Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Mice, Inbred C57BLRosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Cell SeparationAntigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Immunologic Capping: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Inbred CBAImmunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Lymphocytes, Null: A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.ThymidineCell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Mice, Inbred C3HCell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Ficoll: A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Immunoglobulin delta-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.HemocyaninImmunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Trinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (1/20496)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (2/20496)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. (3/20496)

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers. (4/20496)

Gene expression in higher eukaryotes appears to be regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors binding to regulatory sequences. The Ets factor PU.1 and the IRF protein Pip (IRF-4) represent a pair of interacting transcription factors implicated in regulating B cell-specific gene expression. Pip is recruited to its binding site on DNA by phosphorylated PU.1. PU.1-Pip interaction is shown to be template directed and involves two distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces: (i) the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains; and (ii) the phosphorylated PEST region of PU.1 and a lysine-requiring putative alpha-helix in Pip. Thus, a coordinated set of protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts are essential for PU.1-Pip ternary complex assembly. To analyze the function of these factors in vivo, we engineered chimeric repressors containing the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible POU domain linker. When stably expressed, the wild-type fused dimer strongly repressed the expression of a rearranged immunoglobulin lambda gene, thereby establishing the functional importance of PU.1-Pip complexes in B cell gene expression. Comparative analysis of the wild-type dimer with a series of mutant dimers distinguished a gene regulated by PU.1 and Pip from one regulated by PU.1 alone. This strategy should prove generally useful in analyzing the function of interacting transcription factors in vivo, and for identifying novel genes regulated by such complexes.  (+info)

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (5/20496)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered. (6/20496)

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (7/20496)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

Analysis of V(H)-D-J(H) gene transcripts in B cells infiltrating the salivary glands and lymph node tissues of patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (8/20496)

OBJECTIVE: In patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), B lymphocytes have been found to infiltrate salivary glands, resulting in sialadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis. The disease is frequently associated with benign and neoplastic lymphoproliferation. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether clonal B cell expansion takes place in lymphocytic infiltrations of salivary glands under (auto- [?]) antigen stimulation, by analyzing in more detail the variable part (V(H)-D-J(H)) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes expressed in these B cells. METHODS: Biopsies of the labial salivary glands and lymph nodes were performed on 2 female patients with SS. The Ig gene rearrangements in these tissues were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. RESULTS: A total of 94 V(H)-D-J(H) transcripts were cloned and sequenced. Our data suggest a polyclonal origin of the B cell infiltrates. In 92 of the transcripts, V(H) genes were modified by somatic mutation. Further analysis showed counterselection for replacement mutations within the framework regions, suggesting that those B cells were stimulated and selected for functional expression of a surface Ig. In labial salivary glands from both patients, clonally related B cells became evident. Members of 1 particular clone were found in both the lip and lymph node material. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence, on the nucleotide sequence level, that an antigen-triggered clonal B cell expansion takes place in the salivary glands of patients with SS who do not have histologic evidence of developing lymphoma. It may be speculated that those B cell clones expand during disease progression, resulting in lymphomagenesis.  (+info)

*White blood cell

Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ... Lymphocytes include: *B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement ...

*White blood cell

Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ... Lymphocytes include: *B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement ...

*Lymphoblast

A lymphoblast is a modified naive lymphocyte with altered cell morphology. It occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an ... Lymphoblasts can also refer to immature cells which typically differentiate to form mature lymphocytes.[2] Normally ... Lymphoblasts look like immature lymphocytes, and were once thought to be precursor cells.".[4] Commonly, when speaking about ... The Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research Consortium defines a lymphoblast as "A lymphocyte that has become larger after being ...

*Natural killer cell

... granular lymphocytes known today as NK cells. The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were ... Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells ... A functional marker of human non-T lymphocytes". Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 21 (2): 226-35. PMC 1538269. PMID 810282 ... Large granular lymphocyte entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of. *. Calmeiro J, Carrascal M, Gomes C, Falcão A, Cruz MT ...

*T helper cell

These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... commonly lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in chronic inflammation and cytokine release. Antibodies do not play a direct ... "Molecular interactions mediating T-B lymphocyte collaboration in human lymphoid follicles. Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating ...

*T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated ... within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes. In rabbits, sheep, and chickens, the number of γδ T ... T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell ... The T lymphocyte activation pathway: T cells contribute to immune defenses in two major ways; some direct and regulate immune ...

*Once Upon a Time... Life

The Lymphocytes - represented by: *Lymphocytes B as marshals in small one-man round flying craft with two aimable side-mounted ... Lymphocytes T: the same sort of craft but with a large uppercase T on the underbelly at the bow. They can discharge smoke that ... Immature leucocytes: teenage humanoids with the same uniform as the lymphocyte B pilots: seen in the bone marrow, which is ... Captain Courageous and Ace for the lymphocyte B crafts' pilots; Plasmus and Globina for Hemo and Globin, Corpo for Jumbo; ...

*Epididymis

Intraepithelial lymphocytes: distributed throughout the tissue.[4]. *Intraepithelial macrophages[5][6]. Stereocilia[edit]. The ...

*MYH9

Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal Micronucleus test. Normal Heart weight. Normal Skin Histopathology. Normal ...

*Polynucleotide phosphorylase

Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal Micronucleus test. Normal Heart weight. Normal Skin Histopathology. Normal ...

*S100B

Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal. Micronucleus test. Normal. Heart weight. Normal. Brain histopathology. Normal. ...

*Optineurin

Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal Heart weight. Normal Salmonella infection. Normal[8] Citrobacter infection. Normal[9] ...

*Mantle zone

The mantle zone (or just mantle) of a lymphatic nodule (or lymphatic follicle) is an outer ring of small lymphocytes ...

*Polyclonal B cell response

After recognizing an antigen, an antigen presenting cell such as the macrophage or B lymphocyte engulfs it completely by a ... or B lymphocytes) involving an arm of the immune system known as humoral immunity. The antibodies are soluble and do not ... The role of lymphocytes in mediating both cell-mediated and humoral responses was demonstrated by James Gowans in 1959.[30] ... What makes the analogy even stronger is that the B lymphocytes have to compete with each other for signals that promote their ...

*White blood cell - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lymphocytes[change , change source]. Lymphocytes are round white blood cells a bit bigger than a red blood cell. Their center ... There are three known types of lymphocytes, called T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer cells (NK cells). ...

*Hodgkin's lymphoma

Lymphocyte-rich. Is a rare subtype, show many features which may cause diagnostic confusion with nodular lymphocyte predominant ... Lymphocyte depleted. Is a rare subtype, composed of large numbers of often pleomorphic RS cells with only few reactive ... Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma expresses CD20, and is not currently considered a form of classical Hodgkin's ... Micrograph showing a "popcorn cell", the Reed-Sternberg cell variant seen in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. H ...

*Systemic lupus erythematosus

Necrosis is increased in T lymphocytes.. Tingible body macrophages (TBMs) - large phagocytic cells in the germinal centers of ... B and T cell tolerance for apoptotic cells is abrogated, and the lymphocytes get activated by these autoantigens; inflammation ... The cytokines B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLys), interleukin 6, interleukin 17, interleukin 18, type I interferons, and tumor ... The body's sensitized B-lymphocyte cells will now produce antibodies against these nuclear-related proteins. These antibodies ...

*Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug

Reducing numbers of T-lymphocytes etc.. unknown. etanercept. decoy TNF receptor. bDMARD. ...

*CD44

Association with p56lck in T lymphocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (5): 2863-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.5.2863. ... CD44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, ... "Lymphocyte CD44 binds the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 116 (3): 817-25. ... protein tyrosine kinases Lck and Fyn in glycosphingolipid-rich plasma membrane domains of human peripheral blood lymphocytes". ...

*White blood cell

Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ... Lymphocytes include: *B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement ...

*Fc receptor

On T lymphocytesEdit. CD4+ T cells provide help to B cells that produce antibodies. Several subsets of activated effector CD4+ ... An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells - including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular ... Pichler, W. J., Lum, L., and Broder, S. (1978) Fc-receptors on human T lymphocytes. I. Transition of Tgamma to Tmu cells. J ... Sandor, M., and Lynch, R. G. (1993) Lymphocyte Fc receptors: the special case of T cells. Immunology today 14, 227-231 10.1016/ ...

*White blood cell

Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ... Lymphocytes include: *B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement ...

*Antibody

The B lymphocyte, in this ready-to-respond form, is known as a "naive B lymphocyte." The naive B lymphocyte expresses both ... Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol. 6 (10): 728-740. doi: ... How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody from Cells Alive!. *Antibody applications Fluorescent antibody image library, University of ... Goding J (1978). "Allotypes of IgM and IgD receptors in the mouse: a probe for lymphocyte differentiation". Contemp Top ...

*Lymph node

In the lymphatic system a lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ.[1] Lymph nodes contain lymphocytes, a type of white blood ... In order to do this, lymph nodes contain lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, which includes B cells and T cells. These ... Both B and T lymphocytes enter lymph nodes from circulating blood through specialized high endothelial venules found in the ... In the course of the lymph, lymphocytes may be activated as part of the adaptive immune response. ...

*Allergic contact dermatitis

In a similar fashion, cytotoxic T lymphocytes patrol an area of skin and play an important role in controlling both the ... Their immunology centres on the interaction of immunoregulatory cytokines and discrete subpopulations of T lymphocytes. The ... and present the antigen to T-lymphocytes. This process is controlled by cytokines and chemokines - with tumor necrosis factor ... the differentiated DCs present the allergenic epitope associated with the allergen to T lymphocytes. These T cells then divide ...

*Cortex (anatomy)

The thymic cortex, mainly composed of lymphocytes; functions as a site for somatic recombination of T cell receptors, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel® on human B lymphocyte activation in vitro. AU - Olsen, Nancy. AU - Decker, Dima A.. AU - Higgins, Paul. AU - Becker, Patrice M.. AU - McAloose, Carl A.. AU - Benko, Ann L.. AU - Kovacs, William. PY - 2015/10/27. Y1 - 2015/10/27. N2 - Introduction: Both clinical experience and experimental evidence have suggested that Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) might directly exert immunomodulatory effects not dependent on adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods: The direct effects of H.P. Acthar Gel® (Acthar), a repository preparation containing a porcine ACTH analogue, on human B lymphocyte function were studied in vitro using peripheral blood B cells isolated using anti-CD19 coated magnetic beads and activated by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). Analysis of expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) was carried out by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cellular proliferation was ...
Brezinschek, H.P., Brezinschek, R.I. & Lipsky, P.E., 1995, "Analysis of the Heavy Chain Repertoire of Human Peripheral B Cells Using Single-Cell Polymerase Chain Reaction", Journal of Immunology, 155:191-202 ...
Background. High serum levels and enhanced in vitro production of IgA are observed in more than half of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN); and transforming forming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) is certain IgA class switching factor. On the other hand, macroscopic haematuria appears frequently with upper respiratory infection as tonsillitis in IgAN.. Methods. We compared the lymphocytic response to in‐vitro stimulation by group A streptococcal M proteins of apparent virulence factor between IgAN, non‐proliferative glomerulonephritis (NPGN), and normal subjects. M proteins were extracted from group A streptococcal strain type 5 and type 12 determined serologically.. Results. M protein‐induced proliferation of lymphocytes from IgAN was higher than in NPGN but not in healthy control subjects. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that stimulation by M protein extracts derived from type 5 streptococci (M5) increased surface IgA‐positive B cells in IgAN, but did not activate the production of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of B cell proliferation in the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in man. AU - Jelinek, Diane F. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The relationship of B cell proliferation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) was explored in vitro by examining the effect of hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of cellular DNA synthesis, on the generation of ISC from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM). HU completely inhibited the capacity of PBM to generate ISC in response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and other polyclonal B cell activators. Inhibition resulted from an effect on B cell proliferation, because HU also prevented the generation of ISC in cultures of purified B cells supplemented with either T cell supernatants or mitomycin C-treated T cells. Inhibiting B cell proliferation by treating them with mitomycin C before culture also abolished the generation of ISC. When ISC were enumerated after a 7-day incubation with PWM, the addition ...
Results Twenty patients were included. Nine were treated by etanercept (ETN), 9 by certolizumab pegol and 2 by adalimumab. The percentage of B cells significantly increased under TNFi from (median [IQR 25-75]) 4.6 (3.5-6.7) to 7.6 (5.2-9.9) % of lymphocytes. No change was observed in the different subtypes of B cells. However, in patients treated with ETN, IgD-CD27- double negative memory B cells significantly increased from 4.6 (2.5-5.4) to 7.7 (6.2-11.0)(p=0.03). The variation of those double negative B cells were significantly different from those observed with monoclonal antibodies (+1.6 [0.0-5.4] vs 0.3 [-1.3-1.8]% of B cells, p=0.02). No change of T, NK, NKT cells was observed in either group. EULAR responders at 3 months had significantly higher percentage of CD27+ memory B cells at baseline (32.9 [25.2-40.6] vs 19.5 [12.3-19.6]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02), especially IgD+CD27+ pre-switch memory B cells (19.3 [9.8-21.8] vs 5.9 [4.9-9.4]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02). Since ...
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic factor that enhances proliferation of activated human B lymphocytes and induces them to secrete high amounts of immunoglobulins. Here we show that several human B cell lines were able to constitutively secrete human (h)IL-10. Whereas none of the pre-B nor the plasmocytic cell lines tested produced hIL-10, 25 of the 36 tested mature B cell lines (lymphoblastoid and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines) secreted hIL-10. Moreover, 24 of these 25 hIL-10-producing B cell lines contained the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, suggesting a relationship between hIL-10 production by human B cell lines and EBV expression. Accordingly, whereas polyclonal activation via triggering of surface immunoglobulins or CD40 antigen induced highly purified normal human B lymphocytes to produce only low (0.3-0.4 ng/ml) but significant amounts of hIL-10, EBV infection induced them to secrete high amounts of hIL-10 (4-9 ng/ml). Furthermore, addition of exogenous hIL-10, simultaneously to EBV ...
We have been trying to get some MAIDS B cell tumors to grow in B6 mice. The tumors originally came from B6 mice but have been grown in tissue culture for several years. In the event we can not readapt them to grow in vivo we are in need of other tumors. If anyone has a B cell tumor, preferably before the plasma cell stage, and after the immature B cell stage that they have grown in B6 mice we would appreciate hearing about it. If it also grows in tissue culture, while being readly passed back into mice that would be a bonus. Please repond to this service or my email address:wiliam.wade at dartmouth.edu Thanks for your attention and help in this matter. Sincerely, William F. Wade, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Microbiology Dartmouth Medical School ...
Schlegel, R A.; Von boehmer, H; and Shortman, K, "Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation of different subpopulations of afc progenitors for unprimed igm and memory igg responses to the nip determinant." (1975). Subject Strain Bibliography 1975. 1320 ...
CURRENT PROJECTS: - Using mouse genetics to identify the susceptibility factors that control B cell tolerance, differentiation and survival, leading to autoantibody production. - Defining the mechanisms by which autoimmune susceptibility elicits inflammation and recruitment of innate immune cells in secondary lymphoid organs that affect B cell function. - Examining helper activity and inflammatory cytokines of human T cells in peripheral blood of SLE patients that affect B cell function. - Characterizing the regulation and activity in primary mouse T follicular helper cells and T follicular regulatory cells to control B cell responses. - Defining the signal transduction events through the BCMA cytokine receptor that regulates both T follicular helper cell homeostasis and plasma cell survival in autoimmunity. - Characterizing the development and persistence of IgE antibodies to airway allergens. Go to Loren Ericksons Lab Site for detailed information about his lab and his research ...
Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes and during immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) in peripheral B lymphocytes. We now show that CD21-cre-mediated deletion of the Xrcc4 NHEJ gene in p53-deficient peripheral B cells leads to recurrent surface Ig-negative B lymphomas ("CXP lymphomas"). Remarkably, CXP lymphomas arise from peripheral B cells that had attempted both receptor editing (secondary V[D]J recombination of Igκ and Igλ light chain genes) and IgH CSR subsequent to Xrcc4 deletion. Correspondingly, CXP tumors frequently harbored a CSR-based reciprocal chromosomal translocation that fused IgH to c-myc, as well as large chromosomal deletions or translocations involving Igκ or Igλ, with the latter fusing Igλ to oncogenes or to IgH. Our findings reveal peripheral B cells that have undergone both editing and CSR and show them to be common progenitors of CXP tumors. Our ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CD40 ligand expressed by human B cells costimulates B cell responses. AU - Grammer, A. C.. AU - Bergman, M. C.. AU - Miura, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The possibility that activated B cells might express a ligand for CD40 that was of functional importance for B cell responses was examined by using highly purified human peripheral blood B cells, as well as a variety of B lymphoblastoid cell lines and hybridomas. Following stimulation with the combination of a calcium ionophore and a phorbol ester, human B cells bound a soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular portion of CD40 and the Fc region of lgG1 (CD40.lg). A variety of B cell lines and hybridomas also bound CD40.1g, either constitutively or after activation. In addition, CD40.Ig specifically immunoprecipitated a 33-kDa glycoprotein from surface 125I-labeled activated B cells. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the CD40 ligand mRNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Splenic B cells and antigen-specific B cells process anti-Ig in a similar manner. AU - Myers, Christopher D.. AU - Vitetta, Ellen S.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - B lymphocytes can process and present antigen to T cells. However, the fate of native antigen after its binding to specific B cells, i.e., the intracellular events involved in the processing and recycling of the antigenic fragments to the cell surface for antigen presentation, are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that murine B cells degrade anti-Ig molecules bound to their surface and release acid soluble fragments into the supernatant. We also demonstrate that the kinetics of this process are identical for anti-μ, anti-δ, and anti-light chain antibodies, indicating that both surface IgM and surface IgD are equally effective in binding antigen and directing its processing. We also describe the effects of azide, chloroquine, and irradiation on this process. To extend these studies to the ...
Autoreactive B cells are activated in PGIA, but our understanding of how they contribute to disease susceptibility is incomplete. The present work provides direct evidence that B cells are essential for the development of arthritis and provides several different functions by which they contribute to disease. One of the major findings of our studies is that Ag presentation by B cells is critical for the activation of autoreactive T cells. Moreover, the APC function of B cells requires the direct recognition of Ag through the BCR to activate autoreactive T cells. Once activated, the autoreactive T cells can induce a very mild form of arthritis, indicating that T cells subsequent to activation by Ag-specific B cells have a direct pathogenic role in disease. Although DCs and macrophages are present in mIgM mice, they are not sufficient to function as APCs for autoreactive T cell activation. Our second major finding is that B cell production of autoantibody is critical and that autoantibodies alone ...
Mice with the autosomal recessive severe combined immune deficiency (scid) mutation lack mature lymphocytes because of defective joining of T cell receptor and immunoglobulin (Ig) gene segments. Penetrance of this mutation is incomplete since 10-25% of SCID mice produce some T or B lymphocytes. This "leaky" phenotype could be due to a reversion of the mutation in some mice or to a constant, low frequency of functional lymphocytes generated in all SCID mice with variable survival of such cells. We report here that all SCID mice can be stimulated to produce functional B cells by the transfer of normal neonatal, but not adult, T cells. T cell-induced rescue of C.B-17scid B cells results in high levels of Ig expressing the Ighb allotype of the SCID recipient. These results show that all SCID mice generate some functional B cells, the majority of which do not survive in the absence of a subset of T cells present in high frequency in the neonate ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1/CD54 plays an important role in T cell dependent B cell activation and for function of B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells. ICAM-1 expression is upregulated as a consequence of B lymphocyte antigen receptor (BCR) signaling, thereby serving to render antigen-stimulated B cells more receptive to T cell-mediated costimulatory signals. We have investigated BCR-induced expression of the Icam-1 gene in primary B cells and B cell lines and have found it to be dependent on BCR-induced expression of the transcription factor EGR1. Icam-1 transcription, induced by BCR cross-linking or bypassing the BCR with phorbol ester, is absent in a B cell line in which the EGR1-encoding gene (egr-1) is methylated and not expressed. A potential EGR1-binding site was located at -701 bp upstream of the murine Icam-1 gene transcription start site and shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay to bind to murine EGR1. Mutation of this site in the context of 1.1 kb of the ...
Etiologic-based therapy is an ideal pharmacological option to treat or prevent diseases. There is no known etiology for multiple sclerosis (MS); however, envir...
Brown, L D.; Shen, F W.; Uhr, J W.; and Vitetta, E S., "The expression of lyb-2.1 On murine b lymphocytes. Abstr." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1222 ...
Intraocular lymphoma is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma involving the posterior eye. Basic research on this tumour has been hindered by an inability to expand the malignant B cell population. We developed a cell culture system, in which endothelial cell monolayers were infected with adenoviral vectors encoding HIV-1 proteins, Vpu and Tat. These monolayers permitted adhesion and proliferation of CD20-positive B cells from specimens of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from patients with intracranial tumor. The system provides a method for expansion of the malignant B cell population present in small volumes of fluid that are available for research use. ...
New insights into human B cell biology. B cells are highly important white blood cells known as lymphocytes and are part of the adaptive immune system. B cells have a specialised receptor on their cell surface (B cell receptor, BCR) which recognises specific proteins. Upon activation, B cells produce antibodies which bind antigens like e.g. molecules from pathogens or vaccines. The drawback of a vast range of different B cell receptors is the potential that some of the receptors recognise self-antigens which can then result in auto-immune disorders. The bone marrow continuously releases immature B cells into the blood stream. A high proportion of these so-called transitional B cells are able to recognise self-antigens via their BCR. It has been unknown where in the body these auto-reactive cells are checked and removed from the circulation. A recent publication by Anna Vossenkämper and Jo Spencer (Kings College) tracked the fate of human transitional B cells and identified that these cells ...
Sato S., Miller A.S., Howard M.C., Tedder T.F.. B lymphocyte development and function are regulated in part by the CD19 cell surface receptor complex, which is composed of at least four proteins; CD19, CD21 (CR2, complement receptor 2), CD81, and Leu 13. Because this complex has eight membrane-spanning domains and six cytoplasmic regions, determining the molecular basis for its function and signal transduction activities has not been straightforward. In this study, the contribution of the CD19 cytoplasmic domain to the in vivo function of the CD19/CD21/CD81/Leu 13 complex was assessed by generating CD19-deficient mice that expressed a transgene that encoded only the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD19. Mice expressing this transgene were similar, if not identical, to CD19-deficient mice with abnormal B cell development, a lack of B-1 cells, increased surface IgM levels on B cells, modest mitogen responses, minimal serum Ig levels, and low humoral immune responses. The results of this ...
In this study we analyzed the effect of CD40 stimulation on the activity and nuclear appearance of Rel/nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) factors in primary murine B lymphocytes. We show that triggering of CD40 signaling pathway(s) by CD40 ligands expressed on L cells led to strong activation of an NF-kappaB-controlled beta-globin reporter gene in primary B lymphocytes from transgenic mice. Analyses of nuclear translocation of individual members of Rel proteins after CD40 induction of primary B cells showed a strong and long-lasting accumulation of RelB and, less pronounced, of c-Rel. LPS stimulation did not give rise to a persistent nuclear accumulation of RelB and c-Rel, whereas nuclear c-Rel, but not RelB, accumulated after B cell receptor stimulation. CD40 induced not only nuclear translocation but also de novo synthesis of RelB RNA and protein. S107 plasmacytoma cells, which express CD40 but are defective for the nuclear appearance of p50/p65-NF-kappaB, do not express RelB after CD40 stimulation. In
This report describes the effects of B cell growth factor (BCGFII) and other lymphokines in the differentiation of normal and tumor B cells. We compared BCL1 tumor B cells, normal B cells giving rise to a polyclonal response without the intentional addition of antigen, and an antigen-driven, SRBC-specific response. BCL1 tumor B cells gave maximum PFC responses when partially purified BCGFII was added or when suboptimal doses of BCGFII were mixed with one of several putative terminal differentiation factors we call B cell differentiation factors BCDF. IFN-gamma was not active as any of these factors. Maximum polyclonal responses of B cells were seen when either IL 2 or BCGFII were mixed with BCDF. In contrast, SRBC-specific responses showed a strict requirement for IL 2, and BCGFII and BCDF synergized with IL 2 to give a maximum response. The involvement of BCGFII in all of these responses suggests that BCGFII acts as a growth factor for a population of B cells that has differentiated much of the ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We have used a novel hu-mouse model expressing a human-specific surrogate self-Ag to formally demonstrate that developing human B cells use receptor editing as a mechanism of central B cell tolerance. Central B cell tolerance in hu-mice is stringent but incomplete. Although the selection of autoreactive B cells into the periphery is rare, variations in the extent of tolerance were observed and shown to depend on the amount of self-Ag as well as the individual genetics of the source of CB.. To date, most studies of human B cell tolerance have focused on limited repertoire analyses of B cell subsets present in peripheral blood (Meffre and Wardemann, 2008; Meffre, 2011). These studies have been invaluable in establishing the presence of tolerance checkpoints, but they have been limited to a poorly defined set of self-Ags without a clear understanding of how these Ags directly affect B cells in vivo. In fact, although a significant reduction in the frequency of autoreactive clones in the human B ...
Redox-regulation of receptors and transcription factors are important for lymphocyte activation, differentiation and apoptosis. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a key redox-regulating protein and oxidative stress sensor operating in synergy with Trx-reductase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). The expression of Trx, PDI, and the Trx-regulated transcription-factor Pax5 were analyzed in a panel of human B cell lines and were compared with that of the Bcl-2 family proteins, also redox-controlled. The panel included representative cells from various stages: FLEB14-4 (pro-B), REH and NALM-6 (pre-B), Rael and Daudi (small mature B), U-698 and NC0467.3 (B-blasts), LP-1, U-1996, and U-266 (plasma cells). We found a significant congruence and co-variation of Trx and Bcl-2 levels in the B-lineage, with high expression levels in early stages (pro-B and pre-B) and in the late stage representing terminally-differentiated plasma cells, whereas mid-stage small resting B cells showed a very low expression. PDI ...
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The expression of the CD24 molecule, a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts, was studied in developing nerve and muscle (after 16 weeks of gestat
A first clue that SPMs might affect B cell functions was the discovery that B cells express the ALX/FPR2 receptor that recognizes the D-series resolvins, RvD1 and RvD3 (79). 17-HDHA, RvD1, and PD1 are naturally produced within the spleen, a site where B cells commonly reside (35). PUFAs present in omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (precursors for SPM production) were shown to affect B cell functions in mice by increasing antibody production and B cell activation (71, 72, 74). Similarly, mice fed a diet rich in DHA and EPA had a higher number of IgM-expressing splenic B cells following antigen stimulation compared with mice not receiving a PUFA-enriched diet (71). In a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, mice fed a high-fat (Western) diet containing primarily omega-6 fatty acids exhibited diminished antibody titers and increased mortality to influenza challenge relative to a normal diet. These effects could be rescued with dietary DHA (69). Dietary supplementation with PUFAs or PUFA-enriched fish ...
The production of antibody to a thymus-dependent Ag requires cooperation between the B cell and an Ag-specific Th cell. MHC restriction of this interaction implies that the Th cell recognizes Ag on the B cell surface in the context of MHC molecules and that the Ag-specific B cell gets help by acting as an APC for the Th cell. However, a number of studies have suggested that normal resting B cells are ineffective as APC, implying that the B cell must leave the resting state before it can interact specifically with a Th cell. Other studies, including our own with rabbit globulin-specific mouse T cell lines and hybridomas, show that certain T cell lines can be efficiently stimulated by normal resting B cells. One possible explanation for the above contradiction is that our B cells have become activated before presentation. Here we show that presentation by size-selected small B cells is not the result of nonspecific activation signals generated by the T cells or components of the medium. Also, although LPS
Normal B cells responsive to thymus independent-type 1 Ags (TI-1) are resistant to low doses of ionizing radiation in vivo (200-300 cGy), compared with TI-1 responsive B cells of mice with the CBA/N X-linked immunodeficiency (xid). This difference in radiosensitivity is an intrinsic B cell property; normal B cells adoptively transferred into xid mice remain TI-1-responsive after irradiation in situ. Because irradiation induces programmed cell death (PCD) in lymphocytes, we determined whether PCD were regulated differently in normal and xid B cells. B cells isolated immediately after irradiation from normal or xid donors when cultured without stimulators became apoptotic with the same kinetics and to the same extent, showing that apoptosis was induced equally in both populations. Apoptosis could be suppressed and mitogenesis could be induced frequently, however, if irradiated B cells were cultured with B cell activators. When activators using separate signal transduction pathways were compared, a
B lymphocytes are necessary cells in defense replies. B lymphocytes HVCN1S appearance is normally higher in B-cell lines and in B cells from sufferers with chronic lymphocytic leukemia where it could donate to disease pathogenesis. and and relationship did not differ significantly. HVCN1S Responds More Strongly Avasimibe Avasimibe to PKC-Dependent Phosphorylation. Proton currents in phagocytes and other cells are greatly augmented by phosphorylation of the channel by PKC (8). The enhanced gating response is usually stimulated effectively by the PKC activator PMA (phorbol myristate acetate) and is best analyzed using the perforated-patch configuration that preserves intracellular signaling pathways (9). Fig. 2 illustrates families of proton currents in cells expressing HVCN1L and HVCN1S before and after PMA activation. In response to PMA the currents turn on more rapidly and at more unfavorable voltages and turn off more slowly and the current amplitude is usually increased. Although HVCN1L ...
Ramos-Blue™ KD-MyD (MyD88 knockdown) is a B lymphocyte cell line specifically designed to monitor MyD88-mediated signaling.Ramos-Blue™ KD-MyD were obtained by stable integration of an NF-κB/AP-1-inducible SEAP (secreted embryonic alkaline phosphate) reporter gene and stable knowndown of the MyD88 ge
The HB14 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD40, a 45-50 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. It is expressed primarily on B cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts and at lower levels on plasma cells and a subset of peripheral T cells. CD40 is involved in B cell differentiation and proliferation, isotype class-switching, and protection of B cells from apoptosis. Interaction of CD40 with its ligand CD154 is important in T cell-B cell interaction and plays a role in costimulation and immune regulation. Clone HB14 blocks the binding of CD40 to CD154. This prevents down-regulation of CD154 expression induced by interaction with CD40 expressed on antigen-presenting cells. - Belgique
Xu, H., Liew, L.N., Kuo, I.C., Huang, C.H., Goh, D.L.-M., Chua, K.Y. (2008). The modulatory effects of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B cells on differential T-cell polarization. Immunology 125 (2) : 218-228. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.02832. ...
The CD38 antigen is a 45 kDa single chain type II integral membrane glycoprotein, with the NH2-terminus inside the cytoplasm. CD38 is an enzyme with several activities such as NAD glycohydrolase, ADP ribosylcyclase and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase. CD38 is expressed on activated T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, plasma cells and medullary thymocytes. CD38 expression appears to depend on the differentiation and activation of the cell. In the B cell lineage, CD38 is expressed in early stages of B-cell ontogeny, lost during maturation and re-expressed upon terminal differentiation to plasma cells. Similarly, CD38 is expressed on thymocytes and at a high level on activated T cells. Most mature resting lymphocytes of both B and T lineages do not express the CD38 antigen. CD38 is widely used as a marker to study T and B lymphocyte activation.
The CD38 antigen is a 45 kDa single chain type II integral membrane glycoprotein, with the NH2-terminus inside the cytoplasm. CD38 is an enzyme with several activities such as NAD glycohydrolase, ADP ribosylcyclase and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase. CD38 is expressed on activated T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, plasma cells and medullary thymocytes. CD38 expression appears to depend on the differentiation and activation of the cell. In the B cell lineage, CD38 is expressed in early stages of B-cell ontogeny, lost during maturation and re-expressed upon terminal differentiation to plasma cells. Similarly, CD38 is expressed on thymocytes and at a high level on activated T cells. Most mature resting lymphocytes of both B and T lineages do not express the CD38 antigen. CD38 is widely used as a marker to study T and B lymphocyte activation.
The CD38 antigen is a 45 kDa single chain type II integral membrane glycoprotein, with the NH2-terminus inside the cytoplasm. CD38 is an enzyme with several activities such as NAD glycohydrolase, ADP ribosylcyclase and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase. CD38 is expressed on activated T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, plasma cells and medullary thymocytes. CD38 expression appears to depend on the differentiation and activation of the cell. In the B cell lineage, CD38 is expressed in early stages of B-cell ontogeny, lost during maturation and re-expressed upon terminal differentiation to plasma cells. Similarly, CD38 is expressed on thymocytes and at a high level on activated T cells. Most mature resting lymphocytes of both B and T lineages do not express the CD38 antigen. CD38 is widely used as a marker to study T and B lymphocyte activation. *Alexa Fluor and Pacific Blue are registered trademarks of Molecular Probes, Inc ...
The CD38 antigen is a 45 kDa single chain type II integral membrane glycoprotein, with the NH2-terminus inside the cytoplasm. CD38 is an enzyme with several activities such as NAD glycohydrolase, ADP ribosylcyclase and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase. CD38 is expressed on activated T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, plasma cells and medullary thymocytes. CD38 expression appears to depend on the differentiation and activation of the cell. In the B cell lineage, CD38 is expressed in early stages of B-cell ontogeny, lost during maturation and re-expressed upon terminal differentiation to plasma cells. Similarly, CD38 is expressed on thymocytes and at a high level on activated T cells. Most mature resting lymphocytes of both B and T lineages do not express the CD38 antigen. CD38 is widely used as a marker to study T and B lymphocyte activation ...
An assay for simultaneously determining the ratio of B cells and T cells to the total cell population and subpopulations thereof present in a lymphocyte population utilizes excess amounts of B cell bi
Enzymopathies are a disturbance of enzyme function, including genetic deficiency or defect in specific enzymes. Current methods for the treatment of enzymopathi...
Original citation: J. Clin. Invest.112:286-297 (2003). doi:10.1172/JCI18025.. Citation for this corrigendum: J. Clin. Invest.113:1069 (2004). doi:10.1172/JCI18025E1.. The legends for Figures 6 and 7 contained inaccuracies, and the correct versions appear below. The conclusions of the article are unaffected.. Figure 6 BAFF increases the generation of ISC from activated memory B cells. (a and b) Memory B cells were preactivated with CD40L and IL-2/IL-10 for 4 days and then recultured with (a) media (black bars), or (b) IL-2/IL-10 alone (black bars) or in the presence of CD40L (white bars) or BAFF (gray bars). Each value represents the mean Ig secretion ± SEM of five (a) or seven (b) experiments using cells from different donors. *P , 0.05; **P , 0.01. (c) Secondary B cell cultures were performed in the absence (black bars) or presence (white bars) of soluble TACI-Ig (20 μg/ml). The values represent the mean IgA ± SD of duplicate samples. (d) Memory B cells were preactivated with ...
Hi Jakub, I didnt get the original post, but I wanted to let you know about another method of Bcell stimulation that Ive used before- polyclonal goat anti-IgD. It was originally developed by Fred Finkelman (i think) and Ive used it in murine models in vivo systems with lots of luck- it should work in vitro if you can find the antibody. Interestingly, this type of stimulation is T cell independent, although it prefferentially activates naive B cells. IdGrad mbdxm at my-deja.com wrote: , Hi Jakub, , , Purify your B cells first then use PMA (phorbol , ester) 10 ug/ml and ionomycin 1 ug/ml. , , LPS should have worked but its not specific to B , cells. , , As for monkey anti-IgM ( anti-mu should be better), , try the antibody resource pages on the web there , are many usually as part of a company site. , , You might need to crosslink the anti-mu to get a , mitogenic signal. Even better if you stimulate your , cells with IL-4 and anti-IgM. , , cheers , , david , , In article ,382A22EC.D1A9E24F at ...
Antibody-producing B cells arise from hematopoietic stem cells through a series of developmental steps that involve a hierarchical transcription factor network....
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This gene was identified by the up-regulation of its expression upon Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary B lymphocytes. This gene is predicted to encode a G protein-coupled receptor that is most closely related to the thrombin receptor. Expression of this gene was detected in B-lymphocyte cell lines and lymphoid tissues but not in T-lymphocyte cell lines or peripheral blood T lymphocytes. The function of this gene is unknown ...
Clone RP/14 recognizes CD180, a type I transmembrane protein structurally similar to Toll like receptors (TLRs), with the conserved features of TLRs, including a leucine-rich repeat extracellular domain and regions containing conserved cysteines. However, in contrast to TLRs, CD180 lacks a typical TIR domain, containing only 6 to 11 intracytoplasmic amino acids. Antibody mediated ligation of CD180 was shown to induce B cell proliferation and protection from subsequent radiation- or dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Expression of CD180 is found on mature B cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD180 activity is dependent on physical association with a molecule called MD-1. In B cells, CD180, together with TLR4, has been shown to induce B cell proliferation in response to LPS. However, in primary myeloid cells and in vivo , CD180 acts as an inhibitor of TLR4 signaling. - Lëtzebuerg
IL-15 is a relatively novel cytokine that shares many biological activities with IL-2 [1,2]. The two cytokines have similar tertiary structure, and use β and γ chains of the IL-2 receptor complex for binding and signal transduction. However, unlike IL-2, which is produced by activated T cells, IL-15 is produced from a wide variety of cells and tissues in the body. Furthermore, it has a unique receptor component (α-chain), which also has much wider cell and tissue distribution compared with its corresponding α-chain for IL-2. In blood, monocyte-macrophages represent the main cell type that produces IL-15. This cytokine markedly increases the cytolytic potential of natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T cells, and induces proliferation and antibody secretion in antigen-activated B cells. In vivo, it has been shown to be essential for the development and maturation of NK cells [1,2]. IL-15 is induced in the host as a defence to viral and non-viral intracellular pathogens. Human herpesviruses have ...
Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID, pronounced "skid") is a rare, potentially fatal syndrome of diverse genetic cause in which there is combined absence of T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte function (and in many cases also natural killer, or NK lymphocyte function). These defects lead to extreme susceptibility to serious infections. There are currently thirteen known genetic causes of SCID. Although they vary with respect to the specific defect that causes the immunodeficiency, some of their laboratory findings and their pattern of inheritance, these all have severe deficiencies in both T-cell and B-cell function. Our son, Taylor, has the most common form of SCID called X-linked, affecting nearly 45% of all cases. The mutation is in a gene on the X chromosome that encodes a component (or chain) shared by the T-cell growth factor receptors. Mutations in this gene result in very low T-lymphocyte and NK-lymphocyte counts, but the B-lymphocyte count is high. Despite the high number of ...
TCL1A Enhances the phosphorylation and activation of AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3. Promotes nuclear translocation of AKT1. Enhances cell proliferation, stabilizes mitochondrial membrane potential and promotes cell survival. Homodimer. Interacts with AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3 (via PH domain). Interacts with PNPT1; the interaction has no effect on PNPT1 exonuclease activity. Restricted in the T-cell lineage to immature thymocytes and activated peripheral lymphocytes. Preferentially expressed early in T- and B-lymphocyte differentiation. Belongs to the TCL1 family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
Results 66 recombinant antibodies were generated from naïve B cells of 4 SS patients and compared to 45 clones from 2 HD. Analysis of the VH and VL gene usage showed no significant differences between SS and HD. Conversely, we observed accumulation of circulating autoreactive naïve B cells in SS as demonstrated by increased reactivity towards Hep2 cells (43.1% SS vs 25% HD) and ENA (19.6% SS clones vs none). Among ENA+ clones, 6 displayed reactivity towards Ro/SSA and/or La/SSB.. ...
Cumulative evidence indicates that the CD19 coreceptor can induce positive signals that could enhance B cell responses. By regulating Src kinases and PI3K activity, it lowers the threshold of BcR-mediated signaling. Strikingly, study of CD19-/- mice revealed an apparent tight regulation of CD19 cell surface density during B cell development (Saito et al., 2002). In contrast to mice that overexpress CD19, CD19-/- mice have a markedly elevated BcR signaling threshold compared with wild-type mice. Reversibly, transgenic expression of low levels of human CD19 with normal levels of mouse CD19 resulted in hyperactive B cells and loss of tolerance to nuclear Ags (Sato etal., 2000). Since the product of PI3K, phosphatidyl inositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate, activates protein kinase B (PKB), which in turn promotes B cell survival, CD19 participates positively in B cell activation. Its positive effect on PI3K activity also may result in survival of immature B cells with low-affinity-binding BcRs, a potential ...
Anti-inflammatory cytokines are IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, IL-13, IL-16, transforming growth factor β, soluble TNF-receptor and soluble interleukin-1 receptor. » ... « The alveolar bone proper is 0.1 to 0.4 mm thick and is consisted of a Harversian system and lamellated and bundle bone. » ... « The immune response to infection is regulated by the balance between T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cytokines. The differentiation of Th1 and Th2 T cell subsets is determined by a number of factors, including the antigen itself, antigen dose, route of administration, nature of the antigen-presenting cell and co-stimulatory molecules. » ... « Lymphocytes comprise 20-40% (1000 - 4000 cells/μl) of all leukocytes. » ... « Markers/Receptors on B cells are Surface Immunoglobulin (IgM and IgD), CD40, B7, ICAM-1, LFA-1, MHC II, CD32 (Ig Fc receptor), CD35 (Receptor for complement component). » ... « Genes for HLA are clustered in MHC located on Chromosome 6: 6p21. » ... « Most leukotoxin producing strains of A. ...
Anti-inflammatory cytokines are IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, IL-13, IL-16, transforming growth factor β, soluble TNF-receptor and soluble interleukin-1 receptor. » ... « The alveolar bone proper is 0.1 to 0.4 mm thick and is consisted of a Harversian system and lamellated and bundle bone. » ... « The immune response to infection is regulated by the balance between T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cytokines. The differentiation of Th1 and Th2 T cell subsets is determined by a number of factors, including the antigen itself, antigen dose, route of administration, nature of the antigen-presenting cell and co-stimulatory molecules. » ... « Lymphocytes comprise 20-40% (1000 - 4000 cells/μl) of all leukocytes. » ... « Markers/Receptors on B cells are Surface Immunoglobulin (IgM and IgD), CD40, B7, ICAM-1, LFA-1, MHC II, CD32 (Ig Fc receptor), CD35 (Receptor for complement component). » ... « Genes for HLA are clustered in MHC located on Chromosome 6: 6p21. » ... « Most leukotoxin producing strains of A. ...
Lymphocytes are essential for the generation of specific immunity. Development of B cells in the bone marrow and T cells in the thymus have several analogous features, and are tightly regulated processes. Even though there is an increasing amount of information concerning lymphopoiesis, a lot of questions remain. The aim of this thesis has been to understand some of the molecular events that contribute to the control of lymphocyte development.. Expression of the B cell receptor is an important checkpoint in B lymphocyte development. The Dµ protein is a truncated B cell receptor that can induce some of the signals elicited by full length µ, but cannot promote further B cell differentiation. In order to determine if this could stem from an impaired survival signal, we introduced Bcl-2 into RAG2 deficient Dµ transgenic mice. Analysis of these mice showed that Dµ could not support pre-B cell maturation despite extended survival of B cell precursors by Bcl-2. In addition, data from recombination ...
Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is a stromal cell-derived cytokine that stands out as being the only cytokine identified to date on which development of B and T lymphocytes is absolutely dependent. IL-7 functions primarily as a growth and antiapoptosis factor for B- and T-cell (alphabeta and gammadelta TCR+ cells) precursors, and is essential for differentiation of gammadelta TCR+ cells. IL-7 can function as a cofactor during myelopoiesis, and is capable of activating monocytes/macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. Its receptor (IL-7R) is a heterodimer of an alpha chain that specifically binds IL-7 and the common gamma chain gammac that is also a component of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-9 and IL-15. The functions of IL-7 in normal lymphocyte development and activation have led to the demonstration of the ability of IL-7 to stimulate lymphopoiesis in lymphopenic mice, suggesting a possible clinical application of IL-7 in accelerating lymphoid reconstitution in lymphopenic patients. There have also ...
Information is in great depth. Great command in language and flow of text, especially when explaining the role of calcium recruitment in T-cell independent activation. This allowed me to link my understanding to how B cells induce differentiation without the dependent need of T-cell activation. It is also presented in a concise manner, especially in the Differentiated B cells section in which it provides information of their origins and important functions after B cells are differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells. That is, that they act as APCs and present the antigens to CD4+ T cells. The tabulation of the B-cell surface molecules was a spectacular idea as it nicely summarised which those that exist on the surface and provides a brief explanation of their respective functions. However, other information such as the Antibody Isotypes, whilst also equally concisely explained, can be tabulated so that it is aesthetically pleasing to the reader and easy to distinguish, comparing them by their ...
Principal Investigator:NISHIOKA Yuichi,宮本 昭正, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:内科学一般
In the last part the differential response of splenic mature B cells to the mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. It was known that frequencies of LPS-reactive B cells in C57BL/6 mice is higher than in BALB/c mice. In this study, it could be shown that actually the FOB cells of C57BL/6 respond stronger to LPS in vitro than FOB cells of the BALB/c strain. In addition, MZB cells of both mouse strains showed a stronger response to LPS than the FOB cells. However, in contrast to the observation in FOB cells, MZB cells of both tested strains responded equally strong. A genetic approach did not lead to the identification of a responsible locus for the observed differential response in FOB cells, but indicated that most probably multiple genes control the response in a differential fashion in FOB cells in the tested mouse strains. Furthermore, the results suggest that the stronger response of FOB cells from C57BL/6 mice either involves components within the MyD88-dependent pathway or ...
The B cell receptor (BCR) consists of an antigen-binding membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) associated with the CD79α and CD79β heterodimer. Naïve B cells express the IgM and IgD isotypes, which have very short cytoplasmic tails and therefore depend on CD79α and CD79β for signal transduction. After antigenic stimulation, B cells undergo isotype switching to yield IgG, IgE, or IgA. Recent research suggests that the ability of the B cell coreceptor CD22 to regulate BCR signaling depends on the isotype of the mIg cytoplasmic tail. Cell lines that express a BCR with the cytoplasmic tail from IgG, the isotype found in memory B cells, are not subject to CD22 regulation, whereas cell lines that express BCRs with IgM cytoplasmic tails are subject to CD22 regulation. Moreover, stimulation through BCRs containing an IgG cytoplasmic tail causes increased numbers of antigen-specific clones to accumulate. These observations are a valuable step toward understanding the difference in B cell signaling between ...
Mazur, A. I., Monahan, J. L., Miljković, M., Laver, N., Diem, M. and Bird, B. (2013), Vibrational spectroscopic changes of B-lymphocytes upon activation. J. Biophoton., 6: 101-109. doi: 10.1002/jbio.201200136 ...
The immunoglobulin E (IgE) B cell receptor promotes plasma cell differentiation in the absence of cognate antigen and limits the competitive fitness of IgE+ B cells in germinal centers.
Comparison of TLR4 ligand-exposed or nonexposed B cells in the iLN by intravital TP-LSM. (A) Imaging. Labeled LPS-activated and control B cells were transferr
Gene target information for Vpreb2 - pre-B lymphocyte gene 2 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Depletion of XIAP restores caspase-3 processing and activity. Cytosolic extracts of L1236 and KMH2 cells and of control B cell L1309 were prepared, and equal am
This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well as some specific...
These cells inhibit the activation phase of the immune response by suppressing the response of B cells (antibody producing cells) or of other T cells (killer T cells, helper T cells) to an antigen resulting in tolerance for the antigen by the host ...
Hello everyone, Weve talked before about where and how B cells mature from naive cells to memory cells, and how that process might be responsible for autoimmunity. During an infection, B cells migrate to the so-called Germinal centres where they ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Substrate stiffness governs the initiation of B cell activation by the concerted signaling of PKCβ and focal adhesion kinase.
Abstract: We develop a technique for computing expected numbers of vacua in Gaussian ensembles of supergravity theories, and apply it to derive an asymptotic formula for the index counting all flux supersymmetric vacua with signs in Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIb string theory, which becomes exact in the limit of a large number of fluxes. This should give a reasonable estimate for actual numbers of vacua in string theory, for CYs with small b_3 ...
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Looking for online definition of pre-B lymphocyte in the Medical Dictionary? pre-B lymphocyte explanation free. What is pre-B lymphocyte? Meaning of pre-B lymphocyte medical term. What does pre-B lymphocyte mean?
The ICOS-B7h costimulatory receptor-ligand pair is required for germinal center formation, the production of isotype-switched antibodies, and antibody affinity maturation in response to T cell-dependent antigens. However, the potentially distinct roles of regulated B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses have not been defined. We generated transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression to assess the cell-type specific roles of B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in regulating T cell-dependent antibody responses. Our results show that endogenous B7h expression is reduced on B cells after activation in vitro and is also reduced in vivo on antibody-secreting plasma B cells in comparison to both naïve and germinal center B cells from which they are derived. Increasing the level of B7h expression on activated and plasma B cells in B-B7hTg mice led to an increase in the number of antibody-secreting plasma cells generated after immunization and a
We have studied the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the regulation of intercellular adhesion of human B cells. We found that molecules able to bind to MHC class II molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or staphylococcal enterotoxins, induced rapid and sustained homotypic adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell lines as well as peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibodies also stimulated intercellular adherence. Adhesion induced upon MHC engagement was faster and stronger than that triggered by phorbol esters. It needed active metabolism, but divalent cations were not required. Monoclonal antibodies directed against LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) or its ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) did not inhibit MHC class II-induced homotypic adhesion of various EBV-transformed B cell lines, nor of a variant of the B cell line Raji expressing very low LFA-1 surface levels. Moreover, EBV-transformed B cells from a severe lymphocyte adhesion deficiency
It is generally assumed that chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B cell origin (B-CLL) is characterized by the presence of surface membrane immunoglobulins (SmIg) and by the absence of cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (CyIg). In a variable number of cases SmI
The study was performed in accordance with IRB-reviewed protocols of the UT Southwestern Medical Center (IRB no. 0199-017) and The Rockefeller University (HWA-0518-1003), and all samples were obtained after signed informed consent. Peripheral blood samples from three untreated SLE patients were obtained at the Division of Pediatric Rheumatology of UT Southwestern Medical Center and shipped overnight. Peripheral blood from healthy controls was obtained at The Rockefeller University and kept overnight on a shaker at room temperature. SLE and control blood samples were processed in parallel for comparison and FACS settings. Control data shown are from previously published healthy controls (13). Single B cell isolation was performed as described previously (13). In brief, B cells were preenriched by incubation of peripheral blood with RossetteSep according to the manufacturers instructions (Stem Cell Technologies, Inc.) followed by Ficoll-Hypaque (Amersham Biosciences) gradient centrifugation. ...
The contribution of intrinsic defects in B and/or T cell function or impaired T-B cell interaction towards poor recall and neo-antigen vaccine responses in HIV-1 infection are not fully understood. Using CVID as a model for B cell maturation, we show patients with untreated HIV-1 infection have increased transitional and tissue like B cells and reduced IgM memory and class switched memory B cell proportions. Loss of IgM memory B cells is associated with progressive HIV-1. Antiretroviral therapy reduces transitional and tissue like B cell percentages but does not restore IgM memory or class switched memory proportions. Most HIV-1 patients on ART have reduced antibody levels post tetanus and pneumococcal vaccination. IgM memory B cell depletion associates with poor post vaccine IgM pneumococcal titres in HIV-1 suggesting loss of IgM memory B cells may be a risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease. CVID patients with lung disease had lower memory B cells and a trend towards a loss of IgM ...
We determined that, as compared with human naïve B cells, human GC B cells have a higher intrinsic affinity threshold for antigen. We observed that independently of other extrinsic factors, such as competition among B cells for antigen, the intrinsic affinity of GC B cells for an antigen dictated each subsequent step in B cell activation from the magnitude of BCR signaling to the receptivity of BCR-stimulated GC B cells to Tfh cell signals that drive IRF-4 expression and PC differentiation. We provided evidence that BCRs on LZ GC B cells are concentrated in distinct, highly dynamic, ezrin- and actin-rich pod-like structures through which the BCRs engage antigen, signal, exert pulling forces, and extract antigen from membranes. In contrast, the BCRs on naïve B cells function in flat, stable membrane contacts, with antigen-containing surfaces displaying the well-described features of immune synapses and cSMACs. The role of these pod-like structures in establishing high-affinity thresholds for GC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the costimulator molecules, CD40 and CD154, on lymphocytes from neonates and young children. AU - Elliott, Salenna. AU - Roberton, Don M.. AU - Zola, Heddy. AU - MacArdle, Peter J.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Differential expression of the costimulator molecules CD40 and CD154 on neonatal lymphocytes may be one explanation for limited T-dependent antibody responses in human neonates. CD40 was expressed at similar levels on resting B cells from adults, young children (2-20 months of age) or cord blood. CD40 expression was higher on cord blood B cells compared to adult B cells after stimulation with PMA and ionomycin, but similar on adult and cord blood B cells activated by CD3-stimulated T cells. In contrast to previous reports, cord blood T cells stimulated with PMA and ionomycin expressed adult levels of CD154 initially, but this expression was more transient on cord blood T cells. When adult and cord blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with CD3 mAb, T ...
Cancer immunotherapy by therapeutic activation of T cells has demonstrated clinical potential. Approaches include checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Here, we report the development of an alternative strategy for cellular immunotherapy that combines induction of a tumor-directed T-cell response and antibody secretion without the need for genetic engineering. CD40 ligand stimulation of murine tumor antigen-specific B cells, isolated by antigen-biotin tetramers, resulted in the development of an antigen-presenting phenotype and the induction of a tumor antigen-specific T-cell response. Differentiation of antigen-specific B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells was achieved by stimulation with IL21, IL4, anti-CD40, and the specific antigen. Combined treatment of tumor-bearing mice with antigen-specific CD40-activated B cells and antigen-specific plasma cells induced a therapeutic antitumor immune response resulting in remission of established tumors. Human CEA or ...
The integrin LFA-1 and its ligand ICAM-1 mediate B cell adhesion, but their role in membrane-bound antigen recognition is still unknown. Here, using planar lipid bilayers and cells expressing ICAM-1 fused to green fluorescence protein, we found that the engagement of B cell receptor (BCR) promotes B cell adhesion by an LFA-1-mediated mechanism. LFA-1 is recruited to form a mature B cell synapse segregating into a ring around the BCR. This distribution is maintained over a wide range of BCR/antigen affinities (10(6) M(-1) to 10(11) M(-1)). Furthermore, the LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 reduces the level of antigen required to form the synapse and trigger a B cell. Thus, LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction lowers the threshold for B cell activation by promoting B cell adhesion and synapse formation.
Exosomes are lipid bound nanovesicles that are formed via the inward budding of the endosomal membrane, then released upon fusion of the endosomal limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. The majority of exosome studies involve the use of exosomes from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells or immortalised cell lines. This research project has focused on exosomes derived from primary B cells in response to T cell signalling, in particular via the CD40 and the interleukin-4 receptors. The fate of exosomes following their release is largely unknown. However as we have previously identified that B cell-derived exosomes are enriched in the antigen presenting molecules major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), MHC-II and immunoglobulin, this may implicate B cell-derived exosomes in the transfer of antigen. We have sought to address the physiological role of primary B cell-derived exosomes and their interactions with other cells within secondary lymphoid tissue in vivo. We identified ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening", said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. "Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening", said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
B1 cells are a sub-class of B cell lymphocytes that are involved in the humoral immune response. They are not part of the adaptive immune system, as they have no memory, but otherwise, B1 cells perform many of the same roles as other B cells: making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B cells. B1b cells have been shown to be capable of memory responses. See "B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity." B1 cells are first produced in the fetus and most B1 cells undergo self-renewal in the periphery, unlike conventional B cells (B2 cells) that are produced after birth and replaced in the bone marrow. In January 2011, human B1 cells were found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, which has been debated since. CD5-CD72 is thought to mediate B cell-B cell interaction. B-1 B cells, in the mouse, can be further subdivided into B-1a (CD5+) and B-1b (CD5−) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aged mice exhibit distinct B cell precursor phenotypes differing in activation, proliferation and apoptosis. AU - Van der Put, Elaine. AU - Sherwood, Erin M.. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B. AU - Riley, Richard L. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - Senescence in murine models is associated with a reduction, albeit heterogeneous, in bone marrow pre-B cells. We have categorized aged BALB/c mice into two phenotypes based on their patterns of pre-B/pro-B cell loss. Each phenotype is characterized by distinct responses to the growth cytokine IL-7 and capacity for survival in vitro. A moderate loss of late-stage pre-B cells (25-80%) coincided with decline in proliferation to rmIL-7. This was also associated with a decrease in the frequency of pro-B cells which increased phosphotyrosine content upon IL-7 stimulation, an indicator of early activation events. A severe loss of pre-B cells (,80%) resulted in a reduced pro-B cell pool which retained normal activation and proliferative ...
Differentiation of tumor B lymphocytes. The team also studies the genetic and epigenetic modifications of tumor B cells in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In FL, we identified a phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) hyper-signaling correlated with an increase of IL-21 secretion by Tfh and with the expression of some target genes of pSTAT3. However the key gene of the B cell differentiation into plasma cell, PRDM1, a pSTAT3 target gene of, has a weak expression in FL, highlighting the existence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities related to the disease. We aim to understand these deregulations, in particular by showing the importance of the acetylation properties in the B differentiation and in the control of the PRDM1 gene expression. Our work supports clinicians in their choice to use new therapeutics targeting the epigenome, such as the histone acetyltransferase inhibitors (HDACi), in treating FL patients.. As for the technology employed, we implemented a gene capture ...
While B cells are traditionally regarded as marketers of the immune system response via antibody release and pro-inflammatory cytokine creation, latest research have got verified an essential function for B-cell-mediated detrimental regulations of immunity also. in the full years to follow. The past 10 years provides noticed remarkable developments in our understanding of B-cell immunoregulation. Mizoguchi advancement of this exclusive regulatory people. Nevertheless, the identity of IL-10-making resistant cells is normally barely a simple job and continues to be complicated in the field of regulatory B-cell biology (18). This is normally because specific spleen C cells singled out from unsuspecting wildtype rodents perform not really constitutively sole or secrete measurable IL-10 proteins without account activation. Provided the incapacity to observe C10 cells straight assays to detect cytokine creation in Testosterone levels cells had been improved to recognize C cells that had been ...
article{9a5c9918-f28d-42f7-9e4a-e617d47af020, abstract = {Development of type-II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) is dependent on a T-cell mediated activation of autoreactive B cells. However, it is still unclear if B cells can present CII to T cells. To investigate the role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for CII, we purified B cells from lymph nodes of immunized and nonimmunized mice. These B cells were used as APC for antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. B cells from naïve mice did present native, triple-helical, CII (nCII) but also ovalbumin (OVA) and denatured CII (dCII) to antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. In addition, B cells primed with nCII or OVA, but not dCII, activated the antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas two to three times better than naïve B cells. We conclude that antigen-primed B cells have the capacity to process and present CII to primed T cells, and antigen-primed antigen-specific B cells are more efficient as APC than naïve B cells. We further ...
Secretory IgA (S-IgA) is a hallmark antibody principally produced at mucosal sites and plays an important role in the creation of immunological surveillance and homeostasis at mucosa. In addition to the IgA induction through gut-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyers patch), peritoneal B cells have been considered to be another source of S-IgA, especially specific for the T-independent antigen. Here we show that the trafficking of peritoneal B cells is principally regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Peritoneal B cells expressed high levels of the type 1 S1P receptor. Thus, disruption of S1P-mediated signaling caused a rapid disappearance of peritoneal B cells. These changes did not affect natural plasma antibody production or phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific antibody production in serum after peritoneal immunization with heat-killed streptococcal pneumoniae. However, it dramatically reduced peritoneal B cell-derived natural intestinal S-IgA production without affecting the expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation by CD4+ T cells specific for an MHC class II promiscuous epitope. AU - Omiya, Ryusuke. AU - Buteau, Chantal. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroya. AU - Paya, Carlos V.. AU - Celis, Esteban. PY - 2002/8/15. Y1 - 2002/8/15. N2 - Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and B cell lymphomas induced by EBV continue to be a major life-threatening complication in transplant patients. The establishment and enhancement of T cell immunity to EBV before transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy could help diminish these complications, but the lack of an effective vaccine has limited this prophylactic approach. We describe here the identification of a peptide epitope from the EBV EBNA2 Ag that is capable of inducing in vitro CD4+ T cell responses that inhibit the EBV-mediated B lymphocyte proliferation associated with PTLD. Most significantly, T cell responses to the EBNA2 epitope were found to be restricted by numerous MHC class II alleles ...
Ittigen, Switzerland (ots) - Pevion Biotech AG today announced further data from the ongoing clinical study of its therapeutic Candida vaccine PEV7, demonstrating the generation...
B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after either lectin or antigen stimulation. It supports the clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes. "Entrez Gene: BCGF1 B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa". Kumar A, Vasquez A, Maizel AL, Sharma S (1991). "Human BCGF-12kD functions as an autocrine growth factor in transformed B cells". European Cytokine Network. 1 (2): 109-13. PMID 1966378. Vazquez A, Mills S, Sharma S, Maizel AL (October 1988). "Expression of CD23 antigen is not necessary for human 12-kDa B cell growth factor-mediated B cell proliferation". European Journal of Immunology. 18 (10): 1647-9. doi:10.1002/eji.1830181029. PMID 2973416. Mehta SR, Sandler RS, Ford RJ, Sharma S, Maizel AL (1986). "Cellular interaction between B and T lymphocytes: enhanced release of B cell growth factor". Lymphokine Research. 5 (1): 49-57. PMID 3484798. Ennist DL, Greenblatt D, Coffman R, Sharma S, Maizel A, Howard M (November 1987). ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal disease of B lymphocytes manifesting as an absolute lymphocytosis in the blood. However, not all lymphocytoses are leukemic. In addition, first-degree relatives of CLL patients have an ~15 % chance of developing a precursor condition to CLL termed monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL), and distinguishing CLL and MBL B lymphocytes from normal B cell expansions can be a challenge. Therefore, we selected FMOD, CKAP4, PIK3C2B, LEF1, PFTK1, BCL-2, and GPM6a from a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in microarray analyses that compared CLL cells with normal B lymphocytes and used these to determine whether we could discriminate CLL and MBL cells from B cells of healthy controls. Analysis with receiver operating characteristics and Bayesian relevance determination demonstrated good concordance with all panel genes. Using a random forest classifier, the seven-gene panel reliably distinguished normal polyclonal B cell populations from expression
International Journal of Genomics is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles as well as review articles in all areas of genome-scale analysis. Topics covered by the journal include, but are not limited to: bioinformatics, clinical genomics, disease genomics, epigenomics, evolutionary genomics, functional genomics, genome engineering, and synthetic genomics.
Our laboratory is interested in understanding how autoreactive B cells, despite chronic antigen engagement of the B cell receptor, are restrained from inappropriate activation and differentiation. We are interested in how this process is disrupted in autoimmune disease, and how tolerance mechanisms can be harnessed to treat autoimmunity. To do so, we are taking advantage of novel reporter mice in which autoreactive B cells are fluorescently marked (Nur77-eGFP BAC transgenic line). Current funded projects include dissecting the distinct roles of the IgM and IgD B cell receptor isotypes in regulating immune responses by autoreactive B cells. More recent work is focused on defining how Nur77 and related orphan nuclear hormone receptors function selectively to restrain activation of chronically antigen-activated B cells. Related Web Sites ...
A combination of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase alters the membrane glycoproteins to generate highly reactive aldehyde groups on galactose moieties. Human B cell lines oxidized in this way were able to induce strong proliferative responses from normal untreated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Oxidized cell lines that stimulate well were also correlated to some extent with their ability to bind responder lymphocytes. The present investigation demonstrates the usefulness of oxidized B cell lines as a novel mitogen for use in the study of lymphocyte activation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Allelic exclusion of IgD allotypes on murine B cells. AU - Vitetta, E.. AU - Krolick, Keith A. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - In the present studies, we have performed indirect immunofluorescence analysis of murine splenic B cells using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)3 in conjunction with allotype-specific hybridoma antibodies and an affinity-purified heterologous anti-δ. Our rersults demonstrate that surface IgD on murine splenocytes from F1 mice shows complete allelic exclusion.. AB - In the present studies, we have performed indirect immunofluorescence analysis of murine splenic B cells using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)3 in conjunction with allotype-specific hybridoma antibodies and an affinity-purified heterologous anti-δ. Our rersults demonstrate that surface IgD on murine splenocytes from F1 mice shows complete allelic exclusion.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018888832&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
How is B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein abbreviated? BLIMP stands for B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein. BLIMP is defined as B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein somewhat frequently.
Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) protects tissue against the destructive action of neutrophil elastase at the site of inflammation. Recent studies on new functions of SLPI have demonstrated that SLPI may play a larger role in innate immunity than merely as a protease inhibitor. To clarify the functions of SLPI in bacterial infections, we generated SLPI-deficient mice (SLPI−/− mice) and analyzed their response to experimental endotoxin shock induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). SLPI−/− mice showed a higher mortality from endotoxin shock than did wild type mice. This may be explained in part by our observation that SLPI−/− macro-phages show higher interleukin 6 and high-mobility group (HMG)-1 production and nuclear factor κB activities after LPS treatment than do SLPI+/+ macrophages. SLPI also affects B cell function. SLPI−/− B cells show more proliferation and IgM production after LPS treatment than SLPI+/+ B cells. Our results suggest that SLPI attenuates excessive ...
Looking for online definition of B cell stimulatory factor II in the Medical Dictionary? B cell stimulatory factor II explanation free. What is B cell stimulatory factor II? Meaning of B cell stimulatory factor II medical term. What does B cell stimulatory factor II mean?
Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) is an HIV-associated gamma-herpesvirus. KSHV is causatively linked to the B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders multicentric Castlemans disease and primary effusion lymphoma. Latently infected B cells are believed to be a major KSHV "reservoir", and the virus has been shown replicate in human tonsillar B cells. Paradoxically, although several "irrelevant" cell lines (non-B cell, non-human) are permissive for in vitro KSHV infection, human B-cell lines and primary B cells are notoriously refractory to infection. We performed a strategic search of EBV-negative B lymphoma lines with the aim of identifying KSHV-susceptible B-cell lines. Using a recombinant KSHV encoding EGFP under a constitutive promoter and RFP under a lytic promoter (J. Vieira), plus a puromycin-resistance marker, we identified a novel B-cell line that was highly susceptible to KSHV infection (EGFP). Puromycin selection yielded homogenously infected cultures. Following puromycin ...
These experiments explored mechanisms of control of acute lymphoblastic leukemia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a murine model of MHC-matched, minor histocompatibility antigen mismatched transplantation. The central hypothesis examined was that addition of active vaccination against leukemia cells would substantially increase the effectiveness of allogeneic donor lymphocyte infusion against ALL present in the host after transplant. While vaccination did increase the magnitude of type I T cell responses against leukemia cells associated with donor lymphocyte infusion, it did not lead to substantial improvement in long term survival. Analysis of immunological mechanisms of leukemia progression demonstrated that the failure of vaccination was not due to antigen loss in leukemia cells. However, analysis of survival provided surprising findings that, in addition to very modest type I T cell responses, a B cell response that produced antibodies that bind leukemia ...
Abstract. HIV-1 tat targets a variety of host cell proteins to facilitate viral transcription and disrupts host cellular immunity by inducing lymphocyte apoptosis, but whether it influences humoral immunity remains unclear. Previously, our group demonstrated that tat depresses expression of DNA-PKcs, a critical component of the non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks repair, immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) and V(D)J recombination, and sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation. In this study, we demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat down-regulates DNA-PKcs expression by directly binding to the core promoter sequence. In addition, Tat interacts with and activates the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs in a dose-dependent and DNA independent manner. Furthermore, Tat inhibits class switch recombination (CSR) at low concentrations (≤4 µg/ml) and stimulates CSR at high concentrations (≥8 µg/ml). On the other hand, low protein level and high kinase activity of DNA-PKcs ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a disease with upregulated expression of the transmembrane tyrosine-protein kinase ROR1, a member of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway. In this study, we identified COBLL1 as a novel interaction partner of ROR1. COBLL1 shows clear bimodal expression with high levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with mutated IGHV and approximately 30% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV. In the remaining 70% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV, COBLL1 expression is low. Importantly, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV and high COBLL1 have an unfavorable disease course with short overall survival and time to second treatment. COBLL1 serves as an independent molecular marker for overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV. In addition, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV and high COBLL1 show impaired motility and chemotaxis towards CCL19 and ...

BLIMP - B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein | AcronymFinderBLIMP - B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein | AcronymFinder

BLIMP stands for B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein. BLIMP is defined as B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein somewhat ... How is B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein abbreviated? ... www.acronymfinder.com/B-Lymphocyte_Induced-Maturation-Protein-( ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2020). Retrieved February 27 2020 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/B-Lymphocyte_Induced-Maturation- ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/B-Lymphocyte_Induced-Maturation-Protein-(BLIMP).html,BLIMP,/a,. ...
more infohttps://www.acronymfinder.com/B-Lymphocyte_Induced-Maturation-Protein-

Frontiers | Unperturbed Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Phenotype and Function in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome...Frontiers | Unperturbed Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Phenotype and Function in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome...

... adrenaline and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we re-assessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. Forty-eight patients ... adrenaline and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we re-assessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. Forty-eight patients ... cytotoxicity lymphocyte aberrances were not found among ME/CFS patients. These assessments of cytotoxic lymphocytes therefore ... Cytotoxic lymphocytes combat intracellular infections. Their function is attenuated by stress. Despite numerous studies, the ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00723/full

Lymphocyte - WikipediaLymphocyte - Wikipedia

A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of a white blood cell in a vertebrates immune system. Lymphocytes include natural killer ... Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes[edit]. Main article: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte. In some cancers, such as melanoma and ... A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... The formation of lymphocytes is known as lymphopoiesis. B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphocytes

Anti-lymphocyte globulin - WikipediaAnti-lymphocyte globulin - Wikipedia

Anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) is an infusion of animal- antibodies against human T cells which is used in the treatment of ... the latter of which was made by injecting horses with human thoracic duct lymphocytes and was called "Lymphoser Berna". Hakim, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-lymphocyte_globulin

T Cells or T-Lymphocytes | Encyclopedia.comT Cells or T-Lymphocytes | Encyclopedia.com

Source for information on T Cells or T-Lymphocytes: World of Microbiology and Immunology dictionary. ... T cells or T-lymphocytes When a vertebrate encounters substances that are capable of causing it harm, a protective system known ... The T-8 lymphocytes differentiate into cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) that can destroy the body cells that have the original ... T Cells or T-Lymphocytes. Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article Share Article ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/t-cells-or-t-lymphocytes

Induced Division of Human Lymphocytes | The BMJInduced Division of Human Lymphocytes | The BMJ

Induced Division of Human Lymphocytes. Br Med J 1911; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2614.284 (Published 04 February 1911 ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/1/2614/284.1/rapid-responses

Immunology of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.  - PubMed - NCBIImmunology of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. - PubMed - NCBI

Immunology of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.. Holmes EC.. Abstract. Frequently peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) do not ... The tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) interact most closely with the tumor cells and are likely to more accurately reflect ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3155935?dopt=Abstract

GIMAP Proteins in T-LymphocytesGIMAP Proteins in T-Lymphocytes

T. Nitta and Y. Takahama, "The lymphocyte guard-IANs: regulation of lymphocyte survival by IAN/GIMAP family proteins," Trends ... S. J. McLeod and M. R. Gold, "Activation and function of the Rap1 GTPase in B lymphocytes," International Reviews of Immunology ... E. Genot and D. A. Cantrell, "Ras regulation and function in lymphocytes," Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. ... P. Poussier, A. F. Nakhooda, J. A. Falk, C. Lee, and E. B. Marliss, "Lymphopenia and abnormal lymphocyte subsets in the "BB" ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jst/2010/268589/ref/

Lymphocyte homing.  - PubMed - NCBILymphocyte homing. - PubMed - NCBI

Lymphocyte homing.. Yednock TA1, Rosen SD.. Author information. 1. Department of Anatomy, University of California, San ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2646861?dopt=Abstract

What causes elevated lymphocytes? | Reference.comWhat causes elevated lymphocytes? | Reference.com

... or the presence of a high number of lymphocytes, can be caused by many different disorders and diseases, including ... What is the cause of having a high lymphocyte count in the blood?. A: A high lymphocyte count is referred to as lymphocytosis ... The Mayo Clinic asserts that the exact thresholds at which a high number of lymphocytes in a blood sample is considered to ... Children have much higher lymphocyte counts than adults, and the count tends to vary with age. In some cases, children must ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/causes-elevated-lymphocytes-8448fe1a569d2cda

Intraepithelial lymphocytes: exploring the Third Way in immunology | Nature ImmunologyIntraepithelial lymphocytes: exploring the Third Way in immunology | Nature Immunology

Locally resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are primarily T cells with potent cytolytic and immunoregulatory capacities ... Regulatory function for murine intraepithelial lymphocytes. Two subsets of CD3+, T cell receptor-1+ intraepithelial lymphocyte ... Intraepithelial lymphocytes traffic to the intestine and enhance resistance to Toxoplasma gondii oral infection. J. Immunol. ... Novel function for intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes: murine CD3+, γ/δ TCR+ T cells produce IFN-γ and IL-5. J. Immunol. ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/ni1101-997?error=cookies_not_supported&code=db2f95e2-d8fd-4d16-af76-491c80ce0db9

RhymeZone: lymphocyte definitionsRhymeZone: lymphocyte definitions

Search for lymphocyte at other dictionaries: OneLook, Oxford, American Heritage, Merriam-Webster, Wikipedia. See lymphocyte ... Definitions of lymphocyte: *noun: an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but ...
more infohttp://www.rhymezone.com/r/d=lymphocyte

CiNii Articles - 
		
	 		 B-LymphocytesCiNii Articles - B-Lymphocytes

T and B lymphocytes flow out from the arterial terminal, and migrate in the reticular framework. … Homing of lymphocytes to ... CD3+ and Pax5+ Lymphocytes in the Dermis of Normal Skin from the Dorsolateral Thorax of Cats [in Japanese] Fickle Daniel C. , ... Decreased Expression of MicroRNA-107 in B Lymphocytes of Patients with Antibody-Mediated Renal Allograft Rejection Zhang Zhe- ... mAb BW-3C3 react to a fraction of the lymphocytes. … The mAb-positive cells were identical to cells that also stained with ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/keyword/B-Lymphocytes

Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels in Human B Lymphocytes | SpringerLinkVoltage-Sensitive Ion Channels in Human B Lymphocytes | SpringerLink

In the immune system such diverse cell types as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, hybridomas, and natural ... In: Gupta S., Paul W.E. (eds) Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation II. Springer, Boston, MA. * DOI https ... Subset-specific expression of potassium channels in developing murine T lymphocytes. Science 239: 771 (1988).PubMedCrossRef ... Cahalan MD, Chandy KG, DeCoursey TE, Gupta S, Lewis R, Sutro JB: Ion channels in T lymphocytes. In: Gupta S, Paul WE, and Fauci ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-5803-0_14

Counting Lymphocytes in Histopathology Images Using Connected Components | SpringerLinkCounting Lymphocytes in Histopathology Images Using Connected Components | SpringerLink

... a method for automatic counting of lymphocytes in histopathology images using connected components is presented. Our multi-step ... In this paper, a method for automatic counting of lymphocytes in histopathology images using connected components is presented ... Graf F., Grzegorzek M., Paulus D. (2010) Counting Lymphocytes in Histopathology Images Using Connected Components. In: Ünay D ... Application to lymphocyte segmentation on breast cancer histopathology. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 57(7), 1676 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-17711-8_27

High WBC, Low lymphocytes - Leukemia & Lymphoma  - MedHelpHigh WBC, Low lymphocytes - Leukemia & Lymphoma - MedHelp

Lymphocyte 3.7 (L) Lymphocyte Absolute 0.6 (L) Absolute Neutrophil 14.9 (H) He has always been a super healthy kid. He seems to ... Lymphocyte 3.7 (L) Lymphocyte Absolute 0.6 (L) Absolute Neutrophil 14.9 (H) He has always been a super healthy kid. He seems to ... High WBC, Low lymphocytes. My 12yr old son had some blood work done in the ER, we were there due to some severe abdominal pain ... lymphocyte 0.25 - 0.33 mine is 0.25 my rbc is low what does this mean?? ive been diagnose of ptb ...
more infohttp://www.medhelp.org/posts/Leukemia--Lymphoma-/High-WBC--Low-lymphocytes/show/781123

Colchicine inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover induced in lymphocytes by concavalin A | NatureColchicine inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover induced in lymphocytes by concavalin A | Nature

... turnover in lymphocytes since it is known that increased PI turnover is an early event induced by con A and other mitogenic ... colchicine also has been shown to inhibit con A-induced lymphocyte transformation at an early stage in the sequence of events ... con A inhibition of lymphocyte immunoglobulin receptor capping is reversed by colchicine2-4 and con A-induced aggregation of ... Colchicine inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover induced in lymphocytes by concavalin A. *R. ROBERT SCHELLENBERG1. & ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/265741a0?error=cookies_not_supported&code=988b29c6-4ad5-42bd-bf39-af271ece28ea

Lymphocyte | Define Lymphocyte at Dictionary.comLymphocyte | Define Lymphocyte at Dictionary.com

Lymphocyte definition, a type of white blood cell having a large, spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin layer of nongranular ... lymphocyte. Historical Examples. of lymphocyte. *. When large forms of the lymphocyte are present, the distinction is often ... Origin of lymphocyte. First recorded in 1885-90; lympho- + -cyte. Related formslym·pho·cyt·ic [lim-fuh-sit-ik] /ˌlɪm fəˈsɪt ɪk/ ... a type of white blood cell formed in lymphoid tissueSee also B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/lymphocyte

CD4 Lymphocyte Monitoring | HealthCentralCD4 Lymphocyte Monitoring | HealthCentral

Description Monitoring lymphocyte counts in a patient with HIV infection is one way to assess the degree of immunosuppression ... CD4 lymphocytes act as the on switch for part of the immune system, so as the number of CD4 cells drops, damage to the immune ... Monitoring lymphocyte counts in a patient with HIV infection is one way to assess the degree of immunosuppression and the risk ... HIV infects and kills certain white blood cells called CD4 lymphocytes, reducing their number. The number of CD4 cells usually ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/cd4-lymphocyte-monitoring

Lymphocytes From A Risk GroupLymphocytes From A Risk Group

Therefore, a large number of mutant T-lymphocytes with a person means that their owner has become a prey to irradiation or his/ ... Double increase of mutant lymphocyte frequency (more than 6.2 mutants per 10,000 cells) as compared to the background group was ... Increased frequency of mutations in patients lymphocytes is the evidence of risk. But, unfortunately, the lack of mutation ... Thus, European researchers have discovered that people with increased frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in lymphocytes of ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/report-56238.html

T lymphocytes - definition of T lymphocytes by The Free DictionaryT lymphocytes - definition of T lymphocytes by The Free Dictionary

T lymphocytes synonyms, T lymphocytes pronunciation, T lymphocytes translation, English dictionary definition of T lymphocytes ... n. Any of a class of lymphocytes, including the helper T cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, that form in bone marrow and mature ... Related to T lymphocytes: MHC, B lymphocytes, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes. T cell. n.. Any of a class of lymphocytes, including the ... T lymphocyte. lymph cell, lymphocyte - an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/T+lymphocytes

Review of Text-T Lymphocytes
in the LiverReview of Text-T Lymphocytes in the Liver

T. Diamond, "Review of Text-T Lymphocytes in the Liver," HPB Surgery, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 421-421, 2000. https://doi.org/ ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2000/072350/cta/

NASA - ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte DepressionNASA - ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression

ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) - 03.23.17. Overview , Description , Applications , Operations , Results , ... ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will to determine the role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in loss of T ... lymphocyte activity in microgravity.. * Various aspects of the apoptotic process will be assessed, using human T-lymphocytes, ... In this project, we plan to ascertain whether or not Space conditions might induce apoptosis in human lymphocytes through a 5- ...
more infohttps://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/424.html

Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Cause Low Lymphocytes?Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Cause Low Lymphocytes?

Lymphocytes are white blood cells whose function is to fight off infection. There are three major categories of lymphocytes: B- ... Significance of Low Lymphocytes Acquired from RA or Its Treatment. Abnormally low lymphocytes, or lymphocytopenia, presents ... RA can cause low lymphocytes. Lymphocytes, sometimes referred to as "fighter cells," attack infection-causing microorganisms. ... Lymphocytes are a vital component of the bodys immune system. Medical intervention may be necessary if the number of ...
more infohttps://www.ehow.co.uk/about_5052221_can-arthritis-cause-low-lymphocytes.html

Autologous Lymphocytes - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | MedindiaAutologous Lymphocytes - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | Medindia

Autologous Lymphocytes - A persons white blood cells. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including the ... Medical Word - Autologous Lymphocytes. Ans : A persons white blood cells. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune ... Autologous Lymphocytes - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/glossary/autologous_lymphocytes.htm
  • for example, phagocytosis by rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) leads to a selective depletion of con A binding sites which is prevented by colchicine 1 , con A inhibition of lymphocyte immunoglobulin receptor capping is reversed by colchicine 2-4 and con A-induced aggregation of PMNs, fibroblasts and hepatoma cells is inhibited by colchicine 5-7 . (nature.com)
  • Though there is no coherent explanation for these observations, and it is not known which biomolecules might act as gravity responders, recent evidence seems to suggest that inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation depends on alterations occurring within the first few hours of microgravity. (nasa.gov)
  • S. J. McLeod and M. R. Gold, "Activation and function of the Rap1 GTPase in B lymphocytes," International Reviews of Immunology , vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 763-789, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Chandy KG, DeCoursey TE, Fischbach M, Talal N, Cahalan MD, Gupta S: Altered K+ channel expression in abnormal T lymphocytes from mice with the 1pr gene mutation. (springer.com)
  • Double increase of mutant lymphocyte frequency (more than 6.2 mutants per 10,000 cells) as compared to the background group was discovered with 37 percent of cancer patients, and this result cannot be considered accidental. (innovations-report.com)
  • There are, for example, reports demonstrating the feasibility of assessing CD38 expression levels on CD8 + T lymphocytes through quantitative cytometric analyses (3-5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The large clone of identical lymphocytes then differentiates into different cells that can destroy the original antigen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chandy KG, DeCoursey TE, Cahalan MD, McLaughlin C, Gupta S: Voltage-gated K channels are required for T lymphocyte activation. (springer.com)
  • Various aspects of the apoptotic process will be assessed, using human T-lymphocytes, by analyzing gene expressions of metabolites of reactive oxygen species and membrane properties. (nasa.gov)
  • At 3 days postinfection, neither DEP exposure nor Listeria infection resulted in significant changes in T lymphocytes when compared with the air-exposed, noninfected control (data not shown). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The presence of lymphocytes in tumors is often associated with better clinical outcomes (after surgery or immunotherapy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to TIL treatment, patients are given nonmyeloablative chemotherapy to deplete native lymphocytes that can inhibit the response. (wikipedia.org)