Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Mice, Inbred C57BLRosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Cell SeparationAntigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Immunologic Capping: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Inbred CBAImmunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Lymphocytes, Null: A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.ThymidineCell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Mice, Inbred C3HCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Ficoll: A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Immunoglobulin delta-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.HemocyaninImmunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Trinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.

Amplified B lymphocyte CD40 signaling drives regulatory B10 cell expansion in mice. (1/35)

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B cell-derived IL-10 suppresses inflammatory disease in Lyn-deficient mice. (2/35)

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Matchmaking the B-cell signature of tolerance to regulatory B cells. (3/35)

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Regulatory B cell production of IL-10 inhibits lymphoma depletion during CD20 immunotherapy in mice. (4/35)

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Rejection and regulation: a tight balance. (5/35)

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Regulatory B10 cells differentiate into antibody-secreting cells after transient IL-10 production in vivo. (6/35)

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Increased numbers of CD5+ B lymphocytes with a regulatory phenotype in spondylarthritis. (7/35)

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Preserving the B-cell compartment favors operational tolerance in human renal transplantation. (8/35)

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In the past decade, the suppressive effects, mainly through the secretion of IL-10, of regulatory B cells on inflammatory responses have been reported in a variety of immune disorders (33-36). Additionally, immune regulation through the interaction of immune cells with the intrinsic phenotype of regulatory B cells (e.g., CD1dhiCD5+, T2-MZP, Tim-1+, and CD9+) were demonstrated in various diseases, and it plays a critical role in autoimmune diseases (37). In recent studies, functional studies in cancer diseases are emerging (38-40). In particular, the change of the distribution of regulatory B cells in cancer tissue is considered to one of important indicators (8-10). Emerging evidence suggests that regulatory B cells suppress effector immune cells including IFN-γ-producing cytotoxicity cells in various cancer diseases through the secretion of IL-10 (11). Although regulatory B cells have to play the suppressive role on the effector function of T cells in autoimmune diseases to cure diseases (41), ...
B cells are known to play an important role in auto-immune diseases by activating T cells, secreting inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. However, a sub-type of B cells named regulatory B cells or Bregs has recently shown capacities to prevent or cure arthritis in mouse models. Bregs have also been identified in humans. Main objective: To study Bregs abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at different stages of the disease compared to subjects with mechanical pathologies.Secondary objectives:- To evaluate the specificity of any abnormalities identified in RA by studying Bregs in patients with other autoimmune or other inflammatory joint diseases.- To evaluate the effect of biological and synthetic treatments on Bregs in patients with RA. - To assess whether the rate of Bregs before treatment is predictive of response to biological and synthetic treatments ...
B cells are known to play an important role in auto-immune diseases by activating T cells, secreting inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. However, a sub-type of B cells named regulatory B cells or Bregs has recently shown capacities to prevent or cure arthritis in mouse models. Bregs have also been identified in humans. Main objective: To study Bregs abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at different stages of the disease compared to subjects with mechanical pathologies.Secondary objectives:- To evaluate the specificity of any abnormalities identified in RA by studying Bregs in patients with other autoimmune or other inflammatory joint diseases.- To evaluate the effect of biological and synthetic treatments on Bregs in patients with RA. - To assess whether the rate of Bregs before treatment is predictive of response to biological and synthetic treatments ...
IL-21 can induce both plasma cells and regulatory B cells. In this article, we demonstrate that untreated HIV patients display CD4+ T cells with enhanced IL-21 expression and high in vivo frequencies of regulatory B cells overexpressing the serine protease granzyme B. Granzyme B-expressing regulatory B cells (GraB cells) cells from HIV patients exhibit increased expression of CD5, CD43, CD86, and CD147 but do not produce IL-10. The main functional characteristic of their regulatory activity is direct granzyme B-dependent degradation of the TCR-ζ-chain, resulting in significantly decreased proliferative T cell responses. Although Th cells from HIV patients secrete IL-21 in a Nef-dependent manner, they barely express CD40L. When culturing such IL-21+CD40L− Th cells with B cells, the former directly induce B cell differentiation into GraB cells. In contrast, the addition of soluble CD40L multimers to T cell/B cell cultures redirects B cell differentiation toward plasma cells, indicating that ...
Introduction: Interleukin (IL)-10-producing B cells (Bregs) regulate immune responses in autoimmune disease; however their role in allergy is unclear. Allergen exposure in predisposed atopic individuals results in the induction of IgE-secreting B cells, crucial in the immunopathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergic rhinitis. AIT results in long-term clinical and immunological tolerance; however, whether Bregs contribute towards AIT-induced tolerance remains unclear. Hypotheses: 1. In vitro induced IL-10-producing B cells regulate allergen-driven Th2 inflammation, 2. Bregs are present in fewer numbers in seasonal grass pollen allergic (SAR) individuals compared with healthy controls, which is restored during AIT. Methods: B cells were isolated and subjected to flow cytometry to detect surface markers and IL-10 capacity following CpG stimulation. FluoroSpot, ELISA or qPCR were used to confirm IL-10. Suppression ...
Author summary Infection with helminth parasites is known to be inversely associated with hyper-inflammatory disorders. While Schistosoma (S.) mansoni has been described to exert its down-modulatory effects on inflammation by inducing a network of regulatory immune cells such as regulatory B (Breg), the mechanisms of Breg cell induction remain unclear. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that antigens from S. mansoni eggs, among which the major glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, directly interact with splenic marginal zone B cells of mice which triggers them to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and their capacity to induce regulatory T (Treg) cells. We also found that IPSE/alpha-1 induces IL-10 in human CD1d+ B cells, and that both natural and recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 are equally effective in driving murine and human Breg cells. Our study thus provides insight into the mechanisms of Breg cell induction by schistosomes, and an important step towards the development of helminth-based
A variety of cell surface markers have been proposed for different regulatory B cell subsets (21, 22). The generalized ex vivo phenotype of B10 cells from untreated mice is IgMhighIgDlowCD1dhighCD5+CD19highCD23lowB220high, with ,10% coexpressing IgG or IgA (13, 15, 35, 38). Thereby, spleen B10 cells share surface markers with multiple phenotypically defined B cell subsets, including transitional, marginal zone, marginal zone precursor, memory, and B1 B cells (6, 11, 13-15, 38, 41, 43, 44). Spleen B10 cells are enriched within the CD1dhighCD5+CD19high subpopulation (Fig. 2), where 15-20% are B10 cells, and up to 50% are B10+B10pro cells (6, 13, 15, 29). Small numbers of B10 cells are also found within other spleen B cell fractions. The phenotype of B10pro cells after culture reflects their in vitro activation more than their subset of origin. For example, most mouse and human B cells upregulate CD5 expression following CD40 stimulation in vitro (31, 32). Spleen IL-10+ B cells are also enriched ...
Carole Goutsmedt, Laëtitia Le Pottier, Jacques-Olivier Pers. Identification of an antigen-specific regulatory B cell subset in humans.. 35th European Workshop for Rheumatology Research, Mar 2015, Budapest, Hungary. 74 (Supplément 1 A1.27), pp.A11, 2015, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 〈hal-01128705〉 ...
The balance between immune effector cells and immunosuppressive cells and how this regulates the tumor microenvironment has been well referred to. of Bregs and review our current understanding of Bregs and their inhibition of anti-tumor resistant replies in murine growth versions and tumor sufferers. research, in the past due 1990s, displaying that the adoptive transfer of turned on splenic N cells activated patience and the difference of Testosterone levels cells into suppressor Testosterone levels cells in unsuspecting receiver rodents.33, 34 After these seminal findings, which designated a function for Temsirolimus suppressor B cells in resistant patience, the term regulatory B cells (Bregs) was not coined until nearly 30 years later on, by Bhan and Mizoguchi.35 Mizoguchi et al identified a population of gut-associated, IL-10-creating, CD1d-expressing B cells that suppressed the development of colitis-related intestinal inflammation by downregulating inflammatory cascades.35 However, despite ...
The balance between immune effector cells and immunosuppressive cells and how this regulates the tumor microenvironment has been well referred to. of Bregs and review our current understanding of Bregs and their inhibition of anti-tumor resistant replies in murine growth versions and tumor sufferers. research, in the past due 1990s, displaying that the adoptive transfer of turned on splenic N cells activated patience and the difference of Testosterone levels cells into suppressor Testosterone levels cells in unsuspecting receiver rodents.33, 34 After these seminal findings, which designated a function for Temsirolimus suppressor B cells in resistant patience, the term regulatory B cells (Bregs) was not coined until nearly 30 years later on, by Bhan and Mizoguchi.35 Mizoguchi et al identified a population of gut-associated, IL-10-creating, CD1d-expressing B cells that suppressed the development of colitis-related intestinal inflammation by downregulating inflammatory cascades.35 However, despite ...
The Molecular Immunology Section (MIS) seeks an integrated understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate host immunity. Particular emphasis is on: (i) mechanisms that regulate lymphocyte development and cell-fate decisions; (ii) identifying and characterizing lymphocyte subsets that mediate or suppress CNS (central nervous system) autoimmune diseases; (iii) developing biologics and cell-based therapies for CNS inflammatory diseases, such as uveitis, multiple sclerosis and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Use of genetically altered mouse strains and cell types has led to our discovery of novel Regulatory B cell (Breg) populations that suppress inflammation through production of the immune-suppressive cytokines, Interleukin 27 (i27-Breg) or IL-35 (i35-Breg). The long-term goal of our research program is to develop i27-Breg and i35-Breg immunotherapies for the treatment of CNS autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases and also chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). ...
view research in the history via BCR, TLR, or CD40, eventually originally as Photos, is inspired found to provide and delete Bregs. even, introductory people of books allow inflamed known to be Bregs in B-17 comments. It would be Breg-based to Give the available responses evaluated in view research to offer results that very do Bregs but well potential books from 8(3)(2010 web Takeaways.
TIM-1 defines a human regulatory B cell (Bregs) population that is altered in frequency and function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. TIM-1 is a unique marker for the identification of a human IL-10+ Breg subpopulation which is partially superimposed with transitional B cells. Alterations in TIM-1+ B cells could contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases such as SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2017 Jan 19;19(1):8. (Also see B Cells and T Cells) This item was posted in the ISN Newsroom. Please check the newsroom daily for updates on scleroderma and other related articles ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in B cell-mediated innate and adaptive immunity. It has been shown that interleukin 10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B cells (B10 cells) can negatively regulate cellular immune responses and inflammation in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we determined the effect of TLR4 signaling on the CD40-activated B10 cell competency. The results demonstrated that LPS and CD40L synergistically stimulated proliferation of mouse splenocytes. The percentage of B10 cells in cultured splenocytes was significantly increased after CD40L stimulation but such increase was diminished by the addition of LPS. Such effects by LPS were only observed in cells from WT but not TLR4−/− mice. IL-10 mRNA expression and protein production in B10 cells from cultured splenocytes were significantly up-regulated by CD40L stimulation but were inhibited after the addition of LPS in a TLR4-dependent manner. This study suggests that LPS-induced TLR4 signaling attenuate CD40L-activated
Ishmi nxjerr në breg dëshminë e një krimi ekologjik dhe antikulturën qytetare. Aty ku duhet të të përcjellë syri shëtitësit e parë të bregut të detit, ndërsa sezoni i pushimeve përpëlitet mes mëdyshjes së kushteve atmosferike, të trokasë, një panoramë e trishtë të shpërfaqet para kandës joshëse që përcjell bregdeti në një ditë të bruztë, të trazuar dhe një qiell me re. Si për ironi të fatit, shëtitësit e kësaj joshje romantike, të mbetur në memuare, i zëvendësojnë disa banorë, ndoshta të zonave përreth, të cilët rrëmojnë mes pirgjeve të hedhurinave të bregut, për të gjetur diçka që mund ta konvertojnë në para, apo të rifaktorizohet. Kjo mbartje kushtruese dhe britme ambientalizmi nxjerr zemëratën e vet në Ishëm, fare pranë kryeqendrës, Tiranë, aty ku vegjetojnë me dhjetëra organizata, shoqata, OJF, në programin e të cilëve është higjiena, mbrojtja e natyrës, ekonologjia, ambientalizmi e turli emërtesash, pas të ...
While B cells are traditionally regarded as marketers of the immune system response via antibody release and pro-inflammatory cytokine creation, latest research have got verified an essential function for B-cell-mediated detrimental regulations of immunity also. in the full years to follow. The past 10 years provides noticed remarkable developments in our understanding of B-cell immunoregulation. Mizoguchi advancement of this exclusive regulatory people. Nevertheless, the identity of IL-10-making resistant cells is normally barely a simple job and continues to be complicated in the field of regulatory B-cell biology (18). This is normally because specific spleen C cells singled out from unsuspecting wildtype rodents perform not really constitutively sole or secrete measurable IL-10 proteins without account activation. Provided the incapacity to observe C10 cells straight assays to detect cytokine creation in Testosterone levels cells had been improved to recognize C cells that had been ...
While B cells are traditionally regarded as marketers of the immune system response via antibody release and pro-inflammatory cytokine creation, latest research have got verified an essential function for B-cell-mediated detrimental regulations of immunity also. in the full years to follow. The past 10 years provides noticed remarkable developments in our understanding of B-cell immunoregulation. Mizoguchi advancement of this exclusive regulatory people. Nevertheless, the identity of IL-10-making resistant cells is normally barely a simple job and continues to be complicated in the field of regulatory B-cell biology (18). This is normally because specific spleen C cells singled out from unsuspecting wildtype rodents perform not really constitutively sole or secrete measurable IL-10 proteins without account activation. Provided the incapacity to observe C10 cells straight assays to detect cytokine creation in Testosterone levels cells had been improved to recognize C cells that had been ...
Results Baseline levels of ESR (mm/h; HR 1.03; p=0.016), the total number of B cells in peripheral blood (HR 1.48; p=0.047), the presence of anti-alpha-enolase 1 (anti-CEP1) antibodies (HR 3.71; p=0.004) and the percentage of regulatory B cells (HR 1.04; p=0.002) were related to arthritis development over time. Importantly, genetic analysis of 100 RA associated SNPs showed that the top SNP associated with arthritis development in the rituximab-treated group (OR=7, MAF in cases 60% compared to 17% in unaffected) was in the PLCL2 gene, described to play a role in B cell signaling1. In individuals treated with rituximab, B cell numbers and subtypes mainly of the memory and regulatory compartment as well as serum levels of IgM-RF (p,0.0001), IgA-RF (p=0.003), total IgM (p=0.001), and anti-CCP (p=0.035) showed statistically significant changes over time compared to individuals who received placebo. Exploratory analysis showed trends for multiple biomarkers in the B cell compartment that appeared ...
Many people with type 1 diabetes still have endogenous beta cell function after 10 years with type 1 diabetes. This study reveals these persons are immunologically different from other long-time type 1 diabetics. Researchers conducted a study to look at the immunological differences between those with or without measurable remaining endogenous insulin production after 10 or more years of type 1 diabetes. Study Details They recruited 113 patients of 18 years of age or older who had lived with type 1 diabetes for 10 or more years. Then they determined residual beta cell function using an ultra sensitive C-peptide ELISA test. They also checked the patients plasma for circulating cytokines, like IL-35. The researchers found that the blood concentration of the cytokine IL-35 was lower in the C-peptide-negative patients and this was linked to a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of IL-35+ regulatory T cells, IL-35+ regulatory B cells, and IL-35
The materials on this website are for your general educational information only. Information you read on this website cannot replace the relationship that you have with your healthcare professional. We do not practice medicine or provide medical services or advice as a part of this website. You should always talk to your healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment ...
The NEW Breg Post-Op Rehab Knee Brace features a unique drop-lok hinge design for easier adjustments. A shortened version of the Post-Op. The hinge on the Breg Post-Op Rehab Knee Brace offers complete range of motion control for both flexion and extensio
The winner of the 2016 SPIN Award is: Luis Querol, MD and PhD, from Spain.. His project "IVIg effects on regulatory B cells in patients with neuroimmune diseases" aims to uncover potentially relevant mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg), as well as to characterize the role of regulatory B cells in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and myasthenia gravis. It has the potential to improve the understanding of inflammatory diseases of the peripheral nerves, hopefully helping to improve the treatment of patients suffering from these rare neurological conditions. This convinced the international jury to award Luis Querol with a research grant for funding of the proposed project for one year.. About the SPIN Awards Program. The SPIN program offers a prize of €50,000 for the proposal that best matches the programs objectives:. ...
For more than two decades, Breg has built and sold braces, splints, walking boots, and other devices designed to help rehabilitate injured patients. The Ca
Background: IL-35 is a newly identified anti-inflammatory cytokine, which inhibits inflammation and immune responses by inducing regulatory T cells and regulatory B cells and suppressing effector T cells and macrophages. We previously reported that IL-35 is a responsive cytokine that is not constitutively expressed in human tissues, but can be induced by proinflammatory stimuli in vascular endothelial cells (EC), smooth muscle cells and monocytes. However, the functions of IL-35 on non-lymphocytes such as vascular EC remain unknown. EC activation induced by proatherogenic stimuli including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is considered as the initiation step of monocyte recruitment and atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the expression of IL-35 during early atherosclerosis and the role of IL-35 in LPC-induced EC activation.. Methods and Results: Using microarray method, we found that two IL-35 subunits and their receptor subunits are all significantly induced during early atherosclerosis in ...
The phenomenon of inflammatory inflammation around a tumour has been known for a long time. One of the first descriptions was proposed by Ioachim et al. [17]. The fundamental meaning of the antitumour response is related to lymphocytes. In the majority of earlier reports, the lymphocytic infiltrate was described as a positive factor. It was concluded that the greater the tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) infiltration, the better the prognosis and the efficacy of treatment. However, it should be mentioned that population of TILs consist of different lymphocyte types and it is necessary to determine their phenotype. It has been proven that the presence of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes in tumour infiltration has meaningful prognostic significance [18]. However, importantly, cytotoxic cells destroying tumour are in the minority, and TIL function is more connected with promoting tumour progression by the presence of cells inhibiting the antitumour response: Tregs, Bregs (regulatory B-cells) and ...
BREGs Patellar Tracking Orthosis (PTO) is the leading patellofemoral brace on the market. The PTO is a unique design that not only normalizes patella tracking, but also controls knee hyperextension. The patented Cawley Tension Hinge dynamically adjusts the tension applied from the pressure plate on the buttress according to the flexion angle of the knee.
BREGs Patellar Tracking Orthosis (PTO) is the leading patellofemoral brace on the market. The PTO is a unique design that not only normalizes patella tracking, but also controls knee hyperextension. The patented Cawley Tension Hinge dynamically adjusts the tension applied from the pressure plate on the buttress according to the flexion angle of the knee.
The materials on this website are for your general educational information only. Information you read on this website cannot replace the relationship that you have with your healthcare professional. We do not practice medicine or provide medical services or advice as a part of this website. You should always talk to your healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment ...
1 See Kilpatrick v. Breg, Inc., 613 F.3d 1329, 1334 n.4 (11th Cir. 2010); accord Howell v. Centric Grp., LLC, 508 F. Appx 834, 836 (10th Cir. 2013) (order denyingmotion for reconsideration) (noting that "courts throughout the country routinelyrequire plaintiffs to show both general and specific causation"); Johnson v. Arkema,Inc., 685 F.3d 452, 468-69 (5th Cir. 2012) (per curiam) (citing Knight v. Kirby InlandM arine, Inc., 482 F.3d 347, 351 (5th Cir. 2007)) (noting that courts can only evaluatespecific causation after finding general causation); Junk v. Terminix Intl Co., 628 F.3d439, 450 (8th Cir. 2010) (citing Ranes v. Adams Labs., Inc., 778 N.W .2d 677, 688(Iowa 2010)) ("To prevail in a toxic tort case such as this, the plaintiff must show bothgeneral and specific causation."); In re M eridia Prods. Liab. Litig., 328 F. Supp. 2d791, 798 (N.D. Ohio 2004), affd sub nom. M eridia Prods. Liab. Litig. v. Abbott Labs.,447 F.3d 861, 869 (6th Cir. 2006) (same); In re Hanford Nuclear Reservation ...
Exploration of clays suitable for the manufactoring of porous brick products in the area of Bomčev Breg, Goričko (Slovenia) ...
Mechanical back pain, posterior lateral fusion, lumbar spinal laminectomy, multiple level decompression, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis ...
Health management and winning practice articles, value-based healthcare, healthcare events, company and product directory, I-I-I videos and I-I-I blog interviews.
Sage AP, Nus M, Murphy D, Finigan A, Baker L, Masters L and Mallat Z. Regulatory B cell specific interleukin-10 does not regulate atherosclerosis in mice. ATVB. 35(8):1770-3. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305568. Sage A, Murphy D, Sabir S, Grazia G, Maffia P, Masters L, Baker L, Finigan A, Harrison J, Ludewig B, Reith W, Hansson G, Reizis B, Hugues S, Mallat Z. (2014) MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells drives pro-atherogenic immunity. 14;130(16):1363-73. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011090.. Sage AP & Mallat Z. (2014). Multiple potential roles for B cells in atherosclerosis. Ann Med. doi:10.3109/07853890.2014.900272. Ait-Oufella H, Sage AP, Mallat Z, Tedgui A. (2014). Adaptive (T and B cells) immunity and control by dendritic cells in atherosclerosis. Circ Res, 114(10), 1640-1660. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302761. Zouggari Y, Ait-Oufella H, Bonnin P, Simon T, Sage A, Guérin C, Vilar J, Caligiuri G, Tsiantoulas D, Laurans L, Dumeau E, Kotti S, Bruneval P, ...
We examined associations between B and T cell phenotypic profiles and antibody responses to the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in perinatally HIV-infected infants (PHIV) on antiretroviral therapy and in HIV-exposed uninfected infants (PHEU) enrolled in IMPAACT P1072 study (NCT00880698). Of 17 B and T cell subsets analyzed, PHIV and PHEU differed only in the number of CD4+ T cells and frequency of naive B cells, which were higher in PHEU than in PHIV. In contrast, the B and T cell phenotypic profiles of PHIV and PHEU markedly differed from those of geographically-matched contemporary HIV-unexposed infants. The frequency of regulatory T and B cells (Treg, Breg) of PHIV and PHEU displayed two patterns of associations: FOXP3+CD25+ Treg positively correlated with CD4+ T cell numbers; while TGF-b+ Treg and IL10+ Treg and Breg positively correlated with the frequencies of inflammatory and activated T cells. Moreover, the frequencies of activated and inflammatory T cells of PHIV and PHEU positively
Orthomedico Australia is a distributor of orthopaedic products and medical devices Australia wide including Breg and Bledsoe bracing products. These unique braces are designed with patented technology and are backed by extensive clinical research. Bledsoe bracing products provide orthopaedic surgeons, orthotists, podiatrists and physiotherapists with innovative, cost-effective, evidence-based treatments for their patients. Orthomedico also distributes a range of innovative medical devices such as Emcyte Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP).. ...
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Orthomedico Australia is a distributor of orthopaedic products and medical devices Australia wide including Breg and Bledsoe bracing products. These unique braces are designed with patented technology and are backed by extensive clinical research. Bledsoe bracing products provide orthopaedic surgeons, orthotists, podiatrists and physiotherapists with innovative, cost-effective, evidence-based treatments for their patients. Orthomedico also distributes a range of innovative medical devices such as Emcyte Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP).. ...
Searching for a cold therapy unit? DME-Direct carries todays most popular cold therapy machine, and cold therapy system choices from the most recognized names in the industry including the Aircast Cryo Cuff, the Breg Polar Care Kodiak, the Bledsoe Cold Control, the DeRoyal T600, the Donjoy Iceman, the Ossur Cold Rush, and the VitalWear RecoveryWrap. The following are safety precautions: Place your CPM machine against your headboard or a heavy object. Thanks to advanced Argon gas based technology, the amount and location of ice can be dialed in exactly without lags or overshooting. If you have powered equipment that may require disassembly, please check it at the gate so we may arrange for proper handling. The place where healthcare professionals learn about all Welch Allyn medical diagnostic equipment, select the right instruments, identify authorized distributors, and use a growing desktop reference of clinical information. DonJoy IceMan CLEAR3 provides a clear advantage with controlled ...
Several publications using antibody arrays have elucidated the role of TGF-b, Th2 cytokines (including IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13), chemokines (particularly angiogenic chemokines), VEGF, inflammatory factors and GM-CSF. All these factors appear to play major roles in the immunosupression process. The role of some cell types and their contribution to cancer progression still remains to be studied. This is the case for mast cells (secreting GM-CSF and IL-4), neutrophils (N1/N2 balance), regulatory B lymphocytes, Th17 cells (secreting IL-2 and IL-15), as well as the specific role of secreted biomarkers such as IL-17 and IL-23.. Angiogenic factors also seem to be involved in this process, meaning that tumour-induced immunosupression is tightly linked in the TME with tumour-promoting inflammation and angiogenesis at both molecular and cellular level. This suggests that combination therapies which target inflammation and angiogenesis may favorably affect the success of immunotherapies or ...
My name is Neccia Celli and I work for Newstex.com. Weve reviewed Blog for Clean Air, and think it might be a good fit for syndication with Newstex! We dont charge any fees for syndication, our service is free. If youre interested in learning more, please send me a message at [email protected] ...
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1. Steele MV, Breg VR jr. Chromosome analysis of human amniotic fluid cells. Lancet 1966; 1: 383- 385. 2. Valenti C, Schutta EF, Kehaty T. Cytogenetic diagnosis of Downs syndrome in utero. Am J Med Assoc 1969; 207: 1513. 3. Ondrejčák M. Prenatálna cytogenetická diagnostika z buniek plodovej vody. Lek Obzor 1985; 34(6): 329- 333. 4. von Eggeling F, Freytag M, Fahsold R et al. Rapid detection of trisomy 21 by quantitative PCR. Hum Genet 1993; 91(6): 567- 570. 5. Divane A, Carter NP, Spathas DH et al. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy from unculltured amniotic fluid cells using five - colour fluorescence in situ hybridization. Prenat Diagn 1994; 14(11): 1061- 1069. 6. Pertl B, Yau SC, Sherlock J et al. Rapid molecular method for prenatal detection of Downs syndrome. Lancet 1994; 343: 1197- 1198. 7. Kuo WL, Temjin H, Segraves R et al. Detection of aneuploidy involving chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to interphase and metaphase amniocytes. Am J Hum ...
Ley K, Smith E, Stark MA (2006). "IL-17A-producing neutrophil-regulatory Tn lymphocytes". Immunologic Research. 34 (3): 229-42 ... Numerous immune regulatory functions have been reported for the IL-17 family of cytokines, presumably due to their induction of ... "First in the world regulatory approval of Novartis' Cosentyx(TM) in Japan for both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis". Novartis ... Because of its involvement in immune regulatory functions, IL-17 inhibitors are being investigated as possible treatments for ...
... has a general regulatory effect on the cell cycle.. *It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 ( ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] ...
Regulatory T cells inhibit dendritic cells by lymphocyte activation gene-3 engagement of MHC class II. „J Immunol". 180 (9), s ... Increased circulating regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25 (+)CD127 (-)) contribute to lymphocyte anergy in septic shock patients. „ ... Prevention of acute and chronic allograft rejection with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T lymphocytes. „Nat Med". 14 (1), s. 88-92 ... IPEX, FOXP3 and regulatory T-cells: a model for autoimmunity. „Immunol Res". 38 (1-3), s. 112-121, 2007. PMID: 17917016. ...
Ley K, Smith E, Stark MA (2006). "IL-17A-producing neutrophil-regulatory Tn lymphocytes". Immunologic Research. 34 (3): 229-42 ... Increased concentration of IL-6 alters the epidermal environment by decreasing the ability of T regulatory cells to control the ... "First in the world regulatory approval of Novartis' Cosentyx(TM) in Japan for both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis". Novartis ... Because of its involvement in immune regulatory functions, IL-17 inhibitors are being investigated as possible treatments for ...
"Mutations in the bare lymphocyte syndrome define critical steps in the assembly of the regulatory factor X complex". Molecular ... The protein encoded by this gene, along with regulatory factor X-associated protein and regulatory factor-5, forms a complex ... "Entrez Gene: RFXANK regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein".. *^ a b Nekrep N, Geyer M, Jabrane-Ferrat N, ... "Mutations in the bare lymphocyte syndrome define critical steps in the assembly of the regulatory factor X complex". Molecular ...
Ley K, Smith E, Stark MA (2006). "IL-17A-producing neutrophil-regulatory Tn lymphocytes". Immunol. Res. 34 (3): 229-42. PMID ... "Selective regulatory function of Socs3 in the formation of IL-17-secreting T cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (21): ... "Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells". Nature 441 (7090): ...
... including mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T-lymphocytes. The mesenchymal stem cells thus alter the outcome of the immune ... "An overview of stem cell research and regulatory issues". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 78 (8): 993-1003. doi:10.4065/78.8.993. PMID ...
TNFRSF25 is also highly expressed by FoxP3 positive regulatory T lymphocytes. TNFRSF25 is activated by a monogamous ligand, ... This receptor is expressed preferentially by activated and antigen-experienced T lymphocytes. ... stimulates profound and highly specific proliferation of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells from their 8-10% of all CD4+ T cells to 35- ... the majority of T cells that regularly encounter cognate antigen are FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Stimulation of TNFRSF25, in the ...
Design regulatory into the program from inception; invest in manufacturing and product assays early. Immunotherapy Cancer ... "IFNgamma and lymphocytes prevent primary tumour development and shape tumour immunogenicity". Nature. 410 (6832): 1107-1111. ... It is the first approval by a regulatory body of a cancer immunotherapy. The treatment, Oncophage, increased recurrence-free ...
E proteins are involved in the development of lymphocytes. They initiate transcription by binding to regulatory E-box sequences ... E proteins play a critical role in lymphopoiesis, and the encoded protein is required for B and T lymphocyte development. This ... E proteins activate transcription by binding to regulatory E-box sequences on target genes as heterodimers or homodimers, and ... Quong MW, Romanow WJ, Murre C (2002). "E protein function in lymphocyte development". Annual Review of Immunology. 20: 301-22. ...
These results strongly support the regulatory role of TIRC7 signalling pathway in lymphocytes. Mutations in this gene are ... Upon lymphocyte activation TIRC7 is upregulated to engage HLA-DRα2 and induce apoptotic signals in human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells ... The negative immune regulatory role of TIRC7 is furthermore supported by the fact that TIRC7 knock out mice exhibits an ... The induction of TIRC7 in IL-10 secreting T regulatory cells and the prevention of colitis in the presence of TIRC7 positive T ...
HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. ... Self-antigens are suppressed by regulatory T cells.. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement ... A representative cellular assay is the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and used to determine the HLA class II types.[20] The ...
"Entrez Gene: SIPA1 signal-induced proliferation-associated gene 1". Minato N (1997). "[Regulatory mechanisms of lymphocyte ... It exhibits a specific GAP activity for Ras-related regulatory proteins Rap1 and Rap2, but not for Ran or other small GTPases. ...
Fanzo JC, Hu CM, Jang SY, Pernis AB (2003). "Regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis by interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4)". J. ... "Cloning of human lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor (hLSIRF/hIRF4) and mapping of the gene to 6p23-p25". Genomics ... "Interferon regulatory factor 4 is involved in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of human B lymphocytes". J Virol. 82 ( ... Interferon regulatory factor 4 also known as MUM1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF4 gene, located at 6p25-p23 ...
Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Regulatory (suppressor) T cells: Returns the functioning of the immune system to normal operation after infection; prevents ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ...
Later was shown that the effect of monoclonal antibodies is formation of regulatory T lymphocytes. It has been shown that ... was originally used by Gershon and Kondo in 1970 for suppression of naive lymphocyte populations by cells with regulatory ... During a tolerant state potential effector cells remain but are tightly regulated by induced antigen-specific CD4+ regulatory T ... Gershon, R. K.; Kondo, K. (May 1970). "Cell interactions in the induction of tolerance: the role of thymic lymphocytes". ...
Calame KL, Lin KI, Tunyaplin C (2003). "Regulatory mechanisms that determine the development and function of plasma cells". ... "Pax-5 encodes the transcription factor BSAP and is expressed in B lymphocytes, the developing CNS, and adult testis". Genes & ... "A new Groucho TLE4 protein may regulate the repressive activity of Pax5 in human B lymphocytes". Immunology. 106 (4): 447-55. ... regulator of specific gene expression and differentiation in B lymphocytes". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 245 ...
The disease is an uncontrolled proliferation of B cell lymphocytes latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus. Production of an ... interleukin-10, an endogenous, pro-regulatory cytokine, has also been implicated. In immunocompetent patients, Epstein-Barr ... the lack of T-cell immunosurveillance can lead to the proliferation of these EBV-infected of B-lymphocytes. However, ...
"Enhanced Lesional FoxP3 Expression and Peripheral Anergic Lymphocytes Indicate a Role for Regulatory T Cells in Indian Post- ... The role of regulatory T and regulatory B cells is to suppress CMI enough to prevent tissue damage.[16][17] However, an ... A role for regulatory cells in VL has long been suspected.[18] A variety of regulatory T and B cells have been implicated in VL ... Regulatory B cells are known to favor development of regulatory T cells and suppress development of Type 1 T helper cells by ...
Regulatory macrophages produce Interleukin 10, which can inhibit cytotoxic responses of other lymphocytes to cancer cell ... or regulatory. Regulatory-phenotype macrophages have only recently been recognized as an important contributor to tissue ... Regulatory macrophages do not fit into the M1/M2 classification system, and they display different markers. After receiving ... Similar molecules may cause development of an inhibitory, regulatory phenotype. A MAF can also alter the ability of macrophages ...
"Human lymphocytes interact directly with CD47 through a novel member of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family". J. ... Signal-regulatory protein gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRPG gene. SIRPG has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: SIRPG signal-regulatory protein gamma". Kharitonenkov A, Chen Z, Sures I, et al. (1997). "A family of proteins ... "A nomenclature for signal regulatory protein family members". J Immunol. 175 (12): 7788-9. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.175.12.7788. ...
"Induction of antigen-specific regulatory T lymphocytes by human dendritic cells expressing the glucocorticoid-induced leucine ... protects T lymphocytes from interleukin-2 withdrawal-induced apoptosis". Blood. 104 (1): 215-23. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-12-4295 ...
NKT cell Journal Screening Nature glossary on murine NKT cells Nature Reviews Web Focus on regulatory lymphocytes. ... While iNKT cells are not very numerous, their unique properties makes them an important regulatory cell that can influence how ... In addition there are subtypes specialized in T follicular helper-like function and Il-10 dependent regulatory functions. Once ... They engage in cross talk with other immune cells, like dendritic cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Activation occurs by ...
... on T lymphocytes: activation-dependent up-regulation and regulatory function". Eur. J. Immunol. 31 (4): 1173-80. doi:10.1002/ ...
Li N, Workman CJ, Martin SM, Vignali DA (Dec 2004). "Biochemical analysis of the regulatory T cell protein lymphocyte ... Maçon-Lemaître L, Triebel F (Jun 2005). "The negative regulatory function of the lymphocyte-activation gene-3 co-receptor ( ... molecular analysis of the negative regulatory function of lymphocyte activation gene-3". Journal of Immunology. 169 (10): 5392- ... "T Lymphocytes infiltrating various tumour types express the MHC class II ligand lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3): role of ...
Moreno CS, Rogers EM, Brown JA, Boss JM (Jun 1997). "Regulatory factor X, a bare lymphocyte syndrome transcription factor, is a ... "Mutations in the bare lymphocyte syndrome define critical steps in the assembly of the regulatory factor X complex". Molecular ... "Entrez Gene: RFX5 regulatory factor X, 5 (influences HLA class II expression)". Hake SB, Masternak K, Kammerbauer C, Janzen C, ... Steimle V, Durand B, Barras E, Zufferey M, Hadam MR, Mach B, Reith W (May 1995). "A novel DNA-binding regulatory factor is ...
Common variable immunodeficiency is thought to be due to a problem in the differentiation from lymphocytes to plasma cells. The ... Helper CD4+ / TFH / Th3 / Th17 / Regulatory). *γδ ... Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with a considerable nucleus- ...
... has a general regulatory effect on the cell cycle.. *It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 ( ... "B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] This also includes ...
Also, natural infection with varicella zoster virus has been found to stimulate tonsillar lymphocytes better than lymphocytes ... The cytokine network represents a very sophisticated and versatile regulatory system that is essential to the immune system for ... If the tonsillar lymphocytes became overwhelmed with this persistent stimulation they may be unable to respond to other ... attenuated rubella virus vaccine has been reported to prime tonsillar lymphocytes much better than subcutaneous vaccination. ...
Opinion-regulatory lymphocytes: natural versus adaptive regulatory T cells. Nat Rev Immunol 2003;3:253-257. ... Regulatory lymphocytes: antigen-induced regulatory T cells in autoimmunity. Nat Rev Immunol 2003;3:223-232. ... Regulatory T-lymphocytes in asthma. A. J. M. van Oosterhout, N. Bloksma ... The adaptive T-regulatory cells are further subdivided into T-regulatory cells type 1 and T-helper cell type 3 that mediate ...
Regulatory T-cell response and tumor vaccine-induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human melanoma.. Chakraborty NG1, Chattopadhyay ... The understanding of these T-regulatory (T-reg) cells in the generation of antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is ... Analysis of postvaccine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients showed an increased amount of interleukin (IL)-10 ...
Functional Role of Regulatory Lymphocytes in Stroke. Facts and Controversies. Arthur Liesz, Xiaoming Hu, Christoph Kleinschnitz ...
Rel Induces Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF-4) Expression in Lymphocytes. Raelene J. Grumont, Steve Gerondakis ... 1989) Contingent genetic regulatory events in T lymphocyte activation. Science 243:355-361, pmid:2783497. ... Purification of Primary B and T Lymphocytes.. Small resting B and T lymphocytes were purified from the spleens of 6-8-wk-old ... a lymphoid-specific IFN regulatory factor is directly induced by Rel in activated lymphocytes and that an absence of Rel ...
Regulatory T-lymphocytes mediate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression and survival.. Henkel JS1, Beers DR, Wen S, Rivera ... CD4+CD25High regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) are reduced in rapidly progressing ALS patients ... In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice, regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) are neuroprotective, slowing disease progression ... Collectively, these data suggest that Tregs and Th2 lymphocytes influence disease progression rates. Importantly, early reduced ...
Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable ... Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable ... Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable ... Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable ...
The protein and mRNA expression level of IL-38, periostin, peripheral CD4+CD25+CD134+ T lymphocytes as well as CD4+ ... Treg lymphocytes were markedly decreased in asthmatic patients with and without steroid treatment than those in controls (all p ... CD134+ activated T lymphocytes was also significantly higher in asthmatic patients with steroid treatment than those in ... 0.05). The elevated IL-38 concentration negatively correlated with the percentage of Treg lymphocytes in asthmatic patients ...
The Influence of the Regulatory T Lymphocytes on Atherosclerosis. Israel Gotsman, Rajat Gupta, Andrew H. Lichtman ... A well adapted regulatory contrivance: regulatory T cell development and the forkhead family transcription factor Foxp3. Nat ... Adoptive transfer of Treg-deficient lymphocytes and Treg cells from db/db mice into Apoe−/−/Rag2−/− recipients caused a greater ... Yang K, Li D, Luo M, Hu Y. Generation of HSP60-specific regulatory T cell and effect on atherosclerosis. Cell Immunol. 2006; ...
T regulatory lymphocytes were shown to be partly responsible for immune tolerance to cancer cells. In that respect these cells ... purification of regulatory T cells on the one hand and T lymphocytes depleted from. regulatory T cells (effectors T-cells) on ... selectively depleting regulatory T-cell during a controlled amount of time. This strategy. will be tested in patients with ... Controlled and Selective Depletion of Regulatory T-cell for Cancer Treatment, Efficacy and Safety Study. Trial Phase:. Phase 1/ ...
CD4+CD25+ Regulatory Lymphocytes Require Interleukin 10 to Interrupt Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice Susan E. Erdman, Varada P. ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory Lymphocytes Require Interleukin 10 to Interrupt Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory Lymphocytes Require Interleukin 10 to Interrupt Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice ... CD4+CD25+ Regulatory Lymphocytes Require Interleukin 10 to Interrupt Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice ...
The ratio of regulatory to effector T cells was higher in patients than that in controls, suggesting that T regulatory cells ... Our data suggest a defective activation of T regulatory cells in long-standing diabetics due to a lower expression of PD-1 on ... Percentages of total PD-1+, PD-1low and PD-1high expressing T regulatory cells did not change in patients and in controls. ... After stimulation, a defect in T regulatory cell proliferation was observed in diabetics and the percentages of total PD-1+, PD ...
Human lymphocytes, in particular T lymphocytes, carry β-adrenergic receptors (25, 33, 39). Administration of epinephrine and ... Cortisol-augmented CXCR4 expression on CD4, CD8 T lymphocytes.. CXCR4 expression on CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes when incubated ... Cortisol-induced CXCR4 augmentation mobilizes T lymphocytes after acute physical stress. Mitsuharu Okutsu, Kenji Ishii, Kai Jun ... Short-term exposure to cortisol was sufficient to augment CXCR4 expression on CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes.. It is well documented ...
Schulz Experimental and Mathematical Analysis of Regulatory Networks in T-helper Lymphocytes ... Experimental and Mathematical Analysis of Regulatory Networks in T-helper Lymphocytes Edda G. Schulz ISBN 978-3-8325-2498-2 170 ... In the first part, structure and function of the gene-regulatory network that controls differentiation of type I T-helper (Th1 ... a quantitative mathematical model of the NFAT regulatory network is developed and the underlying design principles are analyzed ...
Increased T-regulatory cells within lymphocyte follicles in moderate COPD. J. Plumb, L. J. C. Smyth, H. R. Adams, J. Vestbo, A. ... Increased T-regulatory cells within lymphocyte follicles in moderate COPD. J. Plumb, L. J. C. Smyth, H. R. Adams, J. Vestbo, A. ... Increased T-regulatory cells within lymphocyte follicles in moderate COPD. J. Plumb, L. J. C. Smyth, H. R. Adams, J. Vestbo, A. ... Increased T-regulatory cells within lymphocyte follicles in moderate COPD Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes associate with CD8+CD28− T regulatory cells so that the immunosuppressive activity of tumor- ... 3 Abbreviations used in this paper: Treg, regulatory T lymphocyte; TIL, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte. ... T lymphocytes were constituted by regulatory cells. Recently, Pages et al. (22) reported that CD8+CD28− T lymphocytes, ... T lymphocytes are a composite cell population including effector and regulatory lymphocytes and that prognosis likely ...
Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 ... Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 ... Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 ... Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 ...
CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. T regulatory (Treg) cells have been shown to play an ... T regulatory cells have been shown to control the persistence of the protozoan parasite, Leishmania major, in mice; however, ... These cells are differentiated from other T lymphocyte populations based on the co-expression of CD4 and CD25 and expression of ... important role in our immune system in controlling the activity of other T lymphocytes. ...
Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) can suppress effector T cells specific for tumor antigens. Deeper molecular ... Transcriptional Landscape of Human Tissue Lymphocytes Unveils Uniqueness of Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells. De Simone, M ... "Transcriptional Landscape of Human Tissue Lymphocytes Unveils Uniqueness of Tumor-Infiltrating T Regulatory Cells" Immunity ( ... definitions of tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes could thus offer therapeutic opportunities. Transcriptomes of T helper 1 (Th1), ...
Siponimod enriches regulatory T and B lymphocytes in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. ... Siponimod enriches regulatory T and B lymphocytes in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. ... and T regulatory cells (Tregs) were enriched. Transitional regulatory B cells (CD24hiCD38hi) and B1 cell subsets (CD43+CD27+) ... Flow cytometric analysis showed that within the remaining lymphocyte subsets there was a reduction in the frequencies of CD4+ ...
Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ... Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ... Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ...
Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ... Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ... Different subsets of Regc inhibit lymphocyte proliferation. A. Highly purified CD25− or CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes were cultured ... Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction ...
B and NK lymphocytes. Contact-dependent suppression mechanisms have been well-studied, though contact-independent Treg activity ... Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a fundamental role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance by suppressing effector target ... Contact-independent suppressive activity of regulatory T cells is associated with telomerase inhibition, telomere shortening ... and target lymphocyte apoptosis.. [Dmitry D Zhdanov, Yulia A Gladilina, Dmitry V Grishin, Vladimir A Grachev, Valentina S ...
Telomerase Mediates Lymphocyte Proliferation but Not the Atherosclerosis-Suppressive Potential of Regulatory T-Cells. Gavin ... Telomerase Mediates Lymphocyte Proliferation but Not the Atherosclerosis-Suppressive Potential of Regulatory T-Cells ... Telomerase Mediates Lymphocyte Proliferation but Not the Atherosclerosis-Suppressive Potential of Regulatory T-Cells ... Telomerase Mediates Lymphocyte Proliferation but Not the Atherosclerosis-Suppressive Potential of Regulatory T-Cells ...
2000) Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function of CD25+CD4+ regulatory cells that ... Immunologic Self-Tolerance Maintained by Cd25+Cd4+Regulatory T Cells Constitutively Expressing Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte- ... Immunologic Self-Tolerance Maintained by Cd25+Cd4+Regulatory T Cells Constitutively Expressing Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte- ... regulatory T cells; i.e., costimulation via CTLA-4 may activate the regulatory T cells to exert suppression, whereas ...
  • Regulatory T-lymphocytes mediate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression and survival. (nih.gov)
  • Erratum to Jenny S. Henkel, David R. Beers, Shixiang Wen, Andreana L. Rivera, Karen M. Toennis, Joan E. Appel, Weihua Zhao, Dan H. Moore, Suzanne Z. Powell and Stanley H. Appel (2013) Regulatory T‐lymphocytes mediate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression and survival. (embopress.org)
  • In mice with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, CD4 + T lymphocytes and wild-type microglia potentiate protective inflammatory responses and play a principal role in disease pathoprogression. (utmb.edu)
  • Without ex vivo activation, the passive transfer of wild-type CD4 + T lymphocytes into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice lacking functional T lymphocytes lengthened disease duration and prolonged survival. (utmb.edu)
  • Thus, the cumulative mouse and human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis data suggest that increasing the levels of regulatory T lymphocytes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at early stages in the disease process may be of therapeutic value, and slow the rate of disease progression and stabilize patients for longer periods of time. (utmb.edu)
  • 348, 203- the presence of CD3 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was found to correlate with improved survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. (pnas.org)
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with pathological complete response (pCR) and survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with early breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • RIF inhibits E rosette function of T lymphocytes in vitro with a lag period of approximately 4 h and maximal effect at 24 h consistent with a metabolically-induced event. (scripps.edu)
  • Analysis of postvaccine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients showed an increased amount of interleukin (IL)-10 secretion on in vitro stimulation with IL-2 after successive vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • The temporal patterns of gene expression that underlie these processes in lymphocytes collectively span a time frame that extends from minutes to days, with the induction of immediate early and early response genes coinciding with that period of mitogenic stimulation required to commit a cell to a program of activation ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • We therefore evaluated T regulatory cell frequencies and their PD-1 expression in the peripheral blood of long-standing diabetics under basal conditions and after CD3/CD28 stimulation. (mdpi.com)
  • The promoter-regulatory region of the major immediate-early gene of human cytomegalovirus responds to T-lymphocyte stimulation and contains functional cyclic AMP-response elements. (asm.org)
  • 6 , 7 Understanding these regulatory mechanisms in an autologous setting free of exogenous cytokines or allogeneic stimulation is especially important given that nearly all translational applications of DCs use autologous, and not allogeneic, cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The main results are that both D 1 -like and D 2 -like DR are functionally active in human lymphocytes, although the D 1 -like DR stimulation results in stronger effects in comparison to the D 2 -like DR stimulation. (cdc.gov)
  • The anticipated mechanism of action is the stimulation of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the cancer, which requires studying such cells within tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is unknown, however, how glucocorticoid mobilizes lymphocytes in vivo. (physiology.org)
  • Ex-vivo depletion of CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes from lymph node suspensions significantly enhanced the production of IFNï § during the acute phase of infection. (ncsu.edu)
  • 1 Since the recognition that T lymphocytes are present in human atherosclerotic plaque nearly 2 decades ago, 2 research has focused on the functional importance of these cells in the atherosclerotic process. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ratio of regulatory to effector T cells was higher in patients than that in controls, suggesting that T regulatory cells were functional in patients. (mdpi.com)
  • Functional cAMP response elements are present in the wild-type promoter-regulatory region and are associated with the 19-bp repeat sequences. (asm.org)
  • In the review, we will discuss the functional involvement of T cells in the pathogenesis of T2DM, especially the regulatory effects of T cells on chronic inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • We aimed to examine, in venous blood samples from healthy volunteers, the relationship between the arbitrary DR score and DR functional responses in human lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • A 12 week programme of regular TCC exercise enhances functional mobility, personal health expectations, and regulatory T cell function. (bmj.com)
  • Recent results have shown a correlation between survival and frequency of tumour infiltrating T lymphocytes in colorectal cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background: T lymphocytes and especially the subpopulations of CD8+ cells are believed to have a key role in COPD pathophysiology, but there are only few data regarding the role of these cells in COPD exacerbation. (uth.gr)
  • Analysis of the lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate in Crohn's disease with special reference to identification of lymphocyte subpopulations. (nature.com)
  • Among these DEGs, the CXCL13 gene, which can suppress lymphocyte apoptosis during PCV2 infection, was significantly down-regulated in response to PCV2 infection in YL but not in LW pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IRF-4 expression is rapidly induced in resting lymphocytes by mitogens ( 12 ) with kinetics that closely follow the nuclear induction of Rel ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • RIF is functionally active at concentrations of 1 X 10(-12) M or greater, rapidly binds to lymphocytes, and has a functionally effective half-life of approximately 1.5 h. (scripps.edu)
  • During the chronic, asymptomatic phase of infection, IFNï § mRNA in CD8+ lymphocytes was assessed using real time RT-PCR following CD8+ co-culture with CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes. (ncsu.edu)
  • Eliminating CD8 + lymphocytes from monkeys during chronic SIV infection resulted in a rapid and marked increase in viremia that was again suppressed coincident with the reappearance of SIV-specific CD8 + T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lymphocytes infiltrating primitive tumor lesion and/or satellite lymph node from a series of 42 human cancers were phenotypically studied and functionally analyzed by suppressor assays. (jimmunol.org)
  • Results of these analyses showed that the presence of intratumoral lymphocytes and lymphocyte-predominant breast cancers were associated with a 31 and 41% pathological complete response (pCR) rates, respectively [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, it seems that the DR genetic profile may affect the ability of lymphocytes to respond to dopaminergic agents. (cdc.gov)
  • It has been suggested recently that modulation of TfR and ferritin synthesis by iron is mediated through a cytoplasmic protein(s) (iron regulatory element-binding protein(s) (IRE-BP)), which interacts with ferritin and TfR mRNA at the level of hairpin structures (IRE), thus leading to inhibition of transferrin mRNA degradation and repression of ferritin mRNA translation. (epfl.ch)
  • By using the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, we also show that the 20:4-mediated regulatory effects upon SCD2 or c- fos are completely independent of new protein synthesis. (naver.com)