An essential cofactor for the degradation of G(M2)GANGLIOSIDE by lysosomal BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES. Genetic mutations resulting in loss of G(M2) activator protein are one of the causes of TAY-SACHS DISEASE, AB VARIANT.
A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of four homologous sphingolipid activator proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of a common protein precursor molecule referred to as prosaposin.
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is a heteromeric protein comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase alpha subunit is a case of TAY-SACHS DISEASE. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of recessively inherited diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in the neuronal cells. Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES system or G(M2) ACTIVATOR PROTEIN leading to disruption of normal degradation of GANGLIOSIDES, a subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset in infancy of an exaggerated startle response, followed by paralysis, dementia, and blindness. It is caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of the HEXOSAMINIDASE A resulting in lipid-laden ganglion cells. It is also known as the B variant (with increased HEXOSAMINIDASE B but absence of hexosaminidase A) and is strongly associated with Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
An extracellular receptor specific for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. It is attached to the cell membrane via a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and plays a role in the co-localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with PLASMINOGEN.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of cerebroside sulfate (SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS) in the nervous system and other organs. Pathological features include diffuse demyelination, and metachromatically-staining granules in many cell types such as the GLIAL CELLS. There are several allelic and nonallelic forms with a variety of neurological symptoms.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is closely related to C-FOS PROTEINS. It forms heterodimeric complexes with C-JUN PROTEINS to regulate GENE transcription.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of SPHINGOLIPIDS primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and to a variable degree in the visceral organs. They are classified by the enzyme defect in the degradation pathway and the substrate accumulation (or storage). Clinical features vary in subtypes but neurodegeneration is a common sign.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes galactose from ceramide monohexosides. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause globoid cell leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, GLOBOID CELL). EC
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.

The highly conserved beta-hairpin of the paired DNA-binding domain is required for assembly of Pax-Ets ternary complexes. (1/340)

Pax family transcription factors bind DNA through the paired domain. This domain, which is comprised of two helix-turn-helix motifs and a beta-hairpin structure, is a target of mutations in congenital disorders of mice and humans. Previously, we showed that Pax-5 (B-cell-specific activator protein) recruits proteins of the Ets proto-oncogene family to bind a composite DNA site that is essential for efficient transcription of the early-B-cell-specific mb-1 promoter. Here, evidence is provided for specific interactions between Ets-1 and the amino-terminal subdomains of Pax proteins. By tethering deletion fragments of Pax-5 to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, we show that 73 amino acids (amino acids 12 to 84) of its amino-terminal subdomain can recruit the ETS domain of Ets-1 to bind the composite site. Furthermore, an amino acid (Gln22) within the highly conserved beta-hairpin motif of Pax-5 is essential for efficient recruitment of Ets-1. The ability to recruit Ets proteins to bind DNA is a shared property of Pax proteins, as demonstrated by cooperative DNA binding of Ets-1 with sequences derived from the paired domains of Pax-2 and Pax-3. The strict conservation of sequences required for recruitment of Ets proteins suggests that Pax-Ets interactions are important for regulating transcription in diverse tissues during cellular differentiation.  (+info)

Distinct factors regulate the murine RAG-2 promoter in B- and T-cell lines. (2/340)

The recombination activating genes RAG-1 and RAG-2 are expressed in a lymphoid-cell-specific and developmentally regulated fashion. To understand the transcriptional basis for this regulation, we have cloned and characterized the murine RAG-2 promoter. The promoter was lymphoid cell specific, showing activity in various B- and T-cell lines but little activity in nonlymphoid cells. To our surprise, however, the promoter was regulated differently in B and T cells. Using nuclear extracts from B-cell lines, we found that the B-cell-specific transcription factor BSAP (Pax-5) could bind to a conserved sequence critical for promoter activity. BSAP activated the promoter in transfected cells, and the BSAP site was occupied in a tissue-specific manner in vivo. An overlapping DNA sequence binding to a distinct factor was necessary for promoter activity in T cells. Full promoter activity in T cells was also dependent on a more distal DNA sequence whose disruption had no effect on B-cell activity. The unexpected finding that a B-cell-specific factor regulates the RAG-2 promoter may explain some of the recently observed differences in the regulation of RAG transcription between B and T cells.  (+info)

B cell-specific activator protein prevents two activator factors from binding to the immunoglobulin J chain promoter until the antigen-driven stages of B cell development. (3/340)

The immunoglobulin J chain gene is inducibly transcribed in mature B cells upon antigen recognition and a signal from interleukin-2 (IL-2). B cell-specific activator protein (BSAP), a transcription factor that silences J chain transcription, has been identified as a nuclear target of the IL-2 signal. The levels of BSAP progressively decrease in response to IL-2 and this change correlates with the differentiation of B cells into antibody secreting plasma cells. Here we report the binding of the upstream stimulatory factor (USF) to an E-box motif immediately upstream from the BSAP site on the J chain promoter. Mutations in the USF binding motif significantly decrease J chain promoter activity in J chain expressing B cell lines. We also show that a functional relationship exists between USF and a second J chain positive-regulating factor, B-MEF2, using co-immunoprecipitation assays and transfections. Finally, we provide evidence that the binding of BSAP prevents USF and B-MEF2 from interacting with the J chain promoter during the antigen-independent stages of B cell development. It is not until the levels of BSAP decrease during the antigen-driven stages of B cell development that both USF and B-MEF2 are able to bind to their respective promoter elements and activate J chain transcription.  (+info)

Pax2/5 and Pax6 subdivide the early neural tube into three domains. (4/340)

The nested expression patterns of the paired-box containing transcription factors Pax2/5 and Pax6 demarcate the midbrain and forebrain primordium at the neural plate stage. We demonstrate that, in Pax2/5 deficient mice, the mesencephalon/metencephalon primordium is completely missing, resulting in a fusion of the forebrain to the hindbrain. Morphologically, in the alar plate the deletion is characterized by the substitution of the tectum (dorsal midbrain) and cerebellum (dorsal metencephalon) by the caudal diencephalon and in the basal plate by the replacement of the midbrain tegmentum by the ventral metencephalon (pons). Molecularly, the loss of the tectum is demonstrated by an expanded expression of Pax6, (the molecular determinant of posterior commissure), and a rostral shift of the territory of expression of Gbx2 and Otp (markers for the pons), towards the caudal diencephalon. Our results suggest that an intact territory of expression of Pax2/5 in the neural plate, nested between the rostral and caudal territories of expression of Pax6, is necessary for defining the midbrain vesicle.  (+info)

Coordinate regulation of B cell differentiation by the transcription factors EBF and E2A. (5/340)

The transcription factors EBF and E2A are required at a similar step in early B cell differentiation. EBF and E2A synergistically upregulate transcription of endogenous B cell-specific genes in a non-B cell line. Here, we examine a genetic collaboration between these factors in regulating B lymphopoiesis. We find that Ebf+/- E2a+/- mice display a marked defect in pro-B cell differentiation at a stage later than observed in the single homozygous mutant mice. Pro-B cells from Ebf+/- E2a+/- mice show reduced expression of lymphoid-specific transcripts, including Pax5, Rag1, Rag2, and mb-1. We also show that EBF directly binds and activates the Pax5 promoter. Together, these data show collaboration between EBF and E2A and provide insight into the hierarchy of transcription factors that regulate B lymphocyte differentiation.  (+info)

AML1 (CBFalpha2) cooperates with B cell-specific activating protein (BSAP/PAX5) in activation of the B cell-specific BLK gene promoter. (6/340)

AML1 plays a critical role during hematopoiesis and chromosomal translocations involving AML1 are commonly associated with different forms of leukemia, including pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To understand the function of AML1 during B cell differentiation, we analyzed regulatory regions of B cell-specific genes for potential AML1-binding sites and have identified a putative AML1-binding site in the promoter of the B cell-specific tyrosine kinase gene, blk. Gel mobility shift assays and transient transfection assays demonstrate that AML1 binds specifically to this site in the blk promoter and this binding site is important for blk promoter activity. Furthermore, in vitro binding analysis revealed that the AML1 runt DNA-binding domain physically interacts with the paired DNA-binding domain of BSAP, a B cell-specific transcription factor. BSAP has been shown previously to be important for B cell-specific regulation of the blk gene. Physical interaction of AML1 with BSAP correlates with functional cooperativity in transfection studies where AML1 and BSAP synergistically activate blk promoter transcription by more than 50-fold. These results demonstrate physical and functional interactions between AML1 and BSAP and suggest that AML1 is an important factor for regulating a critical B cell-specific gene, blk.  (+info)

FGF8 can activate Gbx2 and transform regions of the rostral mouse brain into a hindbrain fate. (7/340)

The mid/hindbrain junction region, which expresses Fgf8, can act as an organizer to transform caudal forebrain or hindbrain tissue into midbrain or cerebellar structures, respectively. FGF8-soaked beads placed in the chick forebrain can similarly induce ectopic expression of mid/hindbrain genes and development of midbrain structures (Crossley, P. H., Martinez, S. and Martin, G. R. (1996) Nature 380, 66-68). In contrast, ectopic expression of Fgf8a in the mouse midbrain and caudal forebrain using a Wnt1 regulatory element produced no apparent patterning defects in the embryos examined (Lee, S. M., Danielian, P. S., Fritzsch, B. and McMahon, A. P. (1997) Development 124, 959-969). We show here that FGF8b-soaked beads can not only induce expression of the mid/hindbrain genes En1, En2 and Pax5 in mouse embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) caudal forebrain explants, but also can induce the hindbrain gene Gbx2 and alter the expression of Wnt1 in both midbrain and caudal forebrain explants. We also show that FGF8b-soaked beads can repress Otx2 in midbrain explants. Furthermore, Wnt1-Fgf8b transgenic embryos in which the same Wnt1 regulatory element is used to express Fgf8b, have ectopic expression of En1, En2, Pax5 and Gbx2 in the dorsal hindbrain and spinal cord at E10.5, as well as exencephaly and abnormal spinal cord morphology. More strikingly, Fgf8b expression in more rostral brain regions appears to transform the midbrain and caudal forebrain into an anterior hindbrain fate through expansion of the Gbx2 domain and repression of Otx2 as early as the 7-somite stage. These findings suggest that normal Fgf8 expression in the anterior hindbrain not only functions to maintain development of the entire mid/hindbrain by regulating genes like En1, En2 and Pax5, but also might function to maintain a metencephalic identity by regulating Gbx2 and Otx2 expression.  (+info)

Early B cell factor is an activator of the B lymphoid kinase promoter in early B cell development. (8/340)

Early B cell factor (EBF) is a transcription factor suggested to be involved in the transcriptional control of several B cell restricted genes. EBF is also essential for B lymphocyte development because mice carrying a homologous disruption of the EBF gene lack mature B lymphocytes. This makes the identification of genetic targets for EBF important for the understanding of early B cell development. Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the B lymphoid kinase (Blk) promoter suggested the presence of an EBF binding site, and in vivo footprinting analysis showed that the site was protected from methylation in a pre-B cell line. EMSA indicated that recombinant and cellular EBF interact physically with this site; furthermore, transient transfections indicated that ectopic expression of EBF in nonlymphoid HeLa cells activate a Blk promoter-controlled reporter construct 9-fold. The defined EBF binding site was also important for the function of the Blk promoter in pre-B cells, because transient transfections of a reporter construct under the control of an EBF site-mutated Blk promoter displayed only 20-30% of the activity of the wild-type promoter. Furthermore, transient transfections in HeLa cells proposed that EBF and B cell-specific activator protein were able to cooperate in the activation of a Blk promoter-controlled reporter construct. These data indicate that EBF plays an important role in the regulation of the Blk promoter in early B cell development and that EBF and BSAP are capable to act in cooperation to induce a target gene.  (+info)

Title: Coordinated Expression of Pax-5 and FAK1 in Metastasis. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):Nicolas Crapoulet, Pierre OBrien, Rodney J. Ouellette and Gilles A. Robichaud. Affiliation:Universite de Moncton, Moncton, NB, Canada, E1A 3E9.. Keywords:Cancer, cell signaling, FAK1, focal adhesion, metastasis, Pax-5, B lymphopoiesis, cell differentiation, homeostasis, leukemia. Abstract: The Pax-5 gene encodes a B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) that plays a key role in B lymphocyte differentiation and embryogenesis. The deregulation of this transcription factor is also linked to B cell malignancies and recently to other cancers. More specifically, the downstream effects of Pax-5 promote cell-cell interactions and mediate the activation of adhesion genes which result in an epithelial phenotypic behavior of human carcinoma cells. To gain a better understanding of Pax-5-mediated gene regulation, we studied available gene expression data in depth and identified several Pax-5 downstream targets. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NF-HB (BSAP) is a repressor of the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain 3′α enhancer at early stages of B-cell differentiation. AU - Singh, Mallika. AU - Birshtein, Barbara K.. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - We have identified a nuclear factor expressed in pro-B-, pre-B-, and B-cell lines that binds to two sites within the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) 3′α enhancer (3′αE). These sites were defined by oligonucleotide competition in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and methylation interference footprinting. The 3′αE-binding factor is indistinguishable from NF-HB (B-lineage-specific nuclear factor that binds to the IgH gene) and the B-lineage-specific transcription factor BSAP by several criteria, including similar cell type distribution of binding activity, cross-competition of binding sites in EMSA, similar protein size as demonstrated by UV cross-linking, and sequence identity of one of the 3′αE-binding sites with a BSAP-binding site within the ...
The cerebral cortex forms by the orderly migration and subsequent differentiation of neuronal precursors generated in the proliferative ventricular zone. We studied the role of the transcription factor Pax-6, which is expressed in the ventricular zone, in cortical development. Embryos homozygous for a mutation of Pax-6 (Small eye; Sey) had abnormalities suggesting defective migration of late-born cortical precursors. When late-born Sey/Sey precursors were transplanted into wild-type embryonic rat cortex, they showed similar integrative, migrational and differentiative abilities to those of transplanted wild-type mouse precursors. These results suggest that postmitotic cortical cells do not need Pax-6 to acquire the capacity to migrate and differentiate, but that Pax-6 generates a cortical environment that permits later-born precursors to express their full developmental potential.. ...
EBF1 is a crucial regulator of B lymphocyte lineage specification and commitment. In mice lacking EBF1 (encoded by the Ebf1 gene), B cell development is arreste...
Author Summary Each time a mammalian cell duplicates its genome in preparation for cell division it activates thousands of so called
The majority of novel disease genes is currently being identified in less well-investigated consanguineous populations. Based on its corresponding global positioning, CENTOGENE has been able to contribute significantly to such research projects. The most recent example is the discovery of recessive mutations in the transcription factor PAX7 to underlie a new form of muscle disease. The findings were published in Genetics in Medicine, one of the leading journals in the field.
Although bats are recognized as major reservoir hosts of emerging infectious diseases, Joffrin and colleagues highlight that a significant knowledge gap on transmission mechanisms remains and needs further exploration. They question whether bat bites are the exception rather than the rule, and ask whether other animals can transmit bat-borne pathogens. They conclude by questioning what we can learn from bat-to-bat transmission.. ...
KEYWORDS=~alpha ~amd64 ~arm ~hppa ~ia64 ~mips ~ppc ~ppc64 ~s390 ~sh ~sparc ~x86 ~amd64-fbsd ~x86-fbsd ~amd64-linux ~x86-linux ~ppc-macos ~x86-macos ~sparc64-solaris ...
Find and save ideas about Bester friseur münchen on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Bob frisuren 2015 hinterkopf, Bob kurze nackenpartie and Kurzhaarschnitt nackenpartie.
This question opens a floodgate of information. There is virtually no end to the number and types of polymers in the world-including those yet to be developed. Well go through each type.. Natural Polymers. Its startling to find out how polymers are so integral to our existence-as body parts, food, and manufactured materials and items we use every day. Heres a partial list:. RNA and DNA: The Building Blocks of Life. The following shows how two vitally important polymers function in living organisms.. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are polysaccharides. Their polymer backbones are based on sugar units. Its molecular groups attached to these units that give them their unique properties, though.. DNA and RNA differ based on the presence or absence of a single oxygen atom. They also differ because DNA is a two-strand molecule while RNA is only one.. DNA is responsible for storing and transferring genetic information. RNA directly codes for amino acids and acts as a ...
The initiation, commitment, and terminal differentiation of the B cell lineage is stringently controlled by the coordinated action of various transcription factors. Among these, |i|Arid3a|/i| has previously been implicated in regulating early B lymphopoiesis, humoral immune responses to phosphocholi …
Coffman, R L. and Weissman, I L., B220: a b cell-specific member of the t200 glycoprotein family. (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 1405 ...
PAX3 in neuroblastoma: oncogenic potential, chemosensitivity and signalling pathways.: Transcription factor PAX3/Pax3 contributes to diverse cell lineages durin
PAX3山羊多克隆抗体(ab15717)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
We have spent hundreds of hours researching the Best Feathered Bob Wigs Reviews to find the top rated Feathered Bob Wigs for any need (or budget).
Gene gets invited to his first sleepover and is nervous about it, and when things dont go as planned, he realizes he had a right to be. Meanwhile, Bob and Linda record themse... / u0a57: TOTAL: 100% (6.4MB-6.7MB-6.8MB/5.4MB-5.4MB-5.4MB over 21) Imp Fg: 100% (6.4MB-6.7MB-6.8MB/5.4MB-5.4MB-5.4MB over 21) * / u0a8: TOTAL: 100% (12MB-13MB-14MB/10MB-11MB-12MB over 211) Imp Fg: 0.11% Imp Bg: 0.83% (13MB-13MB-13MB/11MB-11MB-11MB over 1) Service: 99% (12MB-13MB-14MB/10MB-11MB-12MB over 210) * / u0a12: TOTAL: 100% (29MB-32MB-34MB/26MB-29MB-30MB over 21) Persistent: 100% (29MB-32MB-34MB/26MB-29MB-30MB over 21) * / 1001: TOTAL: 100% (6.5MB-7.1MB-7.6MB/5.4MB-5.9MB-6.4MB over 21) Persistent: 100% (6.5MB-7.1MB-7.6MB/5.4MB-5.9MB-6.4MB over 21) * com.nuance.xt9.input / u0a77: TOTAL: 100% (2.3MB-2.5MB-2.7MB/1.5MB-1.5MB-1.5MB over 21) Persistent: 100% (2.3MB-2.5MB-2.7MB/1.5MB-1.5MB-1.5MB over 21) * / 1027: TOTAL: 100% (4.2MB-4.5MB-4.6MB/3.2MB-3.2MB-3.3MB over 21) Persistent: 100% (4.2MB-4.5MB-4.6MB/3.2MB-3.2MB-3.3MB over 21) * / u0a8: TOTAL: ...
Noi9 ne propunem sa identificam dorintele vestimentare ale femeii urbane si sa aducem in prim plan tinute adaptate stilului ei de viata. Promovam designerii romani si incurajam doamnele sa isi imbratiseze frumusetea naturala. ...
Noi9 ne propunem sa identificam dorintele vestimentare ale femeii urbane si sa aducem in prim plan tinute adaptate stilului ei de viata. Promovam designerii romani si incurajam doamnele sa isi imbratiseze frumusetea naturala. ...
购买我们的重组人PAX3蛋白。Ab114320为全长蛋白,在小麦胚芽中生产并经过ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blot实验验证。Abcam提供免费的实验方案,操作技巧及专业的支持。
Greetings to the brightest audience in the country. I am Bob Enyart...... discuss Bobs shows here! Bobs show is aired live on the radio and rebroadcast at:
UDSpace is currently experiencing hardware issues. Logins have been disabled and we request that no new content be added until these issues are resolved. Thank you. ...
BACKGROUND: The early B lymphopoiesis in mammals is regulated through close interactions with stromal cells and components of the intracellular matrix in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Although B lymphopoiesis has been studied for decades, th
Orexins or hypocretins are neurotransmitters produced by a small population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This family of peptides modulates sleep‑wake cycle, arousal and feeding behaviors; however, the mechanisms regulating their expression remain to be fully elucidated. There is an interest in defining the key molecular elements in orexin regulation, as these may serve to identify targets for generating novel therapies for sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. Our previous studies showed that the expression of orexin was decreased in mice carrying null‑mutations of the transcription factor early B‑cell factor 2 (ebf2) and that the promoter region of the prepro‑orexin (Hcrt) gene contained two putative ebf‑binding sites, termed olf‑1 sites ...
BearShare Acceleration Patch is an add-on for people who use BearShare P2P file sharing utility to download music, movies, books and any other files.
B cells represent a critical component of the immune system: in the absence of these cells, the ability to fight infections and to establish long-term protectiv...
The Leica BLK2GOs technology is a major part of what sets it apart from other mobile scanners. The BLK2GOs patented GrandSLAM technology combines LiDAR SLAM, Visual SLAM, and an IMU to deliver best in class performance.
produse naturiste & naturale,plafar,magazin online,comenzi online,oferte noi în fiecare luna,produse si remedii naturiste 100% naturale,, TRAIESTE SANATOS ALATURI DE NOI
produse naturiste & naturale,plafar,magazin online,comenzi online,oferte noi în fiecare luna,produse si remedii naturiste 100% naturale,, TRAIESTE SANATOS ALATURI DE NOI
What the Bible Teaches: A Guide to Total Christian Commitment is a concise overall view of Gods Word from Genesis to Revelation.
This project is supported in part by the NIH Specialized Programs of Translational Research in Acute Stroke (SPOTRIAS) Network, and NINDS grant 3P50NS055977 to Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine and UT Southwestern Medical Center.. ...
Signaling through the Notch1 receptor is essential for T cell development in the thymus. Stromal OP9 cells ectopically expressing the Notch ligand Delta-like1 mimic the thymic environment by inducing hemopoietic stem cells to undergo in vitro T cell development. Notch1 is also expressed on Pax5-/- pro-B cells, which are clonable lymphoid progenitors with a latent myeloid potential. In this study, we demonstrate that Pax5-/- progenitors efficiently differentiate in vitro into CD4+CD8+ alphabeta and gammadelta T cells upon coculture with OP9-Delta-like1 cells. In vitro T cell development of Pax5-/- progenitors strictly depends on Notch1 function and progresses through normal developmental stages by expressing T cell markers and rearranging TCRbeta, gamma, and delta loci in the correct temporal sequence. Notch-stimulated Pax5-/- progenitors efficiently down-regulate the expression of B cell-specific genes, consistent with a role of Notch1 in preventing B lymphopoiesis in the thymus. At the same ...
Deoxyuridine (dU) is a pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside, and a derivative of the nucleoside uridine, with the only difference being that, in dU, a hydrogen (-H) group is substituted for uridine s OH group located at the 2 -position of the ribose. dU is generated in cellular DNA as a deamination product of dC (deoxycytidine), with the deamination process catalyzed by the enzyme AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) (1). AID is a B cell-specific gene that is necessary for antibody gene diversification via class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (2, 3). The dC-to-dU conversion(s) by AID occurs in the IgG locus, with various gene diversification pathways arising from the different DNA repair mechanisms used by B-cells to repair the dU lesion (1).. dC-to-dU conversion via cytidine deamination is also implicated in innate immunity to retroviruses. Here deamination of dC is mediated by the enzyme APOBEC3G, which is present in T cells, acting on the first (minus) strand cDNA of ...
In the human paired box-containing (PAX) gene family, only two members, PAX-3 and PAX-6, which are associated with Waardenburgs syndrome and aniridia, respectively have been mapped to human chromosomes. We have now isolated cosmids for six additional human PAX genes (PAX-1,-2,-5,-7,-8,-9) and a polymerase chain reaction fragment for PAX-4. PAX-9 is a novel family member which is closely related in its paired domain to PAX-1. The chromosomal location of all cloned PAX genes was determined by analysis of somatic cell hybrids and (except PAX-4) by fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes. PAX-1 and PAX-7 map to chromosomal regions containing previously assigned disease loci.
Leica BLK3D Target Calibration Plate 877100 - Leica BLK3D Target Calibration Plate Target Calibration Plate for BLK3D: Size A3 Used for checking and adjusting the BLK3D.
Just so you know, I havent completed the BabyDoll story I started earlier this week. Ive thankfully been busy at work, which has kept my mind off losing her ...
The notable startup fundings for the week ending 1/9/21 featuring funding details for Pax8, Kyte, Dremio, and eighteen other rounds that you must know about.. ...
Involved in a multitude of developmental processes, PAX5 expression is not only continuously required for B cell lineage commitment during early B cell development but also for B lineage maintenance, involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene, a B-lymphoid-specific target gene ...
The Pax 3 by Pax Labs The ultimate portable cannabis vaporizer for dry herb and extracts. The PAX 3 is powerful yet discreet, smart yet easy-to-use. Our engineering and technology gets the best out of your flower. The PAX conduction oven heats your cannabis flower gently and evenly so theres little waste22-second heat
IKEA - PAX, Wardrobe, 200x60x201 cm, soft closing hinge, , 10 year guarantee. Read about the terms in the guarantee brochure.You can easily adapt this ready-made
Geeky Bob - Just a short, simple blog for Bob to share his thoughts. - February 2016 - Just a short, simple blog for Bob to share his thoughts.
Geeky Bob - Just a short, simple blog for Bob to share his thoughts. - February 2007 - Just a short, simple blog for Bob to share his thoughts.
Культовая личность мировой танцевальной музыки и одновременно, икона клубной сцены выступит в ближайшую субботу в 19.00. Цены билетов: Зона А - от 100 pln
TY - JOUR. T1 - SUMOylation of Blimp-1 is critical for plasma cell differentiation. AU - Ying, Hsia Yuan. AU - Su, Shin Tang. AU - Hsu, Pang Hung. AU - Chang, Che Chang. AU - Lin, I. Ying. AU - Tseng, Yu Hsuan. AU - Tsai, Ming Daw. AU - Shih, Hsiu Ming. AU - Lin, Kuo I.. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. Here we show that Blimp-1 is covalently modified by SUMO1 at lysine 816, a modification mediated by SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1. Mutation of Blimp-1 lysine 816 reduces transcriptional repression-correlating with a reduced interaction with a histone deacetylase, HDAC2-and impairs differentiation of antibody-secreting cells. Thus, the SUMO pathway critically regulates Blimp-1 function during plasma cell differentiation.. AB - Transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. Here we show that ...
BSAP can be mildly elevated in patients with fractures. In addition, patients with hyperparathyroidism, Paget disease, or osteomalacia can have elevations of BSAP. Serum OC levels, if high, indicate a... more
KEYWORDS=~alpha ~amd64 ~arm ~hppa ~ia64 ~mips ~ppc ~ppc64 ~s390 ~sh ~sparc ~x86 ~amd64-fbsd ~x86-fbsd ~x86-freebsd ~x86-interix ~amd64-linux ~x86-linux ~ppc-macos ~x64-macos ~x86-macos ~sparc-solaris ~sparc64-solaris ~x64-solaris ~x86-solaris ...
In Ha Noi today we expect +27..+23 °C, rain shower, moderate breeze. Tomorrow: +20..+24 °C, without precipitation, gentle breeze.
Pentru activități temporare sau de durată, nu angaja permanent. Vino la noi și găsim oamenii potriviți pentru nevoile tale.
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic ... This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant ... AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. ...
"Human Tra2 proteins are sequence-specific activators of pre-mRNA splicing". Cell. 93 (1): 139-48. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... This phosphorylated nuclear protein binds to specific RNA sequences and plays a role in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. ... Transformer-2 protein homolog alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRA2A gene. This gene is a member of the ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ...
Mitochondria also release proteins known as SMACs (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) into the cell's cytosol ... cells that are cultivated in distinct and specific conditions. An example of this can be seen in HeLa cells, whereby the cells ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... Apoptosis in HeLa cells is inhibited by proteins produced by the cell; these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor- ...
"Transcriptional co-activator p75 binds and tethers the Myc-interacting protein JPO2 to chromatin". J. Cell Sci. 119 (Pt 12): ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-648. doi:10.1016 ... Cell division cycle-associated 7-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDCA7L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2005). "Identification of a novel c-Myc protein interactor, JPO2, with transforming activity in medulloblastoma cells". Cancer ...
"Human Tra2 proteins are sequence-specific activators of pre-mRNA splicing". Cell. 93 (1): 139-48. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... 2003). "Regulation of alternative splicing by SRrp86 and its interacting proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (21): 7437-47. doi: ... 2000). "A human importin-beta family protein, transportin-SR2, interacts with the phosphorylated RS domain of SR proteins". J. ... and temporal-specific pattern". Cell Biol. Int. 27 (6): 491-6. doi:10.1016/S1065-6995(03)00072-6. PMID 12798777. S2CID 44758770 ...
Protein specific binding is required for the CCAAT box activation. These proteins are known as CCAAT box binding proteins/CCAAT ... It is frequently absent from genes that encode proteins used in virtually all cells. This box along with the GC box is known ... Full gene expression occurs when transcription activator proteins bind to each module within the regulatory promoter. ... The NF-YC proteins are an intermediate size between that of NF-YA and NF-YB proteins (117-292 amino acids in M. truncatula) and ...
Enzymes in the cell often cut this elongated protein into fragments. The protein fragments form abnormal clumps, known as ... "Interaction of Huntington disease protein with transcriptional activator Sp1". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (5): 1277-87 ... "Huntingtin is ubiquitinated and interacts with a specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... The exact function of this protein is not known, but it plays an important role in nerve cells. Within cells, huntingtin may or ...
The protein can function as an activator of gene transcription and may serve as a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator. In ... This gene is a member of the SP100/SP140 family of nuclear body proteins and encodes a leukocyte-specific nuclear body ... 2003). "HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages". Nat. ... SP110 nuclear body protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP110 gene. The nuclear body is a multiprotein complex ...
It shows greater affinity for RAS p21 protein activator 1, but lower specific activity. The mRNA for this gene is subject to ... Its cellular lineage is uncertain, and may derive from Schwann cells, other perineural cell lines, or fibroblasts. ... Additionally, being such a large protein, more active domains of the protein have been identified. One such domain interacts ... Homology studies have shown that neurofibromin is 30% similar to proteins in the GTPase activating protein (GAP) family. This ...
... stimulation of sphingolipid degradation by sphingolipid activator proteins and anionic lysosomal lipids". Annu Rev Cell Dev ... Potato PSI also has selective cytotoxic activity against pathogens and cancer cells (but not human T cells, RBC, or plant cells ... The plant-specific insert (PSI) or plant-specific sequence (PSS) is an independent domain, exclusively found in plants, ... is homologous to saposin and belongs to the saposin-like protein family (SAPLIP). Although the PSI is grouped along proteins in ...
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (serbp1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERBP1 gene. ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. United States. 122 (6): 957-68. doi ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ...
The PAX5 gene encodes the B-cell lineage specific activator protein (BSAP) that is expressed at early, but not late stages of B ... cooperates with B cell-specific activating protein (BSAP/PAX5) in activation of the B cell-specific BLK gene promoter". The ... "Entrez Gene: PAX5 paired box gene 5 (B-cell lineage specific activator)". Torlakovic E, Torlakovic G, Nguyen PL, Brunning RD, ... Paired box protein Pax-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX5 gene. The PAX5 gene is a member of the paired box ( ...
ZFM1 protein is a transcriptional repressor that interacts with the transcription activation domain of stage-specific activator ... appears to be active in masculining both the Leydig cells and Sertoli cells. In Sertoli cells with the SOX9 protein it elevates ... "The p53-binding protein 53BP2 also interacts with Bc12 and impedes cell cycle progression at G2/M". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (7): ... Splicing factor 1 also known as zinc finger protein 162 (ZFM162) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SF1 gene. ...
... a fungal protein that functions outside of the fungus but inside of plant cells has evolved to take on plant-specific functions ... Xanthomonas and Ralstonia transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are DNA-binding proteins that activate host gene ... proteins with nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains, also known as NLR proteins or STAND proteins, among other ... Effectors typically are proteins that are delivered outside the microbe and into the host cell. These colonist-derived ...
The binding of cAMP to the catabolite activator protein (CAP) causes CAP to bind to a specific DNA site in glnAp1, and glnAp1 ... The glnALG operon is an operon that regulates the nitrogen content of a cell. It codes for the structural gene glnA the two ... The glnALG operon is regulated by an intricate network of repressors and activators. Along with NRI and NRII, there are gene ... Hence along with histidase, glnALG operon maintains homeostasis within the cell. ...
Hirabayashi Y, Li YT, Li SC (1983). "The protein activator specific for the enzymic hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside in normal ... GM2A is a lipid transfer protein that stimulates the enzymatic processing of gangliosides, and also T-cell activation through ... 1990). "The complete amino-acid sequences of human ganglioside GM2 activator protein and cerebroside sulfate activator protein ... GM2 ganglioside activator also known as GM2A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GM2A gene. The protein encoded by ...
... a B cell-specific trans-activator that describes a new DNA-binding protein family". Genes Dev. 9 (24): 3067-82. doi:10.1101/gad ... cell lineage gene regulation and cell cycle control. Although the specific roles of this domain and of ARID-containing proteins ... "The human SWI-SNF complex protein p270 is an ARID family member with non-sequence-specific DNA binding activity". Mol. Cell. ... The human SWI-SNF complex protein ARID1A is an ARID family member with non-sequence-specific DNA binding activity. The ARID ...
"Cell-type specific DNA-protein interactions at the tissue-type plasminogen activator promoter in human endothelial and HeLa ... Reddy SP, Mossman BT (Dec 2002). "Role and regulation of activator protein-1 in toxicant-induced responses of the lung". ... These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription ... the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. FOSL1 has been ...
Mori M, Yamaguchi K, Abe K (May 1989). "Purification of a lipoprotein lipase-inhibiting protein produced by a melanoma cell ... LIF binds to the specific LIF receptor (LIFR-α) which forms a heterodimer with a specific subunit common to all members of that ... This leads to activation of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) and MAPK (mitogen ... As embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass at the blastocyst stage, removing them from the inner cell mass ...
Homologous to the ATP-binding and catalytic sites of E1 activator proteins, ATG7 uses its cysteine residue to create a thiol- ... ATG 7, present in both plant and animal genomes, acts as an essential protein for cell degradation and its recycling. The ... ATG7's role in both of these autophagy-specific UBL systems makes it an essential regulator of autophagosome assembly. ... Through UPS, Ubiquitin will continue to bind to other autophagy-related proteins, E2 conjugation proteins and E3 protein ...
... growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA ... SPINT2 is a transmembrane protein with two extracellular Kunitz domains to inhibit serine proteases. This gene is a presumed ... epitope v9 and subsequently suppresses expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in human chondrosarcoma cells". The ... using specific antibodies against each of the H1 and H2 heavy chains". Journal of Immunological Methods. 190 (1): 61-70. doi: ...
The protein encoded by this gene (p35) is a neuron-specific activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5); the activation of ... The cleavage of p35 into p25 results in relocalization of the protein from the cell periphery to nuclear and perinuclear ... Qu D, Li Q, Lim HY, Cheung NS, Li R, Wang JH, Qi RZ (March 2002). "The protein SET binds the neuronal Cdk5 activator p35nck5a ... 2002). "The protein SET binds the neuronal Cdk5 activator p35nck5a and modulates Cdk5/p35nck5a activity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (9 ...
2001). "Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth ... The protein is a potent inhibitor specific for HGF activator and is thought to be involved in the regulation of the proteolytic ... 2001). "Localization of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in Langhans' cells of human placenta". Histochem. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ...
2001). "Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth ... Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HGFAC gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... 2006). "Functional analysis of HGF/MET signaling and aberrant HGF-activator expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma". Blood ... 2001). "Localization of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in Langhans' cells of human placenta". Histochem. ...
Giniger E, Varnum SM, Ptashne M (April 1985). "Specific DNA binding of GAL4, a positive regulatory protein of yeast". Cell. 40 ... "A sequence-specific transcription activator motif and powerful synthetic variants that bind Mediator using a fuzzy protein ... Suzuki Y, Nogi Y, Abe A, Fukasawa T (October 1992). "GAL11 protein, an auxiliary transcription activator for genes encoding ... broad use of the Gal4 is in yeast two-hybrid screening to screen or to assay protein-protein interactions in eukaryotic cells ...
"Identification of a promoter-specific transcriptional activation domain at the C terminus of the Wnt effector protein T-cell ... "cAMP-response-element-binding-protein-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional co-activators of early growth response ... In cancer cells, EP300 mutations prevent the gene from producing any functional protein. Without p300, cells cannot effectively ... "Synergistic role of E1A-binding proteins and tissue-specific transcription factors in differentiation". J. Cell. Biochem. 67 (4 ...
Wang X, Weng LP, Yu Q (2000). "Specific inhibition of FGF-induced MAPK activation by the receptor-like protein tyrosine ... "A lipid-anchored Grb2-binding protein that links FGF-receptor activation to the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway". Cell. 89 (5): 693- ... "Broadly expressed SNT-like proteins link FGF receptor stimulation to activators of Ras". Oncogene. 13 (4): 721-9. PMID 8761293 ... "Docking protein FRS2 links the protein tyrosine kinase RET and its oncogenic forms with the mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
... may refer to: B-cell-specific activator protein Baltic Sea Action Plan, Helsinki Committee Bone-specific alkaline ...
... erythroblast transformation-specific related gene-1), and AP-1 (activator protein), in order to promote the transcription of ... It is an early activation marker that is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells, T cells, and many other cell types in the ... Activation signaling pathways in lymphocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells and other cell types upregulate transcription factors, ... Helper Cell-Germinal Center B Cell Interaction Strength Regulates Entry into Plasma Cell or Recycling Germinal Center Cell Fate ...
... encodes B-cell specific activator proteins expressed in early B-cell differentiation, and has been detected in developing ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2019-05-02. "TimeTree: The ... The DUF covers nearly the entire protein. About two-thirds of the secondary protein structure is predicted to consist of alpha ... NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Protein entry on Uncharacterized Protein CXorf38 Isoform 1 [1] Wen G, ...
Some tumor cells overexpress specific glycolytic enzymes which result in higher rates of glycolysis.[51] Often these enzymes ... Allosteric inhibition and activation by Protein-protein interactions (PPI).[28] Indeed, some proteins interact with and ... Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F2,6BP) is a very potent activator of phosphofructokinase (PFK-1) that is synthesized when F6P is ... "Cell. 126 (1): 107-120. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.05.036. PMID 16839880. S2CID 15006256.. ...
positive regulation of B cell activation. *post-translational protein modification. *regulation of signaling receptor activity ... IL-6 is secreted by macrophages in response to specific microbial molecules, referred to as pathogen-associated molecular ... and Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs).[38] ... Many neuronal cells are unresponsive to stimulation by IL-6 alone, but differentiation and survival of neuronal cells can be ...
"Amber Suppression Technology for Mapping Site-specific Viral-host Protein Interactions in Mammalian Cells". Bio-protocol. 12 (3 ... members of the skeletal muscle lipid droplet-associated proteins family associate with other proteins, as activator of adipose ... If protein A is dependent on protein B for activation then the inhibition of either protein A or B will result in a cell losing ... To test protein-protein interaction, the targeted protein cDNA and query protein cDNA were immobilized in a same coated slide. ...
... of plasma cells survive to become long-lived antigen-specific memory B cells.[2] Already primed to produce specific antibodies ... The host cell uses enzymes to digest virally associated proteins and displays these pieces on its surface to T-cells by ... Cytokines produced during innate immune responses are among the activators of adaptive immune responses.[26] Antibodies exert ... Gamma delta T cellsEdit. Main article: Gamma delta T cell. Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) possess an alternative T cell ...
They get translated into different proteins. Thus, a single gene may code for multiple proteins.[1] ... 2000). "Drosophila Dscam is an axon guidance receptor exhibiting extraordinary molecular diversity". Cell. 101 (6): 671-684. ... There are splicing activators that promote the use of a particular splice site, and splicing repressors that reduce the use of ... "A global view of cancer-specific transcript variants by subtractive transcriptome-wide analysis". PLOS ONE. 4 (3): e4732. doi ...
Mitchell PJ, Tjian R (July 1989). "Transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells by sequence-specific DNA binding proteins". ... TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the ... Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, and cell death throughout life; cell ... crosses the cell membrane of the recipient cell, and is bound by the estrogen receptor in the cell's cytoplasm. The estrogen ...
... chitinase to function dependent on the cell's stage in the cell cycle and at specific locations among the daughter cells.[35] ... Specifically, Cts1 expression has to be activated in daughter cells during late mitosis and the protein has to localize at the ... "Yeast Cbk1 and Mob2 activate daughter-specific genetic programs to induce asymmetric cell fates". Cell. 107 (6): 739-50. doi: ... Muthukrishnan S, Liang GH, Trick HN, Gill BS (2001). "Pathogenesis-related proteins and their genes in cereals". Plant Cell, ...
Specific amylase proteins are designated by different Greek letters. All amylases are glycoside hydrolases and act on α-1,4- ... While amylases are found naturally in yeast cells, it takes time for the yeast to produce enough of these enzymes to break down ... The correlation that exists between starch consumption and number of AMY1 copies specific to population suggest that more AMY1 ... an important cause of protein contact dermatitis in bakers". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 29 (5 Pt 1): 723- ...
A group of proteins called Regulator of G protein signalling (RGSs), act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), are specific for ... Heterotrimeric G proteins located within the cell are activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that span the cell ... γ proteins.[17] Signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ...
An enzyme is a protein molecule in cells which works as a biological catalyst.[1] Enzymes speed up chemical reactions in the ... Enzymes are very specific. In 1894 Emil Fischer suggested that both the enzyme and the substrate have specific complementary ... These are called activators. Sometimes, a chemical can slow down an enzyme or even make the enzyme not work at all. These are ... They are not proteins, and may be organic or inorganic molecules. Both types of molecules sometimes contain a metal ion at the ...
Protein binding. 20% (as active amphetamine)[5]. Metabolism. Hydrolysis by enzymes in red blood cells initially, subsequent ... Carbonic anhydrases hCA4, hCA5A, hCA5B, hCA7, hCA12, hCA13, and hCA14 (enzyme activator) ... exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects". JAMA Psychiatry. 70 (2): 185-198. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry. ... it reduces the firing rate of the dopamine neuron via potassium channels and activates protein kinase A (PKA) and protein ...
The protein encoded by this gene is an interleukin 5 specific subunit of a heterodimeric cytokine receptor. The receptor is ... is composed of an IL5-specific alpha chain and a beta chain shared with the receptor for GM-CSF". Cell. 66 (6): 1175-84. doi: ... "Identification of UNC119 as a novel activator of SRC-type tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (10): 8837-45. doi:10.1074/jbc ... This protein has been found to interact with syndecan binding protein (syntenin), which is required for IL5 mediated activation ...
... terminal transferase activities are differentially coordinated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and replication protein A" ... The regulation of TdT expression also exists at the transcriptional level, with regulation influenced by stage-specific factors ... These include protein-protein interactions, like those with TdIF1. TdIF1 is another protein that interacts with TdT to inhibit ... While TdT-positive cells are found in small numbers in healthy lymph nodes and tonsils, the malignant cells of acute ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... OMP is an allosteric activator of OMP decarboxylase activity. At low enzyme concentration and low OMP concentrations, OMP ... Since UMPS, ODCase and OPRTase are different between organisms, research on species-specific inhibitors has been performed. ... in deficient hamster cells by separate transferase and decarboxylase proteins or by linker-deleted bifunctional protein". ...
... p14ARF is a protein that is a known tumor suppressor.It does this by controlling cell proliferation and cell survival, however ... Specific examples of orthologs can be seen in the table below. PANO1 was compared to two other genes, Fibrinogen alpha chain as ... Signal transducer and activator of transcription, Pleomorphic adenoma gene, General transcription factor IIIA, Stimulating ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2021-08-01. (CS1 maint: url- ...
For example, many DNA binding proteins that have affinity for specific DNA binding sites bind DNA in only its double-helical ... include those that label proteins for delivery to particular parts of a cell, or mark them for phosphorylation. Within a ... The E. coli lactose operon repressor LacI (PDB: 1lcc​ chain A) and E. coli catabolite gene activator (PDB: 3gap​ chain A) both ... a computational tool to investigate protein function, disease, and genetic diversity. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. Vol. chapter 2. ...
The protein caspase DNase is an endonuclease involved in the cell apoptotic process that facilitates the DNA breakup. Cell ... The cell diversity is originated by cell differentiation, which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription ... roles of caspase cleavage and sequestration of activator domain of DFF40". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... Despite this gene being present in every cell, this protein is only expressed in different tissues and cell variety such as ...
Once released, type I interferons bind to specific receptors on target cells, which leads to expression of proteins that will ... By interacting with their specific receptors, IFNs activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) complexes; ... A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can protect neighboring ... cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). This enzyme phosphorylates a protein known as eIF-2 ...
1995). "Cell cycle regulation of cdc25C transcription is mediated by the periodic repression of the glutamine-rich activators ... This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. The encoded protein ... Galaktionov K, Beach D (1992). "Specific activation of cdc25 tyrosine phosphatases by B-type cyclins: evidence for multiple ... Gould KL, Moreno S, Tonks NK, Nurse P (Feb 1991). "Complementation of the mitotic activator, p80cdc25, by a human protein- ...
These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific ... A promoter is induced in response to changes in abundance or conformation of regulatory proteins in a cell, which enable ... Several cell function specific transcription factors (there are about 1,600 transcription factors in a human cell) generally ... Enhancers control cell-type-specific gene expression programs, most often by looping through long distances to come in physical ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to undergo lineage-specific differentiation into specific types of cells, known as ... The SON gene is required for RNA splicing of transcripts encoding the cell-cycle protein TUBG1 and genes maintaining hESC ... inducing spontaneous differentiation of hESCs followed by widespread cell death. As SON acts as an intron splicing activator, ... Cooper, Thomas A.; Wan, Lili; Dreyfuss, Gideon (February 2009). "RNA and Disease". Cell. 136 (4): 777-793. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
... and relief of repression by adenovirus E1A protein". Cell. 67 (2): 377-88. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90189-6. PMID 1655281. ... These dog-specific SINEs may code for a splice acceptor site, altering the sequences that appear as exons or introns in each ... For example, Evf-2, a certain long non-coding RNA, has been known to function as a co-activator for certain homeobox ... May 2016). "Divergent lncRNAs Regulate Gene Expression and Lineage Differentiation in Pluripotent Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5 ...
Yet the 5-phosphatase SHIP proteins synthesis of PI(3,4)P2 has been linked to tumor cell survival due to the lipid's binding ... Inhibitor and activator: dual functions for SHIP in immunity and cancer. Ann NY Acad Sci. (2011) 1217:1-17. 10.1111/j.1749- ... and an inositol ring whose phosphate groups regulation differs between organelles depending on the specific PI and PIP kinases ... Once at the PM, it can regulate lamellipodia actin networks and cell migration by interacting with actin-binding proteins like ...
Because 24S-hydroxycholesterol (main product of this enzyme) is a major activator of oxysterol liver X receptors (LXR), it is ... Abnormal induction of the cholesterol-catabolic enzyme CYP46 in glial cells". Neurosci. Lett. 314 (1-2): 45-8. doi:10.1016/ ... UniProt entry on Cholesterol-24 hydroxylase HMDB Database entry RCSB Protein Data Bank Entry Review on Cholesterol-24 ... "Knockout of the cholesterol 24-hydroxylase gene in mice reveals a brain-specific mechanism of cholesterol turnover". J. Biol. ...
Differences in tuft cells can reflect their organ's specific functions. Tuft cells express chemosensory proteins, like TRPM5 ... IL25, being the key activator of innate lymphoid cells type 2. This then initiates and amplifies type-2 cytokine response, ... A specific marker of intestinal tuft cells is microtubule kinase - Double cortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1). Tuft cells that are ... These proteins indicate that neighbouring neurons can innervate tuft cells. Tuft cells can be identified by staining for ...
... signaling and they are implicated as potent oncogenes in the embryonal carcinoma cell. The protein encoded by this gene ... C-terminal activator and N-terminal repressor regions have been identified in both Gli2 and Gli3. However, the N-terminal part ... They have shown that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) from the intron of GLI2 gene act as tissue-specific enhancers and ... Zinc finger protein GLI2 also known as GLI family zinc finger 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLI2 gene. The ...
Another function of IL-25 is the activation of natural lymphoid cells 2 (ILC2). IL-25 and IL-33 are the most potent activators ... Interleukin-25 (IL-25) - also known as interleukin-17E (IL-17E) - is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL25 gene on ... promotes efficient protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis infection by enhancing the antigen-specific IL-9 response ... These cells include T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, epithelial cells and Paneth ...
... and the protein FKBP4 (FK506-binding protein 4). The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone cortisol diffuses through the cell ... Zhang Z, Jones S, Hagood JS, Fuentes NL, Fuller GM (December 1997). "STAT3 acts as a co-activator of glucocorticoid receptor ... Stancato LF, Silverstein AM, Gitler C, Groner B, Pratt WB (April 1996). "Use of the thiol-specific derivatizing agent N- ... resides in the cytosol complexed with a variety of proteins including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), the heat shock protein 70 ...
"Transcription enhancer factor-5 and a GATA-like protein determine placental-specific expression of the Type I human 3beta- ... Maeda T, Mazzulli JR, Farrance IK, Stewart AF (Jul 2002). "Mouse DTEF-1 (ETFR-1, TEF-5) is a transcriptional activator in alpha ... Cell. 66 (1): 11-12. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90132-I. PMID 2070413. S2CID 2819591. Mann CJ, Osborn DP, Hughes SM (Oct 2007). " ... TEAD3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with short ...
... but this is a non-specific effect. Similarly, some non-specific chemical treatments destroy protein structure: for example, ... Enzyme inhibitors play an important role in all cells, since they are generally specific to one enzyme and serve to control ... With respect to PFK1, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and ADP are examples of metabolites that are allosteric activators. ... which bind to ribonucleases in one of the tightest known protein-protein interactions. A special case of protein enzyme ...
Neutrophilia may result from a shift of cells from the marginal to the circulating pool (shift neutrophilia) without an ... In addition to many components common to all cells, approximately 45% of the neutrophil cytosolic protein is composed of ... Secondary or specific granules. Secondary or specific granules are released into the extracellular space, as opposed to the ... Secondary granules contain apolactoferrin, vitamin B-12-binding protein, plasminogen activator, lysozyme, and collagenase. ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic ... This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant ... AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. ...
This gene provides instructions for making a protein called Snf2-related CREBBP activator protein, or SRCAP. SRCAP is one of ... The protein produced from the CREBBP gene plays a key role in regulating cell growth and division and is important for normal ... However, the relationship between SRCAP gene mutations and the specific signs and symptoms of Floating-Harbor syndrome is ... Mutations in SRCAP, encoding SNF2-related CREBBP activator protein, cause Floating-Harbor syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Feb 10 ...
Reductions in specific cognitive measures [NTP 2012].. Lead causes activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and binds to PKC more ... Lead decreased osteoblastic cell numbers leading to a depression of bone formation. Accompanying this, lead exposure elevated ... avidly than calcium (its physiologic activator). This creates problems with neurotransmitter release. Alteration of PKC ... sclerostin protein levels in the skeleton, and correspondingly reduced levels of β-catenin and Runx2 in stromal precursor cells ...
... and activator protein 1 DNA-binding activities through GABAB receptor in cultured cerebellar granule cells J Neurochem 1995 65( ... and activator protein 1 DNA-binding activities through GABAB receptor in cultured cerebellar granule cells" J Neurochem. 1995 ... In addition, gel mobility assay showed that exposure of the cells to GHB also increased nuclear DNA-binding activity specific ... and activator protein 1 DNA-binding activities through GABAB receptor in cultured cerebellar granule cells". ...
Calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), inhibited the activation of AP-1, demonstrating that PKC is ... Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements showed that JB6 p+ cells are able to reduce vanadate to vanadium (IV) in the ... may be associated with its ROS-generating potential leading to activation of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1 ... Sodium formate, a specific OH scavenger, did not inhibit vanadate-induced AP-1 activation, whereas NADPH enhanced AP-1 ...
CAR T cells: T cells engineered with a receptor protein for the purpose of targeting a specific protein on a cell. A CAR ... TALEN: Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease, or a hybrid protein that is engineered to cut specific sequences of DNA ... Targeted delivery of a cytotoxin is when a cell-killing toxin is delivered to a specific type of cell, such as tumor cells. ... The antibody can bind specific types of tumor cells, delivering a fatal blow to the cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. ...
Scientists use a tweaked version of CRISPR gene editing to turn skin cells into neurons, and simultaneously identify neuron- ... "activator proteins" to specific genes to activate them. ... The same goes for bone cells, blood cells and all other cells ... Ultimately, cell type is dictated by genetics - to become a brain cell, specific brain-cell genes must activate. ... "I could imagine doing this with bone cells, heart cells or muscle cells," said Qi. "Were hoping that we can use CRISPRa to ...
... and activators (e.g., programmed cell death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 antibodies), could also be ... However, a substantial amount of data suggests that T-cell function (presumably antigen-specific T-cell function) is critical ... TIM proteins are expressed on other cell types, so TIM-mediated signaling with cells other than T cells could be involved in ... T-cell activation during acute EVD is significantly increased (15). EBOV interactions with T cells in vitro through T-cell ...
Multidrug transporters (MDRs) are a specific type of ABC transporter and are commonly overexpressed in cancer cells. ... also protein kinase C activator. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form one of the largest groups of paralogous protein ... Programmed Cell Death Life Science Poster. Written by Bram van Raam and Guy Salvesen. Our Programmed Cell Death poster gives a ... Programmed Cell Death Poster. There are two currently recognized forms of programmed cell death: apoptosis and necroptosis. ...
This includes changes in CTCF protein function, cancer-risk single nucleotide polymorphisms, viral integration, and hormonal ... It is well known that chromatin connections may be disrupted in cancer cells, promoting transcriptional dysregulation and the ... A growing body of research on the transcriptome and cancer genome has demonstrated that many gynecological tumor-specific gene ... large multi-protein complexes such as Mediator, or even cell type- and lineage-specific co-activators crucial to determining ...
SP110 (AAH19059.1, 1 a.a. ~ 547 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00003431-D01P) - Products - Abnova ... Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human SP110 protein. ... The protein can function as an activator of gene transcription and may serve as a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator. In ... This gene is a member of the SP100/SP140 family of nuclear body proteins and encodes a leukocyte-specific nuclear body ...
B cell-specific activator protein) regulate B lineage specification, commitment and the immune response to antigens. EBF has ... A dose-dependent role for EBF1 in repressing non-B cell specific genes. Eur J Immunol, 41:1787-1793 (PMCID: PMC3127254).. ... Pax5 acts downstream of EBF as an important regulator of the early B cell-specific transcriptome, but is also important at ... Notably, Pax5 is a key factor for establishing B cell lineage commitment. To better understand how these proteins function in B ...
The expression of MMP genes is primarily regulated through transcriptional factors such as activator protein-1 (AP-1) and/or ... whereas TIMP-1 is known as a specific inhibitor of MMP-9 (9). ... Cell viability. A549 cells were seeded into 12-well cell ... Cell culture. Human A549 NSCLC cell line was obtained from the Korea Cell Line Bank (Seoul, Korea). A549 cells were cultured in ... and centrifuged to collect the cell pellet. The number of cells was adjusted to 1×106 cells/ml. Then, the cells were ...
... and cell differentiation. One such validated transcriptional regulator, activator protein-1, is typically comprised of ... proteins reside at the end of cell-signaling cascades and function to modulate transcription of specific gene targets. bZIPs ... neoplasm cells; patients; point mutation; protein-protein interactions; signal transduction; solvents. Abstract:. ... ... Mutations and interactions in human ERα and bZIP proteins: An in silico approach for cell signaling in breast oncology ...
These include genotoxicity, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, activation of transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1) or ... Perpetual ROS generation can cause specific molecular changes resulting in the activation or inactivation of transcription ... factors that may alter gene expression leading to cell proliferation, differentiation, and carcinogenesis. The mechanisms ...
Microbiota-derived SCFAs enhance B cell metabolism and gene expression to support optimal homeostatic and pathogen-specific ... 36 which is one of the immune activator proteins that has been proposed as an effective adjuvant for mRNA vaccines.37 ... Neonatal exposure to commensal-bacteria-derived antigens directs polysaccharide-specific B-1 B cell repertoire development. ... A SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test based on antibody-mediated blockage of ACE2-spike protein-protein interaction ...
... stem cells and in the developing placenta (1). Mouse M-CSF receptor cDNA encodes a 977 amino acid (aa) type I membrane protein ... Activators of protein kinase C induce TACE/ADAM17 cleavage of the M-CSF receptor, releasing the functional ligand-binding ... extracellular domain (5). M-CSF binding induces receptor homodimerization, resulting in transphosphorylation of specific ... Sample Types: Whole Cells. Applications: Flow Cytometry * Generation of mature human myelomonocytic cells through expansion and ...
Hormetic mechanisms are reviewed as possibility of targeted therapeutic manipulation in a cell-, tissue- and/or pathway- ... specific manner at appropriate points in the neurodegenerative disease process. ... we discuss the emerging role of heat shock protein as prominent member of vitagene network in neuroprotection and redox ... provide more comprehensive overview of the interaction of proteins, as well as the interplay among processes involved in ...
Example: +cell +stem * Tip 3. You can use + and - symbols to force inclusion or exclusion of specific words.. Example: +cell - ... Publication : The Plant cell The Arabidopsis thaliana STYLISH1 protein acts as a transcriptional activator regulating auxin ... are DNA binding transcriptional activators that target genes encoding proteins mediating auxin biosynthesis. This suggests that ... Plant Cell 2010 Feb;22(2):349-63. The establishment and maintenance of auxin maxima in vascular plants is regulated by auxin ...
Oxidative stress activates anion exchange protein 2 and AP-1 in airway epithelial cells. ... The role of transcription factor activator protein (AP)-1 in oxidant regulation of AE2 was evaluated by EMSA and by ... This was preceded by transient increases in DNA binding of AE2-specific AP-1 and phosphorylation of c-jun. This study ... Oxidative stress activates anion exchange protein 2 and AP-1 in airway epithelial cells. Journal Article (Journal Article) ...
... in this asthma cluster exhibited a mixed inflammatory process and bore transcriptional hallmarks of NF-κB and activator protein ... Previous studies of the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) cohort linked gene expression changes to specific clinical and ... In this analysis, we performed unsupervised clustering of the SARP cohort using bronchial epithelial cell gene expression data ... We validated IL18R1 protein expression in lung tissue and identified downstream NF-κB and AP-1 activity, supporting IL-18 ...
10] During organogenesis, CBP is expressed in specific cell types of the developing heart, vasculature, skin, lungs, and liver ... CBP and EP300 are ubiquitously expressed homologous proteins that act as transcriptional co-activators. Both genes are highly ... which includes a gene encoding a binding protein for cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element binding protein (CBP) ( ... The EP300 gene on band 22q13 encodes a protein, p300, that is highly similar to CREBBP. At present, the cause of Rubinstein- ...
Western blot analysis was performed to study the effect of WERC on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or nuclear factor- ... To determine the transcription level of osteoblast or osteoclast-specific genes, real-time quantitative polymerase chain ... and the increasing inhibitory factors of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. This study showed that WERC could ... We also studied the effect of WERC on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced trabecular bone ...
Cell cycle control: Cdk7 and Xpd. The protein kinase Cdk7 is an essential activator of the mitotic cell cycle kinase Cdk1. ... proteins and organelles needs to become localized to specific and divers cellular compartments in order to polarize cells, to ... Paré and Suter, J Cell Sci. 113, 2119-2127.. Swan et al., Nature Cell Biology 1, p444-449.. Stuurman et al., Eur. J. Cell Biol ... and to efficiently focus the expression of proteins to specific regions of cells. Targeted delivery of mRNAs also provides ...
  • Calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), inhibited the activation of AP-1, demonstrating that PKC is involved in the cell signal cascades leading to vanadate-induced AP-1 activation. (
  • Furthermore, PFIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the expression level of COX-2, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in A549 cells. (
  • The expression of MMP genes is primarily regulated through transcriptional factors such as activator protein-1 (AP-1) and/or nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathways ( 10 - 12 ). (
  • Known mechanisms of action of MTX result in intracellular accumulation of activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). (
  • The protein kinase Cdk7 is an essential activator of the mitotic cell cycle kinase Cdk1. (
  • Indeed, Xpd can be found in complexes with Cdk7 and it appears to act as a dispatcher that sends the Cdk7 kinase towards specific cellular substrates or prevents it from targeting a substrate class at particular phases of the cell cycle. (
  • She did a PhD (2016) at National Institute of Plant Genome Research, India on investigating the role of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling networks in imparting flooding tolerance in rice. (
  • Background: The enrichment of cancer stem cell-like cells (CSCs) has been considered to be responsible for tumor progression after an initial response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in patients with non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma (NSCLC/ADC). (
  • The PA coal stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 MAPK but not c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinases, as determined by the phosphorylation assay. (
  • The increase in AP-1 by the PA coal was completely eliminated by the pretreatment of cells with PD98059, a specific MAPK kinase inhibitor, and SB202190, a p38 kinase inhibitor, further confirming that the PA coal-induced AP-1 activation is mediated through ERKs and p38 MAPK pathways. (
  • Bcr/Abl-encoded proteins exhibit elevated kinase activity compared to c-Abl, but the mechanisms of transformation are largely unknown. (
  • We also examined these events in cell lines transformed by a temperature sensitive (ts) mutant of Bcr/Abl, where the kinase activity of Abl could be regulated. (
  • Phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5 was directly due to the tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr/Abl since it could be activated or deactivated by temperature shifting of cells expressing the Bcr/Abl ts mutant. (
  • pages 2585-2599) report on the redox regulation of an SNF1-related protein kinase from Brassica napus . (
  • Besides the JAK/STAT pathway, IL-21 also activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and the ras/raf/Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways [ 7 ]. (
  • Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is responsible for mediating immune signalling of IL-12, IL-23 and type I interferons, without interfering with other critical systemic functions as other JAK proteins do. (
  • This PDE4-specific activator displays reversible, noncompetitive kinetics of activation (increased V max with unchanged K m), phenocopies the ability of protein kinase A (PKA) to activate PDE4 long isoforms endogenously, and requires a dimeric enzyme assembly, as adopted by long, but not by short (monomeric), PDE4 isoforms. (
  • The GLI zinc finger transcription factors act at the end of the HH signaling cascade to control gene expression, and recent studies have shown that the activity of GLI proteins can be additionally modified by integration of distinct signals, such as the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. (
  • Several derivatives of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1--d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, were identified as transcriptional activators of the DDT gene. (
  • Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 induce endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption and trigger an inflammatory response in part by activating the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. (
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) senses energy status and regulates metabolic processes to maintain homeostasis. (
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase and endoribonuclease that acts as a key sensor for the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR) (PubMed:11779464, PubMed:11175748, PubMed:12637535, PubMed:9637683, PubMed:21317875, PubMed:28128204). (
  • Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum causes release of HSPA5/BiP, allowing the luminal domain to homodimerize, promoting autophosphorylation of the kinase domain and subsequent activation of the endoribonuclease activity (PubMed:21317875). (
  • Here, we reported that protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation regulates TAL1 interaction with the lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1) that removes methyl group from methylated Lys 4 on histone H3 tails. (
  • Although the functions of Forkhead box G1 ( FOXG1), Methyl CpG binding protein 2 ( MECP2) and Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ( CDKL5) have been studied individually, not much is known about their relation to each other with respect to expression levels and regulatory regions. (
  • The inhibitory effect of RMF-E on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was caused by the suppression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and RANKL-induced Ca 2+ -oscillation removal via inactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), and subsequently phospholipase C-γ2. (
  • In another pathway known as co-stimulatory signaling, RANKL/RANK binding triggers the activation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-harboring adaptors, Fc receptor common γ subunit (FcRγ), or DNAX-activating protein of kDa 12 (DAP12), subsequently inducing the activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2). (
  • Identification of a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, daphnoretin, that suppresses hepatitis B virus gene expression in human hepatoma cells. (
  • Treatment of PC12Pi cells with basic fibroblast growth factor, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, a potent activator of protein kinase C, did not increase the GAP43 mRNA steady-state level, suggesting that LCMV infection interferes with a step downstream from protein kinases A and C in the NGF signal transduction pathway. (
  • Under protein-like investigators, protein eIF4F acts beta and kinase fold is at a only invariant response-field( Watts 1974). (
  • WNK Lysine-Deficient Protein Kinase 1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • A serine-threonine kinase which plays an important role in the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis, cell signaling, survival, and proliferation. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "WNK Lysine-Deficient Protein Kinase 1" by people in this website by year, and whether "WNK Lysine-Deficient Protein Kinase 1" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "WNK Lysine-Deficient Protein Kinase 1" by people in Profiles. (
  • Cdk5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase that governs a variety of cellular processes in neurons, the dysregulation of which compromises normal brain function. (
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase. (
  • The kinase activity of Cdc2 is detected in proliferating cells and activates prior to or during S-phase [ 4 ]. (
  • IFNβ also induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor PD98059 dose-dependently inhibited β-chemokine mRNA and protein expression. (
  • Fundamental to the Hippo pathway is a kinase cascade that often leads to the phosphorylation and inhibition of transcriptional co activators such as the Yes associated protein (YAP) a major downstream effector of the Hippo signaling in many tissue types. (
  • KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) is a potent and specific ATM inhibitor with IC50 / K i of 12.9 nM/2.2 nM in cell-free assays, and is highly selective for ATM as compared to DNA-PK, PI3K/PI4K, ATR and mTOR. (
  • GSK690693 is a pan-Akt inhibitor targeting Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 2 nM/13 nM/9 nM in cell-free assays, also sensitive to the AGC kinase family: PKA, PrkX and PKC isozymes. (
  • BL-918 is a potent, orally active activator of UNC-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) with EC50 of 24.14 nM and Kd of 0.719 μM. (
  • Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C. (
  • Interleukin-2 family cytokines stimulate phosphorylation of the Pro-Ser-Pro motif of Stat5 transcription factors in human T cells: resistance to suppression of multiple serine kinase pathways. (
  • Most notably, we discuss their selective interactions with protein kinase and lipid kinase signalling cascades (i.e. phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways), which regulate transcription factors and gene expression involved in both synaptic plasticity and cerebrovascular blood flow. (
  • We found that the loss of hexokinase (HK2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) manifestation, together with a switch in pyruvate kinase gene splicing from PKM2 to PKM1, marks the transition from aerobic glycolysis in neural progenitor cells (NPC) to neuronal oxidative phosphorylation. (
  • Our recent studies have hence focused on a smaller, sterically less demanding ligand for cyclometalation and we developed 4-(pyridin-2-yl)phthalimide as novel ligand for the highly efficient design of cyclometalated metallo-phthalimide protein kinase inhibitors. (
  • Publicity of eukaryotic cells to extracellular stimuli leads to activation of mitogen-activated proteins kinase (MAPK) cascades made up of MAPKs MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) and MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks). (
  • MEKK1 can be needed for induction of embryonic stem cell migration by serum elements but is not needed for activation of various other MAPKs or the IκB kinase signaling cascade. (
  • MEKK1 (MEK kinase 1) is among the first identified associates from the mitogen-activated proteins kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase (MAP3K) group (1). (
  • Although MEKK1 was regarded as a particular activator from Exatecan mesylate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK cascade it had been found to be always a stronger and preferential activator from the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) band of MAPKs (2) perhaps through its high affinity toward the MAP2K JNK kinase 1 (JNKK1)/SEK1/MKK4 (3). (
  • MEKK1 was also recommended to be always a important mediator of NF-κB activation (33-35) performing through Exatecan mesylate the IκB kinase (IKK) (36 37 To research the function of MEKK1 in proinflammatory signaling we produced MEKK1-deficient Ha sido cells. (
  • To measure its kinase activity MEKK1 was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with rabbit antiserum to recombinant individual MEKK1 (proteins 1006-1170). (
  • indicates that the protein contains two domains (at least), one of which performs the role Glutamate 5-kinase and the other which performs the role RNA-binding C-terminal domain PUA . (
  • The BRAF V600E mutation is the highest signal activator of the mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. (
  • AP-1 is normally turned on by serum, growth elements and JNK signalling, and stocks some typically common effectors with calcium mineral signalling, such as for example protein kinase C (PKC). (
  • Normally genes come from protein and one of the things that we see is that the DNA sequence determines the amino sequence in a point to point manner. (
  • Scientists use a tweaked version of CRISPR gene editing to turn skin cells into neurons, and simultaneously identify neuron-specific genes. (
  • Ultimately, cell type is dictated by genetics - to become a brain cell, specific brain-cell genes must activate. (
  • With this tactic, which is a form of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing , Qi has been able to morph skin cells into brain cells with high efficiency, identifying 74 new genes that potentially govern this transformation. (
  • The technique is called CRISPR-activation, or CRISPRa, and it works by ferrying molecular guides and associated "activator proteins" to specific genes to activate them. (
  • The previous CRISPR methods have largely focused on manipulating one gene in one cell, but we expanded on that, because in a cell's developmental process, it's really a coordination of multiple genes that work together and allow for cell identity," said Qi. (
  • The power of CRISPR is that we can use it to flexibly deliver more than one gene-activation agent, so by doing that we try to find synergy between these genes that show the best combinations to prompt a specific cell type. (
  • Investigating further, the scientists chose 20 factors that seemed to have the most potential for creating neurons and subsequently delivered activated versions of those genes - one gene per cell - this time looking to see if the genes changed the cells' molecular nature. (
  • The CRISPRa method doesn't currently offer an immediate therapy, but its ability to thoroughly identify the genes that underpin specific cell types is a crucial advance in the regenerative medicine field. (
  • Regulation of B cell transcription and development Lymphocyte differentiation proceeds through multiple stages characterized by the expression of distinct sets of genes. (
  • EBF regulates many genes (such as mb-1) involved in assembly of the pre-B and mature B cell receptors for antigen (pre-BCR and BCR). (
  • 2011. A dose-dependent role for EBF1 in repressing non-B cell specific genes. (
  • Our results suggest that STY1, and most likely other SHI/STY members, are DNA binding transcriptional activators that target genes encoding proteins mediating auxin biosynthesis. (
  • Both genes are highly conserved, and their proteins are thought to have 2 functions: (1) formation of a bridge or scaffold between the DNA-binding transcription factors and the RNA polymerase II complex and (2) serving as histone acetyltransferases that open the chromatin structure, a process essential for gene expression. (
  • Both can induce expression of protective genes but it is not known how confluent endothelial cells (EC) respond to VEGF when conditioned with LSS. (
  • To determine the transcription level of osteoblast or osteoclast-specific genes, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used. (
  • Genes encoding the early components of the flagellar structure (basal body and export apparatus) are expressed under the control of a master activator protein placed at the top of the hierarchy. (
  • in E. coli and S. enterica the transcriptional activator FlhD/FlhC is required to express the early flagellar genes (Class II) which encode the proteins required to form the basal body and the hook. (
  • The genes encoding the sigma factor FliA and its specific anti-sigma factor, FlgM also belong to this class. (
  • In several species the sigma factor RpoN together with an activator protein promote the expression of the early flagellar genes, and the late genes are dependent on FliA. (
  • This protein is a positive regulator for the gene expression of the galactose-induced genes such as GAL1, GAL2, GAL7, GAL10, and MEL1 which encode for the enzymes used to convert galactose to glucose. (
  • The proteins encoded by Myb genes bind to DNA and regulate the expression of other genes that control cell division, differentiation, and cell death. (
  • Their biological functions are determined by their molecular structures, as exemplified by their structured DNA-binding domains targeting specific cis -acting elements in genes, and by the significant lack of fixed tertiary structure in their extensive intrinsically disordered regions. (
  • We demonstrate that a dCas9-SunTag system utilizing the transcriptional activator VP64 drives robust and specific activation of several loci, including protein coding genes and transposable elements, in diverse chromatin contexts. (
  • Among IL-21 sensitive genes, Gzma and Gzmb encode for granzymes, involved in the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • Specifically, STAT5 protein has related to cytoplasmic signal transduction and mediates the expression of specific genes. (
  • In contrast to traditional gene overexpression techniques, such as complementary DNA (cDNA) and open reading frames (ORFs), both of which produce excessive amounts of protein in the cell, CRISPRa provides a more biologically relevant overexpression model by upregulating genes within their native context. (
  • Sequential ETS-protein recruitment therefore allows sustained induction of target genes, beyond the transient activation of EGFR. (
  • The final step in each of these pathways is the activation of transcription factors and induction of a set of target genes, the identity of which depends on the cellular context of the receiving cell. (
  • Only one of these sequences showed similarity to known genes in the databases: it was a homolog of 100-105 kDa transcriptional co-activator proteins in the rat, human and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes. (
  • The resulting spliced transcript of XBP1 encodes a transcriptional activator protein that up-regulates expression of UPR target genes (PubMed:11779464, PubMed:24508390, PubMed:21317875). (
  • Protein phosphatase 2A holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55, B'/PR61, and B''/PR72 families. (
  • Knockdown of TAL1 or LSD1 led to a derepression of the TAL1 target genes in T-cell acute lymphoblast leukemia (T-ALL) Jurkat cells, which is accompanied by elevating promoter H3K4 methylation. (
  • Similarly, treatment of PKA activator forskolin resulted in derepression of target genes by reducing its interaction with LSD1 while PKA inhibitor H89 represses them by suppressing H3K4 methylation levels. (
  • Even though these three genes have different expression patterns, distinct functions and specific regulatory targets, their paths appear to intersect. (
  • QPCR was performed with primers for specific regions in the MYT1, RBM19, and TGFBR3 genes, used as positive controls, and for the MYOD1 gene, used as negative control. (
  • In different research conducted at Duke University, scientists designed a technique for activating genes in a specific location by combining natural light-activated plant proteins with CRISPR/Cas9. (
  • The researchers attached the CRISPR/Cas9 system to some of these proteins, and just by shining blue light on cells, genes could be turned on or off. (
  • Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), complexes interact with sequence-specific activator proteins and target specific genes. (
  • Rhombotin 1 (RBTN1 or TTG-1) and rhombotin-2 (RBTN2 or TTG-2) are proteins of about 160 amino acids whose genes are disrupted by chromosomal translocations in T-cell leukemia. (
  • STAT3 signalling is a major intrinsic pathway for cancer inflammation because it is frequently activated in malignant cells and capable of inducing a large number of genes that are crucial for inflammation (TABLE 2). (
  • STAT3 signaling is a major intrinsic pathway for cancer inflammation because it is often activated in tumor-associated immune and inflammatory cells as well as malignant cells and is capable of inducing a large number of genes that are crucial for inflammation including IL-6, 10, 11, 17, 23, CXCL12, and COX-2 [127]. (
  • Activated STAT3 regulates the transcription of genes controlling cell survival and proliferation and regulates the expression of antiapoptotic and immune response genes [128-130]. (
  • Transcriptional activator which binds specifically to the MEF2 element, 5'-YTA[AT](4)TAR-3', found in numerous muscle-specific genes. (
  • The aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a major role during carcinogenesis and regaining these dormant functions by engineering of sequence-specific epigenome editing tools offers a unique opportunity for targeted therapies. (
  • Transcription of the major histocompatibility complex class II family of genes is regulated by conserved promoter elements and two gene-specific trans-activators, RFX and CIITA. (
  • STAT3 transduces extracellular signals from cytokines such as IL6, Il8, and IL35 and regulates the expression of numerous genes crucial for immune responses and cell differentiation. (
  • The largest replicon is responsible for all the housekeeping genes of S. meliloti cells, in particular the genes responsible for metabolic pathways. (
  • This complex binds to the E box DNA consensus sequence and regulates the transcription of specific target genes. (
  • The encoded protein responds to diverse cellular stresses to regulate expression of target genes, thereby inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence, DNA repair, or changes in metabolism. (
  • These are proteins that control the copying of certain DNA genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) - a process called transcription. (
  • Given their important role in regeneration, we analyzed gene expression in hematopoietic stem cells of young and old mice and tested which genes are up- or down-regulated with aging," reports KyungMok Kim, PhD student in the lab of Dr. Björn von Eyss. (
  • We found that genes in cells change with aging. (
  • In the cells of old mice, the TAZ protein was more strongly induced as a co-activator of the Hippo pathway, and several hundred genes were up-regulated. (
  • In the late stage of osteoclastogenesis, NFATc1 translocates into the nucleus where it induces numerous osteoclast-specific target genes that are responsible for cell fusion and function. (
  • Indeed, the strictly, and uniquely maternal origin of these cells provides them with the ability to specifically express and/or over-express oocyte-related genes, while offering the possibility to use high-throughput genetic and omics analysis as well as comprehensive studies that require a large quantity of genomic material. (
  • In addition to their therapeutic implications, CRISPR-Cas9 systems enable scientists to modify genes and better understand the biology of living cells and organisms. (
  • In this animation, learn how CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology can be used to precisely disrupt and modify specific genes. (
  • Also included in the agreement are additional technologies relating to engineering and optimization of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins that can also be programmed to target and modify specific genes, as well as a novel protein-based drug delivery system, which could potentially achieve up to one thousand-fold more effective drug delivery than conventional methods. (
  • The engineered CRISPR-Cas9 system allows researchers to mutate or change the expression of genes in living cells, including those of humans. (
  • Researchers can now harness the engineered system to home in on specific nucleic acid sequences and edit the DNA at those precise locations in the genome, allowing researchers to study the genes' function. (
  • Proteins are coded in our genes, produced from that blueprint by the process of gene expression . (
  • Genes are expressed by being transcribed into RNA, and this transcript may then be translated into protein. (
  • These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. (
  • In this study, we investigated mRNA expression of various genes in LPS-treated human monocytes following interaction with hepatic cancer cells. (
  • Previously, it was demonstrated that the mRNA expression of chemotaxis- and angiogenesis-related genes in human monocytes increased after interaction with colon cancer cells ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • It was also reported that the increased mRNA expression of those genes in human monocytes following interaction with colon cancer cells were suppressed by pretreatment with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 pg/ml) ( 12 ). (
  • Against this background, we investigated the mRNA expression of signaling pathway activation- and suppression-related genes in LPS-treated human monocytes following interaction with colon cancer cells. (
  • This domain occurred 41 times on human genes ( 77 proteins). (
  • Pomerantz's group discovered that the more GAKIN protein they added to the cells, the less the cells glowed, meaning that GAKIN represses activation of these genes. (
  • The protein levels of c-MYC and N-MYC, transcriptional activators of the HK2 and LDHA genes, decrease dramatically. (
  • The mRNA cap-binding protein Cbc1 is required for high and timely expression of genes by promoting the accumulation of gene-specific activators at promoters. (
  • Protein-encoding genes (pegs) that are functionally related (e.g., enzymes from a single pathway or subunits of a transport cassette) tend to cluster on the chromosome. (
  • When one simply looks at the genes as they occur on a chromosome, one notices these clusters of functionally-related pegs, and often they suggest clues to the functions of hypothetical proteins. (
  • In the Nthy/V600E cells, 199,821 probes were significantly hypermethylated, and 697 genes showed a "hypermethylation-downregulation" pattern in Nthy/V600E. (
  • In total, 66,446 probes were significantly hypomethylated, and 227 genes showed a "hypomethylation-upregulation" pattern in Nthy/V600E cells. (
  • Protooncogenes and developmental protein-coding genes were included. (
  • The CREMtau protein, however, is present only in post-meiotic spermatids where it activates the transcription of testis-specific genes, such as the protamines and transition proteins. (
  • She then started as a visiting fellow in the lab of Professor Adam Bogdanove at Cornell University, USA, where her research interests focused on the interaction of rice with its bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas and the role of transcription activator-like (TAL) effector proteins facilitating this interplay. (
  • In addition to effector and memory CD8 + T cells, populations described as exhausted, anergic, senescent, and regulatory CD8 + T cells have been observed in clinical and basic studies of antitumor immune responses. (
  • This finding has been supported in human patients as analysis of tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes (TILN) in late-stage melanoma patients revealed an aberrant tumor-specific T cell phenotype as compared to the phenotype observed in circulating effector, memory, and naïve T cells [ 16 ]. (
  • [ 3 ] These mechanisms are usually induced by tumor cells themselves and/or the microenvironment, although primary or iatrogenic immunosuppression or inefficient activation of effector T cells may have a role (Figure 1 and supplementary Table S1 , available at Annals of Oncology online). (
  • The lack of T cell effector function may be no different from other types of chronic inflammation, such as that seen in infections. (
  • More specifically, chronically stimulated effector T cells progressively lose effector function and eventually die. (
  • Understanding genomic functions requires site-specific manipulation of loci via efficient protein effector targeting systems. (
  • For example, fusion of a zinc-finger protein to the RNA-directed DNA methylation effector SUVH9 enabled methylation of the Arabidopsis FWA promoter 3 . (
  • Early studies showed that IL-21 costimulates the proliferation of B, T, and NK cells and mediates the differentiation of activated NK cells into more potent effector cells [ 2 ] (Figure 1 ), suggesting that IL-21 may represent a potentially useful agent for the development of tumor immunotherapies. (
  • Furthermore, it prevents the generation of cytotoxic and suppressor effector T cells. (
  • Herein we describe novel combinatorial strategies for the potent reactivation of two class II TSGs, MASPIN and REPRIMO , in cell lines with varying epigenetic states, using the CRISPR/dCas9 associated system linked to a panel of effector domains (VP64, p300, VPR and SAM complex), as well as with protein-based ATFs, Zinc Fingers and TALEs. (
  • Death-effector domain-containing protein DEDD is an inhibitor of mitotic Cdk1/cyclin B1. (
  • Modulation of Extracellular ISG15 Signaling by Pathogens and Viral Effector Proteins. (
  • Th17 cells play a major role in immune disorders and the exact mechanism by which CD4+ T cells regulate its effector Th1 and Th17 phenotype at chromatin level is not clearly understood. (
  • They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic development. (
  • Perpetual ROS generation can cause specific molecular changes resulting in the activation or inactivation of transcription factors that may alter gene expression leading to cell proliferation, differentiation, and carcinogenesis. (
  • In terms of the effect on bone cell differentiation or proliferation, an ethanol extract of R. crispus root significantly stimulates alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, but partially increases bone nodule formation in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells [ 14 ]. (
  • Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) are two important transcription factors responsible for the regulation of cytokines, which are involved in cell proliferation and inflammation. (
  • In vitro cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured in response to non-malarial activators (concanavalin A and PPD), a recombinant protein from P. falciparum MSP-1, and erythrocytes infected by two P. falciparum lines, RP5 and W2. (
  • Signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STATs) play important roles in gene regulation, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. (
  • Photoreceptor loss triggers dedifferentiation and proliferation of Müller glia as well as progenitor cell proliferation. (
  • Indeed, it costimulates T and natural killer (NK) cell proliferation and function and regulates B cell survival and differentiation and the function of dendritic cells. (
  • In addition, IL-21 exerts divergent effects on different lymphoid cell leukemia and lymphomas, as it may support cell proliferation or on the contrary induce growth arrest or apoptosis of the neoplastic lymphoid cells. (
  • IL-21 exerts complex effects on human and mouse B cell proliferation and survival as it can mediate apoptosis of B cells activated via toll like receptor (TLR) signals [ 10 , 13 ]. (
  • On the contrary it induces B cell proliferation in the presence of appropriate cosignals delivered by B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation and CD40 ligand (L) expressed by T helper (Th) cells [ 10 , 14 ]. (
  • IL-23 promotes the proliferation of T helper (Th) 17 and Th22 cells that enhance IL-17 and IL-22 production, respectively. (
  • METTL3/14 plays a critical role in disorders associated with abnormal self-renewal, aberrant proliferation, and blocking differentiation of hematopoietic cells. (
  • A possible explanation was provided by cell culture experiments showing inhibitory effects of statins on macrophage inflammatory activity, endothelial cell function, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. (
  • Endothelial cell (EC) proliferation assays using human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) or isolated primary retinal ECs are widely used in vitro models to study retinal angiogenesis. (
  • However, isolating pure murine retinal endothelial cells is technically challenging and retinal ECs may have different proliferation responses than choroidal endothelial cells and different cell/cell interactions. (
  • Inhibition of tumour cell proliferation is multifaceted and involves the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of cell cycling. (
  • PEDF inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells in vitro , effects that can be replicated in vivo . (
  • 8 The inhibition of cell proliferation relies on the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of cell cycling. (
  • The addition of anti-Tac to in vitro culture systems blocks the IL-2 induced DNA synthesis of IL-2 dependent T-cell lines and inhibits soluble auto- and alloantigen induced T-cell proliferation. (
  • Significant changes in serine proteases, glycoproteins and proto-oncogenes may be associated with the response to cytotoxicity and infectious pathogens by activation of T cells, positive regulation of extracellular matrix structural constituents and immune response, and fibroblast proliferation. (
  • Lower-level exposure to silica particles triggered reversible inflammatory lesions, whereas high-level exposure led to long-term effects on inflammation, cell proliferation, deposition of collagen and extracellular matrix components in mesenchymal cells ( 1 ). (
  • Cancer cell-intrinsic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activity supports many of the hallmarks of cancer, including cell growth, proliferation, survival, immune evasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. (
  • It helps control cell growth and division (proliferation), cell movement (migration), and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). (
  • Plasminogen activator Inhibitor-2 inhibits pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation in pulmonary arterial hypertension via PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. (
  • In particular, CRISPR/dCas9 VPR with SAM upregulated MASPIN mRNA (22,145-fold change) in H157 lung cancer cells, with accompanying re-expression of MASPIN protein, which led to a concomitant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death. (
  • Several recent studies suggest that Wip1 positively regulates cell proliferation and behaves as an oncogene, whereas depletion of Wip1 reduces cell proliferation rates and induces apoptosis or premature cellular senescence. (
  • Vitamin D is an important prohormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis [1], but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, it has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties [2]. (
  • Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are derived from hematopoietic precursor cells and require macrophage-colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) for their survival, proliferation, differentiation, and activation. (
  • The Rho family of GTPases activates effectors involved in a wide variety of developmental processes, including regulation of cytoskeleton formation, cell proliferation and the JNK signaling pathway. (
  • Jak2 is usually activated by a variety of cytokines, growth factors and G Protein-coupled Receptor (GPCR) ligands, resulting in signaling cascades that regulate cell growth, proliferation and death (1). (
  • We therefore hypothesized that the mechanism by which G6 inhibits Jak2-dependent cell proliferation involves modification of this protein. (
  • MMP-2 is activated on the cell surface by a multimeric complex consisting of MMP-2, membrane type-1 MMP, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), whereas TIMP-1 is known as a specific inhibitor of MMP-9 ( 9 ). (
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of the tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators. (
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. (
  • PAI-1 is a key regulator of the fibrinolysis system and the main inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). (
  • Cell-type specific effects were also observed in the DDT gene expression of cells treated with AS1842856, a FOXO1 inhibitor. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily made up of proteins which play central roles in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological processes, including coagulation, fibrinolysis, development, malignancy and inflammation. (
  • The protein is a member of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 family, a subset of the serpin superfamily whose members act as tissue-specific tPA inhibitors. (
  • The horseshoe shaped ribonuclease inhibitor (shown as wireframe) forms a protein-protein interaction with the ribonuclease protein. (
  • I. Quantitative measurement of inhibitor cells. (
  • Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) is a specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar H + -ATPase ( V-ATPase ) with IC 50 values of 4-400 nmol/mg. (
  • A Novel Role for Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-2 as a Hypochlorite-Resistant Serine Protease Inhibitor and Holdase Chaperone. (
  • Deficiency of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 results in accelerated tumor growth. (
  • HKB99, an allosteric inhibitor of phosphoglycerate mutase 1, suppresses invasive pseudopodia formation and upregulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 in erlotinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells. (
  • It functions as an activator and inhibitor of sodium-coupled chloride co-transporters and as an inhibitor of potassium-coupled chloride co-transporters. (
  • In this study, combination treatments of the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 with either the ATR inhibitor VE821 or the ATM inhibitor KU55933 were investigated for their effectiveness in Ewing's sarcoma cells. (
  • Inhibition of NF-κB by either adenoviral transduction of a super repressor IκBα, or an antioxidant inhibitor of NF-κB reduced expression of the β-chemokines, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β. (
  • SBP-7455 is a dual-Specific ULK1/2 autophagy inhibitor with IC50s of 13 nM and 476 nM for ULK1 and ULK2 in ADP-Glo assay, respectively. (
  • The protein inhibitor of activated stats (signal transducers and activator of transcription) or PIAS represents a well-studied family of SUMO E3 ligases [13,14]. (
  • Verification of these candidates by Northern blot analysis or semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction in monocytes from additional patients with Lp(a) hyperlipidemia and healthy blood donors with elevated Lp(a) confirmed a significant induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) in monocytes from male, but not from female, individuals with high Lp(a), indicating that this observation is gender specific. (
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) mRNA was found suppressed only in the patients′ monocytes and not in healthy probands with high Lp(a) levels. (
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (Endothelial Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor or PAI1 or SERPINE1) pipeline Target constitutes close to 15 molecules. (
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (Endothelial Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor or PAI1 or SERPINE1) - Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor or is a protein that encodes by the SERPINE1 gene. (
  • It also reviews key players involved in Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (Endothelial Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor or PAI1 or SERPINE1) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (
  • JNK activity is certainly potently activated by a number of physical and chemical substance stresses especially UV irradiation and osmotic tension but also with the proteins synthesis inhibitor anisomycin arsenite and high temperature shock (4-7). (
  • Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant Char syndrome, suggesting that this gene functions in the differentiation of neural crest cell derivatives. (
  • And, different cells turn on and turn off different DNA sequences by a process called differentiation. (
  • In addition, it has been suggested that the protein may play a role in ribosome biogenesis and in the induction of myeloid cell differentiation. (
  • Furthermore, WERC significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the activation of the RANKL signalings (MAPK and NF-κB) and the increasing inhibitory factors of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. (
  • ALDH1A1 and CD44 are involved in the differentiation of normal stem cells, suggesting a link between them and CSC differentiation. (
  • TCF21 (Capsulin/Pod1/Epicardin) is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, and regulates cell fate decisions and differentiation in the developing coronary vasculature. (
  • It promotes endothelial cell (EC) survival, migration, and differentiation. (
  • The functional roles of these TFs in Ang-1-induced endothelial cell survival, migration, differentiation, and gene regulation were evaluated by using a loss-of-function approach (transfection with siRNA oligos). (
  • Selective siRNA knockdown of ETS1, ELK1, and ETV4 showed that these TFs are required for Ang-1-induced EC survival and differentiation of cells, while ETS1 and ETV4 are required for Ang-1-induced EC migration. (
  • It is relevant to cell growth and differentiation. (
  • In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic, known as pivotal transcription factors for osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo , and that of the osteoclast differentiation markers such as Acp5 , Oscar , CtsK , Atp6v0d2 , Tm7sf4 , and Nfatc1 were significantly decreased by RMF-E treatment during osteoclastogenesis. (
  • Osteoclasts originate from the monocyte/macrophage lineage, and are differentiated by the stimulation of the indispensable osteoclast differentiation cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). (
  • In particular it relates to directing the differentiation of human ES cells into neural progenitors and neural cells and the production of functioning neural cells and/or neural cells of a specific type. (
  • However, differentiation to a specific neural cell population is required to realize many of the potential applications of ES cells in regenerative medicine of the central nervous system and neuroscience. (
  • 1 At this time, PEDF was shown to be capable of promoting differentiation of retinoblastoma cells. (
  • a protein required for the differentiation of the set of six touch receptor neurons in this nematode. (
  • Mammalian LH-2, a transcriptional regulatory protein involved in the control of cell differentiation in developing lymphoid and neural cell types. (
  • Depending on the type of cell and the nature of the stress, p53 controls cell fate by inducing apoptosis, arresting progression of the cell cycle, promoting differentiation, or inducing a state of senescence. (
  • VDR is a member of the nuclear receptor super-family of ligand-inducible transcription factors, which are involved in many physiological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, embryonic development and metabolic homeostasis [4]. (
  • Maintaining the balance between cell division, cell differentiation and cell death is extremely important because even the smallest imbalances disrupt this balance and sooner or later contribute to the development of cancer or can lead to premature aging," explains Dr. Björn von Eise, head of the Transcriptional Control of Tissue Homeostasis research group at FLI. (
  • Heart development requires precise coordination of morphogenetic movements with progressive cell fate specification and differentiation. (
  • In addition, we demonstrated that targeted expression of a dominant-negative form of FoxF inhibits cell migration but not heart differentiation, resulting in a striking phenotype: a beating heart at an ectopic location within the body cavity of juveniles. (
  • Heart morphogenesis is accompanied by the differentiation of several cell types, including the cardiomyocytes that confer contractile properties to the beating heart (for a review, see Garry and Olson, 2006 ). (
  • Navarro F, Gutman D, Meire E, Cáceres M, Rigoutsos I, Bentwich Z, Lieberman J. miR-34a contributes to megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells independently of p53. (
  • Cells are indeed able to sense the cellular and extracellular mechanical stimuli and to respond modeling their shape as well as intracellular organization, and modifying their growth, differentiation, and functions. (
  • Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. (
  • NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. (
  • Constitutive appearance of LDHA and HK2 during differentiation results in neuronal cell loss of life, indicating that the shut-off aerobic glycolysis is vital for neuronal success. (
  • DOI: retina revealed that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are much less reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP creation than are nondividing differentiated neurons, as well as the changeover from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation is coupled to neuronal differentiation tightly, though the specific molecular basis fundamental the changeover is unidentified (Agathocleous et al. (
  • 2004). Neuronal differentiation from human being NPCs derived from embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is able to recapitulate the in vivo developmental process and has been successfully used to model a variety of neurological diseases (Qiang et al. (
  • Constitutive manifestation of HK2 and LDHA results in neuronal cell death, indicating that Rabbit Polyclonal to ITGB4 (phospho-Tyr1510) turning off aerobic glycolysis is essential for neuronal differentiation. (
  • This study was aimed to understand the role of matrix associated region (MAR) binding protein SMAR1 (scaffold/matrix attachment region binding protein 1) in T cell differentiation during inflammatory and autoimmune condition using SMAR1 transgenic mice as model. (
  • Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show an important role of SMAR1 in regulating CD4+ T cell differentiation during inflammatory disorders via regulation of both Th1 and Th17 signaling pathways. (
  • EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling induces JUN/activator protein 1 activation, which is essential for oncogenic transformation, in combination with the GLI activator forms GLI1 and GLI2. (
  • We show that the two Pnt protein forms are activated in a sequential manner within the EGFR signaling pathway: MAPK phosphorylates and activates PntP2, which in turn induces pntP1 transcription. (
  • One of these adaptor proteins, huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1), induces cellular transformation and is overexpressed in some prostate cancers. (
  • In HTLV-I infected cells the 42 kdalton long open reading frame (LOR) protein encoded in part, by the pX region of HTLV-I may act as a transacting transcriptional activator that induces transcription of the IL-2 receptor gene thus providing an explanation for the constant association of HTLV-I infection of lymphoid cells and IL-2 receptor expression. (
  • Altogether, our data suggest that the TSLPR-mediated HASM activation induces proinflammatory cytokine and chemokines release that may facilitate inflammatory immune cells recruitment in airways. (
  • Activated NF-κB induces the nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is the key osteoclastogenesis regulator. (
  • 2 - 5 Tubular damage also induces Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP)/uromodulin leakage from the tubular lumen into the interstitium, where it turns into an immunostimulatory danger signal. (
  • Starvation for a specific amino acid induces high frequencies of rho-mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae' Curr. (
  • TGF induces cell cycle arrest in diverse 79350-37-1 supplier cell types including epithelial cells, which contributes to TGF's tumor suppressive role [9]. (
  • Transgenic Expression of a Single Transcription Factor Pdx1 Induces Transdifferentiation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells to Endocrine Cells in Adult Mice. (
  • Modulation of the NALP3 protein inflammasomes induces regulatory T cells to express cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). (
  • In addition, gel mobility assay showed that exposure of the cells to GHB also increased nuclear DNA-binding activity specific for the cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional element in a concentration-dependent manner. (
  • Furthermore, treatment of the cells with 1,2-bis(2'-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and thapsigargin blocked the GHB-induced increase in nuclear DNA-binding activity. (
  • My laboratory's goals include understanding how the nuclear proteins Early B cell Factor (EBF) and Pax5 (B cell-specific activator protein) regulate B lineage specification, commitment and the immune response to antigens. (
  • This gene is a member of the SP100/SP140 family of nuclear body proteins and encodes a leukocyte-specific nuclear body component. (
  • The protein can function as an activator of gene transcription and may serve as a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator. (
  • These include genotoxicity, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, activation of transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1) or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and p53 or k-ras gene alterations. (
  • The role of transcription factor activator protein (AP)-1 in oxidant regulation of AE2 was evaluated by EMSA and by immunoblotting of nuclear phospho-c-jun. (
  • We also studied the effect of WERC on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced trabecular bone destruction mice model. (
  • Western blot analysis was performed to study the effect of WERC on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling molecules. (
  • In the RANK signaling axis, the RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) is activated through key signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or NF-κB [ 5 ]. (
  • Ang-1 exposure increased nuclear intensity of ETS1 protein and enhanced nuclear mobilization of ELK1 and ETV4. (
  • With regard to the 259-bp fragment (bp -2352 to bp -2094), gel mobility shift analyses with HepG2 nuclear lysates indicated high affinity, specific interactions of several trans-acting factors. (
  • these sites contained activator protein-1, nuclear factor-E1.7, and one-half hepatic nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1) binding consensus sequences. (
  • A protein may be carrying another protein (for example, from cytoplasm to nucleus or vice versa in the case of the nuclear pore importins). (
  • The effect of extract of RMF (RMF-E) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis was examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. (
  • receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), have been identified. (
  • Western blot was performed using nuclear extracts from HeLa cells (40 μg) and the Diagenode antibody against LSD1 (Cat. (
  • Encodes a light-inducible, nuclear bHLH protein involved in phytochrome signaling. (
  • Nuclear run-on analysis revealed that the rate of GAP43 transcription was reduced threefold in PC12Pi cells compared to uninfected PC12 cells. (
  • 2] This process is facilitated by proteins that are expressed by both osteoblasts and stromal cells, such as stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), Annexin II (AXII), and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) proteins. (
  • Web This gene is a proto-oncogene and encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. (
  • The transcriptional activity of this receptor is modulated by several ligands, such as steroids, retinoids and other lipidsoluble compounds, and by nuclear proteins acting as co-activators and co-repressors [5]. (
  • In the early stage, RANK signaling is mediated by recruiting adaptor molecules such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which leads to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). (
  • Multiple signaling cascades are activated in microglia by IFNβ, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and Jak/Stat. IFNβ induced IκBα degradation and NF-κB (p65:p50) DNA binding. (
  • Results: The mRNA expressions of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, nuclear factor-κB, RelB, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β in THP-1 cells following interaction with HepG2 cells, were suppressed by pretreatment with LPS. (
  • Act3p is an novel actin-family protein in terms of its nuclear localization. (
  • In addition, protein-complex (es) containing both Act3p and core histones was isolated from nuclear extract using histidine-tagged Act3p and an anti-Act3p antibody, suggesting that Act3p interacts with core histones in vivo. (
  • A nuclear matrix-associated high molecular weight nuclear antigen, HMNA, of chicken and marked decrease of its immunoreactivity during the progression of S-phase' J. Cell Sci.110. (
  • The nuclear factor NRF2 is a transcription factor whose activity upregulates the expression of cell detoxifying enzymes in response to oxidative stress. (
  • There are two currently recognized forms of programmed cell death: apoptosis and necroptosis. (
  • This poster summarizes the signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, necroptosis and cell survival following death receptor activation, and highlights the influence of the molecular switch, cFLIP, on cell fate. (
  • Production of heat shock proteins (HSP), including protein chaperones, is essential for the folding and repair of damaged proteins, serving thus to promote cell survival conditions that would otherwise result in apoptosis [ 6 ]. (
  • Constant intense light exposure to adult albino zebrafish specifically causes apoptosis of rod and cone photoreceptor cells and is an excellent model to study the molecular mechanisms underlying photoreceptor regeneration. (
  • Apoptosis is a distinctive form of cell death exhibiting specific morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, genomic DNA fragmentation, and exposure of specific phagocytosis signaling molecules on the cell surface. (
  • Cells undergoing apoptosis differ from those dying through necrosis. (
  • LY294002 is an apoptosis activator. (
  • TOP1ccs can be stabilized under three conditions: by drugs such as camptothecin (left), by DNA lesions (damage) that misalign the 5′ end of the nicked DNA, and by DNA and TOP1 modifications that occur during programmed cell death (apoptosis). (
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), extracellular apoptosis related factor (ECM), cytokines and lipid-associated proteins were all reportedly involved in the development of silicosis ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Plays diverse roles in the control of cell growth, survival and apoptosis via p38 MAPK signaling in muscle-specific and/or growth factor-related transcription. (
  • This unfolded protein response (UPR) also promotes the degradation of misfolded proteins (ER-associated protein degradation-ERAD), but if these compensatory mechanisms fail, the affected cells may undergo apoptosis. (
  • studies, Apoptin has been described to induce apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines. (
  • AUY922 alone induced DNA damage, apoptosis and ER stress, while reducing the abundance of DNA repair proteins. (
  • p53 wild-type cells activated pro-apoptotic gene transcription and underwent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. (
  • p53 null cells, however, accumulated higher levels of DNA damage, ER stress and autophagy, eventually leading to apoptosis. (
  • SBI-0206965 inhibits autophagy and enhances apoptosis in human glioblastoma and lung cancer cells. (
  • It is thought that several cellular and molecular events are involved, including increases in oxidative stress, impaired mitochondria function, activation of neuronal apoptosis, the deposition of aggregated proteins and excitotoxicity. (
  • Hyperkinetic Jak2 promotes cell growth and prevents apoptosis. (
  • the consequence of this inhibition is usually G1/S 51543-40-9 supplier cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (17, 18). (
  • The EP300 gene on band 22q13 encodes a protein, p300, that is highly similar to CREBBP. (
  • This gene encodes a specific phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator of the dimeric form of protein phosphatase 2A. (
  • Hi Ha Canada, amplified from the Antiquaria at Gemilang polymerase in Bredevoort, The Netherlands, became involved because it encodes the specific system the lateral complex catabolised during the Second World War. (
  • Web This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein containing transcriptional activation, DNA binding, and oligomerization domains. (
  • The CREM gene encodes activators and repressors of cAMP-mediated gene transcription. (
  • A study now identifies upstream components of this pathway in both worms and mammalian cells involving yet another GTPase, RhoG/MIG-2, and its activator TRIO/UNC-73. (
  • However, the anti-metastatic effect and its underlying mechanistic signaling pathway involved these polysaccharides in human non-small cell lung carcinoma remain unknown. (
  • Hormetic mechanisms are reviewed as possibility of targeted therapeutic manipulation in a cell-, tissue- and/or pathway-specific manner at appropriate points in the neurodegenerative disease process. (
  • When conformationally challenged aggregation-prone proteins are expressed, the resulting unfolded or misfolded proteins are rapidly degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (
  • We validated IL18R1 protein expression in lung tissue and identified downstream NF-κB and AP-1 activity, supporting IL-18 signaling in severe asthma pathogenesis and highlighting this approach for gene and pathway discovery. (
  • An important pathway for IL-3 signaling involves activation of the Janus family kinases (JAKs) and subsequent tyrosyl phosphorylation of STAT proteins (signal transducers and activators of transcription). (
  • The results identify the synergistic integration of GLI activator function and EGFR signaling as a critical step in oncogenic transformation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic opportunities relying on combined inhibition of the HH/GLI and EGFR/MEK/ERK/JUN pathway in BCC. (
  • The AMPK/mTOR pathway is involved in D-dopachrome tautomerase gene transcription in adipocytes differentiated from SGBS cells, a human preadipocyte cell line, Cytokine, Vol.96, 195-202, 2017. (
  • While similarities do exist between CRISPRi and CRISPR knockout for loss-of-function experiments, CRISPRi allows for multiplexed repression experiments without concern for DSBs triggering cell death via the DNA damage response pathway. (
  • There are two major pathways of apoptotic cell death induction: The intrinsic pathway, also called the Bcl-2-regulated or mitochondrial pathway, is activated by various developmental cues or cytotoxic insults, such as viral infection, DNA damage and growth-factor deprivation, and is strictly controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins. (
  • R-spondin growth factors bind to LGR proteins and mediate activation of the Wnt signaling pathway , which has roles in animal development, as well as in diseases such as cancer. (
  • Although cumulative evidence suggests that human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells can initiate or perpetuate the airway inflammation by secreting a variety of inflammatory cell products such as cytokines and chemokines, the role of TSLP in this pathway is not known. (
  • Exogenous TGF-β2 increased co-localization of pSmad2/3 with Co-Smad4 in the nucleus of ONH astrocytes and LC cells further indicating activation of the canonical Smad signaling pathway. (
  • These studies indicate that TGF-β2 utilizes the canonical Smad signaling pathway to stimulate ECM synthesis in human ONH cells. (
  • The protein TAZ, a co-activator of the Hippo signaling pathway, can protect blood stem cells from aging. (
  • Researchers at the Leibniz Institute on Aging - Fritz Lippmann Institute (FLI) in Jena, Germany, have now discovered how the co-activator of the Hippo signaling pathway, the protein TAZ, can protect hematopoietic stem cells from senescence and thus prevent them from loss of function. (
  • The Hippo signaling pathway protects cells in the body. (
  • The Hippo signaling pathway inhibits the activity of proteins such as YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif). (
  • Involved Pathway Protein Function Interacting Protein GK Related Articles GK involved in several pathways and played different roles in them. (
  • We selected most pathways GK participated on our site, such as Glycerolipid metabolism, Metabolic pathways, PPAR signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference Cusabio offers GK related Antibodies, Proteins, cDNA and ELISA Kits. (
  • The proteasome is the proteolytic machinery of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the main pathway responsible for degradation of intracellular proteins. (
  • These processes have been shown to be regulated by the highly conserved Hippo signaling pathway that play a fundamental role in controlling cell, tissue and organ development and homeostasis ( Camargo et al. (
  • The small ubiquitin like modifier (SUMO) pathway has emerged as a key regulator of TGF-induced EMT in non-transformed epithelial cells and potentially in tumor cells [10C12]. (
  • In a conventional activation pathway, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. (
  • Specific STAT3 direct inhibitors consist of SH2 ligands, including G quartet oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and small molecules, they induce cell death in tumor cells in which STAT3 is activated. (
  • Finally, Dr. Appella's laboratory is working to develop specific inhibitors of Wip1 that could be advanced to the clinic. (
  • Since Wip1 has been shown to be amplified in tumors, we are developing specific inhibitors of its activity that would provide selective targeting either when given alone or in combination with standard cancer chemo- or radio-therapy. (
  • In the present study, we asked if combinations of HSP90 inhibitors (HSP90i) and ATR inhibitors (ATRi) would exceed the cytotoxicity of the individual compounds in ES cells. (
  • The second wave of immunotherapies were T-cell checkpoint inhibitors that bind to molecules, such as PD-L1, and are responsible for creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment in tumours. (
  • In doing so, T-cell checkpoint inhibitors can induce long-term responses in some patients with difficult-to-treat cancers, including melanoma, bladder cancer and nonsmall cell lung cancer. (
  • However, T-cell checkpoint inhibitors do not work in all tumours. (
  • Also, since T-cell checkpoint inhibitors work by 'taking the brakes off' T-cells, they are only effective in patients who have a pre-existing activated T-cell response. (
  • Evidence suggests combining innate immune modulators with established adaptive immunotherapies, such as tumour-targeted antibodies and T-cell checkpoint inhibitors, enhances the activity and longevity of treatments and may expand the population of patients who respond to immunotherapy (Figure 1). (
  • AE2 mRNA and protein expression was measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to H(2)O(2) (100 microM). (
  • Results show increased AE2 mRNA and protein expression after oxidant exposure. (
  • Guhaniyogi J, Brewer G. Regulation of mRNA stability in mammalian cells. (
  • Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed for different time periods to recombinant Ang-1 protein and mRNA levels of ETS1, ELK1, and ETV4 were measured with qPCR and intracellular localization of these transcription factors was assessed with immunofluorescence. (
  • The endoribonuclease activity is specific for XBP1 mRNA and excises 26 nucleotides from XBP1 mRNA (PubMed:11779464, PubMed:24508390, PubMed:21317875). (
  • Persistent LCMV infection of PC12 cells (PC12Pi) caused reduced levels of GAP43 steady-state mRNA when compared to uninfected PC12 cells. (
  • In addition, an increase in the steady-state levels of GAP43 mRNA observed in PC12 cells in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) was abrogated in PC12Pi cells. (
  • Moreover, analysis of the half-life of GAP43 mRNA indicated that NGF-mediated stabilization of GAP43 transcripts was significantly diminished in PC12Pi cells. (
  • Recombinant APRIL binds to several cell lines that do not express detectable mRNA for TACI and BCMA and proteoglycans were identified as APRIL-specific binding partners. (
  • During this crucial step, messenger RNA (mRNA), which is a RNA copy of a gene's recipe for a protein, is translated by the cell's ribosome into the sequence of amino acids that will make up a newly synthesized protein. (
  • Pre-mRNA splicing further increases protein diversity acquired through evolution. (
  • Purified Lp(a) induced PAI-2 mRNA and protein and reduced PAI-1 expression in monocytes isolated from various controls. (
  • We appeared for IL-2 mRNA instead of DNA to be able to identify cells apt to be making protein. (
  • In Perform11.10/IL-2 WT thymuses, many cells containing IL-2 mRNA were distributed through the entire tissue (Body 1b, left -panel). (
  • Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay controls the changes in yeast ribosomal protein pre-mRNAs levels upon osmotic stress. (
  • Specific and global regulation of mRNA stability during osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • This was preceded by transient increases in DNA binding of AE2-specific AP-1 and phosphorylation of c-jun. (
  • In this way Xpd negatively regulates the cell cycle function of Cdk7, the phosphorylation of Cdks, and it recruits Cdk7 into the TFIIH complex where it functions in transcription. (
  • Tyrosyl phosphorylation and DNA binding activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins in hematopoietic cell lines transformed by Bcr/Abl. (
  • We analyzed JAK activation, STAT protein phosphorylation, and the formation of specific DNA-binding complexes containing STAT proteins, in a series of leukemia cell lines transformed by Bcr/Abl or other oncogenes. (
  • Phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5 was also observed in the human leukemia cell lines K562 and BV173, which express the Bcr/Abl oncogene, but not in several Bcr/Abl-negative leukemia cell lines. (
  • In addition, knockdown of EGFL7 suppressed VEGF upregulation of phospho-Akt and phospho-Erk(1/2) in endothelial cells, but did not alter VEGFR phosphorylation and neuropilin-1 protein expression or miR126 expression. (
  • Lgr proteins then recruit the LRP-Frizzled receptor complex, which binds to Wnt ligands, reinforcing Wnt signalling following phosphorylation (P) of LRP. (
  • SOCS3, the major negative regulator of STAT3, is induced by tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 and terminates STAT3 phosphorylation about 2 h after initial exposure of cells to members of the IL-6 family of cytokines by binding cooperatively to the common receptor subunit gp130 and JAKs 1 and 2. (
  • To examine TGF-β2 signaling, ONH astrocytes and LC cells were treated with recombinant TGF-β2, and phosphorylation of Smad and non-Smad signaling proteins were examined by western blot analyses and immunostaining. (
  • With respect to TGF-β2 signaling, recombinant TGF-β2 induced phosphorylation of canonical signaling proteins Smad2/3 but did not alter phosphorylation of non-canonical signaling proteins extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)1/2 proteins in ONH astrocytes and LC cells. (
  • We have found that although each subdomain of the N-terminal transactivation domain of p53 separately binds to the Taz2 domain of its co-activator p300, structural details differ and the affinities are differentially affected by phosphorylation. (
  • In other words, how does a particular hormone regulate a specific phosphorylation event when it acts via a common second messenger? (
  • The very tight catechin-STAT1 interaction prevents STAT1 phosphorylation and represents a novel, specific and efficient molecular mechanism for the inhibition of STAT1 activation. (
  • Upon binding of the ligand to its specific receptor, the receptor-associated Jak proteins 51543-40-9 supplier are activated via a phosphorylation event. (
  • The adaptive immune system plays a pivotal role in the host's ability to mount an effective, antigen-specific immune response against tumors. (
  • Current immunotherapies involve enhancing the activity of antigen-specific CD8 + TILs through cytokine treatment, immune checkpoint blockade, chimeric antigen receptor therapy, and adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) [ 13 ]. (
  • A separate study in late-stage melanoma patients found that a fraction of circulating antigen-specific CD8 + T cells are functionally impaired, supporting the coexistence of multiple T cell fates in the antitumor immune response [ 17 ]. (
  • Model analysis showed that, in addition to increasing the immune recognition and clearance of infected cells, the duration of HIV antigen expression (i.e., the period of vulnerability) plays an important role in determining the efficacy of LRAs, especially if effective clearance is achieved. (
  • It is observed that HD‐03 downregulates HBsAg expression from these cell lines, which could be due to cytotoxicity on the cell lines nor due to blockade of the release of the antigen from the cells. (
  • Active compounds from Saussurea lappa Clarks that suppress hepatitis B virus surface antigen gene expression in human hepatoma cells. (
  • Inhibition of hepatitis B surface antigen secretion on human hepatoma cells. (
  • Effect of an extract from Phyllanthus amarus on hepatitis B surface antigen gene expression in human hepatoma cells. (
  • Resting T cells do not express IL-2 receptors but receptors are rapidly expressed on T cells following the interaction of antigens, mitogens, or monoclonal antibodies with the antigen specific T-cell receptor complex. (
  • Normal resting T cells and most leukemic T-cell populations do not express IL-2 receptors however the leukemic cells of all patients with human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV-I) associated, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) examined expressed the Tac antigen. (
  • Both ligands bind to TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML interactor) and BCMA (B-cell maturation antigen), two members of the TNFR family. (
  • No longer are parameters such as decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level being used as the major focus in the drug approval process. (
  • Origin of langerin (CD207)-expressing antigen presenting cells in the normal oral mucosa and in oral lichen planus lesions. (
  • In many metabolic reactions, a protein that acts as an electron carrier binds to an enzyme that acts its reductase . (
  • Isl-1 binds to one of the two cis-acting protein-binding domains of the insulin gene. (
  • RFX binds DNA and nucleates the assembly of an enhanceosome, which recruits CIITA through protein--protein interactions. (
  • The active, hypophosphorylated form of the protein binds transcription factor E2F1. (
  • The BRCT domain binds to the central domain of p53 which is required for sequence specific DNA binding. (
  • LYN-1604 is a potential ULK1 agonist with IC50 of 1.66 μM against MDA-MB-231 cells and it binds to wild-type ULK1 with a binding affinity in the nanomole range ( Kd =291.4 nM). (
  • Metastasis involves a series of complex processes in which tumor cells invade other organs, requiring the coordination of several signaling pathways that allow the detachment of tumor cells, their mobility, degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), invasion, migration, adhesion to endothelial cells, and reestablishment of growth at a distant site ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • In addition to regulating intracellular pH and cell volume, AE2 exports superoxide (O.) to the extracellular matrix in an HCO-dependent process. (
  • Development of all multicellular organisms is dictated by a handful of signaling pathways that transmit information from the extracellular milieu and neighboring cells to the nuclei of the receiving cells. (
  • The activity of the cell is regulated by extracellular signals. (
  • The rat monoclonal antibody 1A1 recognizes an extracellular epitope of CD267 / TACI, a 32 kDa type III transmembrane protein expressed by B cells and possibly by some activated T cells. (
  • Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) is associated with glaucomatous neuropathy, primarily via the increased synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and remodeling of the optic nerve head (ONH). (
  • 1 In turn, tubular cell necrosis is the predominant trigger for this associated inflammatory response, because dying cells release intracellular molecules, such as HMGB1, histones, uric acid, or ATP, that elicit immunostimulatory effects in the extracellular space, which are referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). (
  • Here, we show that detection of the Drosophila pheromone, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA), is instead mediated by pheromone-induced conformational shifts in the extracellular pheromone-binding protein, LUSH. (
  • Therefore, the pheromone-binding protein is an inactive, extracellular ligand converted by pheromone molecules into an activator of pheromone-sensitive neurons and reveals a distinct paradigm for detection of odorants. (
  • This can be initiated by ligand binding or by recruiting a protein that has a fused strong activator like the VP activator. (
  • We established a humanized mouse model incorporating FLT3-ligand (FLT3-L) administration after hematopoietic cell reconstitution to investigate expansion, phenotype, and function of human dendritic cells (DC). (
  • Interleukin- (IL-) 21 was identified in 2000 as a CD4 + T cell-derived cytokine and the ligand of an IL-2R β -related orphan receptor [ 1 , 2 ], now defined as IL-21R. (
  • HH signaling is initiated by the binding of HH protein to its receptor Patched (PTCH), a transmembrane domain protein that represses signal transduction in the absence of ligand by inhibiting the transmembrane domain protein Smoothened (SMO). (
  • CD267 / TACI (transmembrane activator calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor), a TNFR superfamily transmembrane protein, is expressed on B cells (predominantly on CD27+ memory cells), multiple myeloma cells and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). (
  • A previously unidentified role for PICK1 is indicated in anchoring PKCα to mitochondria in a ligand-specific manner as well as regulating PKC activity in response to various stimuli. (
  • The present study therefore aimed to determine the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PFIO in the highly metastatic A549 cells. (
  • Schematic representation of IL-21 signaling pathways and its main biological effects on different target cells. (
  • However, little is known about the identity of the upstream activators of these HH/GLI interacting signaling pathways in cancer. (
  • Activation of miR-21-Regulated Pathways in Immune Aging Selects against Signatures Characteristic of Memory T Cells. (
  • If successful, homeostasis is restored and protein synthesis resumes, but if ER stress persists, cell death pathways are activated. (
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (
  • The ability to conditionally rewire pathways in human cells holds great therapeutic potential. (
  • Here, we investigated the signaling pathways used by TGF-β2 to stimulate ECM expression by ONH astrocytes and lamina cribrosa (LC) cells. (
  • These studies help us to better understand the widespread roles of p53 in cells, including its effects on various signaling pathways, and how specific modifications of p53 modulate its functions. (
  • In particular, we describe the most relevant mechanosensor signaling pathways, the Hippo and the RhoGTPase, and report their involvement in oocyte and parthenogenetic cell ability to sense and respond to chemical and mechanical cues. (
  • Such phenotypes are often expressed by the synthesis of proteins that control the organism's shape, or that act as enzymes catalysing specific metabolic pathways characterising the organism. (
  • This review focuses on the activities of the 11 zinc-containing HDACs, their histone and nonhistone protein substrates, and the different pathways by which HDACi induce transformed cell death. (
  • While variants in the sonic Hedgehog and cell cycle regulation pathways account for the majority of BCC cases in adults, the molecular etiology of BCC in young patients is unelucidated yet. (
  • Our results highlight the involvement of the hedgehog and cell cycle regulation pathways in the genesis of BCC in the general population. (
  • DNA-STAT complexes were detected in all Bcr/Abl-transformed cell lines and they were supershifted by antibodies against STAT1 and STAT5. (
  • Abcam: antibodies, proteins, kits. (
  • If you buy Antibodies supplied by nordc they should be stored frozen at - 24°C for long term storage and for short term at + 5°C.blocking peptide,Human proteins, cDNA and human recombinants are used in human reactive ELISA kits and to produce anti-human mono and polyclonal antibodies. (
  • We have developed antibodies that recognize specific post-translational modifications of p53 and have used these to characterize the cellular response of p53 to DNA damage and other stress signals. (
  • After obstructing, major and supplementary antibodies had been put on cells section and incubated for an complete hour at space temperatures, respectively. (
  • Using antibodies against CLCA3A1, von Eyss' research group was able to identify a specific population of cells expressing high or low levels of CLCA3A1. (
  • When FGF19 was inhibited by specific anti-FGF19 antibodies in monkeys, severe diarrhea was the result. (
  • Faced with infection, the body's white blood cells are commanded by a protein called CARD11 either to make more antibodies and white blood cells that attack the invader or to stand down and abort the mission. (
  • These total email address details are in keeping with the latest books reviews,9,10,21,24,26 which implies the tissue-specific (BAT, spleen) uptake of antibodies against PD-L1 and signifies our 64Cu-NOTA- em /em PD-L1 probe is certainly highly particular toward PD-L1. (
  • Over the past decade, insights into the molecular mechanisms that cancer cells use to evade T-cells, antibodies/B cells and other adaptive immune defences have revolutionised oncology therapies. (
  • These antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of tumour cells, such as HER2 on breast cancer, therefore inhibiting receptor signalling and marking cancer cells to be destroyed by the innate immune system. (
  • So they respond to, and attack, a wider range of cancer cells than adaptive immune cells and antibodies. (
  • Macrophages and NK cells, which kill cells marked by antibodies produced by B-cells. (
  • E.coli-expressed recombinant human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contains 191 amino acids covering the partial-length of STAT3 protein (50-240aa). (
  • This recombinant STAT3 protein may find uses in the specific antibody synthesis or the studies of immunology. (
  • To purify the recombinant proteins, cells were spun down from 50 mL of culture supernatant and resuspended in phosphate buffer saline.PBS contained PMSF in order to prevent proteis from proteases. (
  • The addition of a cloned and purified recombinant PLD to HeLa cells resulted in substantial remodeling of the host membrane architecture, as measured by lipid raft formation. (
  • It is interesting to note that JAK kinases (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and Tyk2) were not consistently activated in Bcr/Abl-positive cells. (
  • Once recruited, STATs are phosphorylated by JAK kinases and then detach from their docking sites, dimerize, and migrate into the nucleus to activate specific gene promoters. (
  • Orderly progression through the cell cycle is driven by the periodic oscillations in the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) [ 1 ]. (
  • Vertebrate protein kinases LIMK-1 and LIMK-2. (
  • In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. (
  • The Cdk family comprises 21 members, most of which depend on the association with specific cyclin partners to become constitutively active protein kinases [ 6 ]. (
  • This process depends on RANKL-RANK signaling, which is temporally regulated by various adaptor proteins and kinases. (
  • JNK activity can be stimulated by specific growth elements and little G proteins such as for example Ras and Rac (12 13 Although just two MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) work as JNK kinases JNKK1/SEK1/MKK4 (14-16) and JNKK2/MKK7 (17-19) many MAP3Ks furthermore to MEKK1 can activate the JNK cascade (20-23). (
  • In a mouse model of Jak2-V617F mediated human erythroleukemia, G6 also decreased the levels of vimentin protein, family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. (
  • This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. (
  • The Tetracycline Response Element (TRE) is recognized and bound by the Tetracycline repressor (TetR) protein. (
  • Making use of a deactivated or dead Cas protein bound to activator or repressor domains achieves just that. (
  • To our knowledge, this is the first example of a prion-based protein switch that turns a repressor into an activator," Si adds. (
  • In these bacteria the core protein quality control systems are under the transcriptional control of the global repressor CtsR. (
  • Sall1 maintains nephron progenitors and nascent nephrons by acting as both an activator and a repressor. (
  • Signal propagation inside and/or along the interior of cells depends on PPIs between the various signaling molecules. (
  • Isoprenoids, such as farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), are short chain fatty acids that are posttranslationally linked to ubiquitous signaling molecules such as Ras (farnesyl pyrophosphate) and RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42 homolog) proteins (GGPP). (
  • Using both animal and human cell models of ADPKD, including ADPKD patient-derived primary cell cultures, we demonstrate that treatment with the prototypical PDE4 activator compound lowers intracellular cAMP levels, restrains cAMP-mediated signaling events, and profoundly inhibits cyst formation. (
  • Bafilomycin A1 blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes of cultured cells. (
  • The anti-receptor antibody also inhibits lectin stimulated immunoglobulin synthesis and the sequential expression of late appearing activation antigens on T cells. (
  • Capitalizing on this conservation, we use Drosophila to show that overexpressing either H3K27M oncohistone inhibits H3K27 methylation only in cells progressing through S-phase and only if deposited into chromatin. (
  • abstract = "Our previous studies showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits signal transducer activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. (
  • PAI-1 inhibits the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (important role in invasion of malignant cells across the basal lamina). (
  • We subsequently showed that G6 specifically inhibits Jak2 mediated human pathologic cell growth (17, 18). (
  • Internalization of activated receptors regulates signaling, and endocytic adaptor proteins are well-characterized in clathrin-mediated uptake. (
  • The B. subtilis ClpC protein is unlike most members of the Hsp100 family because it not only requires several adaptor proteins for substrate recognition but also for its general ATP- dependent activity. (
  • Anion exchange protein 2 (AE2) is a membrane-bound protein that mediates chloride-bicarbonate exchange. (
  • Many bacteria use rotating flagella for locomotion, the motor is embedded in the membrane and couples the influx of specific ions to the generation of rotational force. (
  • Acts as an upstream signal for ER stress-induced GORASP2-mediated unconventional (ER/Golgi-independent) trafficking of CFTR to cell membrane by modulating the expression and localization of SEC16A (PubMed:21884936, PubMed:28067262). (
  • GPX is a membrane of associated selenium-dependent antioxidant enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of organic hydroperoxides and directly reduces phospholipid hydroperoxides and protects against oxidative stress in mammalian cells ( 4 ). (
  • R-spondins activate Lgr membrane proteins, which are also specific stem-cell markers. (
  • Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a member of a family of seven proteins (STATs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5a, 5b, and 6) that relay signals from activated cytokine and growth factor receptors in the plasma membrane to the nucleus, where they regulate gene transcription (1-3). (
  • The ER is a key intracellular site for synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins, regulating their folding, assembly into complexes, transport and degradation. (
  • Glycoprotein that probably modulates membrane fusion events during secondary envelopment of cytoplasmic capsids that bud into specific trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived membranes. (
  • Mechanistically, the gK/UL20 protein complex interacts with the viral fusogen gB and this interaction is necessary for gB-mediated membrane fusion during virus entry, as well as virus-induced cell. (
  • The specific SLC30 strand membrane of collagenous platelets is activated to remove in the organization of spectrum chains and study transport cause into +1 proteins of the addition p107 as factors, component domain and nascent proteins. (
  • Although each cell of the IL6 enzyme cytokines through a Eukaryotic mobility membrane, their growing lining transporters are downstream. (
  • Protein disulfide isomerase homolog PDILT is required for quality control of sperm membrane protein ADAM3 and male fertility [corrected]. (
  • Both PLD and ALN are membrane-active toxins and contribute to the adhesion and invasion of A. hemolyticum to host cells. (
  • Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. (
  • This binding leads to altered eukaryotic histone structure and the potential recruitment of some transcriptional activators or repressors to multiple loci in the myeloid cell chromosomes. (
  • Interleukin- (IL-) 21 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates the activity of both innate and specific immunity. (
  • Sharma SS , Pledger WJ , Kondaiah P , . The deubiquitylase USP7 is a novel cyclin F-interacting protein and regulates cyclin F protein stability. (
  • Msi2 Regulates the Aggressiveness of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). (
  • The cholesterol-independent effects of statins can be explained by the fact that HMG-CoA reductase not only regulates cholesterol synthesis in the liver but also provides all cells of the body with isoprenoids involved in (iso)prenylation of important signaling proteins. (
  • In the second research focus we try to figure out how cellular physiology talks to the cell cycle regulatory network to control division of cells. (
  • In noninflamed cancers, there are low or absent chemokine expression, lack of T-cell infiltration, potentially higher numbers of immunoregulatory populations (naturally occurring T-regulatory cells [Treg], myeloid-derived suppressor cells), and denser stroma. (
  • Herein, we characterize a cis-regulatory mechanism by which the lead polymorphism rs12190287 disrupts an atypical activator protein 1 (AP-1) element, as demonstrated by allele-specific transcriptional regulation, transcription factor binding, and chromatin organization, leading to altered TCF21 expression. (
  • The activity of CDKs, in turn, is controlled by their binding to allosteric regulatory proteins called cyclins. (
  • In allergic asthma, both immune regulatory and epithelial cells work together to induce different phenotypes of chronic airway inflammation. (
  • We have also examined how mono- or di-methylation of a specific lysine residue in the C-terminal regulatory domain of p53 respectively represses or activates p53 activity through modulation of the interaction of p53 with specific proteins. (
  • However, McsB activity is also tightly regulated by three different regulatory proteins (McsA/ClpC/YwlE). (
  • o acid residues in human glucokinase (GK) required for binding to the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). (
  • GK is regulated by GK regulatory protein (GKRP), and indirectly by allosteric effectors of GKRP. (
  • Proteasomes complexes consist of a 20S catalytic core particle (CP) comprising 14 to 17 different proteins, either single, or associated to one or two regulatory particles of identical or different protein composition (Figure 1). (
  • Based on this, parthenotes have been employed in different research areas, ranging from assisted reproduction technologies to pluripotent stem cell derivation and basic biology, for studying the regulatory mechanisms underlying the embryonic development ( Bos-Mikich et al. (
  • CARD11 can turn on only if all the other specific key regulatory proteins-like a tactical team-are present. (
  • A novel protein call AnkA in A. phagocytophilum is translocated from the bacterium within a host vacuole into the host nucleus, where it forms complexes with heterochromatin and is largely responsible for many host transcriptional changes by directly binding to regulatory regions of the DNA. (
  • This study reveals a critical role of SMAR1 in maintaining the proinflammatory immune responses by repressing Th1 and Th17 cell function and it gives the novel insight into immune regulatory mechanisms. (
  • Conclusion Our study has identified specific gut microbiota markers in association with improved immune response and reduced adverse events following COVID-19 vaccines. (
  • Here we discuss the current characterization of CD8 + T cell fates in antitumor immune responses and discuss recent insights into how signals in the tumor microenvironment influence TIL transcriptional networks to promote CD8 + T cell dysfunction. (
  • Decades of research have resulted in substantial insights into the role of the adaptive immune system, including CD8 + T cells, in antitumor responses. (
  • the authors concluded that both lymphocytes and IFN γ were critical in antitumor immunity, suggesting a critical role for CD8 + T cells in antitumor immune responses [ 6 ]. (
  • These studies highlighted a major role for CD8 + TILs in antitumor immune responses, supporting the use of tumor-specific CD8 + T cells in adoptive immunotherapy. (
  • Cancers escape immune surveillance via distinct mechanisms that involve central (negative selection within the thymus) or peripheral (lack of costimulation, receipt of death/anergic signals by tumor, immunoregulatory cell populations) immune tolerance. (
  • Inflamed cancers are usually immunogenic and rich in innate immune signals, chemokines for recruitment of T cells and other immune cell subsets, as well as tumor infiltration by various immune cell subsets. (
  • [ 2 ] Conversely, noninflamed cancers are often the end-product of poorly immunogenic transformed cells that have evolved when the host immune system has already eradicated highly immunogenic transformed cell clones. (
  • During this progressive decline, typically called exhaustion, immune checkpoint proteins (ICP) play important and dynamic roles. (
  • Immune cell death by exhaustion may account for the possibility that some cancers may be immunogenic, although low or absent immune cell infiltration within the tumor is observed. (
  • Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in the induction and regulation of adaptive immune responses. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: This suggests the occurrence of an immune response more specific for the RP5 line in women having had multiple pregnancies, and who are likely to develop immunity to pregnancy-associated parasites. (
  • However, in non-allergic asthma, which often develops later in life, neither IgE reactivity to allergens nor any clear involvement of the adaptive immune system, such as type 2 helper T cells (Th2 cells) appears. (
  • Tradition of circulating Compact disc117+ ILCs For entire blood immune system cell cultures, 2? (
  • However, as we age, immune system function declines, also due to age-related damage to hematopoietic (blood) stem cells. (
  • In older people, there is another problem with blood formation (hematopoiesis): they make fewer lymphocytes (cells of the immune system), so they often cannot deal with infections as well and usually do not show a highly effective immune response after vaccination. (
  • The immuno-proteasome is induced during the immune response in mammals but, together with intermediate-type proteasomes, also exists as constitutive proteasome complexes, depending on tissues or cell type, and can have distinct proteolytic activities. (
  • 2 - 9 The subsequent innate immune response involves the transcription of numerous proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which initiate the influx of various immune cell subsets into the kidney, that contribute to the early amplification of the inflammatory response and AKI by enhancing immune-mediated tubular cell death. (
  • 10 , 11 To limit overshooting immunopathology in sterile tissue injuries and allow tissue recovery, 12 a number of counterregulatory mechanisms exists that mostly limits immune activation of intrarenal dendritic cells. (
  • The discovery, published in Molecular Cell on Dec. 10, presents new opportunities to develop drugs to enhance the immune system, or to slow down hyperactive immune cells in cases of autoimmunity and cancer, Pomerantz said. (
  • The discovery of GAKIN's role in immune cell activation began when researchers attached the gene that codes for luciferase-a natural protein that makes fireflies glow-to a gene that CARD11 turns on in response to an infection. (
  • Many of these stimuli are powerful activators of innate immune system replies (11) to which JNK activation makes a significant contribution (10). (
  • Finally, this function shows that the amber suppression-mediated hereditary incorporation strategy provides applicability being a path to a course of site-specific immuno-PET probes that may potentially guide immune system checkpoint-targeted immunotherapy. (
  • Immune Cell Composition in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer. (
  • New understandings of how cancer evades innate immune defences - including macrophages, dendritic cells (DC) and Natural Killer (NK) cells - suggest a second, and perhaps even more significant, immunotherapy revolution may be at hand. (
  • Recent preclinical and early clinical studies demonstrate that targeting molecular mechanisms that many cancer cells use to block macrophages and other innate immune cells from attacking may be effective against a wide range of cancers. (
  • Research shows that macrophages and other cells of the innate immune system help fight cancer in two major ways - and both potentially broaden and strengthen the body's overall anti-cancer immune response. (
  • First, innate immune cells recognise general patterns of abnormality and foreignness rather than highly-specific antigens. (
  • Second, innate immune cells can help the adaptive immune system better discover and destroy its specific targets in a variety of ways. (
  • Macrophages and DCs, which can attract and activate cells of the adaptive immune system, including B- and T-lymphocytes, that, in turn, kill cancer cells. (
  • Further, we studied autoimmune and inflammatory diseases using chemically induced and T cell transfer model of colitis and rheumatoid arthritis to better understand the role of SMAR1 in immune responses. (
  • This study demonstrates that AE2 expression is regulated by oxidative stress in airway epithelial cells and that this regulation correlates with activation of AP-1. (
  • The comparative role of activator protein 1 and Smad factors in the regulation of Timp-1 and MMP-1 gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1. (
  • Examining epigenetic regulation of gene expression, such as by DNA methylation, faces similar issues, where indirect and widespread changes in epigenetic mutants complicate the exploration of locus-specific effects. (
  • These cytokines display a similar four-helix bundle structure and functional redundancy in the regulation and homeostasis of the lymphoid system, although each member also has specific functions. (
  • Instead, it harbors an F-box motif and primarily functions as the substrate recognition subunit of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, SCF Cyclin F . By targeting specific proteins for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, cyclin F plays a critical role in the regulation of centrosomal duplication, DNA replication and repair, and maintenance of genomic stability. (
  • Regulation of the constitutive expression of the human CYP1A2 gene: cis elements and their interactions with proteins. (
  • Through its regulation of gene activity, the STAT3 protein is involved in many cellular functions. (
  • Dr. Appella was among the first researchers to identify the tumor suppressor protein p53, and he has studied its roles in the cell and regulation by post-translational modification. (
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the discovery and regulation of Cdk5, highlighting recent findings revealing its role in neuronal/synaptic functions, circadian clocks, DNA damage, cell cycle reentry, mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as its non-neuronal functions under physiological and pathological conditions. (
  • The main goal of this thesis was to gain detailed molecular insights into the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of these protein quality control networks in the ecologically, medically and industrially important phylum of low GC, Gram-positive bacteria. (
  • In addition to the transcriptional regulation of CtsR low GC, Gram-positive protein quality control systems are regulated post-transcriptionally. (
  • Taken together, our results indicate that FoxF is a direct target of FGF signaling and is predominantly involved in the regulation of heart cell migration. (
  • Given the broad function of proteasomes, in quality control, antigenic peptide generation or short-lived protein-tuned regulation, the cell is likely to adapt proteasome plasticity and dynamics to meet specific subcellular needs or to respond to stress or other stimuli . (
  • Microglia, the resident brain macrophages, are the principal cells involved in the regulation of inflammatory and antimicrobial responses in the CNS. (
  • Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in a cell or in a multicellular organism. (
  • 5] "Up-regulation of the IKCa1 potassium channel during T-cell activation. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Regulation of T cell lineage commitment by SMAR1 during inflammatory & autoimmune diseases. (
  • These data demonstrate that BAFF/APRIL are potent growth factors in B cell malignancies. (
  • Other mediators of osteoblastic metastasis include ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, and bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). (
  • We used AUY922 (also known as NVP-AUY922 or luminespib), which is one of the most effective HSP90i, and VE821, a potent and specific ATRi. (
  • Within this complex, cyclin F functions as the substrate-recognition subunit and targets specific proteins for ubiquitylation, and subsequent degradation [ 5 ]. (
  • Effectors of the UPR temporarily reduce protein synthesis, while enhancing degradation of misfolded proteins and increasing the folding capacity of the ER. (
  • McsB is needed to target specific substrates to ClpC, either for refolding or degradation by the ClpCP protease. (
  • it is involved in the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of proteins. (
  • all, the download Relocation Failures in and cell ha34 as signal degradation map pathogenic, since signaling down discrete acid in adrenal extrinsic or inherent s80 members by palmitoyl-modification said then retinal complex on different data to Deciduous corepressor, allowing the pattern-recognition of complete activation( Wang ZC et al 2008, Lippmann J et al 2008). (
  • The possibility of high-throughoutput screening using proteomic techniques, particularly redox proteomics, provide more comprehensive overview of the interaction of proteins, as well as the interplay among processes involved in neuroprotection. (
  • In growing tumors, TILs are often functionally impaired as a result of interaction with, or signals from, transformed cells and the tumor microenvironment. (
  • interaction takes place in unstressed cells and promotes recruitment of HSPA5/BiP (PubMed:29198525). (
  • This McsB function is inhibited in non-stressed cells by a direct interaction with ClpC. (
  • Some data [ ( PUBMED:9799248 ) ] indicate that the BRCT domain functions as a protein-protein interaction module. (
  • Our findings demonstrate an additional function for this domain in protein-protein interaction and co-activation of p53. (
  • These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of a second p53 interaction domain in BRCA1 proteins and suggests that BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins, like BRCA1, function as p53 co-activators. (
  • Our results demonstrate a direct interaction between STAT1 protein and catechins displaying anti-STAT1 activity. (
  • Recently, compounds that reversibly disrupt the NRF2-KEAP1 interaction have been described, opening the field to a new era of safer NRF2 activators. (
  • the interaction occurs on chromatin in UV-irradiated damaged cells (By similarity). (
  • 10] Other soluble factors that have an impact on osteoblastic bone metastasis include the proteases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and PSA. (
  • uPA, urokinase-type plasminogen activator. (
  • Sensors detect this 'ER stress' and initate signalling events that temporarily reduce global protein synthesis while enhancing production of folding chaperones. (
  • In addition, treatment of ONH astrocytes and LC cells with exogenous TGF-β2 increased ECM protein synthesis and secretion. (
  • The paper describes how monomeric Orb2 represses while oligomeric or prion-like Orb2 activates a crucial step in the complex cellular process that leads to protein synthesis. (
  • Increases in bile acid synthesis, serum and fecal total bile acids, and specific bile acid transporters were found. (
  • The phase promotes cut around by the mediated activation of the terminal complex cell synthesis Interleukin-6 decaprenylphenol transcription glycogen( IL6ST, gp130). (
  • Data from nonhuman primate models and human autopsy cases suggest that EVD severity is not a direct effect of tissue damage resulting from destruction of infected cells because only foci of necrosis are observed ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human SP110 protein. (
  • SP110 (AAH19059.1, 1 a.a. ~ 547 a.a) full-length human protein. (
  • Our laboratory studies the Myb oncogene family that is mutated in human cancers of blood cells (leukemia), brain, breast, and salivary gland. (
  • Using human lung ECs and EC-specific SOCS3 knockout mice, we tested the hypothesis that SOCS3 confers microtubule (MT)-mediated protection against endothelial dysfunction. (
  • This affinity purified antibody is directed against human Pdcd4 protein. (
  • This affinity purified antibody was prepared from whole rabbit serum produced by repeated immunizations with a synthetic peptide corresponding amino acids near the carboxyl terminus of human Pdcd4 protein. (
  • The promoter activity of a human CYP1A2 gene sequence [base pairs (bp) -3203 to +58 bp] was measured in transiently transfected HepG2 cells using fusion constructs containing the luciferase reporter gene. (
  • These results suggested that the 259-bp DNA fragment contained positive regulator binding sites and HNF-1 could contribute to the liver-specific expression of human CYP1A2. (
  • The present invention relates to the generation of neural cells from undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. (
  • ES cell lines derived from human blastocysts allow the study of the cellular and molecular biology of early human development, functional genomics, generation of differentiated cells from the stem cells for use in transplantation or drug discovery and screening in vitro. (
  • Human ES cells have been demonstrated to give rise to neural progenitor cells in vitro and have further demonstrated the capability of the progenitors to differentiate in vitro into mature neurons. (
  • 95%) expandable populations of proliferating neural progenitors from human ES cells. (
  • Polyclonal antibody raised in rabbit against human LSD1 (Lysine-specific demethylase 1), using a KLH-conjugated synthetic peptide from the inner part of the protein. (
  • Spontaneous human lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor target cells. (
  • Flow cytometry: The reagent is designed for analysis of human blood cells using 10 μl reagent / 100 μl of whole blood or 10 6 cells in a suspension. (
  • Separation of human CD267 positive B cells (red-filled) from CD267 negative CD19 negative lymphocytes (black-dashed) in flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral whole blood stained using anti-human CD267 (1A1) PE antibody (10 μl reagent / 100 μl of peripheral whole blood). (
  • Studies suggest that alterations in cell survival contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). (
  • For use in flow cytometry and immunohistochemical analyses of the CXCR4 receptor in human cell lines and tissues. (
  • We show that the genomic distributions of H3.1 and H3.3 oncohistones in human patient-derived DMG cells are consistent with the DNAreplication-coupled deposition of histone H3.1 and the predominant replication-independent deposition of histone H3.3. (
  • We compared the expression of BAFF, APRIL, TACI and BAFF-R gene expression in 40 human tumor types - brain, epithelial, lymphoid, germ cells - to that of their normal tissue counterparts using publicly available gene expression data, including the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database. (
  • TGF-β2 localization and secretion was examined in human donor tissues and ONH astrocytes and LC cells. (
  • ONH astrocytes and LC cells secrete TGF-β2, indicating that these cells may be an in vivo source of TGF-β2 in the human ONH. (
  • The human p53 tumor suppressor protein is centrally involved in multiple processes that reduce both the initiation of tumors and their progression. (
  • The importance of this negative-feedback loop has been repeatedly confirmed by studies showing that PPM1D is amplified or overexpressed in several types of cancers, including human primary breast cancer, neuroblastoma and ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. (
  • Based on the SEQUEST from database of E.coli host and target protein, the LC-MS/MS Analysis result of CSB-EP022812HU could indicate that this peptide derived from E.coli-expressed Homo sapiens (Human) STAT3. (
  • The purity of this human STAT3 protein is greater than 90% measured by SDS-PAGE. (
  • Movement sorting and cytometry of ILCs Solitary cells from either bloodstream, urine, or renal cells had been blocked with human being BD Fc Stop? (
  • Moreover, a possible role for vitamin D in liver fibrosis has gained further support from the finding that VDR is expressed in human as well as in rat liver nonparenchymal cells, such as Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) [10]. (
  • A fourth type of Hsf (Hsf4) was characterized from human cells. (
  • We have extended the determination of proteasome complexes composition in a wide range of human cell lines and showed that proteasome complexes are highly dynamic protein assemblies. (
  • In addition to its conventional role in restricting tissue size during development kanken mini , Hippo signaling has been widely identified as an important regulator of cellular migration and cell survival, as well as playing a role in the development of various human cancers. (
  • At this stage the fastest way to find out what any specific change does is to try it, first in animal studies, and then confirming in human tests. (
  • Materials and Methods: The human monocyte cell line THP-1 was treated with LPS and subsequently co-cultured with the human hepatic cancer cell line HepG2. (
  • Since EGCG may be a promising lead compound for new anti-STAT1 drug design, 15 synthetic catechins, characterized by the (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate stereochemistry, were studied in the human mammary MDA-MB-231 cell line to identify the minimal structural features that preserve the anti-STAT1 activity. (
  • Recent evidence suggests that PIAS1 suppresses the invasive and metastatic growth of human breast cancer cells in three-dimensional-derived multicellular structures and xenograft animal model, respectively [11]. (
  • In mechanistic studies, we find that PIAS1 acts via sumoylation of SnoN 79350-37-1 supplier to suppress the invasive growth SK of human breast cancer cell-derived organoids. (
  • Cell lines and transfections Human embryonic kidney epithelial 293T cells were cultured in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium with high glucose and L-glutamine (DMEM) (Invitrogen, Canada) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Invitrogen). (
  • MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA), were maintained in 10% FBS-supplemented DMEM. (
  • Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of human colonic macrophages reveals niche-specific subsets. (
  • CD4+ T cells persist for years in the human small intestine and display a TH1 cytokine profile. (
  • An engineered human albumin enhances half-life and transmucosal delivery when fused to protein-based biologics. (
  • Resident memory CD8 T cells persist for years in human small intestine. (
  • Deciphering myeloid-derived suppressor cells: isolation and markers in humans, mice and non-human primates. (
  • Recently, it was shown in an experimental human model of allergic rhinitis (AR) that activated monocytes rapidly accumulate in the nasal mucosa after local allergen challenge, where they promote recruitment of Th2 cells and eosinophils. (
  • Loss of sarcomeric proteins via upregulation of JAK/STAT signaling underlies interferon-γ-induced contractile deficit in engineered human myocardium. (
  • Instead, cyclin F is the founding member of the F-box family of proteins, whose 69 members share a conserved F-box domain [ 4 ]. (
  • This gene provides instructions for production of the STAT3 protein, part of the STAT family of proteins. (
  • Web Oct 18, 2022 · The protein encoded by this gene is similar to insulin in function and structure and is a member of a family of proteins involved in mediating growth and development. (
  • DNA-STAT complexes in 32Dp210Bcr/Abl cells were similar, but not identical, to those formed after IL-3 stimulation. (
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) enzymes degrade cAMP and underpin the compartmentalization of cAMP signaling through their targeting to particular protein complexes and intracellular locales. (
  • To describe the types of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) it is important to consider that proteins can interact in a "transient" way (to produce some specific effect in a short time, like a signal transduction) or to interact with other proteins in a "stable" way to form complexes that become molecular machines within the living systems. (
  • A protein complex assembly can result in the formation of homo-oligomeric or hetero-oligomeric complexes . (
  • The recruitment of distinct protein complexes at the non-prion and prion-like forms to create altered activity states indicates the prion-like behavior is in essence a protein conformation-based switch. (
  • NF-kappa-B heterodimeric p65-p50 and p65-c-Rel complexes are transcriptional activators. (
  • The elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (e.g., interleukin [IL] 6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and 1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and immunomodulatory cytokines (e.g. (
  • STAT3 is activated by several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6)24,25,26, which is a prime target for therapeutic intervention in several inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Still's disease and giant cell arthritis. (
  • Results: SMAR1 transgenic mice were resistant to dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis with decreased expression of Th1 and Th17 specific cytokines. (
  • In ascidian embryos, FGF/MAPK-mediated activation of the transcription factor Ets1/2 is required for heart tissue specification and cell migration. (
  • Next, we found that FoxF function is required downstream and in parallel to the FGF/MAPK/Ets cascade for cell migration. (
  • Actin-binding proteins regulate the polymerization and depolymerization of actin, connect actin-based structures to membranes and to other cytoskeletal elements, power the movement of actin filaments, and cross-link actin filaments into bundles. (
  • The Arp2 and Arp3 subunits may nucleate actin polymerization, while the p41-Arc subunit is a WD repeat-containing protein that may regulate both the activity and localization of the Arp2/3 complex. (
  • Oxidative stress activates anion exchange protein 2 and AP-1 in airway epithelial cells. (
  • In this analysis, we performed unsupervised clustering of the SARP cohort using bronchial epithelial cell gene expression data, identifying a transcriptional signature for participants suffering exacerbation-prone asthma with impaired lung function. (
  • Lgr6, like Lgr5, is a specific stem-cell marker in several epithelial layers: whereas Lgr5 marks proliferative stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract, Lgr6 specifically occurs on the multi-potential stem cells of the skin. (
  • Interstitial mononuclear cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, were the predominant source of IL-22 secretion, whereas IL-22 receptor was expressed by tubular epithelial cells exclusively. (
  • Depleting IL-22-producing cells during the healing phase impaired epithelial recovery, which could be rescued entirely by reconstituting mice with IL-22. (
  • EMT promotes the transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into migratory, 79350-37-1 supplier invasive, and mesenchymal-like cells 79350-37-1 supplier [3]. (
  • Importantly, PIAS1 acts via sumoylation of SnoN to suppress TGF-induced EMT of non-transformed epithelial cells [12]. (
  • Expression and function of resolvin D1n-3 DPA receptors in oral epithelial cells. (
  • Several other CRISPR-Cas9-based activation systems, such as the synergistic activation mediator (SAM) as well as a hybrid VP64-p65-Rta (VPR) activator, have been developed to further enhance dCas9-mediated transcriptional upregulation as well as to recruit multiple protein effectors 13 , 14 . (
  • Specific AP-2 family members differ in their expression patterns and binding affinity for different promoters. (
  • Western Blot analysis of SP110 expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00003431-T01 ) by SP110 MaxPab polyclonal antibody. (
  • We found that PFIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of A549 cells while decreasing the expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. (
  • Alterations in in vivo AE2 protein expression were evaluated in lung tissue of rats exposed to 70% O(2). (
  • Previous studies of the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) cohort linked gene expression changes to specific clinical and physiologic characteristics. (
  • A large proportion of mRNAs, proteins and organelles needs to become localized to specific and divers cellular compartments in order to polarize cells, to direct cellular development, and to efficiently focus the expression of proteins to specific regions of cells. (
  • Targeted delivery of mRNAs also provides complex cells with the opportunity to rapidly, locally and temporally control gene expression through local induction of translation, for instance through a local signal. (
  • In this section we collected the three favorite parts which showed high expression level and functional activity in the transfected cells. (
  • Results: GSCs showed higher expression of ALDH1A1 and CD44 and IC50 values for gefitinib than their respective parental cells, suggesting that gefitinib can lead to propagation of CSC-enriched gefitinib-resistant cells. (
  • Treatment with ATRA was found to significantly reduce the increased expression of ALDH1A1 and CD44 and the IC50 values for gefitinib in A549GSC and H1650GSC cells. (
  • We quantified the expression of p-Ser-STAT3 in cancer cells by immunohistochemistry, and determined the clinicopathological significance of p-Ser-STAT3 expression and prognostic outcomes in patients with UTUC. (
  • In advanced cancer samples (stage T3/T4), p-Ser-STAT3 expression is the only independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio = 5.91, p = 0.01) and cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio = 8.83, p = 0.039). (
  • Ke, H.L. Over-expression of Activated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma. (
  • But what if you could use the highly specific CRISPR-Cas9 system to target your gene of interest and alter its expression without cutting the DNA backbone? (
  • Among the cyclins that play a crucial role in cell-cycle progression, is cyclin F. It is most similar to cyclin A, both in terms of amino acid sequence and the cyclic pattern of expression during the cell cycle [ 3 ]. (
  • Recently, we reported that in vitro and in vivo persistent infection of neurons by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) downregulated GAP43 expression, a protein involved in neuronal plasticity associated with learning and memory. (
  • Proteins abundances that differed by a factor of two-fold or greater were subjected to more detailed analysis, and enzyme linked to immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to correlate with protein expression data. (
  • BAFF and APRIL are essential for the survival of normal and malignant B lymphocytes, and altered expression of BAFF or APRIL or of their receptors (BCMA, TACI, or BAFF-R) have been reported in various B-cell malignancies including B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. (
  • Therefore, we looked for the expression of BAFF, APRIL and of their receptors - BAFF-R, BCMA , and TACI - in various cancers, compared to their normal tissue or cell counterparts and in association with disease staging. (
  • 6,7] Endothelin-1(ET-1) may also increase osteoblast activity by inhibiting expression of DKK1 in bone marrow stromal cells. (
  • In patients with prostate cancer, BMP expression by prostate cancer cells has correlated with increased recurrence rates and decreased survival. (
  • Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the adult mouse brain indicates that the expression of Cdk5 is not restricted to neurons [ 10 ] (Fig. 1 ). (
  • Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the expression of Cdk5 , Cdk5r1 (the gene encoding p35), and Cdk5r2 (the gene encoding p39) in young and aged mouse brain. (
  • They were molecularly characterized by gene and protein expression profiling, and by quantitative whole proteome analysis. (
  • Its expression is tissue-specific and, in contrast to the other vertebrate Hsfs, it has no activator. (
  • YAP and TAZ compartmentalization depends on the activation or inactivation of the upstream cascade and influences gene expression, controlling cell fate ( Brevini et al. (
  • This technology has wide_ranging therapeutic potential and could lay the groundwork for treating diseases where a gene's expression needs to be altered (such as turning down CCR5 in HIV), or where a mutation needs to be repaired (such as sickle cell diseases or hemophilia). (
  • It will have secondary and further effects, altering mechanisms and rates of gene expression for other proteins, and thus may or may not end up achieving the result that theory suggests it will. (
  • Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. (
  • However, the influence of high Lp(a) on the gene expression in blood monocytes as a major cell involved in atherogenesis is poorly described. (
  • Essential for cytokine gene expression in T-cells (PubMed:15790681). (
  • The aim of this study was to elucidate the correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression changes induced by the BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid cells. (
  • We performed gene expression microarray and DNA methylation array analyses for Nthy/WT and Nthy/V600E cells. (
  • Our results suggest that the BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid cells modulates DNA methylation and results in cancer-related gene expression. (
  • For this, we compared protein expression profiles between vehicle treated and G6 treated cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (
  • CREM deficiency results in the lack of post-meiotic gene expression and a ten-fold increase in apoptotic germ cells. (
  • Rett syndrome and MECP2 duplication syndrome are neurodevelopmental disorders that arise from loss-of-function and gain-of-function alterations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) expression, respectively. (
  • Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a transcriptional regulator important for controlling gene expression. (
  • Reduced Expression of Autophagy Markers and Expansion of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Correlate With Poor T Cell Response in Severe COVID-19 Patients. (
  • Expression of SARS-COV-2 cell receptor gene ACE2 is associated with immunosuppression and metabolic reprogramming in lung adenocarcinoma based on bioinformatics analyses of gene expression profiles. (
  • Downregulation of SMAR1 upregulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) and IL-17 expression that caused generation of more proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells leading to inflammation and disease. (
  • These phosphorylated regions serve as docking sites for the SH2 domains of specific signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, including STAT-1, STAT-3, and, to a lesser extent, STAT-5 [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • An activated Jak can in turn phosphorylate and activate the Signal Transducers and 51543-40-9 supplier Activators of Transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors. (
  • In mammalian cells, the ETS (E-twenty-six or E26 transformation-specific) family of TFs consists of over 25 members that share a conserved DNA binding (ETS) domain that consists of 85 amino acids. (
  • EGFL7 is a secreted angiogenic factor, which in contrast to the well-known secreted angiogenic molecules VEGF and FGF-2, is almost exclusively expressed by endothelial cells and may act in an autocrine fashion. (
  • Mutations in the SRCAP gene may result in an altered protein that interferes with normal activation of the CREBBP gene, resulting in problems in development. (
  • We hypothesized that the carcinogenicity of vanadium may be associated with its ROS-generating potential leading to activation of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). (
  • In the present study, we investigated the activation of AP-1 with vanadate using mouse epidermal cells (JB6 p+) stably transfected with AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid. (
  • Sodium formate, a specific OH scavenger, did not inhibit vanadate-induced AP-1 activation, whereas NADPH enhanced AP-1 activation. (
  • This type of hyperinflammatory state is reminiscent of 2 rheumatologic disorders known as macrophage activation syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which are characterized by macrophage and T-cell activation. (
  • An evaluation of 2 cohorts of patients with EVD revealed that a marker of macrophage activation (sCD163) but not T-cell activation (sCD25) was associated with severe and fatal EVD. (
  • 2012. Activation of Aicda gene transcription by Pax5 in plasmacytoma cells. (
  • HSPs that are normally bound to HSF1 are titrate away by damaged proteins with resulting HSF-1 activation. (
  • Clinically, participants in this asthma cluster exhibited a mixed inflammatory process and bore transcriptional hallmarks of NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation, despite high corticosteroid exposure. (
  • Recent research in protein intrinsic disorder (ID) has changed our understanding of transcriptional activation domains from 'negative noodles' to ID regions with function-related, short sequence motifs and molecular recognition features with structural propensities. (
  • Although all DC subsets in humanized mice are efficient at presenting peptide to CD8 + T cells, CD141 + DC are superior in their capacity to cross-present protein Ag to CD8 + T cells following activation with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. (
  • Several preclinical studies showed that IL-21 has antitumor activity in different tumor models, through mechanism involving the activation of NK and T or B cell responses. (
  • In conclusion, DDT transcription may be regulated in a cell-dependent manner, and were enhanced by AMPK activation in SGBS adipocytes through inhibiting the mTOR signaling. (
  • HSPA5/BiP is a negative regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) that prevents homodimerization of ERN1/IRE1 and subsequent activation of the protein (PubMed:12637535, PubMed:29198525). (
  • Isolated thyroid cell membranes were incubated with various concentrations of TSH, and activation of G proteins was measured by quantification of GTPγ 35 S binding to the membranes. (
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a lymphokine synthesized by some T cells following activation. (
  • In addition, it may be inferred that TSLPR is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma through the activation of HASM cells by TSLP. (
  • Aberrant activation of the UPR may be linked to disease pathogenesis and progression, but at present, our understanding of the context-specific and disease-specific mechanisms linking these processes is incomplete. (
  • In addition, McsB activation depends on the presence of its activator McsA. (
  • Previous studies emphasized the importance of the BRCT domain, which shows homology with p53 binding protein (53BP1), in transcriptional activation, growth inhibition and tumor suppression. (
  • These results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which BRCA1 proteins function is through recruitment of CBP/p300 associated HAT/FAT activity for acetylation of p53 to specific promoters resulting in transcriptional activation. (
  • Johns Hopkins scientists have identified a previously unrecognized step in the activation of infection-fighting white blood cells, the main immunity troops in the body's war on bacteria, viruses and foreign proteins. (
  • Acetylates histones, giving a specific tag for transcriptional activation (By similarity). (
  • Using these cells we discovered that MEKK1 is necessary for JNK activation in response to different proinflammatory stimuli including TNFα IL-1 dsRNA and LPS. (
  • The ability of a cell to counteract stressful conditions is also known as cellular stress response or heat shock response, which is an ancient and highly conserved cytoprotective mechanism [ 3 , 5 ]. (
  • Proteotoxic stresses causing accumulation of misfolded proteins trigger the cellular stress response. (
  • METHODS: To investigate the development of a cellular response to placental parasites during pregnancy, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from women at the time of their confinement. (
  • PDE4 activator compounds thus have potential as therapeutics for treating disease driven by elevated cAMP signaling as well as providing a tool for evaluating the action of long PDE4 isoforms in regulating cAMP-mediated cellular processes. (
  • Buzard G S,Kasprzak K S Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer Toxic doses of transition metals are capable of disturbing the natural oxidation/reduction balance in cells through various mechanisms stemming from their own complex redox reactions with endogenous oxidants and effects on cellular antioxidant systems. (
  • The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a critical role in cellular stress and cancer prevention. (
  • By using special single-cell methods, such as single-cell RNA-Seq or single-cell ATAC-Seq, at the Sequencing Institute's Core Facility, it was also possible to trace the activity of TAZ in each individual cell at the cellular level and to observe it directly in vivo. (
  • As the major cellular protease, the proteasome is a key player in eukaryotic protein homeostasis and dysregulation of the UPS has been involved in neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. (
  • In this study, our data support this hypothesis as we show that G6-induced inhibition of Jak2-mediated pathogenic cell growth correlates with the specific cleavage and cellular reorganization of vimentin. (
  • LSD1 (lysine specific demethylase 1, UniProt/Swiss-Prot entry O60341) is a component of the histone demethylase complex that uses FAD as a prosthetic goup. (
  • In addition to histones, HATs acetylate non-histone proteins, implicating them in a wide variety of regulartory roles for these enzymes. (
  • Histone H3.1 is massively produced only in S phase of the cell cycle, but histone H3.3 is produced constitutively. (
  • Identification of protease serine S1 family member 53 as a mitochondrial protein in murine islet beta cells, Islets, Vol.14, No.1, 1-13, 2021. (
  • Closer inspection revealed that serine protease granzyme A, alpha-1-B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and the T4 surface glycoprotein precursor (TSGP) were among the up-regulated proteins in DEW and SP. (
  • These include lead's ability to inhibit or mimic the actions of calcium (which can affect calcium-dependent or related processes) and to interact with proteins (including those with sulfhydryl, amine, phosphate, and carboxyl groups) [ATSDR 2010]. (
  • The Myb proteins interact with a highly conserved multi-protein complex called the MuvB core. (
  • Zyxin is a low-abundance adhesion plaque protein which has been shown to interact with CRP. (
  • We also found that BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins interact with p53 in vitro and in vivo. (
  • It was thought that the unique segments of Act3p would be involved in its distinct function from other actin-family Proteins and we tried to identify proteins which interact with the segments. (
  • Once the basal body and the hook are assembled, FlgM is exported out of the cell and FliA associates with the core RNA polymerase to recognize class III promoters [ 5 ]. (
  • Pdcd4 also suppresses the transactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1)-responsive promoters by c-Jun. (
  • However, the relationship between SRCAP gene mutations and the specific signs and symptoms of Floating-Harbor syndrome is unknown. (
  • Mutations in SRCAP, encoding SNF2-related CREBBP activator protein, cause Floating-Harbor syndrome. (
  • Both METTL3 and METTL14 are upregulated in all subtypes of AML, despite the heterogeneity of this blood cell cancer in terms of chromosomal rearrangement and gene mutations. (
  • Various mutations have been identified across the length of the STAT3 protein. (
  • Jak2 can become constitutively active by several different gene alterations including specific chromosomal translocations and point mutations. (
  • TAL1/SCL is a hematopoietic-specific oncogene and its activity is regulated by associated transcriptional co-activators and corepressors. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cells age very heterogeneously. (
  • Our blood is constantly regenerated by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). (
  • and ERIBA in Groningen, the Netherlands, have now used new analytical methods at the single-cell level to investigate in more detail what happens during the aging process in hematopoietic stem cells and what role the TAZ protein plays in this process. (
  • Peripheral host T cells survive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and promote graft-versus-host disease. (
  • Accumulation of misfolded proteins within the lumen results in ER stress, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). (
  • Excessive protein load, incorrect amino acid sequence or conditions that perturb protein folding lead to the accumulation of misfolded proteins. (
  • The same goes for bone cells, blood cells and all other cells that make up various tissue types. (
  • and tPA, tissue plasminogen activator. (
  • During this period, nearly every major biological system, organ, tissue and cell is responding with compensatory and adaptive mechanisms managing the short-term disturbance to restore balance/homoeostasis. (
  • Mouse ES cells are able to give rise to neural tissue in vitro either spontaneously or during embryoid body formation. (
  • The neural tissue often forms in these circumstances in amongst a mixture of a range of cell types. (
  • The genomic organization of the VDR at locus 12q13.1 shows that the VDR gene itself is quite large (over 100kb) and has an extensive promoter region capable of generating multiple tissue-specific transcripts [6]. (
  • Recent studies have shown that YAP and TAZ are also essential for tissue regeneration in the gut or liver, helping cells to better cope with the stress of tissue damage by reprogramming them to a more primitive state. (
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development cell growth, morphogenesis , tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (
  • fixing the cell and tissue damage that causes aging rather than papering over it, an approach that can in principle produce large gains in life span in our species, but which has little to do with most of the approaches to gene therapies currently under development. (
  • Background/Aim: Monocytes migrate into the tissue where they differentiate into various types of macrophages with tissue-specific characteristics. (
  • They then migrate into tissues where they terminally differentiate into various types of macrophages with tissue-specific characteristics. (
  • WT DNA was discovered by PCR in the thymus (Body 1a), spleen and lymph nodes (not really proven) of Perform11.10/IL-2 KO mice, suggesting that maternal cells had filled those tissue. (
  • This transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image revealed the presence of numerous herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions, located inside a cell nucleus in this tissue sample. (
  • The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) family of transcription factors was originally defined on the basis of a common DNA binding domain in the mammalian factors Pit-1, Oct-1, and Oct-2 as well as the nematode protein Unc-86. (
  • Mammalian and avian cysteine-rich protein (CRP), a 192 amino-acid protein of unknown function. (
  • Mammalian cysteine-rich intestinal protein (CRIP), a small protein which seems to have a role in zinc absorption and may function as an intracellular zinc transport protein. (
  • These results suggest that stimulation of GABAB receptors by GHB activates intracellular Ca2+ stores and that the increased [Ca2+]i resulting from release of stored Ca2+ plays an important role in increasing the CRE- and AP-1 DNA-binding activities in cultured cerebellar granule cells. (
  • One gene named ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE BTB/POZ PROTEIN 1 (AHT1) was upregulated more than 2.5 times by ABA, and its coding region possessed a BTB/POZ domain, which is the common feature of CRL3 substrate receptors. (
  • Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of inflammation and is mediated by inflammatory factors that signal through G protein-coupled receptors including protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1). (
  • The constant display of large numbers of IL-2 receptors which may be aberrant in the ATL cells may play a role in the uncontrolled growth of these leukemic T cells. (
  • LGR proteins are cell-surface receptors. (
  • Lgr1, Lgr2 and Lgr3 are hormone receptors that signal through G proteins. (
  • But Lgr4, Lgr5 and Lgr6 have been considered 'orphan' receptors because, despite extensive searching, their activators remained mysterious. (
  • 6 , 7 DAMPs activate a set of pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or inflammasomes, on renal parenchymal cells as well as in interstitial dendritic cells. (
  • McsA is able to sense the redox state of the cell via its highly conserved cysteine residues. (
  • No. C15410067) on sheared chromatin from 4,000,000 K562 cells using the "iDeal ChIP-seq" kit (Cat. (
  • ChIP was performed on sheared chromatin from 4,000,000 K562 cells using 1 μg of the Diagenode antibody against LSD1 (cat. (
  • Using Drosophila as a model, we demonstrate that inhibition of H3K27 trimethylation occurs only when H3K27M oncohistones are deposited into chromatin and only when expressed in cycling cells. (
  • We propose that oncohistones inhibit the H3K27 methyltransferase as chromatin patterns are being duplicated in proliferating cells, predisposing them to tumorigenesis. (
  • To directly assess the genomic distribution of H3.3 and H3.1 K27M oncohistones, we applied CUT&RUN chromatin profiling ( Skene and Henikoff, 2017 ) to a panel of patient-derived DMG cell lines. (
  • Our results support the general notion that the impact of a particular activator on transcription in vivo may vary depending on the promoter and the chromatin context. (
  • The encoded protein also stabilizes constitutive heterochromatin to maintain the overall chromatin structure. (
  • RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line was stained with Rat Anti-Mouse M-CSF R/CD115 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB3818, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # MAB0061 , open histogram), followed by Allophycocyanin-conjugated Anti-Rat IgG F(ab') 2 Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0113 ). (
  • The antibody reacts with Pdcd4 protein that is either phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated at Ser457. (
  • Whole cell extracts (40 μg) from HeLa cells transfected with LSD1 siRNA (lane 2) and from an untransfected control (lane 1) were analysed by Western blot using the Diagenode antibody against LSD1 (Cat. (
  • HeLa cells were stained with the Diagenode antibody against LSD1 (Cat. (
  • The cells were immunofluorescently labelled with the LSD1 antibody (left) diluted 1:200 in blocking solution followed by an anti-rabbit antibody conjugated to Alexa488. (
  • The optimal antibody concentration should be determined for each specific application. (
  • You can block the antibody by the specific target amino acid sequence of peptide. (
  • However, antibody therapy only works against cancers that display specific antigens, limiting their effectiveness. (
  • SRCAP is one of several proteins that help activate a gene called CREBBP . (
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that coal from the Pennsylvania (PA) coalmine region, which has a high prevalence of CWP, can activate both AP-1 and NFAT in JB6 mouse epidermal cells. (
  • Following signaling, proteins that activate transcription replace the inhibitory proteins, generating a bi-stable switch. (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that necrotic cell-derived TLR4 agonists activate intrarenal mononuclear cells to secrete IL-22, which accelerates tubular regeneration and recovery in AKI. (
  • Background Activated T helper type 2 (Th2) cells are believed to play a pivotal role in allergic airway inflammation, but which cells attract and activate Th2 cells locally have not been fully determined. (
  • Conclusion: Our findings suggest that combination treatment with ATRA prevents gefitinib-induced enrichment of ALDH1A1bright/CD44high CSCs and enhances gefitinib-induced growth inhibition of NSCLC/ADC cells. (