G(M2) Activator Protein: An essential cofactor for the degradation of G(M2)GANGLIOSIDE by lysosomal BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES. Genetic mutations resulting in loss of G(M2) activator protein are one of the causes of TAY-SACHS DISEASE, AB VARIANT.Sphingolipid Activator Proteins: A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Saposins: A group of four homologous sphingolipid activator proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of a common protein precursor molecule referred to as prosaposin.G(M2) Ganglioside: A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein: A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein: A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Hexosaminidase A: A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is a heteromeric protein comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase alpha subunit is a case of TAY-SACHS DISEASE. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Gangliosidoses: A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gangliosidoses, GM2: A group of recessively inherited diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in the neuronal cells. Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES system or G(M2) ACTIVATOR PROTEIN leading to disruption of normal degradation of GANGLIOSIDES, a subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS.Monoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Tay-Sachs Disease: An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset in infancy of an exaggerated startle response, followed by paralysis, dementia, and blindness. It is caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of the HEXOSAMINIDASE A resulting in lipid-laden ganglion cells. It is also known as the B variant (with increased HEXOSAMINIDASE B but absence of hexosaminidase A) and is strongly associated with Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator: An extracellular receptor specific for UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. It is attached to the cell membrane via a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and plays a role in the co-localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with PLASMINOGEN.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Plasminogen Activators: A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.Hexosaminidase B: A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Receptors, Cyclic AMP: Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Leukodystrophy, Metachromatic: An autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of cerebroside sulfate (SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS) in the nervous system and other organs. Pathological features include diffuse demyelination, and metachromatically-staining granules in many cell types such as the GLIAL CELLS. There are several allelic and nonallelic forms with a variety of neurological symptoms.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.Fos-Related Antigen-2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is closely related to C-FOS PROTEINS. It forms heterodimeric complexes with C-JUN PROTEINS to regulate GENE transcription.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mice, Inbred BALB CFlow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Sphingolipidoses: A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of SPHINGOLIPIDS primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and to a variable degree in the visceral organs. They are classified by the enzyme defect in the degradation pathway and the substrate accumulation (or storage). Clinical features vary in subtypes but neurodegeneration is a common sign.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Glucosylceramidase: A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2: Member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid: Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Genes, jun: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plasminogen Inactivators: Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Sandhoff Disease: An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Galactosylceramidase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes galactose from ceramide monohexosides. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause globoid cell leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, GLOBOID CELL). EC 3.2.1.46.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Trihexosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Receptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Oncogene Protein p65(gag-jun): Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.

The highly conserved beta-hairpin of the paired DNA-binding domain is required for assembly of Pax-Ets ternary complexes. (1/340)

Pax family transcription factors bind DNA through the paired domain. This domain, which is comprised of two helix-turn-helix motifs and a beta-hairpin structure, is a target of mutations in congenital disorders of mice and humans. Previously, we showed that Pax-5 (B-cell-specific activator protein) recruits proteins of the Ets proto-oncogene family to bind a composite DNA site that is essential for efficient transcription of the early-B-cell-specific mb-1 promoter. Here, evidence is provided for specific interactions between Ets-1 and the amino-terminal subdomains of Pax proteins. By tethering deletion fragments of Pax-5 to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, we show that 73 amino acids (amino acids 12 to 84) of its amino-terminal subdomain can recruit the ETS domain of Ets-1 to bind the composite site. Furthermore, an amino acid (Gln22) within the highly conserved beta-hairpin motif of Pax-5 is essential for efficient recruitment of Ets-1. The ability to recruit Ets proteins to bind DNA is a shared property of Pax proteins, as demonstrated by cooperative DNA binding of Ets-1 with sequences derived from the paired domains of Pax-2 and Pax-3. The strict conservation of sequences required for recruitment of Ets proteins suggests that Pax-Ets interactions are important for regulating transcription in diverse tissues during cellular differentiation.  (+info)

Distinct factors regulate the murine RAG-2 promoter in B- and T-cell lines. (2/340)

The recombination activating genes RAG-1 and RAG-2 are expressed in a lymphoid-cell-specific and developmentally regulated fashion. To understand the transcriptional basis for this regulation, we have cloned and characterized the murine RAG-2 promoter. The promoter was lymphoid cell specific, showing activity in various B- and T-cell lines but little activity in nonlymphoid cells. To our surprise, however, the promoter was regulated differently in B and T cells. Using nuclear extracts from B-cell lines, we found that the B-cell-specific transcription factor BSAP (Pax-5) could bind to a conserved sequence critical for promoter activity. BSAP activated the promoter in transfected cells, and the BSAP site was occupied in a tissue-specific manner in vivo. An overlapping DNA sequence binding to a distinct factor was necessary for promoter activity in T cells. Full promoter activity in T cells was also dependent on a more distal DNA sequence whose disruption had no effect on B-cell activity. The unexpected finding that a B-cell-specific factor regulates the RAG-2 promoter may explain some of the recently observed differences in the regulation of RAG transcription between B and T cells.  (+info)

B cell-specific activator protein prevents two activator factors from binding to the immunoglobulin J chain promoter until the antigen-driven stages of B cell development. (3/340)

The immunoglobulin J chain gene is inducibly transcribed in mature B cells upon antigen recognition and a signal from interleukin-2 (IL-2). B cell-specific activator protein (BSAP), a transcription factor that silences J chain transcription, has been identified as a nuclear target of the IL-2 signal. The levels of BSAP progressively decrease in response to IL-2 and this change correlates with the differentiation of B cells into antibody secreting plasma cells. Here we report the binding of the upstream stimulatory factor (USF) to an E-box motif immediately upstream from the BSAP site on the J chain promoter. Mutations in the USF binding motif significantly decrease J chain promoter activity in J chain expressing B cell lines. We also show that a functional relationship exists between USF and a second J chain positive-regulating factor, B-MEF2, using co-immunoprecipitation assays and transfections. Finally, we provide evidence that the binding of BSAP prevents USF and B-MEF2 from interacting with the J chain promoter during the antigen-independent stages of B cell development. It is not until the levels of BSAP decrease during the antigen-driven stages of B cell development that both USF and B-MEF2 are able to bind to their respective promoter elements and activate J chain transcription.  (+info)

Pax2/5 and Pax6 subdivide the early neural tube into three domains. (4/340)

The nested expression patterns of the paired-box containing transcription factors Pax2/5 and Pax6 demarcate the midbrain and forebrain primordium at the neural plate stage. We demonstrate that, in Pax2/5 deficient mice, the mesencephalon/metencephalon primordium is completely missing, resulting in a fusion of the forebrain to the hindbrain. Morphologically, in the alar plate the deletion is characterized by the substitution of the tectum (dorsal midbrain) and cerebellum (dorsal metencephalon) by the caudal diencephalon and in the basal plate by the replacement of the midbrain tegmentum by the ventral metencephalon (pons). Molecularly, the loss of the tectum is demonstrated by an expanded expression of Pax6, (the molecular determinant of posterior commissure), and a rostral shift of the territory of expression of Gbx2 and Otp (markers for the pons), towards the caudal diencephalon. Our results suggest that an intact territory of expression of Pax2/5 in the neural plate, nested between the rostral and caudal territories of expression of Pax6, is necessary for defining the midbrain vesicle.  (+info)

Coordinate regulation of B cell differentiation by the transcription factors EBF and E2A. (5/340)

The transcription factors EBF and E2A are required at a similar step in early B cell differentiation. EBF and E2A synergistically upregulate transcription of endogenous B cell-specific genes in a non-B cell line. Here, we examine a genetic collaboration between these factors in regulating B lymphopoiesis. We find that Ebf+/- E2a+/- mice display a marked defect in pro-B cell differentiation at a stage later than observed in the single homozygous mutant mice. Pro-B cells from Ebf+/- E2a+/- mice show reduced expression of lymphoid-specific transcripts, including Pax5, Rag1, Rag2, and mb-1. We also show that EBF directly binds and activates the Pax5 promoter. Together, these data show collaboration between EBF and E2A and provide insight into the hierarchy of transcription factors that regulate B lymphocyte differentiation.  (+info)

AML1 (CBFalpha2) cooperates with B cell-specific activating protein (BSAP/PAX5) in activation of the B cell-specific BLK gene promoter. (6/340)

AML1 plays a critical role during hematopoiesis and chromosomal translocations involving AML1 are commonly associated with different forms of leukemia, including pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To understand the function of AML1 during B cell differentiation, we analyzed regulatory regions of B cell-specific genes for potential AML1-binding sites and have identified a putative AML1-binding site in the promoter of the B cell-specific tyrosine kinase gene, blk. Gel mobility shift assays and transient transfection assays demonstrate that AML1 binds specifically to this site in the blk promoter and this binding site is important for blk promoter activity. Furthermore, in vitro binding analysis revealed that the AML1 runt DNA-binding domain physically interacts with the paired DNA-binding domain of BSAP, a B cell-specific transcription factor. BSAP has been shown previously to be important for B cell-specific regulation of the blk gene. Physical interaction of AML1 with BSAP correlates with functional cooperativity in transfection studies where AML1 and BSAP synergistically activate blk promoter transcription by more than 50-fold. These results demonstrate physical and functional interactions between AML1 and BSAP and suggest that AML1 is an important factor for regulating a critical B cell-specific gene, blk.  (+info)

FGF8 can activate Gbx2 and transform regions of the rostral mouse brain into a hindbrain fate. (7/340)

The mid/hindbrain junction region, which expresses Fgf8, can act as an organizer to transform caudal forebrain or hindbrain tissue into midbrain or cerebellar structures, respectively. FGF8-soaked beads placed in the chick forebrain can similarly induce ectopic expression of mid/hindbrain genes and development of midbrain structures (Crossley, P. H., Martinez, S. and Martin, G. R. (1996) Nature 380, 66-68). In contrast, ectopic expression of Fgf8a in the mouse midbrain and caudal forebrain using a Wnt1 regulatory element produced no apparent patterning defects in the embryos examined (Lee, S. M., Danielian, P. S., Fritzsch, B. and McMahon, A. P. (1997) Development 124, 959-969). We show here that FGF8b-soaked beads can not only induce expression of the mid/hindbrain genes En1, En2 and Pax5 in mouse embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) caudal forebrain explants, but also can induce the hindbrain gene Gbx2 and alter the expression of Wnt1 in both midbrain and caudal forebrain explants. We also show that FGF8b-soaked beads can repress Otx2 in midbrain explants. Furthermore, Wnt1-Fgf8b transgenic embryos in which the same Wnt1 regulatory element is used to express Fgf8b, have ectopic expression of En1, En2, Pax5 and Gbx2 in the dorsal hindbrain and spinal cord at E10.5, as well as exencephaly and abnormal spinal cord morphology. More strikingly, Fgf8b expression in more rostral brain regions appears to transform the midbrain and caudal forebrain into an anterior hindbrain fate through expansion of the Gbx2 domain and repression of Otx2 as early as the 7-somite stage. These findings suggest that normal Fgf8 expression in the anterior hindbrain not only functions to maintain development of the entire mid/hindbrain by regulating genes like En1, En2 and Pax5, but also might function to maintain a metencephalic identity by regulating Gbx2 and Otx2 expression.  (+info)

Early B cell factor is an activator of the B lymphoid kinase promoter in early B cell development. (8/340)

Early B cell factor (EBF) is a transcription factor suggested to be involved in the transcriptional control of several B cell restricted genes. EBF is also essential for B lymphocyte development because mice carrying a homologous disruption of the EBF gene lack mature B lymphocytes. This makes the identification of genetic targets for EBF important for the understanding of early B cell development. Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the B lymphoid kinase (Blk) promoter suggested the presence of an EBF binding site, and in vivo footprinting analysis showed that the site was protected from methylation in a pre-B cell line. EMSA indicated that recombinant and cellular EBF interact physically with this site; furthermore, transient transfections indicated that ectopic expression of EBF in nonlymphoid HeLa cells activate a Blk promoter-controlled reporter construct 9-fold. The defined EBF binding site was also important for the function of the Blk promoter in pre-B cells, because transient transfections of a reporter construct under the control of an EBF site-mutated Blk promoter displayed only 20-30% of the activity of the wild-type promoter. Furthermore, transient transfections in HeLa cells proposed that EBF and B cell-specific activator protein were able to cooperate in the activation of a Blk promoter-controlled reporter construct. These data indicate that EBF plays an important role in the regulation of the Blk promoter in early B cell development and that EBF and BSAP are capable to act in cooperation to induce a target gene.  (+info)

Title: Coordinated Expression of Pax-5 and FAK1 in Metastasis. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):Nicolas Crapoulet, Pierre OBrien, Rodney J. Ouellette and Gilles A. Robichaud. Affiliation:Universite de Moncton, Moncton, NB, Canada, E1A 3E9.. Keywords:Cancer, cell signaling, FAK1, focal adhesion, metastasis, Pax-5, B lymphopoiesis, cell differentiation, homeostasis, leukemia. Abstract: The Pax-5 gene encodes a B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) that plays a key role in B lymphocyte differentiation and embryogenesis. The deregulation of this transcription factor is also linked to B cell malignancies and recently to other cancers. More specifically, the downstream effects of Pax-5 promote cell-cell interactions and mediate the activation of adhesion genes which result in an epithelial phenotypic behavior of human carcinoma cells. To gain a better understanding of Pax-5-mediated gene regulation, we studied available gene expression data in depth and identified several Pax-5 downstream targets. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NF-HB (BSAP) is a repressor of the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain 3′α enhancer at early stages of B-cell differentiation. AU - Singh, Mallika. AU - Birshtein, Barbara K.. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - We have identified a nuclear factor expressed in pro-B-, pre-B-, and B-cell lines that binds to two sites within the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) 3′α enhancer (3′αE). These sites were defined by oligonucleotide competition in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and methylation interference footprinting. The 3′αE-binding factor is indistinguishable from NF-HB (B-lineage-specific nuclear factor that binds to the IgH gene) and the B-lineage-specific transcription factor BSAP by several criteria, including similar cell type distribution of binding activity, cross-competition of binding sites in EMSA, similar protein size as demonstrated by UV cross-linking, and sequence identity of one of the 3′αE-binding sites with a BSAP-binding site within the ...
Author Summary Each time a mammalian cell duplicates its genome in preparation for cell division it activates thousands of so called
The majority of novel disease genes is currently being identified in less well-investigated consanguineous populations. Based on its corresponding global positioning, CENTOGENE has been able to contribute significantly to such research projects. The most recent example is the discovery of recessive mutations in the transcription factor PAX7 to underlie a new form of muscle disease. The findings were published in Genetics in Medicine, one of the leading journals in the field.
Although bats are recognized as major reservoir hosts of emerging infectious diseases, Joffrin and colleagues highlight that a significant knowledge gap on transmission mechanisms remains and needs further exploration. They question whether bat bites are the exception rather than the rule, and ask whether other animals can transmit bat-borne pathogens. They conclude by questioning what we can learn from bat-to-bat transmission.. ...
KEYWORDS=~alpha ~amd64 ~arm ~hppa ~ia64 ~mips ~ppc ~ppc64 ~s390 ~sh ~sparc ~x86 ~amd64-fbsd ~x86-fbsd ~amd64-linux ~x86-linux ~ppc-macos ~x86-macos ~sparc64-solaris ...
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Coffman, R L. and Weissman, I L., "B220: a b cell-specific member of the t200 glycoprotein family." (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 1405 ...
PAX3 in neuroblastoma: oncogenic potential, chemosensitivity and signalling pathways.: Transcription factor PAX3/Pax3 contributes to diverse cell lineages durin
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BACKGROUND: The early B lymphopoiesis in mammals is regulated through close interactions with stromal cells and components of the intracellular matrix in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Although B lymphopoiesis has been studied for decades, th
Orexins or hypocretins are neurotransmitters produced by a small population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This family of peptides modulates sleep‑wake cycle, arousal and feeding behaviors; however, the mechanisms regulating their expression remain to be fully elucidated. There is an interest in defining the key molecular elements in orexin regulation, as these may serve to identify targets for generating novel therapies for sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. Our previous studies showed that the expression of orexin was decreased in mice carrying null‑mutations of the transcription factor early B‑cell factor 2 (ebf2) and that the promoter region of the prepro‑orexin (Hcrt) gene contained two putative ebf‑binding sites, termed olf‑1 sites ...
BearShare Acceleration Patch is an add-on for people who use BearShare P2P file sharing utility to download music, movies, books and any other files.
B cells represent a critical component of the immune system: in the absence of these cells, the ability to fight infections and to establish long-term protectiv...
What the Bible Teaches: A Guide to Total Christian Commitment is a concise overall view of Gods Word from Genesis to Revelation.
This project is supported in part by the NIH Specialized Programs of Translational Research in Acute Stroke (SPOTRIAS) Network, and NINDS grant 3P50NS055977 to Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine and UT Southwestern Medical Center.. ...
Signaling through the Notch1 receptor is essential for T cell development in the thymus. Stromal OP9 cells ectopically expressing the Notch ligand Delta-like1 mimic the thymic environment by inducing hemopoietic stem cells to undergo in vitro T cell development. Notch1 is also expressed on Pax5-/- pro-B cells, which are clonable lymphoid progenitors with a latent myeloid potential. In this study, we demonstrate that Pax5-/- progenitors efficiently differentiate in vitro into CD4+CD8+ alphabeta and gammadelta T cells upon coculture with OP9-Delta-like1 cells. In vitro T cell development of Pax5-/- progenitors strictly depends on Notch1 function and progresses through normal developmental stages by expressing T cell markers and rearranging TCRbeta, gamma, and delta loci in the correct temporal sequence. Notch-stimulated Pax5-/- progenitors efficiently down-regulate the expression of B cell-specific genes, consistent with a role of Notch1 in preventing B lymphopoiesis in the thymus. At the same ...
Deoxyuridine (dU) is a pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside, and a derivative of the nucleoside uridine, with the only difference being that, in dU, a hydrogen (-H) group is substituted for uridine s OH group located at the 2 -position of the ribose. dU is generated in cellular DNA as a deamination product of dC (deoxycytidine), with the deamination process catalyzed by the enzyme AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) (1). AID is a B cell-specific gene that is necessary for antibody gene diversification via class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (2, 3). The dC-to-dU conversion(s) by AID occurs in the IgG locus, with various gene diversification pathways arising from the different DNA repair mechanisms used by B-cells to repair the dU lesion (1).. dC-to-dU conversion via cytidine deamination is also implicated in innate immunity to retroviruses. Here deamination of dC is mediated by the enzyme APOBEC3G, which is present in T cells, acting on the first (minus) strand cDNA of ...
... 877100 - Leica BLK3D Target Calibration Plate Target Calibration Plate for BLK3D: Size A3 Used for checking and adjusting the BLK3D.
Involved in a multitude of developmental processes, PAX5 expression is not only continuously required for B cell lineage commitment during early B cell development but also for B lineage maintenance, involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene, a B-lymphoid-specific target gene ...
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BSAP can be mildly elevated in patients with fractures. In addition, patients with hyperparathyroidism, Paget disease, or osteomalacia can have elevations of BSAP. Serum OC levels, if high, indicate a... more
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"Human Tra2 proteins are sequence-specific activators of pre-mRNA splicing". Cell. 93 (1): 139-48. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... This phosphorylated nuclear protein binds to specific RNA sequences and plays a role in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. ... Transformer-2 protein homolog alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRA2A gene. This gene is a member of the ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic ... This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant ... AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. ...
Treatments aiming to inhibit works to block specific caspases. Finally, the Akt protein kinase promotes cell survival through ... Mitochondrial proteins known as SMACs (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) are released into the cell's cytosol ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... cells that are cultivated in distinct and specific conditions. An example of this can be seen in HeLa cells, whereby the cells ...
"Human Tra2 proteins are sequence-specific activators of pre-mRNA splicing". Cell. 93 (1): 139-48. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... 2003). "Regulation of alternative splicing by SRrp86 and its interacting proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (21): 7437-47. doi: ... 2000). "A human importin-beta family protein, transportin-SR2, interacts with the phosphorylated RS domain of SR proteins". J. ... and temporal-specific pattern". Cell Biol. Int. 27 (6): 491-6. doi:10.1016/S1065-6995(03)00072-6. PMID 12798777. Helmken C, ...
Mitochondrial proteins known as SMACs (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) are released into the cell's cytosol ... cells that are cultivated in distinct and specific conditions. An example of this can be seen in HeLa cells, whereby the cells ... HeLa cell[edit]. Apoptosis in HeLa[b] cells is inhibited by proteins produced by the cell; these inhibitory proteins target ... Expression of viral proteins coupled to MHC proteins on the surface of the infected cell, allowing recognition by cells of the ...
Protein specific binding is required for the CCAAT box activation. These proteins are known as CCAAT box binding proteins/CCAAT ... It is frequently absent from genes that encode proteins used in virtually all cells. This box along with the GC box is known ... Full gene expression occurs when transcription activator proteins bind to each module within the regulatory promoter. ... The NF-YC proteins are an intermediate size between that of NF-YA and NF-YB proteins (117-292 amino acids in "M. truncatula") ...
... a highly specific transcriptional activator". Mol. Cell. Biol. 11 (4): 2311-4. PMC 359938 . PMID 2005915. Nogi Y, Fukasawa T ( ... "A sequence-specific transcription activator motif and powerful synthetic variants that bind Mediator using a fuzzy protein ... The broad use of the Gal4 is in yeast two hybrid system to screen or to assay protein-protein interactions in eukaryotic cells ... Suzuki Y, Nogi Y, Abe A, Fukasawa T (1992). "GAL11 protein, an auxiliary transcription activator for genes encoding galactose- ...
The protein can function as an activator of gene transcription and may serve as a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator. In ... This gene is a member of the SP100/SP140 family of nuclear body proteins and encodes a leukocyte-specific nuclear body ... 2003). "HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages". Nat. ... SP110 nuclear body protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP110 gene. The nuclear body is a multiprotein complex ...
... a fungal protein that functions outside of the fungus but inside of plant cells has evolved to take on plant-specific functions ... Xanthomonas and Ralstonia transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are DNA-binding proteins that activate host gene ... proteins with nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains, also known as NLR proteins or STAND proteins, among other ... Effectors typically are proteins that are delivered outside the microbe and into the host cell. These colonist-derived ...
"Transcriptional co-activator p75 binds and tethers the Myc-interacting protein JPO2 to chromatin". J. Cell Sci. 119 (Pt 12): ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-648. doi:10.1016 ... Cell division cycle-associated 7-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDCA7L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2005). "Identification of a novel c-Myc protein interactor, JPO2, with transforming activity in medulloblastoma cells". Cancer ...
"Cell-type specific DNA-protein interactions at the tissue-type plasminogen activator promoter in human endothelial and HeLa ... Reddy SP, Mossman BT (Dec 2002). "Role and regulation of activator protein-1 in toxicant-induced responses of the lung". ... These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription ... the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. FOSL1 has been ...
The PAX5 gene encodes the B-cell lineage specific activator protein (BSAP) that is expressed at early, but not late stages of B ... cooperates with B cell-specific activating protein (BSAP/PAX5) in activation of the B cell-specific BLK gene promoter". The ... "Entrez Gene: PAX5 paired box gene 5 (B-cell lineage specific activator)". Torlakovic E, Torlakovic G, Nguyen PL, Brunning RD, ... Paired box protein Pax-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX5 gene. The PAX5 gene is a member of the paired box ( ...
... a B cell-specific trans-activator that describes a new DNA-binding protein family". Genes Dev. 9 (24): 3067-82. doi:10.1101/gad ... cell lineage gene regulation and cell cycle control. Although the specific roles of this domain and of ARID-containing proteins ... "The human SWI-SNF complex protein p270 is an ARID family member with non-sequence-specific DNA binding activity". Mol. Cell. ... The human SWI-SNF complex protein p270 is an ARID family member with non-sequence-specific DNA binding activity. The ARID ...
1998). "Cardiac hypertrophy induced by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7, a specific activator for c-Jun NH2-terminal ... a novel Jun NH2-terminal kinase-specific kinase". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (12): 7407-16. doi:10.1128/mcb.17.12.7407. PMC 232596 . ... This protein is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family. The MKK7 protein exists as six different ... Lu X, Nemoto S, Lin A (1997). "Identification of c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-activating kinase 2 as an activator of ...
The protein encoded by this gene (p35) is a neuron-specific activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5); the activation of ... The cleavage of p35 into p25 results in relocalization of the protein from the cell periphery to nuclear and perinuclear ... Qu D, Li Q, Lim HY, Cheung NS, Li R, Wang JH, Qi RZ (March 2002). "The protein SET binds the neuronal Cdk5 activator p35nck5a ... 2002). "The protein SET binds the neuronal Cdk5 activator p35nck5a and modulates Cdk5/p35nck5a activity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (9 ...
Enzymes in the cell often cut this elongated protein into fragments. The protein fragments form abnormal clumps, known as ... "Interaction of Huntington disease protein with transcriptional activator Sp1". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (5): 1277-87 ... "Huntingtin is ubiquitinated and interacts with a specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... The exact function of this protein is not known, but it plays an important role in nerve cells. Within cells, huntingtin may be ...
It shows greater affinity for RAS p21 protein activator 1, but lower specific activity. The mRNA for this gene is subject to ... Its cellular lineage is uncertain, and may derive from Schwann cells, other perineural cell lines, or fibroblasts. ... Additionally, being such a large protein, more active domains of the protein have been identified. One such domain interacts ... Homology studies have shown that neurofibromin is 30% similar to proteins in the GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) Family. This ...
The binding of cAMP to the catabolite activator protein (CAP) causes CAP to bind to a specific DNA site in glnAp1, and glnAp1 ... The glnALG operon is an operon that regulates the nitrogen content of a cell. It codes for the structural gene glnA the two ... The glnALG operon is regulated by an intricate network of repressors and activators. Along with NRI and NRII, there are gene ... Hence along with histidase, glnALG operon maintains homeostasis within the cell. ...
DNA-binding proteins are proteins composed of DNA-binding domains and thus have a specific or general affinity for either ... There are also more unusual examples such as transcription activator like effectors. Structural proteins that bind DNA are well ... Sandman K, Pereira S, Reeve J (1998). "Diversity of prokaryotic chromosomal proteins and the origin of the nucleosome". Cell ... Other non-specific DNA-binding proteins in chromatin include the high-mobility group (HMG) proteins, which bind to bent or ...
... growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA ... SPINT2 is a transmembrane protein with two extracellular Kunitz domains to inhibit serine proteases. This gene is a presumed ... epitope v9 and subsequently suppresses expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in human chondrosarcoma cells". The ... using specific antibodies against each of the H1 and H2 heavy chains". Journal of Immunological Methods. 190 (1): 61-70. doi: ...
2001). "Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth ... The protein is a potent inhibitor specific for HGF activator and is thought to be involved in the regulation of the proteolytic ... 2001). "Localization of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in Langhans' cells of human placenta". Histochem. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ...
2001). "Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth ... Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HGFAC gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... 2006). "Functional analysis of HGF/MET signaling and aberrant HGF-activator expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma". Blood ... 2001). "Localization of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in Langhans' cells of human placenta". Histochem. ...
Gorska MM, Stafford SJ, Cen O, Sur S, Alam R (Feb 2004). "Unc119, a novel activator of Lck/Fyn, is essential for T cell ... have both specific and shared effectors: characterizing ARL1-binding proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (25): 22826-37. doi:10.1074/ ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
... with amyloid specific dyes and antibodies Fungal cell adhesion proteins aggregate on the surface of the fungi to form cell ... Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), a hemodynamic factor ApCPEB protein and its homologues with a glutamine-rich domain ... Other polypeptides and proteins such as amylin and the Alzheimer's beta protein do not have a simple consensus sequence and are ... Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together ...
... may refer to: B-cell-specific activator protein Baltic Sea Action Plan, Helsinki Committee Bone-specific alkaline ...
sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence ... Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/ ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ...
Acts as a CEBPB coactivator in mammary epithelial cells to control the expression of a subset of CEBPB downstream target genes ... provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell ... Cell death activator CIDE-AAdd BLAST. 217. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Transcription Factor B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) Is Differentially Expressed in B Cells and Subsets of B-Cell ... The B-cell-specific activator protein. Home/Newsletters/Hematopathology, Immunohistochemistry/PAX-5 - The B-cell-specific ... PAX-5, also known as B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP), is a transcription factor which plays a vital role in B-cell ... B-Cell Specific Activation Protein Encoded by the PAX-5 Gene Is Commonly Expressed in Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Small Cell ...
The human GDNF activator is highly specific. Having established that hGDNF-ZFP could drive significant GDNF activation, we next ... An Engineered Zinc Finger Protein Activator of the Endogenous Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Provides ... An Engineered Zinc Finger Protein Activator of the Endogenous Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Provides ... An Engineered Zinc Finger Protein Activator of the Endogenous Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Provides ...
Regulation of human epsilon germline transcription: Role of b-cell-specific activator protein. International Archives of ... Regulation of human epsilon germline transcription : Role of b-cell-specific activator protein. In: International Archives of ... Because binding sites for B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) are located upstream of several switch regions in the ... Regulation of human epsilon germline transcription : Role of b-cell-specific activator protein. / De Monte, Lucia; Thienes, ...
activator protein 1;. ChIP,. chromatin IP;. GC,. granulosa cell;. FSH,. follicle-stimulating hormone;. IP,. immunoprecipitation ... Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene ... Cell-type-selective induction of c-jun by TAF4b directs ovarian-specific transcription networks. Kenneth G. Geles, Richard N. ... TATA Box-Binding Protein-Associated Factor 12 Is Important for RAS-Induced Transformation Properties of Colorectal Cancer Cells ...
p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... Organism-specific databases. Rat genome database. More...RGDi. 1559465 Purb. ,p>This section provides information on the ... Transcriptional activator protein Pur-betaAdd BLAST. 314. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Plays a role as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation in breast cancer cells (By similarity). ... Plays also a role in the regulation of dendritic cell maturation at the post-transcriptional level, and hence operates as part ... Promotes ARE-mediated mRNA decay of hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1A mRNA during the response of endothelial cells to hypoxia. ... Plays a role in maintaining skeletal muscle satellite cell quiescence by promoting ARE-mediated mRNA decay of the myogenic ...
By controlling plasmin-mediated proteolysis, it plays an important role in tissue remodeling and degradation, in cell migration ... Specific cleavage of Arg-,-Val bond in plasminogen to form plasmin.. ,p>This subsection of the Function section describes an ... Protein-protein interaction databases. Protein interaction database and analysis system. More...IntActi. P19637. 1 interactor. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. Protein interaction database and analysis system. More...IntActi. P19637. 1 interactor. ...
The core of this pathway is composed of a kinase cascade wherein Hippo (Hpo), in complex with its regulatory protein Salvador ( ... Sav), phosphorylates and activates Warts (Wts) in complex with its regulatory protein Mats, which in turn phosphorylates and ... provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell ... protein kinase activator activity Source: FlyBase ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the ...
Regulates the expression of milk proteins during lactation. ... Organism-specific databases. Rat genome database. More...RGDi. ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect ...
RNA polymerase II-specific, identical protein binding, RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding, ... ubiquitin-like protein ligase binding, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, defense response, defense response to virus ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q5XI26. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 2. ). HUMAN ...
... proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, protein deubiquitination ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... thiol-dependent ubiquitin-specific protease activity Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. " ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ...
p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... Organism-specific databases. Mouse genome database (MGD) from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) ... Protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase. Protein kinase, interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q9WTX2. Interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent protein ...
Participates in the repression of global protein synthesis and in gene-specific mRNA translation activation, such as the ... transcriptional activator ATF4, by promoting the EIF2AK4/GCN2-mediated phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation ... Acts as a positive activator of the GCN2 protein kinase activity in response to amino acid starvation (PubMed:15937339). Forms ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ...
"A tissue-specific atlas of mouse protein phosphorylation and expression.". Huttlin E.L., Jedrychowski M.P., Elias J.E., Goswami ... "Mechanisms of STAT protein activation by oncogenic KIT mutants in neoplastic mast cells.". Chaix A., Lopez S., Voisset E., Gros ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00017 SH2, 1 hit. PF01017 STAT_alpha, 1 hit. PF02864 STAT ...
B cell lineage-specific activator protein (BSAP). A player at multiple stages of B cell development. J S Michaelson, M Singh ... Apoptosis-independent retinoblastoma protein rescue of HLA class II messenger RNA IFN-gamma inducibility in non-small cell lung ... Stress-induced enhancement of antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity. F S Dhabhar and B S McEwen ... T cells commit suicide, but B cells are murdered! D W Scott, T Grdina and Y Shi ...
Required for septal murein cleavage and daughter cell separation during cell division. ... provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell ... Activator of the cell wall hydrolase AmiC. Required for septal murein cleavage and daughter cell separation during cell ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... Organism-specific databases. Mouse genome database (MGD) from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q542T9. P61809. P61810. A0A1A6GU11. B1AQH0. Mus ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q542T9. Q15078. F7DFC5. H2NTA8. A0A0D9R224. ...
... protein homodimerization activity, RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding, sequence-specific DNA ... binding, transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding ... negative regulation of cell proliferation Source: MGI. *negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q9JIZ5. UPI0003D6F9F7. Q8BWA4. Mus musculus ( ...
... cell death, and cytokine secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms by which autophagy and DDR are intertwined provides novel insight ... cell death, and cytokine secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms by which autophagy and DDR are intertwined provides novel insight ... AMPK, AMP-kinase; AP1, activator protein 1; APC, antigen-presenting cells; ATM, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated; ATR, ATM- and ... death-associated protein kinase; DDB, damage specific DNA binding proteins 1 and 2; DNA-PK, DNA-dependent protein kinase; DRAM ...
Mitochondrial proteins known as SMACs (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) are released into the cells cytosol ... cells that are cultivated in distinct and specific conditions. An example of this can be seen in HeLa cells, whereby the cells ... HeLa cell[edit]. Apoptosis in HeLa[b] cells is inhibited by proteins produced by the cell; these inhibitory proteins target ... Expression of viral proteins coupled to MHC proteins on the surface of the infected cell, allowing recognition by cells of the ...
B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein B-Lymphocytes Cell Line Cell Lineage Humans Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate ... B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate PAX5 protein, human Receptors, Interleukin-7 pre-B- ... hematopoiesis from human embryonic stem cells, we observed the formation of pre-B cells. These cells were CD45(+)CD19(+)CD10 ... Human induced pluripotent stem cells are capable of B-cell lymphopoiesis. Lee Carpenter, Ram Malladi, Cheng-Tao Yang, Anna ...
... nuclear binding of activator protein (AP)-1 (c-Fos, FosB, and c-Jun) at 4-8 h; and binding of NF-interleukin (IL)-6 at 24 h. ... Transcriptional mechanisms regulating alveolar epithelial cell-specific CCL5 secretion in pulmonary tuberculosis.. ... epithelial cells. Differential responsiveness of small airway and normal human bronchial epithelial cells to CoMTB but not to ... Monocyte alveolar, but not upper airway, epithelial cell networks in pulmonary tuberculosis cause AP-1-, NF-IL-6-, and NFkappaB ...
Immunogen corresponding to full length native protein (purified) ... B cell specific activator protein antibody. *B cell specific ... Paired box gene 5 (B cell lineage specific activator protein) antibody. *Paired box gene 5 (B cell lineage specific activator) ... B cell lineage specific activator protein antibody. * ... Paired box protein Pax 5 antibody. *Paired box protein Pax-5 ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
HAT complexes interact with sequence-specific activator proteins to target specific genes. In addition to histones, HATs can ... are related to yeast Hda1-like proteins, and class III proteins are related to the yeast protein Sir2. Inhibitors of HDAC ... Background: Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) is a ubiquitin binding protein involved in cell signaling, oxidative stress, and ... Background: Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) is a ubiquitin binding protein involved in cell signaling, oxidative stress, and ...
  • The name TBC derives from the name of the murine protein Tbc1 in which this domain was first identified based on its similarity to sequences in the tre-2 oncogene, and the yeast regulators of mitosis, BUB2 and cdc16 [ PMID: 7566974 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The TBC/rab GAP domain has also been named PTM after three proteins known to contain it: the Drosophila pollux, the human oncoprotein TRE17 (oncoTRE17), and a myeloid cell line-expressed protein [ PMID: 8654926 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Also, the similar appearance of PAX-5 to Ki-67 (both are nuclear stains) allows for more rapid identification of tumor when assessing the Ki-67 proliferative fraction of B-cell lymphomas. (propath.com)
  • PAX-5 is also expressed by precursor B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma (precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia), a tumor which is frequently negative with CD20. (propath.com)
  • a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 B-cell antigen) will experience relapse with CD20-negative tumor. (propath.com)
  • MSK2 is phosphorylated and activated in response to tumor necrosis factor, epidermal growth factor or phorbol ester in HeLa cells or murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in a p38- and ERK-dependent manner (8,11). (cellsignal.com)
  • CXCL8 is a key regulator of immune cells infiltration into the tumor microenvironment promoting cancer invasion and metastasis [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor is an aggressive and rare cancer that primarily occurs as masses in the abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In dogs, mast cell tumors are the most frequent round cell tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor appears to arise from the primitive cells of childhood, and is considered a childhood cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has indicated that there is a chimeric relationship between desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor (DSRCT) and Wilms' tumor and Ewing's sarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • This transcript codes for a protein that acts as a transcriptional activator that fails to suppress tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells have hyperchromatic nuclei with increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • DSRCT shares characteristics with other small-round blue cell cancers including Ewing's sarcoma, acute leukemia, small cell mesothelioma, neuroblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Wilms' tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involved either as an oncogene or as a tumor suppressor, depending on the cell context. (uniprot.org)
  • Hypoxia had no effects on the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the culture media. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We observed an increase in the transcription factor, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF- κ B1), in parallel with ICAM-1, in human retinal endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ), and identified putative binding sites for NF- κ B1 within the ICAM-1 regulatory region. (hindawi.com)
  • Adhesion molecules also participate in leukocyte migration for immune surveillance, which is the process by which leukocytes patrol the organs of the body, to determine the need for immune responses to threats such as tissue injury, infectious pathogens, and tumor cells [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The authors focused on one lead rocaglate derivative and showed that it reversed the effects of MYC, blocked excessive translation, induced tumor cell apoptosis, and decreased tumor cell proliferation. (sciencemag.org)
  • HLA-DR expression occurred following FGF-specific binding to its receptor(s), mainly FGF receptor 1, without inducing IFNγ or tumor necrosis factor α expression. (wiley.com)
  • Interference with PSMB4 Expression Exerts an Anti-Tumor Effect by Decreasing the Invasion and Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells. (nih.gov)
  • However, fibroblasts effects are distinct in each one of the breast cancer lineages, suggesting that the inter-relationships between stromal and malignant cells are dependent on the intrinsic subtype of the tumor. (springer.com)
  • In breast cancer primary tumor, a desmoplastic reaction usually arises, creating a suitable microenvironment for a cross-talk between stromal fibroblasts and malignant cells. (springer.com)
  • This gene is a presumed tumor suppressor by inhibiting HGF activator which prevents the formation of active hepatocyte growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100B proteins are abundantly found in cancerous tumor cells causing them to be overexpressed, therefore making these proteins useful for classifying tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitric oxide - activated macrophages produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), which induces both cytostasis and cytotoxicity to tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • LAP and LPS were shown to stimulate C3H/HeJ macrophages to kill target tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, PUFA cytostatic activity is not tumor-specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although RASD1 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small G-proteins, which often promotes cell growth and tumor expansion, it plays an active role in preventing aberrant cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene map locus 19q13.32 GLTSCR2: Glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 2 protein 19q13.33 A1BG: Plasma glycoprotein, unknown function. (wikipedia.org)
  • We can used specific TAAs, tumor lysates,created DC-cancer cell fusions, electroporation/transfection of DCs with total cancer cell-mRNA or tumor derived exosomes (TDEs) by the stimulation.There is also possibility of aditonal co-stimulating with cytokine "cocktails" to assure strong maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins TP53BP1 (Tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1) and its fission yeast homolog Crb2 and JMJD2A (Jumonji domain containing 2A) contain either tandem or double Tudor domains and recognize methylated histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "proteome" was coined by Australian researchers in the mid-1990s to describe all the PROTEins expressed by the genOME, the complete set of genetic material necessary for life. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • GeneArt Precision TALs Products and Services provide researchers with custom DNA-binding proteins (encoded in Gateway compatible entry clones) for accurate DNA targeting, providing a means of editing specific loci throughout the genome. (thermofisher.com)
  • GeneArt Precision TALs provide custom DNA-binding proteins fused to effector domains for accurate DNA targeting and precise genome editing. (thermofisher.com)
  • CHAMPAIGN, Ill. - Searching a whole genome for one particular sequence is like trying to fish a specific piece from the box of a billion-piece puzzle. (illinois.edu)
  • Using advanced imaging techniques, University of Illinois researchers have observed how one set of genome-editing proteins finds its specific targets, which could help them design better gene therapies to treat disease. (illinois.edu)
  • Researchers have been interested in using TALE proteins for synthetic biology, such as genome editing in plants or bacteria, or for gene therapy. (illinois.edu)
  • The eukaryotic cell condenses its genome into tightly packed chromatin and nucleosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some whole-genome sequencing studies have shown that PAX8 also targets BRCA1 (carcinogenesis), MAPK pathways (thyroid malignancies), and Ccnb1 and Ccnb2 (cell-cycle processes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction enzymes can be introduced into cells, for use in gene editing or for genome editing in situ, a technique known as genome editing with engineered nucleases. (wikipedia.org)
  • the target cells are then transfected with the plasmids, and the gene products are expressed and enter the nucleus to access the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 2600 proteins in the human genome that contain DNA-binding domains, and most of these are presumed to function as transcription factors, though other studies indicate it to be a smaller number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophage P2 is a temperate phage, which means that it can propagate lytically (i.e. directing the host cell to produce phage progenies and finally lysing the host when the phage progenies exit), as well as establish lysogeny (i.e. injecting and fusing its genetic material into the genome of the host without lysing the cell) and maintain as a prophage in host genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, most cytoplasmic mRNAs are degraded through two alternative pathways, each of which is initiated by the removal of the poly(A) tail by deadenylases. (pnas.org)
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (nih.gov)
  • The most ubiquitous Ca2+-sensing protein, found in all eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, is calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the discovery of the APC/C (and SCF) and their key role in eukaryotic cell reproduction that established once and for all the importance of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in eukaryotic cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to a seven amino acid difference between the two respective protein isoforms, SR45.1 and SR45.2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The result will be a protein whose first section (before the mutational site) is that of the wild type amino acid sequence, followed by a tail of functionally meaningless amino acids. (britannica.com)
  • The degree of reduction in TC levels evoked by Gcn2p activation in amino acid-starved cells does not substantially inhibit general protein synthesis but does activate GCN4 translation ( 35 ). (asm.org)
  • In nature, TAL proteins comprise an average of 15-20 repeats of a 34 amino acid sequence flanked by N- and C-terminal domains. (thermofisher.com)
  • This straightforward relationship between amino acid sequence and DNA recognition has allowed for the engineering of specific DNA-binding domains by selecting a combination of repeat segments containing the appropriate RVDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simple relationship between amino acid sequence and DNA recognition of the TALE binding domain allows for the efficient engineering of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, a point mutation, which might otherwise affect only a single amino acid, can manifest as a deletion or truncation in the final protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • c-fos is a 380 amino acid protein with a basic leucine zipper region for dimerisation and DNA-binding and a transactivation domain at C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of EPCR's role, activated protein C is found primarily near endothelial cells (i.e., those that make up the walls of blood vessels), and it is these cells and leukocytes (white blood cells) that APC affects. (wikipedia.org)
  • MR is involved in recognizing the surface of pathogens and is involved in phago- and endocytosis and mediating antigen processing and presentation in a variety of cells including monocyte/macrophages and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSPCs are generated via the hemogenic endothelium, a special subset of endothelial cells scattered within blood vessels that can differentiate into haematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • RUNX1 or CBF takes part in this process by mediating the transition of an endothelial cell to become a haematopoietic cell. (wikipedia.org)