White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (1/20496)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (2/20496)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. (3/20496)

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers. (4/20496)

Gene expression in higher eukaryotes appears to be regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors binding to regulatory sequences. The Ets factor PU.1 and the IRF protein Pip (IRF-4) represent a pair of interacting transcription factors implicated in regulating B cell-specific gene expression. Pip is recruited to its binding site on DNA by phosphorylated PU.1. PU.1-Pip interaction is shown to be template directed and involves two distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces: (i) the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains; and (ii) the phosphorylated PEST region of PU.1 and a lysine-requiring putative alpha-helix in Pip. Thus, a coordinated set of protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts are essential for PU.1-Pip ternary complex assembly. To analyze the function of these factors in vivo, we engineered chimeric repressors containing the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible POU domain linker. When stably expressed, the wild-type fused dimer strongly repressed the expression of a rearranged immunoglobulin lambda gene, thereby establishing the functional importance of PU.1-Pip complexes in B cell gene expression. Comparative analysis of the wild-type dimer with a series of mutant dimers distinguished a gene regulated by PU.1 and Pip from one regulated by PU.1 alone. This strategy should prove generally useful in analyzing the function of interacting transcription factors in vivo, and for identifying novel genes regulated by such complexes.  (+info)

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (5/20496)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered. (6/20496)

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (7/20496)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

Analysis of V(H)-D-J(H) gene transcripts in B cells infiltrating the salivary glands and lymph node tissues of patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (8/20496)

OBJECTIVE: In patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), B lymphocytes have been found to infiltrate salivary glands, resulting in sialadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis. The disease is frequently associated with benign and neoplastic lymphoproliferation. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether clonal B cell expansion takes place in lymphocytic infiltrations of salivary glands under (auto- [?]) antigen stimulation, by analyzing in more detail the variable part (V(H)-D-J(H)) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes expressed in these B cells. METHODS: Biopsies of the labial salivary glands and lymph nodes were performed on 2 female patients with SS. The Ig gene rearrangements in these tissues were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. RESULTS: A total of 94 V(H)-D-J(H) transcripts were cloned and sequenced. Our data suggest a polyclonal origin of the B cell infiltrates. In 92 of the transcripts, V(H) genes were modified by somatic mutation. Further analysis showed counterselection for replacement mutations within the framework regions, suggesting that those B cells were stimulated and selected for functional expression of a surface Ig. In labial salivary glands from both patients, clonally related B cells became evident. Members of 1 particular clone were found in both the lip and lymph node material. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence, on the nucleotide sequence level, that an antigen-triggered clonal B cell expansion takes place in the salivary glands of patients with SS who do not have histologic evidence of developing lymphoma. It may be speculated that those B cell clones expand during disease progression, resulting in lymphomagenesis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Monoclonal antibody to a nucleolar antigen of human B-lymphoblastoid cells. AU - Todorov, I. T.. AU - Philipova, R. N.. AU - Zhelev, N. Z.. AU - Hadjiolov, A. A.. PY - 1987/3. Y1 - 1987/3. N2 - An anti-nucleolar monoclonal antibody reacting with human B-lymphoblastoid cells but not with normal periferal blood lymphocytes has been isolated. The antibody recognized in Namalwa cells an antigen with molecular mass 41 kDa and pI 5.6, different from all previously described nucleolar antigens. Inhibition of rRNA transcription with Actinomycin D caused redistribution of the 41 5.6 antigen, but even at long term drug action it remains associated with the nucleolar remnants.. AB - An anti-nucleolar monoclonal antibody reacting with human B-lymphoblastoid cells but not with normal periferal blood lymphocytes has been isolated. The antibody recognized in Namalwa cells an antigen with molecular mass 41 kDa and pI 5.6, different from all previously described nucleolar antigens. Inhibition of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel® on human B lymphocyte activation in vitro. AU - Olsen, Nancy. AU - Decker, Dima A.. AU - Higgins, Paul. AU - Becker, Patrice M.. AU - McAloose, Carl A.. AU - Benko, Ann L.. AU - Kovacs, William. PY - 2015/10/27. Y1 - 2015/10/27. N2 - Introduction: Both clinical experience and experimental evidence have suggested that Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) might directly exert immunomodulatory effects not dependent on adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods: The direct effects of H.P. Acthar Gel® (Acthar), a repository preparation containing a porcine ACTH analogue, on human B lymphocyte function were studied in vitro using peripheral blood B cells isolated using anti-CD19 coated magnetic beads and activated by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). Analysis of expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) was carried out by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cellular proliferation was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCR5-dependent entry of CD8 T cells into rhesus macaque B-cell follicles achieved through T-cell engineering. AU - Ayala, Victor I.. AU - Deleage, Claire. AU - Trivett, Matthew T.. AU - Jain, Sumiti. AU - Coren, Lori V.. AU - Breed, Matthew W.. AU - Kramer, Joshua A.. AU - Thomas, James A.. AU - Estes, Jacob. AU - Lifson, Jeffrey D.. AU - Ott, David E.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Follicular helper CD4 T cells, TFH, residing in B-cell follicles within secondary lymphoid tissues, are readily infected by AIDS viruses and are a major source of persistent virus despite relative control of viral replication. This persistence is due at least in part to a relative exclusion of effective antiviral CD8 T cells from B-cell follicles. To determine whether CD8 T cells could be engineered to enter B-cell follicles, we genetically modified unselected CD8 T cells to express CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), the chemokine receptor implicated in cellular entry into B-cell follicles. ...
The VH gene repertoire of human peripheral B cells was analyzed using PCR analysis of individual blood B cells. Because genomic DNA of single B cells was analyzed, data from both productive and nonproductive VDJ rearrangements were obtained. Nine out of 75 B cells contained both functional and nonfunctional rearrangement products, whereas 62/75 had a single productive VDJ rearrangement. The distribution of VH families was ordered in accordance with the germline complexity, although a bias toward VH3 and some of its members was found. This bias was noted in both the productively and nonproductively rearranged repertoires, indicating that it resulted from molecular and not selective processes. Evidence for negative selection of certain VH3 and VH4 family members was noted in that they were found less often as productive than nonproductive VDJ rearrangements. In addition, evidence for positive selection based on CDR3 was obtained, in that JH6 and DXP1 were found at a higher frequency in the ...
Brezinschek, H.P., Brezinschek, R.I. & Lipsky, P.E., 1995, Analysis of the Heavy Chain Repertoire of Human Peripheral B Cells Using Single-Cell Polymerase Chain Reaction, Journal of Immunology, 155:191-202 ...
Background. High serum levels and enhanced in vitro production of IgA are observed in more than half of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN); and transforming forming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) is certain IgA class switching factor. On the other hand, macroscopic haematuria appears frequently with upper respiratory infection as tonsillitis in IgAN.. Methods. We compared the lymphocytic response to in‐vitro stimulation by group A streptococcal M proteins of apparent virulence factor between IgAN, non‐proliferative glomerulonephritis (NPGN), and normal subjects. M proteins were extracted from group A streptococcal strain type 5 and type 12 determined serologically.. Results. M protein‐induced proliferation of lymphocytes from IgAN was higher than in NPGN but not in healthy control subjects. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that stimulation by M protein extracts derived from type 5 streptococci (M5) increased surface IgA‐positive B cells in IgAN, but did not activate the production of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of B cell proliferation in the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in man. AU - Jelinek, Diane F. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The relationship of B cell proliferation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) was explored in vitro by examining the effect of hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of cellular DNA synthesis, on the generation of ISC from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM). HU completely inhibited the capacity of PBM to generate ISC in response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and other polyclonal B cell activators. Inhibition resulted from an effect on B cell proliferation, because HU also prevented the generation of ISC in cultures of purified B cells supplemented with either T cell supernatants or mitomycin C-treated T cells. Inhibiting B cell proliferation by treating them with mitomycin C before culture also abolished the generation of ISC. When ISC were enumerated after a 7-day incubation with PWM, the addition ...
Results Twenty patients were included. Nine were treated by etanercept (ETN), 9 by certolizumab pegol and 2 by adalimumab. The percentage of B cells significantly increased under TNFi from (median [IQR 25-75]) 4.6 (3.5-6.7) to 7.6 (5.2-9.9) % of lymphocytes. No change was observed in the different subtypes of B cells. However, in patients treated with ETN, IgD-CD27- double negative memory B cells significantly increased from 4.6 (2.5-5.4) to 7.7 (6.2-11.0)(p=0.03). The variation of those double negative B cells were significantly different from those observed with monoclonal antibodies (+1.6 [0.0-5.4] vs 0.3 [-1.3-1.8]% of B cells, p=0.02). No change of T, NK, NKT cells was observed in either group. EULAR responders at 3 months had significantly higher percentage of CD27+ memory B cells at baseline (32.9 [25.2-40.6] vs 19.5 [12.3-19.6]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02), especially IgD+CD27+ pre-switch memory B cells (19.3 [9.8-21.8] vs 5.9 [4.9-9.4]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02). Since ...
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic factor that enhances proliferation of activated human B lymphocytes and induces them to secrete high amounts of immunoglobulins. Here we show that several human B cell lines were able to constitutively secrete human (h)IL-10. Whereas none of the pre-B nor the plasmocytic cell lines tested produced hIL-10, 25 of the 36 tested mature B cell lines (lymphoblastoid and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines) secreted hIL-10. Moreover, 24 of these 25 hIL-10-producing B cell lines contained the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, suggesting a relationship between hIL-10 production by human B cell lines and EBV expression. Accordingly, whereas polyclonal activation via triggering of surface immunoglobulins or CD40 antigen induced highly purified normal human B lymphocytes to produce only low (0.3-0.4 ng/ml) but significant amounts of hIL-10, EBV infection induced them to secrete high amounts of hIL-10 (4-9 ng/ml). Furthermore, addition of exogenous hIL-10, simultaneously to EBV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-nuclear antibody reactivity in lupus may be partly hard-wired into the primary B-cell repertoire. AU - Chang, Sooghee. AU - Yang, Liu. AU - Moon, Young Mee. AU - Cho, Young Gyu. AU - Min, So Youn. AU - Kim, Tae Joo. AU - Kim, Young Joo. AU - Patrick, Wilson. AU - Kim, Ho Youn. AU - Mohan, Chandra. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - When monoclonal ANAs and non-ANAs generated from a genetically simplified mouse model of lupus, B6.Sle1, were recently compared, the ANAs exhibited three sequence motifs in their immunoglobulin heavy chains, including increased cationicity in CDR3 (motif A), reduced anionicity in CDR2 (motif B) and increased aspartate at H50 (motif C). The present study was designed to elucidate the extent to which these ANA-associated sequence motifs might be hard-wired into the primary B-cell repertoire in lupus. The immunoglobulin heavy chain sequence of total splenic B-cells, follicular B-cells and marginal zone B-cells from B6.Sle1 congenic mice and ...
We have been trying to get some MAIDS B cell tumors to grow in B6 mice. The tumors originally came from B6 mice but have been grown in tissue culture for several years. In the event we can not readapt them to grow in vivo we are in need of other tumors. If anyone has a B cell tumor, preferably before the plasma cell stage, and after the immature B cell stage that they have grown in B6 mice we would appreciate hearing about it. If it also grows in tissue culture, while being readly passed back into mice that would be a bonus. Please repond to this service or my email address:wiliam.wade at dartmouth.edu Thanks for your attention and help in this matter. Sincerely, William F. Wade, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Microbiology Dartmouth Medical School ...
Schlegel, R A.; Von boehmer, H; and Shortman, K, Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation of different subpopulations of afc progenitors for unprimed igm and memory igg responses to the nip determinant. (1975). Subject Strain Bibliography 1975. 1320 ...
CURRENT PROJECTS: - Using mouse genetics to identify the susceptibility factors that control B cell tolerance, differentiation and survival, leading to autoantibody production. - Defining the mechanisms by which autoimmune susceptibility elicits inflammation and recruitment of innate immune cells in secondary lymphoid organs that affect B cell function. - Examining helper activity and inflammatory cytokines of human T cells in peripheral blood of SLE patients that affect B cell function. - Characterizing the regulation and activity in primary mouse T follicular helper cells and T follicular regulatory cells to control B cell responses. - Defining the signal transduction events through the BCMA cytokine receptor that regulates both T follicular helper cell homeostasis and plasma cell survival in autoimmunity. - Characterizing the development and persistence of IgE antibodies to airway allergens. Go to Loren Ericksons Lab Site for detailed information about his lab and his research ...
Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes and during immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) in peripheral B lymphocytes. We now show that CD21-cre-mediated deletion of the Xrcc4 NHEJ gene in p53-deficient peripheral B cells leads to recurrent surface Ig-negative B lymphomas (CXP lymphomas). Remarkably, CXP lymphomas arise from peripheral B cells that had attempted both receptor editing (secondary V[D]J recombination of Igκ and Igλ light chain genes) and IgH CSR subsequent to Xrcc4 deletion. Correspondingly, CXP tumors frequently harbored a CSR-based reciprocal chromosomal translocation that fused IgH to c-myc, as well as large chromosomal deletions or translocations involving Igκ or Igλ, with the latter fusing Igλ to oncogenes or to IgH. Our findings reveal peripheral B cells that have undergone both editing and CSR and show them to be common progenitors of CXP tumors. Our ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of An EBV-transformed owl monkey B-lymphocyte cell line.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CD40 ligand expressed by human B cells costimulates B cell responses. AU - Grammer, A. C.. AU - Bergman, M. C.. AU - Miura, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The possibility that activated B cells might express a ligand for CD40 that was of functional importance for B cell responses was examined by using highly purified human peripheral blood B cells, as well as a variety of B lymphoblastoid cell lines and hybridomas. Following stimulation with the combination of a calcium ionophore and a phorbol ester, human B cells bound a soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular portion of CD40 and the Fc region of lgG1 (CD40.lg). A variety of B cell lines and hybridomas also bound CD40.1g, either constitutively or after activation. In addition, CD40.Ig specifically immunoprecipitated a 33-kDa glycoprotein from surface 125I-labeled activated B cells. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the CD40 ligand mRNA ...
B cells play a central role in immune system function. Deregulation of normal B cell maturation can lead to the development of autoimmune syndromes as well as B cell malignancies. Elucidation of the molecular features of normal B cell development is important for the development of new target therapies for autoimmune diseases and B cell malignancies. Employing B cell-specific conditional knockout mice, we have demonstrated here that the transcription factor leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) forms an obligate dimer in B cells and regulates mature B cell lineage fate and humoral immune responses via distinctive mechanisms. Moreover, LRF inactivation in transformed B cells attenuated their growth rate. These studies identify what we believe to be a new key factor for mature B cell development and provide a rationale for targeting LRF dimers for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and B cell malignancies.. ...
The growth and differentiation of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells is regulated by a variety of soluble factors. This study presents data that support a role for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in this regulatory process. B lymphocytes were shown to have high-affinity receptors for TGF-beta that were increased fivefold to sixfold after in vitro activation. The addition of picogram quantities of TGF-beta to B cell cultures suppressed factor-dependent, interleukin 2 (IL 2) B cell proliferation and markedly suppressed factor-dependent (IL 2 or B cell differentiation factor) B cell Ig secretion. In contrast, the constitutive IgG production by an Epstein Barr virus-transformed B cell line was not modified by the presence of TGF-beta in culture. This cell line was found to lack high-affinity TGF-beta receptors. The degree of inhibition of B cell proliferation observed in in vitro cultures was found to be dependent not only on the concentration of TGF-beta added but also on the ...
Mice with the autosomal recessive severe combined immune deficiency (scid) mutation lack mature lymphocytes because of defective joining of T cell receptor and immunoglobulin (Ig) gene segments. Penetrance of this mutation is incomplete since 10-25% of SCID mice produce some T or B lymphocytes. This leaky phenotype could be due to a reversion of the mutation in some mice or to a constant, low frequency of functional lymphocytes generated in all SCID mice with variable survival of such cells. We report here that all SCID mice can be stimulated to produce functional B cells by the transfer of normal neonatal, but not adult, T cells. T cell-induced rescue of C.B-17scid B cells results in high levels of Ig expressing the Ighb allotype of the SCID recipient. These results show that all SCID mice generate some functional B cells, the majority of which do not survive in the absence of a subset of T cells present in high frequency in the neonate ...
To order B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) Polyclonal Antibody , please use the Cat. Nr. CAU27021 and submit your purchase order by email or by fax. A discount is available for larger or bulk quantities, please contact us for more information ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1/CD54 plays an important role in T cell dependent B cell activation and for function of B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells. ICAM-1 expression is upregulated as a consequence of B lymphocyte antigen receptor (BCR) signaling, thereby serving to render antigen-stimulated B cells more receptive to T cell-mediated costimulatory signals. We have investigated BCR-induced expression of the Icam-1 gene in primary B cells and B cell lines and have found it to be dependent on BCR-induced expression of the transcription factor EGR1. Icam-1 transcription, induced by BCR cross-linking or bypassing the BCR with phorbol ester, is absent in a B cell line in which the EGR1-encoding gene (egr-1) is methylated and not expressed. A potential EGR1-binding site was located at -701 bp upstream of the murine Icam-1 gene transcription start site and shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay to bind to murine EGR1. Mutation of this site in the context of 1.1 kb of the ...
Etiologic-based therapy is an ideal pharmacological option to treat or prevent diseases. There is no known etiology for multiple sclerosis (MS); however, envir...
Brown, L D.; Shen, F W.; Uhr, J W.; and Vitetta, E S., The expression of lyb-2.1 On murine b lymphocytes. Abstr. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1222 ...
After infection with progressed mechanisms to escape a protective B cell response by inducing a strong polyclonal B cell activation (7, 8), B cell anergy (9), and apoptosis (10). Presumably, successful rearrangement of the H chain and a correctly assembled pre-BCR allow pre-B II cells to proliferate (15). After rearrangement of the L chain locus, pre-B II cells become immature B cells leave the bone marrow at the transitional B cell stage and complete their final development into mature B cells in the periphery (16). Bone marrow stromal cells are essential components of the hematopoietic microenvironment and are absolutely required for the maintenance of hemotopoietic stem cells (17) and the development of B cells (18). Stromal cells form a network in the inter-sinusoidal spaces of the bone cavity that extends from the endosteum to the endothelial cell basement membrane of the sinusoids (19). The interstitia of this network support the growth and differentiation of B cells in close contact with ...
Intraocular lymphoma is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma involving the posterior eye. Basic research on this tumour has been hindered by an inability to expand the malignant B cell population. We developed a cell culture system, in which endothelial cell monolayers were infected with adenoviral vectors encoding HIV-1 proteins, Vpu and Tat. These monolayers permitted adhesion and proliferation of CD20-positive B cells from specimens of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from patients with intracranial tumor. The system provides a method for expansion of the malignant B cell population present in small volumes of fluid that are available for research use. ...
New insights into human B cell biology. B cells are highly important white blood cells known as lymphocytes and are part of the adaptive immune system. B cells have a specialised receptor on their cell surface (B cell receptor, BCR) which recognises specific proteins. Upon activation, B cells produce antibodies which bind antigens like e.g. molecules from pathogens or vaccines. The drawback of a vast range of different B cell receptors is the potential that some of the receptors recognise self-antigens which can then result in auto-immune disorders. The bone marrow continuously releases immature B cells into the blood stream. A high proportion of these so-called transitional B cells are able to recognise self-antigens via their BCR. It has been unknown where in the body these auto-reactive cells are checked and removed from the circulation. A recent publication by Anna Vossenkämper and Jo Spencer (Kings College) tracked the fate of human transitional B cells and identified that these cells ...
Infection with HIV drives significant alterations in B cell phenotype and function that can markedly influence antibody responses to immunisation. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can partially reverse many aspects of B cell dysregulation, however complete normalisation of vaccine responsiveness is not …
Sato S., Miller A.S., Howard M.C., Tedder T.F.. B lymphocyte development and function are regulated in part by the CD19 cell surface receptor complex, which is composed of at least four proteins; CD19, CD21 (CR2, complement receptor 2), CD81, and Leu 13. Because this complex has eight membrane-spanning domains and six cytoplasmic regions, determining the molecular basis for its function and signal transduction activities has not been straightforward. In this study, the contribution of the CD19 cytoplasmic domain to the in vivo function of the CD19/CD21/CD81/Leu 13 complex was assessed by generating CD19-deficient mice that expressed a transgene that encoded only the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD19. Mice expressing this transgene were similar, if not identical, to CD19-deficient mice with abnormal B cell development, a lack of B-1 cells, increased surface IgM levels on B cells, modest mitogen responses, minimal serum Ig levels, and low humoral immune responses. The results of this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - How specific is too specific? B-cell responses to viral infections reveal the importance of breadth over depth. AU - Baumgarth, Nicole. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Influenza virus infection induces robust and highly protective B-cell responses. Knowledge gained from the analysis of such protective humoral responses can provide important clues for the design of successful vaccines and vaccination approaches and also provides a window into the regulation of fundamental aspects of B-cell responses that may not be at play when responses to non-replicating agents are studied. Here, I review features of the B-cell response to viruses, with emphasis on influenza virus infection, a highly localized infection of respiratory tract epithelial cells, and a response that is directed against a virus that continuously undergoes genetic changes to its surface spike protein, a major target of neutralizing antibodies. Two aspects of the B-cell response to influenza are discussed here, namely ...
In this study we analyzed the effect of CD40 stimulation on the activity and nuclear appearance of Rel/nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) factors in primary murine B lymphocytes. We show that triggering of CD40 signaling pathway(s) by CD40 ligands expressed on L cells led to strong activation of an NF-kappaB-controlled beta-globin reporter gene in primary B lymphocytes from transgenic mice. Analyses of nuclear translocation of individual members of Rel proteins after CD40 induction of primary B cells showed a strong and long-lasting accumulation of RelB and, less pronounced, of c-Rel. LPS stimulation did not give rise to a persistent nuclear accumulation of RelB and c-Rel, whereas nuclear c-Rel, but not RelB, accumulated after B cell receptor stimulation. CD40 induced not only nuclear translocation but also de novo synthesis of RelB RNA and protein. S107 plasmacytoma cells, which express CD40 but are defective for the nuclear appearance of p50/p65-NF-kappaB, do not express RelB after CD40 stimulation. In
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of IL-4 and Fcγ receptor II engagement on Egr-1 expression during stimulation of B lymphocytes by membrane immunoglobulin crosslinking. AU - Klaus, Stephen J.. AU - Phillips, Nancy E.. AU - Parker, David C.. PY - 1993/11. Y1 - 1993/11. N2 - Egr-1 is an immediate early gene that is rapidly upregulated in response to mitogenic signals induced by antigen receptor crosslinking on murine B lymphocytes. It has been shown that levels of Egr-1 expression are closely correlated with B cell proliferation in several models of B cell activation and tolerance. We compared the expression of Egr-1 during B cell stimulation with Fab′2 and IgG anti-immunoglobulin (anti-IG), since it is known that Fab′2 anti-Ig is mitogenic while IgG anti-Ig is not, owing to a dominant inhibitory effect of crosslinking the B cell Fcγ RII to membrane Ig. While mitogenic doses of Fab′2 anti-Ig induce large and rapid increases in Egr-1 expression, IgG anti-Ig results in smaller increases in Egr-1 ...
Most immune cell communication takes place by intercellular transfer of cytokines or the contact-dependent interaction of surface receptors in immunological synapses. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Gardell and Parker (Eur. J. Immunol. 2017, 47, 41-50) point to a new, hybrid mechanism for Th1-cell delivery of help to B cells, based on contact-dependent CD40L transfer. The transfer process and its specificity are both cell contact dependent and antigen dependent. CD40 expression is also required on the B-cell surface to capture the CD40L presented by the Th1 cell. While further studies are needed to confirm the phenomenon in vivo and to test the role of transferred CD40L in other aspects of T-cell help, this study provides an exceptional take-off point and makes excellent use of mouse genetics to work out some possible rules for B cells being able to order help to go.
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We have used a novel hu-mouse model expressing a human-specific surrogate self-Ag to formally demonstrate that developing human B cells use receptor editing as a mechanism of central B cell tolerance. Central B cell tolerance in hu-mice is stringent but incomplete. Although the selection of autoreactive B cells into the periphery is rare, variations in the extent of tolerance were observed and shown to depend on the amount of self-Ag as well as the individual genetics of the source of CB.. To date, most studies of human B cell tolerance have focused on limited repertoire analyses of B cell subsets present in peripheral blood (Meffre and Wardemann, 2008; Meffre, 2011). These studies have been invaluable in establishing the presence of tolerance checkpoints, but they have been limited to a poorly defined set of self-Ags without a clear understanding of how these Ags directly affect B cells in vivo. In fact, although a significant reduction in the frequency of autoreactive clones in the human B ...
Redox-regulation of receptors and transcription factors are important for lymphocyte activation, differentiation and apoptosis. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a key redox-regulating protein and oxidative stress sensor operating in synergy with Trx-reductase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). The expression of Trx, PDI, and the Trx-regulated transcription-factor Pax5 were analyzed in a panel of human B cell lines and were compared with that of the Bcl-2 family proteins, also redox-controlled. The panel included representative cells from various stages: FLEB14-4 (pro-B), REH and NALM-6 (pre-B), Rael and Daudi (small mature B), U-698 and NC0467.3 (B-blasts), LP-1, U-1996, and U-266 (plasma cells). We found a significant congruence and co-variation of Trx and Bcl-2 levels in the B-lineage, with high expression levels in early stages (pro-B and pre-B) and in the late stage representing terminally-differentiated plasma cells, whereas mid-stage small resting B cells showed a very low expression. PDI ...
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The expression of the CD24 molecule, a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts, was studied in developing nerve and muscle (after 16 weeks of gestat
Little is know about the nature of peripheral B cell tolerance or how it may vary in distinct lineages. Although autoantibody transgenic studies indicate that anergy and apoptosis are involved, some studies claim that receptor editing occurs. To model peripheral B cell tolerance in a normal, polyclonal immune system, we generated transgenic mice expressing an Igκ-light chain-reactive superantigen targeted to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes (pAlb mice). In contrast to mice expressing κ superantigen ubiquitously, in which κ cells edit efficiently to λ, in pAlb mice, κ B cells underwent clonal deletion. Their κ cells failed to populate lymph nodes, and the remaining splenic κ cells were anergic, arrested at a semi-mature stage without undergoing receptor editing. In the liver, κ cells recognized superantigen, down-regulated surface Ig, and expressed active caspase 3, suggesting ongoing apoptosis at the site of B cell receptor ligand expression. Some, apparently mature, κ B1 and ...
A first clue that SPMs might affect B cell functions was the discovery that B cells express the ALX/FPR2 receptor that recognizes the D-series resolvins, RvD1 and RvD3 (79). 17-HDHA, RvD1, and PD1 are naturally produced within the spleen, a site where B cells commonly reside (35). PUFAs present in omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (precursors for SPM production) were shown to affect B cell functions in mice by increasing antibody production and B cell activation (71, 72, 74). Similarly, mice fed a diet rich in DHA and EPA had a higher number of IgM-expressing splenic B cells following antigen stimulation compared with mice not receiving a PUFA-enriched diet (71). In a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, mice fed a high-fat (Western) diet containing primarily omega-6 fatty acids exhibited diminished antibody titers and increased mortality to influenza challenge relative to a normal diet. These effects could be rescued with dietary DHA (69). Dietary supplementation with PUFAs or PUFA-enriched fish ...
The production of antibody to a thymus-dependent Ag requires cooperation between the B cell and an Ag-specific Th cell. MHC restriction of this interaction implies that the Th cell recognizes Ag on the B cell surface in the context of MHC molecules and that the Ag-specific B cell gets help by acting as an APC for the Th cell. However, a number of studies have suggested that normal resting B cells are ineffective as APC, implying that the B cell must leave the resting state before it can interact specifically with a Th cell. Other studies, including our own with rabbit globulin-specific mouse T cell lines and hybridomas, show that certain T cell lines can be efficiently stimulated by normal resting B cells. One possible explanation for the above contradiction is that our B cells have become activated before presentation. Here we show that presentation by size-selected small B cells is not the result of nonspecific activation signals generated by the T cells or components of the medium. Also, although LPS
Recent in vitro studies have established that activated B cells express OX40 ligand (L), a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor family of cyt
Looking for online definition of pre-B lymphocyte in the Medical Dictionary? pre-B lymphocyte explanation free. What is pre-B lymphocyte? Meaning of pre-B lymphocyte medical term. What does pre-B lymphocyte mean?
The ICOS-B7h costimulatory receptor-ligand pair is required for germinal center formation, the production of isotype-switched antibodies, and antibody affinity maturation in response to T cell-dependent antigens. However, the potentially distinct roles of regulated B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses have not been defined. We generated transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression to assess the cell-type specific roles of B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in regulating T cell-dependent antibody responses. Our results show that endogenous B7h expression is reduced on B cells after activation in vitro and is also reduced in vivo on antibody-secreting plasma B cells in comparison to both naïve and germinal center B cells from which they are derived. Increasing the level of B7h expression on activated and plasma B cells in B-B7hTg mice led to an increase in the number of antibody-secreting plasma cells generated after immunization and a
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Retinoic acid inhibits IL-6-dependent but not constitutive STAT3 activation in Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - SIgM-fcmr interactions regulate early b cell activation and plasma cell development after influenza virus infection. AU - Nguyen, Trang T.T.. AU - Graf, Beth A.. AU - Randall, Troy D.. AU - Baumgarth, Nicole. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Previous studies with mice lacking secreted IgM(sIgM) due to a deletion of the ms splice region (ms2/2) had shown sIgM involvement in normal B cell development and in support of maximal Ag-specific IgG responses. Because of the changes to B cell development, it remains unclear to which extent and how sIgM directly affects B cell responses. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of sIgM-mediated IgG response regulation during influenza virus infection. Generating mice with normally developed ms-deficient B cells, we demonstrate that sIgM supports IgG responses by enhancing early Ag-specific B cell expansion, not by altering B cell development. Lack of FcmR expression on B cells, but not lack of Fca/mR expression or ...
We have studied the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the regulation of intercellular adhesion of human B cells. We found that molecules able to bind to MHC class II molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or staphylococcal enterotoxins, induced rapid and sustained homotypic adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell lines as well as peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibodies also stimulated intercellular adherence. Adhesion induced upon MHC engagement was faster and stronger than that triggered by phorbol esters. It needed active metabolism, but divalent cations were not required. Monoclonal antibodies directed against LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) or its ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) did not inhibit MHC class II-induced homotypic adhesion of various EBV-transformed B cell lines, nor of a variant of the B cell line Raji expressing very low LFA-1 surface levels. Moreover, EBV-transformed B cells from a severe lymphocyte adhesion deficiency
Altered functional B cell subset populations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome compared to healthy controls. Bradley AS, et al. Show all...
Rationale: Furthermore to their well-known function as antibody-producing cells, B lymphocytes can markedly influence the course of infectious or noninfectious diseases via antibody-independent mechanisms. response 88) signaling. deficiency correlated with an enhanced accumulation of regulatory/antiinflammatory macrophages in Mtb-infected lungs. Conclusions: Mouse monoclonal to PTK7 Type I IFN produced by Mtb-stimulated B cells favors macrophage polarization toward a regulatory/antiinflammatory phenotype during Mtb contamination. in an innate manner to create type I IFN to eventually modulate the polarization of macrophages toward a regulatory/antiinflammatory profile and in contaminated lungs. This pathway was seen in a murine style of TB and in B cells isolated from sufferers with TB. Our observations reveal B cells as book regulators of immunity to TB through type I IFNCmediated polarization of myeloid cells. Infections with (Mtb) qualified prospects to the forming of lung lesions, the ...
It is generally assumed that chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B cell origin (B-CLL) is characterized by the presence of surface membrane immunoglobulins (SmIg) and by the absence of cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (CyIg). In a variable number of cases SmI
The contribution of intrinsic defects in B and/or T cell function or impaired T-B cell interaction towards poor recall and neo-antigen vaccine responses in HIV-1 infection are not fully understood. Using CVID as a model for B cell maturation, we show patients with untreated HIV-1 infection have increased transitional and tissue like B cells and reduced IgM memory and class switched memory B cell proportions. Loss of IgM memory B cells is associated with progressive HIV-1. Antiretroviral therapy reduces transitional and tissue like B cell percentages but does not restore IgM memory or class switched memory proportions. Most HIV-1 patients on ART have reduced antibody levels post tetanus and pneumococcal vaccination. IgM memory B cell depletion associates with poor post vaccine IgM pneumococcal titres in HIV-1 suggesting loss of IgM memory B cells may be a risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease. CVID patients with lung disease had lower memory B cells and a trend towards a loss of IgM ...
Lymphadenopathy and lymph node B cell activation are independent of MyD88-signaling.Control C57BL/6 (wildtype) and congenic MyD88−/− mice (n = 6 per gro
Memory B cells are generated in germinal centers (GC) and contribute to serological immunity by rapidly differentiating into plasma cells. Human memory B cells can be identified by the expression of CD27. These cells exhibit more rapid responses than naive (CD27-) B cells following stimulation in vitro, consistent with the heightened kinetics of secondary responses in vivo. CD27+ B cells express mutated Ig V region genes; however a significant proportion continue to express IgM, suggesting the existence of IgM+ memory B cells. The observation that mutated IgM+CD27+ B cells are generated in humans who cannot form GC led to the conclusions that these cells are generated independently of GC and thus are not memory cells and that they mediate responses to T cell-independent Ag. Although some studies support the idea that IgM+CD27+ B cells participate in T cell-independent responses, many others do not. In this review we will provide alternate interpretations of the biology of IgM+CD27+ B cells and propose
We determined that, as compared with human naïve B cells, human GC B cells have a higher intrinsic affinity threshold for antigen. We observed that independently of other extrinsic factors, such as competition among B cells for antigen, the intrinsic affinity of GC B cells for an antigen dictated each subsequent step in B cell activation from the magnitude of BCR signaling to the receptivity of BCR-stimulated GC B cells to Tfh cell signals that drive IRF-4 expression and PC differentiation. We provided evidence that BCRs on LZ GC B cells are concentrated in distinct, highly dynamic, ezrin- and actin-rich pod-like structures through which the BCRs engage antigen, signal, exert pulling forces, and extract antigen from membranes. In contrast, the BCRs on naïve B cells function in flat, stable membrane contacts, with antigen-containing surfaces displaying the well-described features of immune synapses and cSMACs. The role of these pod-like structures in establishing high-affinity thresholds for GC ...
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV-diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥ 2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the costimulator molecules, CD40 and CD154, on lymphocytes from neonates and young children. AU - Elliott, Salenna. AU - Roberton, Don M.. AU - Zola, Heddy. AU - MacArdle, Peter J.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Differential expression of the costimulator molecules CD40 and CD154 on neonatal lymphocytes may be one explanation for limited T-dependent antibody responses in human neonates. CD40 was expressed at similar levels on resting B cells from adults, young children (2-20 months of age) or cord blood. CD40 expression was higher on cord blood B cells compared to adult B cells after stimulation with PMA and ionomycin, but similar on adult and cord blood B cells activated by CD3-stimulated T cells. In contrast to previous reports, cord blood T cells stimulated with PMA and ionomycin expressed adult levels of CD154 initially, but this expression was more transient on cord blood T cells. When adult and cord blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with CD3 mAb, T ...
Cancer immunotherapy by therapeutic activation of T cells has demonstrated clinical potential. Approaches include checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Here, we report the development of an alternative strategy for cellular immunotherapy that combines induction of a tumor-directed T-cell response and antibody secretion without the need for genetic engineering. CD40 ligand stimulation of murine tumor antigen-specific B cells, isolated by antigen-biotin tetramers, resulted in the development of an antigen-presenting phenotype and the induction of a tumor antigen-specific T-cell response. Differentiation of antigen-specific B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells was achieved by stimulation with IL21, IL4, anti-CD40, and the specific antigen. Combined treatment of tumor-bearing mice with antigen-specific CD40-activated B cells and antigen-specific plasma cells induced a therapeutic antitumor immune response resulting in remission of established tumors. Human CEA or ...
The integrin LFA-1 and its ligand ICAM-1 mediate B cell adhesion, but their role in membrane-bound antigen recognition is still unknown. Here, using planar lipid bilayers and cells expressing ICAM-1 fused to green fluorescence protein, we found that the engagement of B cell receptor (BCR) promotes B cell adhesion by an LFA-1-mediated mechanism. LFA-1 is recruited to form a mature B cell synapse segregating into a ring around the BCR. This distribution is maintained over a wide range of BCR/antigen affinities (10(6) M(-1) to 10(11) M(-1)). Furthermore, the LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 reduces the level of antigen required to form the synapse and trigger a B cell. Thus, LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction lowers the threshold for B cell activation by promoting B cell adhesion and synapse formation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytoplasmic IgM in leukemic B cells by flow cytometry. AU - Loftin, Karin C.. AU - Reuben, James M.. AU - Hersh, Evan M.. AU - Sujansky, Daniel. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - The presence of intracellular cytoplasmic immunoglobulin M (IgM) in leukemic cells from patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was investigated by flow cytometry. The objective of the study was to develop a reproducible flow cytometric method. A Burkitts lymphoma-derived B-cell line, Daudi, and a pre-B ALL, Nalm-6, served as prototypes. Normal B cells and cells from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) were used as negative controls. Cytoplasmic μ was expressed in 77.3 ± 7.5% (n = 10) of Nalm-6 cells. CALLA+ ALL and CML cells lacked cytoplasmic μ. The surface-membrane immunoglobulin on the viable B cells was blocked with purified goat anti-human IgM. Subsequently, the B cells were fixed in cold absolute methanol and stained with a ...
Exosomes are lipid bound nanovesicles that are formed via the inward budding of the endosomal membrane, then released upon fusion of the endosomal limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. The majority of exosome studies involve the use of exosomes from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells or immortalised cell lines. This research project has focused on exosomes derived from primary B cells in response to T cell signalling, in particular via the CD40 and the interleukin-4 receptors. The fate of exosomes following their release is largely unknown. However as we have previously identified that B cell-derived exosomes are enriched in the antigen presenting molecules major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), MHC-II and immunoglobulin, this may implicate B cell-derived exosomes in the transfer of antigen. We have sought to address the physiological role of primary B cell-derived exosomes and their interactions with other cells within secondary lymphoid tissue in vivo. We identified ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
B1 cells are a sub-class of B cell lymphocytes that are involved in the humoral immune response. They are not part of the adaptive immune system, as they have no memory, but otherwise, B1 cells perform many of the same roles as other B cells: making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B cells. B1b cells have been shown to be capable of memory responses. See B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity. B1 cells are first produced in the fetus and most B1 cells undergo self-renewal in the periphery, unlike conventional B cells (B2 cells) that are produced after birth and replaced in the bone marrow. In January 2011, human B1 cells were found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, which has been debated since. CD5-CD72 is thought to mediate B cell-B cell interaction. B-1 B cells, in the mouse, can be further subdivided into B-1a (CD5+) and B-1b (CD5−) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aged mice exhibit distinct B cell precursor phenotypes differing in activation, proliferation and apoptosis. AU - Van der Put, Elaine. AU - Sherwood, Erin M.. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B. AU - Riley, Richard L. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - Senescence in murine models is associated with a reduction, albeit heterogeneous, in bone marrow pre-B cells. We have categorized aged BALB/c mice into two phenotypes based on their patterns of pre-B/pro-B cell loss. Each phenotype is characterized by distinct responses to the growth cytokine IL-7 and capacity for survival in vitro. A moderate loss of late-stage pre-B cells (25-80%) coincided with decline in proliferation to rmIL-7. This was also associated with a decrease in the frequency of pro-B cells which increased phosphotyrosine content upon IL-7 stimulation, an indicator of early activation events. A severe loss of pre-B cells (,80%) resulted in a reduced pro-B cell pool which retained normal activation and proliferative ...
Differentiation of tumor B lymphocytes. The team also studies the genetic and epigenetic modifications of tumor B cells in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In FL, we identified a phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) hyper-signaling correlated with an increase of IL-21 secretion by Tfh and with the expression of some target genes of pSTAT3. However the key gene of the B cell differentiation into plasma cell, PRDM1, a pSTAT3 target gene of, has a weak expression in FL, highlighting the existence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities related to the disease. We aim to understand these deregulations, in particular by showing the importance of the acetylation properties in the B differentiation and in the control of the PRDM1 gene expression. Our work supports clinicians in their choice to use new therapeutics targeting the epigenome, such as the histone acetyltransferase inhibitors (HDACi), in treating FL patients.. As for the technology employed, we implemented a gene capture ...
While B cells are traditionally regarded as marketers of the immune system response via antibody release and pro-inflammatory cytokine creation, latest research have got verified an essential function for B-cell-mediated detrimental regulations of immunity also. in the full years to follow. The past 10 years provides noticed remarkable developments in our understanding of B-cell immunoregulation. Mizoguchi advancement of this exclusive regulatory people. Nevertheless, the identity of IL-10-making resistant cells is normally barely a simple job and continues to be complicated in the field of regulatory B-cell biology (18). This is normally because specific spleen C cells singled out from unsuspecting wildtype rodents perform not really constitutively sole or secrete measurable IL-10 proteins without account activation. Provided the incapacity to observe C10 cells straight assays to detect cytokine creation in Testosterone levels cells had been improved to recognize C cells that had been ...
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Learn how you can enhance your experiment and upgrade your B cell culture with this webinar. We will share insights into how you can optimize and standardize your B cell culture in experimental studies. | Lëtzebuerg
Learn how you can enhance your experiment and upgrade your B cell culture with this webinar. We will share insights into how you can optimize and standardize your B cell culture in experimental studies. | France
article{9a5c9918-f28d-42f7-9e4a-e617d47af020, abstract = {Development of type-II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) is dependent on a T-cell mediated activation of autoreactive B cells. However, it is still unclear if B cells can present CII to T cells. To investigate the role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for CII, we purified B cells from lymph nodes of immunized and nonimmunized mice. These B cells were used as APC for antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. B cells from naïve mice did present native, triple-helical, CII (nCII) but also ovalbumin (OVA) and denatured CII (dCII) to antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. In addition, B cells primed with nCII or OVA, but not dCII, activated the antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas two to three times better than naïve B cells. We conclude that antigen-primed B cells have the capacity to process and present CII to primed T cells, and antigen-primed antigen-specific B cells are more efficient as APC than naïve B cells. We further ...
Secretory IgA (S-IgA) is a hallmark antibody principally produced at mucosal sites and plays an important role in the creation of immunological surveillance and homeostasis at mucosa. In addition to the IgA induction through gut-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyers patch), peritoneal B cells have been considered to be another source of S-IgA, especially specific for the T-independent antigen. Here we show that the trafficking of peritoneal B cells is principally regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Peritoneal B cells expressed high levels of the type 1 S1P receptor. Thus, disruption of S1P-mediated signaling caused a rapid disappearance of peritoneal B cells. These changes did not affect natural plasma antibody production or phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific antibody production in serum after peritoneal immunization with heat-killed streptococcal pneumoniae. However, it dramatically reduced peritoneal B cell-derived natural intestinal S-IgA production without affecting the expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation by CD4+ T cells specific for an MHC class II promiscuous epitope. AU - Omiya, Ryusuke. AU - Buteau, Chantal. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroya. AU - Paya, Carlos V.. AU - Celis, Esteban. PY - 2002/8/15. Y1 - 2002/8/15. N2 - Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and B cell lymphomas induced by EBV continue to be a major life-threatening complication in transplant patients. The establishment and enhancement of T cell immunity to EBV before transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy could help diminish these complications, but the lack of an effective vaccine has limited this prophylactic approach. We describe here the identification of a peptide epitope from the EBV EBNA2 Ag that is capable of inducing in vitro CD4+ T cell responses that inhibit the EBV-mediated B lymphocyte proliferation associated with PTLD. Most significantly, T cell responses to the EBNA2 epitope were found to be restricted by numerous MHC class II alleles ...
Ittigen, Switzerland (ots) - Pevion Biotech AG today announced further data from the ongoing clinical study of its therapeutic Candida vaccine PEV7, demonstrating the generation...
B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after either lectin or antigen stimulation. It supports the clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes. Entrez Gene: BCGF1 B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa. Kumar A, Vasquez A, Maizel AL, Sharma S (1991). Human BCGF-12kD functions as an autocrine growth factor in transformed B cells. European Cytokine Network. 1 (2): 109-13. PMID 1966378. Vazquez A, Mills S, Sharma S, Maizel AL (October 1988). Expression of CD23 antigen is not necessary for human 12-kDa B cell growth factor-mediated B cell proliferation. European Journal of Immunology. 18 (10): 1647-9. doi:10.1002/eji.1830181029. PMID 2973416. Mehta SR, Sandler RS, Ford RJ, Sharma S, Maizel AL (1986). Cellular interaction between B and T lymphocytes: enhanced release of B cell growth factor. Lymphokine Research. 5 (1): 49-57. PMID 3484798. Ennist DL, Greenblatt D, Coffman R, Sharma S, Maizel A, Howard M (November 1987). ...
Inversion of CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia correlates with differential sensitivity of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes to the killing efficacy of Fas (APO-1/CD95) ligand(+) tumor cells ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal disease of B lymphocytes manifesting as an absolute lymphocytosis in the blood. However, not all lymphocytoses are leukemic. In addition, first-degree relatives of CLL patients have an ~15 % chance of developing a precursor condition to CLL termed monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL), and distinguishing CLL and MBL B lymphocytes from normal B cell expansions can be a challenge. Therefore, we selected FMOD, CKAP4, PIK3C2B, LEF1, PFTK1, BCL-2, and GPM6a from a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in microarray analyses that compared CLL cells with normal B lymphocytes and used these to determine whether we could discriminate CLL and MBL cells from B cells of healthy controls. Analysis with receiver operating characteristics and Bayesian relevance determination demonstrated good concordance with all panel genes. Using a random forest classifier, the seven-gene panel reliably distinguished normal polyclonal B cell populations from expression
Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Lion Biotechnologies, Inc. (Lymphocytes ... "Specific lymphocyte subsets predict response to adoptive cell therapy using expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ... CD8+-Enriched Autologous Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes Following a Lymphocyte Depleting Regimen in Metastatic Digestive Tract ... Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated towards a tumor. They include ...
The two main types of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes make antibodies, and T lymphocytes help ... "lymphocyte". Lymphocytes make up between 18% and 42% of circulating white blood cells. The three major types of lymphocyte are ... A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell (leukocyte) in the immune system of most vertebrates. Lymphocytes include natural ...
The characteristic villous lymphocytes will appear in a blood smear of the peripheral blood of patients with this type of ... These lymphocytes will have an oval nucleus with the "cobblestone" pattern of nuclear chromatin typical of more mature lymphoid ... Splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes is a rare type of lymphoma that involves mature B cells. Older names include lymphoma ... simulating hairy cell leukemia and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with circulating villous lymphocytes. ...
In immunology, reactive lymphocytes or variant lymphocytes are cytotoxic (CD8+) lymphocytes that become large as a result of ... Reactive lymphocytes are usually associated with viral illnesses, but they can also be present as a result of drug reactions ( ... The nucleus of a reactive lymphocyte can be round, elliptic, indented, cleft, or folded. The cytoplasm is often abundant and ... Review Article: The Atypical Lymphocyte- International Pediatrics Volume 18, No. 1; Michael W. Simon. Educational Commentary: ...
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the ... These innate lymphocytes express homodimer CD8αα and CD3 and develop outside of thymus. They have cytotoxic and phagocytic ... Ma H, Qiu Y, Yang H (February 2021). "Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes: Maintainers of intestinal immune tolerance and ... Sim GK (1995-01-01). "Intraepithelial lymphocytes and the immune system". Advances in Immunology. 58: 297-343. doi:10.1016/ ...
In transplantation, autologous lymphocytes refers to a person's own white blood cells. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in ... National Cancer Institute Definition of autologous lymphocyte NCI: autologous lymphocyte v t e (All stub articles, Immunology ...
T lymphocytes are cells of the immune system that attack and destroy virus-infected cells, tumor cells and cells from ... Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes ". Annual Review of Immunology. 12: 337-365. Coulie P., Van den Eynde B.J., van der ... In other instances, the normal peptide is presented at the cell surface and consequently the T lymphocytes that recognize the ... Therefore, the antigens of cancer-germline genes are presented to T lymphocytes only on tumor cells. The mechanism leading to ...
Two other well known examples are CD34 and GLYCAM-1. B lymphocyte T lymphocyte Lymphocyte+homing+receptors at the US National ... Lymphocyte homing refers to adhesion of the circulating lymphocytes in blood to specialized endothelial cells within lymphoid ... Lymphocyte homing receptors are cell adhesion molecules expressed on lymphocyte cell membranes that recognize addressins on ... The process of lymphocyte homing is deliberate, mediated by lymphocyte-endothelial recognition mechanisms that enable antigen- ...
... (LEXM) is a protein discovered in 2015, found to be involved in immune responses (in mice) to ...
... (ALG) is an infusion of animal- antibodies against human T cells which is used in the treatment of ... the latter of which was made by injecting horses with human thoracic duct lymphocytes and was called "Lymphoser Berna". Hakim, ...
... is caused by an aberrant population of lymphocytes. These aberrant lymphocytes function abnormally by stimulating the ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophila is a rare disorder in which eosinophilia or hypereosinophilia (i.e. a large or extremely ... For years, lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia was used to describe hypereosinophilia associated with any one of several ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia can therefore be regarded as a precancerous disorder. The disorder merits therapeutic ...
... s (VLRs) belong to the Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family and mediate adaptive immune responses in ... Annual Review of Immunology 30, 203-220 "Variable lymphocyte receptor - Proteopedia, life in 3D". proteopedia.org. Retrieved 10 ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) are mature lymphocytes that circulate in the blood, rather than localising to organs (such ... v t e (Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Lymphocytes, All ...
... (MLR) is a test used by pharmaceutical and biotech organizations to show the safety of a drug or ... "Why are Mixed Lymphocyte Reactions Performed?". Retrieved 7 January 2017. 1. Meo, T.: The MLR test in the mouse. 1979. In ... Lymphocyte interaction: A potential histocompatibility test in vitro. Science 143:813. 4. Benacerraf, B. and H.O. McDevitt. ... After several days, lymphocytes underwent blast transformation, DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation in response to the ...
... is the infusion in which lymphocytes from the original stem cell donor are infused, after the ... Donor lymphocyte (or leukocyte) infusion (DLI) or buffy coat infusion is a form of adoptive immunotherapy used after ... Patients might require standard chemotherapy, to reduce the amount of cancer cells they have prior to their donor lymphocyte ... Luznik L, Fuchs EJ (2002). "Donor lymphocyte infusions to treat hematologic malignancies in relapse after allogeneic blood or ...
The bare lymphocyte syndrome, type II (BLS II) is a rare recessive genetic condition in which a group of genes called major ... Bare lymphocyte syndrome is a condition caused by mutations in certain genes of the major histocompatibility complex or ... Reith W, Mach B (2001). "The bare lymphocyte syndrome and the regulation of MHC expression". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 19: 331-73. ... DeSandro A, Nagarajan UM, Boss JM (1999). "The bare lymphocyte syndrome: molecular clues to the transcriptional regulation of ...
"Entrez Gene: LY96 lymphocyte antigen 96". Park BS, Song DH, Kim HM, Choi BS, Lee H, Lee JO (April 2009). "The structural basis ... Lymphocyte antigen 96 has been shown to interact with TLR 4. When LPS binds to a hydrophobic pocket in MD-2, it directly ... Lymphocyte antigen 96, also known as "Myeloid Differentiation factor 2 (MD-2)," is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... lymphocyte+antigen+96,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short ...
... (SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76kDa), also known as LCP2 or SLP-76, is a signal- ... Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 has been shown to interact with: Cbl gene, GRAP2, Grb2, ITK LYN, NCK1, PIK3R1, PLCG1, PTPN6, SHB ... SLP-76 is expressed in T-cells and related lymphocytes like natural killer cells. The amino acid sequence of the protein has a ... "Entrez Gene: LCP2 lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76kDa)". Pivniouk VI, Geha RS ( ...
... (LFA) may refer to: LFA-1 CD2, LFA-2 CD58, LFA-3 This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Lymphocyte function-associated antigen. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the ...
... (LTCI) is an immune regulating polypeptide, which is a potent regulator of CD-4 lymphocyte ... This protein came to be known as lymphocyte T-cell immunomodulator. Lymphocyte T-cell immunomodulator, or T-4 immune ... It increases lymphocyte numbers and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in animals. It is extracted from bovine thymus. Prior to ... "Lymphocyte T-Cell Immunomodulator (LTCI), a Potent Immune Modulating Biologic, Exhibits Safety and Efficacy in the Pain ...
The antibodies from lymphocyte secretions (ALS) assay is an immunological assay to detect active diseases like tuberculosis, ... The antibodies from lymphocyte secretion (ALS) assay was earlier used to detect specific antibody response after oral ... Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001; 8:482-8. Rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis by detecting antibodies from lymphocyte secretions ... Rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis by detecting antibodies from lymphocyte secretions. J. Infect. Dis. 188:364-370 Kothadia ...
"T Lymphocytes infiltrating various tumour types express the MHC class II ligand lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3): role of ... Lymphocyte-activation gene 3, also known as LAG-3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LAG3 gene. LAG3, which was ... March 1, 1999). "Lymphocyte activation gene-3, a MHC class II ligand expressed on activated T cells, stimulates TNF-alpha and ... "Entrez Gene: LAG3 lymphocyte-activation gene 3". Triebel F, Jitsukawa S, Baixeras E, Roman-Roman S, Genevee C, Viegas-Pequignot ...
"Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratios in COVID-19 Patients and Control Group and Relationship with Disease ... Recently Lymphocyte Monocyte ratio (LMR) has also been studied as a marker of inflammation including tuberculosis and various ... Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio was first demonstrated as useful parameter after a correlation of a relationship between the ... In medicine neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is used as a marker of subclinical inflammation. It is calculated by dividing ...
... (BLS II) is a rare recessive genetic condition in which a group of genes called major ... "bare lymphocyte syndrome type II". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-07-13. "SCID due to absent class II HLA antigens ( ... This may explain why patients with BLS II display decreased levels of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in their blood. The basis for BLSII is ... "Bare lymphocyte syndrome type 2, complementation group A - Conditions - GTR - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-28 ...
The signalling lymphocyte activation molecule family (SLAMF) is a group of cell surface receptors that modulates the activation ...
... (LFA-1) is an integrin found on lymphocytes and other leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a key ... "Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1): a surface antigen distinct from Lyt-2,3 that participates in T lymphocyte- ... Verma NK, Kelleher D (August 2017). "Not Just an Adhesion Molecule: LFA-1 Contact Tunes the T Lymphocyte Program". Journal of ...
Lymphocyte predominant HL is an uncommon subtype composed of vague nodules of numerous reactive lymphocytes admixed with large ... Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a slow-growing CD20 positive form of Hodgkin lymphoma, a cancer of ... 2010). "Early-Stage, Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Patient Outcomes From a Large, Single-Institution Series With ... It is distinguished from classic Hodgkin lymphoma by the presence of CD20 positive lymphocyte predominant cells, also known as ...
ILCs, on the contrary, may set the helper T lymphocytes in the state of anergy. In the case of ILC 3, the ability to express ... ILC3 cells produce cytokines typical for the population of Th17 helper lymphocytes. The characteristic feature of ILC3 is the ... They suppress the response of CD4 + T lymphocytes to harmless and beneficial intestinal bacteria. If this tolerance is not ...
Then, T-lymphocytes become memory T cells. This type of T cells are those that have been in contact with the antigen at least ... A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T ... Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes have been implicated in the development of various diseases and disorders, for example in transplant ... However, this Fas-Fas ligand interaction is thought to be more important to the disposal of unwanted T lymphocytes during their ...
Lymphocyte stimulation. In Graves' thyroid disease, lymphocytes react against the TSH receptor by inappropriately producing ... "Lymphocytes". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 27 July 2021. McConahey, W. M. (March 1978). "Diagnosing and ... thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (IgG; type II hypersensitivity). Lymphocytes react not only against thyroid receptors, but ...
Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), which is therapy typically used after stem cell transplant, is a relatively new therapeutic ... Donor lymphocyte infusion therapy Karen S Roush et al. Transfus Med Rev. 2002 Apr. ... Donor lymphocyte infusions: the long and winding road: how should it be traveled? Tomblyn M, Lazarus HM. Tomblyn M, et al. Bone ... CXCR4 blockade improves leukemia eradication by allogeneic lymphocyte infusion. Jin CH, Li Y, Xia J, Li Y, Chen M, Hu Z, Mapara ...
New findings in the pathophysiology of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in autoimmunity may give a new impetus for the development of ... Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the guided missiles of the immune system because of their well known role in the destruction ... Purpose of Review: The possibility of the recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes of tissue autoantigens has been largely ... The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies that shed light on the implication of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in ...
Brown, K. N; Hills, L. A; Jarra, W; World Health Organization (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization, 1976)‎ ...
Theyre also called CD4 T lymphocytes or "helper T cells." Thats because they help fight infection by triggering your immune ... Other names: CD4 lymphocyte count CD4+ count, T4 count, T-helper cell count, CD4 percent ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cd4-lymphocyte-count/ CD4 Lymphocyte Count. ...
Since the discovery that integrins at the surface of lymphocytes undergo dynamic changes in their adhesive activity after ... Intracellular signalling controlling integrin activation in lymphocytes Nat Rev Immunol. 2005 Jul;5(7):546-59. doi: 10.1038/ ... Since the discovery that integrins at the surface of lymphocytes undergo dynamic changes in their adhesive activity after ... such as the homing of lymphocytes and the formation of an immunological synapse. ...
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Tasha Morrison, the Lymphocyte Signaling Unit studies molecular processes that control immune cell development and function. ... Evolving Views of Long Noncoding RNAs and Epigenomic Control of Lymphocyte State and Memory. Morrison TA, Hudson WH, Chisolm DA ... The goal of our research is to understand new aspects of lymphocyte biology. We use animal models, high-throughput sequencing, ... The Lymphocyte Signaling Unit studies molecular processes that control immune cell development and function. ...
Lymphocyte immune globulins. Class Summary. These agents may help suppress immune reactions. ... Reduces lymphocyte count 85-90% after first dose, as long as circulating antibody concentrations remain high. ... Polyclonal IgG cluster against human T lymphocytes. Obtained from horses or rabbits hyperimmunized with human thymus ...
T-lymphocyte subsets and thymic size in malnourished infants in Egypt: a hospital-based study  ... Thymus size was assessed ultrasonographically and correlated to the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood ...
Workshop on Quality-Assurance and Quality-Control Procedures for CD4 T-Lymphocyte Determinations The National Laboratory ... quality-assurance and quality-control procedures for T-lymphocyte determinations at sites throughout the country during June ... the determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. The workshop will include ...
Memory T Lymphocytes in Cancer Immunology (R01) PA-07-255. NCI ... Title: Memory T Lymphocytes in Cancer Immunology (R01). ... Memory T cells, like effector T cells, belong to a heterogeneous class of lymphocytes. Memory T cells are defined based on ... Understanding and exploiting the induction of long-lasting antigen-specific T lymphocyte immunity to human tumors is one of the ... antitumor immunity and that are focused on memory T lymphocytes and/or the cells and molecules that interact with memory T ...
Home Research & Funding Labs at NIA Laboratory of Molecular Biology & Immunology Lymphocyte Differentiation Section ... Lymphocyte Differentiation Section Nan-ping Weng, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator ... Telomere attrition occurs in lymphocytes with age and critically shortened telomeres cause cessation of cell division in vitro ... including alteration of lymphocyte composition, shortened telomere lengths and its relationship with age-changes in ...
One serum, la-715, reacted with B lymphocytes from 75.6 per cent of patients and 14.1 per cent of con … ... We examined B-lymphocyte alloantigens in 41 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 184 controls, using a panel of 47 ... B-lymphocyte alloantigens associated with systemic lupus erythematosus N Engl J Med. 1978 Sep 7;299(10):515-8. doi: 10.1056/ ... We examined B-lymphocyte alloantigens in 41 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 184 controls, using a panel of 47 ...
Words similar to lymphocyte antigen 98 ▸ Usage examples for lymphocyte antigen 98. ▸ Words that often appear near lymphocyte ... Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "lymphocyte antigen 98" is defined. Science (1 matching ... We found one dictionary with English definitions that includes the word lymphocyte antigen 98: ... Lymphocyte antigen 98: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia [home, info] ▸ ...
... Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Sep;56(9):2936-46. doi: 10.1002/art. ...
All T lymphocytes, regulatory and effector, rely on cell-cell junctions for recognition of self and foreign peptides bound to ... All T lymphocytes, regulatory and effector, rely on cell-cell junctions for recognition of self and foreign peptides bound to ... The power of the adaptive immune system is checked by regulatory T lymphocytes to prevent autoimmunity and immunopathology. In ... Regulatory T cells function by a cell-cell contact dependent suppression of other T lymphocyte"s proliferation and effector ...
HIV Antibody Test, CD4+ T Lymphocytes & CD8+ T Cells (LAB03) Data File: LAB03.xpt First Published: December 2004. Last Revised ... The absolute count of a full lymphocyte subset profile (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD3-CD19+, CD3-CD16/56+) can be determined in ... Enumeration of CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-positive participants and age-matched controls was performed on cryopreserved whole ... A precise quantity of whole blood is added to the tubes, and the lymphocytes are stained with MultiTEST monoclonal antibodies. ...
Gene regulation of innate and adaptive lymphocytes in neuroinflammation Position Description: ... Our lab aims to understand the transcriptional networks in gene regulation of tissue-resident lymphocytes and cytokines in the ... Postdoctoral Fellowship in Gene Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Lymphocytes in Neuroinflammation ... Postdoctoral Fellowship in Gene Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Lymphocytes in Neuroinflammation ...
Lu, X., Gooding, L. R., & Erdman, D. D. (2008). Human Bocavirus in Tonsillar Lymphocytes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), ... HBoV DNA was detected by both PCRs in lymphocytes from 53 (32.3%) children (median age 3.7 years, range 1-7.6 years). A single ... Human Bocavirus in Tonsillar Lymphocytes. Volume 14, Number 8-August 2008. Article Views: 227. Data is collected weekly and ... 1) in their patient controls, we tested DNA extracts of lymphocytes separated by Ficoll-Paque from nasopharyngeal tonsils or ...
Your search for LAPINE "T-LYMPHOCYTE" IMMUNE GLOBULIN did not return any results. ...
Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights infection and disease. Learn 5 basic facts about these immune system ... What Do Lymphocytes Look Like? Lymphocytes are not visible to the naked eye. They can be seen when a drop of blood is smeared ... Where Are Lymphocytes Found? Like all blood cells, lymphocytes begin their lifes journey in the bone marrow. This is the ... Types of Lymphocytes There are two main kinds of lymphocytes, called B cells and T cells. They perform different functions in ...
One emerging area of therapeutic T cell intervention has been the utilization of marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) - a ... One emerging area of therapeutic T cell interventions has been the utilization of marrow infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) - a ... Marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes do appear to possess many of the essential features that make them the ideal for adoptive T ... Marrow-Infiltrating Lymphocytes - Role in Biology and Cancer Therapy. Ivan Borrello* and Kimberly A. Noonan ...
Specific lymphocyte subsets predict response to adoptive cell therapy using expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ... Adoptive Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocyte Transfer With Nivolumab for Melanoma (BaseTIL). The safety and scientific validity of ... Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes will be expanded from resected melanoma samples from the patient and expanded TILs will be ... Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) Transfer. Nivolumab. metastatic melanoma. anti-PD-1 therapy. failed immunotherapy. ...
CometChip Analysis of Human Primary Lymphocytes Enables Quantification of Inter-individual Differences in the Kinetics of ... CometChip Analysis of Human Primary Lymphocytes Enables Quantification of Inter-individual Differences in the Kinetics of ... Synopsis CometChip Analysis of Human Primary Lymphocytes Enables Quantification of Inter-individual Differences in the Kinetics ... Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage [Abstract CometChip Analysis of Human Primary Lymphocytes Enables Quantification of Inter- ...
Here we describe distinct populations of isotype-switched memory B lymphocytes (Bsm) of murine spleen and bone marrow, ... it is not clear how memory B lymphocytes are maintained over time, and whether only as circulating cells or also residing in ... Memory B lymphocytes, together with memory T lymphocytes, embody one of the key features of the vertebrate immune system, the ... Bsm of cluster III were exclusively enriched for a gene set associated with lymphocyte migration (GO term lymphocyte migration ...
Regulation of human lymphocyte proliferation by a heterodimeric cytokine, IL-2 (cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation fuctor) GATELY ... 悪性神経膠腫に対する特異的キラーT細胞の誘導 [in Japanese] Generation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs) Specific for Rat Glioma
Influence of Sex and ABO Blood Group on the Normal Lymphocyte Transfer Test Br Med J 1964; 2 :1111 doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5417.1111 ... Influence of Sex and ABO Blood Group on the Normal Lymphocyte Transfer Test ... Influence of Sex and ABO Blood Group on the Normal Lymphocyte Transfer Test ... Influence of Sex and ABO Blood Group on the Normal Lymphocyte Transfer Test. Br Med J 1964; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
Lymphocyte immunophenotyping in inflammatory myositis: a review. Franco, Chiara; Gatto, Mariele; Iaccarino, Luca; Ghirardello, ... Major circulating immune cell subpopulations described in IIM encompass the lymphocyte compartment. An unbalance in T cell ...
Learn more about the Lymphocyte Migration Pathway from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus Bioinformatics ... Lymphocyte Migration Pathway Bioinformatics. Disease and disorder research has been conducted in relation to the Lymphocyte ... Explore more on Lymphocyte Migration below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.. ... The Lymphocyte Migration Pathway complements our catalog of research reagents including antibodies and ELISA kits against TNF, ...
  • We also analyze potential interactions between eosinophils and lymphocyte subsets, including T cells, natural killer cells and innate lymphoid cells. (nature.com)
  • The present study provided further evidence on the function and underlying mechanism of T lymphocyte subsets, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In this cross-sectional study we investigated changes in peripheral blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among workers from a Dutch historical cohort occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and contaminants including TCDD. (bmj.com)
  • Complete blood counts and differential and major lymphocyte subsets were analysed. (bmj.com)
  • Results Cell counts and lymphocyte subsets were similar between high- and low-exposed workers, except for a non-dose dependent increase in CD4/CD8 ratio among high-exposed workers. (bmj.com)
  • Interestingly, most lymphocyte subsets, in particular the B cell compartment, showed a decrease with increasing levels of both TCDD current and TCDD max . (bmj.com)
  • However, a non-significant decrease in most lymphocyte subsets was noted, with the strongest effect for B cells. (bmj.com)
  • Research on PTP is particularly relevant, due to the large number of these phosphatases expressed by lymphocytes and the unknown function of many of them in the cytokine signalling that affects lymphocyte activation in health and disease. (europa.eu)
  • Otud-6b expression was induced with cytokine stimulation in both mouse Ba/F3 cells and primary B lymphocytes followed a rapid decrease. (plos.org)
  • Therefore, down-regulation of Otud-6b expression after prolonged cytokine stimulation may be required for cell proliferation in B lymphocytes. (plos.org)
  • Xu Z, Zheng Y, Zhu Y, Kong X, Hu L (2011) Evidence for OTUD-6B Participation in B Lymphocytes Cell Cycle after Cytokine Stimulation. (plos.org)
  • Comparison of the redirected T lymphocytes with the original tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte clone revealed similar killing and cytokine secretion capabilities. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Cell proliferation and cytokine release were also significantly reduced in activated lymphocytes following exposure. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Immune responses influence patient outcome in most cancer types, and the most important cell types for anti-tumor immunity are cytotoxic and cytokine producing lymphocytes. (gu.se)
  • The inflammatory component of a developing neoplasm may include a diverse leukocyte population such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes [6] [7]. (scirp.org)
  • As previous studies reported alterations in lymphocyte number and function in patients with Co-Cr implants, we investigated effects of clinically relevant concentrations of Cr6+ and Co2+ on primary human lymphocytes in vitro. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Here, both resting and activated (anti-CD3 ± anti-CD28 antibodies) primary human lymphocytes were exposed to Cr6+ or Co2+ (0.1-100 µM). (strath.ac.uk)
  • Drozd K, Wysokinski D, Krupa R, Wozniak K. Bisphenol A-glycid methacrylate induces a broad spectrum of DNA damage in human lymphocytes. (aaem.pl)
  • They're also called CD4 T lymphocytes or "helper T cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Emerging data indicate that eosinophils infiltrate a variety of solid tumor types and have pleiotropic activities by at least two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms: direct interactions with tumor cells, and intricate cross-talk with lymphocytes. (nature.com)
  • HIV infection is characterized by a decrease and, eventually, a depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells). (cdc.gov)
  • Using immunophenotyping, HIV-positive blood samples and age-matched controls were tested for the proportion of lymphocytes that are T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells (helper T cells), and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells). (cdc.gov)
  • The focus of the Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) Laboratory is to address both clinical and basic research questions on the role of human T cells in anti-tumor immune responses. (mdanderson.org)
  • More recently, microarray data have shown that many OTU family members were rapidly up-regulated or down-regulated in human esophageal epithelial cells and lymphocytes when stimulated by different cytokines, such as ovarian tumor domain containing 6B (OTUD-6B), a novel DUB of the OTU family members. (plos.org)
  • The study shows that a group of lymphocytes known as iNKT cells, that normally prevent autoreactive B cells from secreting pathogenic antibodies, lost this ability and instead took on the role of supporting these B cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In an attempt to develop a model for the immunologic relationship between a sensitized mother and fetus, we mixed Be Wo cells with mitogen-activated cytotoxic lymphocytes in vitro. (jci.org)
  • Be Wo cells were resistant to the cytolytic effects of the activated lymphocytes despite 24-h exposure and intimate cell-to-cell contact as determined by microscopy. (jci.org)
  • Cytotoxicity was measured by determining residual radioactivity of [3H]thymidine-labeled target cells after exposure to activated lymphocytes. (jci.org)
  • Employing the quantitative assay, we confirmed the morphologic results and showed that Be Wo and a number of other choriocarcinoma cell lines were resistant to the cytotoxic effects of lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and allogeneic cells in mixed lymphocyte cultures. (jci.org)
  • Significant killing of the Be Wo cells occurred only after prolonged exposure (48 and 72 h) to the activated lymphocytes. (jci.org)
  • Investigators will do this by using special types of T cells called cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in the lab. (centerwatch.com)
  • Firstly, the punctured cells in the lesions and the serum were collected, and the lymphocytes and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were prepared. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • TILs are a collection of lymphocytes that have penetrated the stroma of a cancer and are largely comprised of T cells that are actively engaged in fighting the cancer. (cancerconnect.com)
  • Cells are gated on CD8 T lymphocytes. (figshare.com)
  • Although P-bodies have not been characterized in lymphocytes, I hypothesized that storage of RANTES and IFN-γ mRNAs in P-bodies could contribute to the ability of memory CD8⁺ T cells to mount rapid recall responses. (ubc.ca)
  • The machine learning model counted tumour, stroma and tumour infiltrating lymphocyte cells whereas values for TMB and PD-L1 expression were determined separately. (hospitalhealthcare.com)
  • Efficient TCR expression in primary T lymphocytes was obtained only with a mouse myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (MPSV)-based retroviral vector, not with a Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vector, although both viral supernatants were similar in titer, as shown by analysis of copy number integration in transduced T cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The results demonstrate that use of an optimized retroviral vector yielded a high TCR transduction efficiency and stable and high TCR expression in primary human T lymphocytes and redirected their specificity toward RCC cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is characterized by clonal expansion of CD3 + CD8 + cells. (elsevier.com)
  • They recommended that all mononuclear cells, including lymphocytes and plasma cells in intratumoral stroma, be scored as a percentage of the area occupied over the total intratumoral stromal area. (e-crt.org)
  • The loss of CD27 expression is an irreversible marker of terminal effector CD3+ T-lymphocyte (TL) differentiation, and the CD27+ MPs present in PCs may maintain CD27 expression on the surface of TLs, and, thus, the activation of these cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • Autologous rosette-forming T cells as the responding cells in human autologous mixed-lymphocyte reaction. (jci.org)
  • Autologous rosette-forming cells (Tar cells) have surface and functional characteristics of post-thymic precursors and among these characteristics there are some that have been identified in the responsive cell of the autologous mixed-lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). (jci.org)
  • Conversely, Tar cells responded less than total T cells or T cells depleted of Tar cells in allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reactions. (jci.org)
  • Tar cells are the responding cells in AMLR but not in allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reactions. (jci.org)
  • These lymphocytes include conventional CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, and Th1 cells, and also unconventional T cells like mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and γ/δ T cells. (gu.se)
  • The ability of regulatory T cells to influence lymphocyte recruitment and T cell effector functions in the tumor microenvironment is determined, and we also perform long-term follow up of patient outcome related to the immunological parameters that we characterize. (gu.se)
  • Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS . (bvsalud.org)
  • A simple biomarker to predict TB may be the monocytes to lymphocytes ratio (ML ratio) in peripheral blood. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • CXCL12/SDF-1 isoforms are chemotactic for T lymphocytes and monocytes. (rndsystems.com)
  • Alteration of intracellular cysteine and glutathione levels in alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes by diesel exhaust particle exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • In the present study, the MTT assay revealed that hinokitiol (1-5 μ M) alone did not affect cell viability of lymphocytes, but at the concentration of 5 μ M it could reduce ConA-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, p21 deficiency was reported to enhance T lymphocyte activation and proliferation and to induce autoimmune manifestations [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Suppression of p21 promotes malignant T lymphocyte proliferation in malignant CD30 + T lymphocytes [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, p21 may play a critical role in autoimmune diseases and tumorigenesis by regulating T lymphocyte activation and proliferation. (hindawi.com)
  • The results indicate that exposure to high concentrations of metal ions initiate apoptosis that results in decreased lymphocyte proliferation. (strath.ac.uk)
  • However, metal ion concentrations not directly cytotoxic to lymphocytes may affect events at a molecular level, thereby impeding lymphocyte proliferation. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses and blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and cellular immune recognition of beryllium. (cdc.gov)
  • Hu-Mikβ1 was evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • To circumvent this problem, we cloned T cell receptor (TCR) α and β chains from a tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte clone specific for an RCC tumor antigen and transferred the TCR into human T cell lines and primary T lymphocytes. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • In the present study, peripheral blood lymphocytes of 23 welders and 25 non-exposed subjects were monitored for cytotoxicity. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Memory CD8⁺ T lymphocytes contain translationally-repressed RANTES and IFN-γ mRNAs, enabling the secretion of these cytokines within 30 minutes of T cell receptor (TCR) engagement. (ubc.ca)
  • To explore the role of P-bodies in the recall response, I utilized the OT-I model to generate effector and memory CD8⁺ T lymphocytes in vitro. (ubc.ca)
  • Abstract 932: Predictive markers of the in vitro anticancer effect of the pan class I PI3K inhibitor BKM120 in primary B-CLL lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, we try to invest the peripheral inflammatory cell counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) from our routine practice for the predictor of prognosis of breast cancer after resection. (scirp.org)
  • The scales of NLR and PLR were derived from the lower and higher normal range in cell count from neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet respectively. (scirp.org)
  • the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), PLR, and CRP-to-albumin ratio (CAR) in the peripheral blood were recorded. (researchsquare.com)
  • The EO counts and PLR were significantly higher in the EGE group than those in the control group, whereas differences in the white blood cell, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts, and the CRP level, NLR, and CAR were not significant. (researchsquare.com)
  • Blood cell count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been considered as markers of the immune and inflammatory status in recent years. (researchsquare.com)
  • Association Between Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio and All-Cause Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Chr. (medscimonit.com)
  • However, only the FXR-deficient male mice showed extensive lymphocyte and neutrophil infiltration in the liver, while only Western diet-fed, FXR-deficient male mice developed fatty adenomas. (naturalnews.com)
  • According to the experts, a combination treatment of ampicillin, neomycin, metronidazole and vancomycin completely inhibited hepatic neutrophil and lymphocyte infiltration in mice given the control diet. (naturalnews.com)
  • Adoptive cell transfer with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILS) show promising overall response rates for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer according to results presented at the 2019 ASCO Annual Meeting. (cancerconnect.com)
  • This study was undertaken to analyze tumor- infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the core of the tumor and in the peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subjected to surgery. (ersjournals.com)
  • The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has been determined in breast cancers. (e-crt.org)
  • Progress in immunotherapy has provided novel insights into the roles of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in cancer. (e-crt.org)
  • Monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of TB among people li. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In addition, T lymphocyte subset ratio imbalances contributed to an increased expression of immune mediators, including interferon (IFN)‑γ and interleukin (IL)‑17A. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CD8+ T-lymphocytes) are generally measured by flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) (also called immunophenotyping by flow cytometry (2), T-lymphocyte immunophenotyping (3), and fluorescence-activated cell sorting). (cdc.gov)
  • Using immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy, I established that T and B lymphocytes contain GWBs and express GW182, RCK/p54, and DCP1a, which are concentrated in cytoplasmic granules. (ubc.ca)
  • If the differential count reveals a lymphocyte predominance, flow cytometry should be performed. (medscape.com)
  • This dynamic local regulation is currently poorly understood, although it appears essential in determining lymphocyte differentiation and activation. (europa.eu)
  • Leukemic LGLs correspond to terminally differentiated effector-memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that escape Fasmediated activation-induced cell death (AICD) in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • 1 ) in their patient controls, we tested DNA extracts of lymphocytes separated by Ficoll-Paque from nasopharyngeal tonsils or adenoids (AL) and palatine/lingual tonsils (TL) from 164 patients (mostly children) undergoing routine adenoidectomies and tonsillectomies for HBoV DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, controlling the cell cycle of lymphocytes may be an effective therapeutic strategy for treating patients with IMIDs. (hindawi.com)
  • TAA)-Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes to Pediatric Patients With Lymphomas (pediTACTAL). (centerwatch.com)
  • Tumour infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) scoring based on a machine-learning model has superior classification accuracy for an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) response in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to a retrospective analysis by an international research group. (hospitalhealthcare.com)
  • A further prognostic factor associated with an improved prognosis in NSCLC patients is high tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels and which are visually assessed on routine haematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. (hospitalhealthcare.com)
  • Association of Machine Learning-Based Assessment of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes on Standard Histologic Images With Outcomes of Immunotherapy in Patients With NSCLC. (hospitalhealthcare.com)
  • The confirmed COVID-19 patients, without any history of intaking contaminated food or water, were all enrolled to investigate the association between circulating lymphocyte count and virus discharge, initial gastrointestinal involvement. (medsci.org)
  • Significantly lower circulating lymphocyte count was found in the patients with positive results of qRT-PCR on stool (p = 0.012). (medsci.org)
  • The circulating lymphocyte count is inversely associated with virus discharge in stool, and the risk of initial gastrointestinal involvement in COVID-19 patients. (medsci.org)
  • DNA strand breakage and DNA adducts in lymphocytes of oral cancer patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Patient's basic profiles, peripheral neutophil, lymphocyte and platelet count were measured for study. (scirp.org)
  • Lymphoma consists of monomorphic (or pleomorphic) neoplastic lymphocytes with increased cellular atypia, whereas lymphocyte hyperplasia consists of increased numbers of normal, mature lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Although the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of these diseases are not entirely clear, studies have proposed that increased lymphocyte cycling or defective apoptosis may cause breakdown of immune tolerance and autoimmunity as well as lymphoma generation [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • My 39 yr old son was recently diagnosed with nodular lymphocyte dominant lymphoma after 8 months of testing. (cancer.org)
  • Our main interest is the phenotypic and functional characterization of CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and CD4+-helper T cell responses directly isolated and expanded from solid tumors, such as melanoma and breast cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • While it is not clear whether this clone represents a normal helper T cell subpopulation or a variant that has lost maturation-factor production, these results demonstrate that distinct factors control growth and maturation in T cell-dependent B lymphocyte responses. (pasteur.fr)
  • Immune responses influence patient outcome in most cancer types, and the aim of Marianne Quiding-Järbrink's research is to elucidate the role of different T cell populations in CRC and understand how Treg influence local anti-tumor immunity and lymphocyte recruitment to tumors. (gu.se)
  • Furthermore, lymphocytes need to leave the circulation and enter into the tumor itself in order to execute tumor-promoting or repressing responses. (gu.se)
  • Exposure to 10 and 100 µM Cr6+ significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in both resting and activated lymphocytes. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The exposure of resting lymphocytes to 100 µM Co2+ resulted in significant decreases in cell viability accompanied by a significant increase in apoptosis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, investigators now want to test whether special T lymphocytes directed against other types of proteins that show on the tumor cell surface can result in similar promising results. (centerwatch.com)
  • GPCRs mediate the activity of many regulators of the immune system such as chemokines and leukotrienes, and thus GRK proteins may play key roles in modulating the lymphocyte response to these factors. (pitt.edu)
  • The entry of HIV-1 into lymphocytes requires two cellular proteins, the receptor CD4, and a co-receptor, either CXCR4 or CCR5. (virology.ws)
  • In light of the immune checkpoint inhibition revolution in cancer therapy, we review eosinophil-lymphocyte interactions in the tumor microenvironment. (nature.com)
  • To study the dependence upon lymphocytes in vascular stiffening, we compared an angiotensin II-model of vascular stiffening in normal C57BL/6J mice with lymphocyte-deficient RAG 1 −/− mice and additionally characterized the component of vascular stiffness due to vasoconstriction vs. vascular remodeling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adoptive transfer of CD4 + T helper lymphocytes restored the angiotensin II-mediated aortic stiffening in the RAG 1 −/− mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lymphocyte hyperplasia in the spleen occurs more frequently in mice than in rats, and female mice are more commonly affected than male mice. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we determined the effects of hinokitiol on concanavalin A- (ConA-) stimulated T lymphocytes from the spleens of mice. (hindawi.com)
  • Spleen - Hyperplasia, Lymphocyte in a male B6C3F1/N mouse from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphocyte hyperplasia of the spleen is an increase in the number of lymphocytes outside the range of normal compared with concurrent controls. (nih.gov)
  • Whenever present, lymphocyte hyperplasia of the spleen should be diagnosed and assigned a severity grade. (nih.gov)
  • Enrichment of T lymphocytes from mouse spleen. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • The aim of our project is to elucidate the role of different T cell populations in colorectal carcinoma and understand how Treg influence local anti-tumor immunity and lymphocyte recruitment to tumors. (gu.se)
  • Although hinokitiol has been reported to inhibit inflammation, its immunological regulation in lymphocytes remains incomplete. (hindawi.com)
  • Purpose: Complex characterization of the effects of pseurotin D on human lymphocyte activation in order to understand the potential of pseurotin to modulate immune response in humans. (muni.cz)
  • Researchers from Karolinska Institutet in collaboration with a lab in San Antonio U.S., have uncovered how a specific population of lymphocytes promotes autoimmune disease by giving up their regulatory role in the immune system. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The pathogenesis of disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is largely attributable to the decrease in T-lymphocytes bearing the CD4 cell-surface molecule (CD4+ T-lymphocytes) (1). (cdc.gov)
  • When using PD-L1 levels as a biomarker, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.68 and for tumour infiltrating lymphocyte cell levels, only 0.55 and 0.59 for TMB. (hospitalhealthcare.com)
  • Fast' activation of innate-like lymphocytes? (hstalks.com)
  • Conclusions: Our results advance the current mechanistic understanding of the pseurotin-induced inhibition of lymphocytes and suggest pseurotins as new attractive chemotypes for future research in the context of immune-modulatory drugs. (muni.cz)
  • Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes is a from of adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. (cancerconnect.com)
  • Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocyte "TIL" therapy is a promising immunotherapy for advanced melanoma. (cancerconnect.com)
  • He maintains a research laboratory that studies various mechanisms of lymphocyte activation that relate to immune tolerance and adoptive immunotherapy for cancer and chronic infection. (upenn.edu)
  • Hinokitiol also reduced interferon gamma (IFN- γ ) secretion from ConA-activated T lymphocytes, as detected by an ELISA assay. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrated that hinokitiol upregulates p21 expression and attenuates IFN- γ secretion in ConA-stimulated T lymphocytes, thereby arresting cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. (hindawi.com)
  • These diseases are commonly T lymphocyte-mediated disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • The functional activity of TCR-redirected T lymphocytes was stable over time. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The level of CD56 expression on perforin (C) or Granzyme B (D) expressing CD8 T lymphocytes was significantly reduced in HIV+ ART treated and low viremia groups but not in elite controllers. (figshare.com)
  • Although intracellular phosphorylation levels are essential for normal lymphocyte activation while preventing disease, the significance of phosphorylated SOCS species in these processes is poorly understood, and the PTP that regulate their levels are unknown. (europa.eu)
  • We will further screen PTP for regulators of SOCS phosphorylation to understand their role in lymphocyte activation. (europa.eu)
  • There were no major abnormalities in laboratory tests, and lymphocytes were not reduced as in adults. (cebm.net)
  • We highlight the diverse functions of GRK2 and discuss how ongoing investigation of GRK2 in lymphocytes may inform the development of new therapies for diseases associated with lymphocyte dysregulation. (pitt.edu)
  • In our preliminary study, we determined that hinokitiol can arrest the cell cycle of T lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)