A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for B CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 13. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; and B CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member found expressed on peripheral B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 13.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Recombinases involved in the rearrangement of immunity-related GENES such as IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES and T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.
Persons as individuals (e.g., ABORTION APPLICANTS) or as members of a group (e.g., HISPANIC AMERICANS). It is not used for members of the various professions (e.g., PHYSICIANS) or occupations (e.g., LIBRARIANS) for which OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS is available.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Austria" is a country located in Central Europe and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS originally isolated from ducks.

BAFF binds to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-like molecule B cell maturation antigen and is important for maintaining the peripheral B cell population. (1/82)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member B cell activating factor (BAFF) binds B cells and enhances B cell receptor-triggered proliferation. We find that B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), a predicted member of the TNF receptor family expressed primarily in mature B cells, is a receptor for BAFF. Although BCMA was previously localized to the Golgi apparatus, BCMA was found to be expressed on the surface of transfected cells and tonsillar B cells. A soluble form of BCMA, which inhibited the binding of BAFF to a B cell line, induced a dramatic decrease in the number of peripheral B cells when administered in vivo. Moreover, culturing splenic cells in the presence of BAFF increased survival of a percentage of the B cells. These results are consistent with a role for BAFF in maintaining homeostasis of the B cell population.  (+info)

Interaction of the TNF homologues BLyS and APRIL with the TNF receptor homologues BCMA and TACI. (2/82)

BLyS (also called TALL-1, THANK, or BAFF) [1] [2] [3] [4] is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene family that stimulates proliferation and immunoglobulin production by B cells. BLyS interacts with the TNF receptor (TNFR) homologue TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML-interactor) [5], and treatment of mice with a TACI-Fc fusion protein abolishes germinal center formation after antigenic challenge [6]. Here we report a novel interaction between BLyS and another TNFR homologue, BCMA (B cell maturation antigen) [7] [8]. Further, the TNF homologue APRIL [9], a close relative of BLyS, also bound to BCMA and TACI. BLyS or APRIL activated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) through TACI and BCMA, and each ligand stimulated immunoglobulin M (IgM) production by peripheral blood B cells. These results define a dual ligand-receptor system that may play an important role in humoral immunity.  (+info)

TNF receptor family member BCMA (B cell maturation) associates with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 and activates NF-kappa B, elk-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. (3/82)

BCMA (B cell maturation) is a nonglycosylated integral membrane type I protein that is preferentially expressed in mature B lymphocytes. Previously, we reported in a human malignant myeloma cell line that BCMA is not primarily present on the cell surface but lies in a perinuclear structure that partially overlaps the Golgi apparatus. We now show that in transiently or stably transfected cells, BCMA is located on the cell surface, as well as in a perinulear Golgi-like structure. We also show that overexpression of BCMA in 293 cells activates NF-kappa B, Elk-1, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments performed in transfected cells showed that BCMA associates with TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 adaptor proteins. Analysis of deletion mutants of the intracytoplasmic tail of BCMA showed that the 25-aa protein segment, from position 119 to 143, conserved between mouse and human BCMA, is essential for its association with the TRAFs and the activation of NF-kappa B, Elk-1, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. BCMA belongs structurally to the TNFR family. Its unique TNFR motif corresponds to a variant motif present in the fourth repeat of the TNFRI molecule. This study confirms that BCMA is a functional member of the TNFR superfamily. Furthermore, as BCMA is lacking a "death domain" and its overexpression activates NF-kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, we can reasonably hypothesize that upon binding of its corresponding ligand BCMA transduces signals for cell survival and proliferation.  (+info)

B cell maturation protein is a receptor for the tumor necrosis factor family member TALL-1. (4/82)

TALL-1 is a recently identified member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family that costimulates B lymphocyte proliferation. Here we show that B cell maturation protein (BCMA), a member of the TNF receptor family that is expressed only by B lymphocytes, specifically binds to TALL-1. A soluble receptor containing the extracellular domain of BCMA blocks the binding of TALL-1 to its receptor on the plasma membrane and inhibits TALL-1-triggered B lymphocyte costimulation. Overexpression of BCMA activates NF-kappaB, and this activation is potentiated by TALL-1. Moreover, BCMA-mediated NF-kappaB activation is inhibited by dominant negative mutants of TNF receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5), TRAF6, NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK), and IkappaB kinase (IKK). These data indicate that BCMA is a receptor for TALL-1 and BCMA activates NF-kappaB through a TRAF5-, TRAF6-, NIK-, and IKK-dependent pathway. The identification of BCMA as a NF-kappaB-activating receptor for TALL-1 suggests molecular targets for drug development against certain immunodeficient or autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

A soluble form of B cell maturation antigen, a receptor for the tumor necrosis factor family member APRIL, inhibits tumor cell growth. (5/82)

A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) is a ligand of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family that stimulates tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Expression of APRIL is highly upregulated in many tumors including colon and prostate carcinomas. Here we identify B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML) interactor (TACI), two predicted members of the TNF receptor family, as receptors for APRIL. APRIL binds BCMA with higher affinity than TACI. A soluble form of BCMA, which inhibits the proliferative activity of APRIL in vitro, decreases tumor cell proliferation in nude mice. Growth of HT29 colon carcinoma cells is blocked when mice are treated once per week with the soluble receptor. These results suggest an important role for APRIL in tumorigenesis and point towards a novel anticancer strategy.  (+info)

B-cell maturation protein, which binds the tumor necrosis factor family members BAFF and APRIL, is dispensable for humoral immune responses. (6/82)

B-cell maturation protein (BCMA) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and is expressed in B lymphocytes. BCMA binds two TNF family members, BAFF and APRIL, that stimulate cellular proliferation. BAFF in particular has been shown to influence B-cell survival and activation, and transgenic mice overexpressing BAFF have a lupus-like autoimmune disorder. We have inactivated BCMA in the mouse germ line. BCMA(-/-) mice have normal B-cell development, and the life span of mutant B lymphocytes is comparable to that of wild-type B cells. The humoral immune responses of BCMA(-/-) mice to T-cell-independent antigens as well as high and low doses of T-cell-dependent antigens are also intact. In addition, mutant mice have normal splenic architecture, and germinal centers are formed during an ongoing immune response. These data suggest a functional redundancy of BCMA in B-cell physiology that is probably due to the presence of TACI, another TNF receptor family member that is expressed on B cells and that can also bind BAFF and APRIL.  (+info)

An essential role for BAFF in the normal development of B cells through a BCMA-independent pathway. (7/82)

The B cell activating factor BAFF (BlyS/TALL-1/zTNF4) is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related ligand that promotes B cell survival and binds to three receptors (BCMA, TACI, and the recently described BAFF-R). Here we report an absolute requirement for BAFF in normal B cell development. Examination of secondary lymphoid organs from BAFF-deficient mice revealed an almost complete loss of follicular and marginal zone B lymphocytes. In contrast, mice lacking BCMA had normal-appearing B lymphocyte compartments. BAFF therefore plays a crucial role in B cell development and can function through receptors other than BCMA.  (+info)

BAFF-R, a newly identified TNF receptor that specifically interacts with BAFF. (8/82)

B cell homeostasis has been shown to critically depend on BAFF, the B cell activation factor from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. Although BAFF is already known to bind two receptors, BCMA and TACI, we have identified a third receptor for BAFF that we have termed BAFF-R. BAFF-R binding appears to be highly specific for BAFF, suggesting a unique role for this ligand-receptor interaction. Consistent with this, the BAFF-R locus is disrupted in A/WySnJ mice, which display a B cell phenotype qualitatively similar to that of the BAFF-deficient mice. Thus, BAFF-R appears to be the principal receptor for BAFF-mediated mature B cell survival.  (+info)

B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a protein that is primarily found on the surface of mature B cells and plasma cells. It plays a crucial role in the survival and growth of these cells. BCMA is also a target for immunotherapy in certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, because it is often overexpressed on the surface of malignant plasma cells.

Immunotherapies that target BCMA include monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies. These treatments work by binding to BCMA on the surface of cancer cells, which can then trigger an immune response to destroy the cancer cells.

It's important to note that while these therapies have shown promise in clinical trials, they are still being studied and may have potential side effects or limitations.

Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13 (TNFSF13), also known as APRIL (A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand), is a type II transmembrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily. It plays a crucial role in the immune system, particularly in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of B cells, which are key players in the humoral immune response.

TNFSF13 is expressed by various cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. It binds to two receptors: TACI (Transmembrane Activator and Calcium Modulator and Cyclophilin Ligand Interactor) and BCMA (B-cell Maturation Antigen), which are primarily found on the surface of B cells. The interaction between TNFSF13 and its receptors promotes the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, ultimately leading to increased antibody production.

Dysregulation of TNFSF13 has been implicated in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Therefore, targeting this molecule or its signaling pathways has been a focus of research for the development of novel therapeutic strategies in these conditions.

The Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor protein (also known as TACI or TNFRSF13B) is a type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It is involved in the regulation of immune responses, specifically in the activation and differentiation of B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the humoral immune response.

TACI has two main ligands, or binding partners: A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL) and B cell Activating Factor (BAFF). These ligands bind to TACI and activate downstream signaling pathways that lead to the activation and differentiation of B cells.

Mutations in the TACI gene have been associated with various immune disorders, including common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by low levels of antibodies and recurrent infections. Additionally, variations in the TACI gene have been linked to an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is a type of protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. Its primary function is to stimulate and activate B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system by producing antibodies. BAFF helps to promote the survival, differentiation, and activation of B cells, thereby contributing to the adaptive immune response.

BAFF binds to its receptor, known as BAFF receptor (BAFF-R), which is expressed on the surface of B cells. This interaction leads to the activation of various signaling pathways that promote B cell survival and proliferation. Overexpression or excessive production of BAFF has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Sjogren's syndrome, due to the abnormal activation and expansion of B cells.

In summary, B-cell activating factor is a protein that plays an essential role in the activation and survival of B cells, which are crucial for the immune response. However, its overexpression or dysregulation can contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases.

The B-cell activation factor receptor, also known as BAFF-R or CD268, is a protein found on the surface of B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system. The BAFF-R receptor binds to a protein called BAFF (B-cell activating factor), which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family.

When BAFF binds to BAFF-R, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that promote the survival, activation, and differentiation of B cells. This interaction is critical for the normal development and function of the immune system, as it helps to maintain the balance between the proliferation and deletion of B cells.

However, abnormal activation of the BAFF-R pathway has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and Sjogren's syndrome. In these conditions, excessive levels of BAFF can lead to the overactivation of B cells, resulting in the production of autoantibodies that attack the body's own tissues.

Therefore, therapies that target the BAFF-R pathway are being investigated as potential treatments for autoimmune diseases. These include monoclonal antibodies that bind to BAFF or BAFF-R and block their interaction, as well as small molecule inhibitors that interfere with downstream signaling events.

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptors are cell surface receptors that bind to tumor necrosis factor cytokines. They play crucial roles in the regulation of a variety of immune cell functions, including inflammation, immunity, and cell survival or death (apoptosis).

There are two major types of TNF receptors: TNFR1 (also known as p55 or CD120a) and TNFR2 (also known as p75 or CD120b). TNFR1 is widely expressed in most tissues, while TNFR2 has a more restricted expression pattern and is mainly found on immune cells.

TNF receptors have an intracellular domain called the death domain, which can trigger signaling pathways leading to apoptosis when activated by TNF ligands. However, they can also activate other signaling pathways that promote cell survival, differentiation, and inflammation. Dysregulation of TNF receptor signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the humoral immune response. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as viruses and bacteria.

B-lymphocyte subsets refer to distinct populations of B-cells that can be identified based on their surface receptors and functional characteristics. Some common B-lymphocyte subsets include:

1. Naive B-cells: These are mature B-cells that have not yet been exposed to an antigen. They express surface receptors called immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin D (IgD).
2. Memory B-cells: These are B-cells that have previously encountered an antigen and mounted an immune response. They express high levels of surface immunoglobulins and can quickly differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells upon re-exposure to the same antigen.
3. Plasma cells: These are fully differentiated B-cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies in response to an antigen. They lack surface immunoglobulins and do not undergo further division.
4. Regulatory B-cells: These are a subset of B-cells that modulate the immune response by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppressing the activation of other immune cells.
5. B-1 cells: These are a population of B-cells that are primarily found in the peripheral blood and mucosal tissues. They produce natural antibodies that provide early protection against pathogens and help to maintain tissue homeostasis.

Understanding the different B-lymphocyte subsets and their functions is important for diagnosing and treating immune-related disorders, including autoimmune diseases, infections, and cancer.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a variety of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling cascade or changing the cell's metabolism. Receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including communication between cells, regulation of immune responses, and perception of senses.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the adaptive immune system, specifically by B-cells and T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as microorganisms (like bacteria, viruses, or fungi), pollen, dust mites, or even components of our own cells (for instance, in autoimmune diseases). An antigen's ability to stimulate an immune response is determined by its molecular structure and whether it can be recognized by the receptors on immune cells.

3. B-Cell: B-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system, particularly in humoral immunity. They originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens. Each B-cell has receptors on its surface called B-cell receptors (BCRs) that can recognize a unique antigen. When a B-cell encounters its specific antigen, it becomes activated, undergoes proliferation, and differentiates into plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies to neutralize or eliminate the antigen.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

B-lymphoid precursor cells, also known as progenitor B cells, are hematopoietic stem cells that have committed to the B-cell lineage and are in the process of differentiating into mature B cells. These cells originate in the bone marrow and undergo a series of developmental stages, including commitment to the B-cell lineage, rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes, expression of surface immunoglobulins, and selection for a functional B cell receptor.

B-lymphoid precursor cells can be further divided into several subsets based on their stage of differentiation and the expression of specific cell surface markers. These subsets include early pro-B cells, late pro-B cells, pre-B cells, and immature B cells. Each subset represents a distinct stage in B-cell development and is characterized by unique genetic and epigenetic features that regulate its differentiation and function.

Abnormalities in the development and differentiation of B-lymphoid precursor cells can lead to various hematological disorders, including leukemias and lymphomas. Therefore, understanding the biology of these cells is crucial for developing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these diseases.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

A germinal center is a microanatomical structure found within the secondary lymphoid organs, such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. It is a transient structure that forms during the humoral immune response, specifically during the activation of B cells by antigens.

Germinal centers are the sites where activated B cells undergo rapid proliferation, somatic hypermutation, and class switch recombination to generate high-affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. These processes help to refine the immune response and provide long-lasting immunity against pathogens.

The germinal center is composed of two main regions: the dark zone (or proliferation center) and the light zone (or selection area). The dark zone contains rapidly dividing B cells, while the light zone contains follicular dendritic cells that present antigens to the B cells. Through a process called affinity maturation, B cells with higher-affinity antibodies are selected for survival and further differentiation into plasma cells or memory B cells.

Overall, germinal centers play a critical role in the adaptive immune response by generating high-affinity antibodies and providing long-term immunity against pathogens.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is a type of antibody that is present in the blood and other bodily fluids. It is one of the five classes of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) found in humans and plays a role in the immune response.

IgD is produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell that is responsible for producing antibodies. It is primarily found on the surface of mature B cells, where it functions as a receptor for antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response). When an antigen binds to IgD on the surface of a B cell, it activates the B cell and stimulates it to produce and secrete antibodies specific to that antigen.

IgD is found in relatively low concentrations in the blood compared to other immunoglobulins, and its precise functions are not fully understood. However, it is thought to play a role in the regulation of B cell activation and the immune response. Additionally, some research suggests that IgD may have a direct role in protecting against certain types of infections.

It's worth noting that genetic deficiencies in IgD are not typically associated with any significant immunological abnormalities or increased susceptibility to infection.

Hair diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions affecting the hair shaft, follicle, or scalp. These conditions can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Hair shaft abnormalities: These are conditions that affect the structure and growth of the hair shaft. Examples include trichorrhexis nodosa, where the hair becomes weak and breaks easily, and pili torti, where the hair shaft is twisted and appears sparse and fragile.
2. Hair follicle disorders: These are conditions that affect the hair follicles, leading to hair loss or abnormal growth patterns. Examples include alopecia areata, an autoimmune disorder that causes patchy hair loss, and androgenetic alopecia, a genetic condition that leads to pattern baldness in both men and women.
3. Scalp disorders: These are conditions that affect the scalp, leading to symptoms such as itching, redness, scaling, or pain. Examples include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, and tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp).
4. Hair cycle abnormalities: These are conditions that affect the normal growth cycle of the hair, leading to excessive shedding or thinning. Examples include telogen effluvium, where a large number of hairs enter the resting phase and fall out, and anagen effluvium, which is typically caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
5. Infectious diseases: Hair follicles can become infected with various bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to conditions such as folliculitis, furunculosis, and kerion.
6. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders can affect the hair, such as Menkes syndrome, which is a rare inherited disorder that affects copper metabolism and leads to kinky, sparse, and brittle hair.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of hair diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, often a dermatologist or a trichologist who specializes in hair and scalp disorders.

Osteochondrodysplasias are a group of genetic disorders that affect the development of bones and cartilage. These conditions can result in dwarfism or short stature, as well as other skeletal abnormalities. Osteochondrodysplasias can be caused by mutations in genes that regulate bone and cartilage growth, and they are often characterized by abnormalities in the shape, size, and/or structure of the bones and cartilage.

There are many different types of osteochondrodysplasias, each with its own specific symptoms and patterns of inheritance. Some common examples include achondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. These conditions can vary in severity, and some may be associated with other health problems, such as respiratory difficulties or neurological issues.

Treatment for osteochondrodysplasias typically focuses on managing the symptoms and addressing any related health concerns. This may involve physical therapy, bracing or surgery to correct skeletal abnormalities, and treatment for any associated medical conditions. In some cases, genetic counseling may also be recommended for individuals with osteochondrodysplasias and their families.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a group of rare genetic disorders characterized by deficient or absent immune responses. It results from mutations in different genes involved in the development and function of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, or both, leading to a severe impairment in cell-mediated and humoral immunity.

Infants with SCID are extremely vulnerable to infections, which can be life-threatening. Common symptoms include chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, recurrent pneumonia, and persistent candidiasis (thrush). If left untreated, it can lead to severe disability or death within the first two years of life. Treatment typically involves bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy to restore immune function.

Cartilage diseases refer to conditions that affect the cartilaginous tissues in the body. Cartilage is a firm, flexible connective tissue found in many areas of the body, including the joints, ribcage, ears, and nose. It provides structure and support, allows for smooth movement between bones, and protects the ends of bones from friction.

There are several types of cartilage diseases, including:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): This is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time. It can cause pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility in the affected joints.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, leading to cartilage damage and bone erosion.
3. Traumatic arthritis: This occurs when a joint is injured, causing damage to the cartilage and resulting in pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
4. Infectious arthritis: This occurs when a joint becomes infected, leading to inflammation and potential damage to the cartilage.
5. Chondromalacia patellae: This is a condition that affects the cartilage on the back of the kneecap, causing pain and stiffness in the knee.
6. Costochondritis: This is an inflammation of the cartilage in the ribcage, causing chest pain and discomfort.
7. Nasal septal deviation: This is a condition where the cartilage that separates the nostrils is crooked or off-center, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.
8. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): This is a joint condition that occurs when a piece of cartilage and bone in a joint becomes detached, causing pain and stiffness.
9. Synovial chondromatosis: This is a rare condition where nodules made up of cartilage form in the lining of a joint, causing pain, swelling, and limited mobility.

Treatment for cartilage diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity, but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these.

RAG-1 (Recombination Activating Gene 1) is a protein involved in the process of V(D)J recombination, which is a crucial step in the development of the immune system. Specifically, RAG-1 plays a role in generating diversity in the antigen receptors of T and B cells by rearranging gene segments that encode for the variable regions of these receptors.

RAG-1 forms a complex with another protein called RAG-2, and together they initiate the V(D)J recombination process by introducing DNA double-strand breaks at specific sites within the antigen receptor genes. This allows for the precise joining of different gene segments to create a functional antigen receptor that can recognize a wide variety of foreign molecules (antigens).

Mutations in the RAG-1 gene can lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a condition characterized by an impaired immune system and increased susceptibility to infections.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

VDJ Recombinases are a set of enzymes that play a crucial role in the adaptive immune system, specifically in the diversification of antigen receptors in vertebrates. The name "VDJ" refers to the variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments that undergo recombination to generate a vast array of unique antigen receptor genes.

The VDJ Recombinases are composed of two main enzymatic components: RAG1 and RAG2, which are responsible for initiating the recombination process, and Artemis, which is involved in the cleavage and joining of the gene segments. The recombination process mediated by these enzymes occurs during the development of B and T lymphocytes, allowing for the generation of a diverse repertoire of antigen receptors that can recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens.

The RAG1 and RAG2 proteins recognize specific DNA sequences called recombination signal sequences (RSSs) that flank the V, D, and J gene segments. They introduce double-stranded breaks at the junctions between these gene segments, creating a hairpin structure at one end of each break. The hairpins are then cleaved by Artemis, and the resulting overhangs are joined together by another set of enzymes to form a functional antigen receptor gene.

Overall, VDJ Recombinases play a critical role in the adaptive immune system's ability to generate diverse and specific responses to pathogens, making them an essential component of vertebrate immunity.

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by viral infection. It primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, leading to inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. This results in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Common viruses that can cause pneumonia include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus. Viral pneumonia is often milder than bacterial pneumonia but can still be serious, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and fever reduction, while the body fights off the virus. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection that's caused by bacteria. It can affect people of any age, but it's more common in older adults, young children, and people with certain health conditions or weakened immune systems. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary, but they often include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

The most common type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill bacteria. The specific type of antibiotic used will depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It's important to take all of the prescribed medication as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure that the infection is completely cleared and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

In severe cases of bacterial pneumonia, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.

Paramyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes several important pathogens causing respiratory infections in humans and animals. According to the medical perspective, Paramyxoviridae infections refer to the diseases caused by these viruses.

Some notable human paramyxovirus infections include:

1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection: RSV is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, particularly in young children and older adults. It can lead to bronchiolitis and pneumonia, especially in infants and patients with compromised immune systems.
2. Measles (Rubeola): Measles is a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, cough, coryza (runny nose), conjunctivitis, and a maculopapular rash. It can lead to severe complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death, particularly in malnourished children and individuals with weakened immune systems.
3. Parainfluenza Virus Infection: Parainfluenza viruses are responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including croup, bronchitis, and pneumonia. They mainly affect young children but can also infect adults, causing mild to severe illnesses.
4. Mumps: Mumps is a contagious viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands, causing painful swelling. It can lead to complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, deafness, and orchitis (inflammation of the testicles) in rare cases.
5. Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) Infection: HMPV is a respiratory virus that can cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections, similar to RSV and parainfluenza viruses. It mainly affects young children and older adults, leading to bronchitis, pneumonia, and exacerbations of chronic lung diseases.

Prevention strategies for Paramyxoviridae infections include vaccination programs, practicing good personal hygiene, and implementing infection control measures in healthcare settings.

Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human (HPIV-1) is a type of respiratory virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory infections in children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

HPIV-1 primarily infects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever. However, it can also cause lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children and infants.

HPIV-1 is transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals. The incubation period for HPIV-1 infection ranges from 2 to 7 days, after which symptoms can last for up to 10 days. There is no specific antiviral treatment available for HPIV-1 infections, and management typically involves supportive care such as hydration, fever reduction, and respiratory support if necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and practicing cough etiquette. Vaccines are not currently available for HPIV-1 infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

'Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It contains certain proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on its surface, with this subtype specifically having H1 and N1 antigens. The H1N1 strain is well-known for causing the 2009 swine flu pandemic, which was a global outbreak of flu that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. This subtype can also cause seasonal flu, although the severity and symptoms may vary. It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new strains or subtypes can emerge over time, requiring regular updates to vaccines to protect against them.

I'm not entirely sure what you're looking for with "Exhibits as Topic" in the context of medical definitions. However, I can provide some general information about how medical conditions or findings might be exhibited, as well as examples of medical resources that discuss various medical topics through exhibits.

In medical terminology, "exhibit" generally refers to something that is shown or displayed, such as a symptom, sign, finding, or condition. For example, a patient with diabetes might exhibit symptoms like increased thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue. In a laboratory setting, a sample might be examined for the presence of certain exhibits, such as bacteria or abnormal cells.

There are many medical resources that use exhibits to help illustrate various topics. For example, museums and educational centers often have exhibits on health-related topics, such as anatomy, disease processes, and medical technology. Medical schools and teaching hospitals may also have exhibits of specimens, models, or other materials used for educational purposes.

In addition, there are many online resources that use interactive exhibits to help explain complex medical concepts. For example, the National Library of Medicine's "Medical Museum" website has a variety of virtual exhibits on topics such as medical instruments, historical medical practices, and public health campaigns. The American Cancer Society also has an interactive exhibit on cancer cells and treatments that allows users to explore different types of cancer and learn about the latest research and treatment options.

Overall, "Exhibits as Topic" in a medical context can refer to a variety of resources and materials used to illustrate and explain medical concepts, findings, or conditions.

In medical terms, "persons" is not a term that has a specific definition. It generally refers to an individual human being who is receiving medical care or attention. In legal and ethical contexts, the term "person" may refer more broadly to any entity (such as a corporation) that is recognized by law as having rights and responsibilities, but this usage is not typically found in medical discourse.

It's worth noting that there are some specific medical contexts where the term "person" may be used differently. For example, in discussions of end-of-life care or organ donation, the concept of "personhood" may be invoked to refer to the qualities or characteristics that make an individual human being unique and deserving of moral respect. However, these uses of the term are more philosophical than medical in nature.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that play a critical role in the body's defense against infection and cancer. They are named for their dendrite-like projections, which they use to interact with and sample their environment. DCs are responsible for processing antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response) and presenting them to T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune system's response to infection and cancer.

DCs can be found throughout the body, including in the skin, mucous membranes, and lymphoid organs. They are able to recognize and respond to a wide variety of antigens, including those from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Once they have processed an antigen, DCs migrate to the lymph nodes, where they present the antigen to T cells. This interaction activates the T cells, which then go on to mount a targeted immune response against the invading pathogen or cancerous cells.

DCs are a diverse group of cells that can be divided into several subsets based on their surface markers and function. Some DCs, such as Langerhans cells and dermal DCs, are found in the skin and mucous membranes, where they serve as sentinels for invading pathogens. Other DCs, such as plasmacytoid DCs and conventional DCs, are found in the lymphoid organs, where they play a role in activating T cells and initiating an immune response.

Overall, dendritic cells are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, and dysregulation of these cells has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Austria" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in central Europe, known officially as the Republic of Austria. It is not a medical condition, treatment, or related term. If you have any questions about a medical issue, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Allergy and Immunology is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases and immune system disorders. An Allergist/Immunologist is a physician who has undergone specialized training in this field.

Allergies occur when the immune system overreacts to normally harmless substances, such as pollen, dust mites, or certain foods, resulting in symptoms like sneezing, itching, runny nose, and rashes. Immunology, on the other hand, deals with disorders of the immune system, which can be caused by either an overactive or underactive immune response. Examples of immune disorders include autoimmune diseases (where the body attacks its own tissues), immunodeficiency disorders (where the immune system is weakened and unable to fight off infections), and hypersensitivity reactions (overreactions of the immune system to harmless substances).

The Allergist/Immunologist uses various diagnostic tests, such as skin prick tests, blood tests, and challenge tests, to identify the specific allergens or immune triggers that are causing a patient's symptoms. Once the diagnosis is made, they can recommend appropriate treatments, which may include medications, immunotherapy (allergy shots), lifestyle changes, or avoidance of certain substances.

In addition to treating patients, Allergist/Immunologists also conduct research into the underlying causes and mechanisms of allergic diseases and immune disorders, with the goal of developing new and more effective treatments.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Trager duck spleen necrosis virus" doesn't seem to be a recognized term in current medical or scientific literature. It's possible there may be a misunderstanding or miscommunation of the term. If you're referring to a specific pathogen that affects ducks, it might be helpful to have more accurate information to provide a definition or description.

Trager is a surname and doesn't have any medical significance in this context. "Duck spleen necrosis" refers to a condition where the spleen of a duck undergoes necrosis, or tissue death, often due to infection by a virus. However, I couldn't find a specific virus named "Trager duck spleen necrosis virus."

If you have more information about this term, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

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... (sBCMA) is the cleaved form of B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), found at low levels in the ... June 2019). "Serum B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) reduces binding of anti-BCMA antibody to multiple myeloma cells". Leukemia ... "A soluble form of B cell maturation antigen, a receptor for the tumor necrosis factor family member APRIL, inhibits tumor cell ... Shah N, Chari A, Scott E, Mezzi K, Usmani SZ (April 2020). "B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) in multiple myeloma: rationale for ...
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... affinity maturation, as well as formation of memory cells. Non-professional antigen presenting cells include all nucleated cell ... B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ... B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen bound by major histocompatibility complex ( ...
"The Fasciola hepatica Tegumental Antigen Suppresses Dendritic Cell Maturation and Function". Infection and Immunity. 77 (6): ... These cells are modified parenchyme cells. In F. hepatica, their role is to perform excretion, but more importantly, ... This means it is made from the fusion of many cells, each containing one nucleus, to produce a multinucleated cell membrane. In ... Instead, the nuclei are found in the cell bodies, also known as tegumental cells, these connect to the outer cytoplasm via thin ...
Mesenchymal stem cells can also stimulate the maturation of antigen presenting cells. Antigen presenting cells trigger the ... Mesenchymal stem cells are able to differentiate, or mature from a less specialized cell to a more specialized cell type, to ... In mesenchymal stem cell therapy, most of the cells are extracted from the adult patient's bone marrow Mesenchymal stem cells ... the cells will multiply and differentiate into specialized cells. The number of fully differentiated cells and their phenotype ...
Flores-Romo L (March 2001). "In vivo maturation and migration of dendritic cells". Immunology. 102 (3): 255-62. doi:10.1046/j. ... Because T cells recognize only fragmented antigens displayed on cell surfaces, antigen processing must occur before the antigen ... Antigens generated endogenously within these cells are bound to MHC-I molecules and presented on the cell surface. This antigen ... Large complexes of intact antigen are presented in lymph nodes to B cells by follicular dendritic cells in the form of immune ...
... and Class II Human leukocyte antigens. A subset of cells differentiates into Langerhans cells; this maturation occurs in the ... Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ... They express LCAs (leucocyte common antigens) CD45, CD14, CD33, and CD4 (also expressed by T helper cells). These histiocytes ... Phagocytosis is the main process of macrophages and antigen presentation the main property of dendritic cells (so called ...
... the maturation process is finalized and can leave to infect additional cells. A dipeptide of two lysine residues (dilysine) was ... Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid. Protease performs proteolytic cleavages during ... SFV can infect a wide range of cells, with in vitro experiments confirming that fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and neural cells ... Cells that expressed no signs of cytopathy from SFV were the Jurkat and Hut-78 T-cell lines. The phylogenetic tree analysis of ...
... is a bispecific B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed CD3 T-cell engager. Elranatamab is administered ... including immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity. The safety and effectiveness of elranatamab was evaluated in ...
... which include dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Immune complexes are better at inducing DC maturation than an antigen on ... B cells express B-cell receptors (BCRs) on their surfaces and antigen binding to these receptors begins a signaling cascade ... or cell death. After B cells are activated, they differentiate into plasma cells and cease to express BCR but continue to ... The bound antigen and antibody act as a unitary object, effectively an antigen of its own with a specific epitope. After an ...
"Control of transfer RNA maturation by phosphorylation of the human La antigen on serine 366". Molecular Cell. 6 (2): 339-48. ... Helsloot J, Sturgess A (December 1997). "T cell reactivity to Sjögren's syndrome related antigen La(SSB)". The Journal of ... Sjögren syndrome type B antigen (SS-B) also known as Lupus La protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSB gene. ... Sjögren syndrome antigen B has been shown to interact with nucleolin. La domain GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138385 - ...
It is a bispecific antibody that targets the CD3 receptor expressed on the surface of T-cells and B-cell maturation antigen ( ... Teclistamab is the first bispecific B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed CD3 T-cell engager. Teclistamab was approved for ... a type of white blood cell that fights infection), anemia (low levels of red blood cells or hemoglobin), pain in the muscles ... "U.S. FDA Approves Tecvayli (teclistamab-cqyv), the First Bispecific T-cell Engager Antibody for the Treatment of Patients with ...
Krangel MS, Orr HT, Strominger JL (December 1979). "Assembly and maturation of HLA-A and HLA-B antigens in vivo". Cell. 18 (4 ... CD8+ T cells cannot develop. (CD8+ T cells are a subset of T cells involved in the development of acquired immunity.)[citation ... MHC class I molecules have α1, α2, and α3 proteins which are present on all nucleated cells (excluding red blood cells). In ... "Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma cells SK-MEL-33 caused by a reading frameshift in beta 2-microglobulin ...
Cells in the lymphatic system react to antigens presented or found by the cells directly or by other dendritic cells. When an ... Bone marrow is responsible for both the creation of T cell precursors and the production and maturation of B cells, which are ... to produce immune cells to fight antigens to remove particulate matter and aged blood cells, mainly red blood cells to produce ... Mature T cells then join B cells in search of pathogens. The other 95% of T cells begin a process of apoptosis, a form of ...
A major step in affinity maturation, somatic hypermutation helps B cells produce antibodies with greater antigen affinity. ... from normal cell to cancer cell. Cells with heterozygous loss-of-function mutations (one good copy of a gene and one mutated ... The mutation rate in antigen-binding coding sequences of the immunoglobulin genes is up to 1,000,000 times higher than in cell ... If a mutation occurs in a cell of an organism, that mutation will be present in all the descendants of this cell within the ...
T-cells can be made non-responsive to antigens presented if the T-cell engages an MHC molecule on an antigen presenting cell ( ... Nonetheless, upon maturation (for example during the infection) DCs largely lose their tolerogenic capabilities. Aside from ... For example, tolerised T cells will not activate autoreactive B cells. Without this help from CD4 T cells, the B cells will not ... "Lymph node stromal cells acquire peptide-MHCII complexes from dendritic cells and induce antigen-specific CD4+ T cell tolerance ...
15 kDa plays other roles in immunological processes, such as in antigen-presenting cell maturation and in immune cell migration ... Its expression is restricted to cytotoxic immune cells such as cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Orthologs ... such as NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, and in higher concentrations, immature dendritic cells. The 9 kDa form ... Granulysin is expressed in killer cells, such as cytotoxic T cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells, which hold the cytotoxic ...
... is a B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed genetically modified autologous chimeric antigen receptor ... CAR) T-cell therapy. Each dose is customized using a patient's own T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell, that are ... "FDA Approves First Cell-Based Gene Therapy for Adult Patients with Multiple Myeloma". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ( ... It is the first cell-based gene therapy approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of multiple ...
B-cell maturation antigen)-directed genetically modified autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. Each dose ... low levels of lymphocytes or other white blood cells), anemia (low levels of red blood cells), thrombocytopenia (low levels of ... "Cellular Therapies - T cells-Ciltacabtagene autoleucel, cryopreserved-T-CARVYKTIJanssen-Cilag Pty LtdInjection, intravenous ... "U.S. FDA Approves Carvykti (ciltacabtagene autoleucel), Janssen's First Cell Therapy, a BCMA-Directed CAR-T Immunotherapy for ...
B-cell maturation antigen): Up regulation of anti-apoptotic genes prevents LLPC from undergoing programmed cell death. STAT3 ( ... B cells with higher affinity antibodies can take two paths: Plasma Cells: These B cells differentiate into plasma cells, which ... Memory B Cells: These B cells can become memory B cells without differentiating into plasma cells. They retain their original ... B cells undergo affinity maturation, which improves the strength of their antibodies' binding to a specific antigen. B cells, ...
T cells, B-cells and memory cells are stimulated upon encountering antigen in Peyer's patches. These cells then pass to the ... The maturation of B-lymphocytes takes place in the Peyer's patch. Although important in the immune response, excessive growth ... M cells) which sample antigen directly from the lumen and deliver it to antigen-presenting cells (located in a unique pocket- ... Among the mononuclear cells, CD4+/CD25+ (10%) cells and CD8+/CD25+ (5%) cells are more abundant in Peyer's patches than in the ...
Isotype expression reflects the maturation stage of a B cell. Naive B cells express IgM and IgD isotypes with unmutated ... and occurs after the B cell binds an antigen through its B cell receptor. Class-switching usually requires interaction with a T ... As IgM antibodies are expressed early in a B cell response, they are rarely highly mutated and have broad antigen reactivity ... IgM is first expressed as a monomer on the surface of immature B cells. Upon antigenic stimulation, IgM+ B cells secrete ...
"Native HIV-1 Tat protein targets monocyte-derived dendritic cells and enhances their maturation, function, and antigen-specific ... T regulatory cells (Treg cells) are present in two major populations: thymically induced and peripherally induced Treg cells. ... "A novel cell-surface molecule expressed by human interdigitating reticulum cells, Langerhans cells, and activated lymphocytes ... April 2013). "Multiple interferon regulatory factor and NF-κB sites cooperate in mediating cell-type- and maturation-specific ...
... is only expressed on the cell surface after T cell activation. When T cells are activated by Antigen Presenting Cells ( ... dendritic cell maturation, and promotion of B cell antibody secretion. As a T cell co-stimulator, T cell receptor (TCR) and ... natural killer cells, dendritic cells, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), and regulatory T cells) and non-immune cells (i.e. ... cell surfaces often lead to T cell proliferation as CD137 stimulation allows for the T cells to continue through the cell cycle ...
The protein functions through T-cell antigen receptor signaling, and is necessary for proper lineage commitment and maturation ... August 2009). "Themis controls thymocyte selection through regulation of T cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling". Nature ... This protein plays a regulatory role in both positive and negative T cell selection during late thymocyte development. ... August 2009). "Themis, a T cell-specific protein important for late thymocyte development". Nature Immunology. 10 (8): 840-847 ...
It is known to play an important role in the maturation of T cell populations through activation of antigen-presenting cells. ... stromal lymphopoietin converts human epidermal Langerhans cells into antigen-presenting cells that induce proallergic T cells ... dendritic cells. TSLP has also been shown to activate the maturation of a specific subset of dendritic cells located within the ... TSLP is produced mainly by non-hematopoietic cells such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells and different types of stromal or ...
Fcy receptor-mediated induction of dendritic cell maturation and major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted antigen ... and display antigens to T cells, as well as how this process is regulated by regulatory T cells. Guermonprez P, Saveanu L... ... Amigorena's research focuses on antigen presentation by dendritic cells. In particular, Amigorena's research group has studied ... Journal of Cell Biology. 147(3): pgs. 599-610 Zitvogel L, Regnault A... Amigorena S (1998). Eradication of established murine ...
... with each clone sharing the originally unique antigen specificity. Finally the dividing cells differentiate into effector cells ... Although commonly lymphoblast refers to a precursor cell in the maturation of leukocytes, the usage of this term is sometimes ... known as plasma cells (for B cells), cytotoxic T cells, and helper T cells. Lymphoblasts can also refer to immature cells which ... Blood cell lineage Acute lymphoblastic leukemia List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Janeway's Immunobiology, ...
"Peripheral B cell maturation. II. Heat-stable antigen(hi) splenic B cells are an immature developmental intermediate in the ... Allman, DM; Ferguson, SE; Cancro, MP (15 October 1992). "Peripheral B cell maturation. I. Immature peripheral B cells in adults ... Antigen-specific NK cell memory first reported by Ulrich von Andrian's group after discovery by Mahmoud Goodarzi 2010 - The ... Discovery of the T cell antigen receptor TCR (Ellis Reinherz) (Philippa Marrack) and (John Kappler) (James Allison) 1983 - ...
... a CAR-T Cell Therapy Directed Against B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA), in Patients with Relapsed and/or Refractory Multiple ... B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA or BCM), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17 (TNFRSF17), is a ... ALLO-715 is a CAR-T therapy by Allogene Therapeutics that targets B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA). As of June 2021[update], it ... January 2020). "Serum B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) Levels Differentiate Primary Antibody Deficiencies". The Journal of ...
B-Cell Maturation Antigen, BCMA, human. B-Cell Maturation Antigen, BCMA, human. £108.00. exc. VAT ... B-Cell Maturation Antigen, BCMA, human: BCMA, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, binds to BAFF and APRIL. BCMA is ... expressed on mature B-cells and other B-cell lines and plays an important role in B cell development, function and regulation. ...
... are specialized antigen-presenting cells that have a notable role in the initiation and regulation of innate and adaptive ... In the context of cancer, appropriately activated DCs can induce anti-tumor immunity by activating innate immune cells and ... Many reports thus far have studied oncolytic viruses (OVs), viruses that preferentially target and kill cancer cells, for their ... such as inefficient antigen presentation or polarization into immunosuppressive DCs. These tumor-associated DCs thus fail to ...
Global B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy Market 2022 by Company, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2028 ... 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy 1.2 Classification of B Cell Maturation Antigen ... gross margin and global market share of B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy from 2019 to 2022. Chapter 3, the B Cell ... The B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy market report provides a detailed analysis of global market size, regional and ...
In particular, B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family receptor (BAFF-R), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and ... participate prominently in B-cell maturation and function. ... B-Cell Maturation Antigen / genetics * B-Cell Maturation ... In particular, B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family receptor (BAFF-R), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and ... CD40 is also essential for directing the humoral response to T-cell-dependent antigens. Signaling by the TNFRSF is mediated ...
T cells expressing an anti-B-cell maturation antigen chimeric antigen receptor cause remissions of multiple myeloma. In: Blood ... T cells expressing an anti-B-cell maturation antigen chimeric antigen receptor cause remissions of multiple myeloma. Blood. ... T cells expressing an anti-B-cell maturation antigen chimeric antigen receptor cause remissions of multiple myeloma. / Ali, ... title = "T cells expressing an anti-B-cell maturation antigen chimeric antigen receptor cause remissions of multiple myeloma", ...
B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) targeting agent. Belantamab mafodotin-blmf (Blenrep) is classified as a BCMA (B-cell ... Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy involves versions of your immune T cells that have had their genes changed to ... CAR T stands for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. Doctors take some of your blood and remove the T cells, which ... The plasma cells crowd out regular blood cells in your bones. They also send out chemicals that trigger other cells to eat away ...
Clinical Update on B-Cell Maturation Antigen-Directed Therapies for Multiple Myeloma 1.0 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits Clinical ... Clinical Update on B-Cell Maturation Antigen-Directed Therapies for Multiple Myeloma ...
B-cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) Combinations in Multiple Myeloma. *SpringWorks continues to advance nirogacestat as a ... Patients continue to be enrolled in a Phase 2 trial evaluating nirogacestat in ovarian granulosa cell tumors. ...
A CAR T-cell therapy targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA). Apr 21, 2022 A few selected segments from a 6-minute animation ... CAR T cell animation, CAR T therapy, CAR T-cell animation, car-t cell therapy, chimeric antigen receptor, chimeric antigen ... sickle cell, sickle cell anemia, sickle cell awareness, sickle cell disease, sickle cell warrior, vascular, vaso-occlusion, ... Cytotoxic T cells targeting tumor cells , immunotherapy animation. May 03, 2022 A close-up fly-through of tumor cells, and the ...
Clinical Update on B-Cell Maturation Antigen-Directed Therapies for Multiple Myeloma 1.0 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits Clinical ... Clinical Update on B-Cell Maturation Antigen-Directed Therapies for Multiple Myeloma ...
Clinical Update on B-Cell Maturation Antigen-Directed Therapies for Multiple Myeloma 1.0 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits Clinical ... Clinical Update on B-Cell Maturation Antigen-Directed Therapies for Multiple Myeloma ... Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, Zimmerman B. Occult giant cell arteritis: ocular manifestations. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Apr. 125(4):521 ...
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) suppresses cellular immune response by modulating the function of T cells and antigen-presenting cells. ... Additionally, we described the interference of FMDV with DC maturation and antigen presentation capacity. Moreover, FMDV ... Technical Abstract: Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in the generation of primary T cell responses and the maintenance ... induces immunosuppression by producing IL-10 that reduces T cell function. This reduction of T cell activity may result in a ...
... or employ a dual targeting approach and adapter CARs in order to avoid therapy resistance caused by antigen loss. In this ... Lately, CAR-NK cell therapies have also come into focus as novel therapeutic options to address hurdles related to CAR-T cell ... Most CAR-T cell-based gene therapy products that are under clinical evaluation consist of autologous enriched T cells, whereas ... Currently, more than 500 CAR-T and 17 CAR-NK cell trials are being conducted worldwide including the four CAR-T cell products ...
Chromatin maturation factors, including DNMT1-UHRF1, EZH2 and HP1, use the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA; a DNA ... Single-cell Hi-C reveals cell-to-cell variability in chromosome structure. Nature 502, 59-64 (2013). Single-cell Hi-C analysis ... Low-cell and single-cell studies allow the investigation of individual germline cells, mature gametes, zygotes and early stages ... 2: Maintaining chromatin states through the cell cycle.. a, DNA replication during the S phase of the cell cycle is a challenge ...
Aug 2016 B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA): hot target for emerging treatment modalities 500.00 € ... Aug 2016 TCR & CAR Engineered T-Cell and NK Cell Therapeutics 2016: Convergence of technologies opens business opportunities ... Oct 2013 The Engineered T-Cell Receptor in Fusion Proteins, Antibodies & Cells: Emerging Opportunities for the ... Dec 2014 Recombinant Coagulation Factors 2015: Maturation of recombinant clotting factor pipeline and emergence of gene therapy ...
... as the first B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy for the treatment ... Abecma (idecabtagene vicleucel) is a B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed genetically modified autologous T cell ... 2.Cho, S.F., Anderson, K., Tai, Y.T. (2018). Targeting B Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) in Multiple Myeloma: Potential Uses of ... The rate of HLH/MAS was 8% in the 450 x 106 CAR+ T cell dose cohort and 1% in the 300 x 106 CAR+ T cell dose cohort. All events ...
27:13maturation antigen or BCM A has been. *27:15a critical target on myeloma cells. ... 43:08we know as a cell mod and this was looked ... 27:21cell products eye to cell and cell. *27:23to cell as well ... 27:10And as you all are familiar B cell. * ... 27:52new myeloma cell antigen targets.. *27:54And these include ...
Meanwhile, the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells was decreased. In the peripheral blood plasma, TGF-,i,&# ... and the percentage of regulatory T cells (LAP,sup,+,/sup, or Foxp3,sup,+,/sup,) in the spleen and peripheral blood was ... is driven by immune cells and cytokines. Recent evidence indicated that interleukin (IL)-27 showed pleiotropic properties in ... DC maturation is characterized by expansion of antigen-presenting molecules (such as MHC II, CD40, and CD86). DCs were stained ...
Further information: Somatic hypermutation and Affinity maturation. Following activation with antigen, B cells begin to ... This occurs before the antigen can stimulate maternal B cells to "remember" Rh antigen by generating memory B cells. Therefore ... is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this antigen on their red blood cells and ... B cell activation follows engagement of the cell-bound antibody molecule with an antigen, causing the cell to divide and ...
They act as antigen-presenting and opsonin-producing cells.. Respiratory dendritic cells undergo maturation, activation, and ... They act as antigen-presenting cells and are involved in the activation and differentiation of CD8+ T cells. ... They are resting memory cells formed after a previous encounter with the antigen, or they are acutely activated T cells after a ... Phagocytic cells consist of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells; alveolar, interstitial, and intravascular macrophages; and ...
B cell maturation antigen; BTK: Bruton tyrosine kinase; BCR: B cell receptor; ICOS: inducible T cell costimulator) ... B-cell maturation antigen" [BCMA], „transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating ligand interactor" [TACI] und BAFF-Rezeptor ... Cell Stem Cell 24(2):309-317. e307. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​stem.​2018.​12.​003CrossRefPubMed ... BAFF: B cell-activating factor; BAFFR: B cell-activating factor receptor; APRIL: a proliferation-induced ligand; TACI: ...
During the migration, DCs undergo a process of maturation; in essence, they lose most of their ability to further swallow ... Template:Seealso An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen complexed with MHC ... Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells.. WikiDoc Resources for ... There are three main types of professional antigen-presenting cells: *Dendritic cells, which have the broadest range of antigen ...
The tissue environment shapes the lipid recognition capacity of natural killer T cells. ... 2005) The influence of CD1d in Postselection NKT cell maturation and homeostasis The Journal of Immunology 175:3762-3768. ... iNKT cell populations dont fully overlap and while Rag2GFP+ NKT cells are enriched for CCR7+ cells, not all CCR7+ NKT cells ... A semi-invariant vα10+ T cell antigen receptor defines a population of natural killer T cells with distinct glycolipid antigen- ...
... or B cell maturation antigen. These updated results from the phase I show, for the first time, the safety and efficacy of the ... 22, 2023 A dendritic cell vaccine administered before and after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) was safe and immunogenic ... Teclistamab is a bispecific antibody that activates T cells to attack multiple myeloma cells expressing BCMA, ... which genetically engineer a patients T cells to find and destroy cancer cells," Garfall said. "Except, this is jumpstarting ...
Dendritic cells offer promise in the development of cancer vaccines. Despite recent approval of Provenge, this therapeutic ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells known; owing to their ability to stimulate antigen-specific ... which renders activated T-cells susceptible to apoptosis. Thus, DCs acquire a continuously changing activation/maturation ... Dendritic cell-based vaccines, by contrast, have shown great promise for inducing antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses. ...
AFM-13is under clinical development by Affimed and currently in Phase II for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas (PTCL). ... targeting B-cell maturation antigen to treat multiple myeloma. It generates multi-specific antibodies to kill tumor cells and ... peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma, B-cell non-Hodgkin ... The company is investigating AFM13, an innate cell engager, for the treatment of Peripheral T cell lymphoma, transformed ...
Engagement of TLRs promotes DC maturation and migration to lymph nodes, where these cells activate antigen-specific T cells (11 ... CD8+ T cell immunity against a tumor/self-antigen is augmented by CD4+ T helper cells and hindered by naturally occurring T ... Dendritic cells produce IL-12 and direct the development of Th1 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. J. Immunol. 154:5071-5079. View ... The TLR-7 agonist, imiquimod, enhances dendritic cell survival and promotes tumor antigen-specific T cell priming: relation to ...
... had prior exposure to therapy targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA).. Neutropenia and infection occurred in most patients ... such as bispecific antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor T cells," he noted. "Because mezigdomide bears the same ... "Although mezigdomide is active in cells with low levels of cereblon, it cannot work in the complete absence of cereblon or ... In vitro studies showed the mezigdomide-induced degradation of the two factors enhanced cytotoxic effects in myeloma cells, ...
Cella M, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A (1997b). Origin, maturation and antigen presenting function of dendritic cells. Curr Opin ... Albert ML, Sauter B, Bhardwaj N (1998b). Dendritic cells acquire antigen from apoptotic cells and induce class I-restricted ... Vaccination of patients with B-cell lymphoma using autologous antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. Nat Med 2(1):52-8. ... Maturation and trafficking of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in monkeys: implications for dendritic cell-based vaccines. J ...
  • B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA or BCM), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17 (TNFRSF17), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF17 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum B-cell maturation antigen (sBCMA) is the cleaved form of BCMA, found at low levels in the serum of normal patients and generally elevated in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Phase 1b/2 study of JNJ-4528, a CAR-T cell therapy directed against BCMA in myeloma patients refractory to a proteasome inhibitor or immunomodulatory drug, and who had received an anti-CD38 antibody has been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALLO-715 is a CAR-T therapy by Allogene Therapeutics that targets B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA). (wikipedia.org)
  • B-Cell Maturation Antigen, BCMA, human: BCMA, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, binds to BAFF and APRIL. (nbsbio.co.uk)
  • BCMA is expressed on mature B-cells and other B-cell lines and plays an important role in B cell development, function and regulation. (nbsbio.co.uk)
  • In particular, B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family receptor (BAFF-R), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) play critical roles in promoting B-cell survival at distinct stages of development by engaging a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and/or BAFF. (nih.gov)
  • Therapies with novel mechanisms of action are needed for multiple myeloma (MM). B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is expressed in most cases of MM. We conducted the first-inhumans clinical trial of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting BCMA. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • T cells expressing the CAR used in this work (CAR-BCMA) specifically recognized BCMAexpressing cells. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Our findings demonstrate antimyeloma activity of CAR-BCMA T cells. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • A few selected segments from a 6-minute animation created for a first-in-class B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed personalized immunotherapy called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. (hybridmedicalanimation.com)
  • In this CAR T therapy, the T cells are engineered to target a protein called BCMA, which is found in abundance on multiple myeloma cells, but is absent from nearly all normal cells. (hybridmedicalanimation.com)
  • ide-cel) as the first B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma after four or more prior lines of therapy, including an immunomodulatory agent, a proteasome inhibitor, and an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody. (drugs.com)
  • 1 As an anti-BCMA CAR T cell therapy, Abecma recognizes and binds to BCMA, a protein that is nearly universally expressed on cancer cells in multiple myeloma, leading to the death of BCMA-expressing cells. (drugs.com)
  • Bristol Myers Squibb is now the only company with two approved CAR T cell therapies with distinct targets of CD19 and BCMA. (drugs.com)
  • Now, with the approval of ide-celas the first anti-BCMA CAR T cell therapy, we are excited to finally be able to offer patients a new, effective personalized treatment option that is delivered through a single infusion. (drugs.com)
  • GPRC5D expression on CD138 cells is independent of B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) expression and showed a membranous pattern. (bharatbook.com)
  • A reservoir of multiple myeloma cells lacking sufficient BCMA surface expression (antigen escape) may be implicated in relapse. (bharatbook.com)
  • Its FT576, is an iPSC-derived, B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-targeted CAR NK cell product candidate for the treatment of multiple myeloma. (stockhouse.com)
  • Chanan-Khan noted that there are at least four ongoing trials with CAR T targeting either the B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) alone or in combination with an anti-CD19 CAR T, immune checkpoint inhibitors, or with bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with multiple myeloma who relapse after treatment with B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy can be salvaged with multiple lines of therapy, a retrospective study suggested. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This suggests that for eligible patients that progress after BCMA-directed CAR T, additional T-cell-engaging therapies contribute meaningfully to survival and that T-cell activation is feasible down the line," Parekh and team wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In explaining the rationale for the study, Parekh and colleagues noted that while the use of BCMA-directed CAR T-cell therapies in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma have demonstrated high response rates, optimal treatment regimens have yet to be defined for patients who relapse. (medpagetoday.com)
  • From March 2017 to January 2022, 140 patients with multiple myeloma were treated with a BCMA-directed CAR T-cell therapy on a clinical trial at either the Mount Sinai Tisch Cancer Institute or Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A Phase 1b-2, open-label study of JNJ-68284528, a Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy directed against BCMA in subjets with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. (biosafety.be)
  • TNFRSF17 is a cell surface receptor of the TNF receptor superfamily which recognizes B-cell activating factor (BAFF). (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor is preferentially expressed in mature B lymphocytes, and may be important for B cell development and autoimmune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor also binds to various TRAF family members, and thus may transduce signals for cell survival and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) participate prominently in B-cell maturation and function. (nih.gov)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies are on the verge of becoming powerful immunotherapeutic tools for combating hematological diseases confronted with pressing medical needs. (nature.com)
  • Classical " CARs consist of an extracellular binding domain mostly derived from a monoclonal antibody fragment (single-chain variable fragment-scFv), which is linked to intracellular binding domains of the T-cell receptor complex. (nature.com)
  • T-cells may recognize this complex using their T-cell receptor (TCR). (wikidoc.org)
  • These professional APCs are very efficient at internalizing antigen, either by phagocytosis or by receptor-mediated endocytosis , and then displaying a fragment of the antigen, bound to a class II MHC molecule, on their membrane. (wikidoc.org)
  • By analysing iNKT cells from lymphoid tissues of mice and humans we demonstrate that their T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is highly diverse and is distinct for cells from various tissues resulting in differential lipid-antigen recognition. (elifesciences.org)
  • The Company is advancing a pipeline of iPSC-derived, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-targeted natural killer (NK) and T-cell product candidates. (stockhouse.com)
  • The CD45 isoforms play complex roles in T-cell and B-cell antigen receptor signal transduction. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an example of how immunotherapy is revolutionizing the treatment of hematologic malignancies with unprecedented response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (ajmc.com)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is designed to enhance the body's immune system to effectively kill malignant cells. (ajmc.com)
  • In this context, a new molecule, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), has emerged as a positive regulator of B cell survival and differentiation functioning through various signaling pathways and potentiating the activity of various receptor complexes through pleiotropic means. (medsci.org)
  • Now we have game-changing T-cell-redirecting therapies, such as CAR [chimeric antigen receptor] T-cell therapies and bispecific antibodies," he explained. (onclive.com)
  • New results show that such patients benefit from treatment with the chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) construct ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel) (Carvykti). (medscape.com)
  • Further, B cell antigen receptor (BCR) activation induced proteomic changes were studied in anti-IgM stimulated Ramos B cells in a long time series. (lu.se)
  • This receptor spans the cell membrane, which allows it to attach (bind) to other proteins, called ligands, outside the cell and send signals inside the cell that help the cell respond to its environment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tomida M. Structural and functional studies on the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIF-R): gene and soluble form of LIF-R, and cytoplasmic domain of LIF-R required for differentiation and growth arrest of myeloid leukemic cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this review, we present a current understanding of the functions of and distinctions between APRIL/BAFF signaling by their respective receptors expressed on particular B-cell subsets. (nih.gov)
  • One way to achieve this is to genetically modify immune cells, mainly T cells and recently also natural killer (NK) cells, to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). (nature.com)
  • Initially, all antibodies are of the first form, attached to the surface of a B cell - these are then referred to as B-cell receptors (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably, [1] though the term 'antibody' is sometimes reserved for the secreted, soluble form, i.e. excluding B-cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 The interaction of IVIG with a large number of components of the immune system including Fc receptors, complement molecules, cytokines, B and T lymphocytes, neutrophils and NK cells, may explain at least in part their anti-inflammatory effects. (academie-medecine.fr)
  • LECs can modulate dendritic cell function, present antigens to T cells on MHC class I and MHC class II molecules, and express immunomodulatory cytokines and receptors, which suggests that their roles in adaptive immunity are far more extensive than previously realized. (jci.org)
  • NK cell activation and the triggering of effector functions is governed by a complex set of activating and inhibitory receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we review tumor-NK cell interactions, discuss the mechanisms by which NK cells generate an antitumor immune response, and discuss NK cell-based therapeutic strategies targeting activating, inhibitory, and co-stimulatory receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, CD56 dim NK cells can produce cytokines, specifically IFN-γ, after cell triggering via NKp46 of NKp30 activating receptors or after stimulation with combinations of IL-2, IL-12, and IL-15 ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The constant region at the carboxyl-terminal end of the heavy chain, called the Fc region, binds to the Fc receptors of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells, and the natural killer (NK) cells. (medscape.com)
  • The integration of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from microorganisms with their surface receptors in the immune cells, induces the production of several cytokines and chemokines that presents either a pro- and/or anti-inflammatory role by stimulating the secretion of a great variety of antibody subtypes and the activation of mechanisms of controlling the disease, such as the regulatory T cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Atherosclerosis, which is characterized by chronic inflammation in the arterial wall, is driven by immune cells and cytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • This suggests that unique tissue-specific factors (including local lipid antigens, cytokines and/or hormones) may shape the population of iNKT cells resident in those tissues, ultimately regulating local immune responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • Les IgIV intéragissent avec de nombreux composants du système immunitaire comme les récepteurs Fc, le complément, les cytokines, les lymphocytes T et B, les cellules dendritiques, les granulocytes et les cellules NK, ce qui explique en partie leurs effets anti-inflammatoires. (academie-medecine.fr)
  • Thus, blockade of activating FcγR inhibits binding of opsonized antigens, induction of effector functions and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages, and degranulation of granulocytes. (academie-medecine.fr)
  • In conditions such as like ITP that is autoantibody-mediated, IVIG Fc fragmentmediated competitive blockade of activating FcγR might inhibit: binding of opsonized antigens, induction of effector functions and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages, and degranulation of granulocytes [1, 12]. (academie-medecine.fr)
  • LECs are presumably the first cells that come into direct contact with peripheral antigens, cytokines, danger signals, and immune cells travelling from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes. (jci.org)
  • These cytokines are used in the immune system for cell-to-cell communication. (oncolink.org)
  • Cytokines, cancer vaccines, adoptive cell transfers, and especially checkpoint inhibitors constitute valuable elements in the immunotherapeutic armamentarium. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lesions are caused by bone replacement by expanding plasmacytomas or by cytokines that are secreted by malignant plasma cells that activate osteoclasts and suppress osteoblasts, leading to bone loss. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Starting from the zygotic genome, stage- and cell-type-specific transcription factors initiate regulatory cascades that induce cell differentiation. (nature.com)
  • Altered epigenomes can lead to changes in programmed cell differentiation or, when accidental, to disease (bottom right). (nature.com)
  • IL-6 is involved in the acute phase response, B cell maturation, and macrophage differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • IL-6 activates transcription mediated by nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) leading to production of IL-4 by nai;ve CD4(+) T cells and their differentiation into effector Th2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • IL-6 inhibits Th1 differentiation by upregulating supressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 expression to interfere with IFNgamma signaling and the development of Th1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • This myeloid differentiation antigen is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein expressed on granulocytes and macrophages. (biolegend.com)
  • LIFR signaling can control several cellular processes, including growth and division (proliferation), maturation (differentiation), and survival. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A type of white blood cell called a plasma cell makes antibodies that fight infections in your body. (webmd.com)
  • In this sequence, monoclonal antibodies are seen targeting CD38, a protein commonly expressed on the surface of cancerous plasma cells. (hybridmedicalanimation.com)
  • Together with B and T cells , antibodies comprise the most important part of the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • After an antigen binds to a BCR, the B cell activates to proliferate and differentiate into either plasma cells , which secrete soluble antibodies with the same paratope, or memory B cells , which survive in the body to enable long-lasting immunity to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It generates multi-specific antibodies to kill tumor cells and treat cancers through its ROCK platform technology. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • FcRn expressed in endosomal compartment of intestinal epithelium, vascular endothelium and macrophages regulates the serum IgG levels by binding to the pinocytosed antibodies and recirculating them to cell surface without intracellular degradation. (academie-medecine.fr)
  • The adaptive immune system, discovered by Paul Ehrlich, involves the production of circulating antibodies that can provide long lasting, systemic immunity that is specific to antigens expressed by a given pathogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cellular response is mainly a lymphocyte-mediated reaction, whereas the humoral response includes production of antibodies against the antigen by the plasma cells. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulins (Igs), the term is sometimes used interchangeably with "antibodies," are glycoprotein molecules produced by B lymphocytes and plasma cells in response to an immunogen or after recognition of specific epitopes on the antigen. (medscape.com)
  • The antibodies then specifically bind to only those particular antigens. (medscape.com)
  • Antibodies can be found on the surface of lymphocytes as an integral part of the cell membrane protein or can be freely circulating in the blood or be part of one of the body's gland secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Dysregulated signaling by TNFRSF members can promote B-cell survival and proliferation, causing autoimmunity and neoplasia. (nih.gov)
  • Meanwhile IL-27 exerts proinflammatory effects by promoting Th1, CD8, natural killer (NK), T follicular helper (Tfh), and B cell proliferation/functions and by inhibiting Treg and Th2 cell generation in parasites infection [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Consistent with this, iNKT cells from different organs show distinct basal activation, proliferation and clonal expansion. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, as tumors progress, cancerous cells develop immunosuppressive mechanisms that circumvent NK cell-mediated killing, allowing for tumor escape and proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to its role in proliferation and maturation of keratinocytes, vitamin D has become an important local therapeutic option in the treatment of psoriasis. (springer.com)
  • Local inflammatory response in vivo was accompanied by modified systemic immunity as documented by decreased proliferation of splenic T cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we demonstrate that co-culturing of T cells with SWCNT- exposed DC suppressed the T cell proliferation response upon re-stimulation with freshly generated, unexposed DC. (cdc.gov)
  • When LPS-exposed DC were mixed with T cells we observed facilitated T cell proliferation. (cdc.gov)
  • Indeed, when T cells were mixed with LPS+SWCNT treated DC we observed decreased proliferation. (cdc.gov)
  • Overview of Plasma Cell Disorders Plasma cell disorders are a diverse group of disorders of unknown etiology characterized by Disproportionate proliferation of a single clone of B cells Presence of a structurally and electrophoretically. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This is when your plasma cells make too many copies of one antibody. (webmd.com)
  • Sequence from 5-minute MOA that provides insight and details for a monoclonal antibody (mAb) designed to induce programmed tumor cell death (apoptosis) and immunomodulatory activity. (hybridmedicalanimation.com)
  • In vitro blockade of IL-10 with a neutralizing antibody restores T cell activation by DC. (usda.gov)
  • This reduction of T cell activity may result in a more potent induction of neutralizing antibody responses, clearing the viral infection. (usda.gov)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize it directly (for example, by blocking a part of a virus that is essential for its invasion). (wikipedia.org)
  • To allow the immune system to recognize millions of different antigens, the antigen-binding sites at both tips of the antibody come in an equally wide variety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The class hence determines the function triggered by an antibody after binding to an antigen, in addition to some structural features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally an antibody is also partitioned into two antigen-binding fragments (Fab), containing one V L , V H , C L , and C H 1 domain each, as well as the crystallisable fragment (Fc), forming the trunk of the Y shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cells , which express antibody, can very efficiently present the antigen to which their antibody is directed, but are inefficient APC for most other antigens. (wikidoc.org)
  • The 104 antibody has been reported to inhibit some responses of B cells, from mice expressing the CD45.2 alloantigen, to certain antigens and LPS. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • In fact, this type of antigen was the target of the first monoclonal antibody therapy for a malignancy (B-cell lymphoma) in 1982. (oncolink.org)
  • We now understand that adaptive immunity is the purview of a second set of leukocytes, T and B lymphocytes, which are responsible not only for antibody production but also for the generation of T cells that can directly identify and kill host cells infected by pathogens (e.g., viruses). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Of note, patients who received a T-cell-engaging therapy (a bispecific antibody or subsequent CAR T-cell therapy) had the greatest success in this setting, with OS not reached after a median follow-up of 21.3 months, they noted in Blood . (medpagetoday.com)
  • They had received a median of five previous treatment lines (including autologous stem cell transplant in 94.9% of patients), and most (83.5%) were triple class-refractory (refractory to ≥1 immunomodulatory drug, ≥1 proteasome inhibitor, and ≥1 anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody). (medpagetoday.com)
  • Physical 'strength' of the multi-protein chain connecting immune cells: Does the weakest link limit antibody affinity maturation? (bvsalud.org)
  • The weakest link in the multi-protein chain facilitating antigen acquisition by B cells in germinal centres limits antibody affinity maturation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antibody- and T-cell-based approaches to targeting of B-cell maturation antigen have shown efficacy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Variable region constitutes the antibody binding region of the molecule to the different antigens as it consists of about 110 amino acids that vary widely among the different antibody molecules. (medscape.com)
  • In the context of cancer, appropriately activated DCs can induce anti-tumor immunity by activating innate immune cells and tumor-specific lymphocytes that target cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • IL-27 binds to IL-27ra and gp-130 complex, which is expressed on multiple cell types, including T lymphocytes [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident lymphocytes, including lipid-reactive invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Immature dendritic cells phagocytose apoptotic cells via alphavbeta5 and CD36, and cross-present antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (nwbio.com)
  • One of the research areas at the MDC is immunology and inflammation, which covers tumor immunology, DNA repair in B lymphocytes, the role of tumor stroma-immune cell interaction in cancers, the role of innate immune cells in gliomas and neurodegenerative diseases, and the development of immunotherapy strategies. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • First described in 1975, NK cells were initially identified as a distinct sub-population of lymphocytes by their capacity to spontaneously lyse tumor cells ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, we propose a new mechanism of virus immunity in which a non-persistent virus (FMDV) induces immunosuppression by producing IL-10 that reduces T cell function. (usda.gov)
  • Since iNKT cell activation can prevent or promote immunopathology in diverse disease contexts, the strict control of peripheral iNKT cell homeostasis is vital to regulate local immunity. (elifesciences.org)
  • Beyond the common features shared by all iNKT cells (including their CD1-restriction and innate-like properties), cells found in discrete tissues have distinct phenotypes and functions that critically modulate the outcome of immunity ( Crosby and Kronenberg, 2018 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Immature Myeloid Gr-1+ cells play a role in the development of antitumor immunity. (biolegend.com)
  • Understanding the paradoxical importance of dendritic cells in immunity and tolerance will inform the development of successful cancer immunotherapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To assess if DC could be responsible for modulation of systemic immunity in SWCNT-treated mice, we evaluated the ability of SWCNT-exposed DC to alter T cell responses in vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • The cells that have the inherent property of innate and adaptive immunity within the body are present at different sites including the blood, lymphatic system (lymph, lymphoid nodules and lymphoid organs), epithelium, and connective tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Epigenetic components (for example, Polycomb PRC1/2 and Trithorax group proteins) maintain the 'off' states of certain genes and the 'on' states of others, in a cell-type- and time-specific manner (the bottom panels show three genes, depicted schematically as chromatinized templates, in which transcription is triggered by specific transcription factors and silent or active states are maintained by PRC1/2 or Trithorax proteins, respectively). (nature.com)
  • One insight is the identification of tumor antigens (small proteins recognized as "foreign" by the immune system) that stimulate the T-cells of the immune system. (oncolink.org)
  • At each maturation stage, expression of proteins affects the commitment to move to the next stage. (lu.se)
  • Defects in genes and proteins important for B cell maturation block the maturation on certain stage and cause primary immunodeficiencies ( IDbase ). (lu.se)
  • These may be different molecules within the cells like proteins, polysaccharides, or nucleoproteins and may also be the whole cell, like a tumor cell or organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or agents containing genetic material such as nucleic acids or lipids. (medscape.com)
  • This review summarizes some immunological factors involved in the development and control of this oral disease, such as: the participation of inflammatory cells in local inflammation, the synthesis of chemotaxis proteins with activation of the complement system and a range of antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins, cathelicidin and saposins. (bvsalud.org)
  • Patients continue to be enrolled in a Phase 2 trial evaluating nirogacestat in ovarian granulosa cell tumors. (biospace.com)
  • Babatz J, Röllig C, Löbel B, Folprecht G, Haack M, Günther H, Köhne CH, Ehninger G, Schmitz M, Bornhäuser M. Induction of cellular immune responses against carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with metastatic tumors after vaccination with altered peptide ligand-loaded dendritic cells. (nwbio.com)
  • There is compelling clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in the recognition and eradication of tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, a class of important immune-modulators is conspicuously absent: agents that utilize the power of innate immune cells to eradicate tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • The observations of the accumulation in spleens and tumors of large numbers of these cells with potent immune-suppressive activity were readily reproducible in most murine tumor models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lately, CAR-NK cell therapies have also come into focus as novel therapeutic options to address hurdles related to CAR-T cell therapies, such as therapy-induced side effects. (nature.com)
  • In this review, we are going to take a closer look at the commercial CAR-T cell therapies, as well as on CAR-T and CAR-NK cell products, which are currently under evaluation in clinical trials, that are being conducted in Germany. (nature.com)
  • CAR T cell therapies have shown transformational potential for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, and we, with our partners at bluebird bio, are proud to bring the first CAR T cell therapy to appropriate triple-class exposed patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, offering the chance for durable response," said Samit Hirawat, M.D., chief medical officer, Bristol Myers Squibb. (drugs.com)
  • As our second FDA-approved CAR T cell therapy, Abecma underscores our commitment to deliver on the promise of cell therapies for patients who are battling aggressive and advanced blood cancers with limited effective treatment options. (drugs.com)
  • While effective, broad use of CAR T-cell therapies is limited by potential for life-threatening toxicities, challenges related to manufacturing a patient-specific product, high costs and inadequate reimbursement, and incomplete or unsustained disease response. (ajmc.com)
  • Managed care professionals should have an understanding of the clinical trial data and place in therapy in lymphoma, myeloma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia as well as guideline recommendations for adverse effect management associated with CAR T-cell therapies. (ajmc.com)
  • CAR T-cell therapies are limited by the potential to cause life-threatening toxicities, including cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). (ajmc.com)
  • How can our knowledge of the immune system be applied to develop innovative therapies, including the identification of novel antigens for immune therapies and gene repair strategies in monogenic immune diseases? (mdc-berlin.de)
  • After his disease went into remission again, this patient has now received 2 different T-cell-redirection therapies when those remissions ended. (onclive.com)
  • T-cell-redirection therapies are now giving anywhere from 60% to 100% response rates that are lasting upward of 9 months to we don't even know how long, because they're so durable. (onclive.com)
  • Über Zwischenschritte führt dies zu einer Induktion der Transkriptionsfaktoren „nuclear factor-kappa of B cells" (NF-κB) und „activator protein-1" (AP-1) und einer konsekutiven Expression pro-inflammatorischer Zytokine (Abb. (springermedizin.de)
  • The recent FDA approvals of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-targeted checkpoint inhibitors pembrolizumab and nivolumab mark the latest successes in the rapidly expanding field of cancer immunotherapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (rndsystems.com)
  • The GMO MVA-HBV is a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector (MVA) encoding a fusion of sequences derived from two hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein antigens. (biosafety.be)
  • Diagnosis typically requires demonstration of M-protein (sometimes present in urine and not serum but rarely absent entirely) and/or light-chain proteinuria, and excessive plasma cells in the bone marrow. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In 15 to 20% of patients, plasma cells secrete only Bence Jones protein. (msdmanuals.com)
  • B cell protein samples labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 and separated in nonlinear pH gradient 3-10. (lu.se)
  • Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) based proteomics was used to study differential protein abundance in various B cell types during B cell maturation (cell lines are listed in Supplementary Table 1 ). (lu.se)
  • A total of 2063 protein spots across eight human B cell lines were clustered on the basis of the relative protein abundance ( Supplementary Figure 1 and S2). (lu.se)
  • Elevated programmed cell death-1 protein/ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) and variants are associated with susceptibility to multiple myeloma: a case-control study in the Chinese cohort. (cdc.gov)
  • For this mechanism of action video, our task was to create a science story that would depict several key features: how the mAb finds and binds to myeloma cells and exposes them for elimination, how it boosts cells of the immune system, and how this targeted immunotherapy can kill myeloma cells directly. (hybridmedicalanimation.com)
  • Abecma will be manufactured for each individual patient using the patient's own T cells at Bristol Myers Squibb's state-of-the-art cellular immunotherapy manufacturing facility in Summit, New Jersey. (drugs.com)
  • Dendritic cell immunotherapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: University of Tokyo experience. (nwbio.com)
  • Large-scale immunomagnetic selection of CD14+ monocytes to generate dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy: a phase I study. (nwbio.com)
  • Active immunotherapy against cancer is less effective, mainly because cancer cells have developed strategies to escape the normal immune response. (oncolink.org)
  • instead of targeting tumor cells, the goal of immunotherapy is to augment and expand the immune system's intrinsic antitumor response. (frontiersin.org)
  • In certain lymphomas, the immunoglobulin antigen that the lymphoid cell is supposed to be producing becomes mutated, and hence a potential target for vaccines. (oncolink.org)
  • Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells that produce monoclonal immunoglobulin and invade and destroy adjacent bone tissue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Upon completion of this activity, the participant should understand the critical roles of dendritic cells in guiding host immune responses, and the details of how they mature, process, and present antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been reported that IL-27 performs an anti-inflammatory function by acting on conventional CD4 + T cells to induce IL-10-producing cells that are implicated in controlling inflammatory responses [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Dendritic cells acquire antigen from apoptotic cells and induce class I-restricted CTLs. (nwbio.com)
  • Co-stimulatory molecules are presenting along with the antigen by APCs to induce an aggressive response by the T-cells. (oncolink.org)
  • Carbon nanotube s induce immune suppression via direct effects on dendritic cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Rather than attempting to determine the exact antigen on the cancer cells themselves, an alternative approach has been to isolate and to study the immunogobulins that our bodies have produced in recognition of these foreign antigens. (oncolink.org)
  • These cells, such as dendritic cells, process foreign antigens and then present them to T-cells, causing their intense activation. (oncolink.org)
  • Importantly, DCs also help guide the immune system to respond to foreign antigens while avoiding the generation of autoimmune responses to self. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cells of this cancer have features of plasma cells as well as lymphoid tissue. (webmd.com)
  • The lymphatic vessels and secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are arranged in a manner that optimizes interactions among antigens, APCs, and innate and adaptive effector cells. (jci.org)
  • According to our (Global Info Research) latest study, due to COVID-19 pandemic, the global B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy market size is estimated to be worth US$ million in 2021 and is forecast to a readjusted size of USD million by 2028 with a CAGR of % during forecast period 2022-2028. (market.biz)
  • Hospitals accounting for % of the B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy global market in 2021, is projected to value USD million by 2028, growing at a % CAGR in next six years. (market.biz)
  • CAR-expression on T or NK cells allows them to specifically target cancer cells via recognition of tumor associated antigens. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, the so-called adapter CARs have been developed by splitting antigen recognition and CAR-immune cell activation. (nature.com)
  • Despite this prototypical TCR repertoire gene usage, in recent years it has become apparent that there are variations within the iNKT cell repertoire that ultimately impact the antigen recognition capacity and consequently the functional outcomes during an immune response. (elifesciences.org)
  • CD207 (Langerin) is an antigen described as selectively expressed by Langerhans cells (LC), a subset of immature dendritic cells (DC) formed in epidermis and mucosa. (beckman.com)
  • Immunologists recognized the importance of lymphatic vessels as channels for leukocyte trafficking from peripheral sites to their draining LNs ( 4 - 6 ), and as conduits for soluble antigens that can be taken up directly by LN-resident B cells and immature DCs ( 7 - 10 ), which help regulate the kinetics of antigen presentation. (jci.org)
  • In fact, immature dendritic cells can actually cause the suppression of responses to antigen. (oncolink.org)
  • Mononuclear myeloid cells include terminally differentiated macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), as well as monocytes, which under inflammatory conditions differentiate in tissues to macrophages and DCs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Histologically, the dermatosis is characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, impaired epidermal barrier function at the sites of skin lesions, and skin infiltration by activated inflammatory cells [ 5 ]. (springer.com)
  • Market segmentation B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy market is split by Treatment Method and by Application. (market.biz)
  • Chapter 2, to profile the top players of B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy, with revenue, gross margin and global market share of B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy from 2019 to 2022. (market.biz)
  • Chapter 3, the B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy competitive situation, revenue and global market share of top players are analyzed emphatically by landscape contrast. (market.biz)
  • Chapter 11 and 12, to describe B Cell Maturation Antigen Targeted Therapy research findings and conclusion, appendix and data source. (market.biz)
  • Most CAR-T cell-based gene therapy products that are under clinical evaluation consist of autologous enriched T cells, whereas CAR-NK cell-based approaches can be generated from allogeneic donors. (nature.com)
  • Besides modification based on a second-generation CAR, more advanced CAR-immune cell therapeutics are being tested, which utilize precise insertion of genes to circumvent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) or employ a dual targeting approach and adapter CARs in order to avoid therapy resistance caused by antigen loss. (nature.com)
  • The addition of separate adapter molecules (AMs) specific for tumor antigens and CAR-immune cells targeting these AMs allows a more precise and temporally limited therapy. (nature.com)
  • Thereby, several antigens can be targeted at once and the therapy can be adapted in case antigen-loss tumor variants appear. (nature.com)
  • An autologous CAR-T or NK cell therapy comprises several steps as shown in Fig. 1 . (nature.com)
  • Abecma is a personalized immune cell therapy approved as a one-time infusion with a recommended dose range of 300 to 460 x 10 6 CAR-positive T cells. (drugs.com)
  • Its FT819, is an iPSC-derived CAR T-cell therapy candidate, which is in Phase I study for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed / refractory B-cell malignancies, including B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (stockhouse.com)
  • The process for administering CAR T-cell therapy is complex, with multiple steps including CAR T-cell manufacturing, lymphodepleting chemotherapy, cellular therapy infusion, and management of short-term and long-term toxicities. (ajmc.com)
  • Pharmacists are intricately involved in the process of providing CAR T-cell therapy both at the organizational level of budgeting and coordinating therapy and in direct patient care roles providing counseling and support for adverse effect management. (ajmc.com)
  • Research in CAR T-cell therapy is expected to improve tolerability and expand indications to more types of malignancies and earlier phases of disease. (ajmc.com)
  • 1 CAR T-cell therapy pivotal trials demonstrated unprecedented overall response rates (ORRs) and complete responses (CRs) that led to the FDA approval of 5 CAR T-cell products: tisagenlecleucel (tisa-cel), axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), lisocabtagene maraleucel (liso-cel), brexucabtagene autoleucel (brexu-cel), and idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel). (ajmc.com)
  • In addition, challenges related to manufacturing a patient-specific product, need for inpatient administration in a tertiary care setting, high costs and inadequate reimbursement have limited access to CAR T-cell therapy. (ajmc.com)
  • 2,3 Cellular therapy centers, manufacturers, payers, and policy makers will need to work together to address barriers to care as new CAR T-cell products with improved efficacy and tolerability are approved for use in more diverse malignancies. (ajmc.com)
  • Among 79 patients who were given a total of 237 salvage treatments, median overall survival (OS) from the date of relapse post-CAR T-cell therapy was 17.9 months (95% CI 14.0 to not estimable [NE]), reported Samir Parekh, MD, of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, and colleagues. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The 13 patients who received a T-cell-engaging therapy immediately after relapse on CAR T had an ORR of 75.0% and a median PFS of 9.1 months. (medpagetoday.com)
  • They also noted that transplant-based approaches were effective in the post-CAR T-cell therapy setting. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The 79 patients included in this analysis had a median age of 60 years at the time of progression after CAR T-cell therapy, and 60% were men. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Participants aged =18 with Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma (NDMM) who has received induction therapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), without subsequent consolidation or maintenance. (who.int)
  • Participant has previous history of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or treatment with any gene therapy-based therapeutic for cancer or investigational cellular therapy for cancer or B-cell maturation antigen targeted therapy. (who.int)
  • Maturation and trafficking of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in monkeys: implications for dendritic cell-based vaccines. (nwbio.com)
  • As noted above, a more vigorous dendritic cell presentation of antigens could trigger the immune response by T-cells. (oncolink.org)
  • Survivin Dendritic Cell Vaccine Safely Induces Immune Responses and Is Associated with Durable Disease Control after Autologous Transplant in Patients with Myeloma. (cdc.gov)
  • After dendritic cells or macrophages swallow pathogens, they usually migrate to the lymph nodes , where most T cells are. (wikidoc.org)
  • in essence, they lose most of their ability to further swallow pathogens, and they develop an increased ability to communicate with T cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • The size of the plasma pool ensures the vast diversity of IgG repertoire in IVIG that interacts with a large number of self-antigens, in addition to pathogens and external antigens [2]. (academie-medecine.fr)
  • The cellular or innate immune system was first described by the pathologist Elie Metchnikoff who recognized the existence of cells in the blood and tissues whose role was to identify, capture, and destroy invading pathogens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, were found to provide a rapid response to virtually all pathogens and to initiate inflammation at sites of local infection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen-presenting cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Normally, potentially malignant cells are continuously eliminated by the immune system, but cancer cells can accumulate certain mutations, which allow them to escape these mechanisms [ 2 ]. (nature.com)
  • CAR-modified immune cells are expanded until sufficient cell numbers are attained and are adoptively transferred into the patient to fight malignant cells. (nature.com)
  • Vaccination with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells elicits antigen-specific, cytotoxic T-cells in patients with malignant glioma. (nwbio.com)
  • GPRC5D is expressed on malignant bone marrow plasma cells, whereas normal tissue expression is limited to skin (hair follicles and eccrine glands) and the testis (seminiferous tubules). (bharatbook.com)
  • This target was first described in myeloma in 2004 as a mechanism for the growth and survival of malignant plasma cells. (medscape.com)
  • Efforts at using NK cells as antitumor agents began over two decades ago, but recent advances in elucidating NK cell biology have accelerated the development of NK cell-targeting therapeutics. (frontiersin.org)
  • AFM-13 is under development for the treatment of refractory and relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma, CD30+ lymphoma such as transformed mycosis fungoides, peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma combination with check point inhibitors and Hodgkin lymphoma combination with lenalidomide. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Activation of the complement system triggers the formation of pores in the cellular membrane, leading to cell death. (hybridmedicalanimation.com)
  • Interleukin-10 (IL-10) suppresses cellular immune response by modulating the function of T cells and antigen-presenting cells. (usda.gov)
  • Yet, NOX participates in cellular signaling in a cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic manner, e.g., via the release of ROS into the extracellular space. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, distinct NOX homologs expressed by non-phagocytic cells and mitochondrial ROS are interlinked with phagocytic NOX functions and thus affect the overall redox state of the tissue and the cellular activity in a complex fashion. (frontiersin.org)
  • The defining functional feature of NK cells remains their intrinsic ability to conduct "natural killing" of cellular targets without prior sensitization. (frontiersin.org)
  • The field started changing in the late 1990s when the Gr1 + CD11b + cellular phenotype was suggested as defining the immune-suppressive myeloid cells in spleens of mice and when these cells were shown to be phenotypically similar but functionally distinct from monocytes and neutrophils ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The body's immune system can react adaptively against the antigen via 2 pathways: cellular or humoral. (medscape.com)
  • Epitopes are a component of the antigen that are recognized by the immune system and determine whether the cellular or the humoral arm of the immune system shall be activated against that particular antigen. (medscape.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that have a notable role in the initiation and regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in the generation of primary T cell responses and the maintenance of immune responses. (usda.gov)
  • Fusion cell vaccination of patients with metastatic breast and renal cancer induces immunological and clinical responses. (nwbio.com)
  • However, recent successful preclinical and clinical trials have advocated for the significance of B cell-dependent immunopathogenic responses and has led to the development of novel biologicals that target specific B cell phenotypes. (medsci.org)
  • Emerging research on the roles of stromal cells in modulating adaptive immune responses has included a new focus on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). (jci.org)
  • This Review summarizes the emergent evidence that LECs are important in maintaining peripheral tolerance, limiting and resolving effector T cell responses, and modulating leukocyte function. (jci.org)
  • However, extremely strong immune responses have been generated using a "boost" to the immune system, provided by viruses that encode antigens similar to the target. (oncolink.org)
  • NK cells are now accepted to play an important role in both the adaptive and innate immune responses that govern infection, autoimmunity, and tumor immunosurveillance ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) are responsible for initiating all antigen-specific immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The main functional characteristic of these cells is their potent ability to suppress various types of immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although almost every cell in the body is an APC, since it can present antigen to CD8 + T cells via MHC class I molecules, the term is often limited to those specialized cells that can prime T cells (i.e., activate a T cell that has not been exposed to antigen, termed a naive T cell ). (wikidoc.org)
  • These cells, in general, express MHC class II as well as MHC class I molecules, and can stimulate CD4 + ("helper") cells as well as CD8 + ("cytotoxic") T cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • To help distinguish between the two types of APCs, those that express MHC class II molecules are often called professional antigen-presenting cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Activated DCs are especially potent T H cell activators because, as part of their composition, they express co-stimulatory molecules such as B7 . (wikidoc.org)
  • Traditionally, microcirculatory physiologists studied the essential transport functions of lymphatic vessels in removing fluid, molecules, and cells after leaking from blood vessels in the periphery and before returning them to the blood circulation. (jci.org)
  • Classical activation of these cells takes place as a response to strong signals that usually come in the form of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The immune system is an inherent self-defense system consisting of cells that helps the body distinguish between self and non-self molecules. (medscape.com)
  • Antigens are the molecules that are recognized and stimulate the cells of immune system. (medscape.com)
  • We also underscore how new findings and conceptual insights into TNFRSF signaling are facilitating the understanding of B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Yet, NOX2 can also be recruited to the plasma membrane of phagocytes leading to the generation of extracellular H 2 O 2 ( Aviello and Knaus, 2018 ), and NOX2-derived ROS participate in major signaling pathways, both within the individual phagocyte and surrounding cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • First found to be important in blocking (inhibiting) growth of blood cancer (leukemia) cells, this signaling is also involved in the formation of bone and the development of nerve cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As well, there are specialized cells in particular organs (e.g., microglia in the brain, Kupffer cells in the liver) derived from macrophages that are also effective APCs. (wikidoc.org)
  • Recently, cells called antigen presenting cells (APCs) were discovered to play a pivotal role in the immune response. (oncolink.org)
  • This approach is based on the view that immune stimulation is primarily mediated by APCs rather than the tumor cells themselves. (oncolink.org)
  • Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is another chemical that stimulated the maturation of dendritic cells and which could be used to augment the immune response. (oncolink.org)
  • CD40 is also essential for directing the humoral response to T-cell-dependent antigens. (nih.gov)
  • The vaccine formulations targeting these antigens have caused a relatively weak immune response. (oncolink.org)
  • An important class of innate immune cells that play a critical role in mediating the antitumor immune response is the natural killer (NK) cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • Given their central role in controlling the immune response in patients with cancer, DCs are emerging as a critical cell type that must be considered as we come to understand basic cancer immunobiology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Enzymes within the cell digest the swallowed pathogen into smaller pieces containing epitopes , which are then presented to T cells using MHC. (wikidoc.org)
  • They are exceptionally efficient at antigen presentation and also adept at generating just the right type of T cells in response to a given pathogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequently, cells are transduced with CAR-encoding genes using (mostly) viral vectors. (nature.com)
  • These tumor specific antigens are the result of mutations that cancer cells undergo, and in many cases that involve viral carcinogens, viral antigens. (oncolink.org)
  • Phase I/II study of vaccination with electrofused allogeneic dendritic cells/autologous tumor-derived cells in patients with stage IV renal cell carcinoma. (nwbio.com)
  • Vaccination of prostatectomized prostate cancer patients in biochemical relapse, with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with recombinant human PSA. (nwbio.com)
  • The 20 patients who underwent either autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplant after progression had an OS of 23.2 months (95% CI 17.6 to NE). (medpagetoday.com)
  • High-dose melphalan followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation may also be used. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In the groups (both the initiation and the progression) receiving recombinant IL-27 administration, the formation of atherosclerotic plaques was suspended, and the percentage of regulatory T cells (LAP + or Foxp3 + ) in the spleen and peripheral blood was increased. (hindawi.com)
  • Different pathways regulate different immune cells to help the body differentiate the bodies own healthy cells from disease-causing agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, cancerous cells, and many more. (medscape.com)
  • This continuously evolving system sometimes reacts against the bodies own cells, identifying it as foreign, which leads to healthy tissue destruction and causes autoimmune diseases and cancers. (medscape.com)
  • When you have multiple myeloma, these cells multiply the wrong way. (webmd.com)
  • As multiple myeloma gets worse, the plasma cells spill out of your bone marrow and spread. (webmd.com)
  • Multiple myeloma is one of many conditions that can cause problems with your plasma cells. (webmd.com)
  • This is like multiple myeloma, but it causes a single unusual plasma cell growth rather than many of them. (webmd.com)
  • This causes unusual plasma cells in your bone marrow, but there are fewer of them than with multiple myeloma. (webmd.com)
  • AFM-26, targeting B-cell maturation antigen to treat multiple myeloma. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • However, the tumor microenvironment (TME) imposes different mechanisms that facilitate the impairment of DC functions, such as inefficient antigen presentation or polarization into immunosuppressive DCs. (mdpi.com)
  • However, in cancer, myeloid cells are largely converted to serve a new master-tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They occur in two forms: one that is attached to a B cell , and the other, a soluble form, that is unattached and found in extracellular fluids such as blood plasma . (wikipedia.org)
  • iNKT cells have been traditionally defined by the expression of an invariant TCR α-chain (Vα14-Jα18 in mice or Vα24-Jα18 in humans) and their capacity to recognise the glycolipid antigen α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) presented on CD1d. (elifesciences.org)
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that Langerin is a marker specific for the acquisition of the Langerhans cell phenotype. (beckman.com)
  • Myeloid cells generated under these conditions, although similar to neutrophils and monocytes in morphology and phenotype, have different genomic and biochemical profiles and functional activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Yet, if and how the tissue environment shapes the antigen specificity of iNKT cells remains unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • How is the tissue specificity of immune cells generated and how is it affected by environmental influences, plasticity and the tissue microenvironment? (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Infiltrating monocytes take up the modified low-density lipoproteins and become foam cells, which make plaques unstable, resulting in acute myocardial infarction [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Its expression, restricted to the Langerhans cell lineage, is demonstrated at both the surface membrane and in the cytoplasm. (beckman.com)
  • The stem cells within the basal layer, which contact the basement membrane, continually divide during the lifetime of the organism, providing a source of cells which progressively migrate upwards through the epidermis, differentiating and stratifying to form the barrier layer of the skin [ 11 , 14 ]. (springer.com)
  • Binding of a tumor antigen via the scFv activates the T cell in a major histocompatibility-independent manner which leads to a cytotoxic response [ 3 ]. (nature.com)
  • Within peripheral tissues iNKT cell recent thymic emigrants exhibit a different TCR repertoire than mature cells, suggesting that the iNKT population is shaped after arrival to the periphery. (elifesciences.org)
  • Nonetheless, how signals from the tissue environment shape the iNKT cell population to best fit their function in their tissues of residency remains unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • Researchers are uncovering ever more details about the complex system of organs, tissues, and different cell types that make up the human immune system. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Due to the different sources and potential paracrine effects, studying the effect of ROS on certain cell types and tissues is rather complex. (frontiersin.org)
  • SWCNT-induced inflammation facilitated the recruitment of dendritic cells (DC) to the lung tissues, increasing chances of direct DC/SWCNT interactions. (cdc.gov)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6 is a cytokine produced by several cell types including antigen presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. (nih.gov)
  • Before treatment, the first patient on the fourth dose level had chemotherapyresistant MM, making up 90% of bone marrow cells. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • After treatment, bone marrow plasma cells became undetectable by flow cytometry, and the patient'sMMentered a stringent complete remission that lasted for 17 weeks before relapse. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • The second patient on the fourth dose level had chemotherapy-resistantMMmaking up80%of bone marrow cells before treatment. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow cells were stained with anti-mouse CD11b PE and anti-mouse Ly-6G/Ly-6C (Gr-1) (clone RB6-8C5) Spark Violet™ 423 (left) or CD11b PE only (right). (biolegend.com)
  • Gr-1 is also transiently expressed on bone marrow cells in the monocyte lineage. (biolegend.com)
  • While we particularly focus on LEC interactions with DCs and T cells, we also highlight features that support immune regulation, including the structure and function of lymphatic vessels and the compartmentalization of the LN stroma, which help control the manner in which LECs can interface with immune cells. (jci.org)
  • We can speculate that SWCNT exposure may intervene with antigen capture/processing and/or presentation, thereby leading to compromised DC/T cell interactions. (cdc.gov)
  • AFM-13 is under clinical development by Affimed and currently in Phase II for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas (PTCL). (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • According to GlobalData, Phase II drugs for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas (PTCL) have a 29% phase transition success rate (PTSR) indication benchmark for progressing into Phase III. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • An additional co-stimulatory signal is then produced by the antigen-presenting cell, leading to activation of the T cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Since IL-6 is abundantly produced by APC, it is a likely source of early Th1/Th2 control during CD4(+) T cell activation. (nih.gov)
  • The CD45 isoforms detected in the mouse are cell type-, maturation-, and activation state-specific. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Nascent transformed cells elicit NK cell activation and are eliminated. (frontiersin.org)