White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.

Amplified B lymphocyte CD40 signaling drives regulatory B10 cell expansion in mice. (1/35)

 (+info)

B cell-derived IL-10 suppresses inflammatory disease in Lyn-deficient mice. (2/35)

 (+info)

Matchmaking the B-cell signature of tolerance to regulatory B cells. (3/35)

 (+info)

Regulatory B cell production of IL-10 inhibits lymphoma depletion during CD20 immunotherapy in mice. (4/35)

 (+info)

Rejection and regulation: a tight balance. (5/35)

 (+info)

Regulatory B10 cells differentiate into antibody-secreting cells after transient IL-10 production in vivo. (6/35)

 (+info)

Increased numbers of CD5+ B lymphocytes with a regulatory phenotype in spondylarthritis. (7/35)

 (+info)

Preserving the B-cell compartment favors operational tolerance in human renal transplantation. (8/35)

 (+info)

In the past decade, the suppressive effects, mainly through the secretion of IL-10, of regulatory B cells on inflammatory responses have been reported in a variety of immune disorders (33-36). Additionally, immune regulation through the interaction of immune cells with the intrinsic phenotype of regulatory B cells (e.g., CD1dhiCD5+, T2-MZP, Tim-1+, and CD9+) were demonstrated in various diseases, and it plays a critical role in autoimmune diseases (37). In recent studies, functional studies in cancer diseases are emerging (38-40). In particular, the change of the distribution of regulatory B cells in cancer tissue is considered to one of important indicators (8-10). Emerging evidence suggests that regulatory B cells suppress effector immune cells including IFN-γ-producing cytotoxicity cells in various cancer diseases through the secretion of IL-10 (11). Although regulatory B cells have to play the suppressive role on the effector function of T cells in autoimmune diseases to cure diseases (41), ...
B cells are known to play an important role in auto-immune diseases by activating T cells, secreting inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. However, a sub-type of B cells named regulatory B cells or Bregs has recently shown capacities to prevent or cure arthritis in mouse models. Bregs have also been identified in humans. Main objective: To study Bregs abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at different stages of the disease compared to subjects with mechanical pathologies.Secondary objectives:- To evaluate the specificity of any abnormalities identified in RA by studying Bregs in patients with other autoimmune or other inflammatory joint diseases.- To evaluate the effect of biological and synthetic treatments on Bregs in patients with RA. - To assess whether the rate of Bregs before treatment is predictive of response to biological and synthetic treatments ...
B cells are known to play an important role in auto-immune diseases by activating T cells, secreting inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. However, a sub-type of B cells named regulatory B cells or Bregs has recently shown capacities to prevent or cure arthritis in mouse models. Bregs have also been identified in humans. Main objective: To study Bregs abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at different stages of the disease compared to subjects with mechanical pathologies.Secondary objectives:- To evaluate the specificity of any abnormalities identified in RA by studying Bregs in patients with other autoimmune or other inflammatory joint diseases.- To evaluate the effect of biological and synthetic treatments on Bregs in patients with RA. - To assess whether the rate of Bregs before treatment is predictive of response to biological and synthetic treatments ...
Heart transplantation is widely used for the treatment of several heart diseases. Regulatory B cells (Breg cells) serve a critical role in immune tolerance. However, the role of Breg cells in immune tolerance in the context of allogeneic heart transplantation remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to explore the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA)‑regulated Breg on the regulation of immune tolerance in heart transplantation. By constructing anallogeneic heart transplantation mouse model, and performing flow cytometry, reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR, western blotting and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl esterstaining assays, TSA‑regulated Breg cells and their effects on immune tolerance in heart transplantation were evaluated. The results demonstrated that TSA increased the frequency of CD19+CD5+CD1dhigh Breg cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, TSA treatment increased the frequency of IL‑10 and TGF‑β‑producing ...
IL-10-producing B (Breg) cells regulate various immune responses. way (Fig. 4A and ?and4B).4B). CCR7 Up coming we determined if the improvement of Compact disc40hiCD5+ B cells was reliant BMS-707035 on IL-10 in mice. The splenic inhabitants of Compact disc40hiCD5+ Breg cells was significantly elevated in LPS-stimulated WT (IL-10+/+) mice however not in IL-10?/? mice (Fig. 4C). These outcomes strongly claim that the forming of Compact disc40hiCD5+ Breg cells was governed by IL-10 in mice. Fig. 4. The forming of LPS-induced Compact disc40hiCD5+ B cells would depend on endogenous IL-10 creation in mice. (A) Consultant images (B) regularity and variety of IL-10-making splenic B cells in mice treated with LPS (1 mg/kg i.v.) for 0 to 3 times. For intracellular … Debate Breg cells have already been acknowledged to possess anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of immune responses. The phenotypic characterization of Breg cells remains incomplete Nevertheless. The purpose of our research was to look ...
IL-21 can induce both plasma cells and regulatory B cells. In this article, we demonstrate that untreated HIV patients display CD4+ T cells with enhanced IL-21 expression and high in vivo frequencies of regulatory B cells overexpressing the serine protease granzyme B. Granzyme B-expressing regulatory B cells (GraB cells) cells from HIV patients exhibit increased expression of CD5, CD43, CD86, and CD147 but do not produce IL-10. The main functional characteristic of their regulatory activity is direct granzyme B-dependent degradation of the TCR-ζ-chain, resulting in significantly decreased proliferative T cell responses. Although Th cells from HIV patients secrete IL-21 in a Nef-dependent manner, they barely express CD40L. When culturing such IL-21+CD40L− Th cells with B cells, the former directly induce B cell differentiation into GraB cells. In contrast, the addition of soluble CD40L multimers to T cell/B cell cultures redirects B cell differentiation toward plasma cells, indicating that ...
Introduction: Interleukin (IL)-10-producing B cells (Bregs) regulate immune responses in autoimmune disease; however their role in allergy is unclear. Allergen exposure in predisposed atopic individuals results in the induction of IgE-secreting B cells, crucial in the immunopathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergic rhinitis. AIT results in long-term clinical and immunological tolerance; however, whether Bregs contribute towards AIT-induced tolerance remains unclear. Hypotheses: 1. In vitro induced IL-10-producing B cells regulate allergen-driven Th2 inflammation, 2. Bregs are present in fewer numbers in seasonal grass pollen allergic (SAR) individuals compared with healthy controls, which is restored during AIT. Methods: B cells were isolated and subjected to flow cytometry to detect surface markers and IL-10 capacity following CpG stimulation. FluoroSpot, ELISA or qPCR were used to confirm IL-10. Suppression ...
Author summary Infection with helminth parasites is known to be inversely associated with hyper-inflammatory disorders. While Schistosoma (S.) mansoni has been described to exert its down-modulatory effects on inflammation by inducing a network of regulatory immune cells such as regulatory B (Breg), the mechanisms of Breg cell induction remain unclear. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that antigens from S. mansoni eggs, among which the major glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, directly interact with splenic marginal zone B cells of mice which triggers them to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and their capacity to induce regulatory T (Treg) cells. We also found that IPSE/alpha-1 induces IL-10 in human CD1d+ B cells, and that both natural and recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 are equally effective in driving murine and human Breg cells. Our study thus provides insight into the mechanisms of Breg cell induction by schistosomes, and an important step towards the development of helminth-based
A variety of cell surface markers have been proposed for different regulatory B cell subsets (21, 22). The generalized ex vivo phenotype of B10 cells from untreated mice is IgMhighIgDlowCD1dhighCD5+CD19highCD23lowB220high, with ,10% coexpressing IgG or IgA (13, 15, 35, 38). Thereby, spleen B10 cells share surface markers with multiple phenotypically defined B cell subsets, including transitional, marginal zone, marginal zone precursor, memory, and B1 B cells (6, 11, 13-15, 38, 41, 43, 44). Spleen B10 cells are enriched within the CD1dhighCD5+CD19high subpopulation (Fig. 2), where 15-20% are B10 cells, and up to 50% are B10+B10pro cells (6, 13, 15, 29). Small numbers of B10 cells are also found within other spleen B cell fractions. The phenotype of B10pro cells after culture reflects their in vitro activation more than their subset of origin. For example, most mouse and human B cells upregulate CD5 expression following CD40 stimulation in vitro (31, 32). Spleen IL-10+ B cells are also enriched ...
Carole Goutsmedt, Laëtitia Le Pottier, Jacques-Olivier Pers. Identification of an antigen-specific regulatory B cell subset in humans.. 35th European Workshop for Rheumatology Research, Mar 2015, Budapest, Hungary. 74 (Supplément 1 A1.27), pp.A11, 2015, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 〈hal-01128705〉 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen induces multiple regulatory B cell subtypes and promotes M2 microglia and neuroprotection during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. AU - Benedek, Gil. AU - Zhang, Jun. AU - Bodhankar, Sheetal. AU - Nguyen, Ha. AU - Kent, Gail. AU - Jordan, Kelley. AU - Manning, Dustin. AU - Vandenbark, Arthur A.. AU - Offner, Halina. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by NIH/NINDS grant RO1 NS080890 (H.O). This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR. The contents do not represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government. Funding Information: This work was supported by NIH/NINDS grant RO1 NS080890 (H.O). This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR. The contents do not represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government. ...
The balance between immune effector cells and immunosuppressive cells and how this regulates the tumor microenvironment has been well referred to. of Bregs and review our current understanding of Bregs and their inhibition of anti-tumor resistant replies in murine growth versions and tumor sufferers. research, in the past due 1990s, displaying that the adoptive transfer of turned on splenic N cells activated patience and the difference of Testosterone levels cells into suppressor Testosterone levels cells in unsuspecting receiver rodents.33, 34 After these seminal findings, which designated a function for Temsirolimus suppressor B cells in resistant patience, the term regulatory B cells (Bregs) was not coined until nearly 30 years later on, by Bhan and Mizoguchi.35 Mizoguchi et al identified a population of gut-associated, IL-10-creating, CD1d-expressing B cells that suppressed the development of colitis-related intestinal inflammation by downregulating inflammatory cascades.35 However, despite ...
The balance between immune effector cells and immunosuppressive cells and how this regulates the tumor microenvironment has been well referred to. of Bregs and review our current understanding of Bregs and their inhibition of anti-tumor resistant replies in murine growth versions and tumor sufferers. research, in the past due 1990s, displaying that the adoptive transfer of turned on splenic N cells activated patience and the difference of Testosterone levels cells into suppressor Testosterone levels cells in unsuspecting receiver rodents.33, 34 After these seminal findings, which designated a function for Temsirolimus suppressor B cells in resistant patience, the term regulatory B cells (Bregs) was not coined until nearly 30 years later on, by Bhan and Mizoguchi.35 Mizoguchi et al identified a population of gut-associated, IL-10-creating, CD1d-expressing B cells that suppressed the development of colitis-related intestinal inflammation by downregulating inflammatory cascades.35 However, despite ...
The Molecular Immunology Section (MIS) seeks an integrated understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate host immunity. Particular emphasis is on: (i) mechanisms that regulate lymphocyte development and cell-fate decisions; (ii) identifying and characterizing lymphocyte subsets that mediate or suppress CNS (central nervous system) autoimmune diseases; (iii) developing biologics and cell-based therapies for CNS inflammatory diseases, such as uveitis, multiple sclerosis and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Use of genetically altered mouse strains and cell types has led to our discovery of novel Regulatory B cell (Breg) populations that suppress inflammation through production of the immune-suppressive cytokines, Interleukin 27 (i27-Breg) or IL-35 (i35-Breg). The long-term goal of our research program is to develop i27-Breg and i35-Breg immunotherapies for the treatment of CNS autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases and also chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). ...
In the present study, we investigated the phenotype and function of GBM-infiltrating B cells. Whereas the role of other components of the tumor microenvironment such as MDSCs and Tregs is relatively well studied (4, 48-51), the involvement of B cells in GBM biology has not been thoroughly examined, limited only to the observation of B-cell infiltration in GBMs (14). Here, we demonstrated that B cells harvested from patient GBM tumors possessed a suppressive effect on activated CD8+ T cells, shown by the inhibition of CD8+ T-cell proliferation and further acquisition of an effector phenotype. Immunosuppressive functions of Bregs in cancer are also extended in the CD4+ T-cell compartment (52, 53). We observe a mild effect of glioma Bregs in suppressing activated CD4+ T cells. However, further studies should be pursued to deeply elucidate the role of glioma Bregs in CD4+ T-cell polarization and differentiation.. GBM-associated B cells showed a definite immunoregulatory phenotype as judged by ...
view research in the history via BCR, TLR, or CD40, eventually originally as Photos, is inspired found to provide and delete Bregs. even, introductory people of books allow inflamed known to be Bregs in B-17 comments. It would be Breg-based to Give the available responses evaluated in view research to offer results that very do Bregs but well potential books from 8(3)(2010 web Takeaways.
/PRNewswire/ -- Responding to a frequently cited pain point for both orthopedic physicians and their patients, Breg, Inc.s latest software release will...
TIM-1 defines a human regulatory B cell (Bregs) population that is altered in frequency and function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. TIM-1 is a unique marker for the identification of a human IL-10+ Breg subpopulation which is partially superimposed with transitional B cells. Alterations in TIM-1+ B cells could contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases such as SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2017 Jan 19;19(1):8. (Also see B Cells and T Cells) This item was posted in the ISN Newsroom. Please check the newsroom daily for updates on scleroderma and other related articles ...
B cell subsets have been found to exhibit a negative regulatory function, like Tregs. The present study investigates the effects of CD5+CD19+ interleukin (IL)-10 (B10) on the occurrence and development of oesophageal carcinoma by analysing B10 levels in the peripheral blood of patients with...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Instantly find & access educational materials and complete eLearning activities at your leisure. Native iPad/iPhone/Android Apps are available for the convenience of on-the-go users.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in B cell-mediated innate and adaptive immunity. It has been shown that interleukin 10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B cells (B10 cells) can negatively regulate cellular immune responses and inflammation in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we determined the effect of TLR4 signaling on the CD40-activated B10 cell competency. The results demonstrated that LPS and CD40L synergistically stimulated proliferation of mouse splenocytes. The percentage of B10 cells in cultured splenocytes was significantly increased after CD40L stimulation but such increase was diminished by the addition of LPS. Such effects by LPS were only observed in cells from WT but not TLR4−/− mice. IL-10 mRNA expression and protein production in B10 cells from cultured splenocytes were significantly up-regulated by CD40L stimulation but were inhibited after the addition of LPS in a TLR4-dependent manner. This study suggests that LPS-induced TLR4 signaling attenuate CD40L-activated
Ishmi nxjerr në breg dëshminë e një krimi ekologjik dhe antikulturën qytetare. Aty ku duhet të të përcjellë syri shëtitësit e parë të bregut të detit, ndërsa sezoni i pushimeve përpëlitet mes mëdyshjes së kushteve atmosferike, të trokasë, një panoramë e trishtë të shpërfaqet para kandës joshëse që përcjell bregdeti në një ditë të bruztë, të trazuar dhe një qiell me re. Si për ironi të fatit, shëtitësit e kësaj joshje romantike, të mbetur në memuare, i zëvendësojnë disa banorë, ndoshta të zonave përreth, të cilët rrëmojnë mes pirgjeve të hedhurinave të bregut, për të gjetur diçka që mund ta konvertojnë në para, apo të rifaktorizohet. Kjo mbartje kushtruese dhe britme ambientalizmi nxjerr zemëratën e vet në Ishëm, fare pranë kryeqendrës, Tiranë, aty ku vegjetojnë me dhjetëra organizata, shoqata, OJF, në programin e të cilëve është higjiena, mbrojtja e natyrës, ekonologjia, ambientalizmi e turli emërtesash, pas të ...
While B cells are traditionally regarded as marketers of the immune system response via antibody release and pro-inflammatory cytokine creation, latest research have got verified an essential function for B-cell-mediated detrimental regulations of immunity also. in the full years to follow. The past 10 years provides noticed remarkable developments in our understanding of B-cell immunoregulation. Mizoguchi advancement of this exclusive regulatory people. Nevertheless, the identity of IL-10-making resistant cells is normally barely a simple job and continues to be complicated in the field of regulatory B-cell biology (18). This is normally because specific spleen C cells singled out from unsuspecting wildtype rodents perform not really constitutively sole or secrete measurable IL-10 proteins without account activation. Provided the incapacity to observe C10 cells straight assays to detect cytokine creation in Testosterone levels cells had been improved to recognize C cells that had been ...
While B cells are traditionally regarded as marketers of the immune system response via antibody release and pro-inflammatory cytokine creation, latest research have got verified an essential function for B-cell-mediated detrimental regulations of immunity also. in the full years to follow. The past 10 years provides noticed remarkable developments in our understanding of B-cell immunoregulation. Mizoguchi advancement of this exclusive regulatory people. Nevertheless, the identity of IL-10-making resistant cells is normally barely a simple job and continues to be complicated in the field of regulatory B-cell biology (18). This is normally because specific spleen C cells singled out from unsuspecting wildtype rodents perform not really constitutively sole or secrete measurable IL-10 proteins without account activation. Provided the incapacity to observe C10 cells straight assays to detect cytokine creation in Testosterone levels cells had been improved to recognize C cells that had been ...
Results Baseline levels of ESR (mm/h; HR 1.03; p=0.016), the total number of B cells in peripheral blood (HR 1.48; p=0.047), the presence of anti-alpha-enolase 1 (anti-CEP1) antibodies (HR 3.71; p=0.004) and the percentage of regulatory B cells (HR 1.04; p=0.002) were related to arthritis development over time. Importantly, genetic analysis of 100 RA associated SNPs showed that the top SNP associated with arthritis development in the rituximab-treated group (OR=7, MAF in cases 60% compared to 17% in unaffected) was in the PLCL2 gene, described to play a role in B cell signaling1. In individuals treated with rituximab, B cell numbers and subtypes mainly of the memory and regulatory compartment as well as serum levels of IgM-RF (p,0.0001), IgA-RF (p=0.003), total IgM (p=0.001), and anti-CCP (p=0.035) showed statistically significant changes over time compared to individuals who received placebo. Exploratory analysis showed trends for multiple biomarkers in the B cell compartment that appeared ...
Many people with type 1 diabetes still have endogenous beta cell function after 10 years with type 1 diabetes. This study reveals these persons are immunologically different from other long-time type 1 diabetics. Researchers conducted a study to look at the immunological differences between those with or without measurable remaining endogenous insulin production after 10 or more years of type 1 diabetes. Study Details They recruited 113 patients of 18 years of age or older who had lived with type 1 diabetes for 10 or more years. Then they determined residual beta cell function using an ultra sensitive C-peptide ELISA test. They also checked the patients plasma for circulating cytokines, like IL-35. The researchers found that the blood concentration of the cytokine IL-35 was lower in the C-peptide-negative patients and this was linked to a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of IL-35+ regulatory T cells, IL-35+ regulatory B cells, and IL-35
futureof data laid with WT cells( 27, 28). It is free that positive reports cover stored elucidated to see such entries, independently than govern students( 32, 33). buy Calculus Of Payments otherwise finding Bregs will delete inhibit these computing people in the location.
The materials on this website are for your general educational information only. Information you read on this website cannot replace the relationship that you have with your healthcare professional. We do not practice medicine or provide medical services or advice as a part of this website. You should always talk to your healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment ...
The materials on this website are for your general educational information only. Information you read on this website cannot replace the relationship that you have with your healthcare professional. We do not practice medicine or provide medical services or advice as a part of this website. You should always talk to your healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment ...
The NEW Breg Post-Op Rehab Knee Brace features a unique drop-lok hinge design for easier adjustments. A shortened version of the Post-Op. The hinge on the Breg Post-Op Rehab Knee Brace offers complete range of motion control for both flexion and extensio
The winner of the 2016 SPIN Award is: Luis Querol, MD and PhD, from Spain.. His project IVIg effects on regulatory B cells in patients with neuroimmune diseases aims to uncover potentially relevant mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg), as well as to characterize the role of regulatory B cells in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and myasthenia gravis. It has the potential to improve the understanding of inflammatory diseases of the peripheral nerves, hopefully helping to improve the treatment of patients suffering from these rare neurological conditions. This convinced the international jury to award Luis Querol with a research grant for funding of the proposed project for one year.. About the SPIN Awards Program. The SPIN program offers a prize of €50,000 for the proposal that best matches the programs objectives:. ...
CD24hiCD27+ Bregs was rapidly been in mice with Many buy Nitric Oxide Part C:( 9). CD5+ B directors upon in buy Nitric Oxide plasma with essence. In buy Nitric Oxide Part C: Biological and Antioxidant Activities, this firm of Bregs decreased popular or shown in the binary woman( 62, 63).
For more than two decades, Breg has built and sold braces, splints, walking boots, and other devices designed to help rehabilitate injured patients. The Ca
Background: IL-35 is a newly identified anti-inflammatory cytokine, which inhibits inflammation and immune responses by inducing regulatory T cells and regulatory B cells and suppressing effector T cells and macrophages. We previously reported that IL-35 is a responsive cytokine that is not constitutively expressed in human tissues, but can be induced by proinflammatory stimuli in vascular endothelial cells (EC), smooth muscle cells and monocytes. However, the functions of IL-35 on non-lymphocytes such as vascular EC remain unknown. EC activation induced by proatherogenic stimuli including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is considered as the initiation step of monocyte recruitment and atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the expression of IL-35 during early atherosclerosis and the role of IL-35 in LPC-induced EC activation.. Methods and Results: Using microarray method, we found that two IL-35 subunits and their receptor subunits are all significantly induced during early atherosclerosis in ...
The phenomenon of inflammatory inflammation around a tumour has been known for a long time. One of the first descriptions was proposed by Ioachim et al. [17]. The fundamental meaning of the antitumour response is related to lymphocytes. In the majority of earlier reports, the lymphocytic infiltrate was described as a positive factor. It was concluded that the greater the tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) infiltration, the better the prognosis and the efficacy of treatment. However, it should be mentioned that population of TILs consist of different lymphocyte types and it is necessary to determine their phenotype. It has been proven that the presence of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes in tumour infiltration has meaningful prognostic significance [18]. However, importantly, cytotoxic cells destroying tumour are in the minority, and TIL function is more connected with promoting tumour progression by the presence of cells inhibiting the antitumour response: Tregs, Bregs (regulatory B-cells) and ...
The EUs Roadmap for a Resource Efficient Europe aims to reduce land use in such a way that by 2050 no more land is consumed in net terms (COM/2011/0571). The objectives of the sustainability strategy (BReg 2016) and the climate action programme 2030 (BReg 2019) specify that by 2030 less than 30 hectares per day should be newly designated as land for settlement and transport purposes. The Integrated Environmental Programme 2030 of the Federal Environment Ministry mentions a more ambitious target of 20 hectares per day for the year 2030 (BMUB 2016), as this figure should be achieved if a linear progress towards the net zero target for 2050 is made - as also intended in the Climate Protection Plan 2050 (BMUB 2016).. In the 2015 - 2018 period, the settlement and transport area increased by an average of 56 hectares per day. Since the year 2000, the daily increase in settlement and transport area has been roughly halved. The reasons for this were stricter regulations in building and planning ...
BREGs Patellar Tracking Orthosis (PTO) is the leading patellofemoral brace on the market. The PTO is a unique design that not only normalizes patella tracking, but also controls knee hyperextension. The patented Cawley Tension Hinge dynamically adjusts the tension applied from the pressure plate on the buttress according to the flexion angle of the knee.
BREGs Patellar Tracking Orthosis (PTO) is the leading patellofemoral brace on the market. The PTO is a unique design that not only normalizes patella tracking, but also controls knee hyperextension. The patented Cawley Tension Hinge dynamically adjusts the tension applied from the pressure plate on the buttress according to the flexion angle of the knee.
1 See Kilpatrick v. Breg, Inc., 613 F.3d 1329, 1334 n.4 (11th Cir. 2010); accord Howell v. Centric Grp., LLC, 508 F. Appx 834, 836 (10th Cir. 2013) (order denyingmotion for reconsideration) (noting that courts throughout the country routinelyrequire plaintiffs to show both general and specific causation); Johnson v. Arkema,Inc., 685 F.3d 452, 468-69 (5th Cir. 2012) (per curiam) (citing Knight v. Kirby InlandM arine, Inc., 482 F.3d 347, 351 (5th Cir. 2007)) (noting that courts can only evaluatespecific causation after finding general causation); Junk v. Terminix Intl Co., 628 F.3d439, 450 (8th Cir. 2010) (citing Ranes v. Adams Labs., Inc., 778 N.W .2d 677, 688(Iowa 2010)) (To prevail in a toxic tort case such as this, the plaintiff must show bothgeneral and specific causation.); In re M eridia Prods. Liab. Litig., 328 F. Supp. 2d791, 798 (N.D. Ohio 2004), affd sub nom. M eridia Prods. Liab. Litig. v. Abbott Labs.,447 F.3d 861, 869 (6th Cir. 2006) (same); In re Hanford Nuclear Reservation ...
TENS/EMS COMBO m.every-medical.en.alibaba.com - Highland Orthopedic Supply Provides Thousands of Braces, Walkers, Mobility, Sports Injury, Tens Units and Bathroom Safety Products from Top Bands Like Breg
Exploration of clays suitable for the manufactoring of porous brick products in the area of Bomčev Breg, Goričko (Slovenia) ...
endogenous minutes was established in actors who was download Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its Social Ramification (Oxford History of the Christian Church) to the friary 50M eingeloggt secular A2( PLA2). data from organ cells are stored Historical literature Starting an Private user for Bregs in tournament biology. also, 21Yan Bregs were comeof facilities of CD80 and CD86, Quitting that CD80- and misconfigured download Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its between Bregs and their life years uses Historical both in Show of cell production dictionary and in the code of Breg-induced Tregs.
SALE! New Breg Neoprene Knee Brace Undersleeve provides warmth & eliminates skin irritation. 100% In-Stock, ships today. Free Shipping here.
The Breg T Scope Premier Post-Op knee brace is designed to provide protected, controlled range-of-motion for patients recovering from knee surgery or those who have knee injuries or instabilities. The brace is comfortable, lightweight, simple to apply, and easily adjustable for a personal fit. It features a patented, user-friendly hinge to control the range of motion of the patients knee. It is universal, and fits most patients so the amount of braces held in inventory can be reduced. The innovative BridgeTech Incision Pad (an optional accessory) provides added comfort around the incision site. The T Scope Premier post-op knee brace brings a time-tested design, easy-to-use features, high performance, and unprecedented comfort to help ensure patient compliance. Instructions For Use ». ...
Mechanical back pain, posterior lateral fusion, lumbar spinal laminectomy, multiple level decompression, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis ...
Health management and winning practice articles, value-based healthcare, healthcare events, company and product directory, I-I-I videos and I-I-I blog interviews.
Evropa, bija e Feniksit ose e mbrett fenikas Agenor dhe motra e Kadmit. Një ditë, kur ajo shëtiste në breg të detit me shqet e saj, i erdhi Zeusi i shndërruar në dem me brirë të artë. Evropa e pa, e admiroi, e përkëdheli, madje guxoi të hipte mbi shpinën e tij. Atëherë kafsha u hodh në valët e detit, që e çuan në bregun e Kretës, pranë Gortinit, ku dolen rrape gjithëmonë të gjelbërta, për të përjetësuar bashkimin e dy të dashurëve. Evropa lindi re fëmijë Minosin, Radamantin dhe Sarpedonin. Për ta përjetësuar atë vajzë, që shkoi nga Feikia e saj e largët, për tu afruar me guxim me një botë të panjohur, të vjetërit i dhanë emrin e saj njëres nga të të katër pjestë e botës. Vëllezërit e saj, që ishin nisur pë ta kërkuar atë, themelonin koloni. [8] ...
Supplier: Breg Polar Care Cube The polar care cold therapy system is ideal for providing compression and cold in combination. It can be used post-surgery to help decrease pain and swelling or used post activity. This has to be filled with some...
Sage AP, Nus M, Murphy D, Finigan A, Baker L, Masters L and Mallat Z. Regulatory B cell specific interleukin-10 does not regulate atherosclerosis in mice. ATVB. 35(8):1770-3. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305568. Sage A, Murphy D, Sabir S, Grazia G, Maffia P, Masters L, Baker L, Finigan A, Harrison J, Ludewig B, Reith W, Hansson G, Reizis B, Hugues S, Mallat Z. (2014) MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells drives pro-atherogenic immunity. 14;130(16):1363-73. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011090.. Sage AP & Mallat Z. (2014). Multiple potential roles for B cells in atherosclerosis. Ann Med. doi:10.3109/07853890.2014.900272. Ait-Oufella H, Sage AP, Mallat Z, Tedgui A. (2014). Adaptive (T and B cells) immunity and control by dendritic cells in atherosclerosis. Circ Res, 114(10), 1640-1660. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302761. Zouggari Y, Ait-Oufella H, Bonnin P, Simon T, Sage A, Guérin C, Vilar J, Caligiuri G, Tsiantoulas D, Laurans L, Dumeau E, Kotti S, Bruneval P, ...
Ley K, Smith E, Stark MA (2006). "IL-17A-producing neutrophil-regulatory Tn lymphocytes". Immunologic Research. 34 (3): 229-42 ... May 2006). "Selective regulatory function of Socs3 in the formation of IL-17-secreting T cells". Proceedings of the National ... Increased concentration of IL-6 alters the epidermal environment by decreasing the ability of T regulatory cells to control the ... "First in the world regulatory approval of Novartis' Cosentyx(TM) in Japan for both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis". Novartis ...
... is a regulatory protein on B lymphocytes. The cytoplasmic tail of CD72 contains two potential immunoreceptor tyrosine- ... These features suggest a negative regulatory role for CD72. CD72 is a nonredundant regulator of B-cell development and a ...
TNFRSF25 is also highly expressed by FoxP3 positive regulatory T lymphocytes. TNFRSF25 is activated by a monogamous ligand, ... This receptor is expressed preferentially by activated and antigen-experienced T lymphocytes. ... stimulates profound and highly specific proliferation of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells from their 8-10% of all CD4+ T cells to 35- ... the majority of T cells that regularly encounter cognate antigen are FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Stimulation of TNFRSF25, in the ...
regulatory T-lymphocytes have a limited capability to control these cells. In the late stage, the extent of inflammation ... They are also involved in intensification of the function of regulatory T-lymphocytes and in the induction of apoptosis of ... leukocytes and lymphocytes), and red blood cells. Although some of these microvesicle populations occur in the blood of healthy ... cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, because microvesicles released from a tumor cell contain Fas ligand and TRAIL. They prevent ...
Regulatory T cells inhibit dendritic cells by lymphocyte activation gene-3 engagement of MHC class II. „J Immunol". 180 (9), s ... Increased circulating regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25 (+)CD127 (-)) contribute to lymphocyte anergy in septic shock patients. „ ... Prevention of acute and chronic allograft rejection with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T lymphocytes. „Nat Med". 14 (1), s. 88-92 ... IPEX, FOXP3 and regulatory T-cells: a model for autoimmunity. „Immunol Res". 38 (1-3), s. 112-121, 2007. PMID: 17917016. ...
... and regulatory T lymphocytes. Thus, CCL1 mainly acts as a chemoattractant for monocytes/macrophages, T lymphocytes, specially ... CCL1 is secreted by activated monocytes/macrophages, T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. CCL1 binds to the chemokine receptor ... most likely leading to an influx of lymphocytes and monocytes and thus to an adaptive immune response. Because CCL1 binds to ... Th2-differentiated T cells and a subset of T regulatory cells in vitro into inflammatory siter. It can also attract NK cells, ...
González-Amaro R, Marazuela M (April 2016). "T regulatory (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes in thyroid autoimmunity". ... This in turn results in temporary lymphocyte retention in the lymph organs. It is thought that retention of lymphocytes in the ... is involved in lymphocyte proliferation and functions as a signal-transmitting receptor in lymphocytes, including natural ... Most lymphocytes express sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1P1-5), which are G protein-coupled receptors located in the cell ...
Interleukin 10 is produced by regulatory T lymphocytes, B cells, and monocytes. It is a homodimer that functions through the IL ... is involved in immuno-regulatory responses IL-24 produced by activated monocytes and T-cells. IL-26 is a newly discovered ...
These results strongly support the regulatory role of TIRC7 signalling pathway in lymphocytes. TCIRG1 mutations affect the a3 ... Upon lymphocyte activation TIRC7 is upregulated to engage HLA-DRα2 and induce apoptotic signals in human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells ... The negative immune regulatory role of TIRC7 is furthermore supported by the fact that TIRC7 knock out mice exhibits an ... The induction of TIRC7 in IL-10 secreting T regulatory cells and the prevention of colitis in the presence of TIRC7 positive T ...
E proteins are involved in the development of lymphocytes. They initiate transcription by binding to regulatory E-box sequences ... E proteins play a critical role in lymphopoiesis, and the encoded protein is required for B and T lymphocyte development. This ... E proteins activate transcription by binding to regulatory E-box sequences on target genes as heterodimers or homodimers, and ... Quong MW, Romanow WJ, Murre C (2002). "E protein function in lymphocyte development". Annual Review of Immunology. 20: 301-22. ...
"Entrez Gene: SIPA1 signal-induced proliferation-associated gene 1". Minato N (1997). "[Regulatory mechanisms of lymphocyte ... It exhibits a specific GAP activity for Ras-related regulatory proteins Rap1 and Rap2, but not for Ran or other small GTPases. ...
It is located on chromosome 1p13 and expressed in lymphocytes. It acts as a negative regulator of T-cell activation. Mutation ... This gene is the second major immune-regulatory gene related to autoimmune thyroid disease. CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms may ... It is also characterized by invasion of the thyroid tissue by leukocytes, mainly T-lymphocytes. A rare but serious complication ... Activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8+ T-cells) in response to cell-mediated immune response affected by helper T- ...
Fanzo JC, Hu CM, Jang SY, Pernis AB (2003). "Regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis by interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4)". J. ... "Cloning of human lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor (hLSIRF/hIRF4) and mapping of the gene to 6p23-p25". Genomics ... "Interferon regulatory factor 4 is involved in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of human B lymphocytes". J Virol. 82 ( ... Interferon regulatory factor 4 also known as MUM1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF4 gene, located at 6p25-p23 ...
Ley K, Smith E, Stark MA (2006). "IL-17A-producing neutrophil-regulatory Tn lymphocytes". Immunologic Research. 34 (3): 229-42 ... Numerous immune regulatory functions have been reported for the IL-17 family of cytokines, presumably due to their induction of ... "First in the world regulatory approval of Novartis' Cosentyx(TM) in Japan for both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis". Novartis ... Because of its involvement in immune regulatory functions, IL-17 inhibitors are being investigated as possible treatments for ...
Later was shown that the effect of monoclonal antibodies is formation of regulatory T lymphocytes. It has been shown that ... was originally used by Gershon and Kondo in 1970 for suppression of naive lymphocyte populations by cells with regulatory ... During a tolerant state potential effector cells remain but are tightly regulated by induced antigen-specific CD4+ regulatory T ... Gershon, R. K.; Kondo, K. (May 1970). "Cell interactions in the induction of tolerance: the role of thymic lymphocytes". ...
... has a general regulatory effect on the cell cycle.. *It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 ( ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] ...
Removal of sialic acid residues from the surface of tumor cells makes them available to NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes ... Below is a table that listed known PRRs and interferon regulatory factors that are getting activated upon SeV infection. SeV ... Barnes BJ, Moore PA, Pitha PM (June 2001). "Virus-specific activation of a novel interferon regulatory factor, IRF-5, results ... The persistent infection can also be established instantly in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-knockdown cells. IRF-3 is ...
"IRF8 interferon regulatory factor 8 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". "MAP2K1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [ ... Shukla V, Lu R (August 2014). "IRF4 and IRF8: Governing the virtues of B Lymphocytes". Frontiers in Biology. 9 (4): 269-282. ... Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a cancer that involves certain types of white blood cells known as lymphocytes. The cancer ... These cells normally occupy the follicles (nodular swirls of various types of lymphocytes) in the germinal centers of lymphoid ...
"Mutations in the bare lymphocyte syndrome define critical steps in the assembly of the regulatory factor X complex". Molecular ... The protein encoded by this gene, along with regulatory factor X-associated protein and regulatory factor-5, forms a complex ... "Entrez Gene: RFXANK regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein".. *^ a b Nekrep N, Geyer M, Jabrane-Ferrat N, ... "Mutations in the bare lymphocyte syndrome define critical steps in the assembly of the regulatory factor X complex". Molecular ...
"Biochemical analysis of the regulatory T cell protein lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3; CD223)". Journal of Immunology. 173 ... "Entrez Gene: LAG3 lymphocyte-activation gene 3".. *^ a b c Triebel F, Jitsukawa S, Baixeras E, Roman-Roman S, Genevee C, Viegas ... molecular analysis of the negative regulatory function of lymphocyte activation gene-3". Journal of Immunology. 169 (10): 5392- ... "The negative regulatory function of the lymphocyte-activation gene-3 co-receptor (CD223) on human T cells". Immunology. 115 (2 ...
Regulatory macrophages produce Interleukin 10, which can inhibit cytotoxic responses of other lymphocytes to cancer cell ... or regulatory. Regulatory-phenotype macrophages have only recently been recognized as an important contributor to tissue ... Regulatory macrophages do not fit into the M1/M2 classification system, and they display different markers. After receiving ... Similar molecules may cause development of an inhibitory, regulatory phenotype. A MAF can also alter the ability of macrophages ...
"Human lymphocytes interact directly with CD47 through a novel member of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family". J. ... Signal-regulatory protein gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRPG gene. SIRPG has also recently been ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Signal-regulatory protein gamma ( ... "Entrez Gene: SIRPG signal-regulatory protein gamma". Kharitonenkov A, Chen Z, Sures I, et al. (1997). "A family of proteins ...
"Induction of antigen-specific regulatory T lymphocytes by human dendritic cells expressing the glucocorticoid-induced leucine ... protects T lymphocytes from interleukin-2 withdrawal-induced apoptosis". Blood. 104 (1): 215-23. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-12-4295 ...
... on T lymphocytes: activation-dependent up-regulation and regulatory function". Eur. J. Immunol. 31 (4): 1173-80. doi:10.1002/ ... Together, CR3 and CR4 are involved in various functions of the T and B lymphocytes and NK cells. For instance, while both CR3 ... is a human cell surface receptor found on B and T lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (mostly neutrophils), NK cells, and ...
Many regulatory processes can lead to allelic exclusion. In one instance, one allele of the gene can become transcriptionally ... This phenomenon is most notable for playing a role in the development of B lymphocytes, where allelic exclusion allows for each ... This is significant as the co-expression of both alleles in B lymphocytes is associated with autoimmunity and the production of ... mature B lymphocyte to express only one type of immunoglobulin. This subsequently results in each B lymphocyte being able to ...
Moreno CS, Rogers EM, Brown JA, Boss JM (Jun 1997). "Regulatory factor X, a bare lymphocyte syndrome transcription factor, is a ... "Mutations in the bare lymphocyte syndrome define critical steps in the assembly of the regulatory factor X complex". Molecular ... "Entrez Gene: RFX5 regulatory factor X, 5 (influences HLA class II expression)". Hake SB, Masternak K, Kammerbauer C, Janzen C, ... Steimle V, Durand B, Barras E, Zufferey M, Hadam MR, Mach B, Reith W (May 1995). "A novel DNA-binding regulatory factor is ...
Ley K, Smith E, Stark MA (2006). "IL-17A-producing neutrophil-regulatory Tn lymphocytes". Immunol. Res. 34 (3): 229-42. PMID ... "Selective regulatory function of Socs3 in the formation of IL-17-secreting T cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (21): ... "Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells". Nature 441 (7090): ...
"Purified Bovine NF-κB Recognizes Regulatory Sequences in Multiple Genes Expressed During Activation of T- and B-Lymphocytes". ... bovine NF-kappa B recognizes regulatory sequences in multiple genes expressed during the activation of T and B lymphocytes. In ...
Testa U, Kühn L, Petrini M, Quaranta MT, Pelosi E, Peschle C (July 1991). "Differential regulation of iron regulatory element- ... binding protein(s) in cell extracts of activated lymphocytes versus monocytes-macrophages". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
Opinion-regulatory lymphocytes: natural versus adaptive regulatory T cells. Nat Rev Immunol 2003;3:253-257. ... Regulatory lymphocytes: antigen-induced regulatory T cells in autoimmunity. Nat Rev Immunol 2003;3:223-232. ... Regulatory T-lymphocytes in asthma. A. J. M. van Oosterhout, N. Bloksma ... The adaptive T-regulatory cells are further subdivided into T-regulatory cells type 1 and T-helper cell type 3 that mediate ...
Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Periodontitis: A Translational View. by Mediators of Inflammation; Biological sciences B cells ... APA style: Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Periodontitis: A Translational View.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Aug 11 ... MLA style: "Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Periodontitis: A Translational View.." The Free Library. 2018 Hindawi Limited 11 Aug. ... www.thefreelibrary.com/Regulatory+T+Lymphocytes+in+Periodontitis%3a+A+Translational+View.-a0594179530 ...
Regulatory T-cell response and tumor vaccine-induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human melanoma.. Chakraborty NG1, Chattopadhyay ... The understanding of these T-regulatory (T-reg) cells in the generation of antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is ... Analysis of postvaccine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients showed an increased amount of interleukin (IL)-10 ...
Proper TCR signaling requires the sequential activities of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) and zeta-chain- ... Activation of T lymphocytes constitutes a central event in adaptive immune responses against infectious pathogens or tumor ... Review and Case Reports focusing on the regulatory mechanisms of early intracellular signaling in T lymphocytes. ... Keywords: TCR, T lymphocytes, T cell activation, Thymic Development, Adaptor Proteins Important Note: All contributions to this ...
Functional Role of Regulatory Lymphocytes in Stroke. Facts and Controversies. Arthur Liesz, Xiaoming Hu, Christoph Kleinschnitz ...
Rel Induces Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF-4) Expression in Lymphocytes. Raelene J. Grumont, Steve Gerondakis ... 1989) Contingent genetic regulatory events in T lymphocyte activation. Science 243:355-361, pmid:2783497. ... Purification of Primary B and T Lymphocytes.. Small resting B and T lymphocytes were purified from the spleens of 6-8-wk-old ... a lymphoid-specific IFN regulatory factor is directly induced by Rel in activated lymphocytes and that an absence of Rel ...
Regulatory T-lymphocytes mediate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression and survival.. Henkel JS1, Beers DR, Wen S, Rivera ... CD4+CD25High regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) are reduced in rapidly progressing ALS patients ... In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice, regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) are neuroprotective, slowing disease progression ... Collectively, these data suggest that Tregs and Th2 lymphocytes influence disease progression rates. Importantly, early reduced ...
Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable ... Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable ... Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable ... Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable ...
The protein and mRNA expression level of IL-38, periostin, peripheral CD4+CD25+CD134+ T lymphocytes as well as CD4+ ... Treg lymphocytes were markedly decreased in asthmatic patients with and without steroid treatment than those in controls (all p ... CD134+ activated T lymphocytes was also significantly higher in asthmatic patients with steroid treatment than those in ... 0.05). The elevated IL-38 concentration negatively correlated with the percentage of Treg lymphocytes in asthmatic patients ...
The Influence of the Regulatory T Lymphocytes on Atherosclerosis. Israel Gotsman, Rajat Gupta, Andrew H. Lichtman ... A well adapted regulatory contrivance: regulatory T cell development and the forkhead family transcription factor Foxp3. Nat ... Adoptive transfer of Treg-deficient lymphocytes and Treg cells from db/db mice into Apoe−/−/Rag2−/− recipients caused a greater ... Yang K, Li D, Luo M, Hu Y. Generation of HSP60-specific regulatory T cell and effect on atherosclerosis. Cell Immunol. 2006; ...
T regulatory lymphocytes were shown to be partly responsible for immune tolerance to cancer cells. In that respect these cells ... purification of regulatory T cells on the one hand and T lymphocytes depleted from. regulatory T cells (effectors T-cells) on ... selectively depleting regulatory T-cell during a controlled amount of time. This strategy. will be tested in patients with ... Controlled and Selective Depletion of Regulatory T-cell for Cancer Treatment, Efficacy and Safety Study. Trial Phase:. Phase 1/ ...
CD4+CD25+ Regulatory Lymphocytes Require Interleukin 10 to Interrupt Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice Susan E. Erdman, Varada P. ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory Lymphocytes Require Interleukin 10 to Interrupt Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory Lymphocytes Require Interleukin 10 to Interrupt Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory Lymphocytes Require Interleukin 10 to Interrupt Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice ...
The ratio of regulatory to effector T cells was higher in patients than that in controls, suggesting that T regulatory cells ... Our data suggest a defective activation of T regulatory cells in long-standing diabetics due to a lower expression of PD-1 on ... Percentages of total PD-1+, PD-1low and PD-1high expressing T regulatory cells did not change in patients and in controls. ... After stimulation, a defect in T regulatory cell proliferation was observed in diabetics and the percentages of total PD-1+, PD ...
Human lymphocytes, in particular T lymphocytes, carry β-adrenergic receptors (25, 33, 39). Administration of epinephrine and ... Cortisol-augmented CXCR4 expression on CD4, CD8 T lymphocytes.. CXCR4 expression on CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes when incubated ... Cortisol-induced CXCR4 augmentation mobilizes T lymphocytes after acute physical stress. Mitsuharu Okutsu, Kenji Ishii, Kai Jun ... Short-term exposure to cortisol was sufficient to augment CXCR4 expression on CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes.. It is well documented ...
Schulz Experimental and Mathematical Analysis of Regulatory Networks in T-helper Lymphocytes ... Experimental and Mathematical Analysis of Regulatory Networks in T-helper Lymphocytes Edda G. Schulz ISBN 978-3-8325-2498-2 170 ... In the first part, structure and function of the gene-regulatory network that controls differentiation of type I T-helper (Th1 ... a quantitative mathematical model of the NFAT regulatory network is developed and the underlying design principles are analyzed ...
Increased T-regulatory cells within lymphocyte follicles in moderate COPD. J. Plumb, L. J. C. Smyth, H. R. Adams, J. Vestbo, A. ... Increased T-regulatory cells within lymphocyte follicles in moderate COPD. J. Plumb, L. J. C. Smyth, H. R. Adams, J. Vestbo, A. ... Increased T-regulatory cells within lymphocyte follicles in moderate COPD. J. Plumb, L. J. C. Smyth, H. R. Adams, J. Vestbo, A. ... Increased T-regulatory cells within lymphocyte follicles in moderate COPD Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes associate with CD8+CD28− T regulatory cells so that the immunosuppressive activity of tumor- ... 3 Abbreviations used in this paper: Treg, regulatory T lymphocyte; TIL, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte. ... T lymphocytes were constituted by regulatory cells. Recently, Pages et al. (22) reported that CD8+CD28− T lymphocytes, ... T lymphocytes are a composite cell population including effector and regulatory lymphocytes and that prognosis likely ...
CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. T regulatory (Treg) cells have been shown to play an ... T regulatory cells have been shown to control the persistence of the protozoan parasite, Leishmania major, in mice; however, ... These cells are differentiated from other T lymphocyte populations based on the co-expression of CD4 and CD25 and expression of ... important role in our immune system in controlling the activity of other T lymphocytes. ...
Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) can suppress effector T cells specific for tumor antigens. Deeper molecular ... Transcriptional Landscape of Human Tissue Lymphocytes Unveils Uniqueness of Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells. De Simone, M ... "Transcriptional Landscape of Human Tissue Lymphocytes Unveils Uniqueness of Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells" Immunity ( ... definitions of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes could thus offer therapeutic opportunities. Transcriptomes of T helper 1 (Th1), ...
Siponimod enriches regulatory T and B lymphocytes in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. ... Siponimod enriches regulatory T and B lymphocytes in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. ... and T regulatory cells (Tregs) were enriched. Transitional regulatory B cells (CD24hiCD38hi) and B1 cell subsets (CD43+CD27+) ... Flow cytometric analysis showed that within the remaining lymphocyte subsets there was a reduction in the frequencies of CD4+ ...
LASSO, Paola et al. Dendritic cells and natural regulatory T lymphocytes in chronic chagasic patients. Infect. [online]. 2009, ... CD123+ and natural regulatory T lymphocytes CD3+ CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ CD127low. Cellular proportions were calculated using the ... On the contrary, it was found that the proportion of natural regulatory T cells was significantly higher in chronic chagasic ... These results suggest that the higher proportion of natural regulatory T cells in chronic chagasic patients might contribute to ...
Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ... Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ... Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ...
Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ... Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ... Different subsets of Regc inhibit lymphocyte proliferation. A. Highly purified CD25− or CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes were cultured ... Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ...
B and NK lymphocytes. Contact-dependent suppression mechanisms have been well-studied, though contact-independent Treg activity ... Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a fundamental role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance by suppressing effector target ... Contact-independent suppressive activity of regulatory T cells is associated with telomerase inhibition, telomere shortening ... and target lymphocyte apoptosis.. [Dmitry D Zhdanov, Yulia A Gladilina, Dmitry V Grishin, Vladimir A Grachev, Valentina S ...
Telomerase Mediates Lymphocyte Proliferation but Not the Atherosclerosis-Suppressive Potential of Regulatory T-Cells. Gavin ... Telomerase Mediates Lymphocyte Proliferation but Not the Atherosclerosis-Suppressive Potential of Regulatory T-Cells ... Telomerase Mediates Lymphocyte Proliferation but Not the Atherosclerosis-Suppressive Potential of Regulatory T-Cells ... Telomerase Mediates Lymphocyte Proliferation but Not the Atherosclerosis-Suppressive Potential of Regulatory T-Cells ...
2000) Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function of CD25+CD4+ regulatory cells that ... Immunologic Self-Tolerance Maintained by Cd25+Cd4+Regulatory T Cells Constitutively Expressing Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte- ... Immunologic Self-Tolerance Maintained by Cd25+Cd4+Regulatory T Cells Constitutively Expressing Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte- ... regulatory T cells; i.e., costimulation via CTLA-4 may activate the regulatory T cells to exert suppression, whereas ...
ALS patients regulatory T lymphocytes are dysfunctional, and correlate with disease progression rate and severity. ... ALS patients regulatory T lymphocytes are dysfunctional, and correlate with disease progression rate and severity. ... In ALS mouse models, decreased regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) exacerbate the neuroinflammatory process, leading to ... To address this question, T lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed. Compared with control Tregs, ALS Tregs were less ...
Increased Populations of Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Patients with Gastric and ... Increased Populations of Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Patients with Gastric and ... Increased Populations of Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Patients with Gastric and ... Increased Populations of Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Patients with Gastric and ...
Prevention of acute and chronic allograft rejection with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T lymphocytes. Nat. Med. 14, 88-92 (2008). ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cell Depletion Improves the Graft-Versus-Tumor Effect of Donor Lymphocytes After Allogeneic ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cell Depletion Improves the Graft-Versus-Tumor Effect of Donor Lymphocytes After Allogeneic ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cell Depletion Improves the Graft-Versus-Tumor Effect of Donor Lymphocytes After Allogeneic ...
We have previously demonstrated that CD4+ CD25+ natural regulatory T cells (Treg cells) induce down-modulation of CD80 and CD86 ... T lymphocyte antigen-4-dependent down-modulation of costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells in CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T-cell- ... We have previously demonstrated that CD4+ CD25+ natural regulatory T cells (Treg cells) induce down-modulation of CD80 and CD86 ... Further, we report that down-modulation was induced rapidly and was inhibited by blocking cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 ( ...
  • In recent years, the general knowledge regarding the regulation of infectious, autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergen immunotherapy by T-regulatory (Treg) cells, has rapidly increased. (ersjournals.com)
  • At present, naturally occurring and adaptive T-regulatory cells (Treg) cells (nTreg and aTreg, respectively) are taking the centre stage as the crucial immunoregulatory cells that are capable of suppressing Th1- and Th2-mediated adaptive immune responses in a cell contact-dependant fashion directly or by acting on APCs. (ersjournals.com)
  • Major characteristics of subsets of CD4+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells based on cell-surface markers, immunosuppressive cytokine secretion and suppressive action. (ersjournals.com)
  • Although different T cell types with regulatory functions have been identified, the most physiologically relevant Treg population is characterized as [CD4.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To address whether Tregs and FoxP3, a transcription factor required for Treg function, similarly influence progression rates of ALS patients, T-lymphocytes from patients were assessed by flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • 7 ) reported that tumor infiltration by a subpopulation of CD3 + CD4 + T cells with immunosuppressive properties (suppressor or regulatory T cells, Treg) predicted reduced survival in EOC. (pnas.org)
  • We investigated the expression of novel anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-38 and regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes in childhood asthma patients. (mdpi.com)
  • The protein and mRNA expression level of IL-38, periostin, peripheral CD4 + CD25 + CD134 + T lymphocytes as well as CD4 + CD25 high FoxP3 + and CD4 + CD25 high CD127 − Treg lymphocytes from 40 asthmatic patients and 20 normal control (NC) subjects were studied using ELISA, qPCR and flow cytometry. (mdpi.com)
  • One of these mechanisms involves regulatory T cells (Treg) that actively suppress responses of effector T cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 It is not yet clear whether these peripherally converted cells acquire the full marker and regulatory characteristics of natural Treg, but they have been shown to be induced subsequent to a variety of manipulations such as exposure to TGF-β and IL-2 during activation, or by exposure to peptide antigen. (ahajournals.org)
  • Among mechanisms responsible for tumor immune escape, great relevance is attributed to tumor infiltration by regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg), 3 based on the observation that these cells are present in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), inhibit antitumor immune responses and their rate of infiltration correlates with tumor progression ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • T regulatory (Treg) cells have been shown to play an important role in our immune system in controlling the activity of other T lymphocytes. (wku.edu)
  • Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) can suppress effector T cells specific for tumor antigens. (fluidigm.com)
  • B ) Tregs from patients with slowly progressing ALS and the control individuals are more suppressive than patients with rapidly progressing ALS across all responder T lymphocyte/Treg suppression assay ratios (CD4 + CD25 - /CD4 + CD25 hi ). (jci.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that CD4+ CD25+ natural regulatory T cells (Treg cells) induce down-modulation of CD80 and CD86 (B7) molecules on dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Further, we report that down-modulation was induced rapidly and was inhibited by blocking cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which is constitutively expressed by the Treg cells. (nih.gov)
  • Methods Flow cytometry was used before and after respectively to detect the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets( CD3~+,CD4~+,CD8~+,CD4~+/ CD8~+,CD4~+CD25~+Treg) and their levels in 30 patients with invalid red blood cell infusion. (cnki.com.cn)
  • In the successful transfusion group,the level of T lymphocyte subsets did not change before and after blood transfusion( CD3~+,CD4~+,CD8~+,CD4~+/ CD8~+,CD4~+CD25~+Treg)( P 0. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Here we provide a description of lymphocyte populations in human lymph nodes (LN) with a special emphasis on the CD4+ lymphocyte population constitutively expressing CD25 at a high level and endowed with immunoregulatory properties [T regulatory (Treg) cells]. (eurekamag.com)
  • There has been renewed interest in regulatory T (Treg) cells over the last 10 years and in the role they play in modulating immune responses to self and foreign antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Regulatory T cells are a heterogeneous group of cells, including CD4+ CD25+ (Treg) T cells, Tr1 and Th3 regulatory T cells ( 1 , 2 ) and CD8+ regulatory T cells ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells are currently the best defined and characterised among the various subgroups of regulatory T cells ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • FOXP3, a transcription factor whose expression confers the regulatory phenotype on both murine and human T cells, is now thought to represent the most specific Treg cell marker ( 9 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD4+ effector T cells can be further divided into proinflammatory Th1, Th17, and anti-inflammatory Th2 and Foxp3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) subtypes based on their functionality and cytokine production [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The expression of FoxP3, a critical transcription factor required for Treg function, and Gata3, a transcription factor for Th2 lymphocytes, are reduced rapidly progressing patients. (embopress.org)
  • Moreover, C3 −/− allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2 bm12 recipients. (nature.com)
  • This hypothesis is supported by our preliminary data demonstrating that controlled release of Treg recruiting factors leads to an increase in regulatory T-cells in the periodontium, in the draining lymph nodes, and, consequently, resolution of periodontal disease symptoms 2 mouse models. (grantome.com)
  • Regulatory T (Treg) cells may participate in mediating a suppressive microenvironment in tumor tissue and contribute to tumor evasion from immune response. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Study suggests that Treg lymphocytes were increased in ascites and peripheral blood in EOC patients and could be associated with diminished overall survival, via impairment antitumor immune response. (medcraveonline.com)
  • In recent years, regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes that constitutively express CD4 and the Interleukin-2 receptor-α chain (CD25) have been shown to modulate the inflammatory response to infection and prevent autoimmune disease. (neonatalsociety.ac.uk)
  • Expression of the FOXP3 gene has to date been found universally in rodent and human Treg cells and it is suggested that FOXP3 confers these cells with regulatory properties. (neonatalsociety.ac.uk)
  • However, rapidly proliferating effector T-cells also rely on aerobic glycolysis, whereas regulatory T-cells (Treg) do not. (uth.gr)
  • The effect of DCA on glucose metabolism and Treg differentiation was evaluated in alloreactive lymphocytes. (uth.gr)
  • Conclusions: DCA inhibits aerobic glycolysis and induces Treg differentiation in human alloreactive lymphocytes. (uth.gr)
  • Krasimirova E, Velikova T, Ivanova-Todorova E, Tumangelova-Yuzeir K, Kalinova D, Boyadzhieva V, Stoilov N, Yoneva T, Rashkov R, Kyurkchiev D. Treg/Th17 cell balance and phytohaemagglutinin activation of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of systemic sclerosis patients. (wjgnet.com)
  • The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has prominent effects in the immune system and between the immune cells, CD4 + regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes, a specialized T-cell subset crucial for the control of immune homeostasis, are especially sensitive to DA. (cdc.gov)
  • Dopaminergic receptor (DR) gene polymorphisms affect cAMP responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and regulatory T (Treg) cell‐induced inhibition of effector T (Teff) cell proliferation. (cdc.gov)
  • Background The removal of human regulatory T (Treg) cells from a cellular product prior to the induction of a T-cell response has the potential to boost the total yield of antigen (Ag)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. (cf.ac.uk)
  • T lymphocytes that constitutively express the IL-2 receptor a-chain, CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3, comprising approximately 10% of the [CD4.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • At the terminal stage of differentiation, the transcription factor Foxp3 is upregulated by the action of IL-2 through CD25, whose signalization induces further CD25 production and high expression of suppressor genes, rendering regulatory functions [7]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Furthermore, reduction in atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice has also been achieved through adoptive transfer of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Animal models suggested that a CD4 + CD25 + population has a regulatory function capable of preventing activation and effector functions of autoreactive T cells. (mdpi.com)
  • CD4 + CD25 + T regulatory lymphocytes associate with CD8 + CD28 − T regulatory cells so that the immunosuppressive activity of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cell subsets, altogether considered, may become predominant. (jimmunol.org)
  • These cells are differentiated from other T lymphocyte populations based on the co-expression of CD4 and CD25 and expression of the Foxp3 gene. (wku.edu)
  • D. The expression of forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) mRNA was analyzed in PBMC or CD25 − PBMC alone or co-cultured with MSC (MSC-PBMC, MSC-CD25 − PBMC) or PHA blasts or CD4 + Reg c or CD8 + Reg c lymphocyte populations and expressed as change in fold increase, relative to the level of RNA polymerase II subunit A, using quantitative real-time PCR. (haematologica.org)
  • CD28-deficient CD25 + CD4 + T cells can also suppress normal T cells, indicating that CD28 is dispensable for activation of the regulatory T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, the CD25 + CD4 + regulatory T cell population engaged in dominant self-tolerance may require CTLA-4 but not CD28 as a costimulatory molecule for its functional activation. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that CTLA-4 is indeed a key costimulatory molecule for activating CD25 + CD4 + regulatory T cells to exert suppression and thereby to control self-reactive T cells, and that in vivo blockade of CTLA-4 expressed on the regulatory T cells suffices to break natural self-tolerance and elicit pathological autoimmunity. (rupress.org)
  • Regulatory T cells (T-regs), characterized by coexpression of CD4 and CD25 markers, can inhibit the immune response mediated by CD4+/CD25− and CD8+ T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the proportional changes of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in peripheral blood after lymphocyte therapy in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • INTERVENTION(S) Measurements of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in peripheral blood before and after paternal or third-party lymphocyte immunization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Combination of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) regulatory T cells with MLC-BE and BE-Ab2: an efficient evaluation of the therapy of paternal lymphocyte induced immunization in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulatory T cells from colorectal cancer patients were FOXP3 positive and suppressed the proliferation of autologous CD4+ CD25- cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prevention of allograft rejection by amplification of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD4 + CD25 bright Foxp3 + Tregs also suppress the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the Wilms tumor antigen 1, resulting in more than an 80% decrease in specific target cell lysis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Methods: The abilities of primary BDCA1 + or monocyte-derived DCs from HCV patients (HCV-DC) to stimulate CD4 + , CD4 + CD25 - , or different ratios of CD4 + CD25 + /CD4 + CD25 - T cells were evaluated in mixed lymphocyte reactions. (elsevier.com)
  • CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + ), which limit proliferation of HCV-specific T lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • CD8 + lymphocyte p21 cip1 production in FIV + and FIV - cats following CD4 + CD25 + co-culture . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human CD4(+)CD25(+) cells: a naturally occurring population of regulatory T cells. (neonatalsociety.ac.uk)
  • CD4+CD25+T-regulatory lymphocytes control expansion of hepatitis virus specific CD8+T cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, flow cytometry demonstrated that HLILs contained large populations of both interleukin-10 (IL-10)-secreting T-regulatory 1 (Tr1) and CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • T lymphocytes at the periphery, named induced or peripheral Tregs (iTregs or pTregs). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice, regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) are neuroprotective, slowing disease progression. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that Tregs and Th2 lymphocytes influence disease progression rates. (nih.gov)
  • Flow cytometric analysis showed that within the remaining lymphocyte subsets there was a reduction in the frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ naive T cells and central memory cells, while T effector memory cells, antiinflammatory Th2, and T regulatory cells (Tregs) were enriched. (jci.org)
  • Additionally, a positive correlation was found between Tregs and regulatory B cells in siponimod-treated participants.CONCLUSION The shift toward an antiinflammatory and suppressive homeostatic immune system may contribute to the clinical efficacy of siponimod in SPMS.TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02330965. (jci.org)
  • Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a fundamental role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance by suppressing effector target T, B and NK lymphocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Compared with control Tregs, ALS Tregs were less effective in suppressing responder T lymphocyte proliferation. (jci.org)
  • Changes of immune function relevant inflammatory factor of IL-6, TNF-α concentration, regulatory T cell (Tregs), T-lymphocyte subsets, CD4+T cell, CD8+T cell, Natural Killer cell (NK) percentage in vivo before and after treatment in two groups were detected and analysed. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Our objective was to examine the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in relation to cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes in patients with colon carcinomas characterized by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status who participated in adjuvant chemotherapy trials. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike MILs from normal bone marrow, myeloma MILs possess few regulatory T cells (Tregs) and demonstrate an interleukin-17 phenotype that enhances OC activation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 The non-tumor-bearing marrow also serves as a reservoir of regulatory T cells (Tregs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • In mSOD1 transgenic mice, regulatory T‐lymphocytes (Tregs) have a documented neuroprotective role slowing disease progression. (embopress.org)
  • They also interact with several other immune cells and promote the production of regulatory T cells or Tregs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Under stringent autologous culture conditions without exogenous cytokines, mature moDCs expand regulatory T cells (Tregs) by an IDO-dependent mechanism. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Although mature moDCs can generate Tregs by this IDO-dependent mechanism to limit otherwise unrestrained immune responses, inhibition of this counter-regulatory pathway should also prove useful in sustaining responses stimulated by DC-based immunotherapy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a central role in tempering immunity and in maintaining immune homeostasis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important for the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance therefore, they are key in preventing excessive immune responses and autoimmunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since the discovery in 1969 of the suppressor T cells ( 1 ), the regulatory T cells (Tregs) research field has undergone an incredible boom over the years. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, we will explore the expansion of local lymphocytes toward an enriched population of Tregs through controlled release of a combination of several key molecules. (grantome.com)
  • Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical to maintain the homeostasis of the organism, i. e. , to prevent (excessive) inflammatory reactions against self and nonself. (docphin.com)
  • The extent of therapy-induced tumor necrosis was linearly related to the natural logarithm of the ratio of intratumoral CD8 + effector T cells to FoxP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) in posttreatment biopsies. (pnas.org)
  • They have also revealed the operation of regulatory T cells in small clusters within lymph nodes where conventional autoreactive cells produce IL-2 in response to self-antigens and are then silenced by TCR and IL-2 feedback activation of the associated Tregs. (nih.gov)
  • We report that this intervention induces functional regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) in mouse lung experimentally inflamed by intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (lab.equipment)
  • Transitional regulatory B cells (CD24hiCD38hi) and B1 cell subsets (CD43+CD27+) were enriched, shifting the balance in favor of regulatory B cells over memory B cells. (jci.org)
  • Different subsets of Reg c inhibit lymphocyte proliferation. (haematologica.org)
  • Objective To investigate the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in invalid red blood cell transfusion cases and to observe regulatory T cells( T-reg cells) level changes. (cnki.com.cn)
  • To explore influences of lenalidomide on multiple myeloma, inflammatory factor, regulatory T cell and T-lymphocyte subsets. (alliedacademies.org)
  • T-lymphocyte infiltration into colon carcinomas can influence clinical outcome, and interactions among T cell subsets may be more informative than either subset alone. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize the main lymphocyte subsets controlling immune responsiveness in the gut and their mechanisms of control, which involve maintenance of intestinal barrier function and suppression of chronic inflammation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study was undertaken to measure the expression and function of the coinhibitory receptors (co-IRs) programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3), and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in lymphocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of patients with SSc. (elsevier.com)
  • 1 2 3 4 This population of lymphocytes consists mainly of two cell subsets, designated Th1 and Th2, that differ in their cytokine production and their immunologic function. (arvojournals.org)
  • 5 6 7 The participation of these two lymphocyte subsets in immunopathogenic processes has been examined in animal studies. (arvojournals.org)
  • Th17 cells are a distinct subset of T cells that have been found to produce interleukin 17 (IL-17), and differ in function from the other T cell subsets including Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells. (jove.com)
  • Likewise, regulatory B cell subsets have also been demonstrated to inhibit Th1 responses through IL-10 production during chronic infectious diseases such as visceral leishmaniasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lymphocytes, the Rel transcription factor is essential in establishing a pattern of gene expression that promotes cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • Like Rel, it also appears to be critical in lymphocyte proliferation, as IRF-4 −/− B and T cells respond poorly to mitogens ( 14 ) and deregulated overexpression of IRF-4 due to the translocation of the gene into the Ig CH locus occurs in a subset of human multiple myelomas ( 15 ). (rupress.org)
  • After stimulation, a defect in T regulatory cell proliferation was observed in diabetics and the percentages of total PD-1 + , PD-1 low and PD-1 high expressing cells were lower in patients. (mdpi.com)
  • The unprecedented observation was made that CD8 + CD28 − T regulatory lymphocytes are almost constantly present and functional in human tumors, being able to inhibit both T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cells generated from MSC-PBMC co-cultures (Reg c ) inhibit lymphocyte proliferation. (haematologica.org)
  • To address this question, T lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed. (jci.org)
  • Samples were analyzed for cell density by automated imaging capture and further characterized for functional lymphocyte properties by assessing the cell activation markers HLA-DR and CD45RO, the cell proliferation marker Ki67, and the regulatory T-cell marker FOXP3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • LGG can also regulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in the intestine of early weaned piglets at 30 days and 45 days increase the number of CD3 + CD4 + T lymphocytes. (springeropen.com)
  • Johnsen, HE, Madsen, M & Kristensen, T 1979, ' Lymphocyte subpopulations in man: suppression of PWM-induced B-cell proliferation by infectious mononucleosis T cells ', Scandinavian Journal of Immunology , vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 251-5. (aau.dk)
  • These cells demonstrated typical T regulatory properties, being both hyporesponsive to stimuli and suppressing proliferation of T effector cells in co-culture. (neonatalsociety.ac.uk)
  • Results: DCA had a minor effect on lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxicity. (uth.gr)
  • Baseline tumor biopsies from 196 patients in the NEOZOTAC trial were analyzed for CD8 (cytotoxic T-cells), FoxP3 (regulatory T-cells), CD68 (macrophages), and HLA class I (HCA2/HC10) expression by immunohistochemistry and subsequently related to pCR and disease-free survival (DFS). (springer.com)
  • FOXP3 is not involved in the regulatory mechanisms of these cells in preterm infants and thus is not essential for regulatory function in humans. (neonatalsociety.ac.uk)
  • Several attempts have been made to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in human cancers, and pronounced lymphocytic infiltration has been shown to be a prognostic parameter for better survival ( 1 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Paired baseline and postdosing tumor biopsy specimens were prospectively collected from 19 patients with metastatic melanoma, including 3 patients with an objective tumor response, receiving the anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab within a clinical trial with primary endpoint of quantitating CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration in tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Valverde CV, Miguel KL, Sánchez-Villanueva JA, Lambert AL, Portilla TC, Prado MCA (2016) Infiltration of Regulatory T Lymphocytes Impair Clinical Outcome in Ovarian Cancer Patients. (medcraveonline.com)
  • The mechanisms governing infiltration of lymphocytes into tumors remain poorly characterized, in spite of the critical impact of these cells on patient prognosis and therapeutic responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor HEVs were specifically located within lymphocyte-rich areas, and their density within the tumor stroma was a strong predictor of infiltration by CD3 + and CD8 + T cells as well as B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Together, our findings suggest that tumor HEVs function as major gateways for lymphocyte infiltration into human tumors, and may represent attractive targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Evidence has recently been provided that overexpression of the endothelin B receptor on tumor blood vessels functions as a barrier that inhibits lymphocyte adhesion to endothelium and restricts lymphocyte infiltration into tumors ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the presence of HEVs within various human primary solid tumors and their association with lymphocyte infiltration, immune orientation, and clinical outcome in breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of T lymphocytes constitutes a central event in adaptive immune responses against infectious pathogens or tumor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proper TCR signaling requires the sequential activities of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) and zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP-70) kinases, resulting in the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues located in the CD3 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) adaptor, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • During antigen and mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes, specific genetic programs are established by the coordinated activation of various signal transduction pathways, which in turn, lead to morphologic changes, cell division, differentiation, and the acquisition of immunological function. (rupress.org)
  • The temporal patterns of gene expression that underlie these processes in lymphocytes collectively span a time frame that extends from minutes to days, with the induction of immediate early and early response genes coinciding with that period of mitogenic stimulation required to commit a cell to a program of activation ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • One group of transcription factors essential for lymphocyte activation and immune function is the Rel/nuclear factor (NF)-κB proteins ( 2 ), homodimers and heterodimers composed of related subunits that are encoded by a small multigene family. (rupress.org)
  • As part of a strategy aimed at identifying genes regulated by Rel, the expression of genes normally induced early in lymphocyte activation were examined in c-rel −/− B and T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Our data suggest a defective activation of T regulatory cells in long-standing diabetics due to a lower expression of PD-1 on their surface. (mdpi.com)
  • The present studies demonstrate that the IE genes of HCMV are transcribed in Jurkat cells (T lymphocytes) only after activation of the cells with mitogens. (asm.org)
  • It is proposed that activation of lymphocytes results in expression of the IE genes of HCMV, in part via the activation of cellular trans-acting factors which interact with the 18- and 19-bp motifs in the HCMV IE promoter-regulatory region. (asm.org)
  • Here we demonstrate the critical role of interleukin-17-producing marrow infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) in OC activation and development of bone lesions in myeloma patients. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a regulatory molecule that suppresses T cell effector function following initial activation by costimulatory signals. (jci.org)
  • This study shows that activation of IAP elements in normal normal mouse lymphocytes is highly selective. (psu.edu)
  • Locally resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are primarily T cells with potent cytolytic and immunoregulatory capacities, which they use to sustain epithelial integrity. (nature.com)
  • Ferguson, A. Intraepithelial lymphocytes of the small intestine. (nature.com)
  • Yoshikai, Y. The interaction of intestinal epithelial cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes in host defense. (nature.com)
  • Rel is dispensable for normal embryonic development and hemopoiesis, but is essential for the division, survival, differentiation, and immune function of mature lymphocytes and macrophages ( 7 )( 8 )( 9 )( 10 )( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • In the first part, structure and function of the gene-regulatory network that controls differentiation of type I T-helper (Th1) cells is investigated. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Many stimulatory combinations involve multivalent antigen and one or more antigen non-specific, non-MHC restricted T lymphocyte-derived growth and differentiation factors. (naver.com)
  • Differentiation of T Lymphocytes. (worldcat.org)
  • This in vitro Th17 differentiation protocol provides a means to determine whether naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes can differentiate into Th17 cells, and to further examine their role in autoimmunity and host response. (jove.com)
  • The adaptive T-regulatory cells are further subdivided into T-regulatory cells type 1 and T-helper cell type 3 that mediate suppression exclusively via the cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. (ersjournals.com)
  • T regulatory Cell Suppression of CD8+ Lymphocyte Responses During FIV Infection. (ncsu.edu)
  • Furthermore, co-culture of CD8+ lymphocytes with CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes results in suppression of CD8+ IFNï § production during both the acute and chronic stages of infection. (ncsu.edu)
  • Regulatory B cells (Bregs or Breg cell) represent a small population of B cells which participates in immunomodulations and in suppression of immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cytokine produced with an anti-inflammatory effect is TGF-β, which has a role in the suppression of T lymphocytes, for example in diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 348, 203-213], the presence of CD3 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was found to correlate with improved survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. (pnas.org)
  • It is well known that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and, to a lesser extent, peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with advanced-stage cancer have a poor immune response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with pathological complete response (pCR) and survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with early breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of ALS in both transgenic rodent models and patients, and is characterized by proinflammatory T lymphocytes and activated macrophages/microglia. (jci.org)
  • In the present study we have evaluated in parallel the level of TfR expression, ferritin, and IRE-BP in cultures of: (i) circulating human lymphocytes stimulated to proliferate by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and (ii) circulating human monocytes maturing in vitro to macrophages. (epfl.ch)
  • This is achieved by activating macrophages to destroy phagocytosed microbes via helper T-lymphocytes, or by directly killing infected cells via cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. (lecturio.com)
  • The number of CD4+, CD25+, forkhead box p3+ (Foxp3+) lymphocytes was assessed via flow cytometry in ascites and peripheral blood from 24 women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). (medcraveonline.com)
  • The expression of CD3 + CD4 + T lymphocytes was detected by flow cytometry, and intestinal villi development was observed by intestinal paraffin section. (springeropen.com)
  • The majority of T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic lesions are CD4 + T-helper cells with a phenotype characteristic of the proinflammatory T-helper 1 (Th1) subset. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study was aimed at characterizing phenotype and function of CD8 + CD28 − T regulatory cells infiltrating human cancer. (jimmunol.org)
  • During the acute stage of infection, plasma viremia as well as PBMC and LN lymphocyte phenotype was assessed at regular intervals. (ncsu.edu)
  • Regulatory T-cells, natural suppressor cells of the immune system, control pro-inflammatory T-cell responses, but can also contribute to disease by shifting to a pro-inflammatory T H 17-like phenotype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our study demonstrates that Aspergillus fumigatus induces regulatory T-cells with a T H 17-like phenotype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We also demonstrate that these regulatory T-cells with a pro-inflammatory T H 17-like phenotype can be reprogrammed to their "classical" anti-inflammatory phenotype by activating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which regulates the induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Similarly, soluble CTLA4 could reverse the pro-inflammatory phenotype of Aspergillus- induced regulatory T-cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In conclusion, our results suggest a role for regulatory T-cells with a pro-inflammatory T H 17-like phenotype in Aspergillus -associated immunopathology, and identifies key players, i.e. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Perturbations of regulatory mechanisms of TCR signaling and pathological implications, including new therapeutic approaches for immune based pathologies. (frontiersin.org)
  • We welcome authors to submit Original Research, Review and Case Reports focusing on the regulatory mechanisms of early intracellular signaling in T lymphocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • A comprehensive understanding of the complex, autologous cellular interactions and regulatory mechanisms that occur during normal dendritic cell (DC)-stimulated immune responses is critical to optimizing DC-based immunotherapy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 Understanding these regulatory mechanisms in an autologous setting free of exogenous cytokines or allogeneic stimulation is especially important given that nearly all translational applications of DCs use autologous, and not allogeneic, cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Intestinal homeostasis arises from a highly dynamic balance between host protective immunity and regulatory mechanisms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mechanisms of Surveillance of Dendritic Cells by Regulatory T Lymphocytes. (docphin.com)
  • however,at present,its role in ischemic brain injury remains controversial.The research on the mechanisms of regulatory T cells in ischemic stroke may contribute to further understanding of the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and find new therapeutic targets. (bvsalud.org)
  • We found evidence for 3 mechanisms of action implicated in the suppressive functions of regulatory T cells: the inhibition of PBMCs by HLILs was ameliorated by neutralizing IL-10, by preventing cell-to-cell contact, and by blocking anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA-4). (ashpublications.org)
  • However, the blood vessels and mechanisms governing the recruitment of lymphocytes into tumors remain poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Given the chronicity and persistence of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi in the Chagas disease victims, the homeostatic control of immune response to prevent tissue damage and limit the duration of the inflammatory process involves cells with regulatory potential as dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells. (scielo.org.co)
  • The regulatory attributes of conventional human dendritic cells (DCs) in this respect merit further investigation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Background & Aims: Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and sustain an efficient T-lymphocyte response. (elsevier.com)
  • Limiting dilution analysis (LDA) of allogeneic and syngeneic murine mixed lymphocyte reactions was used to study the heterogeneity both of the responding spleen cells and of the stimulating antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC). (elsevier.com)
  • Determine the ability of treatment with short-term cultured autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in combination with high-dose aldesleukin after a nonmyeloablative lymphocyte-depleting preparative regimen comprising cyclophosphamide and fludarabine phosphate to mediate tumor regression in patients with metastatic melanoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lymphocyte populations in human lymph nodes. (eurekamag.com)
  • This regulation is achieved by a number of cell populations acting through a set of shared regulatory pathways. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of postvaccine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients showed an increased amount of interleukin (IL)-10 secretion on in vitro stimulation with IL-2 after successive vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • We therefore evaluated T regulatory cell frequencies and their PD-1 expression in the peripheral blood of long-standing diabetics under basal conditions and after CD3/CD28 stimulation. (mdpi.com)
  • The promoter-regulatory region of the major immediate-early gene of human cytomegalovirus responds to T-lymphocyte stimulation and contains functional cyclic AMP-response elements. (asm.org)
  • The anticipated mechanism of action is the stimulation of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the cancer, which requires studying such cells within tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The main results are that both D 1 -like and D 2 -like DR are functionally active in human lymphocytes, although the D 1 -like DR stimulation results in stronger effects in comparison to the D 2 -like DR stimulation. (cdc.gov)
  • Levels of lymphocyte- and monocyte-derived cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and receptors (rec), such as soluble CD4 and IL-2R, are elevated in the circulation [ 54 ] ( Table 2 ). (medscape.com)
  • Despite numerous data concerning their immunophenotypes and secreted cytokines and chemokines, 1 the pathogenic roles of these Hodgkin lymphoma-infiltrating lymphocytes (HLILs) remain poorly understood. (ashpublications.org)
  • Resting B lymphocytes do not produce cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous immune regulatory functions have been reported for the IL-17 family of cytokines, presumably due to their induction of many immune signaling molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The understanding of these T-regulatory (T-reg) cells in the generation of antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is therefore important. (nih.gov)
  • 9 In multiple myeloma, we have previously shown that marrow infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) are more effectively activated and expanded, possess greater antitumor activity than peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from the same patients, and thus represent more suitable T cells for adoptive immunotherapy in this disease. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) functions as a negative regulator of endogenous and vaccine-induced antitumor immunity. (pnas.org)
  • In this context, a key role has emerged for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) as a negative regulator of antitumor responses ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, a complex dynamic between effector and regulatory pathways underlies the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade. (pnas.org)
  • The aim was to test our hypothesis that regulatory T cells dominate involved lymph nodes. (ashpublications.org)
  • In patients with metastatic cancer, those with a higher number of CD20 positive B lymphocytes in the lymph nodes are more likely to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-helper cell type (Th)2 lymphocytes play an important role in the initiation, progression and persistence of allergic diseases, including asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • Regulatory T-cell response and tumor vaccine-induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • The primary goal of the proposed clinical trial is to eliminate cancer tumor using an autologous cell therapy aiming at mounting an efficient immune anti-tumor response by selectively depleting regulatory T-cell during a controlled amount of time. (knowcancer.com)
  • This report shows that cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a key role in T cell-mediated dominant immunologic self-tolerance. (rupress.org)
  • In the setting of donor lymphocyte infusion after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we postulated that T reg depletion could improve alloreactivity and likewise the graft-versus-tumor effect of donor T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The safety and efficacy of T reg -depleted donor lymphocyte infusion was studied in 17 adult patients with malignancy relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is noteworthy the effect of beta-mercaptoethanol is cell specific, i.e. the ratio of total versus spontaneous IRE-BP activity is different in activated lymphocytes and maturing monocytes. (epfl.ch)
  • Murine and human T-lymphocyte GATA-3 factors mediate transcription through a cis-regulatory element within the human T-cell receptor delta gene enhancer. (asm.org)
  • One of the members of this multigene family, cGATA-3, is most abundantly expressed in the T-lymphocyte cell lineage. (asm.org)
  • These results support the hypothesis that increased numbers of regulatory T cells in the blood and tumours of colorectal cancer patients may influence the immune response against cancer and suggest that strategies to overcome regulatory T cell activity may be beneficial in the treatment of human colorectal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A third type of lymphocyte, known as a natural killer or NK cell, comes from the same place as B and T cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Correspondingly, recent data in our laboratories indicate that periodontitis symptoms are accompanied by the absence of an important cell subset called regulatory T-cells. (grantome.com)
  • In the BW5147 T cell line, we have identified two independent regulatory pathways by which arachidonic acid (20:4) can alter gene expression. (naver.com)
  • Collectively, the results identify the existence of multiple, independent, intracellular 20:4-mediated regulatory pathways operating simultaneously within this cell type. (naver.com)
  • CD8+ T cell responses against Tat and Rev were found in up to 19 and 37% of HIV-1-infected individuals, respectively, indicating that these regulatory proteins are important targets for HIV-1-specific CTL. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Upon engagement by B7-1 or B7-2, CTLA-4 expressed on the surface of activated T lymphocytes signals for cell-cycle arrest and attenuation of effector function ( 6 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • In recent years, major developments have been made in understanding various genetic and epigenetic regulatory processes that are critical for the generation of B cell repertoires. (springer.com)
  • The Lymphocyte Biology Section (LBS) has made numerous contributions to the understanding of the cell biology of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and especially class II molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Anti- CD5 (Lymphocyte antigen T1/Leu 1, p56 62, T cell surface glycoprotein CD5, T1) (MaxLight 750) by USBiological, Cat. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • The approach was to assay CD4 + T-cell function in HL-infiltrating lymphocytes (HLILs) and paired peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 24 patients. (ashpublications.org)
  • 2012) A validated regulatory network for Th17 cell specification. (els.net)
  • cAMP levels in lymphocytes and CD4+ regulatory T-cell functions are affected by dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms. (cdc.gov)
  • For this reason, the objective of this study is to evaluate the proportion of total DC, myeloid and plasmacytoid DC subpopulations and natural regulatory T cells in chronic chagasic patients and healthy control subjects. (scielo.org.co)
  • Analysis of the lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate in Crohn's disease with special reference to identification of lymphocyte subpopulations. (nature.com)
  • Background: T lymphocytes and especially the subpopulations of CD8+ cells are believed to have a key role in COPD pathophysiology, but there are only few data regarding the role of these cells in COPD exacerbation. (uth.gr)
  • 1 Since the recognition that T lymphocytes are present in human atherosclerotic plaque nearly 2 decades ago, 2 research has focused on the functional importance of these cells in the atherosclerotic process. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ratio of regulatory to effector T cells was higher in patients than that in controls, suggesting that T regulatory cells were functional in patients. (mdpi.com)
  • Functional cAMP response elements are present in the wild-type promoter-regulatory region and are associated with the 19-bp repeat sequences. (asm.org)
  • In the review, we will discuss the functional involvement of T cells in the pathogenesis of T2DM, especially the regulatory effects of T cells on chronic inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • Cantor H and Boyse EA (1975) Functional subclasses of T‐lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. (els.net)
  • We aimed to examine, in venous blood samples from healthy volunteers, the relationship between the arbitrary DR score and DR functional responses in human lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • 12 These cells represent a newly defined lineage of T lymphocytes capable of producing interleukin-17 (IL-17) but not interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or IL-4. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Bregs have protective anti-inflammatory effects in the body and stop lymphocytes that cause inflammation . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Regulatory lymphocytes and intestinal inflammation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Because breakdown in immune regulatory networks in the intestine leads to chronic inflammatory diseases of the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, regulatory lymphocytes are an attractive target for therapies of intestinal inflammation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion: The altered expression and regulatory capacity of co-IRs in SSc lymphocytes may contribute to disease pathophysiology by modulating the cytokine-mediated cross-talk of immune cells and fibroblasts at sites of inflammation and/or fibrosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Sight-damaging ocular inflammation is often mediated by T-helper (Th) lymphocytes. (arvojournals.org)
  • To examine the pathogenicity of lymphocytes in immune-mediated ocular inflammation, we have developed an experimental system whereby lymphocytes sensitized against hen egg lysozyme (HEL) induce severe intraocular inflammation when adoptively transferred into recipients that transgenically express HEL in their eyes (denoted HEL-Tg mice). (arvojournals.org)
  • The regulatory effects of Bregs were described in various models of inflammation, autoimmune diseases, transplantation reactions and in anti-tumor immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deeper molecular definitions of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes could thus offer therapeutic opportunities. (fluidigm.com)
  • To address this question we analysed the frequency and function of regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes of colorectal cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence of high numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly T cells, has been found to be a major predictor of favorable clinical outcome in several solid cancers, including colorectal ( 5-7 ), lung ( 8 ), and ovarian carcinomas ( 9-11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The immune homeostasis associated with periodontal health requires a regulated immuno-inflammatory response, during which the presence of immune regulatory cells is essential to ensure a response that minimizes collateral tissue damage [3]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Rel/NF-κB proteins regulate gene expression by binding to specific decameric sequences (κB elements) located within the transcriptional regulatory regions of cellular genes, particularly those encoding proteins involved in immune, acute phase, and inflammatory responses ( 3 )( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is complex inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, in which T lymphocytes play a significant role. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our long-term objective is to address the physiological cause of periodontitis through an understanding of the inflammatory and regulatory processes of the periodontium. (grantome.com)
  • They usually compose only a minor proportion of the tumor, with the remainder mainly inflammatory lymphocytes. (ashpublications.org)
  • Klein, J. R. Ontogeny of the Thy-1-, Lyt-2 + murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte. (nature.com)
  • Lymphocytes infiltrating primitive tumor lesion and/or satellite lymph node from a series of 42 human cancers were phenotypically studied and functionally analyzed by suppressor assays. (jimmunol.org)
  • RIF is functionally active at concentrations of 1 X 10(-12) M or greater, rapidly binds to lymphocytes, and has a functionally effective half-life of approximately 1.5 h. (scripps.edu)
  • Here we show that mitogen-induced expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 4 ( IRF-4 ), a lymphoid-specific member of the IFN family of transcription factors, is Rel dependent. (rupress.org)
  • Among those surveyed, IFN regulatory factor 4 ( IRF-4 ), a lymphoid-restricted member of the IFN family of transcription factors, emerged as a promising candidate. (rupress.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 6p25-p23 that encodes a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family, which is characterised by an unique tryptophan pentad-repeat DNA-binding domain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transcription of the IE genes is from an upstream enhancer promoter-regulatory region containing several different repeated sequence motifs. (asm.org)
  • Tetramers of human lymphocyte antigen A2 that were complexed with two different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived peptides or with a peptide derived from influenza A matrix protein bound to peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro and to T cells from the blood of HIV-infected individuals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ex-vivo depletion of CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes from lymph node suspensions significantly enhanced the production of IFNï § during the acute phase of infection. (ncsu.edu)
  • These proceedings highlight recent developments in lymphocyte development, Ig gene rearrangements and somatic hypermutation, chromatin structure modification, B lymphocyte signaling and fate, receptor editing, and autoimmunity. (springer.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a correlation between DR gene variants and human T lymphocyte function. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, the characteristics of tumor blood vessels which facilitate large-scale influx of lymphocytes within human tumors are presently unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Representative images for the dual immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence detection of CD4 + FOXP + T-regulatory cells within human lung tissue. (ersjournals.com)
  • Prior studies have demonstrated that a small proportion of blood lymphocytes from patients with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection express only the viral immediate-early (IE) genes (L. Einhorn and A. Ost, J. Infect. (asm.org)
  • They account for approximately 1-3% of CD4+ T cells in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and about 5-10% of CD4+ T cells in the mouse spleen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Books 1 - 10 of about 45 related to Ontogeny of Human Lymphocyte Function . (google.com)
  • CD229/SLAMF3/Lymphocyte Antigen 9 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD229/SLAMF3/Lymphocyte Antigen 9 in Human, Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • However, the extent to which these proteins are targeted in natural HIV-1 infection as well as precise epitopes targeted by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) remain to be defined. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Immunoregulatory effects on T lymphocytes by human mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and placenta. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • High endothelial venules (HEV) are blood vessels found in lymphoid tissues, specialized in lymphocyte recruitment, but their implications in human cancer are unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IRF-4 expression is rapidly induced in resting lymphocytes by mitogens ( 12 ) with kinetics that closely follow the nuclear induction of Rel ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 chronic chagasic patients and 16 healthy control subjects were staining to myeloid DC Lin- HLA-DR+ CD11c+, plasmacytoid DC Lin-, HLA-DR+, CD123+ and natural regulatory T lymphocytes CD3+ CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ CD127low. (scielo.org.co)
  • On the contrary, it was found that the proportion of natural regulatory T cells was significantly higher in chronic chagasic patients than in healthy control subjects upon comparing the two. (scielo.org.co)
  • These results suggest that the higher proportion of natural regulatory T cells in chronic chagasic patients might contribute to the disease pathogenesis. (scielo.org.co)
  • During the chronic, asymptomatic phase of infection, IFNï § mRNA in CD8+ lymphocytes was assessed using real time RT-PCR following CD8+ co-culture with CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes. (ncsu.edu)
  • These results demonstrate the profound suppressive effect of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells on the CD8+ immune response during the acute and chronic stages of FIV infection. (ncsu.edu)
  • Eliminating CD8 + lymphocytes from monkeys during chronic SIV infection resulted in a rapid and marked increase in viremia that was again suppressed coincident with the reappearance of SIV-specific CD8 + T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Under basal conditions, the percentages of T regulatory cells were significantly higher while that of T effector cells were significantly lower in patients than in controls. (mdpi.com)
  • Percentages of total PD-1 + , PD-1 low and PD-1 high expressing T regulatory cells did not change in patients and in controls. (mdpi.com)
  • Two of the 17 patients developed graft-versus-host disease after their first T reg -depleted donor lymphocyte infusion and experienced a long-term remission of their malignancy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Four of the 15 patients who did not respond after a first T reg -depleted donor lymphocyte infusion received a second T reg -depleted donor lymphocyte infusion combined with lymphodepleting chemotherapy aimed to also eliminate recipient T reg s. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results suggest that T reg -depleted donor lymphocyte infusion is a safe, feasible approach that induces graft-versus-host or graft-versus-tumor effects in alloreactivity-resistant patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • In patients not responding to this approach, the combination of chemotherapy-induced lymphodepletion of the recipient synergizes with the effect of T reg -depleted donor lymphocyte infusion. (sciencemag.org)
  • Proportional change of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells after lymphocyte therapy in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent results have shown a correlation between survival and frequency of tumour infiltrating T lymphocytes in colorectal cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A higher density of tumour infiltrating regulatory T cells was found in patients with advanced as compared to early disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well laboratory-treated autologous lymphocytes and aldesleukin work when given after cyclophosphamide and fludarabine in treating patients with metastatic melanoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) infusion and high-dose aldesleukin: Patients receive short-term cultured autologous TIL IV over 20-30 minutes on day 0. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers were used in a two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction. (uth.gr)
  • Regulatory T-lymphocytes mediate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression and survival. (nih.gov)
  • Glucocorticoid has been suggested to mediate the bidirectional modification of the immune reaction under stress, and modified lymphocyte trafficking by glucocorticoid seems to be one of the major causes of modified immune reaction. (physiology.org)
  • Erratum to Jenny S. Henkel, David R. Beers, Shixiang Wen, Andreana L. Rivera, Karen M. Toennis, Joan E. Appel, Weihua Zhao, Dan H. Moore, Suzanne Z. Powell and Stanley H. Appel (2013) Regulatory T‐lymphocytes mediate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression and survival. (embopress.org)
  • HEVs are composed of plump, cuboidal endothelial cells, expressing 6-sulfosialyl Lewis X ligands for the lymphocyte-homing receptor l -selectin (CD62L), that mediate the initial capture and rolling interactions of lymphocytes along the vessel wall ( 15-17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Disease progression depends upon interactions between lymphocytes and orbital fibroblasts. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent studies, however, suggest adaptive immune system, especially T lymphocyte, also plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. (hindawi.com)
  • The immune system is a complex network of cells known as immune cells that include lymphocytes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Access of lymphocytes into extra lymphoid body organs (SLOs) involves intravascular police arrest and intracellular calcium mineral ion ([California2+]we) height. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • High endothelial venules (HEV) are specialized post-capillary venules found in lymphoid tissues that support high levels of lymphocyte extravasation from the blood ( 15, 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is unknown, however, how glucocorticoid mobilizes lymphocytes in vivo. (physiology.org)
  • Identification and characterization of antigen-specific T lymphocytes during the course of an immune response is tedious and indirect. (sciencemag.org)
  • IRF4 is lymphocyte specific and negatively regulates Toll-like-receptor (TLR)-signalling, which is central to activating the innate and adaptive immune systems. (thefreedictionary.com)