B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Macrophage-Activating Factors: Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.HexosediphosphatesB-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3: A multimeric complex that functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. ISGF3 is assembled in the CYTOPLASM and translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to INTERFERON signaling. It consists of ISGF3-GAMMA and ISGF3-ALPHA, and it regulates expression of many interferon-responsive GENES.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Pharmacognosy: The science of drugs prepared from natural-sources including preparations from PLANTS, animals, and other organisms as well as MINERALS and other substances included in MATERIA MEDICA. The therapeutic usage of plants is PHYTOTHERAPY.OcimumFicus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Eugenia: A genus in the family Myrtaceae sometimes known as "stoppers" in FOLK MEDICINE. Many species of the genus SYZYGIUM have synonymous names that begin with the Eugenia genus name.Commelina: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE of perennial herbs with blue flowers.

BLyS: member of the tumor necrosis factor family and B lymphocyte stimulator. (1/168)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines includes both soluble and membrane-bound proteins that regulate immune responses. A member of the human TNF family, BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator), was identified that induced B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion. BLyS expression on human monocytes could be up-regulated by interferon-gamma. Soluble BLyS functioned as a potent B cell growth factor in costimulation assays. Administration of soluble recombinant BLyS to mice disrupted splenic B and T cell zones and resulted in elevated serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The B cell tropism of BLyS is consistent with its receptor expression on B-lineage cells. The biological profile of BLyS suggests it is involved in monocyte-driven B cell activation.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member TACI is a high affinity receptor for TNF family members APRIL and BLyS. (2/168)

An expression cloning approach was employed to identify the receptor for B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and identified the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member TACI as a BLyS-binding protein. Expression of TACI in HEK293T cells confers on the cells the ability to bind BLyS with subnanomolar affinity. Furthermore, a TACI-Fc fusion protein recognizes both the cleaved, soluble form of BLyS as well as the membrane BLyS present on the cell surface of a recombinant cell line. TACI mRNA is found predominantly in B-cells and correlates with BLyS binding in a panel of B-cell lines. We also demonstrate that TACI interacts with nanomolar affinity with the BLyS-related tumor necrosis factor homologue APRIL for which no clear in vivo role has been described. BLyS and APRIL are capable of signaling through TACI to mediate NF-kappaB responses in HEK293 cells. We conclude that TACI is a receptor for BLyS and APRIL and discuss the implications for B-cell biology.  (+info)

BAFF-R, a newly identified TNF receptor that specifically interacts with BAFF. (3/168)

B cell homeostasis has been shown to critically depend on BAFF, the B cell activation factor from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. Although BAFF is already known to bind two receptors, BCMA and TACI, we have identified a third receptor for BAFF that we have termed BAFF-R. BAFF-R binding appears to be highly specific for BAFF, suggesting a unique role for this ligand-receptor interaction. Consistent with this, the BAFF-R locus is disrupted in A/WySnJ mice, which display a B cell phenotype qualitatively similar to that of the BAFF-deficient mice. Thus, BAFF-R appears to be the principal receptor for BAFF-mediated mature B cell survival.  (+info)

TACI-Ig neutralizes molecules critical for B cell development and autoimmune disease. impaired B cell maturation in mice lacking BLyS. (4/168)

BLyS and APRIL have similar but distinct biological roles, mediated through two known TNF receptor family members, TACI and BCMA. We show that mice treated with TACI-Ig and TACI-Ig transgenic mice have fewer transitional T2 and mature B cells and reduced levels of circulating immunoglobulin. TACI-Ig treatment inhibits both the production of collagen-specific Abs and the progression of disease in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. In BLyS-deficient mice, B cell development is blocked at the transitional T1 stage such that virtually no mature B cells are present, while B-1 cell numbers are relatively normal. These findings further elucidate the roles of BLyS and APRIL in modulating B cell development and suggest that BLyS is required for the development of most but not all mature B cell populations found in the periphery.  (+info)

Identification of a novel receptor for B lymphocyte stimulator that is mutated in a mouse strain with severe B cell deficiency. (5/168)

BLyS (also called BAFF, TALL-1, THANK, and zTNF4), a TNF superfamily member, binds two receptors, TACI and BCMA, and regulates humoral immune responses [1-7]. These two receptors also bind APRIL [7-10], another TNF superfamily member. The results from TACI(-/-) and BCMA(-/-) mice suggest the existence of additional receptor(s) for BLyS. The TACI knockout gives the paradoxical result of B cells being hyperresponsive, suggesting an inhibitory role for this receptor [11, 12], while BCMA null mice have no discernable phenotype [13]. Here we report the identification of a third BLyS receptor (BR3; BLyS receptor 3). This receptor is unique in that, in contrast to TACI and BCMA, BR3 only binds BLyS. Treatment of antigen-challenged mice with BR3-Fc inhibited antibody production, indicating an essential role for BLyS, but not APRIL, in this response. A critical role for BR3 in B cell ontogeny is underscored by our data showing that the BR3 gene had been inactivated by a discrete, approximately 4.7 kb gene insertion event that disrupted the 3' end of the BR3 gene in A/WySnJ mice, which lack peripheral B cells.  (+info)

Competition for BLyS-mediated signaling through Bcmd/BR3 regulates peripheral B lymphocyte numbers. (6/168)

Striking cell losses occur during late B lymphocyte maturation, reflecting BcR-mediated selection coupled with requisites for viability promoting signals. How selection and survival cues are integrated remains unclear, but a key role for B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS(TM); trademark of Human Genome Sciences, Inc.) is suggested by its marked effects on B cell numbers and autoantibody formation as well as the B lineage-specific expression of BLyS receptors. Our analyses of the B cell-deficient A/WySnJ mouse have established Bcmd as a gene controlling follicular B cell life span, and recent reports show Bcmd encodes a novel BLyS receptor. Here we show that A/WySnJ B cells are unresponsive to BLyS, affording interrogation of how Bcmd influences B cell homeostasis. Mixed marrow chimeras indicate A/WySnJ peripheral B cells compete poorly for peripheral survival. Moreover, in vivo BrdU labeling shows that (A/WySnJ x BALB/c)F(1) B cells have an intermediate but uniform life span, indicating viability requires continuous signaling via this pathway. Together, these findings establish the BLyS/Bcmd pathway as a dominant mediator of B cell survival, suggesting competition for BLyS/Bcmd signals regulates follicular B cell numbers.  (+info)

Identification of downstream genes up-regulated by the tumor necrosis factor family member TALL-1. (7/168)

TALL-1 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family that binds to BCMA, TACI, and BAFF-R, three receptors mostly expressed by mature B lymphocytes. Previous studies have shown that the TALL-1 signaling is critically involved in B cell proliferation, maturation, and progression of lupus-like, autoimmune diseases. In this report, we performed cDNA subtractive hybridization experiments to identify downstream genes up-regulated by TALL-1. These experiments indicated that 10 genes, including interleukin (IL)-10, lymphocyte activation gene-1 (LAG-1), GCP-2, PBEF, ferritin, PIM-2, TFG, CD27 ligand, DUSP5, and archain, were up-regulated at the mRNA level by TALL-1 stimulation in B lymphoma RPMI-8226 cells and/or primary B lymphocytes. We also demonstrated that TALL-1 activated transcription of IL-10 and LAG-1 in a nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent manner in reporter gene assays. Moreover, our findings indicated BAFF-R, but not TACI, could dramatically up-regulate IL-10 secretion by RPMI-8226 cells. The identification of TALL-1-up-regulated genes will help explain the mechanisms of TALL-1-triggered biological and pathological effects and to identify molecular targets for intervention of lupus-like autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Aberrant expression of B-lymphocyte stimulator by B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells: a mechanism for survival. (8/168)

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is defined by the accumulation of CD5(+) B cells in the periphery and bone marrow. This disease is not characterized by highly proliferative cells but rather by the presence of leukemic cells with significant resistance to apoptosis and, therefore, prolonged survival. B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a newly identified tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member shown to be critical for maintenance of normal B-cell development and homeostasis and it shares significant homology with another TNF superfamily member, APRIL. The striking effects of BLyS on normal B-cell maintenance and survival raises the possibility that it may be involved in pathogenesis and maintenance of hematologic malignancies, including B-CLL. In this study, we investigated the status of APRIL and BLyS expression, as well as their receptors, in this disease. All B-CLL patient cells studied expressed one or more of 3 known receptors for BLyS; however, the pattern of expression was variable. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that B-CLL cells from a subset of patients aberrantly express BLyS and APRIL mRNA, whereas these molecules were not detectable in normal B cells. Furthermore, we provide in vitro evidence that BLyS protects B-CLL cells from apoptosis and enhances cell survival. Because these molecules are key regulators of B-cell homeostasis and tumor progression, leukemic cell autocrine expression of BLyS and APRIL may be playing an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease.  (+info)

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DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk) is the target for mutations that cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in man and X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) in mouse. Both mouse and man have reduced circulating B cells and display defective B cell survival and tolerance. These defects have been primarily attributed to Btk function in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling. Preliminary data presented in this exploratory grant application demonstrate that Btk couples B-cell activation factor receptor (BAFF-R), a TNF-R family member, to the NF- kB pathway and facilitates B cell survival in response to its ligand, BAFF. Emerging evidence suggests that BAFF-R is as critical in B cell survival as BCR. As such, this proposal focuses on defining the molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates BAFF-R signaling to NF-kB and peripheral B cell survival. Preliminary data further suggests that (i) Btk interfaces with BAFF-R via mechanisms involving TRAF2 and cIAP2, and (ii) Btk ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on "tonic" signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on "tonic" signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
BAFF receptor (BAFF = B cell-activating factor of the TNF family) is a main pro-survival receptor expressed by human B cells. BAFFR deficiency is caused by a homologous deletion within the BAFFR gene...
Abstract 2400. Poster Board II-377. Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member BAFF-R has been shown to transduce a powerful survival signal in B lineage cells upon ligation by BAFF, its soluble high affinity ligand. The availability of BAFF in lymphoid organs and its detectable levels in the blood suggest that it is the control of receptor expression by the B cell rather than ligand production by supportive cells that limits the activity of this survival signal. The presence of BAFF-R on the surface of B cells from the transitional stages of development through maturity mirrors the expression of BAFF-R on the malignancies thought to arise from these various developmental stages and may enable B lineage malignancies to receive an anti-apoptotic signal from BAFF that reinforces and supports the expansion of the malignant cells. This additional survival signal may be crucial in indolent malignancies like chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a cancer characterized more by the prolonged survival of the ...
Follicular B cell survival requires signaling from BAFFR, a receptor for BAFF and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). This tonic BCR survival signal is distinct from that induced by antigen binding and may be ligand-independent. We show that inducible inactivation of the Syk tyrosine kinase, a key signal transducer from the BCR following antigen binding, resulted in the death of most follicular B cells because Syk-deficient cells were unable to survive in response to BAFF. Genetic rescue studies demonstrated that Syk transduces BAFFR survival signals via ERK and PI3 kinase. Surprisingly, BAFFR signaling directly induced phosphorylation of both Syk and the BCR-associated Igα signaling subunit, and this Syk phosphorylation required the BCR. We conclude that the BCR and Igα may be required for B cell survival because they function as adaptor proteins in a BAFFR signaling pathway leading to activation of Syk, demonstrating previously unrecognized crosstalk between the two receptors. ...
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The number of mature B cells is carefully controlled by signalling from receptors that support B cell survival. The best studied of these are the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and BAFFR. Recent work has shown that signalling from these receptors is closely linked, involves the CD19 co-receptor, and leads to activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways, ERK1, ERK2 and ERK5 MAP kinases, and PI-3 kinases. Importantly, studies show that investigation of the importance of signalling molecules in cell survival requires the use of inducible gene deletions within mature B cells. This overcomes the limitations of many earlier studies using constitutive gene deletions which were unable to distinguish between requirements for a protein in development versus survival. ...
The cytokine BAFF is produced by a number of cell types, including monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and some subsets of T cells (17). Receptors for BAFF, however, were initially thought to be restricted to more differentiated B-lineage cells. Therefore, the expression of BAFF receptors on transformed B-lineage lymphocytes in CLL was not entirely unexpected. In contrast, based on BAFF-null and BAFF-R-null mutants as well as other studies, it has been generally accepted that precursor B-lineage cells do not express this receptor. Our studies confirm that there is no expression of this receptor in normal bone marrow pre-B cells. Interestingly, Rodig and colleagues (35) also performed FACS on two pre-B ALL samples and reported that these were negative for expression of BAFF-R. Therefore, the prominent expression of the BAFF-R that we detected on both Ph-positive and Ph-negative ALL samples was unanticipated. In fact, all 12 samples that were tested by us, including original ALL ...
B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and its receptor BAFF-R play critical roles in the maturation and survival of conventional peripheral B cells. However, they appeared to be dispensable for the generation and maintenance of CD5(+) B-1 cells as BAFF(-/-) and BAFF-R(-/-) mice have normal B-1 cell populations. Hence, it is presently unclear if B-1 cells are responsive to BAFF and if BAFF regulates some aspects of B-1 cell function. We show here that BAFF-R and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) are the major receptors expressed by B-1 cells. Specifically, we show that BAFF treatment of B-1 cells leads to increased NF-kappaB p100 processing and CD21/CD35 expression. Interestingly, toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement of B-1 cells augmented the surface expression of BAFF receptors and rendered them responsive to BAFF costimulation, as evidenced by their increased proliferation, expression of cell surface activation markers and secretion of the pro-inflammatory
Naive peripheral B cells survive in vivo because of active stimulation by the TNF superfamily ligand B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF). Although the survival promoting properties of BLyS are well known, the signal pathways and molecular effectors that characterize this stimulation are still being elucidated. In this communication, we discuss the signal cascades that effect BLyS dependent survival and the regulation of BLyS induced signaling. We also examine the role of BLyS as a growth factor and propose that BLyS induced metabolic enhancement optimizes the B cell response to BCR and TLR-dependent signaling.
Measure human BAFF/BLyS in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma with our highly sensitive BAFF/BLyS/TNFSF13B Quantikine ELISA Kit.
BAFF belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, and its downstream signaling plays a critical role in B-cell survival and maturation.
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Results The mean disease duration of SLE was 7,0 [2,0-10,0] years, SLEDAI 2K score - 4 [2-13], SLICC damage index score - 0 [0-1], current prednisone dose - 10,0 [7,5-25,0] mg/day. SLE pts did not differ from healthy controls in BAFF (0,02 [0,02-0,08] vs 0,02 [0,02-0,02] ng/ml) and APRIL (0,01 [0,01-0,62] vs 0,01 [0,01-0,01] ng/ml) levels. Among SLE pts BAFF level correlated with lupus anticoagulant (r=0,88, p,0,05) and ESR (r=0,43, p,0,05); APRIL level correlated with SLEDAI 2K (r=0,55, p,0,01), CRP (r=0,50, p,0,01), antiDNA (r=0,38, p,0,05), creatinine level (r=0,39, p,0,05), current prednisone dose (r=0,55, p,0,01) and CD19 B lymphocytes absolute count (r=0,89, p,0,05). We divided SLE pts on two groups: the 1st- pts with high activity (SLEDAI 2K≥8), the 2nd - pts with low (SLEDAI 2K,8). The patients of 1st group had higher level of APRIL (1,69 [0,01-4,0] vs 0,01 [0,01-0,01] ng/ml, p,0,05) compared to 2nd group and control, there is no difference in BAFF level in these groups.. ...
The samples used in this paper were obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or RA during knee-TEP operations. First of all, expression of the known BAFF-binding receptors BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R was analyzed in SF of patients with OA and RA using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In a further step, the influence of several stimulants, including cytokines, TLR-agonists and cell activators on receptor expression was tested. Finally, taking into account BAFF function in other cell types, SF were stimulated with BAFF and stained with Annexin V in order to analyze its effect on apoptosis in SF ...
Objective: To assess the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist therapy on B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).. Methods: Blood from 38 patients with RA from a single centre was collected prior to and following initiation of TNF antagonist therapy. Plasma BLyS protein levels, blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels and disease activity were longitudinally monitored. Twelve patients with RA who either refused or were felt not to be candidates for TNF antagonist therapy and five normal healthy volunteers served as TNF antagonist-naïve controls.. Results: Baseline plasma BLyS protein levels, but not blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels, were elevated in patients with RA. Plasma BLyS protein levels declined following initiation of TNF antagonist therapy in good responders (GR) to TNF antagonist therapy but not in poor responders (PR). By contrast, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) declined in response to TNF antagonist therapy in GR and PR. ...
In our previous study, overexpression of extracellular proteinase inhibitor (Expi) gene accelerated apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells, and induced expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF) gene. In this study, we found induction of BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R) gene expression in the Expi-transfected cells. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) gene is another TNF family member and the closest known relative of BAFF. We found induction of APRIL gene expression in the Expi-overexpressed apoptotic cells. NF-B gene was also induced in the Expi-overexpressed cells. Expression patterns of BAFF and APRIL pathway-related genes were examined in in vivo mouse mammary gland at various reproductive stages. Expression levels of BAFF gene were very low at early pregnancy, increased from mid-pregnancy, and peaked at lactation, and thereafter decreased at involution stages of mammary gland. Expression of BAFF-R gene was highly induced in involution stages compared to lactation stages. Thus, expression ...
The autoimmune exocrinopathy Sjögrens syndrome (SS) is characterized by mononuclear cell (MNC) infiltrates of exocrine glands and overactivity of B lymphocytes. Although T cells have long been perceived as the prime effectors, increasing evidence indicates that the key role is rather served by B cells. Among related abnormalities are rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-SSA/Ro, and anti-SSB/La antibodies (Ab). Also, supporting this view is our finding of an increase in the number of circulating naïve mature B (Bm) cells, with a reciprocal decrease in that of memory B cells. Furthermore, a ratio of Bm2-plus-Bm2 cells to early Bm5-plus-late Bm5 above 5 is diagnostic. This variation partly reflects the migration of active memory B cells into the exocrine glands of the patients, as well as into their skin. More recently, the B-cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) has been endorsed with a pivotal role in B-cell survival and hence implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. In practice, B cells
The tumor necrosis family member BAFF is limiting for the survival of follicular B lymphocytes, but excessive BAFF signaling can lead to autoimmunity, suggesting that its activity must be tightly regulated. We have identified a conserved alternate splice isoform of BAFF, called deltaBAFF, which lacks 57 nt encoding the A-A1 loop and is co-expressed with BAFF in many mouse and human myeloid cells. Mouse deltaBAFF appears on the plasma membrane, but unlike BAFF it is inefficiently released by proteolysis. DeltaBAFF can associate with BAFF in heteromultimers and diminish BAFF bioactivity and release. Thus, alternative splicing of the BAFF gene suppresses BAFF B cell stimulatory function in several ways, and deltaBAFF may promote other functions as well ...
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) controls the proportion of transitional B cells completing differentiation and the longevity of most primary B cells. These key roles in B cell selection, survival and homeostasis make BLyS and its receptors attractive candidates for targeted B cell therapeutics. Here we have used a neutralizing hamster anti-mouse BLyS antibody to assess how BLyS depletion influences developing and primary B cell subsets, as well as how this treatment impacts primary TD and TI immune responses. Mice treated with 10F4 show rapid and substantial reductions in the transitional, follicular, and marginal zone pools which persist for ~40 days. In contrast, the only bone marrow subset affected is the mature recirculating B cell fraction. Interestingly, splenic B1 cells, but not peritoneal B1 cells, are reduced as well. Following the recovery of serum BLyS levels, peripheral reconstitution occurs gradually, such that normal B cell numbers return by day 70-80. Mice challenged with ...
Belimumab (also known as Benlysta™) is currently being studied in Phase III clinical trials to determine whether or not it is effective for lupus. Belimumab specifically reduces the actions of a protein called "B lymphocyte stimulator," or BLyS. BLyS is a protein that increases the lifespan and inflammatory potential of certain immune cells called B cells, which are known to be hyperactive in lupus patients. Belimumab, which interferes with BLyS, is a human antibody. This means that it looks a lot like the antibodies that the immune system makes to fight off viruses. But in this case, belimumab targets only the protein BLyS. Because it only has one target, it is called a "monoclonal" antibody ...
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A Tumor Necrosis Factor superfamily member that plays a Role in the Regulation of B-Lymphocyte Survival. It occurs as a Membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein; B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor; and B-Cell Maturation Antigen ...
Toda la información sobre las últimas publicaciones científicas de la Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Increased expression of A Proliferation-inducing Ligand (APRIL) in lung leukocytes and alveolar epithelial cells in COPD patients with non small cell lung cancer
Clinical hypertension is associated with raised serum IgG antibodies. However, whether antibodies are causative agents in hypertension remains unknown. We investigated whether hypertension in mice is associated with B-cell activation and IgG production and moreover whether B-cell/IgG deficiency affords protection against hypertension and vascular remodeling. Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.7 mg/kg per day; 28 days) was associated with (1) a 25% increase in the proportion of splenic B cells expressing the activation marker CD86, (2) an 80% increase in splenic plasma cell numbers, (3) a 500% increase in circulating IgG, and (4) marked IgG accumulation in the aortic adventitia. In B-cell-activating factor receptor-deficient (BAFF-R−/−) mice, which lack mature B cells, there was no evidence of Ang II-induced increases in serum IgG. Furthermore, the hypertensive response to Ang II was attenuated in BAFF-R−/− (Δ30±4 mm Hg) relative to wild-type (Δ41±5 mm Hg) mice, and this response was ...
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF13B/TACI and TNFRSF17/BCMA. TNFSF13/APRIL binds to the same 2 receptors. Together, they form a 2 ligands -2 receptors pathway involved in the stimulation of B- and T-cell function and the regulation of humoral immunity. A third B-cell specific BAFF-receptor (BAFFR/BR3) promotes the survival of mature B-cells and the B-cell response.
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
CD180 (RP105), expressed on dendritic cells and B cells, is a receptor closely related to TLR4. CD180 signaling does not require adaptor proteins like MyD88, instead it resembles B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including the activation of PI3K and Akt. Recently, others and we have found αCD180 also induces the Pim-1 kinase, but much of the CD180 signaling pathway remains ill defined. We previously found that targeting antigen (Ag) to B cells via CD180, by coupling the Ag to an anti-CD180 antibody (Ag-αCD180), induces a rapid and strong Ag-specific IgG antibody (Ab) response in mice. Furthermore, IgG Ab responses were maintained in immunodeficient mice that lack mature B cells (BAFFR−/−). These studies led us to investigate the signaling events that occur within B cells upon coincident activation of the BCR and CD180. For this study we have employed B1-8hi transgenic mice, which have a BCR that binds to NP-hapten on some splenic B cells, and the K46μm17 murine B cell line, that expresses ...
The principle role of the company is to identify, to verify the validity and ultimately to offer a range of biochemical assays each of which will provide unique and informative results to the condition of an individual patient from which the physician can
A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) is a TNF ligand that, via its receptors TACI and BCMA, is involved in both B cell physiology as well as in proliferation and survival of malignant B cells. To target APRIL-dependent stimulation of B cell cancers, we recently produced and characterized two monoclonal antagonistic anti-human APRIL antibodies called humanAPRIL.01A (hA.01A) and humanAPRIL.03A (hA.03A). In a first biochemical assay to validate their blocking activity, hA.01A was shown to fully prevent APRIL from binding to its receptors, whereas a substantial difference was detected for hA.03A, which inhibited APRIL binding to BCMA less efficiently than hA.01A. Epitope mapping subsequently revealed that hA.01A and hA.03A bind distinct sites on APRIL, which provided a structural rationale of their different blocking activities. Importantly, this differential inhibition profile can be used to functionally dissect BCMA and TACI-dependent signals and indicated that B cell survival and IgA ...
Buy our Recombinant Mouse BCMA protein. Ab109162 is a protein fragment produced in HEK 293 cells and has been validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free…
BLyS Human Recombinant fused to His tag at N-terminus produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 190 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 21 kDa.
Results: Salivary BAFF levels (median: 12.39 ng/ml) were significantly decreased by using HQ both at 12 (2.78 ng/ml, P = 0.008) and 24 weeks (0.54 ng/ml, P = 0.011). Similarly, decreases in serum BAFF levels (5.23 ng/ml) were seen at 12 and 24 weeks after HQ treatment (2.18 ng/ml, P = 0.008 and 0.0 ng/ml, P = 0.012, respectively). Serum and salivary BAFF levels were significantly lower in healthy controls (0.37 ng/ml and 0.0 ng/ml, resp.) compared to those of pSS before HQ therapy (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, resp.). Unstimulated salivary flows were similar in patients treated with HQ after 12 (0.38 ml/min) and 24 weeks (0.50 ml/min) (P = 0.51) but higher than the patients rate at baseline (0.04 ml/min) (P = 0.008 ...
The maintenance of mature peripheral B cells depends on at least two survival cues, tonic signaling from the B cell receptor (BCR) complex and the extracellular cytokine B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF). In addition to enhancing viability, BAFF controls the functional efficiency of the peripheral B cell pool by regulating complex physiological processes including cell growth, metabolism, energy homeostasis and entry into the cell cycle. BAFF-mediated induction of two molecular mechanisms, namely activation of the Akt signal transduction pathway and upregulation of the oncogenic kinase Pim-2 results in the modification of effector proteins including transcription factors and regulators of protein synthesis which are capable of executing the observed cellular physiological changes. The classic protein kinase C beta is instrumental in BAFF-induced Akt-activation and PKC beta-deficient B cells and mice show signs of partial refractiveness to BAFF. The protein tyrosine kinase Syk ...
Epstein-Barr virus ensures B cell survival by uniquely modulating apoptosis at early and late times after infection.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Είναι το τελευταίο ποίημα του Σεφέρη και δημοσιεύτηκε στο Βήμα (23.9.71) τρεις μέρες μετά το θάνατό του στην περίοδο της δικτατορίας. Το ποίημα βασίζεται σε μια περικοπή του Πλάτωνα (Πολιτεία 614 κ.ε.) που αναφέρεται στη μεταθανάτια τιμωρία των αδίκων και ιδιαίτερα του Αρδιαίου. Ο Αρδιαίος, τύραννος σε μια πόλη, είχε σκοτώσει τον πατέρα του και τον μεγαλύτερο του αδερφό του. Γι αυτό και η τιμωρία του, καθώς και των άλλων τυράννων, στον άλλο κόσμο στάθηκε φοβερή. Όταν εξέτισαν την καθιερωμένη ποινή που επιβαλλόταν στους αδίκους και ετοιμαζόταν να βγουν στο ...
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has demonstrated proven efficacy in some hematologic cancers. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of LCAR-B38M, a dual epitope-binding CAR T cell therapy directed against 2 distinct B cell maturation antigen epitopes, in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) multiple myeloma (MM). This ongoing phase 1, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study enrolled patients (18 to 80 years) with R/R MM. Lymphodepletion was performed using cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2. LCAR-B38M CAR T cells (median CAR+ T cells, 0.5 × 106 cells/kg [range, 0.07 to 2.1 × 106]) were infused in 3 separate infusions. The primary objective is to evaluate the safety of LCAR-B38M CAR T cells; the secondary objective is to evaluate the antimyeloma response of the treatment based on the general guidelines of the International Myeloma Working Group. At data cutoff, 57 patients had received LCAR-B38M CAR T cells. All patients experienced ≥ 1 adverse events (AEs). Grade ≥ 3 AEs were reported
BACKGROUND. CAR T cells are a promising therapy for hematologic malignancies. B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a rational target in multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS. We conducted a phase I study of autologous T cells lentivirally transduced with a fully human, BCMA-specific CAR containing CD3ζ and 4-1BB signaling domains (CART-BCMA), in subjects with relapsed/refractory MM. Twenty-five subjects were treated in 3 cohorts as follows: cohort 1, 1 × 108 to 5 × 108 CART-BCMA cells alone; cohort 2, cyclophosphamide (Cy) 1.5 g/m2 plus 1 × 107 to 5 × 107 CART-BCMA cells; cohort 3, Cy 1.5 g/m2 plus 1 × 108 to 5 × 108 CART-BCMA cells. No prespecified BCMA expression level was required. RESULTS. CART-BCMA cells were manufactured and expanded in all subjects. Toxicities included cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity, which were grade 3-4 in 8 (32%) and 3 (12%) subjects, respectively, and reversible. One subject died at day 24 from candidemia and progressive myeloma, following treatment for ...
BACKGROUND. CAR T cells are a promising therapy for hematologic malignancies. B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a rational target in multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS. We conducted a phase I study of autologous T cells lentivirally transduced with a fully human, BCMA-specific CAR containing CD3ζ and 4-1BB signaling domains (CART-BCMA), in subjects with relapsed/refractory MM. Twenty-five subjects were treated in 3 cohorts as follows: cohort 1, 1 × 108 to 5 × 108 CART-BCMA cells alone; cohort 2, cyclophosphamide (Cy) 1.5 g/m2 plus 1 × 107 to 5 × 107 CART-BCMA cells; cohort 3, Cy 1.5 g/m2 plus 1 × 108 to 5 × 108 CART-BCMA cells. No prespecified BCMA expression level was required. RESULTS. CART-BCMA cells were manufactured and expanded in all subjects. Toxicities included cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity, which were grade 3-4 in 8 (32%) and 3 (12%) subjects, respectively, and reversible. One subject died at day 24 from candidemia and progressive myeloma, following treatment for ...
Professor Fabienne Mackay obtained her PhD from Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg, France. She is Inaugural Head, School of Biomedical Sciences. Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia. Her laboratory helped the BAFF inhibitor approved by the FDA in 2011: first new treatment for lupus in over 50 years. first new treatment for lupus in over 50 years. Prof Mackays group is focusing on inhibitors for the BAFF receptor TACI to treat Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia without compromising key immune function and, therefore, an approach that has a better safety profile. Her research and teaching directly influence clinical practice and continues to make internationally significant contributions to the field of autoimmunity and oncology, with a strong record of knowledge translation and community engagement. She is a Council Member, International Cytokine & Interferon Society and Fellow, Australian Academy of Health and ...
B cells, which produce proteins called antibodies, are one type of immune cell involved in GVHD. In a paper published in the journal, Blood, a team from the University of North Carolinas Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, shows in the laboratory that B cells from patients with chronic GVHD are much more active than cells from patients without the disease. The team also outlines the cell signaling pathways that contribute to this increased activity -- identifying a promising target for developing new therapies for the diseases.
In an effort to develop more effective treatments for inflammatory diseases, immunologists have targeted numerous molecular pathways, but with limited success. Notable exceptions are anti-TNF agents, which have proved efficacious in a proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Another TNF family member, termed BAFF (
Martin, VG, Wu, Y-CB, Townsend, CL, Lu, GH, OHare, JS, Mozeika, A, Coolen, AC, Kipling, D, Fraternali, F and Dunn-Walters, Deborah (2016) Transitional B cells in early human B cell development - time to revisit the paradigm? ...
The causes and mechanisms of late-onset neutropenia (LON) following rituximab treatment in patients with rheumatic diseases are not known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of established Fcγ receptor gene (FCGR) polymorphisms and B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) gene promoter polymorphisms for the development of LON and for the efficacy of rituximab in patients with rheumatic diseases. A single-center case-control retrospective study was nested in a cohort of 214 consecutive patients with rheumatic diseases treated with rituximab. Eleven patients presented with LON. Fifty non-LON control subjects were matched by diagnosis, age, sex, and treatments. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of FCGR (FCGR2A 131H/R, FCGR2B 232I/T, FCGR3A 158V/F) and BAFF promoter polymorphism −871C/T were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, and serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and BAFF levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flare-free survival was related to LON occurrence and
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SED021Mu, FTH1; FTHL6; PIG15; PLIF; Ferritin Heavy Chain; Apoferritin; Placenta Immunoregulatory Factor; Proliferation-Inducing Protein 15; Cell proliferation-inducing gene 15 protein | Products for research use only!
Update-1 BLUE Drops 1.96% and 1.77% After Hours 6/3 In the bubbly CAR-T world bluebird bio (BLUE) and Celgene announced a deal for for development of product candidates for B-cell maturation antigen (BMCA) utilizing bluebird bioss gene therapy technology to modify a patients own T-Cells to target cancer cells. A $25M up-front payment was made but […]. ...
Sandwich ELISA: In a sandwich ELISA (assuming 100μl/well), a concentration of 5.0-6.0 μg/ml of this antibody will detect at least 1000pg/ml of Recombinant Human BAFF when used with PeproTechs Biotinylated Antigen Affinity Purified anti-Human BAFF (500-P163GBT) as the detection antibody at a concentration of approximately 0.25-0.50 μg/ml. ...
Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13: A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; and B CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
BAFF and APRIL are innate immune mediators that trigger immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA class-switch recombination (CSR) in B cells by engaging the receptor TACI. The mechanism that underlies CSR signaling by TACI remains unknown. Here we found that the cytoplasmic domain of TACI encompasses a conserved motif that bound MyD88, an adaptor that activates transcription factor NF-kappaB signaling pathways via a Toll-interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor (TIR) domain. TACI lacks a TIR domain, yet triggered CSR via the DNA-editing enzyme AID by activating NF-kappaB through a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-like MyD88-IRAK1-IRAK4-TRAF6-TAK1 pathway. TACI-induced CSR was impaired in mice and humans lacking MyD88 or the kinase IRAK4, which indicates that MyD88 controls a B cell-intrinsic, TIR-independent, TACI-dependent pathway for immunoglobulin diversification. ...
RNA APTAMERS AGAINST BAFF-R AS CELL-TYPE SPECIFIC DELIVERY AGENTS AND METHODS FOR THEIR USE - In one embodiment, a B cell specific aptamer-siRNA chimera is provided. The B cell specific aptamer-siRNa chimera may include an RNA aptamer that binds BAFF-R and an siRNA molecule conjugated to the RNA aptamer via a nucleotide linker. In another embodiment, a B cell specific RNA aptamer is provided. The RNA aptamer may be a molecule that binds to BAFF-R that has the sequence SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:38 or SEQ ID NO:39. In some embodiments, the RNA aptamer is conjugated, via a nucleotide linker, to an siRNA molecule that suppresses expression of one or more target oncogenes in one or more B cells. In one aspect, the one or more target oncogenes are selected from Bcl6, Bcl2, STAT3, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E2 and c-myc. In another embodiment, methods for treating a B cell malignancy in a cancer patient are provided. Such methods may include administering a therapeutically effective amount of a therapeutic ...
BLyS is a fundamental survival factor for transitional and mature B cells, whereas APRIL mainly affects B-1 cell activity, humoral responses and immunoglobulin class switching.1 We recently reported that aging APRIL transgenic mice develop B-1 cell-associated tumors that are highly reminiscent of human CLL; our initial analysis showed increased levels of circulating APRIL in CLL patients (n=22) compared to healthy donors.2 Two other reports described that BLyS and APRIL can act in an autocrine manner in CLL tumor cells, promoting cell survival.3,4 In addition, APRIL produced by inflammatory cells that infiltrate tumor lesions appears to contribute to disease in B cell lymphoma.5. To further evaluate APRIL and BLyS implication in CLL, we performed a retrospective study of a cohort of 95 patients diagnosed with CLL according to NCI criteria.6 After informed consent was obtained, peripheral blood samples were collected from 1991 to 2005, aliquoted and frozen. As a control, 32 sera from age- and ...
Recombinant Mouse BAFF (carrier-free) - BAFF is a TNF cytokine member (a type II membrane protein) that acts in both a membrane-bound form and soluble cytokine form.
Tumour necrosis factor family. Family of cytokines that form homotrimeric or heterotrimeric complexes. TNF mediates mature T-cell receptor-induced apoptosis through the p75 TNF receptor. ...
Increased Ig, RF, and CIC levels in BAFF-Tg mice. (A) Reduced SDS-PAGE of sera from five control littermates and nine BAFF-Tg mice showing that BAFF increases I
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a factor determining the survival of B cells, and elevated levels in serum or locally have been observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Belimumab (LymphoStat-B), a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits BlyS, was developed for the treatment of these diseases. OBJECTIVE: To summarize preclinical development, efficacy and safety of belimumab in treatment of RA and SLE. METHODS: Articles found in a PubMed search and data presented in abstract form at international conferences up to August 2008 are described. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Belimumab was well tolerated in treatment of RA over 24 weeks and SLE over 3 years. It significantly decreased rheumatoid factor (RF) levels, and modestly reduced symptoms of RA, especially in some subgroups such as patients with high disease activity, positive RF and no anti-TNF treatment experience. It also significantly reduced symptoms of SLE, and decreased anti-double-stranded DNA ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs when the immune system attacks other cells and tissues in the body resulting in inflammation and damage. The heart, joints, skin, lungs, blood vessels, liver, kidneys and nervous system are commonly involved.. Benlysta (belimumab) is a B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS)-specific inhibitor indicated for the treatment of adult patients with active, autoantibody-positive, systemic lupus erythematosus who are receiving standard therapy.. Limitations of Use: the efficacy of Benlysta has not been evaluated in patients with severe active lupus nephritis or severe active central nervous system lupus. Benlysta has not been studied in combination with other biologics or intravenous cyclophosphamide. Use of Benlysta is not recommended in these situations.. Setting: The type of physical site where the drug is provided. Settings include inpatient hospital, outpatient hospital, clinic office, or home-infusion. ...
Rodbell deduced that GTP was probably the active biological factor in dissociating glucagon from the cell's receptor, and that ... produced profound metabolic effects in the cell. This activation of the G-protein, Rodbell postulated, was the "second ... or cell receptor, receives information from outside the cell; a cell transducer processes this information across the cell ... could reverse the binding action of glucagon to the cell receptor and thus dissociate the glucagon from the cell altogether. He ...
Factor X, Factor XI, Factor XIII, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, High-molecular-weight kininogen, Insulin receptor, ... Sickle-cell disease (T), Skin and skin structure infection (T), Stress hyperglycemia (T), Stroke (T), Strongyloidiasis (T), ... Macrophage activation syndrome (T), Macular degeneration, Malignant hyperthermia, Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, ... Mast cell, Muscle, Norovirus (T), Parvovirus B19 (T), Platelet, Porphyrin, Prostaglandin, Respiratory failure (T), Starling ...
BaP diminished NMDA receptor-dependent nerve cell activity measured as mRNA expression of the NMDA NR2B receptor subunit.[12] ... This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ... Stribinskis, Vilius; Ramos, Kenneth S. (2006). "Activation of Human Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 Retrotransposition by ... expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2),[33] which is a eukaryotic receptor for bacterial surface ...
Nutrient-Sensitive Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Dictate Cell Survival». Cell, 130, 2007, pàg. 1095-107. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell. ... The isolation and identification of the anti-black tongue factor» (PDF). J. Biol. Chem., 123, 1, 1938, pàg. 137-49. ... Chambon P, Weill JD, Mandel P «Nicotinamide mononucleotide activation of new DNA-dependent polyadenylic acid synthesizing ... Això es realitza mitjançant la unió i l'obertura d'un tipus de canals de calci anomenats receptors de rianodina, presents a les ...
"Hepatic Stellate Cell in Fibrosis: Stellate Cell Activation". Division of Liver Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Scott ... "Regulation of thyroid hormone activation via the liver X-receptor/retinoid X-receptor pathway". Human and Natural Sciences ... "Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor promotes liver repair and induces oval cell migration and proliferation in rats". ... "Liver cell proliferation induced by nafenopin and cyproterone acetate is not associated with increases in activation of ...
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading. • cell ... "Rac activation and inactivation control plasticity of tumor cell movement". Cell. 135 (3): 510-23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09. ... regulation of cell migration. • endocytosis. • ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • T cell costimulation. • blood coagulation. ... engulfment of apoptotic cell. • dendrite development. • auditory receptor cell morphogenesis. • hyperosmotic response. • ...
"Class IV semaphorin Sema4A enhances T-cell activation and interacts with Tim-2.". Nature. 419 (6907): 629-33. PMID 12374982. ... semaphorins 4A and 4D and their receptors in the lung is enhanced by allergen and vascular endothelial growth factor". BMC ... regulation of endothelial cell migration. • regulation of cell shape. • negative regulation of angiogenesis. • T cell ... neural crest cell migration. • positive regulation of cell migration. • negative regulation of axon extension involved in axon ...
"Transcription factor Nrf2 activation by inorganic arsenic in cultured keratinocytes: involvement of hydrogen peroxide". Exp. ... Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cancer cells,[ ... Enzymes and receptors that contain thiol or sulfhydryl functional groups are actively targeted by arsenite (III) metabolites.[ ... cell proliferation, and eventually to cell death.[28] Another mechanism in which reactive oxygen species cause cell death would ...
The platelet Gs protein-coupled receptor (prostacyclin receptor) is activated when it binds to PGI2. This activation, in turn, ... Factor Xa inhibitors. (with some II inhibition). Heparin group/. glycosaminoglycans/. (bind antithrombin). *Low-molecular- ... Prostacyclin is produced in endothelial cells, which line the walls of arteries and veins,[10] from prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) by ... leading to platelet activation and subsequent coagulation). PGI2 also binds to endothelial prostacyclin receptors, and in the ...
Zika Virus Depletes Neural Progenitors in Human Cerebral Organoids through Activation of the Innate Immune Receptor TLR3» (en ... Cell Stem Cell, 2016 Nov 3; 19 (5), pàg. 663-671. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.07.019. PMC: 5144538. PMID: 27524440 [Consulta: 3 ... Jin L, Guo X, Shen C, Hao X, et al «Salivary factor LTRIN from Aedes aegypti facilitates the transmission of Zika virus by ... Cell Stem Cell, 2016 Aug 4; 19 (2), pp. 258-265. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.04.014. PMID: 27162029 [Consulta: 6 octubre 2016]. ...
... such as cell aggregation, migration, proliferation and activation; cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion; endocytosis of HA, ... Cell receptors for hyaluronic acid[edit]. So far, cell receptors that have been identified for HA fall into three main groups: ... HA hydrogels are appealing for engineering vasculature from endothelial progenitor cells by using appropriate growth factors ... Receptor CD44 participates in cell adhesion interactions required by tumor cells. Although hyaluronan binds to receptor CD44, ...
Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... Howson LJ, Salio M, Cerundolo V. MR1-Restricted Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells and Their Activation during Infectious ... Neonatal and adult recent thymic emigrants produce IL-8 and express complement receptors CR1 and CR2. JCI insight. 2017-08-17, ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ...
... that prevents T-cell activation and proliferation by binding the T-cell receptor complex present on all differentiated T cells ... A TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) binding protein is a monoclonal antibody or a circulating receptor such as infliximab ( ... causing B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody ... T-cell receptor directed antibodies[edit]. Muromonab-CD3 is a murine anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody of the IgG2a type ...
in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic ... for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system ... for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells ... for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells ...
... histone/DNA interaction and to recruit transcription factors which ultimately cause repression of some genes and activation of ... 37,0 37,1 37,2 «Host cell autophagy is induced by Toxoplasma gondii and contributes to parasite growth»։ The Journal of ... Thus, chronic cocaine, or prolonged HDAC inhibition, induces several GABAA receptor subunits in NAc, which is associated with ... 38,0 38,1 «Host cell manipulation by the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii»։ Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 65 (12): 1900- ...
"Activation functions 1 and 2 of nuclear receptors: molecular strategies for transcriptional activation". Mol. Endocrinol. 17 ( ... Loewenstein, Werner R. (2000). The Touchstone of Life: Molecular Information, Cell Communication, and the Foundations of Life. ... Fiaschi-Taesch, NM; Stewart, AF (Feb 2003). "Minireview: parathyroid hormone-related protein as an intracrine factor-- ... Olefsky JM (2001). "Nuclear receptor minireview series". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (40): 36863-4. PMID 11459855. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
"Activation of CD4 T cells by Raf-independent effectors of Ras". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (10): 6003-8. PMC 156316. ... "Inhibition of phospholipase C-epsilon by Gi-coupled receptors". Cell. Signal. 16 (8): 921-8. PMID 15157671. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Differential roles of Ras and Rap1 in growth factor-dependent activation of phospholipase C epsilon". Oncogene 21 (53): 8105-13 ... "Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor ...
2003). "The epidermal growth factor-like domains of the human EMR2 receptor mediate cell attachment through chondroitin sulfate ... and activation of myeloid cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 353 (1): 133-8. PMID 17174274. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.11.148. ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ... 2002). "The human EGF-TM7 family member EMR2 is a heterodimeric receptor expressed on myeloid cells". J. Leukoc. Biol. 71 (5): ...
... acid-induced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinases in gastric carcinoma cells ... 2007). "Cross-talk between G protein-coupled receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways contributes to ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ... Receptor žučne kiseline je G-protein spregnuti receptor koji vezuje žučne kiseline.[1] Jedan od efekata ovog receptora je ...
... was originally detected as survival promoter derived from a glioma cell. Later studies determined GDNF uses a receptor tyrosine ... They produce their effects by activation of tyrosine kinases.. *^ Zigmond MJ, Cameron JL, Hoffer BJ, Smeyne RJ (2012). " ... Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ... Nerve growth factor[edit]. Nerve growth factor (NGF) uses the high-affinity receptor TrkA[11][8] to promote myelination[11] and ...
By NK cells[edit]. The typical ADCC involves activation of NK cells by antibodies. An NK cell expresses Fc receptors, mostly ... Once the Fc receptor binds to the Fc region of IgG, the NK cell releases cytotoxic factors that cause the death of the target ... effector cells expressing Fc receptor CD16 are co-incubated with the antibody-labelled target cells. Effector cells are ... NK cells are involved in killing tumor cells and other cells that may lack MHC I on their surface, indicating a non-self cell. ...
transmembrane signaling receptor activity. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. • cell membrane. • ... The protein may function as a growth or differentiation factor receptor.[6] ... "Resistance to ROS1 inhibition mediated by EGFR pathway activation in non-small cell lung cancer". PLOS ONE. 8 (12): e82236. doi ... cell surface. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • cytoplasm. • integral component of plasma membrane. • receptor complex. ...
"Transcriptional activation of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor gene by the Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) tumor ... B cell differentiation. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of ... KLF6, BCD1, CBA1, COPEB, CPBP, GBF, PAC1, ST12, ZF9, Kruppel-like factor 6, Kruppel like factor 6. ... "Transcriptional activation of the human inducible nitric-oxide synthase promoter by Kruppel-like factor 6". The Journal of ...
E2 binds to cellular receptors in order to enter the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis. E1 contains a fusion ... January 2010). "Factors associated with persistence of arthralgia among Chikungunya virus-infected travellers: report of 42 ... "Chikungunya virus induces IPS-1-dependent innate immune activation and protein kinase R-independent translational shutoff" ... bud on the surface of the infected cell, where they are released by exocytosis to infect other cells.[34] ...
"T cell receptor "inside-out" pathway via signaling module SKAP1-RapL regulates T cell motility and interactions in lymph nodes ... The PKD-Rap1 interaction may thus be central to the subsequent activation of Rap1 and triggering of downstream effectors such ... Ras and Rap are regulated by different sets of guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, thus ... In T-cells, the immune cell adaptor SKAP1 couples the TCR to the formation of a complex between Rap1 and RapL for T-cell ...
... activation of the D2 receptor promoter by members of the retinoic acid receptor-retinoid X receptor family". Proceedings of the ... Cell death may be instigated in the meibomian glands,[30][55] hypothalamic cells,[56] hippocampus cells[57][58] and-important ... Risk factors for skeletal effects include older age, greater dosage and longer course of treatment. Most bone changes cause no ... transcriptional activation of the dopamine D2 receptor - in addition to serotonin and glutamate receptors - is regulated by ...
Abrams, BM (2013). "Factors that cause concern". Med Clin N Am. 97 (2): 225-242. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2012.11.002. PMID 23419623 ... Once stimulated, a nociceptor sends a message up the length of the nerve fiber to the nerve cells in the brain, signaling that ... The brain itself is not sensitive to pain, because it lacks pain receptors. However, several areas of the head and neck do have ... Tension headaches are thought to be caused by activation of peripheral nerves in the head and neck muscles Cluster headaches ...
... autoimmune activation of orbital fibroblasts, which in TAO express the TSH receptor, is thought to play a central role.[20] ... The TSHr is expressed on the follicular cells of the thyroid gland (the cells that produce thyroid hormone), and the result of ... Identification of risk factors for optic neuropathy". Archives of Ophthalmology. 102 (10): 1469-72. doi:10.1001/archopht. ... Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins recognize and bind to the thyrotropin receptor (TSH receptor) which stimulates the ...
Contradicting interplay between insulin-like growth factor-1 and miR-486-5p in primary NK cells and hepatoma cell lines with a ... Phytochemicals and Estrogen-Receptor Agonists from the Aerial Parts of Liriope platyphylla, Yu-Chi Tsai, Chia-Chun Hsu, Mohamed ... Synthesis of Carbamates by Direct C-H Bond Activation of Formamides, Balaji D. Barve, Yang-Chang Wu, Mohamed El-Shazly, Da-Wei ... pendula protect SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells from b-amyloid insult, Tung-Ho Wu, Yung-Yi Cheng, Jing-Ru Liou, Tzong-Der Way ...
FOXA1 prevents binding of the transcription factor Smad3 to the nuclear receptor importin 7, thus preventing the initiation of ... Previously, it was possible to look into animal cells only, as plant cells have robust cell walls. ... In a series of experiments carried out in men and mice, it was found that a single episode of exercise leads to activation of ... Suggested Reading: animal cell vs. plant cell. Reference: "Recent advances in matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass ...
... of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane that circumferentially binds each cell to ... Activation of basolateral M3 muscarinic receptors by neurotransmitters (e.g., acetylcholine) initiates signaling cascades that ... and tumour necrosis factor α. on T84 cell function," Gut, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 191-198, 1999. View at: Google Scholar*C. ... K. Ebnet, "Organization of multiprotein complexes at cell-cell junctions," Histochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 130, no. 1, pp ...
Culture of melanoma cells on type I collagen increased the activation state of MT1-MMP. Nonspecific symptoms of pain syndromes ... The aim of this study was to identify factors predicting successful aAVF maturation and to determine positive technical aspects ... Our model predicts that the circadian rhythms of cortisol, our proinflammatory mediator, and its receptor exhibit seasonal ... The changes in the composition of biomembrane PL were accompanied by an increase in the total cholesterol content in red cell ...
B , whole cell lysates treated the same as above were examined for MAPK activation. Whole cell lysates from cells treated with ... factor receptor FRS2 contains several tyrosine residues that have been shown to be phosphorylated in response to growth factor ... When the cells were pretreated with the MEK inhibitor U, the FGF2-induced cell rounding was completely blocked and the cells ... Tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2 Y , possibly through the action of the tyrosine kinase receptor itself, leads to activation of ...
We show that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is required for PI5P-dependent activation of Akt in infected HeLa cells or ... keeps infected cells alive by preventing the lysosomal trafficking and degradation of an activated growth factor receptor. ... keeps infected cells alive by preventing the lysosomal trafficking and degradation of an activated growth factor receptor. ... as a regulator of vesicular trafficking that alters growth factor receptor signaling by impairing lysosomal degradation, a ...
B. Preferentially kill abnormal body cells. C. Secrete tumor necrosis factor. D. Both are activated by interferon-gamma and ... A.It is activated by binding to a receptor on an antibody molecule. B. It is activated by contact with collagen on the surface ... C. Initiated by antibody activation of complement. D. Components of the inflammatory response. E. Both part of the specific ... C. Memory cells respond faster to antigen. D. Both plasma cells are more effective antigen-presenting cells and memory cells ...
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor of the immunoglobulin ... A partially purified transcription factor fraction derived from uninfected cells that contains complex A is able to restore Pol ... Temporal activation of MyoD transcriptional targets was significantly delayed, whereas targets of the Rb1/E2F transcriptional ... has been shown to be cytotoxic in some tumor cells and, as a ligand of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma ( ...
Alteration of transcription factor mRNAs during the isolation and culture of rat hepatocytes suggests the activation of a ... Deregulated expression of cytokine receptor gene, CRLF2, is involved in lymphoid transformation in B-cell precursor acute ... Tweed, J. L., Avil, S. J. and Campbell, J. (2007) Aetiological factors in the development of MTSS. Paper presented to: Society ... Patterson, L. H. and Raleigh, S. M. (1998) Reductive metabolism: its application in prodrug activation. In: Gooderham, N. J. ( ...
Factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIR:Ag) has been widely used as a marker for endothelial cells. Aminoacylation of rat liver ... Tissue-specific and ubiquitous factors binding next to the glucocorticoid receptor modulate transcription from the mouse ... Activation of protein kinase C by trimethyltin: relevance to neurotoxicity. Although cancer has rarely been reported in this ... The cell lines used for the assay were as follows: MDCK cells for the influenza A virus (Fluv. By differential screening of a ...
The percentage of T cells with Fc receptors for IgC (T gamma) was normal during illness and slightly reduced afterwards. ... and toxins that impede the proliferation of mature hepatocytes results in the activation of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), ... The lack of data regarding cardiovascular risk factors among university students in Hungary prompted us to undertake a cross- ... The ability to generate functional liver cells expal propellant systems murcia infection makes EBD cells potentially useful for ...
Kratom is ABSOLUTELY habit forming because of its partial agonist (activation) of endogenous opioid receptors. I used to think ... This last compound is a poison that is responsible for hangovers and free radical damage to bodily cells. ... activated by environmental factors. ... Kratom can only stimulate mu and kappa receptors in large doses ... fully activate all of the brains opioid receptors and act powerfully on the mu receptors:. *Mu Receptors - Stimulation ...
Esrrb transcription factor plays a key role in maintaining stem cell identity even after countless divisions ... Deciphering the virus interactions with the entry receptors in human cells, and their potential inhibition ... Mechanism of activation of a major toxin involved in whooping cough. *Meningitis: analysis of the long-term protection of the ... Esrrb transcription factor plays a key role in maintaining stem cell identity even after countless divisions ...
... receptor mediated control of cell differentiation, signal transduction, and molecular methods of disease diagnosis ... lymphocyte activation and tolerance, targeted disruption of lymphocyte molecules, autoimmunity, and antigen presentation. ... molecular basis of endothelial gene expression and role of hemodynamic factors, targeted disruption of endothelial adhesion ... Research Interests: Cell Manipulation, Transfusion Medicine, Haematopoietic stem cells. Arlene H. Sharpe, M.D., Ph.D.. Senior ...
This suggests that certain mammary LRECs (potentially stem cells) remain stably positive for these receptors, raising the ... and prolactin subsequent to a long chase period to identify label-retaining cells. Label-retaining epithelial cells (LRECs) ... cycling mammary stem/progenitor cells that are distinguished by the presence or absence of nuclear steroid receptor expression. ... ER-α-positive and PR-positive cells represented about 30-40% of the LREC subpopulation. Administration of estrogen, ...
Activation of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases via cognate Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-like peptide ligands ... Age factors , Progenitor cells , Nodules , Serum levels , Pregnancy , Dilution , Pituitary , Morphology , Stem cells , Cells ( ... CELL BIOLOGY , ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR-ALPHA , GENETICS & HEREDITY , mammary gland , PROGESTERONE-RECEPTOR , STEM-CELL ACTIVITY , ... STEM-CELLS , RECEPTOR-ALPHA EXPRESSION , HORMONE , EPITHELIAL-CELLS , BREAST-CANCER RISK , MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES , MOUSE ...
... neurons suggest a novel epilepsy mechanism Premature cell senescence and T cell receptor independent activation of CD8+ T cells ... A systematic review and meta-analysis Aberrant activation of the GIMAP enhancer by oncogenic transcription factors in T-cell ... cells derived from autologous induced pluripotent stem cells Microbiota-dependent activation of an autoreactive T cell receptor ... T cells against NK cell attack mediated by the activating receptor NCR1 IL-2 inducible T cell kinase tunes T regulatory cell ...
"Inducing aversive learning through thermogenetic activation of Kenyon cell ensembles in Drosophila melanogaster", Nov 27, 2014 ... Richard Newcomb, University of Auckland, New Zealand: "The origin of insect odorant receptors: the kiwi connection", Sep 23, ... Akiko Sugio, INRA Rennes, Frankreich: "Plant-aphid-symbiont interactions: what are the factors maintaining their association ... Katayoon Dehesh, Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis CA, USA: "How Stressed Out Cells Signal for Help ...
DG75 B cells that were transduced to stably express the germline-reverted (gl)VRC01, 12A21, and NIH45-46 B cell receptors (as ... it was reasoned that in vivo activation of B cells expressing the gl3BNC60 BCR should also translate into the activation of B ... That is, the binding of antibodies to gp120 of HIV may decrease or eliminate HIV infectivity and/or virulence factor activity, ... DG75 B cells that were transduced to stably express the gl-reverted (gl)VRC01, 12A21, and NIH45-46 B cell receptors (as ...
Protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes have emerged as key targets for the blockade of early T-cell activation. Breast milk and plasma ... The impact of the TM(Pro) mutation on metastasis was dependent on both tumor cell-associated tissue factor and thrombin ... salivary SIgA and the spontaneous Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 mRNA expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ... diminished caspase induction and protected SH-SY5Y cells and primary cultures of cortical neurons from NO-induced cell death, ...
JQ-EZ-05 cell line Total RNA was extracted from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) followed by RT-PCR to generate ... polymer solution, 2.0 g.kg-1 at 20 min and 0.4 g.kg-1 every 20 min Interleukin-3 receptor thereafter) [5]. During a cycling ... known to have transcription factor activities express highly in SCLC[16] but the genes that were upregulated by HIF-1 alpha are ... MCP-1 is one of thte chemokine responsible for the recruitment and activation of #selleck inhibitor randurls[1,1,,,CHEM1,]# ...
... leading to potent activation of pro-inflammatory pathways that were associated with a marked inhibition of lipid synthesis, ... tumor necrosis receptor-associated factor 6; Figure 1 and Additional File 12), leading to activation of the p38 MAPK signaling ... Cross talk of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor in human microvascular endothelial cells. Exp Cell Res. ... The MHC II complex presents antigen fragments to T-helper cells by binding to the CD4 receptor on T-helper cells. However, we ...
... discusses the available literature and shows that virulence of NDV is a complex trait determined by multiple genetic factors. ... However, the available information is scattered and a comprehensive overview of the factors and conditions determining NDV ... Binding of the viral HN glycoprotein to sialic acid-containing cell surface proteins, which serve as receptors, triggers the F ... Entry of many enveloped viruses, including NDV, into host cells often requires the activation of viral fusion glycoproteins ...
width=100px; cell padding=50px,{{#pwImage:Pathway:WP4846,250px,,SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Pathway}} ... 5 [internal function]: renderPathwayImage(Object(Parser), Pathway:WP4876, 250px, , Activation of N...) ... Virus-host interactome and proteomic survey of PMBCs from COVID-19 patients reveal potential virulence factors influencing SARS ... width=100px,{{#pwImage:Pathway:WP4883,250px,,SARS-CoV-2 and Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor : Molecular ...
  • Supporting this, the current study found that VTA GABA activation is less efficacious at suppressing NAc DA release in vivo when VTA DA neurons are excited at higher stimulation frequencies (Figure 5). (mi-rna.com)
  • Insect cell stimulation by LPS requires the activity of cell-released proteases. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • GD1a-loaded CHO-K1-expressing TLR5 cells had a higher potential for hBD-2 induction following FliC stimulation than GD1a-loaded CHO-K1 cells not expressing TLR5. (pianolarge.ga)
  • Persistent COX-2 overexpression is due to continuous and/or repeated stimulation of COX-2 expression in inflammatory cells by showers of proinflammatory cytokines or endotoxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stimulation of TAK1 causes activation of NF-kappaB, which is blocked by dominant-negative mutants of NIK, and an inactive TAK1 mutant prevents activation of NF-kappaB that is mediated by IL-1 but not by NIK. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin or by isoproterenol caused increased phosphorylation of phospholipase C-beta(2) isoform and reduced the formation of inositol phosphates after ACh stimulation of muscarinic receptors. (saladgaffe.gq)
  • The use of cholera toxin-binding subunit adsorbed to gold as a specific probe for labeling the ganglioside GM(1) and immunoelectron microscopy techniques showed that agonist stimulation produced a clustering and sequestration of adenosine receptors in caveolae. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • Fas-receptor stimulation causes Daxx to translocate out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs are made from different chemical structures that work on the brain by doing some changes in its communication system and hindering with the normal way brain cells or what you called neurons send, receive and process different information. (therecover.com)
  • The likeness in the structure tricks the receptors and permits the drugs to affix into the neurons and activate it. (therecover.com)
  • Studies using heterologously expressed N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors 4 or neurons in culture 5,6 brought evidence that the NMDA receptor might be a major target for xenon action. (asahq.org)
  • Current flow through heterologously expressed non-NMDA receptors of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate type are reduced in the presence of xenon, 7,8 as are non-NMDA receptor-mediated currents recorded from cultured cortical neurons. (asahq.org)
  • Dual somatic whole cell and juxtacellular recordings were made at 37°C from MSO neurons in 200 μm horizontal slices prepared from P29-46 gerbils as described previously (Scott et al. (mi-rna.com)
  • 2001). The endogenous burst activity of DA neurons is at least partially regulated by NMDA activation, likely induced by excitatory VTA afferents (Chergui et al. (mi-rna.com)
  • 2009). Pharmacological blockade of GABAA receptors can also induce burst firing of DA neurons (Paladini et al. (mi-rna.com)
  • Importantly, single nonburst action potentials recorded from DA neurons are more efficiently blocked by GABA activation compared to spikes that occur in bursts (Lobb et al. (mi-rna.com)
  • the activity of VTA DA neurons at times when this website they are receiving excitatory afferent activation that drives bursting. (mi-rna.com)
  • Despite nearly a century of evidence suggesting that the lateral hypothalamus (LH) contains neurons essential to sustain wakefulness, the primary wake-promoting cells in this brain region studied to date have been the hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin neurons. (eneuro.org)
  • Here, we show that chemogenetic excitation of LH neurons can induce sustained wakefulness even in absence of Hcrt signaling and that concurrent Hcrt neuron activation can prolong arousal. (eneuro.org)
  • PubChem]Anxinil binds to 5-HT type 1A serotonin receptors on presynaptic neurons in the dorsal raphe and on postsynaptic neurons in the hippocampus, thus inhibiting the firing rate of 5-HT-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • Shigella flexneri , a bacterium that causes dysentery, injects IpgD, a phosphoinositide phosphatase that generates the lipid phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P), into host cells, thereby activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt survival pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our study indicated that IMI challenge with S. uberis (strain O140J) elicited a strong transcriptomic response, leading to potent activation of pro-inflammatory pathways that were associated with a marked inhibition of lipid synthesis, stress-activated kinase signaling cascades, and PPAR signaling (most likely PPARγ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, the invasion capacity of Espin-depleted Mel-ret melanoma cells derived from a tumor of the RET-mouse was dramatically less than that of control melanoma cells with reductions of lamellipodia, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and GTP-Rac1 activities. (courtfield.ml)
  • Pharmacological reagents, PP2 and Dasatinib, which block Src family kinase activation, blocked scattered growth of CDCP1-overexpressing cells in 3D Matrigel culture, suggesting that CDCP1 might function through the activation of Src-family kinases (SFKs). (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of β1-integrin-receptor-null fibroblasts, blockage of cell surface integrin receptors that regulate fibronectin assembly and disruption of Rho kinase all result in suppressed deposition of both fibronectin and microfibrils. (biologists.org)
  • As a small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase, apatinib has been proven successful in advanced gastric cancer and breast cancer. (augmentin2020.site)
  • Most GIST harbor a mutation affecting either the KIT or PDGFRA genes, whereas a small subgroup of tumors is wild type for mutations.Mutation of tyrosine kinase receptors is a mechanism of drug resistance that can occur either at the beginning of treatment (primary resistance) or during the course of therapy (secondary resistance). (termsreign.gq)
  • The rice XA21 receptor kinase confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. (iasvn.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a recently published study, 13 we demonstrated that xenon depresses both NMDA and AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory while not affecting γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A ) receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission in an acute murine brain slice preparation of a subcortical brain structure, the basolateral amygdala. (asahq.org)
  • In the current study, we therefore determined the impact of xenon on GABA A , NMDA, and AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in two distinct CNS areas that might be critically involved in producing the hypnotic and analgesic effects of xenon. (asahq.org)
  • Luteolin also interacts with GABA receptors and has been shown in studies to help with mood. (centrapeak.com)
  • Buspirone has no significant affinity for benzodiazepine receptors and does not affect GABA binding in vitro or in vivo when tested in preclinical models. (nih.gov)
  • Such nano molecules can be delivered directly into the tumor, suppress the cell cycle of the cancer cells and prevent cancer progression. (bioexplorer.net)
  • Nonpancreatic tumors may cause recurrent hypoglycemia known as nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia. (storysteel.cf)
  • The impact of the TM(Pro) mutation on metastasis was dependent on both tumor cell-associated tissue factor and thrombin procoagulant function. (levaquin2020.site)
  • CDCP1 is not only a surface marker for cells with higher metastatic potential, but also functionally involved in enhancing tumor metastasis. (pnas.org)
  • It has become increasingly clear that tumor cells cooperate with environmental factors, including other cell types in the tumor, such as fibroblasts, macrophages, platelets, and endothelial cells, as well as extracellular matrix, to metastasize ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • On the other hand, many tumor-intrinsic factors have also been identified that promote ( 8 - 11 ) or inhibit ( 12 - 14 ) tumor metastasis, using expression microarrays and other large-scale profiling technologies such as copy-number variation and SNP arrays. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, several cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesion molecules have been shown in different systems to contribute to tumor metastasis. (pnas.org)
  • Plasma membrane proteins, such as CD133 and CD44 are often used as markers to define tumor-initiating cells and cells with higher propensity to metastasize ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • 5-MTP blocks cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and inhibits tumor growth and cancer metastasis in a xenograft model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blood in eyeball was collected for the determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin (Alb), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and IL-10 in serum. (phcog.com)
  • We identify here leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and IL-6 as tumor microenvironmental factors that can promote TAM generation. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • While MEK inhibitors have exhibited potent in vitro activity in KRAS -mutant tumor cells ( 8 ), the in vivo activity of these agents has been disappointing due to the development of resistance ( 8-11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we employ primary cell cultures and stereotaxic injections into mouse brain to investigate the cell type specific localization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tat is released by HIV-1-infected cells in the absence of cell death both in vitro and in vivo ( 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, meanwhile, several studies provide evidence for non-NMDA receptors to play an important role in the xenon anesthetic state. (asahq.org)
  • Consistent with these in vitro findings, in vivo studies using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans 10 or human volunteers 11,12 provide evidence that mechanisms beyond an exclusive NMDA receptor antagonism play a role in mediating the xenon anesthetic state. (asahq.org)
  • It works by preventing the neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (also called serotonin) and noradrenaline from being taken back up into nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. (storysteel.gq)
  • In vitro preclinical studies have shown that buspirone has a high affinity for serotonin (5-HT 1A ) receptors. (nih.gov)
  • It is an anxiolytic agent and a serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • In this study, the expression and significance of COX-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were explored in the cancer tissues of patients with lung cancer. (storysteel.ml)
  • Outcomes We discovered that the fibrinogen articles can be elevated at the first stage of vascular pack transplantation, developing a fibrin reticulate framework and tubular cable connections between skin pores of -TCP materials, which gives a support for cell migration and attachment. (exemestane.info)
  • However, the proportion of EGFP+ endogenous cells in the total quantity of cells was lower than that of the control group, indicating that vascular bundle implantation PTC124 reversible enzyme inhibition significantly promoted the survival of exogenous seed cells (Fig.?2E). (exemestane.info)
  • Collectively, these analyses indicated that this fibrin network within the prevascularized scaffolds provided a structural connection between the internal micropores of the scaffold, which supported endogenous cell migration and infiltration, which might facilitate formation of the vascular network to provide nutrients and air towards the exogenous seed cells and boost their survival price. (exemestane.info)
  • For example, a majority of prostanoids produced by macrophages are PGE2 and TXA2, while the major prostanoid produced by vascular endothelial cells is PGI2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since COX-2 occupies a key position in cell-selective prostanoid productions, it plays multiple physiological roles including vascular protection and reproduction, and mediates a number of important pathological conditions, notably inflammation and tumorigenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Innoprot Green Fluorescent SST2 Somatostatin Receptor Cell Line allows to assay compounds, or analyze their capability to modulate SST2R activation and the following redistribution process inside the cells. (innoprot.com)
  • The high reproducibility of this assay allows monitoring SST2 Receptor redistribution process in High Throughput Screening. (innoprot.com)
  • Sulforhodamine-B assay was performed to analyze cytotoxic potential of Steviol whereas flow cytometer was used to analyze cell cycle, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species generation. (phcog.com)
  • Cell viability and cytotoxicity were measured by a CCK-8 assay and LDH release assay, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We developed a detached leaf infection assay to quickly and reliably measure activation of the XA21-mediated immune response using genetic markers. (iasvn.org)
  • Discordance in HIV-1 co-receptor use prediction by different genotypic algorithms and phenotype assay: intermediate profile in relation to concordant predictions. (termsreign.tk)
  • Since these neurotransmitters are involved in maintaining high mood and reducing the sensation of pain, blocking their re-uptake into nerve cells can improve the symptoms of depression, anxiety and neuropathic pain. (storysteel.gq)
  • Here, we investigated newly discovered HDAC inhibitors, thailandepsin A (TDP-A) and thailandepsin B (TDP-B), to determine the effects on cell viability, apoptosis and DNA damage response in ovarian cancer cells. (levaquin2020.site)
  • The arrays were assayed for immunohistochemical expression of MYC, p53, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha, ErbB2, MIB-1, and TrkC and for apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling). (faintpower.gq)
  • 0.05) in the MCF-7 cells, signifying the ongoing apoptosis. (phcog.com)
  • Thus, results suggest that induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was due to dose-dependent effect of Steviol. (phcog.com)
  • Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy had been performed PTC124 reversible enzyme inhibition and connective tissues growth aspect (CTGF) and fibrin appearance, exogenous cell success, endogenous cell behavior and migration, and collagen type I and III deposition had been evaluated at 1 and 4?weeks post implantation. (exemestane.info)
  • Thus, we explored whether this reticular structure promoted infiltration of endogenous cells and survival of exogenous seed cells. (exemestane.info)
  • However, siRNA depletion of RUNX2 in MDA-MB-231 cells reduces cell motility, while forced exogenous expression of RUNX2 in MCF7 cells increases cell motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Free electrons and holes bounded by weak interactions in organic molecules must be generated from excitons to produce photocurrent in organic solar cells. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • Present with 672 molecules/cell in log phase SD medium. (uniprot.org)
  • Cancer cells can decrease expression or activity of transporter molecules that regulate the uptake of hydrophilic chemotherapeutic drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • It recognizes double stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is generated during virus replication, or the synthetic mimic of dsRNA, named Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)), eliciting the generation of Type I IFNs and proinflammatory factors through its downstream NF-κB pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The FOXO subfamily of forkhead transcription factors are the most recently identified downstream targets of the PI3K/Akt pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • But this activation is not the same as the natural one even though the chemical structure of the drugs is a copy of what the brain produces. (therecover.com)
  • APP expression is also increased after brain injury, and increased levels are observed in apoptotic cells ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • This study demonstrated that the aged rat brain was capable of providing necessary environmental conditions for HNSCs to retain their multipotency and provided some evidence for the potential of stem cell replacement therapies to improve memory and cognitive deficits in AD. (pnas.org)
  • Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have been implicated in brain injury and various neurological disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that QDs can be used to specifically label and modulate microglia in primary cortical cultures and in brain and may allow for the selective delivery of therapeutic agents to these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Buspirone has moderate affinity for brain D 2 -dopamine receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Anxinil increases firing in the locus ceruleus, an area of brain where norepinephrine cell bodies are found in high concentration. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • Whereas wild-type CDCP1 enhances Src activation, point mutation Y734F abolishes in vitro dispersive growth in 3D culture and in vivo metastasis-enhancing activities of CDCP1. (pnas.org)
  • Fenvalerate-induced chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the bone marrow cells of mice in vivo. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • Only a small fraction of viral receptors have been identified so far. (pianolarge.ga)
  • Las afecciones cutáneas de etiología viral se presentan en un gran número de pacientes de la población general y también en nuestro medio se observa con mucha frecuencia. (ozonoterapiamadrid.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry was used in murine mammary glands that had been labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine during allometric growth to investigate the co-expression of DNA label retention and estrogen receptor (ER)-α or progesterone receptor (PR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using the same methods, we investigated the co-localization of [ 3 H]thymidine and ER-α or PR in mammary tissue from mice that had received treatment with estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin subsequent to a long chase period to identify label-retaining cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dopamine is also the responsible factor why drugs become more addictive compared to other natural rewards. (therecover.com)
  • Our results demonstrate the utility of AAV L7 ChR2 for revealing the contributions of Purkinje cells to circuit function and behavior, and they attest to the feasibility of promoter-based, targeted, genetic manipulations in primates. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • FGFR2 is part of the FGFR subfamily, which are receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular ligand-binding region with three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. (umbc.edu)
  • Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are key drivers of immune responses in the lung. (sciencemag.org)
  • The study underscores the importance of how structural cues from the ECM work in conjunction with immune mediators to influence immune cell functions in tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • Microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, become activated in response to injury and appear to have important roles in the defense against invading microbes and in wound repair [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, emerging evidences showed that TLR3 could also trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an essential secondary messenger that was required for NF-κB activation, leading to innate immune response [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings suggest that not only Aβ but that also altered APP processing during the course of AD may have effects on stem cell biology. (pnas.org)
  • Conclusions These findings demonstrate that prevascularization promotes the recruitment of endogenous cells and collagen deposition by upregulating fibrinogen and CTGF, directly resulting in new blood vessel formation. (exemestane.info)
  • Further work that builds on these findings could help to shed light on how uncontrolled Notch activation can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and multiple sclerosis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Moreover, poly (I:C) could be directly bound by the extracellular domain of CD14, thereby facilitating poly (I:C) uptake and enhancing TLR3 activation [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 24 hour cultures, fibronectin had formed short extracellular fibrils, whereas fibrillin-1 was mainly cell-associated with some pericellular staining. (biologists.org)
  • Stem cells of somatic tissues are hypothesized to protect themselves from mutation and cancer risk through a process of selective segregation of their template DNA strands during asymmetric division. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dividing adult somatic stem cells are postulated to protect themselves from mutation and cancer risk by segregation of their template DNA strands through a process known as asymmetric division [ 1 - 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent data suggest that Cr2 is a lupus susceptibility gene in the NZM2410 mouse model for lupus, as it generates complement receptors that are structurally and functionally altered. (termsreign.ga)
  • Thus, we identified PI5P, which was enriched in endosomes, as a regulator of vesicular trafficking that alters growth factor receptor signaling by impairing lysosomal degradation, a property used by S. flexneri to favor survival of host cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Survey of clinical members of the association of dental implantology in the United Kingdom: Part I. Previous studies indicated an association of elevated insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor expression levels with poor survival in patients with NSCLC. (storysteel.cf)
  • Although FOXO3a may initially trigger a program of cell cycle arrest and cell death in response to doxorubicin, sustained FOXO3a activation promotes drug resistance and survival of cells by activating ABCB1 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The association between polymorphisms in the inflammasome receptors NLRP1 and NLRP3 and HTLV-1 infection was evaluated in a northeastern Brazilian population (84 HTLV-1 carriers and 155 healthy controls). (fiocruz.br)
  • The early innate response to several viruses such as influenza virus, Sendai virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and adenovirus consists of interleukin (IL)-1ß production via inflammasome activation. (fiocruz.br)
  • and the synthesis of peptides which are not normally synthetized by dorsal root ganglia cells (galanin, VIP, neuropeptida Y...). The mechanism of the loss in flight capacity of old insects, however, remains unknown. (storysteel.gq)
  • Meanwhile, CTGF appearance is elevated, and more endogenous cells can be recruited and promote collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. (exemestane.info)
  • By 4?weeks post implantation, the tubular connections transformed into von Willebrand factor-positive capillary-like structures with deposition of type III collagen, and accelerated angiogenesis of endogenous cells. (exemestane.info)
  • At 1?week, the number of endogenous cells in the prevascularized group was more than twofold higher than the number of cells in the TEBG group. (exemestane.info)
  • The results demonstrated that prevascularization considerably elevated the distribution areas and comparative IOD of CTGF in every three zones from the grafts (Fig.?3A, B). A higher degree of CTGF appearance will probably facilitate recruitment of PTC124 reversible enzyme inhibition cells, and therefore may promote infiltration of endogenous cells into tissue-engineered bone tissue grafts CTGF, to promote angiogenesis and accelerate bone repair. (exemestane.info)
  • Identification and characterization of an antisense RNA transcript (gfg) from the human basic fibroblast growth factor gene. (storysteel.gq)
  • Expression in blood cells may contribute to biochemical and pathological improvements after neonatal intravenous gene therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VII in dogs. (pianolarge.gq)
  • gene name is PTGS-2 ) is expressed in diverse cells notably inflammatory cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we addressed whether the functional relationship between cell growth and RUNX2 gene expression is maintained in breast cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an antibiotic stimulus. (princeton.edu)
  • Their chromosomal distribution and sequence analyses suggest that the bZIP transcription factor family has evolved via gene duplication. (termsreign.cf)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of CDCP1 also correlates with activation of Src. (pnas.org)
  • Cancer cells are deficient in cytoguardin production which contributes to COX-2 overexpression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fibroblast-generated 5-MTP is capable of restoring the control of COX-2 overexpression in cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, it is not known whether the Fas-receptor stimuli or the ASK1 overexpression are caused by ROS or CRM1 mediated export. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to novel methods such as mass spectrometry and bioinformatics, it is now clear that glycans are critical regulators of the metabolism both in healthy cells and in malignant ones. (bioexplorer.net)
  • This suggests that certain mammary LRECs (potentially stem cells) remain stably positive for these receptors, raising the possibility that LRECs comprise a hierarchy of asymmetrically cycling mammary stem/progenitor cells that are distinguished by the presence or absence of nuclear steroid receptor expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each vial of Green Fluorescent SST2 Somatostatin Receptor Cell Line contains U2OS cells stably expressing SST2R tagged with tGFP. (innoprot.com)
  • Characteristic cytopathological changes of necrotic hepatocytes included shrinkage of the cell body, formation of cytoplasmic vesicles, vacuoles or cisternae and karyolysis. (storysteel.cf)
  • It inhibits COX-2 transcriptional activation induced by diverse proinflammatory and mitogenic factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fluc is a member of the azole family, which inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol of the fungal cell membrane.10 In vitro, the azoles are fungistatic against Candida species. (termsreign.ga)
  • We propose that increased insulin-induced activation of ERK in parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nerves contributes to AHR in obese mice, suggesting a drug-treatable link between obesity and asthma. (unicamp.br)
  • Ubiquitylation (ubi) by the E3-ligases Mindbomb1 (Mib1) and Neuralized (Neur) is required for activation of the DSL ligands Delta (Dl) and Serrate (Ser) to activate Notch signalling. (elifesciences.org)
  • During signalling, the ligands must be endocytosed in the signal-sending cell to activate Notch in the signal-receiving one. (elifesciences.org)
  • Axons that have lost connection to their cell bodies have altered electrical and synaptic activities, but whether such changes play a role in the axonal degeneration process is not clear. (jneurosci.org)
  • The photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic method aimed at selective destruction of neoplastic cells. (pianolarge.ga)
  • Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed selective ChR2 expression in Purkinje cells. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Selective prostanoid production in a cell-dependent manner permits the cells to carry out their unique physiological functions and participate in pathological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also investigated whether the aberrant expression of RUNX2 is linked to phenotypic parameters that could provide a selective advantage to cells during breast cancer progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By blocking their re-uptake, Duzela increases the amount of these neurotransmitters in the spaces between these nerve cells, increasing the level of communication between the cells. (storysteel.gq)
  • The increased wakefulness was similar in the presence or absence of the dual orexin receptor blocker almorexant (ALM). (eneuro.org)
  • The binding of FGFs to FGFRs is promiscuous, in that a receptor may be activated by several ligands and a ligand may bind to more that one type of receptor. (umbc.edu)