White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (1/20496)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (2/20496)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. (3/20496)

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers. (4/20496)

Gene expression in higher eukaryotes appears to be regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors binding to regulatory sequences. The Ets factor PU.1 and the IRF protein Pip (IRF-4) represent a pair of interacting transcription factors implicated in regulating B cell-specific gene expression. Pip is recruited to its binding site on DNA by phosphorylated PU.1. PU.1-Pip interaction is shown to be template directed and involves two distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces: (i) the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains; and (ii) the phosphorylated PEST region of PU.1 and a lysine-requiring putative alpha-helix in Pip. Thus, a coordinated set of protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts are essential for PU.1-Pip ternary complex assembly. To analyze the function of these factors in vivo, we engineered chimeric repressors containing the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible POU domain linker. When stably expressed, the wild-type fused dimer strongly repressed the expression of a rearranged immunoglobulin lambda gene, thereby establishing the functional importance of PU.1-Pip complexes in B cell gene expression. Comparative analysis of the wild-type dimer with a series of mutant dimers distinguished a gene regulated by PU.1 and Pip from one regulated by PU.1 alone. This strategy should prove generally useful in analyzing the function of interacting transcription factors in vivo, and for identifying novel genes regulated by such complexes.  (+info)

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (5/20496)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered. (6/20496)

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (7/20496)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

Analysis of V(H)-D-J(H) gene transcripts in B cells infiltrating the salivary glands and lymph node tissues of patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (8/20496)

OBJECTIVE: In patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), B lymphocytes have been found to infiltrate salivary glands, resulting in sialadenitis and keratoconjunctivitis. The disease is frequently associated with benign and neoplastic lymphoproliferation. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether clonal B cell expansion takes place in lymphocytic infiltrations of salivary glands under (auto- [?]) antigen stimulation, by analyzing in more detail the variable part (V(H)-D-J(H)) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes expressed in these B cells. METHODS: Biopsies of the labial salivary glands and lymph nodes were performed on 2 female patients with SS. The Ig gene rearrangements in these tissues were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. RESULTS: A total of 94 V(H)-D-J(H) transcripts were cloned and sequenced. Our data suggest a polyclonal origin of the B cell infiltrates. In 92 of the transcripts, V(H) genes were modified by somatic mutation. Further analysis showed counterselection for replacement mutations within the framework regions, suggesting that those B cells were stimulated and selected for functional expression of a surface Ig. In labial salivary glands from both patients, clonally related B cells became evident. Members of 1 particular clone were found in both the lip and lymph node material. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence, on the nucleotide sequence level, that an antigen-triggered clonal B cell expansion takes place in the salivary glands of patients with SS who do not have histologic evidence of developing lymphoma. It may be speculated that those B cell clones expand during disease progression, resulting in lymphomagenesis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Monoclonal antibody to a nucleolar antigen of human B-lymphoblastoid cells. AU - Todorov, I. T.. AU - Philipova, R. N.. AU - Zhelev, N. Z.. AU - Hadjiolov, A. A.. PY - 1987/3. Y1 - 1987/3. N2 - An anti-nucleolar monoclonal antibody reacting with human B-lymphoblastoid cells but not with normal periferal blood lymphocytes has been isolated. The antibody recognized in Namalwa cells an antigen with molecular mass 41 kDa and pI 5.6, different from all previously described nucleolar antigens. Inhibition of rRNA transcription with Actinomycin D caused redistribution of the 41 5.6 antigen, but even at long term drug action it remains associated with the nucleolar remnants.. AB - An anti-nucleolar monoclonal antibody reacting with human B-lymphoblastoid cells but not with normal periferal blood lymphocytes has been isolated. The antibody recognized in Namalwa cells an antigen with molecular mass 41 kDa and pI 5.6, different from all previously described nucleolar antigens. Inhibition of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel® on human B lymphocyte activation in vitro. AU - Olsen, Nancy. AU - Decker, Dima A.. AU - Higgins, Paul. AU - Becker, Patrice M.. AU - McAloose, Carl A.. AU - Benko, Ann L.. AU - Kovacs, William. PY - 2015/10/27. Y1 - 2015/10/27. N2 - Introduction: Both clinical experience and experimental evidence have suggested that Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) might directly exert immunomodulatory effects not dependent on adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods: The direct effects of H.P. Acthar Gel® (Acthar), a repository preparation containing a porcine ACTH analogue, on human B lymphocyte function were studied in vitro using peripheral blood B cells isolated using anti-CD19 coated magnetic beads and activated by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). Analysis of expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) was carried out by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cellular proliferation was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCR5-dependent entry of CD8 T cells into rhesus macaque B-cell follicles achieved through T-cell engineering. AU - Ayala, Victor I.. AU - Deleage, Claire. AU - Trivett, Matthew T.. AU - Jain, Sumiti. AU - Coren, Lori V.. AU - Breed, Matthew W.. AU - Kramer, Joshua A.. AU - Thomas, James A.. AU - Estes, Jacob. AU - Lifson, Jeffrey D.. AU - Ott, David E.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Follicular helper CD4 T cells, TFH, residing in B-cell follicles within secondary lymphoid tissues, are readily infected by AIDS viruses and are a major source of persistent virus despite relative control of viral replication. This persistence is due at least in part to a relative exclusion of effective antiviral CD8 T cells from B-cell follicles. To determine whether CD8 T cells could be engineered to enter B-cell follicles, we genetically modified unselected CD8 T cells to express CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), the chemokine receptor implicated in cellular entry into B-cell follicles. ...
The VH gene repertoire of human peripheral B cells was analyzed using PCR analysis of individual blood B cells. Because genomic DNA of single B cells was analyzed, data from both productive and nonproductive VDJ rearrangements were obtained. Nine out of 75 B cells contained both functional and nonfunctional rearrangement products, whereas 62/75 had a single productive VDJ rearrangement. The distribution of VH families was ordered in accordance with the germline complexity, although a bias toward VH3 and some of its members was found. This bias was noted in both the productively and nonproductively rearranged repertoires, indicating that it resulted from molecular and not selective processes. Evidence for negative selection of certain VH3 and VH4 family members was noted in that they were found less often as productive than nonproductive VDJ rearrangements. In addition, evidence for positive selection based on CDR3 was obtained, in that JH6 and DXP1 were found at a higher frequency in the ...
Brezinschek, H.P., Brezinschek, R.I. & Lipsky, P.E., 1995, Analysis of the Heavy Chain Repertoire of Human Peripheral B Cells Using Single-Cell Polymerase Chain Reaction, Journal of Immunology, 155:191-202 ...
Background. High serum levels and enhanced in vitro production of IgA are observed in more than half of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN); and transforming forming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) is certain IgA class switching factor. On the other hand, macroscopic haematuria appears frequently with upper respiratory infection as tonsillitis in IgAN.. Methods. We compared the lymphocytic response to in‐vitro stimulation by group A streptococcal M proteins of apparent virulence factor between IgAN, non‐proliferative glomerulonephritis (NPGN), and normal subjects. M proteins were extracted from group A streptococcal strain type 5 and type 12 determined serologically.. Results. M protein‐induced proliferation of lymphocytes from IgAN was higher than in NPGN but not in healthy control subjects. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that stimulation by M protein extracts derived from type 5 streptococci (M5) increased surface IgA‐positive B cells in IgAN, but did not activate the production of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of B cell proliferation in the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in man. AU - Jelinek, Diane F. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The relationship of B cell proliferation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) was explored in vitro by examining the effect of hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of cellular DNA synthesis, on the generation of ISC from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM). HU completely inhibited the capacity of PBM to generate ISC in response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and other polyclonal B cell activators. Inhibition resulted from an effect on B cell proliferation, because HU also prevented the generation of ISC in cultures of purified B cells supplemented with either T cell supernatants or mitomycin C-treated T cells. Inhibiting B cell proliferation by treating them with mitomycin C before culture also abolished the generation of ISC. When ISC were enumerated after a 7-day incubation with PWM, the addition ...
Results Twenty patients were included. Nine were treated by etanercept (ETN), 9 by certolizumab pegol and 2 by adalimumab. The percentage of B cells significantly increased under TNFi from (median [IQR 25-75]) 4.6 (3.5-6.7) to 7.6 (5.2-9.9) % of lymphocytes. No change was observed in the different subtypes of B cells. However, in patients treated with ETN, IgD-CD27- double negative memory B cells significantly increased from 4.6 (2.5-5.4) to 7.7 (6.2-11.0)(p=0.03). The variation of those double negative B cells were significantly different from those observed with monoclonal antibodies (+1.6 [0.0-5.4] vs 0.3 [-1.3-1.8]% of B cells, p=0.02). No change of T, NK, NKT cells was observed in either group. EULAR responders at 3 months had significantly higher percentage of CD27+ memory B cells at baseline (32.9 [25.2-40.6] vs 19.5 [12.3-19.6]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02), especially IgD+CD27+ pre-switch memory B cells (19.3 [9.8-21.8] vs 5.9 [4.9-9.4]% of B cells, respectively; p=0.02). Since ...
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic factor that enhances proliferation of activated human B lymphocytes and induces them to secrete high amounts of immunoglobulins. Here we show that several human B cell lines were able to constitutively secrete human (h)IL-10. Whereas none of the pre-B nor the plasmocytic cell lines tested produced hIL-10, 25 of the 36 tested mature B cell lines (lymphoblastoid and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines) secreted hIL-10. Moreover, 24 of these 25 hIL-10-producing B cell lines contained the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, suggesting a relationship between hIL-10 production by human B cell lines and EBV expression. Accordingly, whereas polyclonal activation via triggering of surface immunoglobulins or CD40 antigen induced highly purified normal human B lymphocytes to produce only low (0.3-0.4 ng/ml) but significant amounts of hIL-10, EBV infection induced them to secrete high amounts of hIL-10 (4-9 ng/ml). Furthermore, addition of exogenous hIL-10, simultaneously to EBV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-nuclear antibody reactivity in lupus may be partly hard-wired into the primary B-cell repertoire. AU - Chang, Sooghee. AU - Yang, Liu. AU - Moon, Young Mee. AU - Cho, Young Gyu. AU - Min, So Youn. AU - Kim, Tae Joo. AU - Kim, Young Joo. AU - Patrick, Wilson. AU - Kim, Ho Youn. AU - Mohan, Chandra. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - When monoclonal ANAs and non-ANAs generated from a genetically simplified mouse model of lupus, B6.Sle1, were recently compared, the ANAs exhibited three sequence motifs in their immunoglobulin heavy chains, including increased cationicity in CDR3 (motif A), reduced anionicity in CDR2 (motif B) and increased aspartate at H50 (motif C). The present study was designed to elucidate the extent to which these ANA-associated sequence motifs might be hard-wired into the primary B-cell repertoire in lupus. The immunoglobulin heavy chain sequence of total splenic B-cells, follicular B-cells and marginal zone B-cells from B6.Sle1 congenic mice and ...
We have been trying to get some MAIDS B cell tumors to grow in B6 mice. The tumors originally came from B6 mice but have been grown in tissue culture for several years. In the event we can not readapt them to grow in vivo we are in need of other tumors. If anyone has a B cell tumor, preferably before the plasma cell stage, and after the immature B cell stage that they have grown in B6 mice we would appreciate hearing about it. If it also grows in tissue culture, while being readly passed back into mice that would be a bonus. Please repond to this service or my email address:wiliam.wade at dartmouth.edu Thanks for your attention and help in this matter. Sincerely, William F. Wade, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Microbiology Dartmouth Medical School ...
Schlegel, R A.; Von boehmer, H; and Shortman, K, Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation of different subpopulations of afc progenitors for unprimed igm and memory igg responses to the nip determinant. (1975). Subject Strain Bibliography 1975. 1320 ...
CURRENT PROJECTS: - Using mouse genetics to identify the susceptibility factors that control B cell tolerance, differentiation and survival, leading to autoantibody production. - Defining the mechanisms by which autoimmune susceptibility elicits inflammation and recruitment of innate immune cells in secondary lymphoid organs that affect B cell function. - Examining helper activity and inflammatory cytokines of human T cells in peripheral blood of SLE patients that affect B cell function. - Characterizing the regulation and activity in primary mouse T follicular helper cells and T follicular regulatory cells to control B cell responses. - Defining the signal transduction events through the BCMA cytokine receptor that regulates both T follicular helper cell homeostasis and plasma cell survival in autoimmunity. - Characterizing the development and persistence of IgE antibodies to airway allergens. Go to Loren Ericksons Lab Site for detailed information about his lab and his research ...
Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes and during immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) in peripheral B lymphocytes. We now show that CD21-cre-mediated deletion of the Xrcc4 NHEJ gene in p53-deficient peripheral B cells leads to recurrent surface Ig-negative B lymphomas (CXP lymphomas). Remarkably, CXP lymphomas arise from peripheral B cells that had attempted both receptor editing (secondary V[D]J recombination of Igκ and Igλ light chain genes) and IgH CSR subsequent to Xrcc4 deletion. Correspondingly, CXP tumors frequently harbored a CSR-based reciprocal chromosomal translocation that fused IgH to c-myc, as well as large chromosomal deletions or translocations involving Igκ or Igλ, with the latter fusing Igλ to oncogenes or to IgH. Our findings reveal peripheral B cells that have undergone both editing and CSR and show them to be common progenitors of CXP tumors. Our ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of An EBV-transformed owl monkey B-lymphocyte cell line.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CD40 ligand expressed by human B cells costimulates B cell responses. AU - Grammer, A. C.. AU - Bergman, M. C.. AU - Miura, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The possibility that activated B cells might express a ligand for CD40 that was of functional importance for B cell responses was examined by using highly purified human peripheral blood B cells, as well as a variety of B lymphoblastoid cell lines and hybridomas. Following stimulation with the combination of a calcium ionophore and a phorbol ester, human B cells bound a soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular portion of CD40 and the Fc region of lgG1 (CD40.lg). A variety of B cell lines and hybridomas also bound CD40.1g, either constitutively or after activation. In addition, CD40.Ig specifically immunoprecipitated a 33-kDa glycoprotein from surface 125I-labeled activated B cells. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the CD40 ligand mRNA ...
B cells play a central role in immune system function. Deregulation of normal B cell maturation can lead to the development of autoimmune syndromes as well as B cell malignancies. Elucidation of the molecular features of normal B cell development is important for the development of new target therapies for autoimmune diseases and B cell malignancies. Employing B cell-specific conditional knockout mice, we have demonstrated here that the transcription factor leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) forms an obligate dimer in B cells and regulates mature B cell lineage fate and humoral immune responses via distinctive mechanisms. Moreover, LRF inactivation in transformed B cells attenuated their growth rate. These studies identify what we believe to be a new key factor for mature B cell development and provide a rationale for targeting LRF dimers for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and B cell malignancies.. ...
The growth and differentiation of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells is regulated by a variety of soluble factors. This study presents data that support a role for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in this regulatory process. B lymphocytes were shown to have high-affinity receptors for TGF-beta that were increased fivefold to sixfold after in vitro activation. The addition of picogram quantities of TGF-beta to B cell cultures suppressed factor-dependent, interleukin 2 (IL 2) B cell proliferation and markedly suppressed factor-dependent (IL 2 or B cell differentiation factor) B cell Ig secretion. In contrast, the constitutive IgG production by an Epstein Barr virus-transformed B cell line was not modified by the presence of TGF-beta in culture. This cell line was found to lack high-affinity TGF-beta receptors. The degree of inhibition of B cell proliferation observed in in vitro cultures was found to be dependent not only on the concentration of TGF-beta added but also on the ...
Mice with the autosomal recessive severe combined immune deficiency (scid) mutation lack mature lymphocytes because of defective joining of T cell receptor and immunoglobulin (Ig) gene segments. Penetrance of this mutation is incomplete since 10-25% of SCID mice produce some T or B lymphocytes. This leaky phenotype could be due to a reversion of the mutation in some mice or to a constant, low frequency of functional lymphocytes generated in all SCID mice with variable survival of such cells. We report here that all SCID mice can be stimulated to produce functional B cells by the transfer of normal neonatal, but not adult, T cells. T cell-induced rescue of C.B-17scid B cells results in high levels of Ig expressing the Ighb allotype of the SCID recipient. These results show that all SCID mice generate some functional B cells, the majority of which do not survive in the absence of a subset of T cells present in high frequency in the neonate ...
To order B-Lymphocyte Activation Antigen B7-2 (LAB7-2) Polyclonal Antibody , please use the Cat. Nr. CAU27021 and submit your purchase order by email or by fax. A discount is available for larger or bulk quantities, please contact us for more information ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1/CD54 plays an important role in T cell dependent B cell activation and for function of B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells. ICAM-1 expression is upregulated as a consequence of B lymphocyte antigen receptor (BCR) signaling, thereby serving to render antigen-stimulated B cells more receptive to T cell-mediated costimulatory signals. We have investigated BCR-induced expression of the Icam-1 gene in primary B cells and B cell lines and have found it to be dependent on BCR-induced expression of the transcription factor EGR1. Icam-1 transcription, induced by BCR cross-linking or bypassing the BCR with phorbol ester, is absent in a B cell line in which the EGR1-encoding gene (egr-1) is methylated and not expressed. A potential EGR1-binding site was located at -701 bp upstream of the murine Icam-1 gene transcription start site and shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay to bind to murine EGR1. Mutation of this site in the context of 1.1 kb of the ...
Etiologic-based therapy is an ideal pharmacological option to treat or prevent diseases. There is no known etiology for multiple sclerosis (MS); however, envir...
Brown, L D.; Shen, F W.; Uhr, J W.; and Vitetta, E S., The expression of lyb-2.1 On murine b lymphocytes. Abstr. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1222 ...
After infection with progressed mechanisms to escape a protective B cell response by inducing a strong polyclonal B cell activation (7, 8), B cell anergy (9), and apoptosis (10). Presumably, successful rearrangement of the H chain and a correctly assembled pre-BCR allow pre-B II cells to proliferate (15). After rearrangement of the L chain locus, pre-B II cells become immature B cells leave the bone marrow at the transitional B cell stage and complete their final development into mature B cells in the periphery (16). Bone marrow stromal cells are essential components of the hematopoietic microenvironment and are absolutely required for the maintenance of hemotopoietic stem cells (17) and the development of B cells (18). Stromal cells form a network in the inter-sinusoidal spaces of the bone cavity that extends from the endosteum to the endothelial cell basement membrane of the sinusoids (19). The interstitia of this network support the growth and differentiation of B cells in close contact with ...
Intraocular lymphoma is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma involving the posterior eye. Basic research on this tumour has been hindered by an inability to expand the malignant B cell population. We developed a cell culture system, in which endothelial cell monolayers were infected with adenoviral vectors encoding HIV-1 proteins, Vpu and Tat. These monolayers permitted adhesion and proliferation of CD20-positive B cells from specimens of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from patients with intracranial tumor. The system provides a method for expansion of the malignant B cell population present in small volumes of fluid that are available for research use. ...
New insights into human B cell biology. B cells are highly important white blood cells known as lymphocytes and are part of the adaptive immune system. B cells have a specialised receptor on their cell surface (B cell receptor, BCR) which recognises specific proteins. Upon activation, B cells produce antibodies which bind antigens like e.g. molecules from pathogens or vaccines. The drawback of a vast range of different B cell receptors is the potential that some of the receptors recognise self-antigens which can then result in auto-immune disorders. The bone marrow continuously releases immature B cells into the blood stream. A high proportion of these so-called transitional B cells are able to recognise self-antigens via their BCR. It has been unknown where in the body these auto-reactive cells are checked and removed from the circulation. A recent publication by Anna Vossenkämper and Jo Spencer (Kings College) tracked the fate of human transitional B cells and identified that these cells ...
Infection with HIV drives significant alterations in B cell phenotype and function that can markedly influence antibody responses to immunisation. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can partially reverse many aspects of B cell dysregulation, however complete normalisation of vaccine responsiveness is not …
Sato S., Miller A.S., Howard M.C., Tedder T.F.. B lymphocyte development and function are regulated in part by the CD19 cell surface receptor complex, which is composed of at least four proteins; CD19, CD21 (CR2, complement receptor 2), CD81, and Leu 13. Because this complex has eight membrane-spanning domains and six cytoplasmic regions, determining the molecular basis for its function and signal transduction activities has not been straightforward. In this study, the contribution of the CD19 cytoplasmic domain to the in vivo function of the CD19/CD21/CD81/Leu 13 complex was assessed by generating CD19-deficient mice that expressed a transgene that encoded only the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD19. Mice expressing this transgene were similar, if not identical, to CD19-deficient mice with abnormal B cell development, a lack of B-1 cells, increased surface IgM levels on B cells, modest mitogen responses, minimal serum Ig levels, and low humoral immune responses. The results of this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - How specific is too specific? B-cell responses to viral infections reveal the importance of breadth over depth. AU - Baumgarth, Nicole. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Influenza virus infection induces robust and highly protective B-cell responses. Knowledge gained from the analysis of such protective humoral responses can provide important clues for the design of successful vaccines and vaccination approaches and also provides a window into the regulation of fundamental aspects of B-cell responses that may not be at play when responses to non-replicating agents are studied. Here, I review features of the B-cell response to viruses, with emphasis on influenza virus infection, a highly localized infection of respiratory tract epithelial cells, and a response that is directed against a virus that continuously undergoes genetic changes to its surface spike protein, a major target of neutralizing antibodies. Two aspects of the B-cell response to influenza are discussed here, namely ...
In this study we analyzed the effect of CD40 stimulation on the activity and nuclear appearance of Rel/nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) factors in primary murine B lymphocytes. We show that triggering of CD40 signaling pathway(s) by CD40 ligands expressed on L cells led to strong activation of an NF-kappaB-controlled beta-globin reporter gene in primary B lymphocytes from transgenic mice. Analyses of nuclear translocation of individual members of Rel proteins after CD40 induction of primary B cells showed a strong and long-lasting accumulation of RelB and, less pronounced, of c-Rel. LPS stimulation did not give rise to a persistent nuclear accumulation of RelB and c-Rel, whereas nuclear c-Rel, but not RelB, accumulated after B cell receptor stimulation. CD40 induced not only nuclear translocation but also de novo synthesis of RelB RNA and protein. S107 plasmacytoma cells, which express CD40 but are defective for the nuclear appearance of p50/p65-NF-kappaB, do not express RelB after CD40 stimulation. In
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of IL-4 and Fcγ receptor II engagement on Egr-1 expression during stimulation of B lymphocytes by membrane immunoglobulin crosslinking. AU - Klaus, Stephen J.. AU - Phillips, Nancy E.. AU - Parker, David C.. PY - 1993/11. Y1 - 1993/11. N2 - Egr-1 is an immediate early gene that is rapidly upregulated in response to mitogenic signals induced by antigen receptor crosslinking on murine B lymphocytes. It has been shown that levels of Egr-1 expression are closely correlated with B cell proliferation in several models of B cell activation and tolerance. We compared the expression of Egr-1 during B cell stimulation with Fab′2 and IgG anti-immunoglobulin (anti-IG), since it is known that Fab′2 anti-Ig is mitogenic while IgG anti-Ig is not, owing to a dominant inhibitory effect of crosslinking the B cell Fcγ RII to membrane Ig. While mitogenic doses of Fab′2 anti-Ig induce large and rapid increases in Egr-1 expression, IgG anti-Ig results in smaller increases in Egr-1 ...
Most immune cell communication takes place by intercellular transfer of cytokines or the contact-dependent interaction of surface receptors in immunological synapses. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Gardell and Parker (Eur. J. Immunol. 2017, 47, 41-50) point to a new, hybrid mechanism for Th1-cell delivery of help to B cells, based on contact-dependent CD40L transfer. The transfer process and its specificity are both cell contact dependent and antigen dependent. CD40 expression is also required on the B-cell surface to capture the CD40L presented by the Th1 cell. While further studies are needed to confirm the phenomenon in vivo and to test the role of transferred CD40L in other aspects of T-cell help, this study provides an exceptional take-off point and makes excellent use of mouse genetics to work out some possible rules for B cells being able to order help to go.
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We have used a novel hu-mouse model expressing a human-specific surrogate self-Ag to formally demonstrate that developing human B cells use receptor editing as a mechanism of central B cell tolerance. Central B cell tolerance in hu-mice is stringent but incomplete. Although the selection of autoreactive B cells into the periphery is rare, variations in the extent of tolerance were observed and shown to depend on the amount of self-Ag as well as the individual genetics of the source of CB.. To date, most studies of human B cell tolerance have focused on limited repertoire analyses of B cell subsets present in peripheral blood (Meffre and Wardemann, 2008; Meffre, 2011). These studies have been invaluable in establishing the presence of tolerance checkpoints, but they have been limited to a poorly defined set of self-Ags without a clear understanding of how these Ags directly affect B cells in vivo. In fact, although a significant reduction in the frequency of autoreactive clones in the human B ...
Redox-regulation of receptors and transcription factors are important for lymphocyte activation, differentiation and apoptosis. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a key redox-regulating protein and oxidative stress sensor operating in synergy with Trx-reductase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). The expression of Trx, PDI, and the Trx-regulated transcription-factor Pax5 were analyzed in a panel of human B cell lines and were compared with that of the Bcl-2 family proteins, also redox-controlled. The panel included representative cells from various stages: FLEB14-4 (pro-B), REH and NALM-6 (pre-B), Rael and Daudi (small mature B), U-698 and NC0467.3 (B-blasts), LP-1, U-1996, and U-266 (plasma cells). We found a significant congruence and co-variation of Trx and Bcl-2 levels in the B-lineage, with high expression levels in early stages (pro-B and pre-B) and in the late stage representing terminally-differentiated plasma cells, whereas mid-stage small resting B cells showed a very low expression. PDI ...
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The expression of the CD24 molecule, a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts, was studied in developing nerve and muscle (after 16 weeks of gestat
Little is know about the nature of peripheral B cell tolerance or how it may vary in distinct lineages. Although autoantibody transgenic studies indicate that anergy and apoptosis are involved, some studies claim that receptor editing occurs. To model peripheral B cell tolerance in a normal, polyclonal immune system, we generated transgenic mice expressing an Igκ-light chain-reactive superantigen targeted to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes (pAlb mice). In contrast to mice expressing κ superantigen ubiquitously, in which κ cells edit efficiently to λ, in pAlb mice, κ B cells underwent clonal deletion. Their κ cells failed to populate lymph nodes, and the remaining splenic κ cells were anergic, arrested at a semi-mature stage without undergoing receptor editing. In the liver, κ cells recognized superantigen, down-regulated surface Ig, and expressed active caspase 3, suggesting ongoing apoptosis at the site of B cell receptor ligand expression. Some, apparently mature, κ B1 and ...
A first clue that SPMs might affect B cell functions was the discovery that B cells express the ALX/FPR2 receptor that recognizes the D-series resolvins, RvD1 and RvD3 (79). 17-HDHA, RvD1, and PD1 are naturally produced within the spleen, a site where B cells commonly reside (35). PUFAs present in omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (precursors for SPM production) were shown to affect B cell functions in mice by increasing antibody production and B cell activation (71, 72, 74). Similarly, mice fed a diet rich in DHA and EPA had a higher number of IgM-expressing splenic B cells following antigen stimulation compared with mice not receiving a PUFA-enriched diet (71). In a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, mice fed a high-fat (Western) diet containing primarily omega-6 fatty acids exhibited diminished antibody titers and increased mortality to influenza challenge relative to a normal diet. These effects could be rescued with dietary DHA (69). Dietary supplementation with PUFAs or PUFA-enriched fish ...
The production of antibody to a thymus-dependent Ag requires cooperation between the B cell and an Ag-specific Th cell. MHC restriction of this interaction implies that the Th cell recognizes Ag on the B cell surface in the context of MHC molecules and that the Ag-specific B cell gets help by acting as an APC for the Th cell. However, a number of studies have suggested that normal resting B cells are ineffective as APC, implying that the B cell must leave the resting state before it can interact specifically with a Th cell. Other studies, including our own with rabbit globulin-specific mouse T cell lines and hybridomas, show that certain T cell lines can be efficiently stimulated by normal resting B cells. One possible explanation for the above contradiction is that our B cells have become activated before presentation. Here we show that presentation by size-selected small B cells is not the result of nonspecific activation signals generated by the T cells or components of the medium. Also, although LPS
Recent in vitro studies have established that activated B cells express OX40 ligand (L), a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor family of cyt
Looking for online definition of pre-B lymphocyte in the Medical Dictionary? pre-B lymphocyte explanation free. What is pre-B lymphocyte? Meaning of pre-B lymphocyte medical term. What does pre-B lymphocyte mean?
The ICOS-B7h costimulatory receptor-ligand pair is required for germinal center formation, the production of isotype-switched antibodies, and antibody affinity maturation in response to T cell-dependent antigens. However, the potentially distinct roles of regulated B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses have not been defined. We generated transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression to assess the cell-type specific roles of B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in regulating T cell-dependent antibody responses. Our results show that endogenous B7h expression is reduced on B cells after activation in vitro and is also reduced in vivo on antibody-secreting plasma B cells in comparison to both naïve and germinal center B cells from which they are derived. Increasing the level of B7h expression on activated and plasma B cells in B-B7hTg mice led to an increase in the number of antibody-secreting plasma cells generated after immunization and a
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Retinoic acid inhibits IL-6-dependent but not constitutive STAT3 activation in Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - SIgM-fcmr interactions regulate early b cell activation and plasma cell development after influenza virus infection. AU - Nguyen, Trang T.T.. AU - Graf, Beth A.. AU - Randall, Troy D.. AU - Baumgarth, Nicole. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Previous studies with mice lacking secreted IgM(sIgM) due to a deletion of the ms splice region (ms2/2) had shown sIgM involvement in normal B cell development and in support of maximal Ag-specific IgG responses. Because of the changes to B cell development, it remains unclear to which extent and how sIgM directly affects B cell responses. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of sIgM-mediated IgG response regulation during influenza virus infection. Generating mice with normally developed ms-deficient B cells, we demonstrate that sIgM supports IgG responses by enhancing early Ag-specific B cell expansion, not by altering B cell development. Lack of FcmR expression on B cells, but not lack of Fca/mR expression or ...
We have studied the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the regulation of intercellular adhesion of human B cells. We found that molecules able to bind to MHC class II molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or staphylococcal enterotoxins, induced rapid and sustained homotypic adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell lines as well as peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibodies also stimulated intercellular adherence. Adhesion induced upon MHC engagement was faster and stronger than that triggered by phorbol esters. It needed active metabolism, but divalent cations were not required. Monoclonal antibodies directed against LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) or its ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) did not inhibit MHC class II-induced homotypic adhesion of various EBV-transformed B cell lines, nor of a variant of the B cell line Raji expressing very low LFA-1 surface levels. Moreover, EBV-transformed B cells from a severe lymphocyte adhesion deficiency
Altered functional B cell subset populations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome compared to healthy controls. Bradley AS, et al. Show all...
Rationale: Furthermore to their well-known function as antibody-producing cells, B lymphocytes can markedly influence the course of infectious or noninfectious diseases via antibody-independent mechanisms. response 88) signaling. deficiency correlated with an enhanced accumulation of regulatory/antiinflammatory macrophages in Mtb-infected lungs. Conclusions: Mouse monoclonal to PTK7 Type I IFN produced by Mtb-stimulated B cells favors macrophage polarization toward a regulatory/antiinflammatory phenotype during Mtb contamination. in an innate manner to create type I IFN to eventually modulate the polarization of macrophages toward a regulatory/antiinflammatory profile and in contaminated lungs. This pathway was seen in a murine style of TB and in B cells isolated from sufferers with TB. Our observations reveal B cells as book regulators of immunity to TB through type I IFNCmediated polarization of myeloid cells. Infections with (Mtb) qualified prospects to the forming of lung lesions, the ...
It is generally assumed that chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B cell origin (B-CLL) is characterized by the presence of surface membrane immunoglobulins (SmIg) and by the absence of cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (CyIg). In a variable number of cases SmI
The contribution of intrinsic defects in B and/or T cell function or impaired T-B cell interaction towards poor recall and neo-antigen vaccine responses in HIV-1 infection are not fully understood. Using CVID as a model for B cell maturation, we show patients with untreated HIV-1 infection have increased transitional and tissue like B cells and reduced IgM memory and class switched memory B cell proportions. Loss of IgM memory B cells is associated with progressive HIV-1. Antiretroviral therapy reduces transitional and tissue like B cell percentages but does not restore IgM memory or class switched memory proportions. Most HIV-1 patients on ART have reduced antibody levels post tetanus and pneumococcal vaccination. IgM memory B cell depletion associates with poor post vaccine IgM pneumococcal titres in HIV-1 suggesting loss of IgM memory B cells may be a risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease. CVID patients with lung disease had lower memory B cells and a trend towards a loss of IgM ...
Lymphadenopathy and lymph node B cell activation are independent of MyD88-signaling.Control C57BL/6 (wildtype) and congenic MyD88−/− mice (n = 6 per gro
Memory B cells are generated in germinal centers (GC) and contribute to serological immunity by rapidly differentiating into plasma cells. Human memory B cells can be identified by the expression of CD27. These cells exhibit more rapid responses than naive (CD27-) B cells following stimulation in vitro, consistent with the heightened kinetics of secondary responses in vivo. CD27+ B cells express mutated Ig V region genes; however a significant proportion continue to express IgM, suggesting the existence of IgM+ memory B cells. The observation that mutated IgM+CD27+ B cells are generated in humans who cannot form GC led to the conclusions that these cells are generated independently of GC and thus are not memory cells and that they mediate responses to T cell-independent Ag. Although some studies support the idea that IgM+CD27+ B cells participate in T cell-independent responses, many others do not. In this review we will provide alternate interpretations of the biology of IgM+CD27+ B cells and propose
We determined that, as compared with human naïve B cells, human GC B cells have a higher intrinsic affinity threshold for antigen. We observed that independently of other extrinsic factors, such as competition among B cells for antigen, the intrinsic affinity of GC B cells for an antigen dictated each subsequent step in B cell activation from the magnitude of BCR signaling to the receptivity of BCR-stimulated GC B cells to Tfh cell signals that drive IRF-4 expression and PC differentiation. We provided evidence that BCRs on LZ GC B cells are concentrated in distinct, highly dynamic, ezrin- and actin-rich pod-like structures through which the BCRs engage antigen, signal, exert pulling forces, and extract antigen from membranes. In contrast, the BCRs on naïve B cells function in flat, stable membrane contacts, with antigen-containing surfaces displaying the well-described features of immune synapses and cSMACs. The role of these pod-like structures in establishing high-affinity thresholds for GC ...
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV-diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥ 2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the costimulator molecules, CD40 and CD154, on lymphocytes from neonates and young children. AU - Elliott, Salenna. AU - Roberton, Don M.. AU - Zola, Heddy. AU - MacArdle, Peter J.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Differential expression of the costimulator molecules CD40 and CD154 on neonatal lymphocytes may be one explanation for limited T-dependent antibody responses in human neonates. CD40 was expressed at similar levels on resting B cells from adults, young children (2-20 months of age) or cord blood. CD40 expression was higher on cord blood B cells compared to adult B cells after stimulation with PMA and ionomycin, but similar on adult and cord blood B cells activated by CD3-stimulated T cells. In contrast to previous reports, cord blood T cells stimulated with PMA and ionomycin expressed adult levels of CD154 initially, but this expression was more transient on cord blood T cells. When adult and cord blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with CD3 mAb, T ...
Cancer immunotherapy by therapeutic activation of T cells has demonstrated clinical potential. Approaches include checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Here, we report the development of an alternative strategy for cellular immunotherapy that combines induction of a tumor-directed T-cell response and antibody secretion without the need for genetic engineering. CD40 ligand stimulation of murine tumor antigen-specific B cells, isolated by antigen-biotin tetramers, resulted in the development of an antigen-presenting phenotype and the induction of a tumor antigen-specific T-cell response. Differentiation of antigen-specific B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells was achieved by stimulation with IL21, IL4, anti-CD40, and the specific antigen. Combined treatment of tumor-bearing mice with antigen-specific CD40-activated B cells and antigen-specific plasma cells induced a therapeutic antitumor immune response resulting in remission of established tumors. Human CEA or ...
The integrin LFA-1 and its ligand ICAM-1 mediate B cell adhesion, but their role in membrane-bound antigen recognition is still unknown. Here, using planar lipid bilayers and cells expressing ICAM-1 fused to green fluorescence protein, we found that the engagement of B cell receptor (BCR) promotes B cell adhesion by an LFA-1-mediated mechanism. LFA-1 is recruited to form a mature B cell synapse segregating into a ring around the BCR. This distribution is maintained over a wide range of BCR/antigen affinities (10(6) M(-1) to 10(11) M(-1)). Furthermore, the LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 reduces the level of antigen required to form the synapse and trigger a B cell. Thus, LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction lowers the threshold for B cell activation by promoting B cell adhesion and synapse formation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytoplasmic IgM in leukemic B cells by flow cytometry. AU - Loftin, Karin C.. AU - Reuben, James M.. AU - Hersh, Evan M.. AU - Sujansky, Daniel. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - The presence of intracellular cytoplasmic immunoglobulin M (IgM) in leukemic cells from patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was investigated by flow cytometry. The objective of the study was to develop a reproducible flow cytometric method. A Burkitts lymphoma-derived B-cell line, Daudi, and a pre-B ALL, Nalm-6, served as prototypes. Normal B cells and cells from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) were used as negative controls. Cytoplasmic μ was expressed in 77.3 ± 7.5% (n = 10) of Nalm-6 cells. CALLA+ ALL and CML cells lacked cytoplasmic μ. The surface-membrane immunoglobulin on the viable B cells was blocked with purified goat anti-human IgM. Subsequently, the B cells were fixed in cold absolute methanol and stained with a ...
Exosomes are lipid bound nanovesicles that are formed via the inward budding of the endosomal membrane, then released upon fusion of the endosomal limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. The majority of exosome studies involve the use of exosomes from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells or immortalised cell lines. This research project has focused on exosomes derived from primary B cells in response to T cell signalling, in particular via the CD40 and the interleukin-4 receptors. The fate of exosomes following their release is largely unknown. However as we have previously identified that B cell-derived exosomes are enriched in the antigen presenting molecules major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), MHC-II and immunoglobulin, this may implicate B cell-derived exosomes in the transfer of antigen. We have sought to address the physiological role of primary B cell-derived exosomes and their interactions with other cells within secondary lymphoid tissue in vivo. We identified ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. In order to conquer the shortages of common antibodies, Creative Biolabs developed antibody affinity maturation service.. Weve gained extensive experience in antibody affinity maturation over the years. We use scFv as the antibody format and monovalent display phagemid as the system to reduce the avidity effects during antigen-binding screening, said Dr. Monica Müller, chief scientific officer of Creative Biolabs.. As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. Antibody binders of higher affinity are then selected by increasing the screening stringency. By constructing a series of ...
B1 cells are a sub-class of B cell lymphocytes that are involved in the humoral immune response. They are not part of the adaptive immune system, as they have no memory, but otherwise, B1 cells perform many of the same roles as other B cells: making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B cells. B1b cells have been shown to be capable of memory responses. See B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity. B1 cells are first produced in the fetus and most B1 cells undergo self-renewal in the periphery, unlike conventional B cells (B2 cells) that are produced after birth and replaced in the bone marrow. In January 2011, human B1 cells were found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, which has been debated since. CD5-CD72 is thought to mediate B cell-B cell interaction. B-1 B cells, in the mouse, can be further subdivided into B-1a (CD5+) and B-1b (CD5−) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aged mice exhibit distinct B cell precursor phenotypes differing in activation, proliferation and apoptosis. AU - Van der Put, Elaine. AU - Sherwood, Erin M.. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B. AU - Riley, Richard L. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - Senescence in murine models is associated with a reduction, albeit heterogeneous, in bone marrow pre-B cells. We have categorized aged BALB/c mice into two phenotypes based on their patterns of pre-B/pro-B cell loss. Each phenotype is characterized by distinct responses to the growth cytokine IL-7 and capacity for survival in vitro. A moderate loss of late-stage pre-B cells (25-80%) coincided with decline in proliferation to rmIL-7. This was also associated with a decrease in the frequency of pro-B cells which increased phosphotyrosine content upon IL-7 stimulation, an indicator of early activation events. A severe loss of pre-B cells (,80%) resulted in a reduced pro-B cell pool which retained normal activation and proliferative ...
Differentiation of tumor B lymphocytes. The team also studies the genetic and epigenetic modifications of tumor B cells in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In FL, we identified a phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) hyper-signaling correlated with an increase of IL-21 secretion by Tfh and with the expression of some target genes of pSTAT3. However the key gene of the B cell differentiation into plasma cell, PRDM1, a pSTAT3 target gene of, has a weak expression in FL, highlighting the existence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities related to the disease. We aim to understand these deregulations, in particular by showing the importance of the acetylation properties in the B differentiation and in the control of the PRDM1 gene expression. Our work supports clinicians in their choice to use new therapeutics targeting the epigenome, such as the histone acetyltransferase inhibitors (HDACi), in treating FL patients.. As for the technology employed, we implemented a gene capture ...
While B cells are traditionally regarded as marketers of the immune system response via antibody release and pro-inflammatory cytokine creation, latest research have got verified an essential function for B-cell-mediated detrimental regulations of immunity also. in the full years to follow. The past 10 years provides noticed remarkable developments in our understanding of B-cell immunoregulation. Mizoguchi advancement of this exclusive regulatory people. Nevertheless, the identity of IL-10-making resistant cells is normally barely a simple job and continues to be complicated in the field of regulatory B-cell biology (18). This is normally because specific spleen C cells singled out from unsuspecting wildtype rodents perform not really constitutively sole or secrete measurable IL-10 proteins without account activation. Provided the incapacity to observe C10 cells straight assays to detect cytokine creation in Testosterone levels cells had been improved to recognize C cells that had been ...
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Learn how you can enhance your experiment and upgrade your B cell culture with this webinar. We will share insights into how you can optimize and standardize your B cell culture in experimental studies. | Lëtzebuerg
Learn how you can enhance your experiment and upgrade your B cell culture with this webinar. We will share insights into how you can optimize and standardize your B cell culture in experimental studies. | France
article{9a5c9918-f28d-42f7-9e4a-e617d47af020, abstract = {Development of type-II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) is dependent on a T-cell mediated activation of autoreactive B cells. However, it is still unclear if B cells can present CII to T cells. To investigate the role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for CII, we purified B cells from lymph nodes of immunized and nonimmunized mice. These B cells were used as APC for antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. B cells from naïve mice did present native, triple-helical, CII (nCII) but also ovalbumin (OVA) and denatured CII (dCII) to antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. In addition, B cells primed with nCII or OVA, but not dCII, activated the antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas two to three times better than naïve B cells. We conclude that antigen-primed B cells have the capacity to process and present CII to primed T cells, and antigen-primed antigen-specific B cells are more efficient as APC than naïve B cells. We further ...
Secretory IgA (S-IgA) is a hallmark antibody principally produced at mucosal sites and plays an important role in the creation of immunological surveillance and homeostasis at mucosa. In addition to the IgA induction through gut-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyers patch), peritoneal B cells have been considered to be another source of S-IgA, especially specific for the T-independent antigen. Here we show that the trafficking of peritoneal B cells is principally regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Peritoneal B cells expressed high levels of the type 1 S1P receptor. Thus, disruption of S1P-mediated signaling caused a rapid disappearance of peritoneal B cells. These changes did not affect natural plasma antibody production or phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific antibody production in serum after peritoneal immunization with heat-killed streptococcal pneumoniae. However, it dramatically reduced peritoneal B cell-derived natural intestinal S-IgA production without affecting the expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation by CD4+ T cells specific for an MHC class II promiscuous epitope. AU - Omiya, Ryusuke. AU - Buteau, Chantal. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroya. AU - Paya, Carlos V.. AU - Celis, Esteban. PY - 2002/8/15. Y1 - 2002/8/15. N2 - Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and B cell lymphomas induced by EBV continue to be a major life-threatening complication in transplant patients. The establishment and enhancement of T cell immunity to EBV before transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy could help diminish these complications, but the lack of an effective vaccine has limited this prophylactic approach. We describe here the identification of a peptide epitope from the EBV EBNA2 Ag that is capable of inducing in vitro CD4+ T cell responses that inhibit the EBV-mediated B lymphocyte proliferation associated with PTLD. Most significantly, T cell responses to the EBNA2 epitope were found to be restricted by numerous MHC class II alleles ...
Ittigen, Switzerland (ots) - Pevion Biotech AG today announced further data from the ongoing clinical study of its therapeutic Candida vaccine PEV7, demonstrating the generation...
B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after either lectin or antigen stimulation. It supports the clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes. Entrez Gene: BCGF1 B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa. Kumar A, Vasquez A, Maizel AL, Sharma S (1991). Human BCGF-12kD functions as an autocrine growth factor in transformed B cells. European Cytokine Network. 1 (2): 109-13. PMID 1966378. Vazquez A, Mills S, Sharma S, Maizel AL (October 1988). Expression of CD23 antigen is not necessary for human 12-kDa B cell growth factor-mediated B cell proliferation. European Journal of Immunology. 18 (10): 1647-9. doi:10.1002/eji.1830181029. PMID 2973416. Mehta SR, Sandler RS, Ford RJ, Sharma S, Maizel AL (1986). Cellular interaction between B and T lymphocytes: enhanced release of B cell growth factor. Lymphokine Research. 5 (1): 49-57. PMID 3484798. Ennist DL, Greenblatt D, Coffman R, Sharma S, Maizel A, Howard M (November 1987). ...
Inversion of CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia correlates with differential sensitivity of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes to the killing efficacy of Fas (APO-1/CD95) ligand(+) tumor cells ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal disease of B lymphocytes manifesting as an absolute lymphocytosis in the blood. However, not all lymphocytoses are leukemic. In addition, first-degree relatives of CLL patients have an ~15 % chance of developing a precursor condition to CLL termed monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL), and distinguishing CLL and MBL B lymphocytes from normal B cell expansions can be a challenge. Therefore, we selected FMOD, CKAP4, PIK3C2B, LEF1, PFTK1, BCL-2, and GPM6a from a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in microarray analyses that compared CLL cells with normal B lymphocytes and used these to determine whether we could discriminate CLL and MBL cells from B cells of healthy controls. Analysis with receiver operating characteristics and Bayesian relevance determination demonstrated good concordance with all panel genes. Using a random forest classifier, the seven-gene panel reliably distinguished normal polyclonal B cell populations from expression
Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ... Lymphocytes include: *B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement ...
T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ...
Transformation of B-lymphocytes[edit]. When EBV infects B cells in vitro, lymphoblastoid cell lines eventually emerge that are ... and I infections in B-lymphocytes. EBV latent infection of B-lymphocytes is necessary for virus persistence, subsequent ... EBV Latency III and II infections of B-lymphocytes, Latency II infection of oral epithelial cells, and Latency II infection of ... The latent programs reprogram and subvert infected B-lymphocytes to proliferate and bring infected cells to the sites at which ...
A lymphoblast is a modified naive lymphocyte with altered cell morphology. It occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an ... Lymphoblasts can also refer to immature cells which typically differentiate to form mature lymphocytes.[2] Normally ... Lymphoblasts look like immature lymphocytes, and were once thought to be precursor cells.".[4] Commonly, when speaking about ... The Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research Consortium defines a lymphoblast as "A lymphocyte that has become larger after being ...
Lymphocytes Stimulate growth and maturation of T-cells Mechanism[edit]. Diagram showing key components of the MAPK/ERK pathway ...
... granular lymphocytes known today as NK cells. The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were ... Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells ... A functional marker of human non-T lymphocytes". Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 21 (2): 226-35. PMC 1538269. PMID 810282 ... Large granular lymphocyte entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of. *. Calmeiro J, Carrascal M, Gomes C, Falcão A, Cruz MT ...
These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... commonly lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in chronic inflammation and cytokine release. Antibodies do not play a direct ... "Molecular interactions mediating T-B lymphocyte collaboration in human lymphoid follicles. Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating ...
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated ... within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes. In rabbits, sheep, and chickens, the number of γδ T ... T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell ... The T lymphocyte activation pathway: T cells contribute to immune defenses in two major ways; some direct and regulate immune ...
The Lymphocytes - represented by: *Lymphocytes B as marshals in small one-man round flying craft with two aimable side-mounted ... Lymphocytes T: the same sort of craft but with a large uppercase T on the underbelly at the bow. They can discharge smoke that ... Immature leucocytes: teenage humanoids with the same uniform as the lymphocyte B pilots: seen in the bone marrow, which is ... Captain Courageous and Ace for the lymphocyte B crafts' pilots; Plasmus and Globina for Hemo and Globin, Corpo for Jumbo; ...
Intraepithelial lymphocytes: distributed throughout the tissue.. *Intraepithelial macrophages[5][6]. Stereocilia[edit]. The ...
T-lymphocytes. Glycoproteins. Budding. Nucleus. Nucleus. Nasal and ocular secretion Percavirus. Mammals. B-lymphocytes. ... B-lymphocytes. Glycoproteins. Budding. Nucleus. Nucleus. Saliva Rhadinovirus. Humans; mammals. B-lymphocytes. Glycoproteins. ... The gammaherpesviruses, including HVS, EBV, KSHV, and RRV, are capable of establishing latent infection in lymphocytes.[9] ... A striking feature of the four gammaherpesviruses is that they contain distinct ORFs involved in lymphocyte signaling events. ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal Micronucleus test. Normal Heart weight. Normal Brain histopathology. Normal ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal Micronucleus test. Normal Heart weight. Normal Skin Histopathology. Normal ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal Micronucleus test. Normal Heart weight. Normal Skin Histopathology. Normal ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal. Micronucleus test. Normal. Heart weight. Normal. Brain histopathology. Normal. ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes. Normal Heart weight. Normal Salmonella infection. Normal[8] Citrobacter infection. Normal[9] ...
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T ... However, this Fas-Fas ligand interaction is thought to be more important to the disposal of unwanted T lymphocytes during their ... Hivroz C, Chemin K, Tourret M, Bohineust A (2012). "Crosstalk between T lymphocytes and dendritic cells". Critical Reviews in ... Bakshi RK, Cox MA, Zajac AJ (2014). "Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes". Encyclopedia of Medical Immunology. pp. 332-342. doi:10.1007/978 ...
Lymphocytes[change , change source]. Lymphocytes are round white blood cells a bit bigger than a red blood cell. Their center ... There are three known types of lymphocytes, called T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer cells (NK cells). ...
The mantle zone (or just mantle) of a lymphatic nodule (or lymphatic follicle) is an outer ring of small lymphocytes ...
After recognizing an antigen, an antigen presenting cell such as the macrophage or B lymphocyte engulfs it completely by a ... or B lymphocytes) involving an arm of the immune system known as humoral immunity. The antibodies are soluble and do not ... The role of lymphocytes in mediating both cell-mediated and humoral responses was demonstrated by James Gowans in 1959.[30] ... What makes the analogy even stronger is that the B lymphocytes have to compete with each other for signals that promote their ...
In the 1960s, lymphocytes were discovered to be the mediators of allograft rejection in animals. Attempts to use T cells to ... Syngeneic lymphocytes were transferred from rodents heavily immunized against the tumor to inhibit growth of small established ... Description of T cell growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2) in 1976 allowed T lymphocytes to be grown in vitro, often without loss ... The result is individually grown in IL-2. Lymphocytes overgrow. They destroy the tumors in the sample within 2 to 3 weeks. They ...
Hoytema van Konijnenburg DP, Mucida D (August 2017). "Intraepithelial lymphocytes". Current Biology. 27 (15): R737-R739. doi: ... Olivares-Villagómez D, Van Kaer L (April 2018). "Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes: Sentinels of the Mucosal Barrier". ... Mayassi T, Jabri B (September 2018). "Human intraepithelial lymphocytes". Mucosal Immunology. 11 (5): 1281-1289. doi:10.1038/ ... IEL are a heterogeneous group of principally T-cell lymphocytes residing in epithelial tissues that interface the environment, ...
Suppresses the action of lymphocytes. *Possesses lytic enzymes, cytolysin, aggregation substance, pheromones, and lipoteichoic ...
Lymphocyte-rich. Is a rare subtype, show many features which may cause diagnostic confusion with nodular lymphocyte predominant ... Lymphocyte depleted. Is a rare subtype, composed of large numbers of often pleomorphic RS cells with only few reactive ... Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma expresses CD20, and is not currently considered a form of classical Hodgkin's ... Micrograph showing a "popcorn cell", the Reed-Sternberg cell variant seen in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. H ...
Necrosis is increased in T lymphocytes.. Tingible body macrophages (TBMs) - large phagocytic cells in the germinal centers of ... B and T cell tolerance for apoptotic cells is abrogated, and the lymphocytes get activated by these autoantigens; inflammation ... The cytokines B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLys), interleukin 6, interleukin 17, interleukin 18, type I interferons, and tumor ... The body's sensitized B-lymphocyte cells will now produce antibodies against these nuclear-related proteins. These antibodies ...
Reducing numbers of T-lymphocytes etc.. unknown. etanercept. decoy TNF receptor. bDMARD. ...
Association with p56lck in T lymphocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (5): 2863-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.5.2863. ... CD44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, ... "Lymphocyte CD44 binds the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 116 (3): 817-25. ... protein tyrosine kinases Lck and Fyn in glycosphingolipid-rich plasma membrane domains of human peripheral blood lymphocytes". ...
LymphocytesEdit. Main article: Lymphocyte. T and B lymphocytes are the cells of the adaptive immune system. The human body has ... In jawless fishes, two subsets of lymphocytes use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen binding.[33] Diversity is ... CD8+ T lymphocytes and cytotoxicityEdit. Main article: Cytotoxic T cell. Cytotoxic T cells (also known as TC, killer T cell, or ... The cells that carry out the adaptive immune response are white blood cells known as lymphocytes. B cells and T cells, two ...
On T lymphocytesEdit. CD4+ T cells provide help to B cells that produce antibodies. Several subsets of activated effector CD4+ ... An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells - including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular ... Pichler, W. J., Lum, L., and Broder, S. (1978) Fc-receptors on human T lymphocytes. I. Transition of Tgamma to Tmu cells. J ... Sandor, M., and Lynch, R. G. (1993) Lymphocyte Fc receptors: the special case of T cells. Immunology today 14, 227-231 10.1016/ ...
Lymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or leukocytes, circulating in the blood. Although mature lymphocytes ... Antigen processing for cytotoxic lymphocyte actionsEdit. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (June 2013) ... T lymphocytes (likewise called T cells). B cells are produced in the bone marrow. The precursors of T cells are also produced ... is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes ...
... adrenaline and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we re-assessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. Forty-eight patients ... adrenaline and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we re-assessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. Forty-eight patients ... cytotoxicity lymphocyte aberrances were not found among ME/CFS patients. These assessments of cytotoxic lymphocytes therefore ... Cytotoxic lymphocytes combat intracellular infections. Their function is attenuated by stress. Despite numerous studies, the ...
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of a white blood cell in a vertebrates immune system. Lymphocytes include natural killer ... Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes[edit]. Main article: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte. In some cancers, such as melanoma and ... A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... The formation of lymphocytes is known as lymphopoiesis. B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in ...
Lymphocyte, Lymphocytes, سیالویاتی, Lymphocytic (ur); Limfocit (hr); лімфоцит (uk); Lymfocyter (sv); Limfocyty (pl); לימפוציטים ... Dosieroj en kategorio "Lymphocytes". La jenaj 77 dosieroj estas en ĉi tiu kategorio, el 77 entute. ... lymphocyte (en); خلية لمفاوية (ar); 淋巴細胞 (yue); Лимфоциттер (ky); Lìm-pâ Se-pâu (hak); Lymphozyt (nds); Lymphozyt (de); ... lymphocyte (fr); Limfosit (jv); Limfociti (hr); ލިމްފަސައިޓް (dv); Bạch huyết bào (vi); لىيمفوتسىيتتەر (kk-arab); Lïmfocïtter ( ...
Learn more about lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. We look at their function, normal levels, and what happens if levels ... There are two categories of lymphocytes known as B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. These are commonly referred to as B cells and ... The normal lymphocyte range in adults is between 1,000 and 4,800 lymphocytes in 1 microliter (µL) of blood. In children, the ... In children, the lymphocyte count would be around 9,000 lymphocytes in 1 µL of blood, although this value can change with age. ...
Anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) is an infusion of animal- antibodies against human T cells which is used in the treatment of ... the latter of which was made by injecting horses with human thoracic duct lymphocytes and was called "Lymphoser Berna". Hakim, ...
Source for information on T Cells or T-Lymphocytes: World of Microbiology and Immunology dictionary. ... T cells or T-lymphocytes When a vertebrate encounters substances that are capable of causing it harm, a protective system known ... The T-8 lymphocytes differentiate into cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) that can destroy the body cells that have the original ... T Cells or T-Lymphocytes. Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article Share Article ...
Immunology of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.. Holmes EC.. Abstract. Frequently peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) do not ... The tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) interact most closely with the tumor cells and are likely to more accurately reflect ...
In controlled trials, lymphocyte counts decreased by an average of 30% during... ... Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell and a normal lymphocyte count for adults is usually between 1,000 and 4,800 ... What does a low lymphocyte count with Tecfidera mean?. Low lymphocyte counts are a sign of a suppressed immune system, which ... Yes, Tecfidera can cause low lymphocytes. In controlled trials, lymphocyte counts decreased by an average of 30% during the ...
Lymphocyte homing.. Yednock TA1, Rosen SD.. Author information. 1. Department of Anatomy, University of California, San ...
... or the presence of a high number of lymphocytes, can be caused by many different disorders and diseases, including ... What is the cause of having a high lymphocyte count in the blood?. A: A high lymphocyte count is referred to as lymphocytosis ... The Mayo Clinic asserts that the exact thresholds at which a high number of lymphocytes in a blood sample is considered to ... Children have much higher lymphocyte counts than adults, and the count tends to vary with age. In some cases, children must ...
Lymphocyte Count - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics www.sciencedirect.com/topics/immunology-and-microbiology/lymphocyte-count ... www.sightdx.com/knowledge-center/lymphocyte. Everything you need to know about Lymphocytes: definition count and normal ranges ... Jul 12, 2019 ... Lymphocytes help fight off diseases, so its normal to see a temporary increase after an infection. A count ... Lymphocyte counts are low and cellular responses to mitogens and antigens usually become ... A significant association between ...
Locally resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are primarily T cells with potent cytolytic and immunoregulatory capacities ... Regulatory function for murine intraepithelial lymphocytes. Two subsets of CD3+, T cell receptor-1+ intraepithelial lymphocyte ... Intraepithelial lymphocytes traffic to the intestine and enhance resistance to Toxoplasma gondii oral infection. J. Immunol. ... Novel function for intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes: murine CD3+, γ/δ TCR+ T cells produce IFN-γ and IL-5. J. Immunol. ...
Search for lymphocyte at other dictionaries: OneLook, Oxford, American Heritage, Merriam-Webster, Wikipedia. See lymphocyte ... Definitions of lymphocyte: *noun: an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but ...
T and B lymphocytes flow out from the arterial terminal, and migrate in the reticular framework. … Homing of lymphocytes to ... CD3+ and Pax5+ Lymphocytes in the Dermis of Normal Skin from the Dorsolateral Thorax of Cats [in Japanese] Fickle Daniel C. , ... Decreased Expression of MicroRNA-107 in B Lymphocytes of Patients with Antibody-Mediated Renal Allograft Rejection Zhang Zhe- ... mAb BW-3C3 react to a fraction of the lymphocytes. … The mAb-positive cells were identical to cells that also stained with ...
In the immune system such diverse cell types as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, hybridomas, and natural ... In: Gupta S., Paul W.E. (eds) Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation II. Springer, Boston, MA. * DOI https ... Subset-specific expression of potassium channels in developing murine T lymphocytes. Science 239: 771 (1988).PubMedCrossRef ... Cahalan MD, Chandy KG, DeCoursey TE, Gupta S, Lewis R, Sutro JB: Ion channels in T lymphocytes. In: Gupta S, Paul WE, and Fauci ...
... a method for automatic counting of lymphocytes in histopathology images using connected components is presented. Our multi-step ... In this paper, a method for automatic counting of lymphocytes in histopathology images using connected components is presented ... Graf F., Grzegorzek M., Paulus D. (2010) Counting Lymphocytes in Histopathology Images Using Connected Components. In: Ünay D ... Application to lymphocyte segmentation on breast cancer histopathology. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 57(7), 1676 ...
This Review focuses on the major populations of T lymphocytes known to mediate tissue repair, their reparative mechanisms, and ... Specific populations of T lymphocytes have emerged as important reparative cells with context-specific actions. These T cells ...
Lymphocyte 3.7 (L) Lymphocyte Absolute 0.6 (L) Absolute Neutrophil 14.9 (H) He has always been a super healthy kid. He seems to ... Lymphocyte 3.7 (L) Lymphocyte Absolute 0.6 (L) Absolute Neutrophil 14.9 (H) He has always been a super healthy kid. He seems to ... High WBC, Low lymphocytes. My 12yr old son had some blood work done in the ER, we were there due to some severe abdominal pain ... lymphocyte 0.25 - 0.33 mine is 0.25 my rbc is low what does this mean?? ive been diagnose of ptb ...
... turnover in lymphocytes since it is known that increased PI turnover is an early event induced by con A and other mitogenic ... colchicine also has been shown to inhibit con A-induced lymphocyte transformation at an early stage in the sequence of events ... con A inhibition of lymphocyte immunoglobulin receptor capping is reversed by colchicine2-4 and con A-induced aggregation of ... Colchicine inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover induced in lymphocytes by concavalin A. *R. ROBERT SCHELLENBERG1. & ...
Lymphocyte definition, a type of white blood cell having a large, spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin layer of nongranular ... lymphocyte. Historical Examples. of lymphocyte. *. When large forms of the lymphocyte are present, the distinction is often ... Origin of lymphocyte. First recorded in 1885-90; lympho- + -cyte. Related formslym·pho·cyt·ic [lim-fuh-sit-ik] /ˌlɪm fəˈsɪt ɪk/ ... a type of white blood cell formed in lymphoid tissueSee also B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte ...
Other names: CD4 lymphocyte count, CD4+ count, T4 count, T-helper cell count, CD4 percent ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cd4-lymphocyte-count/ CD4 Lymphocyte Count. ... www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/t-lymphocyte-measurement/tu6407.html#tu6414 ... www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/t-lymphocyte-measurement/tu6407.html#tu6409 ...
Description Monitoring lymphocyte counts in a patient with HIV infection is one way to assess the degree of immunosuppression ... CD4 lymphocytes act as the on switch for part of the immune system, so as the number of CD4 cells drops, damage to the immune ... Monitoring lymphocyte counts in a patient with HIV infection is one way to assess the degree of immunosuppression and the risk ... HIV infects and kills certain white blood cells called CD4 lymphocytes, reducing their number. The number of CD4 cells usually ...
Therefore, a large number of mutant T-lymphocytes with a person means that their owner has become a prey to irradiation or his/ ... Double increase of mutant lymphocyte frequency (more than 6.2 mutants per 10,000 cells) as compared to the background group was ... Increased frequency of mutations in patients lymphocytes is the evidence of risk. But, unfortunately, the lack of mutation ... Thus, European researchers have discovered that people with increased frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in lymphocytes of ...
T lymphocytes synonyms, T lymphocytes pronunciation, T lymphocytes translation, English dictionary definition of T lymphocytes ... n. Any of a class of lymphocytes, including the helper T cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, that form in bone marrow and mature ... Related to T lymphocytes: MHC, B lymphocytes, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes. T cell. n.. Any of a class of lymphocytes, including the ... T lymphocyte. lymph cell, lymphocyte - an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell ...
T. Diamond, "Review of Text-T Lymphocytes in the Liver," HPB Surgery, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 421-421, 2000. https://doi.org/ ...
Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I (BLS I) is an inherited disorder of the immune system (primary immunodeficiency). Explore ... Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I (BLS I) is an inherited disorder of the immune system (primary immunodeficiency). ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/bare-lymphocyte-syndrome-type-i/ Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I. ... on cells, including infection-fighting white blood cells (lymphocytes), which is where the condition got its name. ...
ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) - 03.23.17. Overview , Description , Applications , Operations , Results , ... ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will to determine the role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in loss of T ... lymphocyte activity in microgravity.. * Various aspects of the apoptotic process will be assessed, using human T-lymphocytes, ... In this project, we plan to ascertain whether or not Space conditions might induce apoptosis in human lymphocytes through a 5- ...
Figure 1: Schematic representation of lymphocyte development and activation. Development of lymphocytes takes place in primary ... Lymphocyte Differentiation and Effector Functions. Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara,1 Ana Paula Lepique,1 and Alexandre S. Basso2 ... Both types of lymphocytes need more than the antigen to mount an efficient effector response. For example, B cells may respond ... B and T lymphocytes are responsible for adaptive immune responses. Natural killer cells, NK, are also considered a lymphocytic ...
Lymphocytes are white blood cells whose function is to fight off infection. There are three major categories of lymphocytes: B- ... Significance of Low Lymphocytes Acquired from RA or Its Treatment. Abnormally low lymphocytes, or lymphocytopenia, presents ... RA can cause low lymphocytes. Lymphocytes, sometimes referred to as "fighter cells," attack infection-causing microorganisms. ... Lymphocytes are a vital component of the bodys immune system. Medical intervention may be necessary if the number of ...
Autologous Lymphocytes - A persons white blood cells. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including the ... Medical Word - Autologous Lymphocytes. Ans : A persons white blood cells. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune ... Autologous Lymphocytes - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical ...
  • Any of the lymphocytes that act to defend the body against disease by binding foreign antigens to receptors on the surface of their cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The most important effectors of the cell-mediated immune response, cytotoxic T lymphocytes , are the main immune cells that recognize foreign antigens on the surface of infected "self" cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cantor H and Boyse EA (1975) Functional subclasses of T‐lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. (els.net)
  • In their search for antigens, lymphocytes continuously shuttle among blood vessels, lymph vessels, and lymphatic tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • The role of lymphocytes involves recognizing harmful particles, or antigens, and carrying out processes to deal with them. (wisegeek.com)
  • B lymphocytes become activated when they bind to their specific antigens. (wisegeek.com)
  • The other type of cell produced by B lymphocytes, the memory cell, remembers antigens so that the body can respond more quickly if they attack again. (wisegeek.com)
  • A test for histocompatibility of HL-A antigens in which donor and recipient lymphocytes are mixed in culture. (dictionary.com)
  • Sites on antigens that are recognized by T-lymphocytes . (citizendium.org)
  • Effector lymphocytes function to eliminate the antigen, either by releasing antibodies (in the case of B cells), cytotoxic granules ( cytotoxic T cells ) or by signaling to other cells of the immune system ( helper T cells ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The large clone of identical lymphocytes then differentiates into different cells that can destroy the original antigen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Memory lymphocytes can recognize an antigen introduced into the body during a prior infection or vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • Memory lymphocytes mount a rapid and strong immune response when exposed to an antigen for a second time. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphocytes are activated upon antigen (Ag) recognition by their clonotypic surface Ag receptors, TCR in the case of T cells and BCR in the case of B cells. (els.net)
  • Antigen‐induced lymphocyte activation: the two‐signal paradigm. (els.net)
  • Antigen receptor stimulation of mature alpha beta T lymphocytes can lead either to proliferation or death. (nih.gov)
  • Patients suffering from B-cell lymphomas can be treated with antibodies directed against the B-lymphocyte antigen CD20. (phys.org)
  • The role of lymphocytes of the natural killer cell type is not as specific and they can recognize many different types of antigen , including infected cells and some tumor cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • Tristram G. Parslow(pp40-41) Lymphocytes are the cells that carry out antigen-specific immune responses. (amamanualofstyle.com)
  • The presence of an atypical lymphocyte, otherwise referred to as a reactive lymphocyte or an atypical white blood cell, in the bloodstream is an indicator of antigen stimulation or immune system activation in the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • Identification and characterization of antigen-specific T lymphocytes during the course of an immune response is tedious and indirect. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tetramers of human lymphocyte antigen A2 that were complexed with two different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived peptides or with a peptide derived from influenza A matrix protein bound to peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro and to T cells from the blood of HIV-infected individuals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pharmacological subversion of the S1P receptor system, through systemic S1P agonist-induced inhibition of lymphocyte egress, suppresses antigenic responses to peripheral, but not to systemically, delivered antigen. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Sensitized lymphocytes were incubated in vitro with the specific antigen Supernatants from these cultures were chromatographed on Sephadex G-100 columns. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, antigen-stimulated lymphocytes secrete a factor or factors which enhance certain macrophage functions. (rupress.org)
  • Special cytokines called interleukins that are produced by the T-4 lymphocytes mediate this proliferation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lee SC, Sabath DE, Deutsch C, Prystowsky MB: Increased voltage-gated potassium conductance during interleukin 2-stimulated proliferation of a mouse helper T lymphocyte clone. (springer.com)
  • Though there is no coherent explanation for these observations, and it is not known which biomolecules might act as gravity responders, recent evidence seems to suggest that inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation depends on alterations occurring within the first few hours of microgravity. (nasa.gov)
  • In 2012, National Jewish Health Advanced Diagnostic Laboratories introduced a nickel lymphocyte proliferation test (NiLPT) to detect nickel sensitization. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Nickel lymphocyte proliferation testing is a clinically useful tool for evaluating patients undergoing initial joint replacement surgery or revision. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Overall, the presence of B lymphocytes was associated with increased tissue proliferation, reduced cell death and a more supportive environment for wound healing. (eurekalert.org)
  • So, I just followed but I can't get any lymphocytes proliferation after pulsed with BrdU. (protocol-online.org)
  • This amino acid has been shown to play a role in lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production by lymphocytes and macrophages and phagocytosis and superoxide production by macrophages and neutrophils. (scielo.br)
  • In this article, we look at different types of lymphocytes, what normal levels to have in the blood are, and what happens if levels get too low or too high. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are two main types of lymphocytes: T-cells and B-cells. (aaaai.org)
  • The two main types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells , which function in the adaptive immune system . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Different types of lymphocytes exist, known as T cells , B cells and natural killer cells, and their roles differ accordingly. (wisegeek.com)
  • the common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) can differentiate into all types of lymphocytes but lack the myeloid potential under physiological conditions, although some myeloid-related genes can be detected in CLPs depending on experimental conditions [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Prompted by advances in the understanding of defects in lymphocyte cytotoxicity, the discovery of adaptive natural killer (NK) cell subsets associated with certain viral infections, and compelling links between stress, adrenaline, and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we reassessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Divergent hematological traits in swine may confer physiological differences, so we studied transcriptome profiles in spleens of Yorkshire pigs with different peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We will provide flow cytometry plots showing strategies to identify and characterize NK, T and B lymphocytes and their subsets in circulation. (intechopen.com)
  • B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in humans is the GALT , which is thought to be located in the Peyer's patches of the intestine, [4] while T cells migrate to and mature in a distinct organ, called the thymus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of a class of lymphocytes, including the helper T cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, that form in bone marrow and mature in the thymus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • any of several closely related lymphocytes, developed in the thymus, that circulate in the blood and lymph and regulate the immune system's response to infected or malignant cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will determine the role of programmed apoptosis (cell death) in loss of T-lymphocyte (white blood cells originating in the thymus) activity in microgravity. (nasa.gov)
  • T lymphocytes start in the bone marrow from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, then travel to and mature in the thymus gland. (howstuffworks.com)
  • CD8 T cells and B cells also differentiate into cytotoxic thymus‐derived lymphocytes and plasma cells, respectively, driven by specific activation in the context of CD4 T H cells (helper) and the cytokine microenvironment. (els.net)
  • Lymphocytes are produced inside bone marrow before traveling to areas of the lymphatic system such as the spleen, thymus and lymph nodes. (wisegeek.com)
  • Together, the thymus and marrow produce approximately 109 mature lymphocytes each day, which are then released into the circulation. (amamanualofstyle.com)
  • B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bone marrow, [4] while T cells migrate to and mature in a distinct organ, called the thymus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocyte differentiation in the rabbit thymus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Microscopically, in a Wright's stained peripheral blood smear , a normal lymphocyte has a large, dark-staining nucleus with little to no eosinophilic cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal lymphocyte range in adults is between 1,000 and 4,800 lymphocytes in 1 microliter (µL) of blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell and a normal lymphocyte count for adults is usually between 1,000 and 4,800 lymphocytes per microliter of blood (x 10 9 /L). 6% of Tecfidera patients in clinical trials experienced lymphocyte counts of less than 0.5 x 10 9 /L compared to less than 1% of people administered a placebo ( a medicine that contains no active ingredient). (drugs.com)
  • The atypical lymphocyte has more cytoplasm and thus grows larger in size than a normal lymphocyte as a reaction to infection, hormone production, radiation or other factors that influence the immune system. (wisegeek.com)
  • The NK cells are sometimes labeled "large granular lymphocytes," while the T cells and B cells are labeled as "small lymphocytes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Large granular lymphocytes include natural killer cells (NK cells). (phys.org)
  • Natural killer cells are large granular lymphocytes, with visible granules contained in their cytoplasm and a lobed nucleus. (wisegeek.com)
  • Following maturation, the lymphocytes enter the circulation and peripheral lymphoid organs (e.g. the spleen and lymph nodes ) where they survey for invading pathogens and/or tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person with a high lymph count could be suffering from a condition called lymphocytosis, an elevated level of white blood cells called lymphocytes. (reference.com)
  • Lymphocytes are found in the lymph nodes and spleen and circulate continuously in the blood and lymph. (dictionary.com)
  • Lymphocytes continually pass back and forth between lymph tissue, lymph fluid and blood. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Antibody blockade of IL-2 but not IL-4 reverses the marked reduction of lymph node V beta 8+ T cells caused in mice by the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. IL-2 may thus participate in a feedback regulatory mechanism by predisposing mature T lymphocytes to apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • After they mature, the lymphocytes enter the circulation and lymphoid organs (e.g. the spleen and lymph nodes ) where they are able to sense invading pathogens and tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenteric lymph nodes show log-jamming of lymphocytes subjacent to sinus-lining endothelium. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The S1P receptor system may represent an early physiological link between the non-specific inflammatory response and the alteration of lymphocyte traffic through draining lymph nodes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Surgery to remove the lymph nodes is the main treatment for stage I nodular lymphocyte-predominant childhood HL when doctors think the tumour can be completely removed, or resected. (cancer.ca)
  • Mature lymphocytes recirculate via blood and lymph through lymphoid tissues in a relatively quiescent state until stimulated to proliferate during, for example, a bacterial or viral infection. (scielo.br)
  • The WBC differential channel classifies Lymphocytes (LYMPH), Monocytes (MONO), Eosinophils (EO), and Granulocytes by cellular complexity and nucleic acid content. (crlcorp.com)
  • A third type of lymphocyte, known as a natural killer or NK cell, comes from the same place as B and T cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A type of lymphocyte. (nih.gov)
  • Some pathogens that influence the presence of this type of lymphocyte in the blood will also cause this altered cell to take on defining characteristics, such as changes to the shape of the nucleus and the quantity or color of the cytoplasm in the lymphocyte. (wisegeek.com)
  • hi , my percentage of lymphocytes is very low just 14,26 % and the number is1.26 is this s. (medhelp.org)
  • When white blood cells are counted, the lymphocyte count is the percentage of lymphocytes present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also see Evans 2002 (3): "Our findings provide the first evidence that depression may alter the function of killer lymphocytes in HIV-infected women and suggest that depression may decrease natural killer cell activity and lead to an increase in activated CD8 T lymphocytes and viral load" (quote from the abstract). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • B lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The journal 'Immunity' yesterday released a study showing strong evidence, and confirming a previous controversial study, that between initial and subsequent infection 80% of CD4 memory T-lymphocytes are located within bone marrow and not the circulatory system as has been widely believed by heath researchers. (chiro.org)
  • Lymphoid hematopoiesis is not trivial, because although lymphocytes are found in the bloodstream and their precursor originates in the bone marrow, they mainly belong to the separate lymphatic system, which interacts with the blood circulation. (intechopen.com)
  • Lymphocyte immune globulin is also used to treat aplastic anemia (a condition in which your bone marrow does not produce enough new blood cells). (rexhealth.com)
  • There are two categories of lymphocytes known as B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are three major categories of lymphocytes: B-cells, T-cells and NK-cells. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The two main categories of lymphocytes are the B lymphocytes ( B cells ) and T lymphocytes ( T cell ), both of which are involved in the adaptive immune system (Alberts 1989). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • All lymphocytes originate, during this process, from a common lymphoid progenitor before differentiating into their distinct lymphocyte types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homing of lymphocytes to lymphoid tissues is regulated by selective interactions between cell surface homing receptors and tissue vascular addressins at sites of lymphocyte recruitment from the blood. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Lymphocytes belong to the lymphoid lineage and are considered as divergent from other blood cells lineages as those from the myeloid or erythroid lineage. (intechopen.com)
  • Blood lymphocyte numbers, which are maintained by recirculation through secondary lymphoid organs, are essential for the efficient development of immune responses. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Clinical manifestations, pathologic features, and diagnosis of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma' . (uptodate.com)
  • The following are treatment options for childhood nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). (cancer.ca)
  • IHC tested on neurological tissues highlighted a heterogeneous population of infiltrating T and B lymphocytes admixed macrophages. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the immune system such diverse cell types as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, hybridomas, and natural killer cells express an assortment of channels (reviewed in 3). (springer.com)
  • Eric Newsholme's laboratory was the first to show glutamine utilization by lymphocytes and macrophages. (scielo.br)
  • Lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils play an important role in the immune and inflammatory response. (scielo.br)
  • Indeed, it was not until the pioneering work of Eric Newsholme's laboratory in the 1980's that it was established that immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages could utilize glutamine at high rates in addition to glucose (3,4). (scielo.br)
  • The metabolic fate of glutamine in lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils will be discussed in the present paper. (scielo.br)
  • Under the microscope, lymphocytes can be divided into large lymphocytes and small lymphocytes. (phys.org)
  • Small lymphocytes consist of T cells and B cells. (phys.org)
  • Anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) is an infusion of animal- antibodies against human T cells which is used in the treatment of acute rejection in organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including the production of antibodies and other substances that fight infection and disease. (medindia.net)
  • Certain lymphocytes (called B cells) act by stimulating the production of antibodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One important role of lymphocytes is the production of antibodies, and plasma cells are responsible for this. (wisegeek.com)
  • Stimulation of resting B lymphocytes with antibodies to surface immunoglobulin (sIgD or sIgM) induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation, implicating one or more B-cell protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in sIg signal transduction. (pnas.org)
  • In their report published in Wound Repair and Regeneration , the investigators from the MGH Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center (VIC) describe how application of mature B lymphocytes - the immune cells best known for producing antibodies - greatly accelerated the healing of acute and chronic wounds in both diabetic and nondiabetic mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Increased expansions of adaptive NK cells or deviant cytotoxic lymphocyte adrenaline-mediated inhibition were not observed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lymphocytes include natural killer cells (which function in cell-mediated , cytotoxic innate immunity ), T cells (for cell-mediated , cytotoxic adaptive immunity ), and B cells (for humoral , antibody -driven adaptive immunity ). (wikipedia.org)
  • A stained lymphocyte surrounded by red blood cells viewed using a light microscope . (wikipedia.org)
  • The three major types of lymphocyte are T cells , B cells and natural killer (NK) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood showing red blood cells , several types of white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte , a neutrophil and many small disc-shaped platelets . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes are white blood cells that are also one of the body's main types of immune cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The immune system is a complex network of cells known as immune cells that include lymphocytes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lymphocytes are types of white blood cells that help the immune system defend against disease and infection. (aaaai.org)
  • The T cells and the B cells together are called the lymphocytes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The T-8 lymphocytes differentiate into cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) that can destroy the body cells that have the original antigenic epitope on its surface, e.g., bacterial infected cells, viral infected cells, and tumor cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some of the T lymphocytes become memory cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) interact most closely with the tumor cells and are likely to more accurately reflect tumor host interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphocytes are produced by the same stem cells that produce red blood cells. (reference.com)
  • Lymphocytes normally represent 20 - 40% of circulating white blood cells. (reference.com)
  • Locally resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are primarily T cells with potent cytolytic and immunoregulatory capacities, which they use to sustain epithelial integrity. (nature.com)
  • Yoshikai, Y. The interaction of intestinal epithelial cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes in host defense. (nature.com)
  • Specific populations of T lymphocytes have emerged as important reparative cells with context-specific actions. (jci.org)
  • for example, phagocytosis by rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) leads to a selective depletion of con A binding sites which is prevented by colchicine 1 , con A inhibition of lymphocyte immunoglobulin receptor capping is reversed by colchicine 2-4 and con A-induced aggregation of PMNs, fibroblasts and hepatoma cells is inhibited by colchicine 5-7 . (nature.com)
  • HIV infects and kills certain white blood cells called CD4 lymphocytes, reducing their number. (healthcentral.com)
  • CD4 lymphocytes act as the 'on switch' for part of the immune system , so as the number of CD4 cells drops, damage to the immune system may progress. (healthcentral.com)
  • Double increase of mutant lymphocyte frequency (more than 6.2 mutants per 10,000 cells) as compared to the background group was discovered with 37 percent of cancer patients, and this result cannot be considered accidental. (innovations-report.com)
  • Washington, January 4 ( ANI ): In a new study, researchers claim to have succeeded for the first time in creating cancer-specific, immune system cells called killer T lymphocytes , from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It contributes to the development of T lymphocytes , guard cells that participate in immune system reactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • on cells, including infection-fighting white blood cells (lymphocytes), which is where the condition got its name. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It has been suggested that reduced growth response in lymphocytes during spaceflight might be linked to apoptosis, based on morphological anomalies and cDNA microarray analysis of space-flown human lymphoblastoid (Jurkat) cells. (nasa.gov)
  • In this context, 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) plays a central role in interleukin-2 expression and activation of human lymphocytes, and is involved in the initiation of programmed death (apoptosis) triggered by several stimuli in different human cells. (nasa.gov)
  • Lymphocytes, sometimes referred to as "fighter cells," attack infection-causing microorganisms. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Lymphocytes are white blood cells whose function is to fight off infection. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Lymphocytes are complex cells that direct the body's immune system . (howstuffworks.com)
  • T lymphocytes (T cells) are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Seventy-five percent of lymphocytes are T cells. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Both T lymphocytes (T cells) and B lymphocytes (B cells) can become memory cells. (nih.gov)
  • Other lymphocyte-like cells are commonly known as natural killer cells, or NK cells, and are part of the innate immune system . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • While offering protection against millions of possible invaders, including viruses , bacteria , are cancer cells, lymphocytes allow normal body cells and helpful, symbiotic bacteria to flourish at the same time. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition, lymphocyte-like cells called natural killer (NK) cells are involved in the immune system, albeit part of the innate immune system . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • T lymphocyte cells form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes and, in the presence of transforming agents (mitogens), differentiate and divide. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Phospholipid methylation in murine T lymphocytes but not B cells was stimulated by mitogenic lectins such as concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin, and the methylation was then returned to the control level by the concomitant activation of phospholipase A2. (pnas.org)
  • Deletion of GRK2 in lymphocytes compromises desensitization by high vascular S1P concentrations, thereby reducing responsiveness to the chemokine signal and trapping the cells in the vascular compartment. (sciencemag.org)
  • T lymphocytes can be subdivided into helper and killer T cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • Helper T cells have what is probably the most important role of lymphocytes in the immune system. (wisegeek.com)
  • Results were again significantly better than for l-PEI, although further research into the response of individual T cells to the transfection agent will be necessary, before either method can be used to routinely transfect primary T lymphocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • A mathematical model for the interaction of between cancer cells and immune system, involving CML cancer cells, naive and effector T-lymphocytes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The CD4 percentage is the percentage of CD4 cells in the total lymphocyte count . (thebody.com)
  • Lymphocytes are the only cells in the body capable of specifically recognizing and distinguishing different antigenic determinants and are responsible for the two defining characteristics of the adaptive immune response, specificity and memory. (ozon.ru)
  • Since lymphocytes play an integral role in the bodys immune response as well as have several important physiologic roles to play within the body, any aberration in these cells leads to widespread pathological conditions. (ozon.ru)
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated towards a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A preparation of cells, consisting of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, that are manipulated in vitro and, upon administration in vivo, re-infiltrate the tumor to initiate tumor cell lysis. (cancer.gov)
  • To investigate whether carbamate pesticides also induce apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, in the present study Jurkat human T cells were treated in vitro with thiram, maneb, carbaryl or ziram. (mdpi.com)
  • A POSTECH research team - led by Professor Seung-Woo Lee, Ph.D. candidate Sookjin Moon and research assistant professor Yunji Park of the Department of Life Sciences - has uncovered for the first the mechanism for regulating the differentiation of T cells (intraepithelial lymphocyte, IEL) via intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). (news-medical.net)
  • Some of the viruses that alter lymphocyte production in the body are the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, syphilis and hepatitis C . The Eppstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus atypical lymphocyte structures are often called Downey cells in honor of Hal Downey, who discovered them in 1923. (wisegeek.com)
  • For example, infectious mononucleosis produces an atypical lymphocyte that has more cytoplasm than the usual white blood cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • In addition to being larger than typical lymphocytes, these cells also exhibit the presence of nucleoli. (wisegeek.com)
  • They are named "natural killer cells" because they do not require prior activation in order to kill cells which are missing MHC class I. The X lymphocyte is a reported cell type expressing both a B-cell receptor and T-cell receptor and is hypothesized to be implicated in type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our demonstration that B lymphocytes - immune system cells that are abundant in the blood - can accelerate wound healing in both healthy and diabetic skin potentially opens up an exciting path to a new treatment for chronic wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers," says Ruxandra Sîrbulescu, PhD, of the MGH-VIC, lead and corresponding author of the report. (eurekalert.org)
  • Look at percentage of cells within the lymphocyte gate that express the B-cell marker CD19, and compare to healthy controls and non-healthy controls. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • So you could try washing your stimulator cells before adding responders or you might have to add a peptide for lymphocyte recognition and response! (protocol-online.org)
  • The pediatric atopic dermatitis profile has robust and significant increases of Th17 T lymphocyte cells, which are characteristically increased in psoriasis. (medindia.net)
  • First, the research showed that pediatric AD is associated with increased lymphocyte activation, including Th2 lymphocyte cells, which is also similar to adults with AD. (medindia.net)
  • Next, the researchers discovered that that unlike the adult disease, the pediatric eczema profile has robust and significant increases of Th17 T lymphocyte cells, which are characteristically increased in psoriasis, a disease that is now being successfully targeted in using anti IL-17 and IL-23-targeting strategies. (medindia.net)
  • In addition to targeting Th2 lymphocyte cells as in adults, treatment approaches for children with eczema may need to target other types of T lymphocytes, particularly Th17 T lymphocytes," said Dr. Guttman-Yassky. (medindia.net)
  • T cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors (TCR). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Immunology of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • S. J. McLeod and M. R. Gold, "Activation and function of the Rap1 GTPase in B lymphocytes," International Reviews of Immunology , vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 763-789, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the comprehension about lymphocytes and their contribution to the immune response will favor their application in developmental hematology and immunology. (intechopen.com)
  • In this project, we plan to ascertain whether or not Space conditions might induce apoptosis in human lymphocytes through a 5-LOX-mediated pathway. (nasa.gov)
  • A thymocyte-derived lymphocyte of immunological importance that is long-lived (months to years) and is responsible for cell-mediated immunity. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. (fpnotebook.com)
  • According to Japanese and Russian researchers' data, the patients suffering from larynx cancer and some other malignant growths, even before treatment starts experience increase of quantity of lymphocytes with T-cell receptor (TCR) genes mutations. (innovations-report.com)
  • Desensitization of a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor enables lymphocytes to leave the vascular compartment. (sciencemag.org)
  • Receptor-mediated formation, metabolism, and mode of action of these novel second messengers in T lymphocytes will be reviewed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recirculating populations of B and T lymphocytes are regulated by the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-dependent control of lymphocyte egress. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • T lymphocytes that constitutively express the IL-2 receptor a-chain, CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3, comprising approximately 10% of the [CD4.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Lymphocyte stimulation leads to the activation of selected transcription factors depending on the type of signals. (els.net)
  • Anti-immunoglobulin stimulation of B lymphocytes activates src-related protein-tyrosine kinases. (pnas.org)
  • Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes will be obtained from a small piece of tumour tissue removed from the invaded lymphnode after surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lymphocytes are a vital component of the body's immune system. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Lymphocytes play an important and integral role in the body's defenses, and are part of a system of extraordinary complexity and coordination. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition to making changes in the structure of the body's lymphocytes, most viruses that can create an atypical lymphocyte are also transmitted through sex or the exchange of bodily fluids. (wisegeek.com)
  • Lymphocyte immune globulin anti-thymocyte (also called equine anti-thymocyte immune globulin), is an immunosuppressant that lowers your body's immune system. (rexhealth.com)
  • Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). (fpnotebook.com)
  • T-helper cell type (Th)2 lymphocytes play an important role in the initiation, progression and persistence of allergic diseases, including asthma. (ersjournals.com)
  • In contrast to strictly cytokine-producing helper ILCs, resident innate lymphocyte populations with cytolytic potential have been identified in multiple tissues in both mouse and human. (jimmunol.org)
  • Can Tecfidera cause low lymphocytes? (drugs.com)
  • Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Cause Low Lymphocytes? (ehow.co.uk)
  • Unusually high or low lymphocyte counts can be a sign of disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In controlled trials, lymphocyte counts decreased by an average of 30% during the first year of treatment with Tecfidera but remained stable thereafter. (drugs.com)
  • When Tecfidera was discontinued, lymphocyte counts increased, although they did not return to pre-treatment levels. (drugs.com)
  • Low lymphocyte counts are a sign of a suppressed immune system, which can increase your risk of infection, lower your response to vaccinations, and put you at risk of other conditions. (drugs.com)
  • Children have much higher lymphocyte counts than adults, and the count tends to vary with age. (reference.com)
  • Monitoring lymphocyte counts in a patient with HIV infection is one way to assess the degree of immunosuppression and the risk of developing opportunistic infections. (healthcentral.com)
  • CD4 counts and total lymphocyte count? (thebody.com)
  • Higher white blood cell counts and the presence of atypical lymphocyte cell structures in the bloodstream are indicative of infections. (wisegeek.com)
  • B lymphocytes are responsible for humoral immunity (antibody production). (howstuffworks.com)
  • A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learn more about the role of lymphocytes in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). (aaaai.org)
  • What Is the Role of Lymphocytes? (wisegeek.com)
  • The appearance as well as the role of lymphocytes can vary. (wisegeek.com)
  • Chemokines mediate entry of lymphocytes into lymphatic tissues, and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) promotes localization of lymphocytes to the vasculature. (sciencemag.org)
  • In summary, employing sensitive assays and analyses for quantification of cytotoxic lymphocyte differentiation and function, cytotoxicity lymphocyte aberrances were not found among ME/CFS patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lymphocyte differentiation and function is directed by specific transcription factors that determine the cell lineage. (els.net)
  • Incited by the role of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in the production of immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody by B-lymphocytes, subsequent studies in the late 1980s demonstrated that they are also involved in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma 2 , 3 . (ersjournals.com)
  • This Review focuses on the major populations of T lymphocytes known to mediate tissue repair, their reparative mechanisms, and the diseases in which they have been implicated. (jci.org)
  • Les thymocytes doubles n gatifs sont tout d'abord isol s, puis s par s en diverses sous populations (DN1, DN2, DN3 et DN4) suivant l'expression des marqueurs CD44 (une prot ine d'adh sion) et CD25 (cha ne α du r cepteur de l'IL-2). (unice.fr)
  • Detection of gene expression specific for different kind of immune cell populations can then be used to determine the degree of lymphocyte infiltration as has been shown in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lympho-depletion is thought to eliminate the negative effects of other lymphocytes that may compete for growth factors and decrease anti-tumor effects of the TILs, depleting regulatory or inhibitory lymphocyte populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A high lymphocyte count is referred to as lymphocytosis and is caused by a bacterial or viral infection, cancer, autoimmune disorders, tuberculosis, HIV/AI. (reference.com)
  • Lymphocytes help fight off diseases, so it's normal to see a temporary increase after an infection. (reference.com)
  • At 3 days postinfection, neither DEP exposure nor Listeria infection resulted in significant changes in T lymphocytes when compared with the air-exposed, noninfected control (data not shown). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphocytopenia, the medical term for a low number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood, places individuals at a high risk for infection. (ehow.co.uk)
  • is normal for a chronic hiv infection to have atipical lymphocytes (betewn 1-2%) 2. (thebody.com)
  • The shape, color and size of the lymphocyte can offer lab pathologists the opportunity to identify the source of the infection. (wisegeek.com)
  • An increase in lymphocyte concentration is usually a sign of a viral infection (in some rare case, leukemias are found through an abnormally high lymphocyte count in an otherwise normal person). (wikipedia.org)
  • HealthCentral explains that lymphocytosis, or the presence of a high number of lymphocytes, can be caused by many different disorders and diseases, including mononucleosis, toxoplasmosis, AIDS and tuberculosis. (reference.com)
  • however, adults with more than 3,000 lymphocytes per milliliter of blood are generally considered to suffer from lymphocytosis. (reference.com)
  • In some cases, children must have more than 9,000 lymphocytes per milliliter of blood to be considered to suffer from lymphocytosis. (reference.com)
  • My absolute lymphocyte value is 4243. (thebody.com)
  • A low normal to low absolute lymphocyte count is found with infections after surgery or trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although lymphocytes are always present in the bloodstream, interaction with immune system triggers is required to create an environment in which the abnormal lymphocyte is produced. (wisegeek.com)
  • Yes atypical lymphocytes reflect the size and shape of lymphocytes as they can be seen under the microscope. (thebody.com)
  • These viruses, which have the ability to remain dormant for many years, are often first identified by the presence of atypical lymphocytes in the blood. (wisegeek.com)
  • I got to look at a few slides of atypical lymphocytes when I took Anatomy and Physiology. (wisegeek.com)
  • She often has to look for atypical lymphocytes in her samples, among other atypical things! (wisegeek.com)
  • As the article said, different atypical lymphocytes have different characteristics. (wisegeek.com)
  • Klein, J. R. Ontogeny of the Thy-1-, Lyt-2 + murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte. (nature.com)
  • 2021) Niche-specific MHC II and PD-L1 regulate CD4+CD8αα+ intraepithelial lymphocyte differentiation. (news-medical.net)
  • The process can also involve a preliminary chemotherapy regimen to deplete endogenous lymphocytes in order to provide the adoptively transferred TILs with enough access to surround the tumor sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • DeCoursey TE, Chandy KG, Gupta S, Cahalan MD: Two types of potassium channels in murine T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • DeCoursey TE, Chandy KG, Gupta S, Cahalan MD: Mitogen induction of ion channels in murine T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Lewis RS and Cahalan MD. Subset-specific expression of potassium channels in developing murine T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that the mitogenesis of murine T lymphocytes is triggered by the activation of both phospholipid methyltransferase(s) and phospholipase A2. (pnas.org)
  • Forty-eight patients from two independent cohorts fulfilling the Canada 2003 criteria for ME/CFS were evaluated with respect to cytotoxic lymphocyte phenotype and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reproducible differences between patients and controls were not found in cytotoxic lymphocyte numbers, cytotoxic granule content, activation status, exocytotic capacity, target cell killing, or cytokine production. (frontiersin.org)
  • A drastic reduction of lymphocytes can lead to persistent infections from fungi, bacteria and viruses. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Lymphocytes are different from the other WBCs because they can recognize and have a memory of invading bacteria and viruses . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Thus, European researchers have discovered that people with increased frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in lymphocytes of blood more often fall ill with cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • These mutations are easy to discover via a special immunological test, which was used by the Obninsk physicians for search of mutant lymphocytes in blood of patients with thyroid gland cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • This investigation looked at how spaceflight influences immune cell function, including the role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in loss of T-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. (nasa.gov)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "T-Lymphocyte. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Lymphocytopenia, also referred to as lymphopenia, occurs when your lymphocyte count in your bloodstream is lower than normal. (reference.com)
  • Abnormally low lymphocytes, or lymphocytopenia, presents with a wide variety of symptoms. (ehow.co.uk)
  • A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of a white blood cell in a vertebrate 's immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequently peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) do not reflect the tumor host relationship and cell mediated immunity in the PBL does not often correlate with prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphocytes are one type of white blood cell. (thebody.com)
  • ___ B cell → ___ B, importante en la producción de anticuerpos. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lymphocyte activation triggers multiple signalling cascades that converge in the cell nucleus to cause significant changes in the pattern of gene expression that determine the phenotype of activated lymphocytes and, ultimately, the type of immune response. (els.net)
  • A T lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Re: [Felvtalk] Immunoregolin or Lymphocyte T-cell immun. (mail-archive.com)
  • The 2 main types are the T lymphocyte and the B lymphocyte, also called the T cell and the B cell. (amamanualofstyle.com)
  • Crowding by the surrounding red blood cell is the reason why the lymphocytes produced by infectious mononucleosis often have a dented shape to their cytoplasm. (wisegeek.com)
  • All lymphocytes come from a common basic lymphocyte cell before differentiating into their distinct lymphocyte types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal situations, the coarse, dense nucleus of a lymphocyte is approximately the size of a red blood cell (about 7 μm in diameter). (wikipedia.org)
  • In children, the normal range is between 3,000 and 9,500 lymphocytes in 1 µL of blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What is the cause of having a high lymphocyte count in the blood? (reference.com)
  • In the F0 generation, we obtained 35 pups and 25 out of them were positive for Surveyor assay, and most of mutants displayed dramatic reductions of T and B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. (nii.ac.jp)
  • My daughter is about the same age and has chronic low lymphocytes results when her blood is drawn. (medhelp.org)
  • Medical intervention may be necessary if the number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood becomes depressed. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The effects of other virus or lymphocyte disorders can also often be estimated by counting the numbers of lymphocytes present in the blood . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocyte immune globulin is made of certain blood products from horses and may contain viruses and other infectious agents. (rexhealth.com)
  • While using lymphocyte immune globulin, you may need frequent blood tests. (rexhealth.com)
  • Recent studies from the VIC and other centers have identified several unsuspected roles for B lymphocytes, including the secretion of powerful anti-inflammatory molecules. (eurekalert.org)