A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LONG TERMINAL REPEAT.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
A high-molecular-weight protein (approximately 22,500) containing 198 amino acid residues. It is a strong inhibitor of trypsin and human plasmin.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Activated form of factor XII. In the initial event in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, kallikrein (with cofactor HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN) cleaves factor XII to XIIa. Factor XIIa is then further cleaved by kallikrein, plasmin, and trypsin to yield smaller factor XII fragments (Hageman-Factor fragments). These fragments increase the activity of prekallikrein to kallikrein but decrease the procoagulant activity of factor XII.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

The highly conserved beta-hairpin of the paired DNA-binding domain is required for assembly of Pax-Ets ternary complexes. (1/340)

Pax family transcription factors bind DNA through the paired domain. This domain, which is comprised of two helix-turn-helix motifs and a beta-hairpin structure, is a target of mutations in congenital disorders of mice and humans. Previously, we showed that Pax-5 (B-cell-specific activator protein) recruits proteins of the Ets proto-oncogene family to bind a composite DNA site that is essential for efficient transcription of the early-B-cell-specific mb-1 promoter. Here, evidence is provided for specific interactions between Ets-1 and the amino-terminal subdomains of Pax proteins. By tethering deletion fragments of Pax-5 to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, we show that 73 amino acids (amino acids 12 to 84) of its amino-terminal subdomain can recruit the ETS domain of Ets-1 to bind the composite site. Furthermore, an amino acid (Gln22) within the highly conserved beta-hairpin motif of Pax-5 is essential for efficient recruitment of Ets-1. The ability to recruit Ets proteins to bind DNA is a shared property of Pax proteins, as demonstrated by cooperative DNA binding of Ets-1 with sequences derived from the paired domains of Pax-2 and Pax-3. The strict conservation of sequences required for recruitment of Ets proteins suggests that Pax-Ets interactions are important for regulating transcription in diverse tissues during cellular differentiation.  (+info)

Distinct factors regulate the murine RAG-2 promoter in B- and T-cell lines. (2/340)

The recombination activating genes RAG-1 and RAG-2 are expressed in a lymphoid-cell-specific and developmentally regulated fashion. To understand the transcriptional basis for this regulation, we have cloned and characterized the murine RAG-2 promoter. The promoter was lymphoid cell specific, showing activity in various B- and T-cell lines but little activity in nonlymphoid cells. To our surprise, however, the promoter was regulated differently in B and T cells. Using nuclear extracts from B-cell lines, we found that the B-cell-specific transcription factor BSAP (Pax-5) could bind to a conserved sequence critical for promoter activity. BSAP activated the promoter in transfected cells, and the BSAP site was occupied in a tissue-specific manner in vivo. An overlapping DNA sequence binding to a distinct factor was necessary for promoter activity in T cells. Full promoter activity in T cells was also dependent on a more distal DNA sequence whose disruption had no effect on B-cell activity. The unexpected finding that a B-cell-specific factor regulates the RAG-2 promoter may explain some of the recently observed differences in the regulation of RAG transcription between B and T cells.  (+info)

B cell-specific activator protein prevents two activator factors from binding to the immunoglobulin J chain promoter until the antigen-driven stages of B cell development. (3/340)

The immunoglobulin J chain gene is inducibly transcribed in mature B cells upon antigen recognition and a signal from interleukin-2 (IL-2). B cell-specific activator protein (BSAP), a transcription factor that silences J chain transcription, has been identified as a nuclear target of the IL-2 signal. The levels of BSAP progressively decrease in response to IL-2 and this change correlates with the differentiation of B cells into antibody secreting plasma cells. Here we report the binding of the upstream stimulatory factor (USF) to an E-box motif immediately upstream from the BSAP site on the J chain promoter. Mutations in the USF binding motif significantly decrease J chain promoter activity in J chain expressing B cell lines. We also show that a functional relationship exists between USF and a second J chain positive-regulating factor, B-MEF2, using co-immunoprecipitation assays and transfections. Finally, we provide evidence that the binding of BSAP prevents USF and B-MEF2 from interacting with the J chain promoter during the antigen-independent stages of B cell development. It is not until the levels of BSAP decrease during the antigen-driven stages of B cell development that both USF and B-MEF2 are able to bind to their respective promoter elements and activate J chain transcription.  (+info)

Pax2/5 and Pax6 subdivide the early neural tube into three domains. (4/340)

The nested expression patterns of the paired-box containing transcription factors Pax2/5 and Pax6 demarcate the midbrain and forebrain primordium at the neural plate stage. We demonstrate that, in Pax2/5 deficient mice, the mesencephalon/metencephalon primordium is completely missing, resulting in a fusion of the forebrain to the hindbrain. Morphologically, in the alar plate the deletion is characterized by the substitution of the tectum (dorsal midbrain) and cerebellum (dorsal metencephalon) by the caudal diencephalon and in the basal plate by the replacement of the midbrain tegmentum by the ventral metencephalon (pons). Molecularly, the loss of the tectum is demonstrated by an expanded expression of Pax6, (the molecular determinant of posterior commissure), and a rostral shift of the territory of expression of Gbx2 and Otp (markers for the pons), towards the caudal diencephalon. Our results suggest that an intact territory of expression of Pax2/5 in the neural plate, nested between the rostral and caudal territories of expression of Pax6, is necessary for defining the midbrain vesicle.  (+info)

Coordinate regulation of B cell differentiation by the transcription factors EBF and E2A. (5/340)

The transcription factors EBF and E2A are required at a similar step in early B cell differentiation. EBF and E2A synergistically upregulate transcription of endogenous B cell-specific genes in a non-B cell line. Here, we examine a genetic collaboration between these factors in regulating B lymphopoiesis. We find that Ebf+/- E2a+/- mice display a marked defect in pro-B cell differentiation at a stage later than observed in the single homozygous mutant mice. Pro-B cells from Ebf+/- E2a+/- mice show reduced expression of lymphoid-specific transcripts, including Pax5, Rag1, Rag2, and mb-1. We also show that EBF directly binds and activates the Pax5 promoter. Together, these data show collaboration between EBF and E2A and provide insight into the hierarchy of transcription factors that regulate B lymphocyte differentiation.  (+info)

AML1 (CBFalpha2) cooperates with B cell-specific activating protein (BSAP/PAX5) in activation of the B cell-specific BLK gene promoter. (6/340)

AML1 plays a critical role during hematopoiesis and chromosomal translocations involving AML1 are commonly associated with different forms of leukemia, including pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To understand the function of AML1 during B cell differentiation, we analyzed regulatory regions of B cell-specific genes for potential AML1-binding sites and have identified a putative AML1-binding site in the promoter of the B cell-specific tyrosine kinase gene, blk. Gel mobility shift assays and transient transfection assays demonstrate that AML1 binds specifically to this site in the blk promoter and this binding site is important for blk promoter activity. Furthermore, in vitro binding analysis revealed that the AML1 runt DNA-binding domain physically interacts with the paired DNA-binding domain of BSAP, a B cell-specific transcription factor. BSAP has been shown previously to be important for B cell-specific regulation of the blk gene. Physical interaction of AML1 with BSAP correlates with functional cooperativity in transfection studies where AML1 and BSAP synergistically activate blk promoter transcription by more than 50-fold. These results demonstrate physical and functional interactions between AML1 and BSAP and suggest that AML1 is an important factor for regulating a critical B cell-specific gene, blk.  (+info)

FGF8 can activate Gbx2 and transform regions of the rostral mouse brain into a hindbrain fate. (7/340)

The mid/hindbrain junction region, which expresses Fgf8, can act as an organizer to transform caudal forebrain or hindbrain tissue into midbrain or cerebellar structures, respectively. FGF8-soaked beads placed in the chick forebrain can similarly induce ectopic expression of mid/hindbrain genes and development of midbrain structures (Crossley, P. H., Martinez, S. and Martin, G. R. (1996) Nature 380, 66-68). In contrast, ectopic expression of Fgf8a in the mouse midbrain and caudal forebrain using a Wnt1 regulatory element produced no apparent patterning defects in the embryos examined (Lee, S. M., Danielian, P. S., Fritzsch, B. and McMahon, A. P. (1997) Development 124, 959-969). We show here that FGF8b-soaked beads can not only induce expression of the mid/hindbrain genes En1, En2 and Pax5 in mouse embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) caudal forebrain explants, but also can induce the hindbrain gene Gbx2 and alter the expression of Wnt1 in both midbrain and caudal forebrain explants. We also show that FGF8b-soaked beads can repress Otx2 in midbrain explants. Furthermore, Wnt1-Fgf8b transgenic embryos in which the same Wnt1 regulatory element is used to express Fgf8b, have ectopic expression of En1, En2, Pax5 and Gbx2 in the dorsal hindbrain and spinal cord at E10.5, as well as exencephaly and abnormal spinal cord morphology. More strikingly, Fgf8b expression in more rostral brain regions appears to transform the midbrain and caudal forebrain into an anterior hindbrain fate through expansion of the Gbx2 domain and repression of Otx2 as early as the 7-somite stage. These findings suggest that normal Fgf8 expression in the anterior hindbrain not only functions to maintain development of the entire mid/hindbrain by regulating genes like En1, En2 and Pax5, but also might function to maintain a metencephalic identity by regulating Gbx2 and Otx2 expression.  (+info)

Early B cell factor is an activator of the B lymphoid kinase promoter in early B cell development. (8/340)

Early B cell factor (EBF) is a transcription factor suggested to be involved in the transcriptional control of several B cell restricted genes. EBF is also essential for B lymphocyte development because mice carrying a homologous disruption of the EBF gene lack mature B lymphocytes. This makes the identification of genetic targets for EBF important for the understanding of early B cell development. Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the B lymphoid kinase (Blk) promoter suggested the presence of an EBF binding site, and in vivo footprinting analysis showed that the site was protected from methylation in a pre-B cell line. EMSA indicated that recombinant and cellular EBF interact physically with this site; furthermore, transient transfections indicated that ectopic expression of EBF in nonlymphoid HeLa cells activate a Blk promoter-controlled reporter construct 9-fold. The defined EBF binding site was also important for the function of the Blk promoter in pre-B cells, because transient transfections of a reporter construct under the control of an EBF site-mutated Blk promoter displayed only 20-30% of the activity of the wild-type promoter. Furthermore, transient transfections in HeLa cells proposed that EBF and B cell-specific activator protein were able to cooperate in the activation of a Blk promoter-controlled reporter construct. These data indicate that EBF plays an important role in the regulation of the Blk promoter in early B cell development and that EBF and BSAP are capable to act in cooperation to induce a target gene.  (+info)

Title: Coordinated Expression of Pax-5 and FAK1 in Metastasis. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):Nicolas Crapoulet, Pierre OBrien, Rodney J. Ouellette and Gilles A. Robichaud. Affiliation:Universite de Moncton, Moncton, NB, Canada, E1A 3E9.. Keywords:Cancer, cell signaling, FAK1, focal adhesion, metastasis, Pax-5, B lymphopoiesis, cell differentiation, homeostasis, leukemia. Abstract: The Pax-5 gene encodes a B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) that plays a key role in B lymphocyte differentiation and embryogenesis. The deregulation of this transcription factor is also linked to B cell malignancies and recently to other cancers. More specifically, the downstream effects of Pax-5 promote cell-cell interactions and mediate the activation of adhesion genes which result in an epithelial phenotypic behavior of human carcinoma cells. To gain a better understanding of Pax-5-mediated gene regulation, we studied available gene expression data in depth and identified several Pax-5 downstream targets. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NF-HB (BSAP) is a repressor of the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain 3′α enhancer at early stages of B-cell differentiation. AU - Singh, Mallika. AU - Birshtein, Barbara K.. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - We have identified a nuclear factor expressed in pro-B-, pre-B-, and B-cell lines that binds to two sites within the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) 3′α enhancer (3′αE). These sites were defined by oligonucleotide competition in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and methylation interference footprinting. The 3′αE-binding factor is indistinguishable from NF-HB (B-lineage-specific nuclear factor that binds to the IgH gene) and the B-lineage-specific transcription factor BSAP by several criteria, including similar cell type distribution of binding activity, cross-competition of binding sites in EMSA, similar protein size as demonstrated by UV cross-linking, and sequence identity of one of the 3′αE-binding sites with a BSAP-binding site within the ...
The cerebral cortex forms by the orderly migration and subsequent differentiation of neuronal precursors generated in the proliferative ventricular zone. We studied the role of the transcription factor Pax-6, which is expressed in the ventricular zone, in cortical development. Embryos homozygous for a mutation of Pax-6 (Small eye; Sey) had abnormalities suggesting defective migration of late-born cortical precursors. When late-born Sey/Sey precursors were transplanted into wild-type embryonic rat cortex, they showed similar integrative, migrational and differentiative abilities to those of transplanted wild-type mouse precursors. These results suggest that postmitotic cortical cells do not need Pax-6 to acquire the capacity to migrate and differentiate, but that Pax-6 generates a cortical environment that permits later-born precursors to express their full developmental potential.. ...
EBF1 is a crucial regulator of B lymphocyte lineage specification and commitment. In mice lacking EBF1 (encoded by the Ebf1 gene), B cell development is arreste...
Author Summary Each time a mammalian cell duplicates its genome in preparation for cell division it activates thousands of so called
The majority of novel disease genes is currently being identified in less well-investigated consanguineous populations. Based on its corresponding global positioning, CENTOGENE has been able to contribute significantly to such research projects. The most recent example is the discovery of recessive mutations in the transcription factor PAX7 to underlie a new form of muscle disease. The findings were published in Genetics in Medicine, one of the leading journals in the field.
Although bats are recognized as major reservoir hosts of emerging infectious diseases, Joffrin and colleagues highlight that a significant knowledge gap on transmission mechanisms remains and needs further exploration. They question whether bat bites are the exception rather than the rule, and ask whether other animals can transmit bat-borne pathogens. They conclude by questioning what we can learn from bat-to-bat transmission.. ...
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The initiation, commitment, and terminal differentiation of the B cell lineage is stringently controlled by the coordinated action of various transcription factors. Among these, |i|Arid3a|/i| has previously been implicated in regulating early B lymphopoiesis, humoral immune responses to phosphocholi …
Coffman, R L. and Weissman, I L., B220: a b cell-specific member of the t200 glycoprotein family. (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 1405 ...
PAX3 in neuroblastoma: oncogenic potential, chemosensitivity and signalling pathways.: Transcription factor PAX3/Pax3 contributes to diverse cell lineages durin
PAX3山羊多克隆抗体(ab15717)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Gene gets invited to his first sleepover and is nervous about it, and when things dont go as planned, he realizes he had a right to be. Meanwhile, Bob and Linda record themse...
com.google.android.inputmethod.latin / u0a57: TOTAL: 100% (6.4MB-6.7MB-6.8MB/5.4MB-5.4MB-5.4MB over 21) Imp Fg: 100% (6.4MB-6.7MB-6.8MB/5.4MB-5.4MB-5.4MB over 21) * com.google.process.gapps / u0a8: TOTAL: 100% (12MB-13MB-14MB/10MB-11MB-12MB over 211) Imp Fg: 0.11% Imp Bg: 0.83% (13MB-13MB-13MB/11MB-11MB-11MB over 1) Service: 99% (12MB-13MB-14MB/10MB-11MB-12MB over 210) * com.android.systemui / u0a12: TOTAL: 100% (29MB-32MB-34MB/26MB-29MB-30MB over 21) Persistent: 100% (29MB-32MB-34MB/26MB-29MB-30MB over 21) * com.android.phone / 1001: TOTAL: 100% (6.5MB-7.1MB-7.6MB/5.4MB-5.9MB-6.4MB over 21) Persistent: 100% (6.5MB-7.1MB-7.6MB/5.4MB-5.9MB-6.4MB over 21) * com.nuance.xt9.input / u0a77: TOTAL: 100% (2.3MB-2.5MB-2.7MB/1.5MB-1.5MB-1.5MB over 21) Persistent: 100% (2.3MB-2.5MB-2.7MB/1.5MB-1.5MB-1.5MB over 21) * com.android.nfc / 1027: TOTAL: 100% (4.2MB-4.5MB-4.6MB/3.2MB-3.2MB-3.3MB over 21) Persistent: 100% (4.2MB-4.5MB-4.6MB/3.2MB-3.2MB-3.3MB over 21) * com.google.process.location / u0a8: TOTAL: ...
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UDSpace is currently experiencing hardware issues. Logins have been disabled and we request that no new content be added until these issues are resolved. Thank you. ...
BACKGROUND: The early B lymphopoiesis in mammals is regulated through close interactions with stromal cells and components of the intracellular matrix in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Although B lymphopoiesis has been studied for decades, th
Orexins or hypocretins are neurotransmitters produced by a small population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This family of peptides modulates sleep‑wake cycle, arousal and feeding behaviors; however, the mechanisms regulating their expression remain to be fully elucidated. There is an interest in defining the key molecular elements in orexin regulation, as these may serve to identify targets for generating novel therapies for sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. Our previous studies showed that the expression of orexin was decreased in mice carrying null‑mutations of the transcription factor early B‑cell factor 2 (ebf2) and that the promoter region of the prepro‑orexin (Hcrt) gene contained two putative ebf‑binding sites, termed olf‑1 sites ...
BearShare Acceleration Patch is an add-on for people who use BearShare P2P file sharing utility to download music, movies, books and any other files.
B cells represent a critical component of the immune system: in the absence of these cells, the ability to fight infections and to establish long-term protectiv...
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What the Bible Teaches: A Guide to Total Christian Commitment is a concise overall view of Gods Word from Genesis to Revelation.
This project is supported in part by the NIH Specialized Programs of Translational Research in Acute Stroke (SPOTRIAS) Network, and NINDS grant 3P50NS055977 to Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine and UT Southwestern Medical Center.. ...
Signaling through the Notch1 receptor is essential for T cell development in the thymus. Stromal OP9 cells ectopically expressing the Notch ligand Delta-like1 mimic the thymic environment by inducing hemopoietic stem cells to undergo in vitro T cell development. Notch1 is also expressed on Pax5-/- pro-B cells, which are clonable lymphoid progenitors with a latent myeloid potential. In this study, we demonstrate that Pax5-/- progenitors efficiently differentiate in vitro into CD4+CD8+ alphabeta and gammadelta T cells upon coculture with OP9-Delta-like1 cells. In vitro T cell development of Pax5-/- progenitors strictly depends on Notch1 function and progresses through normal developmental stages by expressing T cell markers and rearranging TCRbeta, gamma, and delta loci in the correct temporal sequence. Notch-stimulated Pax5-/- progenitors efficiently down-regulate the expression of B cell-specific genes, consistent with a role of Notch1 in preventing B lymphopoiesis in the thymus. At the same ...
Deoxyuridine (dU) is a pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside, and a derivative of the nucleoside uridine, with the only difference being that, in dU, a hydrogen (-H) group is substituted for uridine s OH group located at the 2 -position of the ribose. dU is generated in cellular DNA as a deamination product of dC (deoxycytidine), with the deamination process catalyzed by the enzyme AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) (1). AID is a B cell-specific gene that is necessary for antibody gene diversification via class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (2, 3). The dC-to-dU conversion(s) by AID occurs in the IgG locus, with various gene diversification pathways arising from the different DNA repair mechanisms used by B-cells to repair the dU lesion (1).. dC-to-dU conversion via cytidine deamination is also implicated in innate immunity to retroviruses. Here deamination of dC is mediated by the enzyme APOBEC3G, which is present in T cells, acting on the first (minus) strand cDNA of ...
In the human paired box-containing (PAX) gene family, only two members, PAX-3 and PAX-6, which are associated with Waardenburgs syndrome and aniridia, respectively have been mapped to human chromosomes. We have now isolated cosmids for six additional human PAX genes (PAX-1,-2,-5,-7,-8,-9) and a polymerase chain reaction fragment for PAX-4. PAX-9 is a novel family member which is closely related in its paired domain to PAX-1. The chromosomal location of all cloned PAX genes was determined by analysis of somatic cell hybrids and (except PAX-4) by fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes. PAX-1 and PAX-7 map to chromosomal regions containing previously assigned disease loci.
Leica BLK3D Target Calibration Plate 877100 - Leica BLK3D Target Calibration Plate Target Calibration Plate for BLK3D: Size A3 Used for checking and adjusting the BLK3D.
Just so you know, I havent completed the BabyDoll story I started earlier this week. Ive thankfully been busy at work, which has kept my mind off losing her ...
Involved in a multitude of developmental processes, PAX5 expression is not only continuously required for B cell lineage commitment during early B cell development but also for B lineage maintenance, involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene, a B-lymphoid-specific target gene ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - SUMOylation of Blimp-1 is critical for plasma cell differentiation. AU - Ying, Hsia Yuan. AU - Su, Shin Tang. AU - Hsu, Pang Hung. AU - Chang, Che Chang. AU - Lin, I. Ying. AU - Tseng, Yu Hsuan. AU - Tsai, Ming Daw. AU - Shih, Hsiu Ming. AU - Lin, Kuo I.. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. Here we show that Blimp-1 is covalently modified by SUMO1 at lysine 816, a modification mediated by SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1. Mutation of Blimp-1 lysine 816 reduces transcriptional repression-correlating with a reduced interaction with a histone deacetylase, HDAC2-and impairs differentiation of antibody-secreting cells. Thus, the SUMO pathway critically regulates Blimp-1 function during plasma cell differentiation.. AB - Transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. Here we show that ...
BSAP can be mildly elevated in patients with fractures. In addition, patients with hyperparathyroidism, Paget disease, or osteomalacia can have elevations of BSAP. Serum OC levels, if high, indicate a... more
KEYWORDS=~alpha ~amd64 ~arm ~hppa ~ia64 ~mips ~ppc ~ppc64 ~s390 ~sh ~sparc ~x86 ~amd64-fbsd ~x86-fbsd ~x86-freebsd ~x86-interix ~amd64-linux ~x86-linux ~ppc-macos ~x64-macos ~x86-macos ~sparc-solaris ~sparc64-solaris ~x64-solaris ~x86-solaris ...
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"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic ... This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant ... AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. ...
Mitochondria also release proteins known as SMACs (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) into the cell's cytosol ... cells that are cultivated in distinct and specific conditions. An example of this can be seen in HeLa cells, whereby the cells ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... Apoptosis in HeLa cells is inhibited by proteins produced by the cell; these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor- ...
Enzymes in the cell often cut this elongated protein into fragments. The protein fragments form abnormal clumps, known as ... "Interaction of Huntington disease protein with transcriptional activator Sp1". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (5): 1277-87 ... "Huntingtin is ubiquitinated and interacts with a specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... The exact function of this protein is not known, but it plays an important role in nerve cells. Within cells, huntingtin may or ...
"Transcriptional co-activator p75 binds and tethers the Myc-interacting protein JPO2 to chromatin". J. Cell Sci. 119 (Pt 12): ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-648. doi:10.1016 ... Cell division cycle-associated 7-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDCA7L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2005). "Identification of a novel c-Myc protein interactor, JPO2, with transforming activity in medulloblastoma cells". Cancer ...
"Human Tra2 proteins are sequence-specific activators of pre-mRNA splicing". Cell. 93 (1): 139-48. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... 2003). "Regulation of alternative splicing by SRrp86 and its interacting proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (21): 7437-47. doi: ... 2000). "A human importin-beta family protein, transportin-SR2, interacts with the phosphorylated RS domain of SR proteins". J. ... and temporal-specific pattern". Cell Biol. Int. 27 (6): 491-6. doi:10.1016/S1065-6995(03)00072-6. PMID 12798777. S2CID 44758770 ...
Protein specific binding is required for the CCAAT box activation. These proteins are known as CCAAT box binding proteins/CCAAT ... It is frequently absent from genes that encode proteins used in virtually all cells. This box along with the GC box is known ... Full gene expression occurs when transcription activator proteins bind to each module within the regulatory promoter. ... The NF-YC proteins are an intermediate size between that of NF-YA and NF-YB proteins (117-292 amino acids in M. truncatula) and ...
The protein can function as an activator of gene transcription and may serve as a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator. In ... This gene is a member of the SP100/SP140 family of nuclear body proteins and encodes a leukocyte-specific nuclear body ... 2003). "HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages". Nat. ... SP110 nuclear body protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP110 gene. The nuclear body is a multiprotein complex ...
It shows greater affinity for RAS p21 protein activator 1, but lower specific activity. The mRNA for this gene is subject to ... Its cellular lineage is uncertain, and may derive from Schwann cells, other perineural cell lines, or fibroblasts. ... Additionally, being such a large protein, more active domains of the protein have been identified. One such domain interacts ... Homology studies have shown that neurofibromin is 30% similar to proteins in the GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) Family. This ...
... stimulation of sphingolipid degradation by sphingolipid activator proteins and anionic lysosomal lipids". Annu Rev Cell Dev ... Potato PSI also has selective cytotoxic activity against pathogens and cancer cells (but not human T cells, RBC, or plant cells ... The plant-specific insert (PSI) or plant-specific sequence (PSS) is an independent domain, exclusively found in plants, ... is homologous to saposin and belongs to the saposin-like protein family (SAPLIP). Although the PSI is grouped along proteins in ...
... a fungal protein that functions outside of the fungus but inside of plant cells has evolved to take on plant-specific functions ... Xanthomonas and Ralstonia transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are DNA-binding proteins that activate host gene ... proteins with nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains, also known as NLR proteins or STAND proteins, among other ... Effectors typically are proteins that are delivered outside the microbe and into the host cell. These colonist-derived ...
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (serbp1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERBP1 gene. ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. United States. 122 (6): 957-68. doi ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ...
The PAX5 gene encodes the B-cell lineage specific activator protein (BSAP) that is expressed at early, but not late stages of B ... cooperates with B cell-specific activating protein (BSAP/PAX5) in activation of the B cell-specific BLK gene promoter". The ... "Entrez Gene: PAX5 paired box gene 5 (B-cell lineage specific activator)". Torlakovic E, Torlakovic G, Nguyen PL, Brunning RD, ... Paired box protein Pax-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX5 gene. The PAX5 gene is a member of the paired box ( ...
ZFM1 protein is a transcriptional repressor that interacts with the transcription activation domain of stage-specific activator ... appears to be active in masculining both the Leydig cells and Sertoli cells. In Sertoli cells with the SOX9 protein it elevates ... "The p53-binding protein 53BP2 also interacts with Bc12 and impedes cell cycle progression at G2/M". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (7): ... Splicing factor 1 also known as zinc finger protein 162 (ZFM162) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SF1 gene. ...
Hirabayashi Y, Li YT, Li SC (1983). "The protein activator specific for the enzymic hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside in normal ... GM2A is a lipid transfer protein that stimulates the enzymatic processing of gangliosides, and also T-cell activation through ... 1990). "The complete amino-acid sequences of human ganglioside GM2 activator protein and cerebroside sulfate activator protein ... GM2 ganglioside activator also known as GM2A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GM2A gene. The protein encoded by ...
... a B cell-specific trans-activator that describes a new DNA-binding protein family". Genes Dev. 9 (24): 3067-82. doi:10.1101/gad ... cell lineage gene regulation and cell cycle control. Although the specific roles of this domain and of ARID-containing proteins ... "The human SWI-SNF complex protein p270 is an ARID family member with non-sequence-specific DNA binding activity". Mol. Cell. ... The human SWI-SNF complex protein ARID1A is an ARID family member with non-sequence-specific DNA binding activity. The ARID ...
"Cell-type specific DNA-protein interactions at the tissue-type plasminogen activator promoter in human endothelial and HeLa ... Reddy SP, Mossman BT (Dec 2002). "Role and regulation of activator protein-1 in toxicant-induced responses of the lung". ... These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription ... the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. FOSL1 has been ...
Mori M, Yamaguchi K, Abe K (May 1989). "Purification of a lipoprotein lipase-inhibiting protein produced by a melanoma cell ... LIF binds to the specific LIF receptor (LIFR-α) which forms a heterodimer with a specific subunit common to all members of that ... This leads to activation of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) and MAPK (mitogen ... As embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass at the blastocyst stage, removing them from the inner cell mass ...
The binding of cAMP to the catabolite activator protein (CAP) causes CAP to bind to a specific DNA site in glnAp1, and glnAp1 ... The glnALG operon is an operon that regulates the nitrogen content of a cell. It codes for the structural gene glnA the two ... The glnALG operon is regulated by an intricate network of repressors and activators. Along with NRI and NRII, there are gene ... Hence along with histidase, glnALG operon maintains homeostasis within the cell. ...
Homologous to the ATP-binding and catalytic sites of E1 activator proteins, ATG7 uses its cysteine residue to create a thiol- ... ATG 7, present in both plant and animal genomes, acts as an essential protein for cell degradation and its recycling. The ... ATG7's role in both of these autophagy-specific UBL systems makes it an essential regulator of autophagosome assembly. ... Through UPS, Ubiquitin will continue to bind to other autophagy-related proteins, E2 conjugation proteins and E3 protein ...
... growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA ... SPINT2 is a transmembrane protein with two extracellular Kunitz domains to inhibit serine proteases. This gene is a presumed ... epitope v9 and subsequently suppresses expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in human chondrosarcoma cells". The ... using specific antibodies against each of the H1 and H2 heavy chains". Journal of Immunological Methods. 190 (1): 61-70. doi: ...
The protein encoded by this gene (p35) is a neuron-specific activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5); the activation of ... The cleavage of p35 into p25 results in relocalization of the protein from the cell periphery to nuclear and perinuclear ... Qu D, Li Q, Lim HY, Cheung NS, Li R, Wang JH, Qi RZ (March 2002). "The protein SET binds the neuronal Cdk5 activator p35nck5a ... 2002). "The protein SET binds the neuronal Cdk5 activator p35nck5a and modulates Cdk5/p35nck5a activity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (9 ...
2001). "Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth ... The protein is a potent inhibitor specific for HGF activator and is thought to be involved in the regulation of the proteolytic ... 2001). "Localization of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in Langhans' cells of human placenta". Histochem. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ...
2001). "Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth ... Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HGFAC gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... 2006). "Functional analysis of HGF/MET signaling and aberrant HGF-activator expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma". Blood ... 2001). "Localization of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in Langhans' cells of human placenta". Histochem. ...
Giniger E, Varnum SM, Ptashne M (April 1985). "Specific DNA binding of GAL4, a positive regulatory protein of yeast". Cell. 40 ... "A sequence-specific transcription activator motif and powerful synthetic variants that bind Mediator using a fuzzy protein ... Suzuki Y, Nogi Y, Abe A, Fukasawa T (October 1992). "GAL11 protein, an auxiliary transcription activator for genes encoding ... broad use of the Gal4 is in yeast two-hybrid screening to screen or to assay protein-protein interactions in eukaryotic cells ...
Wang X, Weng LP, Yu Q (2000). "Specific inhibition of FGF-induced MAPK activation by the receptor-like protein tyrosine ... "A lipid-anchored Grb2-binding protein that links FGF-receptor activation to the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway". Cell. 89 (5): 693- ... "Broadly expressed SNT-like proteins link FGF receptor stimulation to activators of Ras". Oncogene. 13 (4): 721-9. PMID 8761293 ... "Docking protein FRS2 links the protein tyrosine kinase RET and its oncogenic forms with the mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
"Identification of a promoter-specific transcriptional activation domain at the C terminus of the Wnt effector protein T-cell ... "cAMP-response-element-binding-protein-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional co-activators of early growth response ... In cancer cells, EP300 mutations prevent the gene from producing any functional protein. Without p300, cells cannot effectively ... "Synergistic role of E1A-binding proteins and tissue-specific transcription factors in differentiation". J. Cell. Biochem. 67 (4 ...
... may refer to: B-cell-specific activator protein Baltic Sea Action Plan, Helsinki Committee Bone-specific alkaline ...
... erythroblast transformation-specific related gene-1), and AP-1 (activator protein), in order to promote the transcription of ... It is an early activation marker that is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells, T cells, and many other cell types in the ... Activation signaling pathways in lymphocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells and other cell types upregulate transcription factors, ... Helper Cell-Germinal Center B Cell Interaction Strength Regulates Entry into Plasma Cell or Recycling Germinal Center Cell Fate ...
... encodes B-cell specific activator proteins expressed in early B-cell differentiation, and has been detected in developing ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-05-02. "TimeTree: The ... The DUF covers nearly the entire protein. About two-thirds of the secondary protein structure is predicted to consist of alpha ... NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Protein entry on Uncharacterized Protein CXorf38 Isoform 1 [1] Wen G, ...
sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence ... Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/ ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ...
... the hepatitis C virus envelope protein E1 occurs posttranslationally in a mannosylphosphoryldolichol-deficient CHO mutant cell ... clinical presentations and specific therapies". Eur. J. Pediatr. 162 (6): 359-79. doi:10.1007/s00431-002-1136-0. PMID 12756558. ... "Cell. 136 (2): 272-83. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.047. PMC 2859625. PMID 19167329.. ... ER Translocon complex.[2] Many protein complexes are involved in protein synthesis. The actual production takes place in the ...
... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... Light therapy is a treatment method that involves delivering certain specific wavelengths of light to an area of skin affected ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ...
This nuclear protein is involved in thyroid follicular cell development and expression of thyroid-specific genes. PAX8 releases ... sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator ... protein binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding ... Over 90% of thyroid tumors arise from follicular thyroid cells.[8] A fusion protein, PAX8-PPAR-γ, is implicated in some ...
identical protein binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional ... cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding. • metal ion ... sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion ...
"Rad51 overexpression contributes to chemoresistance in human soft tissue sarcoma cells: a role for p53/activator protein 2 ... All of these proteins, with the exception of meiosis-specific DMC1, are essential for development in mammals. Rad51 is a member ... protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100%. Western (protein) blotting and mRNA. [25]. ...
In specific cell types or on specific promoters TBP can be replaced by one of several TBP-related factors (TRF1 in Drosophila, ... Compounds that trap the protein-DNA intermediate could result in it being toxic to the cell once they encounter a DNA ... Interaction of TATA boxes with a variety of activators or repressors can influence the transcription of genes in many ways[ ... In recent years, a collective effort has been made to find cancer-specific molecular targets, such as protein-DNA complexes, ...
Others may not have symptoms and may be picked up on screening or urinalysis as having high amounts of protein loss in the ... The immune complex serves as an activator that triggers a response from the C5b - C9 complements, which form a membrane attack ... This, in turn, stimulates release of proteases and oxidants by the mesangial and epithelial cells, damaging the capillary walls ... For treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy, the treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs and non-specific anti ...
SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... DNA-binding protein motif that recognize specific DNA sequence). They also share the feature of long 'tails' on one end of the ... in the importance of histone acetylation for transcription in yeast and the activity of the transcriptional activator Gcn5 as a ... Link between cell-cycle control machinery and histone synthesis[edit]. Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known ...
Hall used immunoprecipitation assays to show that CNK1, a scaffold protein-like target of Rho, interacts with two Rho-specific ... DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... In 2005, there was an abundance of activators and targets of the Rho pathway that had been identified, yet very little ... Finally, Ral mutants unable to bind to their specific effector proteins showed that RalA and RalB isoforms promote branching ...
1997). "Actin-binding protein-280 binds the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor ... and JNK1 results in efficient and specific JNK1 activation". Mol. Cell. Biol. UNITED STATES. 20 (7): 2334-42. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... "Actin-binding protein-280 binds the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor necrosis ... 1995). "Activation of stress-activated protein kinase by MEKK1 phosphorylation of its activator SEK1". Nature. 372 (6508): 798- ...
"Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2015.. ... Value of detailed chromosome studies on large numbers of cells in CML". American Journal of Hematology. 3 (2): 121-6. doi: ... The HADHB gene is located on chromosome 2, with its specific location being 2p23.[5] The gene contains 17 exons. HADHB encodes ... The encoded protein can also bind RNA and decreases the stability of some mRNAs. The genes of the alpha and beta subunits of ...
FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ... t-PA and urokinase are themselves inhibited by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-1 ... Protein C (inhibits V, VIII)/Protein S (cofactor for protein C). *Protein Z (inhibits X) ... Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)[3] and urokinase are the agents that convert plasminogen to the active plasmin, thus ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a neuron-specific activator of CDK5 kinase. It associates with CDK5 to form an active ... 2004). "Regulation of type 1 protein phosphatase/inhibitor-2 complex by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in intact cells". J. ... This protein and neuron-specific CDK5 activator CDK5R1/p39NCK5A both share limited similarity to cyclins, and thus may define a ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 activator activity. • lipid binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cyclin-dependent ...
Levels of protein C, free and total protein S, factor VIII, antithrombin, plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and ... Distinguishing a lupus antibody from a specific coagulation factor inhibitor (e.g.: factor VIII) is normally achieved by ... In APS there are also antibodies binding to Protein S, which is a co-factor of protein C. Thus, anti-protein S antibodies ... Protein C deficiency/Activated protein C resistance/Protein S deficiency/Factor V Leiden ...
regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ... While the TrkB receptor interacts with BDNF in a ligand-specific manner, all neurotrophins can interact with the p75 receptor.[ ... "PKCdelta regulates cortical radial migration by stabilizing the Cdk5 activator p35". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ...
... identified a protein that later became known as superoxide dismutase as an indophenol oxidase by protein analysis of starch ... "The expression of different superoxide dismutase forms is cell-type dependent in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves". Plant & Cell ... Items listed in bold indicate initially developed compounds of specific groups. #WHO-EM †Withdrawn drugs. ‡Veterinary use ... The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). For example, Cu-Zn-SOD ...
These receptor proteins may escort polyubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome, though the specifics of this interaction and ... "Proteasome activators". Molecular Cell. 41 (1): 8-19. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2010.12.020. PMC 3040445. PMID 21211719 ... Apoptosis is mediated through disrupting the regulated degradation of pro-growth cell cycle proteins.[88] However, some cell ... activated by specific cyclins that demarcate phases of the cell cycle. Mitotic cyclins, which persist in the cell for only a ...
In order to keep the cytotoxic cells from killing cells just for presenting self-proteins, the cytotoxic cells (self-reactive T ... Antigens found only on such cells are called tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and generally result from a tumor-specific mutation ... Gallucci, S; Lolkema, M; Matzinger, P (November 1999). "Natural adjuvants: endogenous activators of dendritic cells". Nature ... Immunoglobulin-binding protein - Proteins such as protein A, protein G, and protein L that are capable of binding to antibodies ...
Wortmannin is a PI3K-specific inhibitor, and treatment of cells with Wortmannin in combination with PDGF resulted in enhanced ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... "12/15-Lipoxygenase Contributes to Platelet-derived Growth Factor-induced Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of ... PDGF[1][2] is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In ...
"Novel INK4 proteins, p19 and p18, are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Mol. Cell. Biol ... regulation of cell cycle. • cell division. • negative regulation of cell cycle arrest. • protein phosphorylation. • lens ... Ghavidel A, Cagney G, Emili A (2005). "A skeleton of the human protein interactome". Cell. 122 (6): 830-2. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ...
BKCa-specific: Ethanol (alcohol). *GAL-021. Activators. *BKCa-specific: Flufenamic acid ... Lamotrigine has been associated with a decrease in white blood cell count (leukopenia).[40] Lamotrigine does not prolong QT/QTc ... Protein binding. 55%. Metabolism. Liver (mostly UGT1A4-mediated). Elimination half-life. 29 hours. ... There are no specific recommendations for periodic ophthalmological monitoring. Lamotrigine binds to the eye and melanin- ...
... anchored proteins: GPI-anchored proteins in liposomes and cells show similar behavior". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "Phosphatidic acid is a specific activator of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (11): 7207-10. PMID ... The role of PA in the cell[edit]. The role of PA in the cell can be divided into three categories: *PA is the precursor for the ... PA concentrations are maintained at extremely low levels in the cell by the activity of potent LPPs.[6] These convert PA into ...
mast cell granule. • Schwann cell microvillus. • Schmidt-Lanterman incisure. • nucleoplasm. • cell projection cytoplasm. • ... "Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein regulates the expression of aldose reductase and protein kinase C δ in a mouse ... "Major differences exist in the function and tissue-specific expression of human aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase and the ... The involvement in oxidative stress diseases, cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process endows AKR1B1 the ...
5.2.4 Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). *5.2.5 Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) ... "Stroke and T-cells". Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program; Arumugam TV, Granger ... "Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke". The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA ... Protein khas CNS seperti pancortin-2 akan berinteraksi dengan protein modulator aktin, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein ...
It is a peptidomimetic consisting of ten amino acids, which is a selective and specific antagonist of bradykinin B2 receptors. ... It increases vessel permeability, dilates blood vessels and causes smooth muscle cells to contract. Bradykinin plays an ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355 ... Activators: beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid. *Hydroxynorketamine. *Leucine. *NV-5138. *Inhibitors: Rapalogs: Everolimus ...
... in which it mediates tethering and adhesion of these cells. However, PSGL-1 is not specific for P-selectin, as it can also ... The elevated synthesis of P-selectin may play an important role in the delivery of protein to the cell surface. In ischemic ... was reported to be highly correlated to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and tissue plasminogen activator activity.[ ... leukocyte cell-cell adhesion. • heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • positive ...
... these proteins control gene expression within the cell of origin, and when released exert homeostatic and developmental control ... in specific human cell types, tissues and organs during adult or fetal development or both, including pathways associated with ... Molecular Cell Biology. 11 (9): 668-74. doi:10.1038/nrm2956. PMC 3042954. PMID 20700144.. ... McClain WH (November 1993). "Rules that govern tRNA identity in protein synthesis". Journal of Molecular Biology. 234 (2): 257- ...
The exact mechanism for this protein is currently not known, but efforts continue to isolate activated protein C mutants that ... The specific mechanisms by which drotrecogin exerts its effect on survival in patients with severe sepsis is not completely ... any bleeding event requiring administration of at least 3 units of packed red blood cells daily for 2 consecutive days) ... and that it has indirect profibrinolytic activity by inhibiting plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In vitro data also ...
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cell migration. • blood coagulation. • proteolysis ... Recently a new series of specific, direct acting inhibitors of Factor Xa has been developed. These include the drugs ... SUB-MICROMOLAR INHIBITOR OF UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR ... Protein C (inhibits V, VIII)/Protein S (cofactor for protein C) ... Contributions of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions toward complex formation". The Journal of Biological ...
Acts as a CEBPB coactivator in mammary epithelial cells to control the expression of a subset of CEBPB downstream target genes ... provided experiments have been performed in the context of a whole organism or a specific tissue, and not at the single-cell ... Cell death activator CIDE-AAdd BLAST. 217. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
The human GDNF activator is highly specific. Having established that hGDNF-ZFP could drive significant GDNF activation, we next ... An Engineered Zinc Finger Protein Activator of the Endogenous Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Provides ... An Engineered Zinc Finger Protein Activator of the Endogenous Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Provides ... An Engineered Zinc Finger Protein Activator of the Endogenous Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Provides ...
Transcription Factor B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) Is Differentially Expressed in B Cells and Subsets of B-Cell ... The B-cell-specific activator protein. Home/Newsletters/Hematopathology, Immunohistochemistry/PAX-5 - The B-cell-specific ... PAX-5, also known as B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP), is a transcription factor which plays a vital role in B-cell ... B-Cell Specific Activation Protein Encoded by the PAX-5 Gene Is Commonly Expressed in Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Small Cell ...
Regulation of human epsilon germline transcription: Role of b-cell-specific activator protein. International Archives of ... Regulation of human epsilon germline transcription : Role of b-cell-specific activator protein. In: International Archives of ... Because binding sites for B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) are located upstream of several switch regions in the ... Regulation of human epsilon germline transcription : Role of b-cell-specific activator protein. / De Monte, Lucia; Thienes, ...
activator protein 1;. ChIP,. chromatin IP;. GC,. granulosa cell;. FSH,. follicle-stimulating hormone;. IP,. immunoprecipitation ... Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene ... Cell-type-selective induction of c-jun by TAF4b directs ovarian-specific transcription networks. Kenneth G. Geles, Richard N. ... TATA Box-Binding Protein-Associated Factor 12 Is Important for RAS-Induced Transformation Properties of Colorectal Cancer Cells ...
p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... Organism-specific databases. Rat genome database. More...RGDi. 1559465 Purb. ,p>This section provides information on the ... Transcriptional activator protein Pur-betaAdd BLAST. 314. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Mitochondria also release proteins known as SMACs (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) into the cells cytosol ... cells that are cultivated in distinct and specific conditions. An example of this can be seen in HeLa cells, whereby the cells ... HeLa cell[edit]. Apoptosis in HeLa[b] cells is inhibited by proteins produced by the cell; these inhibitory proteins target ... Expression of viral proteins coupled to MHC proteins on the surface of the infected cell, allowing recognition by cells of the ...
B cell lineage-specific activator protein (BSAP). A player at multiple stages of B cell development. J S Michaelson, M Singh ... Apoptosis-independent retinoblastoma protein rescue of HLA class II messenger RNA IFN-gamma inducibility in non-small cell lung ... Stress-induced enhancement of antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity. F S Dhabhar and B S McEwen ... T cells commit suicide, but B cells are murdered! D W Scott, T Grdina and Y Shi ...
Gene activation in eukaryotes requires coordinated use of specific cell signals, chromatin modifications, and chromatin ... including peritoneal mesothelial cells (14), endothelial cells (13), and smooth muscle cells (36). The present data also show ... Cells were incubated with medium alone or with IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for 24, 48, or 72 h. Protein extracts were obtained and ... AP-1 proteins mediate hyperglycemia-induced activation of the human TGF-β1 promoter in mesangial cells. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11 ...
... fusion proteins. Protein expression was then confirmed for all constructs by Rex-specific immunoprecipitation analysis (Fig.2A ... A transcriptional activator protein encoded by the x-lor region of the human T-cell leukemia virus.Science (Washington, D.C.) ... Multimer Formation Is Not Essential for Nuclear Export of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Rextrans-Activator Protein. Peter ... Multimer Formation Is Not Essential for Nuclear Export of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Rextrans-Activator Protein ...
... cell death, and cytokine secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms by which autophagy and DDR are intertwined provides novel insight ... cell death, and cytokine secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms by which autophagy and DDR are intertwined provides novel insight ... AMPK, AMP-kinase; AP1, activator protein 1; APC, antigen-presenting cells; ATM, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated; ATR, ATM- and ... death-associated protein kinase; DDB, damage specific DNA binding proteins 1 and 2; DNA-PK, DNA-dependent protein kinase; DRAM ...
1999 Activator-specific requirement of yeast mediator proteins for RNA polymerase II transcriptional activation. Mol. Cell. ... a protein similar to an HMG1-like protein. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17: 4178-4190. ... 1999 An activator binding module of yeast RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19: 2967-2976. ... 1993 A multisubunit complex associated with the RNA polymerase II CTD and TATA-binding protein in yeast. Cell 73: 1361-1375. ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic ... This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant ... AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. ...
B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein B-Lymphocytes Cell Line Cell Lineage Humans Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate ... B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate PAX5 protein, human Receptors, Interleukin-7 pre-B- ... hematopoiesis from human embryonic stem cells, we observed the formation of pre-B cells. These cells were CD45(+)CD19(+)CD10 ... Human induced pluripotent stem cells are capable of B-cell lymphopoiesis. Lee Carpenter, Ram Malladi, Cheng-Tao Yang, Anna ...
... nuclear binding of activator protein (AP)-1 (c-Fos, FosB, and c-Jun) at 4-8 h; and binding of NF-interleukin (IL)-6 at 24 h. ... Transcriptional mechanisms regulating alveolar epithelial cell-specific CCL5 secretion in pulmonary tuberculosis.. ... epithelial cells. Differential responsiveness of small airway and normal human bronchial epithelial cells to CoMTB but not to ... Monocyte alveolar, but not upper airway, epithelial cell networks in pulmonary tuberculosis cause AP-1-, NF-IL-6-, and NFkappaB ...
One of the specific receptors responsible for this processes is a scavenger protein, specifically the LDL Receptor-Related ... Tissue plasminogen activator also plays a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling.[citation needed] Once in the body, tPA ... Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots. It is a serine ... Tissue plasminogen activator is a protein encoded by the PLAT gene, which is located on chromosome 8. The primary transcript ...
Immunogen corresponding to full length native protein (purified) ... B cell specific activator protein antibody. *B cell specific ... Paired box gene 5 (B cell lineage specific activator protein) antibody. *Paired box gene 5 (B cell lineage specific activator) ... B cell lineage specific activator protein antibody. * ... Paired box protein Pax 5 antibody. *Paired box protein Pax-5 ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
Rho activator, Rho activation, Rho phenotype, Rho protein, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, CNF, actin cytoskeleton, fluorescent ... Rho activator is used to studiy cell function of Rho GTPase, Rho inhibitor, Rac inhibitor, Cdc42 inhibitor, ... phalloidin, probes for actin, cell permeable, high affinity. ... For the specific Rho activator (Cat. # CN03), the catalytic ... Question 1: Which small G-protein activators are best for neuronal tissue or cells? ...
To assure correct partitioning of cellular contents, cells use regulatory mechanisms to verify that each stage of cell division ... To assure correct partitioning of cellular contents, cells use regulatory mechanisms to verify that each stage of cell division ... Failure to carry out this unlinking leads to cell division arrest at late G2 prior to entering mitosis, an arrest that can be ... Failure to carry out this unlinking leads to cell division arrest at late G2 prior to entering mitosis, an arrest that can be ...
HAT complexes interact with sequence-specific activator proteins to target specific genes. In addition to histones, HATs can ... are related to yeast Hda1-like proteins, and class III proteins are related to the yeast protein Sir2. Inhibitors of HDAC ... Background: Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) is a ubiquitin binding protein involved in cell signaling, oxidative stress, and ... Background: Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) is a ubiquitin binding protein involved in cell signaling, oxidative stress, and ...
Gene, stimulus and cell-type specific regulation of activator protein-1 in mesangial cells by lipopolysaccharide and cytokines ... Gene, stimulus and cell-type specific regulation of activator protein-1 in mesangial cells by lipopolysaccharide and cytokines ... Stimulus- and cell-type-specific regulation of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein isoforms in glomerular mesangial cells by ... Stimulus- and cell-type-specific regulation of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein isoforms in glomerular mesangial cells by ...
The responses of mammalian cells to heat stress are well... ... a temperature shift cultivation to enhance recombinant protein ... Specific recognition of the blk promoter by the B-lymphoid transcription factor B-cell-specific activator protein. Journal of ... A glycine-rich RNA-binding protein mediating cold-inducible suppression of mammalian cell growth. Journal of Cell Biology, 137 ... and mRNA levels influence cell-specific antibody production levels from in vitro cultured mammalian cells at sub-physiological ...
p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. D6RAR4. Q04756. UPI00062A6F0F. UPI0004F47750. ...
B-CELL LINEAGE-SPECIFIC ACTIVATOR PROTEIN; BSAP; PAIRED DOMAIN GENE 5; paired box gene 5 (B-cell lineage specific activator) ... Synonym(s): MRGPRX4; MRGX4; Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X4; SNSR5; Sensory neuron-specific G-protein coupled ... Synonym(s): Anti-B-cell receptor-associated protein 29; Anti-BAP29 Storage: −20°C ... Synonym(s): Anti-TAF2F; Anti-TAF7 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 55kDa; Anti-TAFII55 ...
Cell-to-cell signaling systems control the expression and allow a coordinated, cell-density-dependent production of many ... We discuss the possible role of cell-to-cell signaling in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections and present a rationale ... The bacterium's virulence depends on a large number of cell-associated and extracellular factors. ... for targeting cell-to-cell signaling systems in the development of new therapeutic approaches. ...
10] During organogenesis, CBP is expressed in specific cell types of the developing heart, vasculature, skin, lungs, and liver ... CBP and EP300 are ubiquitously expressed homologous proteins that act as transcriptional co-activators. Both genes are highly ... which includes a gene encoding a binding protein for cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element binding protein (CBP) ( ... The EP300 gene on band 22q13 encodes a protein, p300, that is highly similar to CREBBP. At present, the cause of Rubinstein- ...
END-1 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein and transcriptional activator. (A) Electrophoretic mobility shift assay with a ... Proteins were overexpressed in COS cells by transfection of 5-7 × 106 cells with 20 μg of plasmid DNA, by using 2.5 μl of ... All endoderm-specific markers tested, including the intestine- and liver-specific fatty acid binding proteins IFABP (41) and ... GATA proteins are key regulators of gene expression and cell differentiation in a wide range of species. They carry the ...
... markedly increases when cells are treated with either the calcium ionophore A23187 or the protein kinase A activator forskolin ... The eluted proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, and bound EP24.15 was detected using a western blot with an EP24.15-specific ... The proteins were purified on a glutathione-sepharose column, and free proteins and GST-fusion proteins were eluted from the ... The specific inhibition of protein kinase A with KT5720 reduces the A23187-stimulated secretion of EP24.15 and inhibits the ...
... cells and T lymphocytes upon in vitro stimulation with... ... CD69 association with Jak3/Stat5 proteins regulates Th17 cell ... erythroblast transformation-specific related gene-1 (Erg-1), and activator protein-1 (AP-1). The transcription initiation site ... CD69 binding partners. CD69 interacts with proteins expressed by the same cell or on the surface of the other cells. S1P1, ... 5). CD69 directly interacts with other proteins expressed either by the same cell or by the other immune cells. The type of the ...
INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT OF SECRETORY PROTEINS IN THE PANCREATIC EXOCRINE CELL : II. Transport to Condensing Vacuoles and ... A specific interaction in vitro between pancreatic zymogen granules and plasma membranes: stimulation by G-protein activators ... requires membrane proteins, and is stimulated by activators of G-proteins but not by Ca2+. The assay is simple, reliable, and ... stimulation by G-protein activators but not by Ca2+.. J Cell Biol 1 December 1989; 109 (6): 2801-2808. doi: https://doi.org/ ...
  • IL-1β-induced TGF-β1 protein secretion and mRNA expression were prevented by actinomycin D and were attenuated by the inhibitor of κB kinase 2 inhibitor AS602868 and the JNK inhibitor SP600125, suggesting a degree of transcriptional regulation mediated by the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • They also provide access to DDR sensors such as the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex which binds double strand breaks (DSBs) and recruits ATM kinase (Figure 1 ) and the replication protein A (RPA) complex which responds predominantly to single strand DNA lesions and recruits ATR kinase. (frontiersin.org)
  • These genes encode an Srb/mediator component, a CTD kinase, a CTD phosphatase, and a protein involved in the regulation of transcription by chromatin structure, respectively. (genetics.org)
  • 2012. Glycogen synthase kinase 3b inhibition prevents monocyte migration across brain endothelial cells via Rac1-GTPase suppression and down-regulation of active integrin conformation. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Background: Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C-Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) is a major PKC substrate expressed in many cell types. (cellsignal.com)
  • Background: Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) and MSK2 are serine/threonine kinases that promote immediate early gene transcription in stress- or mitogen-induced cells (1-4,7, 8) and LPS-stimulated macrophages (9). (cellsignal.com)
  • 2015. Protein Kinase C is involved in the induction of ATP-Binding cassette transporter A1 expression by liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor agonist in human macrophages . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 2011). Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) is activated by mild hypothermia in mammalian cells and subsequently activates p53. (springer.com)
  • This colocalization markedly increases when cells are treated with either the calcium ionophore A23187 or the protein kinase A activator forskolin. (nih.gov)
  • The specific inhibition of protein kinase A with KT5720 reduces the A23187-stimulated secretion of EP24.15 and inhibits the synergistic effects of forskolin with A23187. (nih.gov)
  • Does not have any effect on protein kinase A (PKA). (emdmillipore.com)
  • This accumulation correlates with an increase in CDK5 kinase activity, and may lead to aberrantly phosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which contributes to Alzheimer's disease. (genecards.org)
  • CDK5R1 (Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5 Regulatory Subunit 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein kinase binding . (genecards.org)
  • The induction of GCN4 translation requires protein kinase (PK) Gcn2p, whose only known substrate is the α subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Kinase - a family of enzymes that attach phosphate groups to specific amino acids in proteins. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Membrane-permeable cAMP analogs or elevation of intracellular cAMP by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (nih.gov)
  • Biologically active phorbol esters or diacylglycerol activate the calcium-, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C (PK-C). We report that membrane-permeable cAMP analogs, PDE inhibitors, biologically active phorbol esters, or a synthetic diacylglycerol inhibited cleavage of 1-cell mouse embryos to the 2-cell stage. (nih.gov)
  • High glucose level and free fatty acid stimulate reactive oxygen species production through protein kinase C--dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in cultured vascular cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Treatment of the cells for 3 h with phorbol myristic acid (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, also increased free radical production. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) is an intracellular inhibitor of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway that couples interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling to the nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each protein uniquely disrupts signaling by either inhibiting the kinase activities of JAKs or interacting with activated cytokine receptors ( 10 - 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Breast tumor kinase (Brk), also known as protein tyrosine kinase 6, is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase expressed in more than 60% of breast cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular genetic analysis indicated that the bud1 phenotype is a result of increased expression of Arabidopsis MAP KINASE KINASE7 ( MKK7 ), a member of plant mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase group D. We showed that BUD1/MKK7 is a functional kinase and that the kinase activity is essential for its biological functions. (plantcell.org)
  • Both MAPK/ERK-1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt controlled cell proliferation and HLA-DR expression, but only MAPK/ERK-1/2 controlled the induction of the class II MHC transcription activator protein CIITA, the major determinant of HLA-DR transcription. (wiley.com)
  • Acts as a CEBPB coactivator in mammary epithelial cells to control the expression of a subset of CEBPB downstream target genes, including ID2, IGF1, PRLR, SOCS1, SOCS3, XDH, but not casein. (uniprot.org)
  • As for every replication-competent retrovirus, the HTLV-1 genome contains the gag , pol , and env genes, which encode the viral structural proteins and enzymes. (asm.org)
  • The Tax protein activates the viral long terminal repeat promoter element, resulting in enhanced transcription of all viral genes ( 15 , 79 ). (asm.org)
  • 2016. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinases and sterol receptor coactivator-1 in TGF-β-regulated expression of genes implicated in macrophage cholesterol uptake . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Cell-to-cell signaling systems are composed of two genes. (cdc.gov)
  • The complex R-protein/AI activates the expression of specific target genes. (cdc.gov)
  • Both genes are highly conserved, and their proteins are thought to have 2 functions: (1) formation of a bridge or scaffold between the DNA-binding transcription factors and the RNA polymerase II complex and (2) serving as histone acetyltransferases that open the chromatin structure, a process essential for gene expression. (medscape.com)
  • CD69 is a product of a single nonpolymorphic gene in contrast to the other genes present in the NK cell cluster, which are characterized by a high frequency of polymorphism. (springer.com)
  • Among the genes found to be affected were some that play a role in cell proliferation and metabolism. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, dMed6 is required in most cells for transcriptional regulation of many genes important for diverse aspects of Drosophila development. (asm.org)
  • Although these coactivator proteins appear to be required for transcriptional regulation in general, different groups of genes show different coactivator requirements. (asm.org)
  • Depletion or inactivation of TFIID-specific TBP-associated factors affects the transcription of a subset of the genes involved in cell cycle regulation and development, suggesting that TFIID may act as a gene-specific rather than a general coactivator ( 21 , 33 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • However, mutations in a special class of genes called proto- oncogene s can cause uncontrolled division of that cell, resulting in a group of cells that constitutes a cancerous tumour . (britannica.com)
  • In the early stages of B cell developmemt, PAX-5 influences the expression of several B-cell-specific genes, such as CD19 and CD20. (fishersci.com)
  • 1 - 7 B-cell precursors in the bone marrow undergo rearrangement of their immunoglobulin genes and initially generate a form of immunoglobulin M (IgM) (confined largely to the cytoplasm) in which μ-chain is associated with "pseudolight chains" (variable preB [VpreB] and λ5). (bloodjournal.org)
  • B cells then enter the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid follicles and undergo a process of random hypermutation in theirV immunoglobulin region genes, under the influence of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), resulting in yet more diversity in the antigen-binding repertoire of their surface immunoglobulin. (bloodjournal.org)
  • and germinal center and post-germinal center B cells carrying somatically mutated IgH genes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Transcriptional activator proteins function by binding to specific DNA sequences and recruiting the transcriptional machinery to the promoters of genes under their control. (asm.org)
  • The activator Gcn4p is regulated by a unique translational control mechanism that increases the cellular concentration of Gcn4p in amino acid-starved cells, where increased transcription of amino acid biosynthetic genes under its control is essential to maintaining cell growth (36). (asm.org)
  • Resolution of increased reactive oxygen species requires increased expression of genes responsible for dismutation of increased ROS which is partially achieved by IL-6 mediated activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). (mdpi.com)
  • ZFX and ZFY: These genes, located on the X and Y chromosomes of all placental mammals, encode distinct but closely related proteins containing a highly acidic domain and 13 zinc fingers. (searlescholars.net)
  • The report in the June 4 issue of Cell Stem Cellreveals that an enzyme that changes the way DNA is packaged in cells allows specific genes to be turned on and off, thereby preventing a stem cell from becoming another cell type. (webwire.com)
  • There are specific enzymes that change how condensed the DNA is to help turn genes on and off. (webwire.com)
  • To turn genes on, the DNA around those genes is loosened so that activators and other proteins can interact with the DNA. (webwire.com)
  • The Johns Hopkins researchers believed that restructuring the DNA by proteins that make up chromosomes could play a role in deciding if a stem cell was going to change into another cell or stay a stem cell, since change in the DNA packaging would allow for many genes to be turned off and other genes to be turned on. (webwire.com)
  • We still don t know what is happening in this case with how NURF regulates genes to keep stem cells from changing, says Matunis. (webwire.com)
  • However, specific examples of how genes change to maintain two paralogous gene copies within an organism are relatively rare. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because many proteins form cooperative assemblies, resolution of paralog interference is likely to be a widespread phenomenon influencing the fate of duplicated genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, it binds to the promoter sequences (dark blue) of specific target genes including mitochondrial fission process 1, MTFP1. (eurekalert.org)
  • The proteins encoded by two groups of conserved genes, the Polycomb and trithorax groups, have been proposed to maintain, at the level of chromatin structure, the expression pattern of homeotic genes during Drosophila development. (genetics.org)
  • At the molecular level, imaginal disc determination depends upon segment-specific expression of the homeotic genes of the bithorax and Antennapedia complexes. (genetics.org)
  • However, maintenance of segment-specific expression of homeotic genes must depend on some other mechanisms since the gap and pair rule genes are not expressed late in embyrogenesis or during larval development ( A kam 1987 ). (genetics.org)
  • The proteins encoded by the Polycomb group are postulated to prevent transcription of homeotic genes outside of their normal expression domain and the proteins encoded by the trithorax group are postulated to allow transcription of homeotic genes within their normal expression domain. (genetics.org)
  • Gene profiling of cell lines lacking these factors yielded several XBP-1-dependent UPR target genes, all of which appear to act in the ER. (asm.org)
  • These included the DnaJ/Hsp40-like genes, p58 IPK , ERdj4, and HEDJ, as well as EDEM, protein disulfide isomerase-P5, and ribosome-associated membrane protein 4 (RAMP4), whereas expression of BiP was only modestly dependent on XBP-1. (asm.org)
  • Surprisingly, given previous reports that enforced expression of ATF6α induced a subset of UPR target genes, cells deficient in ATF6α, ATF6β, or both had minimal defects in upregulating UPR target genes by gene profiling analysis, suggesting the presence of compensatory mechanism(s) for ATF6 in the UPR. (asm.org)
  • Since cells lacking both XBP-1 and ATF6α had significantly impaired induction of select UPR target genes and ERSE reporter activation, XBP-1 and ATF6α may serve partially redundant functions. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, these results suggest that the IRE1/XBP-1 pathway is required for efficient protein folding, maturation, and degradation in the ER and imply the existence of subsets of UPR target genes as defined by their dependence on XBP-1. (asm.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells respond to the presence of unfolded proteins by upregulating the transcription of genes encoding ER resident protein chaperones such as the glucose-regulated BiP/Grp78 and Grp94 that assist in protein folding ( 16 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Activation in response to ER stress results in proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal cytoplasmic domain by the S2P serine protease to produce a potent transcriptional activator of chaperone genes ( 12 , 25 , 44 , 61 , 62 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 (EBNA-2) increases mRNA levels of specific viral and cellular genes through direct or indirect effects on upstream regulatory elements. (asm.org)
  • Many of these viruses encode regulatory proteins that redirect cellular transcription components to express viral genes. (searlescholars.net)
  • Acts as a transcription factor, inducing early lytic cycle genes, and as a origin binding protein for genome replication. (mybiosource.com)
  • The structural genes (any gene other than a regulator) for enzymes involved in a specific biosynthetic pathway whose expression is co-ordinately controlled. (slideserve.com)
  • We find that PU.1 inhibits the erythroid program by binding to GATA‐1 on its target genes and organizing a complex of proteins that creates a repressive chromatin structure containing lysine‐9 methylated H3 histones and heterochromatin protein 1. (embopress.org)
  • Numerous genes that are directly activated by PU.1 or GATA‐1 have been identified in myeloid or erythroid cells, respectively. (embopress.org)
  • Effects on both specific estrogen-responsive genes and genes identified by RNA-seq as candidates for regulation were examined in MCF-7 cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Liver-specific PTP1B −/− mice have increased hepatic insulin signaling, decreased expression of gluconeogenic genes PEPCK and G-6-Pase, enhanced insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose production, and improved glucose tolerance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Liver-specific PTP1B −/− mice exhibit decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and diminished expression of lipogenic genes SREBPs, FAS, and ACC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Once activated these receptors function as transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes that control the process of cellular differentiation and proliferation in both normal and neoplastic cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • The transgene and several skeletal muscle-specific genes were expressed only in patchy areas of the heart in heterozygous mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • The MDF proteins function as transcriptional activators of skeletal muscle-specific genes through distinct cis -acting elements. (ahajournals.org)
  • This finding might be expected, since several cardiac-specific genes contain the E-box motif within their promoters. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ectopic expression of MyoD in the hearts of transgenic mice activated some muscle-specific skeletal sarcomeric genes and resulted in embryonic lethality with severe cardiac abnormalities in fetuses heterozygous for the transgene. (ahajournals.org)
  • DNase I footprint analysis reveals that the Drosophila homeodomain proteins coded by even-skipped and zerknullt genes can specifically bind to these sites. (sdbonline.org)
  • These results suggest that the expression of the PCNA gene is under the control of genes coding for homeodomain proteins (Yamaguchi, 1990). (sdbonline.org)
  • BSAP is unique among the transcription factors that regulate ε germline expression, because it is B cell specific, and is at the merging point of two signalling pathways that are critical for IgE switching. (elsevier.com)
  • Recombinant IL-1 alpha binds to stromal cells and sinusoid endothelium in bone marrow and precursor B cell dynamics. (jimmunol.org)
  • With increasing cell-density the intracellular concentration of AI reaches a threshold level, and the AI then binds to the transcriptional activator. (cdc.gov)
  • We show here that END-1 binds to the canonical target DNA sequence WGATAR with specificity similar to that of vertebrate GATA-1 and GATA-4, and that it functions as a transcriptional activator. (pnas.org)
  • B cells within the germinal center then perish through spontaneous apoptosis unless their surface immunoglobulin binds with high affinity to antigen (present within immune complexes) on follicular dendritic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For example, when cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are shifted to medium with galactose as a carbon source, the activator Gal4p is released from the inhibitory effects of the repressor Gal80p, which binds to the Gal4p activation domain (43). (asm.org)
  • CD4 - a protein on white blood cells that binds to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • They also analyzed which parts of the protein did the work, finding a division of labor among the domains within the protein: One part searches, while another part binds to the specific target sequence. (illinois.edu)
  • This finding excited the researchers, because it gave them insight into where to tweak the protein design so that it binds even more selectively. (illinois.edu)
  • An understanding of the composition and function of these repeats has allowed scientists to engineer the way that the TAL protein binds and behaves [2]. (thermofisher.com)
  • 61:3120-3132(1987) Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 trans-activator specifically binds to a consensus AP-1 site and is related to c-fos.Farrel P.J., Rowe D.T., Rooney C.M., Kouzarides T.EMBO J. 8:127-132(1989) Structure and function of the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 protein.Packham G., Economou A., Rooney C.M., Rowe D.T., Farrel P.J.J. Virol. (mybiosource.com)
  • In the present study, we found that the human EVL (Ena/Vasp-like) protein, which is suggested to be involved in actin-remodeling processes, unexpectedly binds to the RAD51 and RAD51B proteins and stimulates the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing and strand exchange. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, the HIV surface ligand gp120 binds to its receptor (CD4) on T lymphocytes and macrophages, and the hemagglutinin protein of influenza binds to its receptor (sialic acid) on epithelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • The IL-1 receptor antagonist inhibited A549 and small airway epithelial cell CCL5 secretion, gene expression, and promoter activity. (nih.gov)
  • EGF) that indirectly activates Rac1, Rac2, Rac3 and Cdc42 proteins in a variety of cells through activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated signaling cascade. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • CD69 also belongs to the family of NK cell receptors because the CD69 gene locus is located within the NK cell receptor gene cluster, which is in humans located on chromosome 12 and in mice on chromosome 6. (springer.com)
  • The B cells in these mice are hyper-responsive to stimulation through the B cell receptor. (stanford.edu)
  • We are additionally studying the mechanisms by which CD72-deficiency leads to a partial abrogation of B cell anergic tolerance in mice in which all B cells express a transgenic B cell receptor specific for hen-egg lysozyme (HEL) and in which the antigen HEL is expressed in the serum. (stanford.edu)
  • In this study, the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling in the regulation of CCAAT (cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine)/enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBPβ) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expressions in immortalized human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells was investigated. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The main proteins are transcription factor CSL (blue) and the Notch 1 intra-cellular receptor or domain (white). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The protein can function as an activator of gene transcription and may serve as a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator. (genecards.org)
  • EGFR - epidermal growth factor receptor, a protein that plays a role in signaling cell growth, including cancer growth. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Molecular Biology cAMP receptor protein The Plac promoter is not a strong promoter. (slideserve.com)
  • For high level transcription, they require the activity of a specific activator protein called cAMP receptor protein (CRP). (slideserve.com)
  • The presence of substance P and its receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown in the pancreas and the pancreatic acinar cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • IFN-γ signaling is primarily mediated through the receptor-recruited Janus kinases (JAKs) and their substrates, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The binding of IFN-γ to the cognate receptor (IFN-γR) promotes its oligomerization and activation of JAKs to phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of IFN-γR, which provide docking sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing signal transducers ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Upon cytokine or growth factor binding to its receptor, the latent cytoplasmic STAT proteins are recruited to the receptor complex resulting in STAT activation by either receptor tyrosine kinases or nonreceptor tyrosine kinases such as Janus kinases or c-Src. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HLA-DR expression occurred following FGF-specific binding to its receptor(s), mainly FGF receptor 1, without inducing IFNγ or tumor necrosis factor α expression. (wiley.com)
  • Activation of the IRs leads to transphosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the IR activation loop, which in turn leads to the enhanced ability of the IRs to phosphorylate target proteins, such as insulin receptor substrates (IRSs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The traffic of the NKG2D/Dap10 receptor complex during natural killer (NK) cell activation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A new study now reveals an unexpected role for the receptor, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), in this process. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, a receptor-ligand interaction mediates the binding of viruses to the membrane of the host cell. (rupress.org)
  • PAX-5 is widely expressed by B-cells, and since it is a transcription factor, the nuclear pattern of staining lends itself to the relative ease in interpretation, especially in small biopsies, cytologic samples, and peripheral blood smears. (propath.com)
  • Also, the similar appearance of PAX-5 to Ki-67 (both are nuclear stains) allows for more rapid identification of tumor when assessing the Ki-67 proliferative fraction of B-cell lymphomas. (propath.com)
  • We have also observed nuclear reactivity in splenic endothelial cells and histiocytes, and we have seen cytoplasmic reactivity with PAX-5 in basal layers of the epidermis as well as in metaplastic respiratory epithelium. (propath.com)
  • The Rex trans -regulatory protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is required for the nuclear export of incompletely spliced and unspliced viral mRNAs and is therefore essential for virus replication. (asm.org)
  • Three protein domains which mediate nuclear import-RNA binding, nuclear export, and Rex oligomerization have been mapped within the 189-amino-acid Rex polypeptide. (asm.org)
  • As the two CIRP promoters were transcriptionally active and possibly cold responsive, we used electrophoretic mobility shift assays to show that both promoter regions are able to bind factors within a nuclear extract in a dose-dependent manner and that the formation of these complexes was specific to the promoter regions. (springer.com)
  • The cleavage of p35 into p25 results in relocalization of the protein from the cell periphery to nuclear and perinuclear regions. (genecards.org)
  • This gene is a member of the SP100/SP140 family of nuclear body proteins and encodes a leukocyte-specific nuclear body component. (genecards.org)
  • SP110 (SP110 Nuclear Body Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Vegetal blastomeres inherit this VCD during embryogenesis, and at the 60-cell stage Dsh puncta are seen in all cells that display nuclear β-catenin. (miami.edu)
  • Other yeast transcriptional activators are regulated at the level of nuclear localization. (asm.org)
  • Nuclear pore protein - groups of proteins allow molecules to pass in and out of the nucleus of the cell. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • We observed an increase in the transcription factor, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF- κ B1), in parallel with ICAM-1, in human retinal endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ), and identified putative binding sites for NF- κ B1 within the ICAM-1 regulatory region. (hindawi.com)
  • An Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 domain essential for transformation is a direct transcriptional activator. (asm.org)
  • Splicing occurs in a large multi-subunit complex, the spliceosome, the formation of which is dependent upon multiple proteins and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein proteins (snRNPs). (searlescholars.net)
  • Fan X, Geisberg JV, Wong KH, Jin Y. Conditional depletion of nuclear proteins by the Anchor Away system. (harvard.edu)
  • The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter function resides within a 192-bp region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site). (sdbonline.org)
  • The regulatory region of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene consists of a promoter region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site) and an upstream region containing three homeodomain protein binding sites (HDB) (-357 to -165). (sdbonline.org)
  • Sequences similar to the transcription factor E2F recognition site have been found within the Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene promoter. (sdbonline.org)
  • A binding factor(s) to these sequences with similar binding specificity to that of E2F has been detected in nuclear extracts of Drosophila Kc cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are mediators of cytokine and growth factor signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As mediators of cytokine-induced and growth factor-induced gene expression, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are involved in cellular differentiation, proliferation, and survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to structural proteins, HTLV-1 encodes at least two trans -regulatory proteins, Tax and Rex, which are essential for virus replication (reviewed in references 18 , 29 , and 78 ). (asm.org)
  • The I gene encodes an autoinducer synthase and the R gene encodes a transcriptional activator protein (R-protein). (cdc.gov)
  • The EP300 gene on band 22q13 encodes a protein, p300, that is highly similar to CREBBP. (medscape.com)
  • The specific NF-κB and AP-1 binding sites in the TGF-β1 promoter were confirmed by an ELISA-based binding assay, and evidence for histone hyperacetylation in TGF-β1 induction was supported by the observation that the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A enhanced basal and IL-1β-induced TGF-β1 mRNA expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • In monocytes from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis ( 18 ) and in fibrosarcoma cells ( 19 ), NF-κB RelA antisense oligonucleotides suppress TGF-β1 mRNA expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Metabolic rates, growth phase, and mRNA levels influence cell-specific antibody production levels from in vitro cultured mammalian cells at sub-physiological temperatures. (springer.com)
  • The question then arises, is human exon 2 cryptic [present but spliced out of mRNA] or is it only expressed in certain rare cell types or tissues or stages of development or at undetectable levels? (mad-cow.org)
  • Schaal TD, Maniatis T., Selection and characterization of pre-mRNA splicing enhancers: identification of novel SR protein-specific enhancer sequences. (mit.edu)
  • Human Tra2 proteins are sequence-specific activators of pre-mRNA splicing. (mit.edu)
  • Regulation of pre-mRNA splicing diversifies protein products and affects many biological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arabidopsis thaliana Serine/Arginine-rich 45 (SR45), regulates pre-mRNA splicing by interacting with other regulatory proteins and spliceosomal subunits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNA splicing is an important posttranscriptional processing step in the production of mature mRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PDL cells transfected with a specific small interfering RNA designed to target the C/EBPβ gene showed a significant suppression of the RANKL mRNA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The principal means of inducing Gcn4p expression in amino acid-starved cells operates at the level of GCN4 mRNA translation. (asm.org)
  • Here we describe the identification of a small molecule that downregulates the expression of iNOS mRNA and protein in cytokine-activated cells and suppresses nitric oxide production in vivo . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These data suggest an inverse relationship between UPR activation and iNOS mRNA and protein expression under proinflammatory conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This splicing event results in the conversion of a 267-amino-acid XBP-1u encoded by unspliced XBP-1 mRNA to a 371-amino-acid XBP-1s by spliced XBP-1 mRNA in murine cells. (asm.org)
  • The structure is a five-helix bundle that is distinct from known RNA-binding motifs and instead is similar to the carboxy-terminal domain of the yeast spliceosome protein PRP18, which stabilizes specific protein-protein interactions within a multisubunit mRNA splicing complex. (stanford.edu)
  • Furthermore, irradiation of GSCs markedly elevates MELK mRNA and protein expression both in vitro and in vivo. (wiley.com)
  • Moqtaderi Z, Geisberg JV, Jin Y, Fan X, Struhl K. Species-specific factors mediate extensive heterogeneity of mRNA 3' ends in yeasts. (harvard.edu)
  • The proteins likely function as sequence-specific activators of transcription. (searlescholars.net)
  • We investigated whether BSAP plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of the ε germline promoter in human B cells. (elsevier.com)
  • CCL5 promoter-reporter analysis using deletion and site-specific mutagenesis constructs demonstrated a key role for AP-1, NF-IL-6, and NFkappaB in driving CoMTB-induced promoter activity. (nih.gov)
  • Both are bound to a specific DNA sequence named HES1 promoter (Hairy and Enhancer of Split-1). (sciencephoto.com)
  • KLF4 expression specifically stimulated human ghrelin -promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner in human gastric-cancer AGS cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • To determine whether EBNA-2 has a direct transcriptional activating domain, gene fusions between the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 and EBNA-2 were tested in CHO and B-lymphoma cells for the ability to activate transcription from target plasmids containing GAL4 recognition sites upstream of an adenovirus or murine mammary tumor virus promoter. (asm.org)
  • A central question in the field is how do promoter-specific activator proteins (activators) communicate with the general transcription machinery to stimulate transcription? (searlescholars.net)
  • We have gone on to investigate why some breast tumour-derived cell lines readily express AP-2γ, whereas others do not, and show that the proximal promoter (+191 to −312) is differentially active in the two cell phenotypes. (portlandpress.com)
  • DNase footprinting led to the identification of three Sp1/Sp3-binding sites within this region, two of which are absolutely required both for promoter function and cell-type-specific activity. (portlandpress.com)
  • Furthermore, increasing Sp3 levels in AP-2γ-expressing cells led to the repression of AP-2γ promoter activity, particularly when Sp3 inhibitory function was maximized through sumoylation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Some CUX1 isoforms function as transcriptional activators or repressors, depending on promoter context. (mcgill.ca)
  • The target sequence of Zen maps within the 34-bp region (-119 to -86) of the PCNA gene promoter, even though it lacked Zen protein-binding sites. (sdbonline.org)
  • These results suggest that the promoter region is practically sufficient for expression of the PCNA gene and that the homeodomain protein binding region functions as a silencer when torso is activated ectopically (Yamaguchi, 1995a). (sdbonline.org)
  • The 10-bp sequence from positions -91 to -100, essential for complex formation with DREF (DRE-binding factor), is also essential for activation of the promoter in cultured cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • In transgenic experiments the PCNA gene promoter seems to function in a manner independent of cell cycle progression or of functions of the string gene (Yamaguchi, 1995c). (sdbonline.org)
  • E2F and DP proteins cooperate and bind to the potential E2F sites in the PCNA promoter in vitro. (sdbonline.org)
  • Different susceptibility of cytotoxic T cells to CD95 (Fas/Apo-1) ligand-mediated cell death after activation in vitro versus in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Glucocorticoids promote a TH2 cytokine response by CD4+ T cells in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • High-dose IL-2 and IL-15 enhance the in vitro priming of naive CD4+ T cells for IFN-gamma but have differential effects on priming for IL-4. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD69 was first described as the activation antigen expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes upon in vitro stimulation with interleukin (IL)-2 (Lanier et al. (springer.com)
  • Both complexes were shown to be required for transcriptional activation in an in vitro transcription system under specific conditions ( 2 , 3 , 17 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • A specific interaction in vitro between pancreatic zymogen granules and plasma membranes: stimulation by G-protein activators but not by Ca2+. (rupress.org)
  • A potent, cell-permeable, and specific activator of the exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (EPAC) [also called cAMP-guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (cAMP-GEF)] in vitro and in vivo . (emdmillipore.com)
  • While not required to support basal transcription in vitro , the CTD is critical for the response to activator signals in vivo [6] , [7] . (prolekare.cz)
  • However, our SRAP-RNA binding experiments, both in vitro with recombinant protein and in cultured cells with plasmid-expressed protein and RNA, did not reveal a specific interaction between SRAP and SRA. (stanford.edu)
  • To document the specificity and the mechanism of induction of a novel class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen by mitogenic growth factors in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expanded in vitro for translational applications. (wiley.com)
  • Alitretinoin inhibits the growth of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells in vitro . (drugbank.ca)
  • Here we explore a novel approach to neurotrophic factor-based therapy by engineering zinc finger protein transcription factors (ZFP TFs) that activate the expression of the endogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • To meet the demand, eukaryotic cells utilize transcriptional machinery comprising dozens of proteins that recognize and initiate RNA synthesis from promoters and that regulate the efficiency of transcription using thousands of specialized transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors (PPARs) are two key lipogenic transcription factors implicated in the development of fatty liver in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to these transcription factors, activator protein-1 may also be activated in hepatocytes due to its association with resolution of increased ROS. (mdpi.com)
  • We have developed assays that monitor the assembly of general transcription factors onto the DNA template in response to an activator. (searlescholars.net)
  • The activator protein-2 (AP-2) family of DNA-binding transcription factors are developmentally regulated and also play a role in human neoplasia. (portlandpress.com)
  • Liver-specific PTP1B deletion also protects against high-fat diet-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response in vivo, as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, PERK, and eIF2α and lower expression of the transcription factors C/EBP homologous protein and spliced X box-binding protein 1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dr. Nepveu's laboratory studies the regulation of transcription in mammalian cells and, in particular, the roles of transcription factors in DNA damage responses. (mcgill.ca)
  • CUX1 Transcription Factors: From Biochemical Activities and Cell-Based Assays to Mouse Models and Human Diseases. (mcgill.ca)
  • 9 10 Although a number of transcription factors have been isolated that are expressed in the heart, 11 12 none of these has been shown to be cardiac specific. (ahajournals.org)
  • This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, our data suggests that SR45 acts to control splice site choice in a way that defies simple categorization as an activator or repressor of splicing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PAX-5, also known as B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP), is a transcription factor which plays a vital role in B-cell development, activation, and differentiation. (propath.com)
  • They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant Char syndrome, suggesting that this gene functions in the differentiation of neural crest cell derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • May play an important role in B-cell differentiation as well as neural development and spermatogenesis. (abcam.com)
  • Expressed at early B-cell differentiation, in the developing CNS and in adult testis. (abcam.com)
  • 2011. The L6 domain tetraspanin Tm4sf4 regulates endocrine pancreas differentiation and directed cell migration. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • end-1 is the earliest expressed endoderm-specific gene known in C. elegans and appears to initiate the program of gene expression required for endoderm differentiation, including a cascade of GATA factors required for development and maintenance of the intestine. (pnas.org)
  • Like the known vertebrate endoderm regulators Mixer and Sox17, END-1 is a potent activator of endoderm differentiation in isolated Xenopus ectoderm. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, a dominant inhibitory GATA-binding fusion protein abrogates endoderm differentiation in intact embryos. (pnas.org)
  • GATA proteins are key regulators of gene expression and cell differentiation in a wide range of species. (pnas.org)
  • The T-box gene VegT/Brat/Xombi/Antipodean is transcribed maternally, expressed in mesendodermal precursor cells, and required for endoderm differentiation ( 21 - 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, it has been suggested that the protein may play a role in ribosome biogenesis and in the induction of myeloid cell differentiation. (genecards.org)
  • We suspect that AZF may facilitate differentiation of primordial germ cells into spermatogonial stem cells or influence the destiny of these stem cells, which in normal males confront three alternative fates: proliferation, degeneration, or differentiation. (searlescholars.net)
  • Normally, AP-1 expression is transient and mediates induction of CD11c in response to specific differentiation signals ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In Drosophila the determination of imaginal disc cells is initiated during embryogenesis but terminal differentiation does not begin until the pupal stage (reviewed by C ohen 1993 ). (genetics.org)
  • Leukemogenesis is likely to result, at least in part, from the ability of PU.1 to block erythroid differentiation promoted by GATA‐1, because simply providing additional GATA‐1 to the erythroleukemia cells causes them to differentiate and undergo proliferation arrest ( Choe et al , 2003 ). (embopress.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that MELK depletion by shRNA diminishes the growth of GSC-derived mouse intracranial tumors in vivo, induces glial fibrillary acidic protein (+) glial differentiation of GSCs leading to decreased malignancy of the resulting tumors, and prolongs survival periods of tumor-bearing mice. (wiley.com)
  • 1 MDFs are thought to be responsible for the determination and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells destined to become skeletal muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Multinucleation is an essential step in the differentiation of osteoclasts, as mononucleated macrophages cannot resorb bone efficiently, and may also be essential in the differentiation of giant cells, which form in tissues in response to foreign particles. (rupress.org)
  • B cell lineage-specific activator protein (BSAP). (jimmunol.org)
  • Transcription Factor B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) Is Differentially Expressed in B Cells and Subsets of B-Cell Lymphomas. (propath.com)
  • Because binding sites for B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) are located upstream of several switch regions in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene cluster, BSAP might play a role in the regulation of germline transcription and isotype switching. (elsevier.com)
  • PAX-5 is a B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP). (fishersci.com)
  • Thus, in yeast, gene duplication has created a selective conflict between the paralogs, which appear to have driven the evolution of a novel protein function. (sciencemag.org)
  • First discovered in yeast, the UPR has now been described as well in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mammalian cells ( 2 , 5 , 7 , 45 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • Although yeast cells rely entirely on the IRE1/Hac1p signaling pathway, mammalian cells have evolved at least two additional strategies to ensure proper folding of proteins. (asm.org)
  • Predictions of these models are then tested using in vivo systems including mammalian cells and yeast. (searlescholars.net)
  • What was once used only in nature to facilitate plant infection can now be employed for precise genome engineering and the targeted modulation of gene activity in a diverse group of hosts that extends well beyond plants to include mammalian cells, Drosophila , zebrafish, yeast, algae, and bacteria. (thermofisher.com)
  • The name TBC derives from the name of the murine protein Tbc1 in which this domain was first identified based on its similarity to sequences in the tre-2 oncogene, and the yeast regulators of mitosis, BUB2 and cdc16 [ PMID: 7566974 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Molecular cloning of a cDNA with a novel domain present in the tre-2 oncogene and the yeast cell cycle regulators BUB2 and cdc16. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Identification of the catalytic domains and their functionally critical arginine residues of two yeast GTPase-activating proteins specific for Ypt/Rab transport GTPases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The cold-shock response in cultured mammalian cells: Harnessing the response for the improvement of recombinant protein production. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical insights into the mechanisms central to the response of mammalian cells to cold-stress and subsequent rewarming. (springer.com)
  • On the effect of transient expression of mutated eIF2alpha and eIF4E eukaryotic translation initiation factors on reporter gene expression in mammalian cells upon cold-shock. (springer.com)
  • Prior to total disassembly, the Golgi ribbon in mammalian cells, composed of alternating cisternal stacks and tubular networks, undergoes fission of the tubular networks to produce individual stacks. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are three classes of mammalian Arf proteins, Class I (Arfs1-3), Class II (Arfs 4-5), and Class III (Arf6), the division being largely based on sequence homology. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR) protects the cell against the stress of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (asm.org)
  • The ~200 amino acid TBC/rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain is well conserved across species and has been found in a wide range of different proteins from plant adhesion molecules to mammalian oncogenes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • EJC is a conserved protein complex composed of four highly conserved core proteins and a suite of dynamic peripheral proteins, including RNPS1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigen-binding repertoire of the surface immunoglobulin is already unique for each clone, as a result of selective usage in each cell of different variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) region sequences, accompanied by the generation of random-linking N sequences (via the action of terminal transferase). (bloodjournal.org)
  • A library of sequences that modify relative gene expression enables tighter control over protein production. (nanowerk.com)
  • BuD protein domains could be used as 'drones' to direct DNA repair or activator proteins towards specific genome sequences. (nanowerk.com)
  • The extraordinary specificity of the TAL proteins for their target DNA sequences enables their exploitation for precise genome engineering. (thermofisher.com)
  • Aparicio O, Geisberg JV, Sekinger E, Yang A, Moqtaderi Z, Struhl K. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for determining the association of proteins with specific genomic sequences in vivo. (harvard.edu)
  • There are two sequences, starting at -52 and -39, of which 8 and 7 (respectively) of 10 nucleotides match the consensus sequence for HeLa cell transcription factor Sp 1 binding. (sdbonline.org)
  • In most cases, the somatic cell with the mutation will die, an event that is generally of little consequence in a multicellular organism . (britannica.com)
  • The CSL-Notch interaction is stabilized by interaction with transcriptional co-activator Mastermind-like protein (MAML, orange, lower left). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The Hippo signaling cascade curtails organ growth by excluding the transcriptional co-activator Yes Associated Protein 1 (YAP1) from the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • calpeptin) that indirectly activates RhoA, B and C in a variety of cell types via a mechanism involving inhibition of Shp-2 phosphatase. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • In 16-cell stage sea urchins, nuclearization of β-catenin in micromeres activates a gene regulatory network that defines body axes and induces endomesoderm. (miami.edu)
  • LPS activates macrophages, especially the liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Mechanistic analysis suggests that this small molecule, erstressin, also activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling pathway triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Through examination of human neutrophils, it was found that the acute phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) activates a threefold increase in sIL-6R production. (rupress.org)
  • Some factors like Fas receptors and caspases promote apoptosis, while some members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins inhibit apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They transmit signals from a large class of proteins called G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Insulin action is mediated by insulin receptors (IRs) on the plasma membranes of responsive cells ( 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The fusion of viruses with cells, in particular influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), provided strong evidence that fusion is mediated both by viral proteins and host cell surface molecules that function as viral receptors ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Fusion of an intracellular vesicle with its target membrane is mediated by a set of conserved proteins that are collectively referred to as SNAREs (soluble NSF-attachment protein [SNAP] receptors). (rupress.org)
  • Activation of MSK2 in HeLa cells or MEFs results in rapid phosphorylation of histone H3, HMG-14, CREB and ATF1 and acetylation of histone H3 associated with immediate early gene transcription (3,4,6,7). (cellsignal.com)
  • Sequence-specific RNA binding by an SR protein requires RS domain phosphorylation: creation of an SRp40-specific splicing enhancer. (mit.edu)
  • One of the most important mechanisms controlling AP-1 expression is protein phosphorylation regulated by the Ras family of proto-oncogenes ( 15 - 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, 1-cell embryos prevented from cleaving by PDE inhibitors did not show specific changes in the pattern of protein phosphorylation associated with the 2-cell embryo, whereas such changes occurred in 1-cell embryos inhibited from cleaving with PK-C activators. (nih.gov)
  • These results are discussed in terms of how the synthesis of transcription-dependent proteins in the 2-cell embryo may be regulated by protein phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • The CTD is a scaffold for the recruitment of RNA processing and chromatin remodeling factors, a function linked to its differential phosphorylation at specific residues of the heptapeptide repeat [3] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Activation of STAT proteins requires phosphorylation on a conserved tyrosine residue located in the carboxy terminus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In inactive mutants with mutations that map within this region, as well as in mutants that are deficient in Rex-specific multimerization, Rex trans activation could be reconstituted by fusion to a heterologous leucine zipper dimerization interface. (asm.org)
  • If recessive mutations occur in both members of one gene pair in the same cell, the mutant phenotype will be expressed. (britannica.com)
  • Mutations in germinal cells (i.e., reproductive cells) may be passed on to successive generations. (britannica.com)
  • However, mutations in somatic (body) cells will exert their effect only on that individual and will not be passed on to progeny. (britannica.com)
  • For example, enzymes are particularly susceptible to mutations that affect the amino acid sequence at their active site (i.e., the region that allows the enzyme to bind with its specific substrate). (britannica.com)
  • Second, some nonsense or frameshift mutations can lead to the complete absence of a protein. (britannica.com)
  • New results ease previous concerns that gene-editing techniques used to develop therapies for genetic diseases could add unwanted mutations to stem cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Mutations in the SRCAP gene may result in an altered protein that interferes with normal activation of the CREBBP gene, resulting in problems in development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, the relationship between SRCAP gene mutations and the specific signs and symptoms of Floating-Harbor syndrome is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in SRCAP, encoding SNF2-related CREBBP activator protein, cause Floating-Harbor syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While this activity in DNA repair protects normal cells against DNA damage and mutations, increased expression of this isoform in cancer cells contributes to their resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (mcgill.ca)
  • Protein Activators interact with specific proteins to activate or increase their function, thereby affecting cell signaling pathways. (scbt.com)
  • The researchers used imaging techniques that let them watch through a microscope how individual TALE proteins interact with a string of DNA. (illinois.edu)
  • In addition to their roles as sequence‐specific DNA binding proteins, PU.1 and GATA‐1 also physically interact. (embopress.org)
  • Among the candidates that can interact with these docking site(s), STAT proteins are the most important for transducing cytokine signaling to the nucleus ( 2 , 4 - 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • These include lead's ability to inhibit or mimic the actions of calcium (which can affect calcium-dependent or related processes) and to interact with proteins (including those with sulfhydryl, amine, phosphate, and carboxyl groups) [ATSDR 2010]. (cdc.gov)
  • Conditioned medium from tuberculosis-infected human monocytes (CoMTB) stimulated significant CCL5 secretion from A549 cells and from primary alveolar, but not upper airway, epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Differential responsiveness of small airway and normal human bronchial epithelial cells to CoMTB but not to conditioned medium from unstimulated human monocytes was specific to CCL5 and not to CXCL8. (nih.gov)
  • It is mainly expressed on the luminal membrane of renal epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) and mediates the majority of NaCl resorption and concentration of urine (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Tissue development and organ growth require constant remodeling of cell-cell contacts formed between epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • In our experience, plasma cells and plasma cell neoplasms are typically negative or weak with PAX-5, and its expression seems to be limited to those few plasma cell neoplasms that also express CD20. (propath.com)
  • Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins PURalpha and PURbeta bind to a purine-rich negative regulatory element of the alpha-myosin heavy chain gene and control transcriptional and translational regulation of the gene expression. (uniprot.org)
  • In contrast, the rex gene product acts at the posttranscriptional level, permitting the expression of the viral structural proteins ( 37 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Specific AP-2 family members differ in their expression patterns and binding affinity for different promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to methods that rely on over-expression or knockdown of target proteins (e.g. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • 2012. Connective tissue growth factor-mediated upregulation of neuromedin-U expression in trabecular meshwork cells and its role in homeostasis of aqueous humor outflow. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Specific focus is on understanding how key factors associated with inflammatory disorders, such as cytokines and lipid metabolites, regulate macrophage processes and gene expression during atherosclerosis and the acute-phase response. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • This was followed by postdoctoral research at the European Molecular Biology Laboratories (Heidelberg) and Istituto di Ricerche di Biologia Molecolare "P. Angeletti" (Rome) on the molecular mechanisms underlying liver-specific gene expression during inflammation. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • In particular, the transcriptional mechanisms that lead to enhanced gene-specific expression upon cold stress have yet to be elucidated. (springer.com)
  • Initial identification of low temperature and culture stage induction of miRNA expression in suspension CHO-K1 cells. (springer.com)
  • Gene expression analysis of murine cells producing amphotropic mouse leukaemia virus at a cultivation temperature of 32 and 37 °C. Journal of General Virology, 84 , 1677-1686. (springer.com)
  • 1988 ). Consecutive work demonstrated that CD69 expression does not depend on the nature of a specific stimulus as many different classes of molecules, such as concanavalin A, anti-CD3 antibody, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), type I interferons (IFN), lipopolysaccharide, etc., can induce the expression of CD69. (springer.com)
  • Since over-production of prion protein is a strong risk factor in animal models of CJD, it has long been speculated that polymorphisms in 5' and 3' UTR leading to higher levels of expression of prion protein could explain some fraction of sporadic CJD, nvCJD, or susceptibility to iatrogenic CJD. (mad-cow.org)
  • CD72 is a B lymphocyte surface protein expressed from early stages of B cell development through to the mature B cell stage, but its expression is turned off as B cells differentiate into plasma cells. (stanford.edu)
  • PDL cells cultured under a hypoxic condition showed an increase in the expression of C/EBPβ and RANKL messenger RNAs (mRNAs), whereas the expression of osteoprotegerin and HIF-1α mRNAs was unaffected. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Treatment of the cells with dimethyloxaloylglycine, a competitive HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, significantly increased the expression of C/EBPβ and RANKL mRNAs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To investigate how Dsh activity is regulated along the AV axis, sea urchin-specific Dsh antibodies were used to examine expression, subcellular localization, and post-translational modification of Dsh during development. (miami.edu)
  • The environmental or physiological conditions regulating these responses are color coded according to the aspect of Gcn4p being regulated, including its expression at the level of translation, transcription, or degradation or its function as an activator. (asm.org)
  • Proteomics, then, is the study of the expression, function and interaction of proteins in health and disease. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Expression of the inducible NOS ( iNOS ) gene is upregulated in various cell types in response to proinflammatory agents. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The malignant cells of HCL are diagnosed biochemically by aberrant expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and the β2-integrin CD11c ( 7 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Critical to the expression of the CD11c gene is its interaction with the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We targeted induced NF- κ B1 expression in endothelial cells with small interfering (si)RNA. (hindawi.com)
  • Knockdown of NF- κ B1 significantly decreased cell surface expression of ICAM-1 protein induced by TNF- α but did not reduce constitutive ICAM-1 expression. (hindawi.com)
  • For instance, ZBTB48 KO (knock-out) cells loose the expression of MTFP1 leading to defects in the mitochondrial network with mitochondria clustering around the nucleus instead of being widely spread throughout the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that supraphysiological concentrations of caerulein up-regulate the expression of SP and NK1R in pancreatic acinar cells, and the signaling molecules that are involved in this up-regulation include ERK1/2, JNK, NF-κB, and AP-1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since expression of gp130 is essentially ubiquitous, the sIL-6R/IL-6 complex has the potential to stimulate cell types that are not inherently responsive to IL-6 alone. (rupress.org)
  • Expression of class II MHC molecules was measured in human MSCs and differentiated cells expanded in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), human platelet lysate, or interferon-γ (IFNγ). (wiley.com)
  • FGF-2 and, to a lesser extent, PDGF-BB induced in adult human MSCs the expression of HLA-DR (normally induced by inflammatory cytokines), which was able to stimulate CD4+ T cells via superantigen binding. (wiley.com)
  • In contrast to IFNγ, FGF induced HLA-DR expression only in human MSCs proliferating under its mitogenic effect and not in mouse MSCs or in differentiated human cells. (wiley.com)
  • Although it induced cell proliferation, human platelet lysate did not cause HLA-DR expression in human MSCs. (wiley.com)
  • The expression of the EVL protein is not ubiquitous, but it is significantly expressed in breast cancer-derived MCF7 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results suggest that the EVL protein is a novel recombination factor that may be required for repairing specific DNA lesions, and that may cause tumor malignancy by its inappropriate expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, knockdown of CUX1 expression sensitizes cancer cells to treatments. (mcgill.ca)
  • Myocardial bmyf5 expression therefore induces a program of skeletal muscle gene expression that results in progressive cardiomyopathy that may be due to incompatibility of heart and skeletal muscle structural proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • This implicates a bHLH protein in myocardial gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ability of MDFs to activate a skeletal program of gene expression has been demonstrated in a variety of cell types. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18 19 In most cases, expression results in conversion of the host cell to that of a myogenic cell. (ahajournals.org)
  • Only a marginal difference in expression was observed between flies carrying the homeodomain protein binding region and those not carrying it. (sdbonline.org)
  • Because these local changes in the lacZ expression depend on the homeodomain protein binding region, unidentified homeodomain proteins are probably involved. (sdbonline.org)
  • In this study, we examined the effect of high glucose level and free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate) on ROS production in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Also see our Protein Inhibitors or Protein Substrates. (scbt.com)
  • We have identified a novel small molecule activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway in a chemical genetic screen for inhibitors of iNOS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The cAMP analogs and PDE inhibitors were effective only when added prior to S of the first cell cycle, whereas PK-C activators inhibited cleavage when added up until late G2/M. The PDE inhibitor Ro 20 1724/1 inhibited both DNA and protein synthesis in 1-cell embryos, whereas the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13 acetate, or alpha-amanitin did not. (nih.gov)
  • Although treatment of 1-cell embryos with aphidicolin or PK-C activators during G1 did not inhibit the synthesis of these proteins, treatment with cAMP analogs or PDE inhibitors during G1 inhibited the appearance of these proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we found that specific ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors reduce NF-κB and AP-1 activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, the members of the family of inducible SOCS proteins are classic negative feedback inhibitors of the IFN-γ-induced JAK-STAT pathway that counteract potentially noxious intracellular signaling induced by excessive inflammation ( 7 - 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • His Gunning Group lab is among a handful around the world racing to unlock the secret behind STAT inhibitors - molecules that, in theory, are able to turn off a switch inside cancer cells, killing those cells while leaving healthy ones unharmed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • LPS induces NK1.1+ alpha beta T cells with potent cytotoxicity in the liver of mice via production of IL-12 from Kupffer cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • The G-switch™ line of small G-protein tools are highly potent reagents that target endogenous Rho family proteins and pathways. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • A potent, cell-permeable, and specific activator of the exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (EPAC). (emdmillipore.com)
  • The term "proteome" was coined by Australian researchers in the mid-1990s to describe all the PROTEins expressed by the genOME, the complete set of genetic material necessary for life. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • CHAMPAIGN, Ill. - Searching a whole genome for one particular sequence is like trying to fish a specific piece from the box of a billion-piece puzzle. (illinois.edu)
  • Using advanced imaging techniques, University of Illinois researchers have observed how one set of genome-editing proteins finds its specific targets, which could help them design better gene therapies to treat disease. (illinois.edu)
  • Researchers have been interested in using TALE proteins for synthetic biology, such as genome editing in plants or bacteria, or for gene therapy. (illinois.edu)
  • They are designed to bind to a particular site, but there's this big genome with billions of bases, so how does the protein find its site? (illinois.edu)
  • GeneArt Precision TALs Products and Services provide researchers with custom DNA-binding proteins (encoded in Gateway compatible entry clones) for accurate DNA targeting, providing a means of editing specific loci throughout the genome. (thermofisher.com)
  • GeneArt Precision TALs provide custom DNA-binding proteins fused to effector domains for accurate DNA targeting and precise genome editing. (thermofisher.com)
  • To assure correct partitioning of cellular contents, cells use regulatory mechanisms to verify that each stage of cell division has been correctly accomplished before proceeding to the next step. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1999 ) and positively selected CD69 hi TCR hi thymocytes develop into natural Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells (Martin-Gayo et al. (springer.com)
  • Two major coactivator complexes, TFIID ( 20 , 38 ) and Mediator ( 24 , 25 ), integrate and relay diverse regulatory signals to the basal transcription machinery through their association with TATA-box binding protein (TBP) and RNA polymerase II (pol II), respectively. (asm.org)
  • These data indicate that CD72 plays a negative regulatory role on B cell responsiveness. (stanford.edu)
  • Morphogenesis produces a distinct internal epithelial layer in the embryo, and this epithelium becomes segregated as an endoderm/endomesodermal germ layer through the activation of a specific gene regulatory program. (miami.edu)
  • Again, viral regulatory proteins, such as the HIV Rev protein, provide attractive model systems. (searlescholars.net)
  • Understanding the basic regulatory mechanisms that control cell phenotype, function and fate with the emphasis on events at the level of gene transcription. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • SRAP) modulates the transcriptional regulatory activity of SRA RNA by binding a specific stem-loop of SRA. (stanford.edu)
  • Excessive apoptosis causes atrophy , whereas an insufficient amount results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, such as cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • dMed6 is essential for viability and/or proliferation of most cells. (asm.org)
  • dMed6 mutants failed to pupate and died in the third larval instar with severe proliferation defects in imaginal discs and other larval mitotic cells. (asm.org)
  • The development of multicellular organisms, even at the level of a single cell, demands a complex array of transcriptional regulation mechanisms for proper proliferation and development. (asm.org)
  • The determined state must be maintained throughout the multiple rounds of cell proliferation that imaginal disc cells undergo during larval stages. (genetics.org)
  • The authors focused on one lead rocaglate derivative and showed that it reversed the effects of MYC, blocked excessive translation, induced tumor cell apoptosis, and decreased tumor cell proliferation. (sciencemag.org)
  • We propose that Brk, like other tyrosine kinases, signals downstream to STAT5b to mediate proliferation of breast cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The roles of cell proliferation and growth factor-induced signaling pathways were investigated as well as the class II MHC assembly machinery and functional capacity. (wiley.com)
  • This has potential biologic significance in the regulation and/or protection of progenitor cell subpopulations under sustained mitogenic proliferation and needs to be taken into account when expanding MSCs for use in in vivo applications. (wiley.com)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section specifies the position and type of each DNA-binding domain present within the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Class III Arfs are also widespread among eukaryotes, but are less conserved than Class I Arfs, and function at the cell periphery ( Donaldson and Jackson, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers an extensive range of biochemicals with protein-interacting properties which are useful for studying protein function, cell signaling pathways and other biological processes. (scbt.com)
  • Regulated alternative splicing is a ubiquitous mechanism that contributes to protein diversity and function in affected biological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complex p35/CDK5 participates in the regulation of the circadian clock by modulating the function of CLOCK protein: phosphorylates CLOCK at 'Thr-451' and 'Thr-461' and regulates the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer in association with altered stability and subcellular distribution. (genecards.org)
  • these can lead to alteration or loss of protein function. (britannica.com)
  • A more severe type of base substitution , called a " nonsense " mutation, results in a stop codon in a position where there was not one before, which causes the premature termination of protein synthesis and, more than likely, a complete loss of function in the finished protein. (britannica.com)
  • First, the structure and function of the protein coded by that gene can be affected. (britannica.com)
  • a protein is made, but it has no enzymatic function. (britannica.com)
  • Various mechanisms have been elucidated for stimulating activator function in response to environmental signals. (asm.org)
  • Plant SR45 and its metazoan ortholog RNPS1 are serine/arginine-rich (SR)-like RNA binding proteins that function in splicing/postsplicing events and regulate diverse processes in eukaryotes. (plantcell.org)
  • GeneArt Precision TALs are engineered with (A) nuclease function, (B) activator function, or (C) a multiple cloning site (MCS). (thermofisher.com)
  • we suggest that SRAP may function in a different context to stabilize specific intermolecular interactions in the nucleus. (stanford.edu)
  • Recombination activator function of the novel RAD51- and RAD51B-binding protein, human EVL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The RAD51B protein is one of five RAD51 paralogs that function in the homologous recombinational repair pathway in higher eukaryotes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Wilms' tumour suppressor protein WT1 is a transcriptional activator, the function of which is under cell-context-specific control. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The 8-bp sequence is also important for DRE function during development, but the 8-bp sequence requirement for DRE function is less stringent in living flies than in the cultured cell (Yamaguchi, M., 1995b). (sdbonline.org)
  • The binding of these kinases to damaged DNA triggers the recruitment of additional proteins, many of which become phosphorylated and activated to further transduce signals that orchestrate DNA replication, cell cycle control, transcription, repair of damage, and/or survival versus death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tyrosine kinases, for example, attach phosphate groups to tyrosine, a key event in many "signaling pathways," including blood sugar regulation by insulin and cell growth triggered by epidermal growth factor. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • This transport protein associates with a number of oxidative- and osmotic-responsive kinases that bind, phosphorylate, and activate NKCC1 co-transporter activity (13-16). (cellsignal.com)
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) can be divided into six distinct groups, in which the ERK1/2, JNK, and p38-MAPK are best characterized ( Krishna and Narang, 2008 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • MSK2 is phosphorylated and activated in response to tumor necrosis factor, epidermal growth factor or phorbol ester in HeLa cells or murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in a p38- and ERK-dependent manner (8,11). (cellsignal.com)
  • A172 human glioblastoma cells, RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells, HEK293 and HeLa human adenocarcinoma cells (ATCC) were cultured in DMEM containing 10% FBS, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 µg/ml streptomycin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11 - 15 However, little attention has been paid to interfollicular large B cells in humans, with the exception of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin-positive immunoblast-like B cells seen in reactive lymph nodes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • B-Cell Specific Activation Protein Encoded by the PAX-5 Gene Is Commonly Expressed in Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Small Cell Carcinoma. (propath.com)
  • Gene activation in eukaryotes requires coordinated use of specific cell signals, chromatin modifications, and chromatin remodeling. (jimmunol.org)
  • CCL5 (or RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted)) recruits T lymphocytes and monocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Failure to carry out this unlinking leads to cell division arrest at late G2 prior to entering mitosis, an arrest that can be relieved by inhibition of Arf1 activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Resting circulating leukocytes do not express CD69, but CD69 is induced very early after activation of T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophiles, macrophages, and eosinophiles. (springer.com)
  • With specific regard to cancer, the activation of several oncogenes further modulates the release of CXCL8 [ 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings indicated that C/EBPβ may play an important role in tooth root resorption via RANKL activation in hypoxia-exposed PDL cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Although the aetiology is unknown, several observations make currently clear that CD4 T cells play a key role in the pathogenesis: (1) RA associates with certain polymorphisms of HLA class II molecules, and (2) the repertoire and aging of CD4 T cells as well as the intracellular signalling mediating CD4 T cell activation are altered in RA patients. (intechopen.com)
  • We have tested whether ectopic activation of cWnt signaling in mesomeres is sufficient to impart the cells with organizer-like abilities, allowing them to pattern normal embryonic body axes when recombined with a field of mesomeres. (miami.edu)
  • The degree of reduction in TC levels evoked by Gcn2p activation in amino acid-starved cells does not substantially inhibit general protein synthesis but does activate GCN4 translation ( 35 ). (asm.org)
  • The data are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of the UPR leads to specific downregulation of cytokine-induced iNOS production. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Combinations of these repeats allow a TAL to target a specific locus for activation, repression, or the introduction of a double-stranded break. (thermofisher.com)
  • siRNA technology was utilized to investigate the biological significance of Brk-induced activation of STAT5b in breast cancer cell models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have previously described a small region at the N-terminus of WT1 (suppression domain) that inhibits the transcriptional activation domain by contacting a co-suppressor protein. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The use of a temperature shift cultivation to enhance recombinant protein yield is widely utilised in the bioprocessing industry. (springer.com)
  • Small volumes of BZLF1 recombinant protein vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • Because several inflammatory diseases are associated with uncontrolled IFN-γ signaling, we engineered a recombinant cell-penetrating SOCS1 (CP-SOCS1) to target this pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, controlled, intracellular delivery of recombinant CP-SOCS1 boosted the anti-inflammatory potential of the cell by restoring the homeostatic balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • In vivo experiments showed that treatment with an anti-CXCL8 neutralizing antibody abrogated the invasiveness of papillary thyroid cancer cells in mice transplanted with a human thyroid cancer cell line [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Geisberg JV, Struhl K. Quantitative sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation, a method for analyzing co-occupancy of proteins at genomic regions in vivo. (harvard.edu)
  • The active site of these direct activators is based on the catalytic domain of the bacterial cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF) toxins. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • The GTPase activators that are based on the catalytic domain of the bacterial cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF) toxins are the best choice for activating small G-proteins for multiple reasons. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Bacterial cold-shock proteins. (springer.com)
  • Researchers engineer bacterial proteins that can transport substances across the cell membrane. (nanowerk.com)
  • TALs are bacterial proteins identified in Xanthomonas bacteria, a genus of plant pathogens responsible for the natural spread of disease via their type III secretion system [1]. (thermofisher.com)
  • An enzyme responsible for lactose transport across the bacterial cell wall. (slideserve.com)
  • PU.1 and GATA‐1 are two sequence‐specific DNA binding proteins that play central roles in the lineage commitment decisions of common myelo‐erythroid progenitors (CMPs) to become myeloid progenitors or megakaryocytic‐erythroid progenitors, respectively ( Graf, 2002 ). (embopress.org)
  • Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and antitumor immunity with DNA vaccines expressing single T cell epitopes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ( 66 ) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an aggressive malignancy of human T lymphocytes ( 38 , 67 , 96 ). (asm.org)
  • Molecular model showing a strand of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) being acted upon by various proteins and other molecules. (sciencephoto.com)
  • ApoE - apolipoprotein E, a protein involved in the transport of cholesterol and other fatty molecules. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Ion channel - proteins that allow ions, or electrically charged molecules like sodium, calcium or chloride to pass through cell membranes. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Adhesion molecules also participate in leukocyte migration for immune surveillance, which is the process by which leukocytes patrol the organs of the body, to determine the need for immune responses to threats such as tissue injury, infectious pathogens, and tumor cells [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We first confirmed that SRAP is present in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, where it is expressed at the level of about 10(5) molecules per cell. (stanford.edu)
  • Together, these data suggest that the interaction between EP24.15 and calmodulin is regulated within cells and is important for the stimulated secretion of EP24.15 from HEK293 cells. (nih.gov)
  • As a first step in an investigation of this membrane fusion event, we have developed a cell-free assay for the interaction between pancreatic zymogen granules and plasma membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Binding of the RBD to 23S rRNA in the late stages of ribosome subunit maturation would position the ATP-binding duplex destabilization fragment of the protein for interaction with rRNA in the peptidyl transferase cleft of the subunit, allowing it to "melt out" unstable secondary structures and allow proper folding. (stanford.edu)
  • Crystal structure of the GAP domain of Gyp1p: first insights into interaction with Ypt/Rab proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • All cells undergo rapid transcriptional reprogramming in response to environmental changes by mobilizing transcriptional activators and repressors. (asm.org)
  • My research employs a combination of cell culture and mouse model systems coupled with molecular, biochemical, immunological and pharmacological approaches. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Finally, the lab is examining the biochemistry of signaling through CD72 to determine the molecular mechanisms by which CD72 regulates B cell responsiveness. (stanford.edu)
  • The anatomic location and the molecular features of these T-cell-associated large B cells suggest that they may represent the cell of origin of some human lymphomas. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Plant cells have developed specific protective molecular machinery against environmental stresses. (rcsb.org)
  • Induction of these proteins depends on the molecular signal(s) and the endothelial subpopulation, and control may be exercised at the level of gene transcription [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular Biology -galactosidase and structure of lactose E. Coli cells need an enzyme to break the lactose down into its two component sugars: galactose and glucose. (slideserve.com)
  • DNA transfection of dominant-negative or constitutively-active Rho mutants, RNAi knockdown), G-switch™ reagents act rapidly on the endogenous target protein (in minutes to hours), thereby optimizing the chance of generating a more physiologically relevant response. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Consistently, NF- κ B1 knockdown significantly reduced leukocyte binding to cell monolayers in the presence of TNF- α but did not impact baseline binding. (hindawi.com)
  • In Brk-positive breast cancer cell lines BT-20 and SKBr3, knockdown of Brk protein or of STAT5b protein using siRNA methodology resulted in a decrease in DNA synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The EVL knockdown cells impaired RAD51 assembly onto damaged DNA after ionizing radiation or mitomycin C treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PAX-5 is also expressed by precursor B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma (precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia), a tumor which is frequently negative with CD20. (propath.com)
  • a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 B-cell antigen) will experience relapse with CD20-negative tumor. (propath.com)
  • CXCL8 is a key regulator of immune cells infiltration into the tumor microenvironment promoting cancer invasion and metastasis [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypoxia had no effects on the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the culture media. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We study how defects in DNA repair can contribute to tumor initiation and how certain cancer cells become dependent on specific DNA repair pathways. (mcgill.ca)
  • Macrophages might also fuse with somatic cells to promote tissue repair and with tumor cells to trigger metastasis. (rupress.org)
  • The protein encoded by the little imaginal discs gene is the Drosophila homologue of human retinoblastoma binding protein 2. (genetics.org)
  • The TBC/rab GAP domain has also been named PTM after three proteins known to contain it: the Drosophila pollux, the human oncoprotein TRE17 (oncoTRE17), and a myeloid cell line-expressed protein [ PMID: 8654926 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Since the retina is comprised of multiple cell types, we focused our analysis on the outer photoreceptor neurons in Drosophila , R1 - R6 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clusters of 10 bp of sequence, similar to the binding sites for Drosophila proteins containing homeodomains, were found in the region from -127 to -413. (sdbonline.org)
  • There is a single hydrophobic transmembrane α-helix region present in the CD69 polypeptide (amino acids 41-61, Fig. 1 ), which classifies CD69 as a member of type II transmembrane proteins. (springer.com)
  • The result will be a protein whose first section (before the mutational site) is that of the wild type amino acid sequence, followed by a tail of functionally meaningless amino acids. (britannica.com)
  • Large deletions of many codons will not only remove amino acids from a protein but may also result in a frameshift mutation if the number of nucleotides deleted is not a multiple of three. (britannica.com)
  • Likewise, an insertion of a block of nucleotides will add amino acids to a protein and perhaps also have a frameshift effect. (britannica.com)
  • Most viral fusion proteins contain a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids, known as a fusion peptide, which penetrates host cells like a sword, destabilizing the lipid bilayer of the host cell. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to necrosis , which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • A great deal is known about mechanisms that regulate chromosome segregation during cell division, but we know much less about the mechanisms by which cellular organelles are partitioned, and how these processes are coordinated. (frontiersin.org)
  • SLC12A1/NKCC2 and SLC12A2/NKCC1 regulate cell volume and maintain cellular homeostasis in response to osmotic and oxidative stress (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • A breakthrough discovery into how living cells process and respond to chemical information could help advance the development of treatments for a large number of cancers and other cellular disorders that have been resistant to therapy. (nanowerk.com)
  • Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector proteins are used by certain plant pathogens to manipulate cellular processes and suppress immunity in their host cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • They regulate transcription of markers of the mature gut epithelium ( 12 , 13 ), and GATA proteins likely contribute toward specification of hepatocyte identity ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • In accord with our findings, an ITIM motif in the cytoplasmic tail of CD72 has been shown to bind to the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, a feature characteristic of other surface proteins that negatively regulate lymphocyte responses. (stanford.edu)
  • Stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells with SP was found to up-regulate the production of inflammatory mediators, specifically chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α ( Ramnath and Bhatia, 2006 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • This leads to a seven amino acid difference between the two respective protein isoforms, SR45.1 and SR45.2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RPS4Y and RPS4X encode isoforms of ribosomal protein S4. (searlescholars.net)
  • Ribosomes from human male tissues contain both the X and Y-encoded protein isoforms, which are functionally interchangeable. (searlescholars.net)
  • CUX1 codes for several protein isoforms. (mcgill.ca)
  • In the intrinsic pathway the cell kills itself because it senses cell stress , while in the extrinsic pathway the cell kills itself because of signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, G proteins and GPCRs play a role in a wide range of physiological functions, including the regulation of blood pressure, the production of glucose by the liver, and the transmission of signals between nerve cells in the brain. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • It s probably a tangled hair ball of all kinds of signals going on in these cells that prevent these stem cells from differentiating. (webwire.com)
  • Researchers have now successfully revealed for the first time the laws by which cells translate signals from their surroundings into internal signals. (nanowerk.com)
  • In addition, the metabolic product, acetaldehyde, modifies the proteins in hepatocyte, which become antigens inviting auto-immune response. (mdpi.com)
  • Involved in the regulation of the CD19 gene, a B-lymphoid-specific target gene. (abcam.com)
  • In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the functions of Arf1 regulators and effectors in the crosstalk between Golgi structure and cell cycle regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, each coactivator complex appears to have unique and specific roles in transcriptional regulation of diverse developmental processes. (asm.org)
  • Many disturbances, including aberrant calcium regulation, altered redox status, or interference with protein glycosylation, can result in the accumulation of unfolded ER client proteins in a phenomenon referred to as ER stress. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Long-Range Transcriptional Regulation by the p110 CUX1 Homeodomain Protein on the ENCODE Array. (mcgill.ca)
  • The two pathways both activate initiator caspases, which then activate executioner caspases, which then kill the cell by degrading proteins indiscriminately. (wikipedia.org)
  • SRCAP is one of several proteins that help activate a gene called CREBBP . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The autoinducer synthase is responsible for the synthesis of an autoinducer molecule (AI), which crosses the cell membrane. (cdc.gov)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an intracellular organelle responsible for the proper synthesis and folding of secreted and membrane-bound proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transcription in the 2-cell embryo results in the synthesis of a specific set of proteins, which is inhibited by alpha-amanitin. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, analysis of DNA synthesis suggests that STAT5b and Brk are converging upon the same proproliferative signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence they bring their effectors, proteins that bind specifically to the GTP-bound form, into close contact with the lipid bilayer. (frontiersin.org)
  • G proteins - known for their ability to bind guanine nucleotides. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • TALE proteins, or transcription activator-like effectors, can be programmed to recognize and bind to specific regions of DNA. (illinois.edu)
  • The proteins bind to the DNA and slide along the helix, traveling down the DNA molecule like a highway. (illinois.edu)
  • We are in the process of identifying drugs that inhibit the DNA repair functions of CUX1 with the aim of sensitizing cancer cells to treatments. (mcgill.ca)
  • Anti-PAX-5 is a B-cell antibody that has been available at PROPATH for several years, and one that has been a very useful tool for us in the evaluation of a variety of lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. (propath.com)
  • The eluted proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, and bound EP24.15 was detected using a western blot with an EP24.15-specific antibody. (nih.gov)
  • We show here that plasma membranes are able to trigger the release of the granule contents, and that this effect is specific to pancreatic membranes, involves membrane fusion, requires membrane proteins, and is stimulated by activators of G-proteins but not by Ca2+. (rupress.org)
  • Translocation of newly synthesized peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and their subsequent folding, maturation, and transport relies on an elegant signaling system called the unfolded protein response (UPR) ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Another type of fusion occurs between distinct membranes within a cell, such as during intracellular trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • [5] Both pathways induce cell death by activating caspases , which are proteases , or enzymes that degrade proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAI-1 - plasminogen activator inhibitor, a protein that can block natural clot-busting enzymes in the body, including tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Furthermore, in a rat model of PD, striatal delivery of an adeno-associated viral vector serotype 2 encoding the GDNF activator resulted in improvements in forelimb akinesia, sensorimotor neglect, and amphetamine-induced rotations caused by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Most of the viral proteins that are responsible for the binding of the virus to the host cell also play a role in fusion. (rupress.org)
  • The fusion protein then undergoes a conformational change, forming a hairpin-like α-helical bundle, which acts like a spring to propel the viral membrane close enough to the cell membrane to trigger fusion. (rupress.org)
  • Two discoveries brought cell death from obscurity to a major field of research: identification of components of the cell death control and effector mechanisms, and linkage of abnormalities in cell death to human disease, in particular cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptional mechanisms regulating alveolar epithelial cell-specific CCL5 secretion in pulmonary tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
  • While much of our research has focused on the mechanism by which the ovarian or testicular fate of the embryonic gonad is decided, our studies are increasingly directed toward understanding the mechanisms by which primordial germ cells give rise to gametes. (searlescholars.net)
  • Yet, to replicate their DNA and proliferate, cancer cells need DNA repair mechanisms, perhaps even more so than normal cells. (mcgill.ca)
  • Moreover, efficient DNA repair mechanisms can enable cancer cells to resist radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (mcgill.ca)
  • Fusion is required for the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts and giant cells, although the mechanisms that govern these processes are poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • As thus far no two cell types share the same putative fusion protein, it seems plausible that alternative mechanisms for fusion might have evolved for each cell type, with fusion being cell type-specific and depending on different proteins in different species ( 5 ). (rupress.org)