A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.

IgA production in MHC class II-deficient mice is primarily a function of B-1a cells. (1/1715)

Mice deficient in MHC class II expression (C2d mice) do not make antibody to protein antigens administered systemically, but their ability to produce IgA antibody to antigen administered at mucosal sites has not been described. We investigated IgA production by C2d mice and their IgA antibody response to antigen given orally. Young C2d mice had normal amounts of serum IgA, intestinal-secreted IgA and normal numbers of intestinal IgA plasma cells, compared to control C57BL/6 mice. IgA production by C2d mice increased with age. Following oral immunization with cholera toxin, C57BL/6 mice responded with IgA and IgG antibody, and had increased numbers of IgA plasma cells, but C2d mice gave no response. The Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node tissues of C2d mice contained very few CD4-expressing T cells. Thus, C2d mice have no typical mucosal CD4 Th cells and cannot respond to a strong oral immunogen, yet they still produced and secreted IgA. We hypothesized that B-1 lymphocytes could provide a source of IgA independent of antigen-specific T cell help. Young C2d mice had normal numbers of peritoneal B-1a cells and their frequency increased with age. To test the role of these B-1a cells, we bred C2d mice to obtain mice that had no MHC class II expression and expressed the Xid gene that confers deficiency in B-1a cells. These double-deficient mice had 10-fold less serum and secreted IgA than all other F2 littermates. We conclude that B-1a cells are essential for the majority of IgA production in C2d mice. Thus, the C2d mouse may provide a useful tool for analysis of the role of intestinal IgA provided by B-1a cells.  (+info)

An alternatively spliced form of CD79b gene may account for altered B-cell receptor expression in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (2/1715)

Several functional anomalies of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells may be explained by abnormalities of the B-cell receptor (BCR), a multimeric complex formed by the sIg homodimer and the noncovalently bound heterodimer Igalpha/Igbeta (CD79a/CD79b). Because the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b has been reported to be absent in the cells of most CLL cases, we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that may account for this defect. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 50 patients and two cell lines (MEC1, MEC2) obtained from the PBL of one of them were studied. MEC1, MEC2, and 75% of CLL cases did not express detectable levels of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b, which was nevertheless present in greater than 80% CD19(+) cells from normal donors. In healthy subjects the expression of CD79b was equally distributed in CD5(+) and CD5(-) B-cell subsets. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of CD79b RNA from all patients and from MEC1 and MEC2 cell lines consistently yielded two fragments of different size (709 bp and 397 bp). The 709-bp band corresponds to CD79b entire transcript; the 397-bp band corresponds to an alternatively spliced form lacking exon 3 that encodes the extracellular Ig-like domain. Both fragments were also visible in normal PBL. The expression of the 397-bp fragment was increased in normal activated B cells, while no difference was seen between CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. To obtain a more accurate estimate of the relative proportions of the two spliced forms, a radioactive PCR was performed in 13 normal and 22 B-CLL samples and the results analyzed using a digital imager. The mean value of the CD79b to the CD79b internally deleted ratio was 0.64 +/- 0.20 SD in normal donors and 0.44 +/- 0.27 SD in B-CLL (P =.01). Direct sequencing of 397-bp RT-PCR products and of genomic DNA corresponding to exon 3 from MEC1, MEC2, their parental cells, and five fresh B-CLL samples did not show any causal mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 3 performed in 18 additional B-CLL cases showed a single abnormal shift corresponding to a TGT --> TGC polymorphic change at amino acid 122. We propose a role for the alternative splicing of CD79b gene in causing the reduced expression of BCR on the surface of B-CLL cells. As normal B cells also present this variant, the mechanism of CD79b posttranscriptional regulation might reflect the activation stage of the normal B cell from which B-CLL derives.  (+info)

Anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in HIV infection. (3/1715)

This cross-sectional study evaluates the correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in 110 patients infected with HIV-1. There were 89.1% of the patients who had IgG antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine. The prevalence of IgM and IgA antibodies was < 22%. AIDS was associated with lower frequencies of IgM antibodies against cardiolipin (P = 0.05) and IgG-antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine (P = 0.011). Drug users had higher IgM antibodies against phospholipids than patients from other risk groups (P = 0.02). A history of thromboembolic events was not accompanied by higher levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies (P > 0.2). No correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells was detected. Percentage part of CD5+ B lymphocytes was elevated in all patients and absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and HIV p24 antigen were inversely correlated. In advanced disease a significant reduction of anti-phospholipid antibodies was contrasted with persistent elevation of CD5+ B lymphocytes. These observations may reflect immunological dysfunction involving apoptosis and endothelial damage rather than polyclonal B cell hyperstimulation. A possible explanation would be that in HIV infection an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes is accompanied by functional and structural changes of mitochondria. Therefore, structurally altered mitochondrial phospholipids could serve as antigen to induce specific humoral immune responses.  (+info)

Cutting edge: recruitment of the CD19/CD21 coreceptor to B cell antigen receptor is required for antigen-mediated expression of Bcl-2 by resting and cycling hen egg lysozyme transgenic B cells. (4/1715)

Recruitment of the CD19/CD21 coreceptor is thought to lower the threshold for effective signaling through the B cell Ag receptor. We provide evidence supporting a second role for coreceptor recruitment, and that is to enhance the survival/proliferative potential of the responding B cells. We show that B cell Ag receptor signaling in the absence of coreceptor recruitment induces cellular accumulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, whereas CD19-mediated signals are required for Bcl-2 accumulation. The expression of both anti-apoptotic proteins correlates with the enhanced responsiveness of both resting and cycling B cells to growth-promoting signals delivered through CD40. These results provide further evidence for the necessity of coreceptor recruitment during Ag-dependent B cell activation and indicate that Ags derived from inflammatory sites function as better thymus-dependent Ags than their counterparts not coated with complement fragments.  (+info)

Antigen receptor engagement selectively induces macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and MIP-1 beta chemokine production in human B cells. (5/1715)

We show herein that B cell Ag receptor (BCR) triggering, but not stimulation by CD40 mAb and/or IL-4, rapidly induced the coordinated expression of two closely related T cell chemoattractants, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta) and MIP-1 alpha, by human B cells. Naive, memory, and germinal center B cells all produced MIP-1 alpha/beta in response to BCR triggering. In contrast to MIP-1 alpha/beta, IL-8, which is spontaneously produced by germinal center B cells but not by naive and memory B cells, was not regulated by BCR triggering. Culturing follicular dendritic cell-like HK cells with activated B cells did not regulate MIP-1 alpha/beta production, but it did induce production of IL-8 by HK cells. Microchemotaxis assays showed that CD4+CD45RO+ T cells of the effector/helper phenotype actively migrated along a chemotactic gradient formed by BCR-stimulated B cells. This effect was partially blocked by anti-MIP-1 beta and anti-CC chemokine receptor 5 Ab, but not by anti-MIP-1 alpha Ab suggesting that MIP-1 beta plays a major role in this chemoattraction. Since maturation of the B cell response to a peptide Ag is mostly dependent on the availability of T cell help, the ability of Ag-stimulated B cells to recruit T cells via MIP-1 alpha/beta, may represent one possible mechanism enabling cognate interactions between rare in vivo Ag-specific T and B cells.  (+info)

Age-dependent altered proportions in subpopulations of tonsillar lymphocytes. (6/1715)

Age-related changes in functional subsets of lymphocytes may influence the potential to build up immune responses. In particular, the capacity of tonsillar lymphocytes to counter infections may be altered during ageing. In order to address this question we investigated the proportional distribution of several subsets of tonsillar T and B cells with regard to ageing. Tonsils were derived from 119 patients between 2 and 65 years of age. Lymphocyte subsets were monitored by three-colour fluorescence of relevant CD markers in flow cytometry. As a general tendency the percentage of CD3+ T cells steadily increased whereas that of CD19+ B cells decreased at the same time. No significant differences were observed between lymphocytes of patients with and without inflammatory history of the tonsils. The percentage of CD8+ T cells declined whereas that of CD4+ T cells increased during the same time span. CD45RA+ T cells increased during the first two decades of life and gradually decreased thereafter. In contrast, CD45RO+ T cells showed an opposite trend. No differences were seen in the population of CD3-/CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. The mature B cell marker CD40 showed no significant changes during ageing. However, CD38+ B cells, representing B cells of late maturation stages, dramatically declined up to the age of 65. In a similar manner the CD5+ subpopulation of B cells decreased during ageing. Substantial changes in major tonsillar T and B cell populations as shown in this study may have an impact on the ageing process of the immune system.  (+info)

The evolutionarily conserved sequence upstream of the human Ig heavy chain S gamma 3 region is an inducible promoter: synergistic activation by CD40 ligand and IL-4 via cooperative NF-kappa B and STAT-6 binding sites. (7/1715)

Germline C gamma gene transcription is a crucial event in the process that leads to switch DNA recombination to IgG, but its regulation in the human is poorly understood. We took advantage of our monoclonal model of germinal center B cell differentiation, IgM+ IgD+ CL-01 cells, to define the role of the I gamma 3 evolutionarily conserved sequence (ECS) in the germline transcriptional activation of the human C gamma 3 gene. The I gamma 3 ECS lies upstream of the major I gamma 3 transcription initiation site and displays more than 90% identity with the corresponding human I gamma 1, I gamma 2, and I gamma 4 regions. Reporter luciferase gene vectors containing the human gamma 3 ECS were used to transfect CL-01 cells, which have been shown to undergo Smu-->S gamma 3 DNA recombination, upon engagement of CD40 by CD40 ligand (CD40L) and exposure to IL-4. In these transfected CL-01 cells, CD40:CD40L engagement and exposure to IL-4 synergistically induced gamma 3 ECS-dependent luciferase reporter gene activation. Targeted mutational analysis demonstrated that a tandem NF-kappa B/Rel binding motif is critical for the gamma 3 ECS responsiveness to both CD40L and IL-4, while a STAT-6-binding site is additionally required for IL-4 inducibility. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that p50/p65/c-Rel and STAT-6 are effectively induced by CD40L and IL-4, respectively, and bind to specific DNA motifs within the ECS. These partially overlapping CD40L and IL-4 responsive elements are functionally cooperative as the disruption of one of them prevents synergistic promoter activation. Thus, the gamma 3 ECS is an inducible promoter containing cis elements that critically mediate CD40L and IL-4-triggered transcriptional activation of the human C gamma 3 gene.  (+info)

Syndecan-4 is expressed by B lineage lymphocytes and can transmit a signal for formation of dendritic processes. (8/1715)

Our previous studies indicated that stromal cell-derived syndecan-4 might mediate some form of communication with pre-B cells in bone marrow. We now report additional aspects of this recognition and show that syndecan-4 is also present on pre-B cells. Indeed, the molecule is acquired at an early stage of differentiation and retained until mature B cells undergo Ig isotype switching. mAbs developed to two portions of the syndecan-4 protein core were used to probe possible functions on B lineage lymphocytes. Syndecan-4 ligation had no obvious influence on B lymphocyte formation or activation, but this treatment caused a dramatic morphological change in appropriately stimulated leukocytes. Extended filopodia appeared on transfected Ba/F3 or FDCP-1 cells, as well as activated B cell blasts that were placed on syndecan-4 Ab-coated surfaces. The dendritic processes contained polymerized actin as well as pp52(LSP1), a prominent F-actin binding protein in lymphocytes. The cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4 was not required for this response. Shape changes of this type could facilitate interactions between B lymphocytes and other components of the immune system. Not only is syndecan-4 a useful marker for discriminating normal B lineage lymphocyte subsets, but our results suggest new ways for the syndecans to participate in immune responses.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Aged mice exhibit distinct B cell precursor phenotypes differing in activation, proliferation and apoptosis. AU - Van der Put, Elaine. AU - Sherwood, Erin M.. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B. AU - Riley, Richard L. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - Senescence in murine models is associated with a reduction, albeit heterogeneous, in bone marrow pre-B cells. We have categorized aged BALB/c mice into two phenotypes based on their patterns of pre-B/pro-B cell loss. Each phenotype is characterized by distinct responses to the growth cytokine IL-7 and capacity for survival in vitro. A moderate loss of late-stage pre-B cells (25-80%) coincided with decline in proliferation to rmIL-7. This was also associated with a decrease in the frequency of pro-B cells which increased phosphotyrosine content upon IL-7 stimulation, an indicator of early activation events. A severe loss of pre-B cells (,80%) resulted in a reduced pro-B cell pool which retained normal activation and proliferative ...
Our views regarding the origins and functions of splenic marginal zone B cells have changed considerably over the past few years. Perspectives regarding the development and function of these cells vary considerably between investigators studying human and rodent immunology. Marginal zone B cells are …
The development of an effective Ab response to TD Ag requires collaboration between T and B cells. Several lines of evidence support the idea that the ability of B cells to induce both naive T cell priming and tolerance depends on their resting vs activated state (28, 29, 30, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44). In agreement with previous results, we found that both resting MZ and FO B cells were unable to induce T cell responses in vivo and in vitro. However, within a few hours of in vivo Ag priming, MZ B cells were far superior to FO B cells in the activation of naive CD4+ T cells in vitro. MD4 B cell populations have been shown to be a little different in the phenotype of their subsets, in that IgM on FO B cells tended to persist at higher levels than on FO B in normal mice. However, we sorted FO and MZ B cell subsets based on their expression of CD23 and CD21. In this respect the MZ B cells are clearly distinguishable from their FO counterparts. Despite this anomaly in MD4 transgenic mice MZ and FO B ...
The mechanisms that establish immune tolerance in immature and mature B cells appear to be distinct. Membrane-bound autoantigen is thought to induce developmental arrest and receptor editing in immature B cells, whereas mature B cells have shortened lifespans when exposed to the same stimulus. In this study, we used Emu-bcl-2-22 transgenic (Tg) mice to test the prediction that enforced expression of the Bcl-2 apoptotic inhibitor in B cells would rescue mature, but not immature, B cells from tolerance induction. To monitor tolerance to the natural membrane autoantigen H-2Kb, we bred 3-83mudelta (anti-Kk,b) Ig Tg mice to H-2(b) mice or to mice expressing transgene-driven Kb in the periphery. In 3-83mudelta/bcl-2 Tg mice, deletion of autoreactive B cells induced by peripheral Kb antigen expression in the liver (MT-Kb Tg) or epithelia (KerIV-Kb Tg), was partly or completely inhibited, respectively. Furthermore, Bcl-2 protected peritoneal B-2 B cells from deletion mediated by acute antigen exposure, ...
Quantitative variation in the expression of MHC-encoded class II (Ia) glycoproteins has been associated with stages of lymphocyte development and a number
Replacement nurses and technicians will arrive over the weekend for orientation sessions in preparation for a possible strike at Lawrence + Memorial
The uniqueness of each BCR and width of the B cell repertoire are due to the DNA rearrangements at HC and LC loci. B cells leave the bone marrow at the transitional stage carrying a wide array of germline-encoded and randomly assembled Ig genes. Transitional B cells migrate with the blood to the spleen. They are not fully functional in the immune responses: they are not able to respond to inflammatory chemokines, and engagement of the BCR leads to their apoptotic cell death. These are safety measures against autoreactivity preventing self-reactive transitional B cells from further development and migration to sites rich in cytokines and stimulatory cells. In contrast to the mortal effect of BCR cross-linking, engagement of TLR9 leads to differentiation of transitional B cells. In response to CpG, a fraction of the transitional B cells (26%) proliferates and acquires the phenotype of memory B cells or directly matures into plasma cells. The remaining cells start to express the markers of ...
In the past decade, the suppressive effects, mainly through the secretion of IL-10, of regulatory B cells on inflammatory responses have been reported in a variety of immune disorders (33-36). Additionally, immune regulation through the interaction of immune cells with the intrinsic phenotype of regulatory B cells (e.g., CD1dhiCD5+, T2-MZP, Tim-1+, and CD9+) were demonstrated in various diseases, and it plays a critical role in autoimmune diseases (37). In recent studies, functional studies in cancer diseases are emerging (38-40). In particular, the change of the distribution of regulatory B cells in cancer tissue is considered to one of important indicators (8-10). Emerging evidence suggests that regulatory B cells suppress effector immune cells including IFN-γ-producing cytotoxicity cells in various cancer diseases through the secretion of IL-10 (11). Although regulatory B cells have to play the suppressive role on the effector function of T cells in autoimmune diseases to cure diseases (41), ...
Marginal zone (MZ) B cells are thought to be responsible for the first wave of Abs against bacterial Ags. In this study, we assessed the in vivo response of MZ B cells in mice immunized with viral particles derived from the RNA phage Qbeta. We found that both follicular (FO) and MZ B cells responded to immunization with viral particles. MZ B cells responded with slightly faster kinetics, but numerically, FO B cells dominated the response. B1 B cells responded similarly to MZ B cells. Both MZ and FO B cells underwent isotype switching, with MZ B cells again exhibiting faster kinetics. In fact, almost all Qbeta-specific MZ B cells expressed surface IgG by day 5. Histological analysis demonstrated that a population of activated B cells remain associated with the MZ, probably due to the elevated integrin levels expressed by these cells. Thus, both MZ and FO B cells respond with rapid proliferation to viral infection and both populations undergo isotype switching, but MZ B cells remain in the MZ and may be
We originally cloned and identified murine Zizimin2 (Ziz2, Dock11) as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42 and demonstrated that it activated the formation of filopodia. Since its expression pattern is restricted in immune tissues and Rho GTPases such as Cdc42 function in B cell deve …
New insights into human B cell biology. B cells are highly important white blood cells known as lymphocytes and are part of the adaptive immune system. B cells have a specialised receptor on their cell surface (B cell receptor, BCR) which recognises specific proteins. Upon activation, B cells produce antibodies which bind antigens like e.g. molecules from pathogens or vaccines. The drawback of a vast range of different B cell receptors is the potential that some of the receptors recognise self-antigens which can then result in auto-immune disorders. The bone marrow continuously releases immature B cells into the blood stream. A high proportion of these so-called transitional B cells are able to recognise self-antigens via their BCR. It has been unknown where in the body these auto-reactive cells are checked and removed from the circulation. A recent publication by Anna Vossenkämper and Jo Spencer (Kings College) tracked the fate of human transitional B cells and identified that these cells ...
Notch2 interaction with its ligand, Dll1, is required in the mouse to drive MZP into the MZB cell lineage (Saito et al., 2003; Hozumi et al., 2004). Preliminary data based on humanized mouse models have also proposed a Notch2 dependence for the differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells (Scheeren et al., 2008). Accordingly, we searched for an MZP in the spleen from young children, taking as diagnostic criteria its capacity to acquire an MZ phenotype when cultured in presence of OP9 cells expressing human DLL1, a differentiation which, moreover, should be specifically inhibited in presence of anti-NOTCH2 blocking antibodies. This precursor subset was identified using the recently described MEM55 antibody, which marks a glycosylated variant of the CD45RB molecule, harbored by CD27+ B cells and an immature B cell subset (Koethe et al., 2011). Surprisingly, these MZPs were further characterized as expressing the ABCB1 transporter reported so far as the unique hallmark of naive B cells (Wirths and ...
Vol. 203, No. 11, October 30, 2006. Pages 2425-2431.. Please note that an error appeared in the original online early release version of this article. A portion of text from the second paragraph in the Results and Discussion section was erroneously deleted. The current html, print, and pdf versions appear correctly. For reference, the corrected paragraph appears below in its entirety.. We next assessed if these long-lived t(14;18)-bearing B cells in HI already transited through the GCs. Circulating naive and memory B cells can be distinguished on the basis of the CD27 cell surface marker and sIg isotypes (11-13). Fresh PBMCs from 10 healthy donors were collected, and IgD+/CD27− naive, IgD+/CD27+ memory, and IgD−/CD27+ switched memory B cell subsets isolated by cell sorting (Fig. 2 A). The occurrence of t(14;18) was then assessed in total PBMCs and in each fraction by the short-range BCL2/JH PCR assay (Fig. 2 B and Table II). As a first approach, we pooled data from the two CD27+ memory ...
The production of antibody to a thymus-dependent Ag requires cooperation between the B cell and an Ag-specific Th cell. MHC restriction of this interaction implies that the Th cell recognizes Ag on the B cell surface in the context of MHC molecules and that the Ag-specific B cell gets help by acting as an APC for the Th cell. However, a number of studies have suggested that normal resting B cells are ineffective as APC, implying that the B cell must leave the resting state before it can interact specifically with a Th cell. Other studies, including our own with rabbit globulin-specific mouse T cell lines and hybridomas, show that certain T cell lines can be efficiently stimulated by normal resting B cells. One possible explanation for the above contradiction is that our B cells have become activated before presentation. Here we show that presentation by size-selected small B cells is not the result of nonspecific activation signals generated by the T cells or components of the medium. Also, although LPS
As with people, identity is vital to cells. When a cell loses its identity, it can stop working properly and a range of illnesses can result. The immune system, which protects our bodies from disease, includes cells with many different identities. When these cells lose their identity it can cause certain cancers or increase the risk of infections.. Complex networks of signals and genes create and maintain the identity of different cells. New research from the Babraham Institute, Cambridge and the University of Birmingham has revealed how a protein called ZFP36L1 helps cells known as marginal zone B cells (MZ B cells) to maintain their identity.. For cells, identity describes how they are adapted to have a specialised function. Blood cells are specialised for transportation, nerve cells for communication and the immune system fights infections. Each cell becomes specialised to do its job as a result of unique combinations of genetic instructions, which influence how the cell works.. MZ B cells ...
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Normal peripheral B cells can be activated by and cultured in interleukin 4 and anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies. Is it possible to perform either stable or transient transfection assays in these cells ? Thanks for references if any. I am particularly interested in studying the expression of various p53 mutants ...
Martin, VG, Wu, Y-CB, Townsend, CL, Lu, GH, OHare, JS, Mozeika, A, Coolen, AC, Kipling, D, Fraternali, F and Dunn-Walters, Deborah (2016) Transitional B cells in early human B cell development - time to revisit the paradigm? ...
This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well as some specific...
B Cell小鼠单克隆抗体[CA2.1D6](ab34125)可与马, 猫样本反应并经IP, IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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Memory B cells are generated in germinal centers (GC) and contribute to serological immunity by rapidly differentiating into plasma cells. Human memory B cells can be identified by the expression of CD27. These cells exhibit more rapid responses than naive (CD27-) B cells following stimulation in vitro, consistent with the heightened kinetics of secondary responses in vivo. CD27+ B cells express mutated Ig V region genes; however a significant proportion continue to express IgM, suggesting the existence of IgM+ memory B cells. The observation that mutated IgM+CD27+ B cells are generated in humans who cannot form GC led to the conclusions that these cells are generated independently of GC and thus are not memory cells and that they mediate responses to T cell-independent Ag. Although some studies support the idea that IgM+CD27+ B cells participate in T cell-independent responses, many others do not. In this review we will provide alternate interpretations of the biology of IgM+CD27+ B cells and propose
Results High expression levels of TLR7 in SLE patients positively correlated with IFN signature and disease activity, but not with BAFF titers. SLE patients with high levels of TLR7 (TLR7hi group) showed an expansion of CD19+CD38highCD24highCD10+ TR B cells. Overall, frequencies of TR B cells positively correlated with the levels of TLR7, but not TLR9. SLE patients, carrying a risk G allele, had increased TLR7 expression and TR cell frequencies, compared to non-risk allele carriers. TLR7hi SLE patients showed increased autoantibody titers and skewing towards Sm/RNP antigens. Upon IFNα priming, TR B cells up-regulated TLR7 and differentiated into plasmablasts in response to TLR7-ligand stimulation. ...
Carole Goutsmedt, Laëtitia Le Pottier, Jacques-Olivier Pers. Identification of an antigen-specific regulatory B cell subset in humans.. 35th European Workshop for Rheumatology Research, Mar 2015, Budapest, Hungary. 74 (Supplément 1 A1.27), pp.A11, 2015, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 〈hal-01128705〉 ...
B cells are known to play an important role in auto-immune diseases by activating T cells, secreting inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. However, a sub-type of B cells named regulatory B cells or Bregs has recently shown capacities to prevent or cure arthritis in mouse models. Bregs have also been identified in humans. Main objective: To study Bregs abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at different stages of the disease compared to subjects with mechanical pathologies.Secondary objectives:- To evaluate the specificity of any abnormalities identified in RA by studying Bregs in patients with other autoimmune or other inflammatory joint diseases.- To evaluate the effect of biological and synthetic treatments on Bregs in patients with RA. - To assess whether the rate of Bregs before treatment is predictive of response to biological and synthetic treatments ...
Original citation: J. Clin. Invest.112:286-297 (2003). doi:10.1172/JCI18025.. Citation for this corrigendum: J. Clin. Invest.113:1069 (2004). doi:10.1172/JCI18025E1.. The legends for Figures 6 and 7 contained inaccuracies, and the correct versions appear below. The conclusions of the article are unaffected.. Figure 6 BAFF increases the generation of ISC from activated memory B cells. (a and b) Memory B cells were preactivated with CD40L and IL-2/IL-10 for 4 days and then recultured with (a) media (black bars), or (b) IL-2/IL-10 alone (black bars) or in the presence of CD40L (white bars) or BAFF (gray bars). Each value represents the mean Ig secretion ± SEM of five (a) or seven (b) experiments using cells from different donors. *P , 0.05; **P , 0.01. (c) Secondary B cell cultures were performed in the absence (black bars) or presence (white bars) of soluble TACI-Ig (20 μg/ml). The values represent the mean IgA ± SD of duplicate samples. (d) Memory B cells were preactivated with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CD40 ligand expressed by human B cells costimulates B cell responses. AU - Grammer, A. C.. AU - Bergman, M. C.. AU - Miura, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The possibility that activated B cells might express a ligand for CD40 that was of functional importance for B cell responses was examined by using highly purified human peripheral blood B cells, as well as a variety of B lymphoblastoid cell lines and hybridomas. Following stimulation with the combination of a calcium ionophore and a phorbol ester, human B cells bound a soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular portion of CD40 and the Fc region of lgG1 (CD40.lg). A variety of B cell lines and hybridomas also bound CD40.1g, either constitutively or after activation. In addition, CD40.Ig specifically immunoprecipitated a 33-kDa glycoprotein from surface 125I-labeled activated B cells. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the CD40 ligand mRNA ...
Scientists already knew that the formation of memory B lymphocytes is not as effective in elderly population, putting them at greater risk when facing new pathogens such as the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.. The study in Melameds lab revealed that as part of the aging process, existing memory B lymphocytes use hormonal signals to obstruct the production of new ones. As a result, the immune system becomes better at responding to pathogens it encountered before, but less capable of adapting to new threats.. Seeking a solution for this problem, Melameds lab collaborated with the departments of hematology and rheumatology at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa, respectively.. They examined elderly patients who had undergone B-cell depletion as a treatment for conditions such as lupus, lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. They found that after a significant amount of memory B lymphocytes were removed, the patients immune system was rejuvenated and began producing new, ...
Results Exogenously added IL-7 did not activate B cells directly, in line with the absence of surface IL-7R. However, in the presence of T cells, IL-7 activated both T and B cells (Ki67+ CD4 cells from 1.1±0.2% to 14.4±3.7%, p,0.01 and Ki67+ B cells from 1.9±0.3% to 4.1±0.9%, p,0.05). TLR7A induced B cell activation, as measured by increased proliferation (%Ki67 from 1.2±0.2% to 9.3±1.4%) and up regulation of activation markers on B cells, which was facilitated in the presence of monocytes. TLR7-induced B cell activation in T/B or T/B/monocyte co-cultures was not associated with T cell activation. IL-7 added to TLR7A synergistically increased both B cell (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 9.3±1.4% vs. 33.4±7.3%) and T cell proliferation (IL-7 vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 0.8±0.1% vs. 29.2±5.2%), which for B cells again was further increased by monocytes (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 30.2±8.9% vs. 63.0±8.0%). Similar results were observed for activation marker expression on B cells (CD19, HLA-DR CD25) and on T cells ...
B1 cells are a sub-class of B cell lymphocytes that are involved in the humoral immune response. They are not part of the adaptive immune system, as they have no memory, but otherwise, B1 cells perform many of the same roles as other B cells: making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B cells. B1b cells have been shown to be capable of memory responses. See B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity. B1 cells are first produced in the fetus and most B1 cells undergo self-renewal in the periphery, unlike conventional B cells (B2 cells) that are produced after birth and replaced in the bone marrow. In January 2011, human B1 cells were found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, which has been debated since. CD5-CD72 is thought to mediate B cell-B cell interaction. B-1 B cells, in the mouse, can be further subdivided into B-1a (CD5+) and B-1b (CD5−) ...
To determine the phenotype of isolated B cells and differentiation on day 14 of culture, a gating strategy was developed for analysis of cells by flow cytometry. After debris and doublets were excluded, viable CD19+ cells were selected and analyzed for the proportions of naive and memory cells according to their CD27 and IgD expression. Viable plasma cells were determined as CD138+CD38+ cells. B cells cultured with the kit seemed to resemble untreated B cells in their subset distribution. The amounts of naive B cells decreased on day 14. This is in line with reports describing that naive B cells have a shorter survival rate. In contrast, the amounts of non-switched memory B cells increased in both the unstimulated culture and the culture expanded by the B Cell Expansion Kit indicating a greater survival capacity of this subset.. ...
This study demonstrates that patients with active, untreated IgG4-RD have significant elevations in their circulating plasmablast counts regardless of their serum IgG4 concentrations, and that patients with multi-organ IgG4-RD have higher absolute plasmablast counts than those with involvement of only one or two organs. In addition, plasmablast levels appear to be superior to serum IgG4 concentrations as a biomarker for IgG4-RD. Plasmablast counts decline swiftly following peripheral B cell depletion, and this decline is accompanied by corresponding decreases in disease activity as measured by the IgG4-RD RI. IgG4-RD thus represents an unusual example of an immune-mediated condition in which measurement of a single cell type may play a central role in diagnosing, monitoring and managing the disease.. The identification of circulating plasmablast expansion in IgG4-RD has substantial implications for clinical care. The diagnosis of IgG4-RD remains dependent upon biopsy and is therefore subject to ...
B cell subsets have been found to exhibit a negative regulatory function, like Tregs. The present study investigates the effects of CD5+CD19+ interleukin (IL)-10 (B10) on the occurrence and development of oesophageal carcinoma by analysing B10 levels in the peripheral blood of patients with...
Clone REA450 recognizes the rat CD45R antigen, an molecule which is expressed on B lymphocytes throughout their development from early pro-B stages onwards and is down-regulated upon terminal differentiation to plasma cells. Expression levels of CD45R are different among distinct B cell subpopulations and appears to be an indicator of maturational stages.Additional information: Clone REA450 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Italia
B cells are crucial players in the human immune system which secrete antibodies that can eliminate bacterial antigens. An agent-based model is implemented to study the behaviour between B cell-antigen interactions during a bacterial infection. We have determined that infection in the system occurs when 69% of antigens are eliminated. Cellular lifetime of B cells plays a role in clearing the antigens, exhibiting three distinct phases - the lag phase, exponential growth phase, and the stationary phase. A Gompertz curve fit demonstrates that the B cell population curve mimics a biologically realistic phenomena. Studying the population dynamics of the system shows that B cell population peaks at around 60%-70% of antigens are eliminated, further supporting the determined point of infection.. ...
Xu S, Huo J, Huang Y, Aw M, Chen S, Mak S, Yip LY, Ho YS, Ng SW, Tan AH, Lee A, Ou X, Lam KP. von Hippel-Lindau Protein Maintains Metabolic Balance to Regulate the Survival of Naive B Lymphocytes. iScience. 2019 Jul 26;17:379-392 ...
TIM-1 defines a human regulatory B cell (Bregs) population that is altered in frequency and function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. TIM-1 is a unique marker for the identification of a human IL-10+ Breg subpopulation which is partially superimposed with transitional B cells. Alterations in TIM-1+ B cells could contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases such as SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2017 Jan 19;19(1):8. (Also see B Cells and T Cells) This item was posted in the ISN Newsroom. Please check the newsroom daily for updates on scleroderma and other related articles ...
Cd19 B Cell Activation, Bcr, Tcr, B Cell Co-receptor - B Cell Activation Cd21 Clipart is high quality 1023*612 transparent png stocked by PikPng. Download it free and share it with more people.
Regulation of inhibitory IgSF receptors in memory B cells by IL-4. Naive and memory B cells were purified from peripheral blood and cultured either in medium al
The process in which immature B cells from the bone marrow acquire the specialized features of T1 stage B cells in the spleen. T1 stage B cells do not express either CD23 or CD21.
Stimulation by antigen through the B cell receptor (BCR) followed by cognate T cell help drives proliferation and differentiation of antigen-specific naı̈ve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells (1, 2). Memory B cells carrying somatically mutated immunoglobulin (Ig) genes survive in secondary lymphoid organs in the absence of antigen (3) and mediate secondary immune responses upon rechallenge. In contrast, plasma cells are terminally differentiated, nondividing cells that home to spleen and bone marrow and are the main source of antibody, which they secrete at a high rate. Mouse plasma cells can be long-lived and are able to sustain antibody production for several months in the absence of memory B cells or antigen (4, 5). However, it is less likely that long-lived plasma cells produced during an immune response will maintain a constant supply of specific antibody over a human life-span, because even long-lived plasma cells would eventually need to be replenished over a human ...
Secretory IgA (S-IgA) is a hallmark antibody principally produced at mucosal sites and plays an important role in the creation of immunological surveillance and homeostasis at mucosa. In addition to the IgA induction through gut-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyers patch), peritoneal B cells have been considered to be another source of S-IgA, especially specific for the T-independent antigen. Here we show that the trafficking of peritoneal B cells is principally regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Peritoneal B cells expressed high levels of the type 1 S1P receptor. Thus, disruption of S1P-mediated signaling caused a rapid disappearance of peritoneal B cells. These changes did not affect natural plasma antibody production or phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific antibody production in serum after peritoneal immunization with heat-killed streptococcal pneumoniae. However, it dramatically reduced peritoneal B cell-derived natural intestinal S-IgA production without affecting the expression ...
Antibody affinity maturation occurs in germinal centers (GCs) through iterative rounds of somatic hypermutation and selection. Selection involves B cells competing for T cell help based on the amount of antigen they capture and present on their MHC class II (MHCII) proteins. How GC B cells are able to rapidly and repeatedly transition between mutating their B cell receptor genes and then being selected shortly after is not known. We report that MHCII surface levels and degradation are dynamically regulated in GC B cells. Through ectopic expression of a photoconvertible MHCII-mKikGR chimeric gene, we found that individual GC B cells differed in the rates of MHCII protein turnover. Fluctuations in surface MHCII levels were dependent on ubiquitination and the E3 ligase March1. Increases in March1 expression in centroblasts correlated with decreases in surface MHCII levels, whereas CD83 expression in centrocytes helped to stabilize MHCII at that stage. Defects in MHCII ubiquitination caused GC B cells to
Affinity maturation of antibodies during immune responses is achieved by multiple rounds of somatic hypermutation and subsequent preferential selection of those B cells that express B cell receptors with improved binding characteristics for the antigen. The mechanism underlying B cell selection has not yet been defined. By employing an agent-based model, we show that for physiologically reasonable parameter values affinity maturation can be driven by competition for neither binding sites nor antigen--even in the presence of competing secreted antibodies. Within the tested mechanisms, only clonal competition for T cell help or a refractory time for the interaction of centrocytes with follicular dendritic cells is found to enable affinity maturation while generating the experimentally observed germinal centre characteristics and tolerating large variations in the initial antigen density.
Immunity to individual group A rotavirus (RV), a major cause of viral gastroenteritis in infants, involves B lymphocytes that provide RV-specific antibodies. VP7 interactions with B cells were mediated by surface immunoglobulins and probably by their Fab portions. VP7-reactive B lymphocytes were mainly detected from RV-experienced patients and almost exclusively in the CD27-positive memory cell fraction. Conversely, VP6-reactive B lymphocytes were detected at comparable and high frequencies in adult, infant, and neonate samples. In adult samples, VP6 reacted with about 2% of the CD27-unfavorable (CD27neg) naive B cells. These results demonstrated that this VP6 RV protein interacted with a large fraction of naive B lymphocytes from both adults and neonates. We propose that naive B cell-VP6 conversation might impact the power and quality from the obtained immune system response and really should be looked at for elaborating RV vaccine strategies. Individual group A rotavirus (RV) is regarded as a ...
A naive (or inexperienced) B cell is one which belongs to a clone which has never encountered the epitope to which it is specific. In contrast, a memory B cell is one which derives from an activated naive or memory B cell. The activation of a naive or a memory B cell is followed by a manifold proliferation of that particular B cell, most of the progeny of which terminally differentiate into plasma B cells;[note 8] the rest survive as memory B cells. So, when the naive cells belonging to a particular clone encounter their specific antigen to give rise to the plasma cells, and also leave a few memory cells, this is known as the primary immune response. In the course of proliferation of this clone, the B cell receptor genes can undergo frequent (one in every two cell divisions)[8] mutations in the genes coding for paratopes of antibodies. These frequent mutations are termed somatic hypermutation. Each such mutation alters the epitope-binding ability of the paratope slightly, creating new clones of ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
Free online memory games. metro match is the classic memory game with a twist. Aj and ep are extremes on the spectrum of human memory. and their cases say more than any brain scan about the extent to which our memories make us who we. The game will be opened inside a popup window. please turn off any block popup program before clicking on the play button. Here, we show that human memory b lymphocytes. proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, .. Is human memory similar to to the ram in a pc? discussion by michael freed, aerospace human factors, nasa ames research center. Exploiting human memory to create secure and emorable passwords they are difficult to remember because there are limits to human memory. Basic perofrmance data were obtained on the effect of critical task variables in unaided multiobject tracking behavior. .forgetmenot. intimate computing in support of human memory. a prototype device for memory support, an example of contextbased ...
B-cells go through a variety of stages during their development which is discussed in B-cell Development. However, the major functionally important stages to be aware of are the final stages known as the Plasma Cell and Memory B Cell stages. Plasma Cells are B-cells specialized for high levels of antibody synthesis and secretion. Memory B Cells are quiescent antigen-sepecific cells which differentiate following a primary immune response to a particular microbe which can become rapidly activated to differentiate into Plasma Cells if the microbe if re-encountered. B-cells can also be classified based on the subtype of antibody which they secrete ...
The B cell receptor (BCR) consists of an antigen-binding membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) associated with the CD79α and CD79β heterodimer. Naïve B cells express the IgM and IgD isotypes, which have very short cytoplasmic tails and therefore depend on CD79α and CD79β for signal transduction. After antigenic stimulation, B cells undergo isotype switching to yield IgG, IgE, or IgA. Recent research suggests that the ability of the B cell coreceptor CD22 to regulate BCR signaling depends on the isotype of the mIg cytoplasmic tail. Cell lines that express a BCR with the cytoplasmic tail from IgG, the isotype found in memory B cells, are not subject to CD22 regulation, whereas cell lines that express BCRs with IgM cytoplasmic tails are subject to CD22 regulation. Moreover, stimulation through BCRs containing an IgG cytoplasmic tail causes increased numbers of antigen-specific clones to accumulate. These observations are a valuable step toward understanding the difference in B cell signaling between ...
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Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
As there is growing evidence for the tumor microenvironments (TME) role in tumorigenesis, we investigated the role of fibroblast-expressed kinases in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Using a high-throughput kinome screen combined with 3D invasion assays, we identified fibroblast-expressed PIK3Cδ (f-PIK3Cδ) as a key regulator of progression. Although PIK3Cδ was expressed in primary fibroblasts derived from TNBC patients, it was undetectable in breast cancer cell lines. Genetic and pharmacologic gain- and loss-of functions experiments verified the contribution of f-PIK3Cδ in TNBC cell invasion. Integrated secretomics and transcriptomics analyses revealed a paracrine mechanism via which f-PIK3Cδ confers its pro-tumorigenic effects. Inhibition of f-PIK3Cδ promoted the secretion of factors, including PLGF and BDNF, which led to upregulation of NR4A1 in TNBC cells where it acts as a tumor suppressor. Inhibition of PIK3Cδ in an orthotopic BC mouse model reduced tumor growth only after ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
AC50 of HA-specific GC B cells can be used as a proxy for population avidity to PR8 HA. (A) Overview of AC50. GC B cell rHA staining frequency is plotted agains
Our immune system efficiently protects us against the daily onslaught of foreign pathogens. However, the targeting, strength and extent...
The main cell types in humoral immune responses is B cell which acts as antigen presenting cells, developing antibodies to fight foreign antigens and prepare plasma cells or memory B cells. Isolation of B cells can be done with the help of the cell isolation kits which are fast and easy to isolate highly and purified functional B cells for research purpose. StemCell organization helps to make these researches successful with their high quality product, providing consistent as well as all the required support from their dedicated staff available on board. They have also received the ISO certificate for research, manufacturing and shipping facilities to France, Canada, USA, to name a few ...
Researchers at the University of Gothenburgs Sahlgrenska Academy have looked at B cells, a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies that can protect the body against infection and play a key role in the development of allergies. By studying 65 healthy newborn babies in the Västra Götaland region, researcher Anna-Carin Lundell and her colleagues were able to show that infants whose gut is colonised by E. coli bacteria during the first few weeks of life had a higher number of memory B cells at the age of both four and 18 months ...
Reimer, D and Lee, AYS and Bannan, J and Fromm, P and Kara, EE and Comerford, I and McColl, S and Wiede, F and Mielenz, D and Korner, H, Early CCR6 expression on B cells modulates germinal centre kinetics and efficient antibody responses, Immunology and Cell Biology, 95, (1) pp. 33-41. ISSN 0818-9641 (2017) [Refereed Article ...
A type of white blood cell that matures in the bone marrow. B cells make antibodies against antigens and create new B cells that remember the antigens old B cells already encountered ...
Distinguishing between human lymphocyte subsets. Identification of cone cell inner and outer segments and to a lesser extent ...
"Dynamic changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in adult patients with COVID-19". International Journal of Infectious ... It is well known that a SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a decreased lymphocyte count, and those with a lower lymphocyte count ... The authors pointed out that the lymphocyte count recovered to normal after 4 days. Low lymphocyte count could be a significant ... Considering that those infected by the SARS-CoV-2 are already under the strain of a low lymphocyte count, it will be imperative ...
el-Demiry M, James K (1988). "Lymphocyte subsets and macrophages in the male genital tract in health and disease. A monoclonal ... effects of activin and transforming growth factor beta on lymphocyte subsets in vitro". Biology of Reproduction. 58 (4): 943- ... T-lymphocytes (T-cells) are white blood cells which take part in cell-mediated immunity. They are often found within tissues ... B-lymphocytes take part in the adaptive immune response and produce antibodies. These cells are not normally found in the ...
August 2020). "Lymphocyte Subset Counts in COVID-19 Patients: A Meta-Analysis". Cytometry. Part A. 97 (8): 772-776. doi:10.1002 ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (October 1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct ... revealed that another T helper subset may exist. Th9 cells are claimed to be an IL9 (interleukin 9)-producing T cell subset ... These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ...
Poussier, P., et al., Lymphopenia and abnormal lymphocyte subsets in the "BB" rat: relationship to the diabetic syndrome. ...
Harris MT, Schwarting GA, Stout RD (September 1981). "Selective expression of asialo GM1 on maturational subsets of lymphocytes ... 15 July 1997). "Functional and phenotypic characterization of cord blood and bone marrow subsets expressing FLT3 (CD135) ... in vivo differentiation into lymphocytes and potential for germ line transmission". FEBS Letters. 455 (1-2): 101-4. doi:10.1016 ...
"Transitional Type 1 and 2 B Lymphocyte Subsets Are Differentially Responsive to Antigen Receptor Signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ... Chung JB, Sater RA, Fields ML, Erikson J, Monroe JG (2002). "CD23 defines two distinct subsets of immature B cells which differ ... T1 B cells are distinguished from the other subsets by the following surface marker characteristics: they are IgMhiIgD−CD21− ... CS1 maint: uses authors parameter, B cells, Lymphocytes, Bone marrow, Human cells, Immunology, Immune system). ...
He was among those who defined the subsets of human B lymphocytes. These studies led to a redefinition of many human B cell ... "Analysis of somatic mutation in five B cell subsets of human tonsil". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 180 (1): 329-339. ... "Receptor revision of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes in normal human B lymphocytes". The Journal of ...
1996;17(2):197-9. PMID 8936281 Differences in intraepithelial lymphocyte t cell subsets isolated from murine small versus large ... his research was on experimental models of hapten-induced Inflammatory bowel disease and studying intraepithelial lymphocytes. ...
Sallusto, F.; Lenig, D.; Förster, R.; Lipp, M.; Lanzavecchia, A. (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct ... Viola, A.; Schroeder, S.; Sakakibara, S.; Lanzavecchia, A. (1999). "T lymphocyte costimulation mediated by reorganization of ... lymphocyte activation and immunological memory and iii) human monoclonal antibodies. In 1985, using antigen-specific T and B ... and discovered a fundamental division of memory T cells into two major subsets of central memory and effector memory and ...
885-895 Han S, Dillon SR... Kelsoe G (1997). V(D)J recombinase activity in a subset of germinal center B lymphocytes. Science. ... Kelsoe's research focuses on humoral immunity, B lymphocyte development and activation, and the mechanism by which lymphocytes ...
"Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions." Nature 401.6754 (1999): 708. Netea ...
Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... These two subsets were previously called "naturally occurring" and "adaptive" (or "induced"), respectively. Both subsets ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells which possess a γδ TCR rather than the αβ TCR on the cell ... A T cell is a type of lymphocyte. T cells are one of the important white blood cells of the immune system and play a central ...
... s are a subset of T lymphocytes that might have some of the same functions as memory B cells. Their lineage is ... Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (October 1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct ... Those lymphocytes are capable of self-renewal as are the TCM lymphocytes and are also capable of generating both the TCM and ... subsets. Although most information is currently based on observations in the cytotoxic T cells (CD8-positive) subset, similar ...
This selective inhibition is not observed in conventional chemotherapy which reduces the number of all lymphocyte subsets. In ...
Knockout mice that lack TOX have a severe defect in development of certain subsets of T lymphocytes. TOX is necessary for T ... Patients with cancer typically have high levels of TOX in their tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and anti-tumor immunity is ... TOX is highly expressed in the thymus, the site of development of T lymphocytes. ...
"Distribution of cyclophilin B-binding sites in the subsets of human peripheral blood lymphocytes". Immunology. 91 (4): 609-17. ... This protein can bind to cells derived from T- and B-lymphocytes, and may regulate cyclosporine A-mediated immunosuppression. ... recognized by HLA-A24-restricted and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes which could be used as cancer vaccines, and in fact ...
Effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on tumor microenvironment T-lymphocyte subsets and dendritic cells in H22-bearing ...
Nassar GM, Montero A, Fukunaga M, Badr KF (1997). "Contrasting effects of proinflammatory and T-helper lymphocyte subset-2 ... and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. In skin, Langerhans cells strongly ... "Studies on the regulation and localization of 5-lipoxygenase in human B-lymphocytes". Eur. J. Biochem. 232 (1): 37-46. doi: ...
In jawless fishes, two subsets of lymphocytes use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen binding. Diversity is ... T and B lymphocytes are the cells of the adaptive immune system. The human body has about 2 trillion lymphocytes, which are 20- ... Lymphocyte receptors, Ig and TCR, are found in all jawed vertebrates. The most ancient Ig class, IgM, is membrane-bound and ... Cytotoxic T cells (also known as TC, killer T cell, or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)) are a sub-group of T cells that induce the ...
There are no major changes in the T-lymphocytes subsets of the mesenterial lymph node. Instead γδ-T cells guide the immune ... Antigens of C. oncophora larvae and adult worms are capable of triggering lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, excretory/ ... Primary infection does not involve recruitment of specific lymphocytes to the intestinal mucosa. ...
PTSAgs induce the VB-specific expansion of both CD4 and CD8- subsets of T-lymphocytes. TSST-1 forms homodimers in most of its ...
2001a;97:319-327 Lymphocyte phenotype subsets in the cerebrospinal fluid of normal horses and horses with equine protozoal ...
"The Monoclonal Antimonocyte Antibody My4 Stains B Lymphocytes and Two Distinct Monocyte Subsets in Human Peripheral Blood". ... The first clear description of monocyte subsets by flow cytometry dates back to the late 1980s, when a population of CD16- ... Analysis of monocyte subsets has demonstrated predominance of classical monocytes and absence of CD14lowCD16+ monocytes. The ... Both may be useful, but these cells became valid diagnostic tools only when monocyte subsets are determined. Monocytic cells ...
... differential signaling requirements for activation of assembled cyclin D3-cdk4 complexes in B-1 and B-2 lymphocyte subsets". ...
Ademmer; Ebert; Müller-Ostermeyer; Friess; Büchler; Schubert; Malfertheiner (April 1998). "Effector T lymphocyte subsets in ... 2006). "Profiling lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood under efalizumab treatment of psoriasis by multi epitope ligand ... "Automatic Recognition of Muscle-Invasive T-Lymphocytes Expressing Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV (CD26) and Analysis of the Associated ... "Poisson Numbers and Poisson Distributions in Subset Surprisology". Annals of Combinatorics. 8 (4): 473-485. doi:10.1007/s00026- ...
"In Vitro Measles Virus Infection of Human Lymphocyte Subsets Demonstrates High Susceptibility and Permissiveness of both Naive ... In the later stages of infection, the virus infects other immune cell types, including B cells and T lymphocytes also via ... Three receptors for the H protein have been identified to date: complement regulatory molecule CD46, the signaling lymphocyte ...
... these specific transcription factors activate or repress target genes critical in the differentiation of the lymphocyte subsets ... Studies have confirmed the ability of some ILC subsets to convert into a different subset in the presence of specific cytokines ... There are two subsets of ILC3s, NCR- and NCR+ ILC3s, with the displayed NCR on mice ILC3s being NKp46, in comparison to NKp44 ... All ILC subsets are present in the liver and regulate the immune response to protect the tissue from viral and bacterial ...
... that binds to human monocytes and to a subset of activated lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 126 (4): 1409-14. PMID 7204970. Ohgimoto S ... monoclonal anti-human lymphocyte antibodies 4F2, A3D8, and A1G3 define antigens controlled by different regions of chromosome ... and expression of the large subunit of the human lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (24): ... an inducible gene involved in T-lymphocyte activation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 8 (9): 3809-19. doi:10.1128/mcb.8.9.3809. PMC 365439. ...
"Distinct microRNA signatures in human lymphocyte subsets and enforcement of the naive state in CD4+ T cells by the microRNA miR ...
2] Innate lymphocytes-lineage, localization and timing of differentiation. Further reading[edit]. *Cell-Mediated Immunity. ... Type 1 immunity makes use of the type 1 subset for each of these cell types. By secreting interferon gamma and TNF, TH1, TC1, ... Rather, cell-mediated immunity is the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of ... "Innate lymphocytes-lineage, localization and timing of differentiation". Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 16 (7): 627-633. doi ...
In jawless fishes, two subsets of lymphocytes use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen binding.[33] Diversity is ... LymphocytesEdit. Main article: Lymphocyte. T and B lymphocytes are the cells of the adaptive immune system. The human body has ... CD8+ T lymphocytes and cytotoxicityEdit. Main article: Cytotoxic T cell. Cytotoxic T cells (also known as TC, killer T cell, or ... The cells that carry out the adaptive immune response are white blood cells known as lymphocytes. B cells and T cells, two ...
Berrington, J. E.; Barge, D; Fenton, AC; Cant, AJ; Spickett, GP (May 2005). "Lymphocyte subsets in term and significantly ...
... that might identify specialized subsets of lymphocytes with particular immunologic functions. This experimental approach was ... Cantor's early studies focused on the development and function of lymphocytes derived from the thymus (T-lymphocytes or T cells ... Nabel G, Fresno M, Chessman A, Cantor H. Use of cloned populations of mouse lymphocytes to analyze cellular differentiation. ... Harvey Cantor is an American immunologist known for his studies of the development and immunological function of T lymphocytes ...
Histologic findings of a deep mixed infiltrate with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils (with or without eosinophils) ... study performed in China found an association between a polymorphism in the TNF-alpha gene and risk for oral LP in a subset of ...
The virus activates a subset of T-helper cells called Th1 cells. The result is a proliferation of Th1 cells and overproduction ... The cancer is thought to be due to the pro-oncogenic effect of viral RNA incorporated into host lymphocyte DNA. Chronic ... Feedback mechanisms of these cytokines cause a suppression of the Th2 lymphocytes and a reduction of Th2 cytokine production ( ... stimulation of the lymphocytes at the cytokine level may play a role in the development of the malignancy. The lymphoma ranges ...
"The cDNA of a human lymphocyte cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE IV) reveals a multigene family". Gene. 129 (2): 239-47. doi: ... "Inhibition of PDE3B augments PDE4 inhibitor-induced apoptosis in a subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia". ...
The efficacy of rituximab in CD- PEL may be due to the ability of this antibody to kill non-malignant CD+ 20 lymphocytes and ... Fan W, Bubman D, Chadburn A, Harrington WJ, Cesarman E, Knowles DM (January 2005). "Distinct subsets of primary effusion ... lymphocytes of the B-cell type that have differentiated into plasmablasts but because of their malignant nature do not ...
Type 1 regulatory cells or Tr1 (TR1) cells are a class of regulatory T cells participating in peripheral immunity as a subsets ... El Mir, S.; Triebel, F. (2000-06-01). "A soluble lymphocyte activation gene-3 molecule used as a vaccine adjuvant elicits ... Levings, M. K.; Roncarolo, M. G. (July 2000). "T-regulatory 1 cells: a novel subset of CD4 T cells with immunoregulatory ... but not other APC or T or B lymphocytes. Cytolysis indirectly suppresses immune response by reducing numbers of myeloid-origin ...
In a select subset of high risk patients, granulocyte colony stimulating factors (G-CSF) can be used to aid immune system ... caused by feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated with lymphocyte T-cell ...
2001). "The beta-chemokine receptor D6 is expressed by lymphatic endothelium and a subset of vascular tumors". Am. J. Pathol. ... Soler D, Humphreys TL, Spinola SM, Campbell JJ (2003). "CCR4 versus CCR10 in human cutaneous TH lymphocyte trafficking". Blood ...
"Activation/division of lymphocytes results in increased levels of cytoplasmic activation/proliferation-associated protein-1: ... and selective interaction with a subset of mRNAs". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 27 (6): 2324-42. doi:10.1128/MCB.02300-06. ...
The best studied example is DC-SIGN (usually on MDC subset 1, but also on other subsets under certain conditions; since not all ... Only professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs: macrophages, B lymphocytes, and dendritic cells) are able to activate a ... Lung cancers have been found to include four different subsets of dendritic cells: three classical dendritic cell subsets and ... At least some of these dendritic cell subsets can activate CD4+ helper T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, which are immune ...
Determination of T-lymphocyte subsets on site in rural Tanzania: results in HIV-1 infected and non-infected individuals. ... Analysis of blood lymphocyte subsets in children living on territory that received high amounts of fallout from Chernobyl ... Correlation of CD8 lymphocyte activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by ... The staging and prognostic value of subset markers on CD8 cells in HIV disease. In Janossy G, Autran B. Miedema F (eds): ...
Doyle LA, Tao D, Mariño-Enríquez A (September 2014). "STAT6 is amplified in a subset of dedifferentiated liposarcoma". Modern ... and STAT6 determines the levels of CD20 on the surface of normal and malignant B lymphocytes. STAT6 also plays a critical role ... Amplification STAT6 is amplified in a subset of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Interleukin 4 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
In a subset of patients with high PD-L1 expression (at least 50% of tumor cells expressing PD-L1), the combination of ... CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from individuals with melanoma. Blockade of TIGIT and PD-1 led to ...
Recent evidence also points to a role for H2A.Z in repressing a subset of ncRNAs, derepressing CUTs, as well as mediation ... similarities and differences compared with classical germinal centers and lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease". Blood. 97 (3 ...
... lymphocytes and monocytes): different groups of T lymphocytes (dependent on their cell surface markers, e.g. CD4+, CD8+, CD3+, ... and experimental gene therapies as avenues for treatment in limited subsets of PIDs. The precise symptoms of a primary ... T-lymphocyte therapies are still in the experimental stage; few are even in clinical trials, none have been FDA approved, and ... Virus-specific T-lymphocytes (VST) therapy is used for patients who have received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that ...
CD10 is of use in hematological diagnosis since it is expressed by early B, pro-B and pre-B lymphocytes, and by lymph node ... Identification of a high-risk subset with coexpression of CD10 and bcl-2". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 116 (2): 183-90. doi:10.1309/ ... CD10 is found on non-T ALL cells, which derive from pre-B lymphocytes, and in germinal center-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma such ... and dendritic cells arise from a common bone marrow progenitor cell subset". Immunity. 3 (4): 459-73. doi:10.1016/1074-7613(95) ...
All of these lymphocytes act, at least in part, by secreting IL-10 and other suppressive cytokines.[citation needed] CD4+ T ... 1995). "In Vivo and In Vitro Cytokine and Mononuclear Cell Subsets in Sicilian Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis". Cytokine ... There is a 9.6 fold increase in IL-10 expressing CD8+ T cells among PBMC lymphocytes from PKDL patients. In the one study of T ... 2010). "Enhanced Lesional FoxP3 Expression and Peripheral Anergic Lymphocytes Indicate a Role for Regulatory T Cells in Indian ...
Bluestone JA, Mackay CR, O'Shea JJ, Stockinger B (November 2009). "The functional plasticity of T cell subsets". Nature Reviews ... These mice have overproliferation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, extensive multiorgan infiltration, and elevation of numerous cytokines ... Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) Autoimmunity Central tolerance Immunity IPEX syndrome Lymphocytes Thymocyte GRCh38: Ensembl release ...
In T lymphocytes the expression of CCL7 occurs after 3-5 days after the stimulation. CCL7 has been shown to interact with MMP2 ... This region contains the gene for the MCP subset of CC chemokines. The CCL7 gene has been given the locus symbol SCYA7. The ... Song A, Nikolcheva T, Krensky AM (October 2000). "Transcriptional regulation of RANTES expression in T lymphocytes". ... NK cells and activated T lymphocytes. Thus, chemotactic factor CCL7 recruits leukocytes to infected tissues to mediate the ...
Autoantibodies against this protein are found in a subset of patients with dermatomyositis. Three alternatively spliced ... "Ikaros DNA-binding proteins direct formation of chromatin remodeling complexes in lymphocytes". Immunity. 10 (3): 345-55. doi: ...
The various subsets may be considered part of the innate immune system where a restricted TCR or NK receptors may be used as a ... Invertebrates do not possess lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral immune system, and it is likely that a multicomponent, ... Like other 'unconventional' T cell subsets bearing invariant T cell receptors (TCRs), such as CD1d-restricted Natural Killer T ... then trigger other parts of the immune system by releasing factors that summon additional leukocytes and lymphocytes. Cytokines ...
... leads to transcriptional activation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 in a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias". Leukemia. 19 (3 ... "Expression of HOXC4 homeoprotein in the nucleus of activated human lymphocytes". Blood. 85 (8): 2084-90. doi:10.1182/blood. ...
For virus-associated tumors, such as cervical cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers, epitopes derived from viral open ... Upon exposure to an antigen, only the lymphocytes that recognize that antigen are activated and expanded, a process known as ... They become activated and start to secrete cytokines, substances that activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), antibody- ... Cytotoxic T lymphocytes that recognize these antigens may be able to destroy tumor cells. Tumor antigens can appear on the ...
SLAMF7 is a cell surface glycoprotein that is present on myeloma cells, natural killer cells, plasma cells, and subsets of ... Constipation and hyperglycemia Elotuzumab is an immunostimulatory antibody that targets signaling lymphocyte activation ...
Nassar, M.F., Younis, N.T., Tohamy, A.G., Dalam, D.M. & El Badawy, M.A. (‎2007)‎. T-lymphocyte subsets and thymic size in ... T-lymphocyte subsets and thymic size in malnourished infants in Egypt: a hospital-based study. ... accompanied by changes in the peripheral lymphocyte subsets. These changes were reversible after nutritional rehabilitation. ... Thymus size was assessed ultrasonographically and correlated to the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood ...
Nassar, M.F., Younis, N.T., Tohamy, A.G., Dalam, D.M. & El Badawy, M.A. (‏2007)‏. T-lymphocyte subsets and thymic size in ... T-lymphocyte subsets and thymic size in malnourished infants in Egypt: a hospital-based study. ... accompanied by changes in the peripheral lymphocyte subsets. These changes were reversible after nutritional rehabilitation. ... Thymus size was assessed ultrasonographically and correlated to the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood ...
... were eliminated from syngeneic rats by intravenous infusion of varying numbers of specific syngeneic effector T lymphocytes. ... Elimination of syngeneic sarcomas in rats by a subset of T lymphocytes J Exp Med. 1980 Oct 1;152(4):823-41. doi: 10.1084/jem. ... The W3/25+ subset was poorly cytotoxic in vitro for MST-1 and apparently functioned in vivo as an amplifier or helper cell in ... The subset associated with elimination of established tumors was a blast T cell W3/25+, W3/13+, as detected by monoclonal ...
Interestingly, most lymphocyte subsets, in particular the B cell compartment, showed a decrease with increasing levels of both ... Results Cell counts and lymphocyte subsets were similar between high- and low-exposed workers, except for a non-dose dependent ... However, a non-significant decrease in most lymphocyte subsets was noted, with the strongest effect for B cells. The latter ... Changes in lymphocyte subsets in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) ...
The purpose of this investigation was the evaluate the effect of a 24h time delay on lymphocyte subset concentration, as well ... Processing delays did not affect the number of apoptotic cells in any lymphocyte subset either at rest or following exercise. ... It is possible that exercise makes lymphocytes more susceptible to necrosis during the post-activity period. ... and antibodies for specific lymphocyte phenotypes (CD4, CD8, and CD19). Samples were labeled for 30-min, centrifuged, and ...
The effects of bestatin on the total number of lymphocytes in the thymus, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, and the percentage ... Modulatory effects of bestatin on T and B lymphocyte subsets and the concentration of cytokines released by Th1/Th2 lymphocytes ... Lis M, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B. Experimental immunologyModulatory effects of bestatin on T and B lymphocyte subsets and the ... Lis M, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B. Experimental immunologyModulatory effects of bestatin on T and B lymphocyte subsets and the ...
Results Treatment with fingolimod markedly decreased the absolute numbers of all major lymphocyte subsets, except for NK cells ... We aimed to map, in detail, the alterations in peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in relation to clinical outcome in MS ... and NK-cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Blood samples from 18 healthy controls were used for baseline comparisons ... Conclusions Our results confirm that fingolimod therapy markedly reduces lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood of MS patients. ...
T lymphocyte subsets and insulin resistance in patients undergoing radical surgery for rectal cancer - Panminerva Medica 2021 ... Analgesic efficacy of flurbiprofen axetil and its effects on inflammation, stress, T lymphocyte subsets and insulin resistance ... T lymphocyte subsets and insulin resistance in patients undergoing radical surgery for rectal cancer. Panminerva Med 2021 Jun ...
... ... The study results showed a great advantage to using the Aquios CL for automated lymphocyte subset enumeration. Across the board ... See advantages to using the Aquios CL for automated lymphocyte subset enumeration ...
The results showed that the T-lymphocyte subsets profile and OKT4/OKT8 ratio of peripheral blood were significantly lower in ... Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with viral myocarditis]. ... oral liquor combined with routine therapy and routine therapy alone on T-lymphocyte subsets of peripheral blood in viral ...
Kapila K, Pande JN, Garg A, Verma K. T lymphocyte subsets and B lymphocytes in tubercular pleural effusion. The Indian Journal ...
Lymphocyte subsets. CD3 = 6 cells/mm3; CD4 = 2; CD8 = 0; CD19 = 1; CD16/56 = 189 ... Abbreviations: CBC = complete blood count; ALC = absolute lymphocyte count; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; IgA = ... 83 WBCs/mm3; 50% PMNs; 42% MNCs; 2% lymphocytes; protein = 48 mg/dL; glucose = 49 mg/dL ...
Lymphocyte subsets, urine catecholamines, cortisol and cortisone. B-lymphocytes and T-helper cell counts and their percentages ... T-helper lymphocytes), CD8+ (T-suppressor lymphocytes and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes), natural killer cells and B-lymphocytes in ... Lymphocyte subsets. The MultiTEST IMK Kit with TruCOUNT tubes (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA, USA) and the lyse/no-wash method ... We did not find any significant effect on the changes in lymphocyte subsets with Lingzhi compared with placebo in the present ...
... lymphocyte subsets; IgG subclasses; Epstein-Barr virus, including early antigen antibody; herpes viruses; urine or serum ...
But, its not all about T cells: Immunophenotyping can be used to identify Subsets of B cells. In Panel E, from the lymphocyte ... Human CD4 cells are gated from CD45+ Lymphocytes, and further gated by CD45RA vs CCR7 to define memory subsets, or to ... In addition, the functional/activation status of these T cell subsets can be measured: in Panel D, Ki67 marks proliferation in ... For example, standard TBNK panels are gated through CD45+ Lymphocytes to CD3+ cells, and then to CD4 (T Helper) and CD8 (T ...
Lymphocyte Subsets Separation. Peripheral T-lymphocytes were separated from PBMCs by immunomagnetic depletion of non-CD3+ cells ... Luo J, Niu X, Zhang M, Zhang K, Chen M, Deng S. Inhibition of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 reduces the production ... T-cell activation induces dynamic changes in miRNA expression patterns in CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets. Microrna (2015) 4(2):117- ... Antibody-labeled cells and unstained CD3+ T-lymphocytes were rinsed, carefully mixed by tilting, and pooled down by ...
Lymphocyte subsets Basic Request a test. To request this test please send sample with a request providing patient ID (three ... Routine subsets, suspected immune deficinecy, PID, post HSCT monitoring, CD4 counts, ritaximab monitoring ...
Lymphocyte subsets were defined as the following combinations: CD3+/CD45+ for CD3 T-lymphocytes; CD3+/CD4/+/CD45+ for CD4 T- ... lymphocytes; CD3+/CD8+/CD45+ for CD8 T-lymphocytes; CD19+/CD45+ for B-lymphocytes; and CD3+/CD(16+56)+/CD45+ for natural killer ... Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets for 28 patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 at hospitalization, ...
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The absolute count of a full lymphocyte subset profile (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD3-CD19+, CD3-CD16/56+) can be determined in ... Lymphocyte subset analysis on frozen whole blood. Cytometry. 1997;29:340-350. ... HIV Antibody Test, CD4+ T Lymphocytes & CD8+ T Cells (LAB03) Data File: LAB03.xpt First Published: December 2004. Last Revised ... Enumeration of CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-positive participants and age-matched controls was performed on cryopreserved whole ...
To address these issues, we developed a fully automated subset identification and characterization (SIC) pipeline providing ... present a fully automated subset identification and characterization pipeline for robust cluster matching and data ... researchers frequently aim to identify individual subsets (clusters) of objects within the dataset. The ubiquity of ... SIС pipeline identifies various subsets of human peripheral B lymphocytes. Using two samples of human peripheral blood stained ...
In this review, we will discuss the properties of T lymphocyte subsets and their plasticity, as well as its implications for ... T Helper Lymphocyte Subsets and Plasticity in Autoimmunity and Cancer: An Overview.. ... Although these subsets appear to be relatively stable, certain plasticity exists that allows for transition between the subsets ... The spectrum of such populations, which was initially limited to Th1 and Th2 subsets, is currently broadened to include Th17 ...
In vivo identification of lymphocyte subsets exhibiting transcriptionally active NF-kappaB/Rel complexes ... In vivo identification of lymphocyte subsets exhibiting transcriptionally active NF-kappaB/Rel complexes. ... some endothelial cells and sinus lining cells of the lymph node capsula with very little activity in lymphocytes and thymocytes ...
Categories: Lymphocyte Subsets Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Exogenous hydrogen sulfide induces functional inhibition and cell death of cytotoxic lymphocytes subsets. ... Exogenous hydrogen sulfide induces functional inhibition and cell death of cytotoxic lymphocytes subsets.. Ritorno allelenco ... Exogenous hydrogen sulfide induces functional inhibition and cell death of cytotoxic lymphocytes subsets. ... with a physiologically relevant subset specificity for CD8+ T cells and NK cells. Although lymphocyte activation does not ...
Models for immune-mediated tumor regression in mice have defined an essential role for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs); however ... T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology * T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology* * Ultraviolet Rays Substances * Histocompatibility ... Models for immune-mediated tumor regression in mice have defined an essential role for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs); however ...
Lymphocyte subsets identified by monoclonal antibodies in healthy children. Pediatr Res 1986;20:1147-51. * Denny TN, Niven P, ... Recent studies of lymphocyte phenotypes among healthy infants and young children have demonstrated that total lymphocytes and ... The strongest of these appear to be age less than 1 year, HIV-related symptoms, and reduction of CD4+ lymphocyte number or ... CD4+ Cell Count and PCP Among HIV-Infected Children Typically, T-helper lymphocyte (CD4+ cell) counts decline as HIV disease ...
Lymphocyte subsets identified by monoclonal antibodies in healthy children. Pediatr Res 1986;20:1147-51.. *Denny TN, Niven P, ... Recent studies of lymphocyte phenotypes among healthy infants and young children have demonstrated that total lymphocytes and ... Typically, T-helper lymphocyte (CD4+ cell) counts decline as HIV disease progresses, for children as well as adults. Among HIV- ... The strongest of these appear to be age less than 1 year, HIV-related symptoms, and reduction of CD4+ lymphocyte number or ...
  • Any such study of possible associations would provide further supporting evidence for the presence of an immune diathesis of obesity and underweight, which will help to identify specific lymphocyte subsets as those most important to monitor in further studies in nutritional immunology. (springer.com)
  • Also, whole blood was recovered, and the number of circulating total leukocytes, as well as specific lymphocyte subsets, was determined by flow cytometry. (cdc.gov)
  • Sweet potatoes, oranges, green leafy vegetables, carrots, tomatoes, cantaloupe, winter squash, and broccoli are rich in beta carotene and carotenoids that have been reported to have immunomodulatory actions that increase specific lymphocyte subsets in stimulating the production of various cytokines. (yosan.edu)
  • However, the drug increased the percentage and the absolute count of T lymphocytes CD3+ with concomitant increase in both subpopulations of T lymphocytes CD4+ and CD8+ in peripheral lymphatic organs of cyclophosphamide-immunocompromised mice. (termedia.pl)
  • METHODS:We used flow cytometry to investigate modifications of lymphocyte subpopulations related to pulmonary cytomegalovirus infections in blood and BAL samples from a series of 13 lung transplant recipients. (shengsci.com)
  • RESULTS:Our results demonstrate that pulmonary CMV infection is associated with a significant increase in the total lymphocyte population in BAL samples, but with minor modifications of the various lymphocyte subpopulations and a significantly higher absolute number of B lymphocytes in blood samples. (shengsci.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS:Cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection is accompanied by only minor changes in BAL lymphocyte subpopulations. (shengsci.com)
  • The study of BAL lymphocyte subpopulations therefore appears to be of limited clinical value in the diagnosis of pulmonary CMV infection. (shengsci.com)
  • Nowadays, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are the standard treatment for patients with RRMS and these treatments are postulated to reduce clinical relapses and radiological activity, through the reduction of the activation, migration, or differentiation of different lymphocyte subpopulations [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Using monoclonal antibodies and immunofluorescent analysis, splenic lymphocyte subpopulations were enumerated at different intervals after injury in mice receiving various injuries (laparotomy, 40% liver resection, burn injury covering 20% of total body surface area, and crush injury-amputation of hind limb). (deepdyve.com)
  • The ELMF exposed women (groups C and D) showed lower levels of blood NK CD16+-CD56+ lymphocyte subpopulations and of " in vitro " production of interferon-γ (both spontaneously and in presence of PHA) by PBMC, suggesting that ELMF reduces blood cytotoxic activity. (go.jp)
  • Multiparameter analysis of human lymphocyte subpopulations using flow cytometry. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • The effects of bestatin on the total number of lymphocytes in the thymus, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, and the percentage and the absolute count of T cell subsets (CD4+CD8+, CD4-CD8-, CD4+, CD8+) in the thymus and T (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+) and B (CD19+) lymphocytes in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, as well as the production of cytokines by Th1/Th2 lymphocytes were studied in cyclophosphamide-immunocompromised mice. (termedia.pl)
  • In response to cytokine signalling and other factors, CD4-positive T lymphocytes differentiate into distinct populations that are characterized by the production of certain cytokines and are controlled by different master transcription factors. (inat.ru)
  • On the other hand, cytokines such as interleukin and chemokines secreted by immune cells help present antigens to lymphocytes such as T cells and B cells through antigen presentation, further triggering adaptive immunity. (hindawi.com)
  • T lymphocytes comprise two subsets: CD4+ T cells, which co-ordinate immune responses against infections or cancers and CD8+ T cells, which can kill infected or cancerous cells of the body, as well as producing important cytokines (messenger molecules). (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on expression of lymphocyte subsets and production of cytokines of men and women employed in a museum [med. (emf-portal.org)
  • This project aims to study whether combined prophylactic and therapeutic use of esketamine could improve the decreased number of lymphocyte subsets and increased plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines. (trypt.am)
  • LDL-In receptors are calculated to have a maximum density of 4,860 +/- 460 per cell if uniformly distributed on all lymphocyte subsets. (jci.org)
  • The preferential ability of B lymphocytes to act as diabetogenic APC in NOD mice depends on expression of self-antigen-specific immunoglobulin receptors. (umassmed.edu)
  • Spleen cells from BN rats in which tumor had regressed were cultured in an in vitro mixed lymphocyte tumor cell culture (MLTC) to augment cytotoxicity of effector cells. (nih.gov)
  • However, a non-significant decrease in most lymphocyte subsets was noted, with the strongest effect for B cells. (bmj.com)
  • Processing delays did not affect the number of apoptotic cells in any lymphocyte subset either at rest or following exercise. (wku.edu)
  • For example, standard TBNK panels are gated through CD45+ Lymphocytes to CD3+ cells, and then to CD4 (T Helper) and CD8 (T Effector) populations. (fcslaboratory.com)
  • We can further identify T cell subsets (Central Memory, Effector Memory, Regulatory T cells, Exhausted T cells). (fcslaboratory.com)
  • For example, in Panel C , Human CD4 cells are gated from CD45+ Lymphocytes, and further gated by CD45RA vs CCR7 to define memory subsets, or to Regulatory T cells. (fcslaboratory.com)
  • In addition, the functional/activation status of these T cell subsets can be measured: in Panel D , Ki67 marks proliferation in CD8 cells, and PD-1 and CD69 are used to assess activation. (fcslaboratory.com)
  • But, it's not all about T cells: Immunophenotyping can be used to identify Subsets of B cells. (fcslaboratory.com)
  • In Panel E , from the lymphocyte gate, B cells are gated by CD19 vs CD20. (fcslaboratory.com)
  • CD19+ cells are further gated to Memory and Naïve B cell subsets. (fcslaboratory.com)
  • Although not shown, further subsets of T cells and their activation/proliferation can be determined. (fcslaboratory.com)
  • In Treg cells, miR-9 and miR-210 are markedly downregulated in CD4 + CD25 + CD127 low ( 11 ) and CD8 + CD25 + ( 12 ) subsets compared to non-Treg T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • HIV infection is characterized by a decrease and, eventually, a depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells). (cdc.gov)
  • Using immunophenotyping, HIV-positive blood samples and age-matched controls were tested for the proportion of lymphocytes that are T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells (helper T cells), and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells). (cdc.gov)
  • In situ analysis of both primary and secondary lymphoid organs revealed a strong NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in antigen-presenting cells, some endothelial cells and sinus lining cells of the lymph node capsula with very little activity in lymphocytes and thymocytes. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Here we show that exogenous hydrogen sulfide induces a caspase-independent cell death of peripheral blood lymphocytes that depends on their intracellular glutathione levels, with a physiologically relevant subset specificity for CD8+ T cells and NK cells. (fondazioneforst.it)
  • Clinical and experimental data indicate that a subset of innate lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, plays a important role in the response against herpesviruses, especially cytomegaloviruses (CMV). (cancerhugs.com)
  • They are stochastically portrayed as disulfide-linked homodimers on the surface area of NK cells mainly, but on subsets of monocytes also, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and Testosterone levels cells [9]. (cancerhugs.com)
  • These scholarly research are significant, as they determined B-1 cells 3rd party of any phenotypic markers as specific, fetal-derived lymphocyte populations that develop in multiple waves throughout early ontogeny [5]. (thetechnoant.info)
  • T cells expressing Eomes constitute another subset of innate T cells [20]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Additionally, in vitro studies showed that human Th1Th17 lymphocytes with memory phenotype (CD4 + CD45RO + IL-17A + ) migrate more avidly across the blood-brain barrier than Th1 cells [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These results were also confirmed in vivo , by immunohistofluorescence studies of the CNS lesions of mice with EAE, indicating that Th1Th17 cells are more pathogenic than Th1 lymphocytes, although both Th1 and Th17 are required for EAE induction [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, very few of these effector cells evolve as long-lasting memory lymphocytes ( 1 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These cells then contribute a substantial increase in the frequency of pathogen-specific cells within the lymphocyte repertoire ( 7 , 8 ) and mount a rapid and robust response highly effective for protection against reinfection ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Also, late arrival of T cells to local lymph nodes (LN), 6 which subjects the lymphocytes to suboptimal residual Ag, leads to the generation of memory ( 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • An independent identity of the LDL-In receptor is also supported by observations that in contrast to the previously described LDL receptor, synthesis and expression of the LDL-In receptor on lymphocytes are not suppressed by cultivation of the cells in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol. (jci.org)
  • The Lawrence Lab addresses the biochemical and molecular analysis of the human and murine immune-neuroendocrine network with specific emphasis on the mechanisms by which chemicals and drugs alter the structure/function of antigen-presenting cells and the T-lymphocyte subsets responsible for maintenance of the immune homeostasis (controlled cell-mediated and humoral (antibody-mediated) immune responses). (albany.edu)
  • Since CD8 + T cells play an important role in influenza virus infection, we investigated which subset of CD8 + T cells was involved in this lymphocytopenia. (elsevier.com)
  • CD8 + T cells from eight patients with influenza A were studied for lymphocyte count, surface marker, and intracellular IFN-γ production in the acute (days 1-3) and recovery phases (days 9-12). (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicated that the predominant reduction of peripheral CD8 + T cells in the acute phase of influenza was from naive-type lymphocytes, suggesting that these quantitative and qualitative changes of CD8 + T cells in influenza are important for understanding the immunological pathogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • While the clinical relevance of memory in NK cells is being debated, the molecular identity of this subset in the form of a single-cell transcriptome is essential to define their origin, longevity, functions, and disease relevance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, aging-realted changes in NK cells, the major innate lymphocyte subset, are not fully understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NK cells are one of the major effector lymphocytes and have the unique ability to identify infected cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of B lymphocytes as key antigen-presenting cells in the development of T cell-mediated autoimmune type 1 diabetes. (umassmed.edu)
  • The subset of lymphocytes known as T cells are so called because their final stage of development occurs in the thymus. (massagetherapy.com)
  • After transplantation, there was an early and transient apoptotic effect, mainly within the CD8 + HLADR + T cells, combined with a sustained enhancement of CD4 + CD25 +high lymphocytes in peripheral blood. (aai.org)
  • It is primarily expressed on dendritic cells, NK cells, a subset of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), and some activated T cells. (biolegend.com)
  • A granuloma is a focal aggregation of inflammatory cells, activated macrophages (epithelioid histiocytes), Langhans giant cells and lymphocytes. (ersjournals.com)
  • The presence of necrosis, lymphocytes, plasma cells or multinucleated giant cells is not essential for granuloma formation [ 1 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • CD11c is expressed in monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, some granulocytes and less so in a subset of lymphocytes. (fishersci.no)
  • The associations of γδ T-lymphocytes with chronic liver disease have been explored - however, there remain conflicting data as to whether these T-cells are pathogenic or protective. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • CD161+ T-cells of diverse subsets are known to be enriched in the livers of patients with chronic hepatitis C. This article serves to provide a review of the γδ T-cell population and its role in hepatitis C and other chronic liver diseases, and also explores a potential role of the CD161+ γδ T-cells in liver diseases. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • CD45RA + CD27 - CD4 + T cells have significantly reduced CD28, interleukin-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) and Bcl-2 expression, Akt (ser473) phosphorylation and reduced ability to survive after T-cell receptor activation compared with the other T-cell subsets in the same donors. (elsevier.com)
  • CD5, also known as Lyt-1, is a monomeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on thymocytes, T lymphocytes, and a subset of B lymphocytes, but not on natural killer (NK) cells. (southernbiotech.com)
  • Whenever we evaluated the jobs of Sox2 in both specific cell subsets of MCF7 separated predicated on their differential responsiveness towards the reporter, as shown [39] previously, we discovered that the Sox2-mediated results on invasiveness in BC is fixed to reporter un-responsive (RU) cells. (pittsburghbusinesslist.com)
  • The CD31 antigen is expressed on platelets and endothelial cells at high levels, as well as on T-lymphocyte subsets, monocytes, and granulocytes. (pittsburghbusinesslist.com)
  • B cells differentiate into a variety of subsets with differing characteristics and functions. (arizona.edu)
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients with histologically confirmed IgG4-RD, 11 patients with sarcoidosis, and 30 healthy subjects were included for 11-color flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood for IgG4-expressing B cells and TH subsets. (eyehospital.nl)
  • Patients in the second arm will receive CAR T cells reprogrammed to target both EGFR and CD19, a protein expressed on a subset of white blood cells called B lymphocytes. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Building on what we've learned in our trials for leukemia, our hope is that the secondary target of CD19 will constantly interact with B lymphocytes in the blood to promote the expansion and persistence of the EGFR-directed CAR T cells. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • In this cross-sectional study we investigated changes in peripheral blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among workers from a Dutch historical cohort occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and contaminants including TCDD. (bmj.com)
  • Results Cell counts and lymphocyte subsets were similar between high- and low-exposed workers, except for a non-dose dependent increase in CD4/CD8 ratio among high-exposed workers. (bmj.com)
  • The study results showed a great advantage to using the Aquios CL for automated lymphocyte subset enumeration. (labroots.com)
  • Enumeration of CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-positive participants and age-matched controls was performed on cryopreserved whole blood using the method reported by Fiebig et. (cdc.gov)
  • NK cell immune subsets constitute a unique niche, given their bridging roles between innate and adaptive immune processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fast' activation of innate-like lymphocytes? (hstalks.com)
  • Although in humans they comprise a small fraction of the total circulating T-lymphocyte pool, they represent an important T-cell subset in tissues such as the liver, with roles bridging the innate and adaptive immune systems. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Although lymphocyte activation does not modify their sensitivity to HS-, after 24 h exposure to hydrogen sulfide surviving lymphocyte subsets show a dramatically decreased proliferation in response to mitogens and a reduced IL-2 production. (fondazioneforst.it)
  • changes were also prevented by administering cyclophosphamide, a drug which in low dose might inhibit proliferation of suppressor lymphocyte populations. (deepdyve.com)
  • To evaluate the immune system in sea otters inhabiting specific contaminated and non-contaminated sites within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, lymphocyte function assays (proliferation and IL-2 receptor expression) were developed. (vin.com)
  • Binding of CD5 on the T cell surface can augment alloantigen- or mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and induces increased cytosolic free calcium, IL-2 secretion, and IL-2R expression. (southernbiotech.com)
  • CD11a is a leukocyte marker that is expressed in B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. (fishersci.no)
  • Altogether, these results suggest that NF-kappaB/Rel complexes are key players in the in vivo differentiation of IgD(+) B lymphocytes and possibly CD25(+) thymocytes. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The lymphocyte subsets are investigated to assess the qualitative and quantitative subcellular changes that occur with cell activation, growth, differentiation, functional responses, and cell death/apoptosis. (albany.edu)
  • The polyfunctionality index and a memory subset differentiation score were used to identify associations between response size, cytokine production, polyfunctionality, and memory subset distribution. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lee K, Gudapati P, Dragovic S , Spencer C , Joyce S , Killeen N , Magnuson MA , Boothby M. Mammalian target of rapamycin protein complex 2 regulates differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cell subsets via distinct signaling pathways. (academictree.org)
  • The heterodimer is found on the surface of essentially all thymocytes and the "suppressor/cytotoxic" subpopulation of mature T lymphocytes. (southernbiotech.com)
  • In the MLTC a T cell subset was expanded in response to MST-1 antigens and transformed into blast elements. (nih.gov)
  • The subset associated with elimination of established tumors was a blast T cell W3/25+, W3/13+, as detected by monoclonal antibodies to rat T antigens. (nih.gov)
  • 2017). Leishmania infantum antigens modulate memory cell subsets of liver resident T lymphocyte . (up.pt)
  • To explore the characteristics and pathogenesis of changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and immune function in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis. (ac.ir)
  • These collaborations have yielded such pivotal discoveries as EBV viral molecular mimicry as a driver of MS pathogenesis, and a T lymphocyte subtype having a key role in modulating human autoimmunity. (stanford.edu)
  • are the CD4(+) T lymphocyte subsets implicated in the pathogenesis of both BD and VKH. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Subsets of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes express CD8α without CD8β. (southernbiotech.com)
  • After decalcification, the lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20) in the bone marrow component of each enthesis were measured by an immunohistochemical technique. (bmj.com)
  • The status of cell-mediated immunity appears to be reflected by the helper/inducer to suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocyte (Ly1+/Ly2+ in the mouse model) ratio. (deepdyve.com)
  • A recent study highlights the presence of a unique memory-like natural killer (NK) cell subset, which accumulates with aging and appears to associate withdisease severity in COVID-19 patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We are pleased to announce that our flow cytometry testing now includes immunophenotyping for hematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies in addition to our existing flow cytometry testing for T-cell subset analysis. (lifelabs.com)
  • To investigate immune function in mice stressed by experimental restraint or unavoidable and opioid dependent stress, we evaluated the changes in total body weight and in organ weights (liver, spleen and thymus) of these animals, as well as the phagocytic activity of macrophages, the cytotoxicity of T cell and inhibitory effects on tumor growth and changes in T cell subset populations. (elsevier.com)
  • Discovered 30 years ago, gamma delta (γδ) T-lymphocytes remain an intriguing and enigmatic T-cell subset. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Exogenous hydrogen sulfide induces functional inhibition and cell death of cytotoxic lymphocytes subsets. (fondazioneforst.it)
  • The samples were labeled in duplicate with mixtures consisting of flow cytometry staining buffer, the biomarker for early-phase cell death (annexin V), and antibodies for specific lymphocyte phenotypes (CD4, CD8, and CD19). (wku.edu)
  • Analysis of ten B lymphocyte-specific workshop monoclonal antibodies. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • In addition to collecting CBC data, a panel of antibodies that label specific WBC subsets, such as B and T lymphocytes, were developed for use in sea otters. (vin.com)
  • The binding of radioiodinated LDL-In of demonstrable biological activity occurs rapidly and is quantitatively augmented by prior cultivation of the lymphocytes in lipoprotein-depleted serum, suggesting regulation of receptor density by lipoproteins in vivo. (jci.org)
  • Functional capabilities of macrophages from control and stressed subjects will be compared by measuring (1) phagocytosis and intracellular killing, (2) antibody dependent cytolitic events, and (3) support and regulation of T lymphocyte functions. (neurotree.org)
  • The W3/25+ subset was poorly cytotoxic in vitro for MST-1 and apparently functioned in vivo as an amplifier or helper cell in the tumor-bearing host. (nih.gov)
  • T Helper Lymphocyte Subsets and Plasticity in Autoimmunity and Cancer: An Overview. (inat.ru)
  • The toxic effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on peripheral blood lymphocytes have been investigated in detail. (fondazioneforst.it)
  • Overall, our data demonstrate that HS- reduces the cellular cytotoxic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as their production of IL-2, therefore de-activating the major players of local inflammatory responses, adding new basic knowledge to the clinically well known anti-inflammatory effects of sulfur compounds. (fondazioneforst.it)
  • The present study demonstrates the existence on human peripheral blood lymphocytes of a saturable cell surface receptor for low density lipoprotein inhibitor (LDL-In), a subset of normal human serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) that has been previously demonstrated to suppress selected lymphocyte functions in vivo and in vitro. (jci.org)
  • The CD19 antibody recognizes a 90-kilodalton (kDa) antigen that is present on human B lymphocytes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • These observations raise the question as to whether the immune system can generate memory against acute infections in which the lymphocytes could be exposed to an optimal dose of Ag for a short period early in the effector phase. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has a major impact on the immune system, in particular on the distribution of lymphocyte subsets ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Another oral treatment for RRMS patients is fingolimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator that reduces the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes and, consequently, the infiltration of potentially autoreactive lymphocytes into the CNS [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Identification of a lymphocyte surface receptor for low density lipoprotein inhibitor, an immunoregulatory species of normal human serum low density lipoprotein. (jci.org)
  • The lymphocyte receptor is trypsin sensitive and regenerates in vitro with a t1/2 of 3.6 h. (jci.org)
  • These findings suggest the existence of a previously undescribed and discrete receptor on lymphocytes for LDL-In, and that the modulation of lymphocyte function by LDL-In may be mediated by a specific cell surface receptor pathway. (jci.org)
  • Immune assessment of the infant rhesus monkeys will focus on the development of lymphocyte cytotoxic responses, circulating levels of various cell subsets, and antibody responses. (neurotree.org)
  • Evolution of donor-specific cellular and humoral alloimmune response, peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and apoptosis was evaluated. (aai.org)
  • Five and ten exposures to the investigated doses enhanced the suppressive effect of cyclophosphamide on the percentage and the absolute count of B lymphocytes in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. (termedia.pl)
  • El Sarcoma Embrionario Indiferenciado, como tumor primario hepático es una patología que se presenta en la edad pediátrica, en adultos los casos son raros y representan aproximadamente el 0.2% de los tumores hepáticos primarios. (bvsalud.org)
  • El tratamiento curativo consiste en la resección quirúrgica del tumor y, en casos de irresecabilidad o afectación extrahepática, se justifica considerar radioquimioterapia paliativa y asociarla o no a cirugía. (bvsalud.org)
  • Defective proximal TCR signaling inhibits CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte lytic function. (southernbiotech.com)
  • Finally, we demonstrate the ability to identify tumor-reactive TCRs within intratumoral T cell subsets without knowledge of antigen specificities, which may be the first step toward the development of autologous TCR gene therapy to target patient-specific neoantigens in human cancer. (skoltech.ru)
  • Adaptive immunity acts as a process of preventing infection by recruiting immune lymphocytes and producing immunoglobulins, which belongs to specific immunity. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusions Overall, our study showed that plasma TCDD levels had no effect on white blood cell counts and major subsets. (bmj.com)
  • CD45 lymphocyte count was designated the total lymphocyte count. (cdc.gov)
  • Usually, an initial exposure to a microbe triggers a primary response comprising pathogen-specific effector lymphocytes, most of which engage in the clearance of the pathogen ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Zhu J , Fang R , Pan Z , Qian X . Circulating lymphocyte subsets are prognostic factors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (wjgnet.com)
  • To address these issues, we developed a fully automated subset identification and characterization (SIC) pipeline providing robust cluster matching and data visualization tools for high-dimensional flow/mass cytometry (and other) data. (nature.com)
  • The traditional approach to locating clusters (subsets) in high-dimensional (Hi-D) data sets such as those acquired by flow cytometry is to reduce the data set dimensionality, usually by linear and/or nonlinear one-/two-dimensional mapping or projection strategies. (nature.com)
  • The lysing solution results in good light scatter separation of lymphocytes and red blood cell debris when analyzed by flow cytometry. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • T lymphocytes from mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites eliminate malaria from hepatocytes. (who.int)
  • Mst1-FoxO signaling protects naïve T lymphocytes from cellular oxidative stress in mice. (southernbiotech.com)
  • Leukocyte Typing II: Human B Lymphocytes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • These reagents were used to evaluate circulating leukocyte subsets and examine their surface protein expression. (vin.com)
  • Patients with elder age, chronic comorbidities, blood leukocyte/lymphocyte count, procalcitonin level, co-infection and severe complications might increase the risk of poor clinical outcomes. (medrxiv.org)
  • A correlation study between the percentage and absolute cell number of each lymphocyte subpopulation with the presence of relapses or new MRI lesions during 12-month follow-up was performed. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper aims to discuss the effect of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subpopulation test on gastric cancer monitoring and prognostic evaluation. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subpopulation test can be used as an index for gastric cancer monitoring and prognostic evaluation and merits clinical promotion. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The spectrum of such populations, which was initially limited to Th1 and Th2 subsets, is currently broadened to include Th17 and Treg subsets, as well as a number of less studied subtypes, such as Tfh, Th9, and Th22. (inat.ru)
  • The CD28 + CD45RO + subset, a memory phenotype, was also reduced in the acute phase, but the reduction was not statistically significant. (elsevier.com)
  • Thymus size was assessed ultrasonographically and correlated to the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood in 32 infants with protein-energy malnutrition [‎PEM]‎ and compared with 14 healthy control infants. (who.int)
  • Complete blood counts and differential and major lymphocyte subsets were analysed. (bmj.com)
  • The purpose of this investigation was the evaluate the effect of a 24h time delay on lymphocyte subset concentration, as well as for the apoptotic marker annexin V. Fourteen healthy individuals completed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion, and blood samples were obtained before and after exercise. (wku.edu)
  • For blood draws obtained at rest, no differences between acquisition days were observed with regard to cell volume for any lymphocyte subfraction. (wku.edu)
  • The efficacy of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) oral liquor combined with routine therapy and routine therapy alone on T-lymphocyte subsets of peripheral blood in viral myocarditis patients have been studied. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Body weight, blood pressure, metabolic parameters, urine catecholamines and cortisol, antioxidant status and lymphocyte subsets were measured after each period. (cambridge.org)
  • Urine catecholamines and cortisol, plasma antioxidant status and blood lymphocyte subsets showed no significant differences across treatments. (cambridge.org)
  • 1400). 'Changes of Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets and Immune Function in Children with Henoch-Schonlein Purpura Nephritis', سامانه مدیریت نشریات علمی , 18(3), pp. 259-267. (ac.ir)
  • However, increased blood B-lymphocytes seems to be a clinical feature associated with CMV infection. (shengsci.com)
  • Our objectives were to determine the effects of malnutrition in a sample of obese and underweight young and elderly individuals in order to determine whether malnutrition has any association with alterations in the frequency of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets. (springer.com)
  • The welding fume with the lower concentration of Mn had no significant effect on the numbers of blood lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets compared to control values. (cdc.gov)
  • Many studies, however, have shown an association between CMV infection and immunosenescence, with broad effects on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets as well as the T and B-cell repertoires. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, rather than total white blood cell count, should be considered in adult medical admissions with suspected bacteraemia. (bmj.com)
  • In conclusion, our preliminary studies show that lymphocyte function assays and immunophenotyping of peripheral blood are promising tests that should be included in the minimum database to assess the health of free-ranging as well as captive southern sea otters. (vin.com)
  • This data can be used to identify animals with abnormal T lymphocyte function as well as to screen the peripheral blood for phenotypic changes. (vin.com)
  • White blood cell counts, lymphocyte subsets, and incident diabetes mellitus in women living with and without HIV. (gradyhealth.org)
  • The secondary objective is to evaluate treatment safety, and the tertiary objective is exploration of the association between treatment, reproductive outcome after ET, and the lymphocyte subset distribution in peripheral blood collected before and after intravenous infusion(s). (bmj.com)
  • All experiments performed on red cell lysed bovine blood gated on lymphocytes. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Despite this, the CD45RA + CD27 - subset is as multifunctional as the CD45RA - CD27 + and CD45RA - CD27 - CD4 + T-cell subsets, indicating that they are not an exhausted population. (elsevier.com)
  • This study investigated whether levels of psychological distress and depressive symptoms are related to subsequent changes in counts of lymphocyte subsets (natural killer (NK), B, and T cell) and/or whether changes of immune markers predict psychological distress/depressive symptoms in a 1-year prospective study design. (cdc.gov)