B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cell SeparationAntigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Lymphocytes, Null: A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Appendix: A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred C3HL-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Immunologic Capping: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Mice, Inbred CBABronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Rats, Inbred LewSheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.ThymidineGerminal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.

IgA production in MHC class II-deficient mice is primarily a function of B-1a cells. (1/1715)

Mice deficient in MHC class II expression (C2d mice) do not make antibody to protein antigens administered systemically, but their ability to produce IgA antibody to antigen administered at mucosal sites has not been described. We investigated IgA production by C2d mice and their IgA antibody response to antigen given orally. Young C2d mice had normal amounts of serum IgA, intestinal-secreted IgA and normal numbers of intestinal IgA plasma cells, compared to control C57BL/6 mice. IgA production by C2d mice increased with age. Following oral immunization with cholera toxin, C57BL/6 mice responded with IgA and IgG antibody, and had increased numbers of IgA plasma cells, but C2d mice gave no response. The Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node tissues of C2d mice contained very few CD4-expressing T cells. Thus, C2d mice have no typical mucosal CD4 Th cells and cannot respond to a strong oral immunogen, yet they still produced and secreted IgA. We hypothesized that B-1 lymphocytes could provide a source of IgA independent of antigen-specific T cell help. Young C2d mice had normal numbers of peritoneal B-1a cells and their frequency increased with age. To test the role of these B-1a cells, we bred C2d mice to obtain mice that had no MHC class II expression and expressed the Xid gene that confers deficiency in B-1a cells. These double-deficient mice had 10-fold less serum and secreted IgA than all other F2 littermates. We conclude that B-1a cells are essential for the majority of IgA production in C2d mice. Thus, the C2d mouse may provide a useful tool for analysis of the role of intestinal IgA provided by B-1a cells.  (+info)

An alternatively spliced form of CD79b gene may account for altered B-cell receptor expression in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (2/1715)

Several functional anomalies of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells may be explained by abnormalities of the B-cell receptor (BCR), a multimeric complex formed by the sIg homodimer and the noncovalently bound heterodimer Igalpha/Igbeta (CD79a/CD79b). Because the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b has been reported to be absent in the cells of most CLL cases, we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that may account for this defect. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 50 patients and two cell lines (MEC1, MEC2) obtained from the PBL of one of them were studied. MEC1, MEC2, and 75% of CLL cases did not express detectable levels of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b, which was nevertheless present in greater than 80% CD19(+) cells from normal donors. In healthy subjects the expression of CD79b was equally distributed in CD5(+) and CD5(-) B-cell subsets. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of CD79b RNA from all patients and from MEC1 and MEC2 cell lines consistently yielded two fragments of different size (709 bp and 397 bp). The 709-bp band corresponds to CD79b entire transcript; the 397-bp band corresponds to an alternatively spliced form lacking exon 3 that encodes the extracellular Ig-like domain. Both fragments were also visible in normal PBL. The expression of the 397-bp fragment was increased in normal activated B cells, while no difference was seen between CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. To obtain a more accurate estimate of the relative proportions of the two spliced forms, a radioactive PCR was performed in 13 normal and 22 B-CLL samples and the results analyzed using a digital imager. The mean value of the CD79b to the CD79b internally deleted ratio was 0.64 +/- 0.20 SD in normal donors and 0.44 +/- 0.27 SD in B-CLL (P =.01). Direct sequencing of 397-bp RT-PCR products and of genomic DNA corresponding to exon 3 from MEC1, MEC2, their parental cells, and five fresh B-CLL samples did not show any causal mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 3 performed in 18 additional B-CLL cases showed a single abnormal shift corresponding to a TGT --> TGC polymorphic change at amino acid 122. We propose a role for the alternative splicing of CD79b gene in causing the reduced expression of BCR on the surface of B-CLL cells. As normal B cells also present this variant, the mechanism of CD79b posttranscriptional regulation might reflect the activation stage of the normal B cell from which B-CLL derives.  (+info)

Anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in HIV infection. (3/1715)

This cross-sectional study evaluates the correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells in 110 patients infected with HIV-1. There were 89.1% of the patients who had IgG antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine. The prevalence of IgM and IgA antibodies was < 22%. AIDS was associated with lower frequencies of IgM antibodies against cardiolipin (P = 0.05) and IgG-antibodies against cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine (P = 0.011). Drug users had higher IgM antibodies against phospholipids than patients from other risk groups (P = 0.02). A history of thromboembolic events was not accompanied by higher levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies (P > 0.2). No correlation between anti-phospholipid antibodies and CD5+ B cells was detected. Percentage part of CD5+ B lymphocytes was elevated in all patients and absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and HIV p24 antigen were inversely correlated. In advanced disease a significant reduction of anti-phospholipid antibodies was contrasted with persistent elevation of CD5+ B lymphocytes. These observations may reflect immunological dysfunction involving apoptosis and endothelial damage rather than polyclonal B cell hyperstimulation. A possible explanation would be that in HIV infection an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes is accompanied by functional and structural changes of mitochondria. Therefore, structurally altered mitochondrial phospholipids could serve as antigen to induce specific humoral immune responses.  (+info)

Cutting edge: recruitment of the CD19/CD21 coreceptor to B cell antigen receptor is required for antigen-mediated expression of Bcl-2 by resting and cycling hen egg lysozyme transgenic B cells. (4/1715)

Recruitment of the CD19/CD21 coreceptor is thought to lower the threshold for effective signaling through the B cell Ag receptor. We provide evidence supporting a second role for coreceptor recruitment, and that is to enhance the survival/proliferative potential of the responding B cells. We show that B cell Ag receptor signaling in the absence of coreceptor recruitment induces cellular accumulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, whereas CD19-mediated signals are required for Bcl-2 accumulation. The expression of both anti-apoptotic proteins correlates with the enhanced responsiveness of both resting and cycling B cells to growth-promoting signals delivered through CD40. These results provide further evidence for the necessity of coreceptor recruitment during Ag-dependent B cell activation and indicate that Ags derived from inflammatory sites function as better thymus-dependent Ags than their counterparts not coated with complement fragments.  (+info)

Antigen receptor engagement selectively induces macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and MIP-1 beta chemokine production in human B cells. (5/1715)

We show herein that B cell Ag receptor (BCR) triggering, but not stimulation by CD40 mAb and/or IL-4, rapidly induced the coordinated expression of two closely related T cell chemoattractants, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta) and MIP-1 alpha, by human B cells. Naive, memory, and germinal center B cells all produced MIP-1 alpha/beta in response to BCR triggering. In contrast to MIP-1 alpha/beta, IL-8, which is spontaneously produced by germinal center B cells but not by naive and memory B cells, was not regulated by BCR triggering. Culturing follicular dendritic cell-like HK cells with activated B cells did not regulate MIP-1 alpha/beta production, but it did induce production of IL-8 by HK cells. Microchemotaxis assays showed that CD4+CD45RO+ T cells of the effector/helper phenotype actively migrated along a chemotactic gradient formed by BCR-stimulated B cells. This effect was partially blocked by anti-MIP-1 beta and anti-CC chemokine receptor 5 Ab, but not by anti-MIP-1 alpha Ab suggesting that MIP-1 beta plays a major role in this chemoattraction. Since maturation of the B cell response to a peptide Ag is mostly dependent on the availability of T cell help, the ability of Ag-stimulated B cells to recruit T cells via MIP-1 alpha/beta, may represent one possible mechanism enabling cognate interactions between rare in vivo Ag-specific T and B cells.  (+info)

Age-dependent altered proportions in subpopulations of tonsillar lymphocytes. (6/1715)

Age-related changes in functional subsets of lymphocytes may influence the potential to build up immune responses. In particular, the capacity of tonsillar lymphocytes to counter infections may be altered during ageing. In order to address this question we investigated the proportional distribution of several subsets of tonsillar T and B cells with regard to ageing. Tonsils were derived from 119 patients between 2 and 65 years of age. Lymphocyte subsets were monitored by three-colour fluorescence of relevant CD markers in flow cytometry. As a general tendency the percentage of CD3+ T cells steadily increased whereas that of CD19+ B cells decreased at the same time. No significant differences were observed between lymphocytes of patients with and without inflammatory history of the tonsils. The percentage of CD8+ T cells declined whereas that of CD4+ T cells increased during the same time span. CD45RA+ T cells increased during the first two decades of life and gradually decreased thereafter. In contrast, CD45RO+ T cells showed an opposite trend. No differences were seen in the population of CD3-/CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. The mature B cell marker CD40 showed no significant changes during ageing. However, CD38+ B cells, representing B cells of late maturation stages, dramatically declined up to the age of 65. In a similar manner the CD5+ subpopulation of B cells decreased during ageing. Substantial changes in major tonsillar T and B cell populations as shown in this study may have an impact on the ageing process of the immune system.  (+info)

The evolutionarily conserved sequence upstream of the human Ig heavy chain S gamma 3 region is an inducible promoter: synergistic activation by CD40 ligand and IL-4 via cooperative NF-kappa B and STAT-6 binding sites. (7/1715)

Germline C gamma gene transcription is a crucial event in the process that leads to switch DNA recombination to IgG, but its regulation in the human is poorly understood. We took advantage of our monoclonal model of germinal center B cell differentiation, IgM+ IgD+ CL-01 cells, to define the role of the I gamma 3 evolutionarily conserved sequence (ECS) in the germline transcriptional activation of the human C gamma 3 gene. The I gamma 3 ECS lies upstream of the major I gamma 3 transcription initiation site and displays more than 90% identity with the corresponding human I gamma 1, I gamma 2, and I gamma 4 regions. Reporter luciferase gene vectors containing the human gamma 3 ECS were used to transfect CL-01 cells, which have been shown to undergo Smu-->S gamma 3 DNA recombination, upon engagement of CD40 by CD40 ligand (CD40L) and exposure to IL-4. In these transfected CL-01 cells, CD40:CD40L engagement and exposure to IL-4 synergistically induced gamma 3 ECS-dependent luciferase reporter gene activation. Targeted mutational analysis demonstrated that a tandem NF-kappa B/Rel binding motif is critical for the gamma 3 ECS responsiveness to both CD40L and IL-4, while a STAT-6-binding site is additionally required for IL-4 inducibility. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that p50/p65/c-Rel and STAT-6 are effectively induced by CD40L and IL-4, respectively, and bind to specific DNA motifs within the ECS. These partially overlapping CD40L and IL-4 responsive elements are functionally cooperative as the disruption of one of them prevents synergistic promoter activation. Thus, the gamma 3 ECS is an inducible promoter containing cis elements that critically mediate CD40L and IL-4-triggered transcriptional activation of the human C gamma 3 gene.  (+info)

Syndecan-4 is expressed by B lineage lymphocytes and can transmit a signal for formation of dendritic processes. (8/1715)

Our previous studies indicated that stromal cell-derived syndecan-4 might mediate some form of communication with pre-B cells in bone marrow. We now report additional aspects of this recognition and show that syndecan-4 is also present on pre-B cells. Indeed, the molecule is acquired at an early stage of differentiation and retained until mature B cells undergo Ig isotype switching. mAbs developed to two portions of the syndecan-4 protein core were used to probe possible functions on B lineage lymphocytes. Syndecan-4 ligation had no obvious influence on B lymphocyte formation or activation, but this treatment caused a dramatic morphological change in appropriately stimulated leukocytes. Extended filopodia appeared on transfected Ba/F3 or FDCP-1 cells, as well as activated B cell blasts that were placed on syndecan-4 Ab-coated surfaces. The dendritic processes contained polymerized actin as well as pp52(LSP1), a prominent F-actin binding protein in lymphocytes. The cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4 was not required for this response. Shape changes of this type could facilitate interactions between B lymphocytes and other components of the immune system. Not only is syndecan-4 a useful marker for discriminating normal B lineage lymphocyte subsets, but our results suggest new ways for the syndecans to participate in immune responses.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Aged mice exhibit distinct B cell precursor phenotypes differing in activation, proliferation and apoptosis. AU - Van der Put, Elaine. AU - Sherwood, Erin M.. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B. AU - Riley, Richard L. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - Senescence in murine models is associated with a reduction, albeit heterogeneous, in bone marrow pre-B cells. We have categorized aged BALB/c mice into two phenotypes based on their patterns of pre-B/pro-B cell loss. Each phenotype is characterized by distinct responses to the growth cytokine IL-7 and capacity for survival in vitro. A moderate loss of late-stage pre-B cells (25-80%) coincided with decline in proliferation to rmIL-7. This was also associated with a decrease in the frequency of pro-B cells which increased phosphotyrosine content upon IL-7 stimulation, an indicator of early activation events. A severe loss of pre-B cells (,80%) resulted in a reduced pro-B cell pool which retained normal activation and proliferative ...
Our views regarding the origins and functions of splenic marginal zone B cells have changed considerably over the past few years. Perspectives regarding the development and function of these cells vary considerably between investigators studying human and rodent immunology. Marginal zone B cells are …
The development of an effective Ab response to TD Ag requires collaboration between T and B cells. Several lines of evidence support the idea that the ability of B cells to induce both naive T cell priming and tolerance depends on their resting vs activated state (28, 29, 30, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44). In agreement with previous results, we found that both resting MZ and FO B cells were unable to induce T cell responses in vivo and in vitro. However, within a few hours of in vivo Ag priming, MZ B cells were far superior to FO B cells in the activation of naive CD4+ T cells in vitro. MD4 B cell populations have been shown to be a little different in the phenotype of their subsets, in that IgM on FO B cells tended to persist at higher levels than on FO B in normal mice. However, we sorted FO and MZ B cell subsets based on their expression of CD23 and CD21. In this respect the MZ B cells are clearly distinguishable from their FO counterparts. Despite this anomaly in MD4 transgenic mice MZ and FO B ...
Quantitative variation in the expression of MHC-encoded class II (Ia) glycoproteins has been associated with stages of lymphocyte development and a number
Replacement nurses and technicians will arrive over the weekend for orientation sessions in preparation for a possible strike at Lawrence + Memorial
The uniqueness of each BCR and width of the B cell repertoire are due to the DNA rearrangements at HC and LC loci. B cells leave the bone marrow at the transitional stage carrying a wide array of germline-encoded and randomly assembled Ig genes. Transitional B cells migrate with the blood to the spleen. They are not fully functional in the immune responses: they are not able to respond to inflammatory chemokines, and engagement of the BCR leads to their apoptotic cell death. These are safety measures against autoreactivity preventing self-reactive transitional B cells from further development and migration to sites rich in cytokines and stimulatory cells. In contrast to the mortal effect of BCR cross-linking, engagement of TLR9 leads to differentiation of transitional B cells. In response to CpG, a fraction of the transitional B cells (26%) proliferates and acquires the phenotype of memory B cells or directly matures into plasma cells. The remaining cells start to express the markers of ...
In the past decade, the suppressive effects, mainly through the secretion of IL-10, of regulatory B cells on inflammatory responses have been reported in a variety of immune disorders (33-36). Additionally, immune regulation through the interaction of immune cells with the intrinsic phenotype of regulatory B cells (e.g., CD1dhiCD5+, T2-MZP, Tim-1+, and CD9+) were demonstrated in various diseases, and it plays a critical role in autoimmune diseases (37). In recent studies, functional studies in cancer diseases are emerging (38-40). In particular, the change of the distribution of regulatory B cells in cancer tissue is considered to one of important indicators (8-10). Emerging evidence suggests that regulatory B cells suppress effector immune cells including IFN-γ-producing cytotoxicity cells in various cancer diseases through the secretion of IL-10 (11). Although regulatory B cells have to play the suppressive role on the effector function of T cells in autoimmune diseases to cure diseases (41), ...
New insights into human B cell biology. B cells are highly important white blood cells known as lymphocytes and are part of the adaptive immune system. B cells have a specialised receptor on their cell surface (B cell receptor, BCR) which recognises specific proteins. Upon activation, B cells produce antibodies which bind antigens like e.g. molecules from pathogens or vaccines. The drawback of a vast range of different B cell receptors is the potential that some of the receptors recognise self-antigens which can then result in auto-immune disorders. The bone marrow continuously releases immature B cells into the blood stream. A high proportion of these so-called transitional B cells are able to recognise self-antigens via their BCR. It has been unknown where in the body these auto-reactive cells are checked and removed from the circulation. A recent publication by Anna Vossenkämper and Jo Spencer (Kings College) tracked the fate of human transitional B cells and identified that these cells ...
Notch2 interaction with its ligand, Dll1, is required in the mouse to drive MZP into the MZB cell lineage (Saito et al., 2003; Hozumi et al., 2004). Preliminary data based on humanized mouse models have also proposed a Notch2 dependence for the differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells (Scheeren et al., 2008). Accordingly, we searched for an MZP in the spleen from young children, taking as diagnostic criteria its capacity to acquire an MZ phenotype when cultured in presence of OP9 cells expressing human DLL1, a differentiation which, moreover, should be specifically inhibited in presence of anti-NOTCH2 blocking antibodies. This precursor subset was identified using the recently described MEM55 antibody, which marks a glycosylated variant of the CD45RB molecule, harbored by CD27+ B cells and an immature B cell subset (Koethe et al., 2011). Surprisingly, these MZPs were further characterized as expressing the ABCB1 transporter reported so far as the unique hallmark of naive B cells (Wirths and ...
Vol. 203, No. 11, October 30, 2006. Pages 2425-2431.. Please note that an error appeared in the original online early release version of this article. A portion of text from the second paragraph in the Results and Discussion section was erroneously deleted. The current html, print, and pdf versions appear correctly. For reference, the corrected paragraph appears below in its entirety.. We next assessed if these long-lived t(14;18)-bearing B cells in HI already transited through the GCs. Circulating naive and memory B cells can be distinguished on the basis of the CD27 cell surface marker and sIg isotypes (11-13). Fresh PBMCs from 10 healthy donors were collected, and IgD+/CD27− naive, IgD+/CD27+ memory, and IgD−/CD27+ switched memory B cell subsets isolated by cell sorting (Fig. 2 A). The occurrence of t(14;18) was then assessed in total PBMCs and in each fraction by the short-range BCL2/JH PCR assay (Fig. 2 B and Table II). As a first approach, we pooled data from the two CD27+ memory ...
The production of antibody to a thymus-dependent Ag requires cooperation between the B cell and an Ag-specific Th cell. MHC restriction of this interaction implies that the Th cell recognizes Ag on the B cell surface in the context of MHC molecules and that the Ag-specific B cell gets help by acting as an APC for the Th cell. However, a number of studies have suggested that normal resting B cells are ineffective as APC, implying that the B cell must leave the resting state before it can interact specifically with a Th cell. Other studies, including our own with rabbit globulin-specific mouse T cell lines and hybridomas, show that certain T cell lines can be efficiently stimulated by normal resting B cells. One possible explanation for the above contradiction is that our B cells have become activated before presentation. Here we show that presentation by size-selected small B cells is not the result of nonspecific activation signals generated by the T cells or components of the medium. Also, although LPS
As with people, identity is vital to cells. When a cell loses its identity, it can stop working properly and a range of illnesses can result. The immune system, which protects our bodies from disease, includes cells with many different identities. When these cells lose their identity it can cause certain cancers or increase the risk of infections.. Complex networks of signals and genes create and maintain the identity of different cells. New research from the Babraham Institute, Cambridge and the University of Birmingham has revealed how a protein called ZFP36L1 helps cells known as marginal zone B cells (MZ B cells) to maintain their identity.. For cells, identity describes how they are adapted to have a specialised function. Blood cells are specialised for transportation, nerve cells for communication and the immune system fights infections. Each cell becomes specialised to do its job as a result of unique combinations of genetic instructions, which influence how the cell works.. MZ B cells ...
Normal peripheral B cells can be activated by and cultured in interleukin 4 and anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies. Is it possible to perform either stable or transient transfection assays in these cells ? Thanks for references if any. I am particularly interested in studying the expression of various p53 mutants ...
Martin, VG, Wu, Y-CB, Townsend, CL, Lu, GH, OHare, JS, Mozeika, A, Coolen, AC, Kipling, D, Fraternali, F and Dunn-Walters, Deborah (2016) Transitional B cells in early human B cell development - time to revisit the paradigm? ...
This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well as some specific...
B Cell小鼠单克隆抗体[CA2.1D6](ab34125)可与马, 猫样本反应并经IP, IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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Results High expression levels of TLR7 in SLE patients positively correlated with IFN signature and disease activity, but not with BAFF titers. SLE patients with high levels of TLR7 (TLR7hi group) showed an expansion of CD19+CD38highCD24highCD10+ TR B cells. Overall, frequencies of TR B cells positively correlated with the levels of TLR7, but not TLR9. SLE patients, carrying a risk G allele, had increased TLR7 expression and TR cell frequencies, compared to non-risk allele carriers. TLR7hi SLE patients showed increased autoantibody titers and skewing towards Sm/RNP antigens. Upon IFNα priming, TR B cells up-regulated TLR7 and differentiated into plasmablasts in response to TLR7-ligand stimulation. ...
Carole Goutsmedt, Laëtitia Le Pottier, Jacques-Olivier Pers. Identification of an antigen-specific regulatory B cell subset in humans.. 35th European Workshop for Rheumatology Research, Mar 2015, Budapest, Hungary. 74 (Supplément 1 A1.27), pp.A11, 2015, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 〈hal-01128705〉 ...
B cells are known to play an important role in auto-immune diseases by activating T cells, secreting inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. However, a sub-type of B cells named regulatory B cells or Bregs has recently shown capacities to prevent or cure arthritis in mouse models. Bregs have also been identified in humans. Main objective: To study Bregs abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at different stages of the disease compared to subjects with mechanical pathologies.Secondary objectives:- To evaluate the specificity of any abnormalities identified in RA by studying Bregs in patients with other autoimmune or other inflammatory joint diseases.- To evaluate the effect of biological and synthetic treatments on Bregs in patients with RA. - To assess whether the rate of Bregs before treatment is predictive of response to biological and synthetic treatments ...
Original citation: J. Clin. Invest.112:286-297 (2003). doi:10.1172/JCI18025.. Citation for this corrigendum: J. Clin. Invest.113:1069 (2004). doi:10.1172/JCI18025E1.. The legends for Figures 6 and 7 contained inaccuracies, and the correct versions appear below. The conclusions of the article are unaffected.. Figure 6 BAFF increases the generation of ISC from activated memory B cells. (a and b) Memory B cells were preactivated with CD40L and IL-2/IL-10 for 4 days and then recultured with (a) media (black bars), or (b) IL-2/IL-10 alone (black bars) or in the presence of CD40L (white bars) or BAFF (gray bars). Each value represents the mean Ig secretion ± SEM of five (a) or seven (b) experiments using cells from different donors. *P , 0.05; **P , 0.01. (c) Secondary B cell cultures were performed in the absence (black bars) or presence (white bars) of soluble TACI-Ig (20 μg/ml). The values represent the mean IgA ± SD of duplicate samples. (d) Memory B cells were preactivated with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CD40 ligand expressed by human B cells costimulates B cell responses. AU - Grammer, A. C.. AU - Bergman, M. C.. AU - Miura, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The possibility that activated B cells might express a ligand for CD40 that was of functional importance for B cell responses was examined by using highly purified human peripheral blood B cells, as well as a variety of B lymphoblastoid cell lines and hybridomas. Following stimulation with the combination of a calcium ionophore and a phorbol ester, human B cells bound a soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular portion of CD40 and the Fc region of lgG1 (CD40.lg). A variety of B cell lines and hybridomas also bound CD40.1g, either constitutively or after activation. In addition, CD40.Ig specifically immunoprecipitated a 33-kDa glycoprotein from surface 125I-labeled activated B cells. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the CD40 ligand mRNA ...
Results Exogenously added IL-7 did not activate B cells directly, in line with the absence of surface IL-7R. However, in the presence of T cells, IL-7 activated both T and B cells (Ki67+ CD4 cells from 1.1±0.2% to 14.4±3.7%, p,0.01 and Ki67+ B cells from 1.9±0.3% to 4.1±0.9%, p,0.05). TLR7A induced B cell activation, as measured by increased proliferation (%Ki67 from 1.2±0.2% to 9.3±1.4%) and up regulation of activation markers on B cells, which was facilitated in the presence of monocytes. TLR7-induced B cell activation in T/B or T/B/monocyte co-cultures was not associated with T cell activation. IL-7 added to TLR7A synergistically increased both B cell (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 9.3±1.4% vs. 33.4±7.3%) and T cell proliferation (IL-7 vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 0.8±0.1% vs. 29.2±5.2%), which for B cells again was further increased by monocytes (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 30.2±8.9% vs. 63.0±8.0%). Similar results were observed for activation marker expression on B cells (CD19, HLA-DR CD25) and on T cells ...
B1 cells are a sub-class of B cell lymphocytes that are involved in the humoral immune response. They are not part of the adaptive immune system, as they have no memory, but otherwise, B1 cells perform many of the same roles as other B cells: making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen presenting cells. Notably, most B1 cells do not develop into memory B cells. B1b cells have been shown to be capable of memory responses. See "B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity." B1 cells are first produced in the fetus and most B1 cells undergo self-renewal in the periphery, unlike conventional B cells (B2 cells) that are produced after birth and replaced in the bone marrow. In January 2011, human B1 cells were found to have marker profile of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70- and could either be CD5+ or CD5-, which has been debated since. CD5-CD72 is thought to mediate B cell-B cell interaction. B-1 B cells, in the mouse, can be further subdivided into B-1a (CD5+) and B-1b (CD5−) ...
This study demonstrates that patients with active, untreated IgG4-RD have significant elevations in their circulating plasmablast counts regardless of their serum IgG4 concentrations, and that patients with multi-organ IgG4-RD have higher absolute plasmablast counts than those with involvement of only one or two organs. In addition, plasmablast levels appear to be superior to serum IgG4 concentrations as a biomarker for IgG4-RD. Plasmablast counts decline swiftly following peripheral B cell depletion, and this decline is accompanied by corresponding decreases in disease activity as measured by the IgG4-RD RI. IgG4-RD thus represents an unusual example of an immune-mediated condition in which measurement of a single cell type may play a central role in diagnosing, monitoring and managing the disease.. The identification of circulating plasmablast expansion in IgG4-RD has substantial implications for clinical care. The diagnosis of IgG4-RD remains dependent upon biopsy and is therefore subject to ...
TIM-1 defines a human regulatory B cell (Bregs) population that is altered in frequency and function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. TIM-1 is a unique marker for the identification of a human IL-10+ Breg subpopulation which is partially superimposed with transitional B cells. Alterations in TIM-1+ B cells could contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases such as SSc. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2017 Jan 19;19(1):8. (Also see B Cells and T Cells) This item was posted in the ISN Newsroom. Please check the newsroom daily for updates on scleroderma and other related articles ...
Regulation of inhibitory IgSF receptors in memory B cells by IL-4. Naive and memory B cells were purified from peripheral blood and cultured either in medium al
The process in which immature B cells from the bone marrow acquire the specialized features of T1 stage B cells in the spleen. T1 stage B cells do not express either CD23 or CD21.
Secretory IgA (S-IgA) is a hallmark antibody principally produced at mucosal sites and plays an important role in the creation of immunological surveillance and homeostasis at mucosa. In addition to the IgA induction through gut-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyers patch), peritoneal B cells have been considered to be another source of S-IgA, especially specific for the T-independent antigen. Here we show that the trafficking of peritoneal B cells is principally regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Peritoneal B cells expressed high levels of the type 1 S1P receptor. Thus, disruption of S1P-mediated signaling caused a rapid disappearance of peritoneal B cells. These changes did not affect natural plasma antibody production or phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific antibody production in serum after peritoneal immunization with heat-killed streptococcal pneumoniae. However, it dramatically reduced peritoneal B cell-derived natural intestinal S-IgA production without affecting the expression ...
A naive (or inexperienced) B cell is one which belongs to a clone which has never encountered the epitope to which it is specific. In contrast, a memory B cell is one which derives from an activated naive or memory B cell. The activation of a naive or a memory B cell is followed by a manifold proliferation of that particular B cell, most of the progeny of which terminally differentiate into plasma B cells;[note 8] the rest survive as memory B cells. So, when the naive cells belonging to a particular clone encounter their specific antigen to give rise to the plasma cells, and also leave a few memory cells, this is known as the primary immune response. In the course of proliferation of this clone, the B cell receptor genes can undergo frequent (one in every two cell divisions)[8] mutations in the genes coding for paratopes of antibodies. These frequent mutations are termed somatic hypermutation. Each such mutation alters the epitope-binding ability of the paratope slightly, creating new clones of ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
Free online memory games. metro match is the classic memory game with a twist. Aj and ep are extremes on the spectrum of human memory. and their cases say more than any brain scan about the extent to which our memories make us who we. The game will be opened inside a popup window. please turn off any block popup program before clicking on the play button. Here, we show that human memory b lymphocytes. proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, .. Is human memory similar to to the ram in a pc? discussion by michael freed, aerospace human factors, nasa ames research center. Exploiting human memory to create secure and emorable passwords they are difficult to remember because there are limits to human memory. Basic perofrmance data were obtained on the effect of critical task variables in unaided multiobject tracking behavior. .forgetmenot. intimate computing in support of human memory. a prototype device for memory support, an example of contextbased ...
B-cells go through a variety of stages during their development which is discussed in B-cell Development. However, the major functionally important stages to be aware of are the final stages known as the Plasma Cell and Memory B Cell stages. Plasma Cells are B-cells specialized for high levels of antibody synthesis and secretion. Memory B Cells are quiescent antigen-sepecific cells which differentiate following a primary immune response to a particular microbe which can become rapidly activated to differentiate into Plasma Cells if the microbe if re-encountered. B-cells can also be classified based on the subtype of antibody which they secrete ...
The B cell receptor (BCR) consists of an antigen-binding membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) associated with the CD79α and CD79β heterodimer. Naïve B cells express the IgM and IgD isotypes, which have very short cytoplasmic tails and therefore depend on CD79α and CD79β for signal transduction. After antigenic stimulation, B cells undergo isotype switching to yield IgG, IgE, or IgA. Recent research suggests that the ability of the B cell coreceptor CD22 to regulate BCR signaling depends on the isotype of the mIg cytoplasmic tail. Cell lines that express a BCR with the cytoplasmic tail from IgG, the isotype found in memory B cells, are not subject to CD22 regulation, whereas cell lines that express BCRs with IgM cytoplasmic tails are subject to CD22 regulation. Moreover, stimulation through BCRs containing an IgG cytoplasmic tail causes increased numbers of antigen-specific clones to accumulate. These observations are a valuable step toward understanding the difference in B cell signaling between ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
As there is growing evidence for the tumor microenvironments (TME) role in tumorigenesis, we investigated the role of fibroblast-expressed kinases in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Using a high-throughput kinome screen combined with 3D invasion assays, we identified fibroblast-expressed PIK3Cδ (f-PIK3Cδ) as a key regulator of progression. Although PIK3Cδ was expressed in primary fibroblasts derived from TNBC patients, it was undetectable in breast cancer cell lines. Genetic and pharmacologic gain- and loss-of functions experiments verified the contribution of f-PIK3Cδ in TNBC cell invasion. Integrated secretomics and transcriptomics analyses revealed a paracrine mechanism via which f-PIK3Cδ confers its pro-tumorigenic effects. Inhibition of f-PIK3Cδ promoted the secretion of factors, including PLGF and BDNF, which led to upregulation of NR4A1 in TNBC cells where it acts as a tumor suppressor. Inhibition of PIK3Cδ in an orthotopic BC mouse model reduced tumor growth only after ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
Combination checkpoint blockade (CCB) targeting inhibitory CTLA4 and PD1 receptors holds promise for cancer therapy. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) remain a major obstacle for the optimal application of CCB in cancer. Here, we analyzed B cell changes in patients with melanoma following treatment with either anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1, or in combination. CCB therapy led to changes in circulating B cells that were detectable after the first cycle of therapy and characterized by a decline in circulating B cells and an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts. PD1 expression was higher in the CD21lo B cells, and B cell receptor sequencing of these cells demonstrated greater clonality and a higher frequency of clones compared with CD21hi cells. CCB induced proliferation in the CD21lo compartment, and single-cell RNA sequencing identified B cell activation in cells with genomic profiles of CD21lo B cells in vivo. Increased clonality of circulating B cells following CCB occurred in some patients. ...
AC50 of HA-specific GC B cells can be used as a proxy for population avidity to PR8 HA. (A) Overview of AC50. GC B cell rHA staining frequency is plotted agains
Researchers at the University of Gothenburgs Sahlgrenska Academy have looked at B cells, a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies that can protect the body against infection and play a key role in the development of allergies. By studying 65 healthy newborn babies in the Västra Götaland region, researcher Anna-Carin Lundell and her colleagues were able to show that infants whose gut is colonised by E. coli bacteria during the first few weeks of life had a higher number of memory B cells at the age of both four and 18 months ...
B cell Ag receptor (BCR) signaling changes dramatically during B cell development, resulting in activation in mature B cells and apoptosis, receptor editing, or anergy in immature B cells. BCR signaling in mature B cells was shown to be initiated by the translocation of the BCR into cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains that include the Src family kinase Lyn and exclude the phosphatase CD45. Subsequently the BCR is rapidly internalized into the cell. Here we show that the BCR in the immature B cell line, WEHI-231, does not translocate into lipid rafts following cross-linking nor is the BCR rapidly internalized. The immature BCR initiates signaling from outside lipid rafts as evidenced by the immediate induction of an array of phosphoproteins and subsequent apoptosis. The failure of the BCR in immature B cells to enter lipid rafts may contribute to the dramatic difference in the outcome of signaling in mature and immature B cells.
We determined that, as compared with human naïve B cells, human GC B cells have a higher intrinsic affinity threshold for antigen. We observed that independently of other extrinsic factors, such as competition among B cells for antigen, the intrinsic affinity of GC B cells for an antigen dictated each subsequent step in B cell activation from the magnitude of BCR signaling to the receptivity of BCR-stimulated GC B cells to Tfh cell signals that drive IRF-4 expression and PC differentiation. We provided evidence that BCRs on LZ GC B cells are concentrated in distinct, highly dynamic, ezrin- and actin-rich pod-like structures through which the BCRs engage antigen, signal, exert pulling forces, and extract antigen from membranes. In contrast, the BCRs on naïve B cells function in flat, stable membrane contacts, with antigen-containing surfaces displaying the well-described features of immune synapses and cSMACs. The role of these pod-like structures in establishing high-affinity thresholds for GC ...
A hallmark of T cell-dependent immune responses is the progressive increase in the ability of serum antibodies to bind antigen and provide immune protection. Affinity maturation of the antibody response is thought to be connected with the preferential survival of germinal centre (GC) B cells that have acquired increased affinity for antigen via somatic hypermutation of their immunoglobulin genes. However, the mechanisms that drive affinity maturation remain obscure because of the difficulty in tracking the affinity-based selection of GC B cells and their differentiation into plasma cells. We describe a powerful new model that allows these processes to be followed as they occur in vivo. In contrast to evidence from in vitro systems, responding GC B cells do not undergo plasma cell differentiation stochastically. Rather, only GC B cells that have acquired high affinity for the immunizing antigen form plasma cells. Affinity maturation is therefore driven by a tightly controlled mechanism that ensures only
Adult immune-defective mice resemble the B cells of normal neonatal mice, but not bone marrow B cells of adult normal mice with regard to their susceptibility to tolerance induction. A different approach to the analysis of the tolerance susceptibility of immune-defective mice was taken by McKearn and Quintans (1980), who preincubated the tolerogen TNP-fowl y-globulin (TNP-FGG) with B cells of immune-defective or normal mice prior to challenge with the TI-1 antigens TNP-BA or TNP-LPS. 94 ? 74 ? 1978b). D. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TOLERANCE The susceptibility of CBA/N B cells to tolerance induction was of particular importance in view of the functional defects demonstrated in these cells when analyzed with TI-2 antigens or B-cell mitogens. A number of approaches have been employed in studies on this subject (E. , 1978a,b). In early studies it had been demonstrated that a larger proportion of neonatal splenic B cells and a smaller proportion of adult bone marrow B cells were sensitive to tolerance ...
Very few B cells in germinal centers (GCs) and extrafollicular (EF) regions of lymph nodes express CD30. Their specific features and relationship to CD30-expressing Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma are unclear but highly relevant, because numerous patients with lymphoma are currently treated with an anti-CD30 immunotoxin. We performed a comprehensive analysis of human CD30+ B cells. Phenotypic and IgV gene analyses indicated that CD30+ GC B lymphocytes represent typical GC B cells, and that CD30+ EF B cells are mostly post-GC B cells. The transcriptomes of CD30+ GC and EF B cells largely overlapped, sharing a strong MYC signature, but were strikingly different from conventional GC B cells and memory B and plasma cells, respectively. CD30+ GC B cells represent MYC+ centrocytes redifferentiating into centroblasts; CD30+ EF B cells represent active, proliferating memory B cells. HRS cells shared typical transcriptome patterns with CD30+ B cells, suggesting that they ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Splenic B cells and antigen-specific B cells process anti-Ig in a similar manner. AU - Myers, Christopher D.. AU - Vitetta, Ellen S.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - B lymphocytes can process and present antigen to T cells. However, the fate of native antigen after its binding to specific B cells, i.e., the intracellular events involved in the processing and recycling of the antigenic fragments to the cell surface for antigen presentation, are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that murine B cells degrade anti-Ig molecules bound to their surface and release acid soluble fragments into the supernatant. We also demonstrate that the kinetics of this process are identical for anti-μ, anti-δ, and anti-light chain antibodies, indicating that both surface IgM and surface IgD are equally effective in binding antigen and directing its processing. We also describe the effects of azide, chloroquine, and irradiation on this process. To extend these studies to the ...
The immature B cells that successfully make it through this process (only about 10%) enter into the bloodstream and migrate to the spleen. The immature B cells have both IgM and IgG (BCRs) expressed on their surface at this point and once they enter into the spleen are called transitional type 1 (T1) B cells. In the spleen B cells, T cells, and follicular dendritic cells, form what is known as a primary follicle or sometimes the white pulp (See Figure 2). The T1 B cells are located outside of the follicle (extrafollicular) in an area known as the red pulp (as this is where all of the red cells are flowing through the spleen). At this point, the T1 B cells are exposed to more self cells and circulating proteins and if they respond strongly it would indicate autoreactivity and the cells are typically induced to become T3 B cells, which are anergic (which means they become non-responsive to antigen), and will likely die off.. If the T1 B cells survive through this they can then migrate into the ...
SPPL2A-mediated processing of CD74 is essential for B cell development (11) and B cell receptor signaling in transitional B cells (14). CD74 binds to MHCII dimers in the ER of antigen-presenting cells and prevents premature peptide binding. Upon the proteolytic processing of CD74, MHCII is released. Impaired processing of CD74 leads to impaired Ag presentation by MHCII (22). CD74 also functions in the endocytic trafficking and endosomal maturation of antigen presenting cells (23;24). Dendritic cell migration (25) and the function of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (26) are also CD74-dependent.. Sppl2a knockout (Sppl2a-/-) mice have a B cell developmental block during the splenic phase of B cell maturation. As a result, the frequency of mature and functionally competent B cells is reduced and the mice exhibit impaired humoral immune responses (11). In Sppl2a-deficient B cells, accumulation of the CD74 N-terminal fragment results in B cell maturation arrest at ...
Cumulative evidence indicates that the CD19 coreceptor can induce positive signals that could enhance B cell responses. By regulating Src kinases and PI3K activity, it lowers the threshold of BcR-mediated signaling. Strikingly, study of CD19-/- mice revealed an apparent tight regulation of CD19 cell surface density during B cell development (Saito et al., 2002). In contrast to mice that overexpress CD19, CD19-/- mice have a markedly elevated BcR signaling threshold compared with wild-type mice. Reversibly, transgenic expression of low levels of human CD19 with normal levels of mouse CD19 resulted in hyperactive B cells and loss of tolerance to nuclear Ags (Sato etal., 2000). Since the product of PI3K, phosphatidyl inositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate, activates protein kinase B (PKB), which in turn promotes B cell survival, CD19 participates positively in B cell activation. Its positive effect on PI3K activity also may result in survival of immature B cells with low-affinity-binding BcRs, a potential ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal disease of B lymphocytes manifesting as an absolute lymphocytosis in the blood. However, not all lymphocytoses are leukemic. In addition, first-degree relatives of CLL patients have an ~15 % chance of developing a precursor condition to CLL termed monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL), and distinguishing CLL and MBL B lymphocytes from normal B cell expansions can be a challenge. Therefore, we selected FMOD, CKAP4, PIK3C2B, LEF1, PFTK1, BCL-2, and GPM6a from a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in microarray analyses that compared CLL cells with normal B lymphocytes and used these to determine whether we could discriminate CLL and MBL cells from B cells of healthy controls. Analysis with receiver operating characteristics and Bayesian relevance determination demonstrated good concordance with all panel genes. Using a random forest classifier, the seven-gene panel reliably distinguished normal polyclonal B cell populations from expression
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In the last part the differential response of splenic mature B cells to the mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. It was known that frequencies of LPS-reactive B cells in C57BL/6 mice is higher than in BALB/c mice. In this study, it could be shown that actually the FOB cells of C57BL/6 respond stronger to LPS in vitro than FOB cells of the BALB/c strain. In addition, MZB cells of both mouse strains showed a stronger response to LPS than the FOB cells. However, in contrast to the observation in FOB cells, MZB cells of both tested strains responded equally strong. A genetic approach did not lead to the identification of a responsible locus for the observed differential response in FOB cells, but indicated that most probably multiple genes control the response in a differential fashion in FOB cells in the tested mouse strains. Furthermore, the results suggest that the stronger response of FOB cells from C57BL/6 mice either involves components within the MyD88-dependent pathway or ...
Overall, grade 3 or higher IRAEs developed in 10 of 23 patients following combination therapy, in 1 of 8 patients following anti-CTLA4 therapy, and in 1 of 8 patients following anti-PD1 therapy. The finding that CCB leads to higher rates of IRAEs as well as significant and distinct changes in B cells, including a decline in circulating B cells as well as an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts, led us to evaluate the correlation between these changes and the development of autoimmunity. Interestingly, the severity of an early decline in B cell numbers after therapy directly correlated with the time to onset of toxicity (Figure 3B; P = 0.007) as well as the grade of maximal toxicity (Figure 3C). The ability to identify patients at increased risk for developing autoimmunity is critical for the application of CCB. We developed a parameter for B cell changes following combination therapy by integrating the decline in B cell numbers (fold change after therapy, ≤70% of baseline) with a 2-fold ...
Overall, grade 3 or higher IRAEs developed in 10 of 23 patients following combination therapy, in 1 of 8 patients following anti-CTLA4 therapy, and in 1 of 8 patients following anti-PD1 therapy. The finding that CCB leads to higher rates of IRAEs as well as significant and distinct changes in B cells, including a decline in circulating B cells as well as an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts, led us to evaluate the correlation between these changes and the development of autoimmunity. Interestingly, the severity of an early decline in B cell numbers after therapy directly correlated with the time to onset of toxicity (Figure 3B; P = 0.007) as well as the grade of maximal toxicity (Figure 3C). The ability to identify patients at increased risk for developing autoimmunity is critical for the application of CCB. We developed a parameter for B cell changes following combination therapy by integrating the decline in B cell numbers (fold change after therapy, ≤70% of baseline) with a 2-fold ...
Overall, grade 3 or higher IRAEs developed in 10 of 23 patients following combination therapy, in 1 of 8 patients following anti-CTLA4 therapy, and in 1 of 8 patients following anti-PD1 therapy. The finding that CCB leads to higher rates of IRAEs as well as significant and distinct changes in B cells, including a decline in circulating B cells as well as an increase in CD21lo B cells and plasmablasts, led us to evaluate the correlation between these changes and the development of autoimmunity. Interestingly, the severity of an early decline in B cell numbers after therapy directly correlated with the time to onset of toxicity (Figure 3B; P = 0.007) as well as the grade of maximal toxicity (Figure 3C). The ability to identify patients at increased risk for developing autoimmunity is critical for the application of CCB. We developed a parameter for B cell changes following combination therapy by integrating the decline in B cell numbers (fold change after therapy, ≤70% of baseline) with a 2-fold ...
The CD5(+) B cell population is prominent in early life and produce low avidity and, thereby, polyreactive antibodies. CD5(+) B cells are receptive to cytokines and interleukin-10 seems to be influential in the regulation of some of these CD5(+) B ce
A new chapter has opened in liquefied gas transportation with the entry into service of Danish owner Evergas first Dragon design vessels: the largest, most flexible and state-of-the-art multi-gas carriers to date. David Tinsley reports.
The contribution of intrinsic defects in B and/or T cell function or impaired T-B cell interaction towards poor recall and neo-antigen vaccine responses in HIV-1 infection are not fully understood. Using CVID as a model for B cell maturation, we show patients with untreated HIV-1 infection have increased transitional and tissue like B cells and reduced IgM memory and class switched memory B cell proportions. Loss of IgM memory B cells is associated with progressive HIV-1. Antiretroviral therapy reduces transitional and tissue like B cell percentages but does not restore IgM memory or class switched memory proportions. Most HIV-1 patients on ART have reduced antibody levels post tetanus and pneumococcal vaccination. IgM memory B cell depletion associates with poor post vaccine IgM pneumococcal titres in HIV-1 suggesting loss of IgM memory B cells may be a risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease. CVID patients with lung disease had lower memory B cells and a trend towards a loss of IgM ...
Prolactin is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that is critical in lactation. Prolactin can also be produced by lymphocytes, and both B and T cells express prolactin receptors. These findings have suggested that prolactin has immunomodulatory functions. Studies in spontaneously autoimmune hosts have demonstrated a role for prolactin in augmenting autoreactivity. We chose to analyze prolactin effects on anti-DNA B cells in nonspontaneously autoimmune female BALB/c mice transgenic for the heavy chain of an anti-DNA antibody. Treatment with prolactin for 4 weeks induced a lupus-like phenotype with an increased number of transgene-expressing B cells, elevated serum anti-DNA antibody titers, and glomerular immunoglobulin deposits. Prolactin caused a decrease in the population of transitional B cells and an increase in mature follicular and marginal zone B cells. The DNA-reactive B cells had a follicular cell phenotype. Anti-DNA hybridomas demonstrated that prolactin alters ...
Pim (Provirus Integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus) kinases are a family of three serine/threonine kinases involved in cell cycle, survival and metabolism. These kinases were first identified in malignant cells and are most often associated with their role in cancer. Their role in immunity and lymphocytes is less well known. To date, it has been shown that Pim 1 and/or Pim 2 are important for T lymphocyte survival and activation when the Akt signaling pathway is inhibited by rapamycin. In addition, our laboratory has shown that Pim 2 is critical for BLyS-mediated naive B lymphocyte survival in the presence of rapamycin. This thesis extends the role(s) for Pim 1 and/or 2 to include functions during B cell activation and the generation of immune responses. We found that during in vitro activation of purified resting splenic B cells from wild type mice with a variety of activators that use multiple signaling pathways, including the BCR, TLR and CD40 receptors, both Pim 1 and 2 kinases were
The mental faculty that allows us to retain information as well as recall experiences from a long time ago is known as memory. the human memory is a highly. Here, we show that human memory b lymphocytes. proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, .. It is more accurate to speak of human memories rather than of human memory, since people have several distinctly different types. The human memory and cognition lab uses empirical, computational, and developmental approaches to understand how memory works in humans. Turn the cards, test your memory see whether you can match them in correct pairs. instructions to play. there are pairs of images hidden in this applet. Try remember where the images are f youre about to go crazy pictures in this game are from poisons icons. return to game index. How is your memory for faces? back to games back to memory games back to face recognition. ame developed by kien caoxuan. When you are considering face, try to imprint it ...
In this report, we showed that 3BP2 is required for optimal signaling through the B-cell antigen receptor and is part of the CD19 costimulatory complex. 3BP2 has a distinctive function in B lymphocytes involved in the TI-2 humoral response. Mice lacking 3BP2 have diminished peritoneal B1 B cells and accumulate MZ B cells which demonstrate enhanced sensitivity to antigen receptor-induced cell death in vitro.. B1 B cells and MZ B cells control the humoral response to TI-2 multivalent antigens (22, 25). TI-2 immune responses occur in the absence of T-cell help but are dependent on optimal activation of the BCR together with BAFF signals elaborated by macrophages and dendritic cells (5, 9, 24, 48). We have shown that 3BP2−/− splenic B cells and MZ B cells fail to proliferate, survive, and signal optimally following antigen receptor activation. Consistent with these data, overexpression of 3BP2 augmented BCR-mediated NFAT activation as measured by a luciferase reporter assay, while treatment of ...
The number of mature B cells is carefully controlled by signalling from receptors that support B cell survival. The best studied of these are the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and BAFFR. Recent work has shown that signalling from these receptors is closely linked, involves the CD19 co-receptor, and leads to activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways, ERK1, ERK2 and ERK5 MAP kinases, and PI-3 kinases. Importantly, studies show that investigation of the importance of signalling molecules in cell survival requires the use of inducible gene deletions within mature B cells. This overcomes the limitations of many earlier studies using constitutive gene deletions which were unable to distinguish between requirements for a protein in development versus survival. ...
Brezinschek, H.P., Brezinschek, R.I. & Lipsky, P.E., 1995, "Analysis of the Heavy Chain Repertoire of Human Peripheral B Cells Using Single-Cell Polymerase Chain Reaction", Journal of Immunology, 155:191-202 ...
Early B cell development and late B cell maturation are regulated by signals emanating from the pre-B cell receptor (BCR) and BCR, respectively. During maturati...
Western blot analysis of human tumor cell lines representative of various hematopoietic lineages/stages of differentiation showed that the BCL-6 protein is predominantly expressed in the B-cell lineage where it was found in mature B cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human lymphoid tissues indicated that BCL-6 expression is topographically restricted to germinal centers including all centroblasts and centrocytes. PMID: 7795255. ...
Involved in a multitude of developmental processes, PAX5 expression is not only continuously required for B cell lineage commitment during early B cell development but also for B lineage maintenance, involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene, a B-lymphoid-specific target gene ...
Dear all, This paper is really for the scientists among us (which Im not). However, I sort of understand what it says - that anti-bodies to MS are increased in MS sufferers and the B cells play a part in ...
Edmond scientist discovers hidden antibodies in mice A discovery by an Oklahoma Medical Research scientist has discredited the 50-year-old accepted dogma that disease fighting cells in the body carry only one protein. Edmonds Patrick Wilson has discovered that B cells ...
Rodents, mold and cockroaches can all trigger asthma, but so too can the pesticides and cleaning products used to deal with them.
Rituximab for treatment of advanced extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Background: Extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ( MALT) is a relatively common type of lymphoma. Owing to its B cell lineage, it appears to be a potential target for treatment with the CD20 antibody rituximab. We present an analysis of our experience with rituximab for treatment of patients with advanced MALT lymphoma. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with histologically verified MALT lymphoma undergoing treatment with rituximab was done. After reassessment of histological samples for the presence of MALT lymphoma, patients were evaluated as regards date of diagnosis, prior therapy for MALT lymphoma, sites of involvement upon treatment with rituximab, clinical response in terms of complete remission (CR), partial response ( PR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease as well as symptomatic ...
Autoantibodies to transglutaminase 2 (TG2) are hallmarks of celiac disease. To address B cell tolerance and autoantibody formation to TG2, we generated immunoglobulin knock-in (Ig KI) mice that express a prototypical celiac patient-derived anti-TG2 B cell receptor equally reactive to human and mouse TG2. We studied B cell development in the presence/absence of autoantigen by crossing the Ig KI mice to Tgm2−/− mice. Autoreactive B cells in Tgm2+/+ mice were indistinguishable from their naive counterparts in Tgm2−/− mice with no signs of clonal deletion, receptor editing, or B cell anergy. The autoreactive B cells appeared ignorant to their antigen, and they produced autoantibodies when provided T cell help. The findings lend credence to a model of celiac disease where gluten-reactive T cells provide help to autoreactive TG2-specific B cells by involvement of gluten-TG2 complexes, and they outline a general mechanism of autoimmunity with autoantibodies being produced by ignorant B cells on ...
Upon EBV infection, mature human B cells become activated, grow and proliferate. In vivo, in the presence of T cells or T cell-derived factors, infected cells can enter the germinal centre and differentiate into memory B cells, the site of long-term EBV latency and persistence. However, it has not been established what happens if T cell help is unavailable (Th-ve). Usually in the absence of T cell help, antigen-activated B cells can enter the default plasma cell differentiation pathway, resulting in antibody-producing plasma cells. We suggest EBV has evolved to prevent default plasma cell differentiation, thus favouring latency in memory B cells, through specific repression of the plasma cell differentiation factors p18INK4c and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1), by the viral transcription factors EBNA3A and EBNA3C that act in vitro to support the activated B-blast population in establishing continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Since the repression of ...
Measles is a disease caused by the highly infectious measles virus (MeV) that results in both viremia and lymphopenia. Lymphocyte counts recover shortly after the disappearance of measles-associated rash, but immunosuppression can persist for months to years after infection, resulting in increased incidence of secondary infections. Animal models and in vitro studies have proposed various immunological factors underlying this prolonged immune impairment, but the precise mechanisms operating in humans are unknown. Using B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing of human peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after MeV infection, we identified two immunological consequences from measles underlying immunosuppression: (i) incomplete reconstitution of the naïve B cell pool leading to immunological immaturity and (ii) compromised immune memory to previously encountered pathogens due to depletion of previously expanded B memory clones. Using a surrogate model of measles in ferrets, we investigated the clinical ...
BAFF receptor (BAFF = B cell-activating factor of the TNF family) is a main pro-survival receptor expressed by human B cells. BAFFR deficiency is caused by a homologous deletion within the BAFFR gene...
According to teh study at State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, green tea extract (GTE), and its major catechin, consisted an immunoregulatory effects through suppression of IgE production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic asthmatic patinets(17) and B cell production of IgE without inducing apoptosis(18). Other study suggested an anti asthmatic effect of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis through increasing the expression level of tumor necrosis factor-beta and interferon-gamma and decreasing the expression of anti-asthmatic cytokines in the lung(19 ...
The Rho GTPases are known regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and affect multiple cellular activities including cell morphology, polarity, migration, proliferation and apoptosis, phagocytosis, cytokinesis, adhesion, vesicular transport, transcription, and neurite extension and retraction. Like DOCK2, DOCK8 is likely to regulate the activity of GTPases and thus be involved in cytoskeletal changes associated with various cellular processes. DOCK8 is proposed to serve as an effector downstream of CD19 and PI3K to promote G protein signaling events critical for integrin polarization at the synapse and for the survival of marginal zone B cells and germinal center (GC) B cells. During a T cell-dependent humoral immune response, CD4+ T helper cell subsets including TFH, Th1 and Th2 cells migrate to the T cell/B cell borders in secondary lymphoid organs, and interact with cognate antigen-specific B cells through the pairing of T cell and B cell surface ligands and receptors such as CD40 with its ligand ...
Our previous research show that overexpression of bovine FcRn (bFcRn) in transgenic (Tg) mice network marketing leads to a rise in the humoral immune system response, seen as a larger amounts of Ag-specific B cells and various other immune system cells in supplementary lymphoid organs and higher degrees of circulating Ag-specific antibodies (Abs). discovered that overexpression of bFcRn enhances the phagocytosis of Ag-IgG immune system complexes (ICs) by both macrophages and dendritic cells and considerably improves Ag display by dendritic cells. Finally, we driven that immunized bFcRn mice create a very much greater variety of Ag-specific IgM, whereas just the known amounts, however, not the variety, of IgG is normally elevated by overexpression of bFcRn. We claim that the upsurge in variety of IgG in Tg mice is normally avoided by a selective bias towards immunodominant epitopes of ovalbumin, that was found in this research being a model antigen. These email address details are also consistent ...
CD22 expression mediates the regulatory functions of peritoneal B-1a cells during the remission phase of contact hypersensitivity reactions.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Multiple lines of evidence herein that focus on functional similarities between lymphocytes from obese/IR mice and T2D patients support the conclusion that B cells promote inflammation in obesity through multiple mechanisms. First, B cells produce a proinflammatory cytokine profile. Identification of decreased B-cell IL-10 in obesity justifies future studies that will test the possibility that IL-10+ B cells play critical roles in metabolic disease etiology, as shown for other Th1/Th17-mediated diseases (3, 4, 27⇓-29). Second, B cells support a disease-associated proinflammatory T-cell ratio as shown by both in vivo and in vitro mouse studies, complemented by ex vivo human immune cell analyses. B cells can also promote hypertrophic obesity, which, in contrast to hyperplastic obesity (due to increased adipocyte number), promotes AT and systemic inflammation and deleterious changes in glucose-insulin homeostasis (30). More work is needed to attribute these whole body effects specifically to ...
Up to now long-term in vitro growth of pro-B cells was thought to require stromal cells. However, here we show that fetal liver (FL) and bone marrow (BM) derived pro-B cells can be propagated long-term in stromal cell-free cultures supplemented with IL-7, stem cell factor and FLT3 ligand. Within a week, most cells expressed surface CD19, CD79A, λ5, and VpreB antigens and had rearranged immunoglobulin D-J heavy chain genes. Both FL and BM pro-B cells reconstituted the B-cell compartments of immuno-incompetent Rag2-deficient mice, with FL pro-B cells generating follicular, marginal zone (MZB) and B1a B cells, and BM pro-B cells giving rise mainly to MZB cells. Reconstituted Rag2-deficient mice generated significant levels of IgM and IgG antibodies to a type II T-independent antigen; mice reconstituted with FL pro-B cells generated surprisingly high IgG1 titers. Finally, we show for the first time that mice reconstituted with mixtures of pro-B and pro-T cells propagated in stromal cel... ...
The immunoglobulin E (IgE) B cell receptor promotes plasma cell differentiation in the absence of cognate antigen and limits the competitive fitness of IgE+ B cells in germinal centers.
Cameron, P M. and Wood, D D., "The murine b cell responsive to human b cell activating factor (baf) is not the same cell as that which responds to t-independent antigens. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2461 ...
While B cells are traditionally regarded as marketers of the immune system response via antibody release and pro-inflammatory cytokine creation, latest research have got verified an essential function for B-cell-mediated detrimental regulations of immunity also. in the full years to follow. The past 10 years provides noticed remarkable developments in our understanding of B-cell immunoregulation. Mizoguchi advancement of this exclusive regulatory people. Nevertheless, the identity of IL-10-making resistant cells is normally barely a simple job and continues to be complicated in the field of regulatory B-cell biology (18). This is normally because specific spleen C cells singled out from unsuspecting wildtype rodents perform not really constitutively sole or secrete measurable IL-10 proteins without account activation. Provided the incapacity to observe C10 cells straight assays to detect cytokine creation in Testosterone levels cells had been improved to recognize C cells that had been ...
Enzymopathies are a disturbance of enzyme function, including genetic deficiency or defect in specific enzymes. Current methods for the treatment of enzymopathi...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
Over the last several years there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation and modulation of B cells. DC-secreted chemokines can induce B cell trafficking to ...
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B cell development is a highly organized process, which commences in the fetal liver during embryogenesis and in the bone marrow (BM) after birth. Surface IgM+ immature B cells emigrate from the BM via the blood stream to the spleen and finally differentiate into conventional mature follicular B (FoB) cells and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. Conversely, some sIgM+ immature B cells can also mature into IgD+ FoB cells in the BM.. The ubiquitously expressed cell surface glycoprotein CD47 and its receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Both individually and upon their interaction, CD47 and SIRPα have been found to play important role in the homeostasis of T lymphocytes or CD8- conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in secondary lymphoid organs. However, their role in regulating B cell homeostasis has remained unknown.. The present study describes important roles of CD47 and SIRPα in B cell homeostasis. Lack of SIRPα signaling in adult SIRPα mutant ...
We investigated the association of circulating B‐cell subsets with the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events in severe carotid atherosclerotic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. We found that high levels of (un)switched memory cells were independently associated with the freedom of recurrent cardiovascular events, suggesting that patients with high numbers of (un)switched B cells are protected against secondary cardiovascular manifestations.. Patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and common variable immunodeficiency, have an increased risk of developing CVD. Production of (auto)antibodies by B lymphocytes is a hallmark of autoimmune disease and autoantibody formation is also evident in atherosclerotic patients. SLE patients have reduced levels of both switched and unswitched memory cells,19 and decreased levels of unswitched memory cells are associated with increased levels of SLE autoantibodies.19 Furthermore, in patients with common variable ...
0070] As SLE serum induces monocytes to become DCs able to activate T cells, we next asked whether SLE DCs might contribute to enhance B cell responses. Interestingly, while equally adept at inducing proliferation and generating total PBs, SLE-DCs were more efficient than IFN-DCs at generating IgG- and particularly IgA-PBs from naive B cells. This finding was consistent with the superior capacity of SLE-DCs to induce class-switching toward these isotypes. SLE-DC-mediated IgG- and IgA-secreting B cell responses were not limited to naive B cells, but extended to CD19+IgD+CD27+, CD19+IgD-CD27+ B cell subsets. Our data suggest that IFNα is not the sole factor in SLE serum promoting B cell responses by acting on monocytes. Indeed, while BAFF is known to be IFN-inducible, we found that SLE serum upregulates APRIL expression on monocytes in an IFN-independent manner (Patel et al., manuscript in preparation). The pathogenic role of IgG auto-antibodies is relatively well understood, but that of IgA is ...
Persistent autoantibody production in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) suggests the existence of autoreactive humoral immunological memory, but the frequency of self-reactive memory B cells in SLE has not been determined. Under normal circumstances, autoantibodies including antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are frequently expressed by newly generated B cells in the bone marrow, but these autoreactive B cells are tightly regulated at two checkpoints for self-tolerance, in the bone marrow and the periphery, before maturation into naïve immunocompetent B cells. In contrast, SLE is associated with a failure to establish B cell tolerance at the two checkpoints leading to high numbers of autoreactive naïve B cells in the periphery. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular features and reactivities of IgG memory B cell antibodies expressed in SLE. A single-cell PCR based strategy was applied that allowed the cloning of the Ig heavy and Ig light chain genes of a single purified ...
Author summary Infection with helminth parasites is known to be inversely associated with hyper-inflammatory disorders. While Schistosoma (S.) mansoni has been described to exert its down-modulatory effects on inflammation by inducing a network of regulatory immune cells such as regulatory B (Breg), the mechanisms of Breg cell induction remain unclear. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that antigens from S. mansoni eggs, among which the major glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, directly interact with splenic marginal zone B cells of mice which triggers them to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and their capacity to induce regulatory T (Treg) cells. We also found that IPSE/alpha-1 induces IL-10 in human CD1d+ B cells, and that both natural and recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 are equally effective in driving murine and human Breg cells. Our study thus provides insight into the mechanisms of Breg cell induction by schistosomes, and an important step towards the development of helminth-based
Distinguishing between human lymphocyte subsets. Tumour tissue determination for transitional mucosa malignancies. ...
The cells of the adaptive immune system are T and B lymphocytes; lymphocytes are a subset of leukocyte. B cells and T cells are ... In jawless fishes, two subsets of lymphocytes use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen binding. Diversity is ... of the lymphocyte pool recirculates each hour to optimize the opportunities for antigen-specific lymphocytes to find their ... Lymphocyte receptors, Ig and TCR, are found in all jawed vertebrates. The most ancient Ig class, IgM, is membrane-bound and ...
Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... revealed that another T helper subset may exist. Th9 cells are claimed to be an IL9 (interleukin 9)-producing T cell subset ... Th17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 lineages producing interleukin 17 ( ... For example, the Th2 cytokine IL-10 inhibits cytokine production of both Th subsets in humans. Human IL-10 (hIL-10) suppresses ...
Sallusto F, Lenig D, Förster R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated ... These two subsets were previously called "naturally occurring", and "adaptive" or "induced", respectively.[13] Both subsets ... within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes. In rabbits, sheep, and chickens, the number of γδ T ...
el-Demiry M, James K (1988). "Lymphocyte subsets and macrophages in the male genital tract in health and disease. A monoclonal ... effects of activin and transforming growth factor beta on lymphocyte subsets in vitro". Biol Reprod. 58 (4): 943-951. doi: ... T-lymphocytes (T-cells) are white blood cells which take part in cell-mediated immunity. They are often found within tissues ... B-lymphocytes take part in the adaptive immune response and produce antibodies. These cells are not normally found in the ...
NK Cells are not a subset of the T lymphocyte family. Natural cytotoxicity receptors directly induce apoptosis after binding to ... granular lymphocytes known today as NK cells. The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were ... Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells ... A functional marker of human non-T lymphocytes". Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 21 (2): 226-35. PMC 1538269. PMID 810282 ...
Poussier, P., et al., Lymphopenia and abnormal lymphocyte subsets in the "BB" rat: relationship to the diabetic syndrome. ...
NK Cells are not a subset of the T lymphocyte family. Natural cytotoxicity receptors directly induce apoptosis after binding to ... granular lymphocytes known today as NK cells. The demonstration that density gradient-isolated large granular lymphocytes were ... Most of these receptors are not unique to NK cells and can be present in some T cell subsets, as well. These inhibitory ... Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells ...
PTSAgs induce the VB-specific expansion of both CD4 and CD8- subsets of T Lymphocytes. TSST-1 forms homodimers in most of its ...
He was among those who defined the subsets of human B lymphocytes. These studies led to a redefinition of many human B cell ... "Analysis of somatic mutation in five B cell subsets of human tonsil". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 180 (1): 329-339. ... "Receptor revision of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes in normal human B lymphocytes". The Journal of ...
1996;17(2):197-9. PMID 8936281 Differences in intraepithelial lymphocyte t cell subsets isolated from murine small versus large ... his research was on experimental models of hapten-induced Inflammatory bowel disease and studying intraepithelial lymphocytes. ...
Sallusto, F; Lenig, D; Förster, R; Lipp, M; Lanzavecchia, A (1999). "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ...
"Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions." Nature 401.6754 (1999): 708.. ...
"Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions". Nature. 401 (6754): 708-712. doi: ... revealed that another T helper subset may exist. Th9 cells are claimed to be an IL9 (interleukin 9)-producing T cell subset ... These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells ( ...
... s are a subset of infection- and cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T lymphocyte) that have previously ... "Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions". Nature. 401: 708-712. doi:10.1038/ ... Virtual memory T cells= differ from the other memory subsets in that they do not originate following a strong clonal expansion ... Antigen-specific memory T cells against viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both TCM and TEM subsets. Although ...
Knockout mice that lack TOX have a severe defect in development of certain subsets of T lymphocytes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... TOX is highly expressed in the thymus, the site of development of T lymphocytes. ...
"Distribution of cyclophilin B-binding sites in the subsets of human peripheral blood lymphocytes". Immunology. 91 (4): 609-17. ... This protein can bind to cells derived from T- and B-lymphocytes, and may regulate cyclosporine A-mediated immunosuppression. ... recognized by HLA-A24-restricted and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes which could be used as cancer vaccines, and in fact ...
Nassar GM, Montero A, Fukunaga M, Badr KF (1997). "Contrasting effects of proinflammatory and T-helper lymphocyte subset-2 ... and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. In skin, Langerhans cells strongly ... "Studies on the regulation and localization of 5-lipoxygenase in human B-lymphocytes". Eur. J. Biochem. 232 (1): 37-46. doi: ...
1993). "Effect on lymphocyte subsets of clotting factor therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-1-negative congenital clotting ... Although the fraction of CD4+ T-cells that is infected with HIV at any given time is never high (only a small subset of ... Infected lymphocytes express the Fas ligand, a cell-surface protein that triggers the death of neighboring uninfected T-cells ... If undiagnosed or left untreated, HIV usually progresses to AIDS, defined as possessing a CD4+ lymphocyte count under 200 cells ...
Effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on tumor microenvironment T-lymphocyte subsets and dendritic cells in H22-bearing ...
Harris MT, Schwarting GA, Stout RD (September 1981). "Selective expression of asialo GM1 on maturational subsets of lymphocytes ... 15 July 1997). "Functional and phenotypic characterization of cord blood and bone marrow subsets expressing FLT3 (CD135) ... in vivo differentiation into lymphocytes and potential for germ line transmission". FEBS Letters. 455 (1-2): 101-4. doi:10.1016 ...
There are no major changes in the T-lymphocytes subsets of the mesenterial lymph node. Instead γδ-T cells guide the immune ... Antigens of C. oncophora larvae and adult worms are capable of triggering lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, excretory/ ... Primary infection does not involve recruitment of specific lymphocytes to the intestinal mucosa. ...
Determination of T-lymphocyte subsets on site in rural Tanzania: results in HIV-1 infected and non-infected individuals. ... Analysis of blood lymphocyte subsets in children living on territory that received high amounts of fallout from Chernobyl ... Correlation of CD8 lymphocyte activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by ... The staging and prognostic value of subset markers on CD8 cells in HIV disease. In Janossy G, Autran B. Miedema F (eds): ...
A disulfide-linked homodimer of the C-type lectin superfamily expressed by a subset of NK and T lymphocytes". Journal of ... Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that mediate cytotoxicity and secrete cytokines after immune stimulation. Several ... "Phenotypic and functional analysis of CD4+ NKRP1A+ human T lymphocytes. Direct evidence that the NKRP1A molecule is involved in ...
NK cell function and lymphocyte subsets". Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [A]. 263 (1-2): 151-159. doi:10.1016/s0176-6724(86) ... Dorward DW, Fischer ER, Brooks DM (1997). "Invasion and cytopathic killing of human lymphocytes by spirochetes causing Lyme ... Intracellular invasion B. burgdorferi can invade a variety of cultured cells, including endothelium, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, ... 80118-3. Kruger H, Pulz M, Martin R, Sticht-Groh V (Sep-Oct 1990). "Long-term persistence of specific T- and B-lymphocyte ...
... differential signaling requirements for activation of assembled cyclin D3-cdk4 complexes in B-1 and B-2 lymphocyte subsets". ...
Sallusto, F.; Lenig, D.; Förster, R.; Lipp, M.; Lanzavecchia, A. Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing ... T细胞(英語:T cell、T lymphocyte)是淋巴细胞的一种,在免疫反應中扮演着重要的角色。T是胸腺(thymus)而不是甲狀腺(thyroid)的英文缩写。T细胞在骨髓被製造出來之後,在胸腺内進行「新兵訓練」分化成熟為不同亚型的效应T細胞,成 ... CD4+ T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD8+ T lymphocytes. Nature. February
... has been demonstrated to appear on a small subset of T and B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals. ... "A Subset of Host B-Lymphocytes Control Melanoma Metastasis Through a MCAM/MUC18-dependent Interaction: Evidence from Mice and ... is a novel marker of lymphocyte subset activation in normal peripheral blood". Blood. 106 (8): 2923-4. doi:10.1182/blood-2005- ... CD146 in lymphocyte endothelium interaction: MCAM/CD146 promotes rolling via microvilli induction in lymphocyte and is an ...
T-lymphocyte subsets in acute illness.. Feeney C1, Bryzman S, Kong L, Brazil H, Deutsch R, Fritz LC. ... but no relationship was found between total lymphocyte or lymphocyte subset counts and APACHE II score, predicted mortality ... To determine the range of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratios) in acutely ill, hospitalized patients and to ... predicted mortality rate with T-lymphocyte subsets.. SETTING: Urban county hospital intensive care unit (ICU), serving as the ...
T-cell subsets in the peripheral blood of 63 primary lung cancer patients (23 with adenocarcinoma, 23 with squamous cell ... Correlations between T-lymphocyte subset values and stages or cell types of disease were sought. Total lymphocytes in the ... T-cell subsets in the peripheral blood of 63 primary lung cancer patients (23 with adenocarcinoma, 23 with squamous cell ... Previous Document: Lysis of autologous tumor cells by peripheral blood lymphocytes treated with interleukin 2 in patien.... ...
Reference values of lymphocyte subsets in healthy, HIV-negative children in Cameroon.. Sagnia B1, Ateba Ndongo F, Ndiang Moyo ... Normal lymphocyte subsets values among children from Cameroon differ from reported values in Caucasian and some African ... Lymphocyte subset reference values used to monitor infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, or other ... We evaluated about 23 different lymphocyte subsets in which the absolute number and percentage values differed significantly (P ...
... Tim R Mosmann, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA Jonathan ... 1999) Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions. Nature 401 (6754): 708-712. ... Mosmann, Tim R, and Rebhahn, Jonathan A(Nov 2016) T Lymphocytes: Plasticity of Subsets. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, ... 1990) Evidence for compartmentalization of functional subsets of CD2+ T lymphocytes in atopic patients. Journal of Immunology ...
T Lymphocyte Subsets in Patients with Bronchiectasis B.C. Leahy B.C. Leahy ... B.C. Leahy, M.A. Horan, T.B. Stretton; T Lymphocyte Subsets in Patients with Bronchiectasis. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1984; ...
Dumitriu I.E., Kaski J.C. (2013) The Role of Lymphocytes in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis: Focus on CD4+ T Cell Subsets. ... The Role of Lymphocytes in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis: Focus on CD4+ T Cell Subsets. ... Functional subsets of CD4 T cells in rheumatoid synovitis. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41(12):2108-16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Acute Coronary Syndrome Th17 Cell Atherosclerotic Plaque Treg Cell Cell Subset These keywords were added by machine and not by ...
This study investigated the effects of a temporally confined naturalistic stressor (academic stress) on immune functions. Furthermore, moderating influences of a number of psychological variables were assessed. Five blood samples were obtained from 20 students during an observation period of 8 weeks, starting 4.5 weeks before an exam period up to 1 week following the last exam. The analysis of 45 immune parameters revealed several time-dependent changes attributable to examination stress. We observed a reduction in the absolute numbers of natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes in peripheral blood and a shift towards more immature and naïve cells within NK and T cell populations. In addition, IL-6 and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated monocytes was increased. Psychological variables were grouped by means of factor analyses into two factors. One factor, which was interpreted as an indication of chronic stress, moderated the relationships between academic stress and percentages of mature CD57+ NK cells
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in lymphocyte subsets and in B lymphocytes expressing rheumatoid factor cross-reacting idiotype in type ... in lymphocyte subsets and in B lymphocytes expressing rheumatoid factor cross-reacting idiotype in type II mixed ... B-lymphocytes are predominantly involved in viral propagation of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Arch Virol (Suppl) 1994; 9: 307-16.. ... Evidence of selective expansion of a B cell subset characterized by the expression of cross-reactive idiotypes. Arthritis Rheum ...
This study provides reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets of healthy Moroccan adults. These results can be used for other ... Moroccan lymphocyte subsets reference ranges: age, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic factors dependent differences.. *. ... This study provides reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets of healthy Moroccan adults. These results can be used for other ...
Lymphocyte subsets, phytohaemagglutinin responsiveness of blood lymphocytes, and interleukin 2 production in sarcoidosis. ... Lymphocyte subsets, phytohaemagglutinin responsiveness of blood lymphocytes, and interleukin 2 production in sarcoidosis. ...
... ... Kj Blank, Rd Mulero-Marchese, and Tg Sieck, "Strain-dependent migration of lymphocytes to the vaginal mucosa after peripheral ...
The present study aimed to evaluate the distribution of major lymphocyte subsets and cytokine expression profiles in the ... blood lymphocyte subpopulations, and serum cytokines, respectively. The FA-exposed workers were divided into low and high ... Though the mechanisms by which FA affects blood lymphocytes and/or lymphocyte subsets are still unknown, the results from ... Major lymphocyte subsets were analyzed on the same day. Serum was separated within 4 h after collection, put into 1.5 mL tubes ...
Alcohol use is known to alter immune function and has immunosuppressive effects that may modify T-lymphocyte subpopulations. ... Crum, R., Galai, N., Cohn, S., Celentano, D., & Vlahov, D. (1996). Alcohol Use and T-Lymphocyte Subsets among Injection Drug ... Alcohol Use and T-Lymphocyte Subsets among Injection Drug Users with HIV-1 Infection: A Prospective Analysis. ... Alcohol Use and T-Lymphocyte Subsets among Injection Drug Users with HIV-1 Infection: A Prospective Analysis ...
This study aimed to investigate lymphocyte populations in non-diabetic patients with early clinical presentation of coronary ... T-lymphocytes), CD19(+) (B-lymphocytes), CD4(+) (helper/inducer lymphocytes) and CD8(+) (suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes) ... This study aimed to investigate lymphocyte populations in non-diabetic patients with early clinical presentation of coronary ...
Distribution of Ly-6C on lymphocyte subsets: I. Influence of allotype on T lymphocyte expression.. A J Schlueter, T R Malek, C ... Distribution of Ly-6C on lymphocyte subsets: I. Influence of allotype on T lymphocyte expression. ... Distribution of Ly-6C on lymphocyte subsets: I. Influence of allotype on T lymphocyte expression. ... Distribution of Ly-6C on lymphocyte subsets: I. Influence of allotype on T lymphocyte expression. ...
... regulation by helper and suppressor lymphocyte subsets defined with monoclonal antibodies.. P A Gatenby, B L Kotzin, E G ... The induction of antibody-forming cells was found to be dependent upon the Leu-3 subset whereas the Leu-2 subset not only ... regulation by helper and suppressor lymphocyte subsets defined with monoclonal antibodies.. P A Gatenby, B L Kotzin, E G ... regulation by helper and suppressor lymphocyte subsets defined with monoclonal antibodies.. P A Gatenby, B L Kotzin and E G ...
Peripheral blood lymphocytes study. Lymphocyte subsets were studied by three-color flow cytometry in whole blood after staining ... The present study confirms that endometrium presents a wide spectrum of T and NK lymphocyte subsets. Endometrial T lymphocytes ... In this study we aimed to make the first step to compare the levels of T and NK lymphocyte subsets in endometrium and ... Comparison of T and NK lymphocyte subsets between human endometrial tissue and peripheral blood. Viktor P. Chernyshov ...
The Role of Lymphocyte Subsets in Accelerated Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic-Rat Insulin Promoter-B7-1 (NOD-RIP-B7-1) Mice. F. ... The Role of Lymphocyte Subsets in Accelerated Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic-Rat Insulin Promoter-B7-1 (NOD-RIP-B7-1) Mice ... 1988) Both the Lyt-2+ and L3T4+ T cell subsets are required for the transfer of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol ... 1996) B lymphocytes are essential for the initiation of T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes: analysis of a new "speed congenic ...
TV center and center of satellite communications on increased IgG and IgA concentration and decreased count of lymphocytes and ... concentrations and T lymphocyte subsets during occupational exposures to microwave radiation were assessed. In the workers of ... The immunoglobulins concentrations and T lymphocyte subsets during occupational exposures to microwave radiation were assessed ... of Various Occupational Exposures to Microwave Radiation on the Concentrations of Immunoglobulins and T Lymphocyte Subsets] ...
Age-Related Changes in Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Saudi Arabian Healthy Children. S. Shahabuddin, I. Al-Ayed, M. O. Gad El-Rab ... It substantially duplicated a previous publication ("Lymphocyte Subset Reference Ranges in Healthy Saudi Arabian Children," by ... Age-Related Changes in Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Saudi Arabian Healthy Children ... Age-Related Changes in Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Saudi Arabian Healthy Children ...
Influence of sample storage time and temperature on lymphocyte subset counts using a FACScount system ... Influence of sample storage time and temperature on lymphocyte subset counts using a FACScount system ... Influence of sample storage time and temperature on lymphocyte subset counts using a FACScount system ...
... lymphocyte counts, platelet counts, and the ratio of monoclonal antibody defined T lymphocyte subsets, T4 and T8 (T4:T8). Of ... low lymphocyte counts, low T4:T8 ratios, and hypergammaglobulinaemia. In addition, six patients with severe haemophilia A and ...
Memory T and B cells were further subdivided into different specific subsets. Complete lymphocyte subset definitions are listed ... 2A). Lymphocyte subsets (Fig. 2B to D) and the frequencies of CD150+ cells (Fig. 2E to H) were defined and determined as ... Complete lymphocyte subset definitions are listed in Table 2. The sorted cells were inoculated with cell-free rMVKSVenus(3) at ... In this study, we have directly compared the susceptibility and permissiveness of human lymphocyte subsets to in vitro MV ...
  • Rituximab is a genetically engineered chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to the antigen CD20 (human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen, Bp35) located on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Using the resource, we examined differentially expressed proteins between granulocyte, monocyte and dendritic cell subsets, and profiled dynamic expression of markers during thymocyte differentiation, T-cell maturation, and between functionally distinct B-cell subset clusters. (cesnet.cz)
  • Lymphocyte subsets and expression of differentiation markers in blood and lymphoid organs of rhesus monkeys. (eagle-i.net)
  • These distinct subset abnormalities may help monitor immunological aspects of disease activity. (springer.com)
  • 1. CD4 counts were linearly related to total lymphocyte concentrations (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.948), but no relationship was found between total lymphocyte or lymphocyte subset counts and APACHE II score, predicted mortality rate, or survival rate. (nih.gov)
  • The quantity of factor VIII concentrate given to boys with severe haemophilia A (mean U/year) showed a significant inverse correlation with total white cell counts, lymphocyte counts, platelet counts, and the ratio of monoclonal antibody defined T lymphocyte subsets, T4 and T8 (T4:T8). (bmj.com)
  • Treatment with high dose factor VIII concentrate (more than 25 000 U/year) was associated with low platelet counts, low lymphocyte counts, low T4:T8 ratios, and hypergammaglobulinaemia. (bmj.com)
  • The most commonly followed lymphocyte subsets include CD4 and CD8 cell counts and percentages. (thebody.com)
  • Following fingolimod discontinuation lymphocyte counts return to be within the normal range within 6-8 weeks and are above 80% of baseline values by 3 months. (blogspot.com)
  • Therefore low lymphocyte counts in fingolimod-treated MSers does not have the same biological implications as low lymphocyte counts in other situations. (blogspot.com)
  • Importantly, the effectiveness of fingolimod and adverse events is not related to the peripheral lymphocyte counts. (blogspot.com)
  • In contrast the European Medicine Agency (EMA) has recommended the need to check peripheral lymphocyte counts before initiating treatment and have recommended periodic testing at months 3 and then at least yearly after that. (blogspot.com)
  • Until we get more clarity on this we have recommended more frequent blood count monitoring in MSers with lymphocyte counts less than 200, i.e. 3 monthly. (blogspot.com)
  • The absolute counts of lymphocyte subsets are known to be influenced by a variety of biological factors, including hormones, the environment, and temperature. (testcatalog.org)
  • The hypothesis that the reduced thymic endocrine activity and the zinc deficiency characteristic of DS are responsible for the derangement of T and NK subsets is discussed. (mendeley.com)
  • Please note that circulating lymphocytes in the blood only represent ~2% of the total body lymphocyte count and are not an accurate indicator of the body's total lymphocyte count and function. (blogspot.com)
  • Although these infections are uncommon we can't really derisk fingolimod in the same way we can with other drugs by stopping the drug when the total lymphocyte count drops below a critical cut-off value. (blogspot.com)
  • This reagent is for research purposes only: this kit is used to determine the content of T-Subset in human serum, plasma, tissue fluid and related fluid samples. (toyscalm.com)
  • Thymus size was assessed ultrasonographically and correlated to the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood in 32 infants with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and compared with 14 healthy control infants. (scielo.org)
  • Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. (elsevier.com)
  • Basic demographic data, BAL cellular analysis with lymphocyte subsets, histology, and high resolution computed tomogram (HRCT) findings were analyzed and compared as per disease subgroup. (bvsalud.org)
  • Except for the extent of the cellular infiltrate, no major cytochemical lymphocyte distribution differences were found between Quilty type A and B lesions. (elsevier.com)
  • La taille du thymus a été évaluée par échographie et corrélée au pourcentage de lympho- cytes T CD4 et CD8 présents dans le sang périphérique de 32 nourrissons souffrant de malnutrition protéinocalorique (MPC), les résultats étant comparés à ceux de 14 nourrissons témoins en bonne santé. (scielo.org)