL-2374™ Mus musculusJ27-B7 ATCC ® CRL-2374™ Mus musculus

... pSP65 containing a genomic human B7 gene (gB7). ... J27-B7 is a stable transfected cell line established in 1987 by ... Stable transformation of mouse L cells for human membrane T-cell differentiation antigens, HLA and beta 2-microglobulin: ... J27-B7 expresses surface HLA B7 but does not secrete HLA B7. ... J27-B7 expresses surface HLA B7 but does not secrete HLA B7. ... J27-B7 is a stable transfected cell line established in 1987 by transfection with calcium phosphate of the J27.2 cell line with ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/By_Tissue/Adipose_Tissue/CRL-2374.aspx?slp=1

A Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of HIV-1 gp120 C4-V3 Hybrid Polyvalent Peptide Immunogen Mixed in Mineral Oil...A Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of HIV-1 gp120 C4-V3 Hybrid Polyvalent Peptide Immunogen Mixed in Mineral Oil...

HLA-B7 Antigen. HLA-A2 Antigen. HIV Preventive Vaccine. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... At least 50% of all volunteers (6 per Groups I and II; 2, Group III) must be HLA-B7 phenotype. ... HIV-1 antigen-specific lymphoproliferation, CD8+ and CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity specific for HIV-1 gp120 or V3 ... peptides corresponding to the vaccine strains of HIV-1, induction of HLA-B7 and HLA-A2 restricted CD8+CTLs, and induction of ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000886?order=110

Serpentine transmembrane antigens expressed in human cancers and uses thereof - HUBERT RENE S.Serpentine transmembrane antigens expressed in human cancers and uses thereof - HUBERT RENE S.

Described is a novel family of cell surface serpentine transmembrane antigens. Two of the proteins in this family are ... Dendritic cells express MHC class I and II, B7 co-stimulator, and IL-12, and are thus highly specialized antigen presenting ... SV40 large T antigen, an intracellular protein that is expressed at high levels in 293T cells, and the endogenous cell surface ... which comprises murine antigen binding region residues and human antibody residues. 18. A transgenic animal producing a ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2003/0149531.html

Engagement of the Pd-1 Immunoinhibitory Receptor by a Novel B7 Family Member Leads to Negative Regulation of Lymphocyte...Engagement of the Pd-1 Immunoinhibitory Receptor by a Novel B7 Family Member Leads to Negative Regulation of Lymphocyte...

PD-L1, B7-1, and B7-2 Are Coexpressed on Antigen-presenting Cells.. We next examined the pattern of PD-L1 expression on antigen ... 3 B). B7-1 and B7-2 mRNAs were also induced upon activation: B7-1 was induced 21-fold at 4 h and 22-fold at 20 h. B7-2 showed ... constitutive expression of B7-1 and B7-2 is not seen in any organ. B7-1 and B7-2 expression can be induced in dendritic cells, ... PD-1 is structurally similar to CTL-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), which binds B7-1 and B7-2 and plays a crucial role for the ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/192/7/1027?ijkey=8993cbf3633d71205c50b7fdcded52fe5af6fa59&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Recombinant Immunotoxin Therapy of Glioblastoma: Smart Design, Key Findings, and Specific ChallengesRecombinant Immunotoxin Therapy of Glioblastoma: Smart Design, Key Findings, and Specific Challenges

This antibody recognizes B7-H3 (CD276) antigen, a type I transmembrane protein with 20-27% amino acid identity with other B7 ... RITs Targeting Other Antigens or Receptors. 3.4.1. H9scFv-PE38 Targeting B7-H3 (CD276) 8H9scFv-PE38 is a fusion protein ... Interestingly, B7-H3 protein is expressed in various types of cancer [154]. Immunohistochemistry has shown that the B7-H3 ... Single-chain antigen-binding proteins. Science. 1988;242(4877):423-426. doi: 10.1126/science.3140379. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5511670/
  • They provide the basis for the formal alignment of the acid cleavage and cyanogen bromide fragments of the molecule as well as the source material for the elucidation of the primary structure of the HLA-B7 heavy chain. (umn.edu)
  • Although PD-1 does not have the MYPPPY motif that is critical for B7-1 and B7-2 binding, the extracellular regions of PD-1 and CTLA-4 each consist of a single IgV domain, with 23% identity to each other. (rupress.org)
  • Two of the proteins in this family are exclusively or predominantly expressed in the prostate, as well as in prostate cancer, and thus members of this family have been termed "STEAP" (Six Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1 . A method of enhancing an immune response to an antigen in an animal comprising (a) administering an effective amount of an inducing agent to the animal followed by (b) administering an effective amount of the inducing agent and the antigen to the animal. (google.com)
  • Kavathas P, Herzenberg LA. Stable transformation of mouse L cells for human membrane T-cell differentiation antigens, HLA and beta 2-microglobulin: selection by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. (atcc.org)
  • Secretion of genetically engineered human/mouse class I antigens. (atcc.org)
  • A BLAST search of the human expressed sequence tag (EST) database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) identified two overlapping ESTs with homology to B7-1 and B7-2 (AA292201 and AA399416). (rupress.org)
  • however, both murine and human T cells express high levels of PD-L1 upon antigen stimulation ( 3 , 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Sarcoidosis and human leukocyte antigen class I and II genes: it takes two to tango? (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA B7-DR15-DQ6 is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction of PD-1 with either PD-L1 (B7-H1) or PD-L2 (B7-DC) results in inhibition of T and B cell responses. (fishersci.com)
  • A common serologically defined haplotype in Europeans is HLA A3-Cw7-B7-DR15-DQ6.2 which is composed of alleles A*0301:Cw*0701:B*0702:DRB1*1501:DQA1*0102:DQB1*0602. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A*0301 bearing haplotype (HLA A3-B7-DR15-DQ6) is described as the longest known multgene haplotype in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice that express CEA as a self-antigen with a tissue distribution similar to that of humans have been developed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • citation needed] HLA-B7 along with HLA-DQ8 increased risk for cervical cancer in at risk Costa Rican women and Asian Indians A relationship between HLA-B7 and sarcoidosis has been known for 30+ years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative levels of inhibitory PD-L1 and costimulatory B7-1/B7-2 signals on antigen-presenting cells may determine the extent of T cell activation and consequently the threshold between tolerance and autoimmunity. (rupress.org)
  • Th method involves an initial priming of the animal with an inducing agent, subsequently followed by administration of an inducing agent-antigen mixture. (google.com)
  • 18 . A method according to any one of claims 1 to 17 further comprising (c) administering a second dose of the inducing agent and the antigen. (google.com)