A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A multimeric complex that functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. ISGF3 is assembled in the CYTOPLASM and translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to INTERFERON signaling. It consists of ISGF3-GAMMA and ISGF3-ALPHA, and it regulates expression of many interferon-responsive GENES.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

BLyS: member of the tumor necrosis factor family and B lymphocyte stimulator. (1/168)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines includes both soluble and membrane-bound proteins that regulate immune responses. A member of the human TNF family, BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator), was identified that induced B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion. BLyS expression on human monocytes could be up-regulated by interferon-gamma. Soluble BLyS functioned as a potent B cell growth factor in costimulation assays. Administration of soluble recombinant BLyS to mice disrupted splenic B and T cell zones and resulted in elevated serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The B cell tropism of BLyS is consistent with its receptor expression on B-lineage cells. The biological profile of BLyS suggests it is involved in monocyte-driven B cell activation.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member TACI is a high affinity receptor for TNF family members APRIL and BLyS. (2/168)

An expression cloning approach was employed to identify the receptor for B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and identified the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member TACI as a BLyS-binding protein. Expression of TACI in HEK293T cells confers on the cells the ability to bind BLyS with subnanomolar affinity. Furthermore, a TACI-Fc fusion protein recognizes both the cleaved, soluble form of BLyS as well as the membrane BLyS present on the cell surface of a recombinant cell line. TACI mRNA is found predominantly in B-cells and correlates with BLyS binding in a panel of B-cell lines. We also demonstrate that TACI interacts with nanomolar affinity with the BLyS-related tumor necrosis factor homologue APRIL for which no clear in vivo role has been described. BLyS and APRIL are capable of signaling through TACI to mediate NF-kappaB responses in HEK293 cells. We conclude that TACI is a receptor for BLyS and APRIL and discuss the implications for B-cell biology.  (+info)

BAFF-R, a newly identified TNF receptor that specifically interacts with BAFF. (3/168)

B cell homeostasis has been shown to critically depend on BAFF, the B cell activation factor from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. Although BAFF is already known to bind two receptors, BCMA and TACI, we have identified a third receptor for BAFF that we have termed BAFF-R. BAFF-R binding appears to be highly specific for BAFF, suggesting a unique role for this ligand-receptor interaction. Consistent with this, the BAFF-R locus is disrupted in A/WySnJ mice, which display a B cell phenotype qualitatively similar to that of the BAFF-deficient mice. Thus, BAFF-R appears to be the principal receptor for BAFF-mediated mature B cell survival.  (+info)

TACI-Ig neutralizes molecules critical for B cell development and autoimmune disease. impaired B cell maturation in mice lacking BLyS. (4/168)

BLyS and APRIL have similar but distinct biological roles, mediated through two known TNF receptor family members, TACI and BCMA. We show that mice treated with TACI-Ig and TACI-Ig transgenic mice have fewer transitional T2 and mature B cells and reduced levels of circulating immunoglobulin. TACI-Ig treatment inhibits both the production of collagen-specific Abs and the progression of disease in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. In BLyS-deficient mice, B cell development is blocked at the transitional T1 stage such that virtually no mature B cells are present, while B-1 cell numbers are relatively normal. These findings further elucidate the roles of BLyS and APRIL in modulating B cell development and suggest that BLyS is required for the development of most but not all mature B cell populations found in the periphery.  (+info)

Identification of a novel receptor for B lymphocyte stimulator that is mutated in a mouse strain with severe B cell deficiency. (5/168)

BLyS (also called BAFF, TALL-1, THANK, and zTNF4), a TNF superfamily member, binds two receptors, TACI and BCMA, and regulates humoral immune responses [1-7]. These two receptors also bind APRIL [7-10], another TNF superfamily member. The results from TACI(-/-) and BCMA(-/-) mice suggest the existence of additional receptor(s) for BLyS. The TACI knockout gives the paradoxical result of B cells being hyperresponsive, suggesting an inhibitory role for this receptor [11, 12], while BCMA null mice have no discernable phenotype [13]. Here we report the identification of a third BLyS receptor (BR3; BLyS receptor 3). This receptor is unique in that, in contrast to TACI and BCMA, BR3 only binds BLyS. Treatment of antigen-challenged mice with BR3-Fc inhibited antibody production, indicating an essential role for BLyS, but not APRIL, in this response. A critical role for BR3 in B cell ontogeny is underscored by our data showing that the BR3 gene had been inactivated by a discrete, approximately 4.7 kb gene insertion event that disrupted the 3' end of the BR3 gene in A/WySnJ mice, which lack peripheral B cells.  (+info)

Competition for BLyS-mediated signaling through Bcmd/BR3 regulates peripheral B lymphocyte numbers. (6/168)

Striking cell losses occur during late B lymphocyte maturation, reflecting BcR-mediated selection coupled with requisites for viability promoting signals. How selection and survival cues are integrated remains unclear, but a key role for B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS(TM); trademark of Human Genome Sciences, Inc.) is suggested by its marked effects on B cell numbers and autoantibody formation as well as the B lineage-specific expression of BLyS receptors. Our analyses of the B cell-deficient A/WySnJ mouse have established Bcmd as a gene controlling follicular B cell life span, and recent reports show Bcmd encodes a novel BLyS receptor. Here we show that A/WySnJ B cells are unresponsive to BLyS, affording interrogation of how Bcmd influences B cell homeostasis. Mixed marrow chimeras indicate A/WySnJ peripheral B cells compete poorly for peripheral survival. Moreover, in vivo BrdU labeling shows that (A/WySnJ x BALB/c)F(1) B cells have an intermediate but uniform life span, indicating viability requires continuous signaling via this pathway. Together, these findings establish the BLyS/Bcmd pathway as a dominant mediator of B cell survival, suggesting competition for BLyS/Bcmd signals regulates follicular B cell numbers.  (+info)

Identification of downstream genes up-regulated by the tumor necrosis factor family member TALL-1. (7/168)

TALL-1 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family that binds to BCMA, TACI, and BAFF-R, three receptors mostly expressed by mature B lymphocytes. Previous studies have shown that the TALL-1 signaling is critically involved in B cell proliferation, maturation, and progression of lupus-like, autoimmune diseases. In this report, we performed cDNA subtractive hybridization experiments to identify downstream genes up-regulated by TALL-1. These experiments indicated that 10 genes, including interleukin (IL)-10, lymphocyte activation gene-1 (LAG-1), GCP-2, PBEF, ferritin, PIM-2, TFG, CD27 ligand, DUSP5, and archain, were up-regulated at the mRNA level by TALL-1 stimulation in B lymphoma RPMI-8226 cells and/or primary B lymphocytes. We also demonstrated that TALL-1 activated transcription of IL-10 and LAG-1 in a nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent manner in reporter gene assays. Moreover, our findings indicated BAFF-R, but not TACI, could dramatically up-regulate IL-10 secretion by RPMI-8226 cells. The identification of TALL-1-up-regulated genes will help explain the mechanisms of TALL-1-triggered biological and pathological effects and to identify molecular targets for intervention of lupus-like autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Aberrant expression of B-lymphocyte stimulator by B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells: a mechanism for survival. (8/168)

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is defined by the accumulation of CD5(+) B cells in the periphery and bone marrow. This disease is not characterized by highly proliferative cells but rather by the presence of leukemic cells with significant resistance to apoptosis and, therefore, prolonged survival. B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a newly identified tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member shown to be critical for maintenance of normal B-cell development and homeostasis and it shares significant homology with another TNF superfamily member, APRIL. The striking effects of BLyS on normal B-cell maintenance and survival raises the possibility that it may be involved in pathogenesis and maintenance of hematologic malignancies, including B-CLL. In this study, we investigated the status of APRIL and BLyS expression, as well as their receptors, in this disease. All B-CLL patient cells studied expressed one or more of 3 known receptors for BLyS; however, the pattern of expression was variable. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that B-CLL cells from a subset of patients aberrantly express BLyS and APRIL mRNA, whereas these molecules were not detectable in normal B cells. Furthermore, we provide in vitro evidence that BLyS protects B-CLL cells from apoptosis and enhances cell survival. Because these molecules are key regulators of B-cell homeostasis and tumor progression, leukemic cell autocrine expression of BLyS and APRIL may be playing an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease.  (+info)

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... express activation markers (ex. transferrin receptor) and enter the S phase (DNA synthesis phase) of the cell cycle. Meanwhile ... "B-cell growth factor (B-cell growth factor I or B-cell-stimulating factor, provisional 1) is a differentiation factor for ... IL-2 - a cytokine key activating factor for T cells and B cells secreted by T cells. Cells in early-stage activation ... T cell Replacing Factor), CSF (colony-stimulating factors), MAF (macrophage activation factors), and lymphotoxin. Most factors ...
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... products are critical components of the B-cell receptor. Mutations in either gene can cause uncontrolled cell activation and ... PAX5: this gene's product, Pax-5, is a transcription factor that controls the development, maturation, and survival of B-cells ... Bone marrow involvement may be due to DLBCL, NOS cells or low grade lymphoma cells; only DLBCL, NOS cell infiltrates indicate a ... In EBV+ DLBCL, small neoplastic B-cells, other lymphocyte typess, plasma cells, histiocytes and epithelioid cells interspersed ...
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cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. Activation of PDGFRα requires ... PDGFRA, i.e. platelet-derived growth factor receptor A, also termed PDGFRα, i.e. platelet-derived growth factor receptor α, or ... is a receptor located on the surface of a wide range of cell types. This receptor binds to certain isoforms of platelet-derived ... blood cells, connective tissue, and mesangial cells. Somatic mutations that cause the fusion of the PDGFRA gene with certain ...
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Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Inflammatory Biomarkers - c-reactive protein, Interleukin 6, Tumor necrosis factor α,VCAM-1. ... Sickle cell anemia may cause brain ischemia associated with the irregularly shaped blood cells. Sickle shaped blood cells clot ... calpain activation, and the arrest of protein synthesis. Additionally, removal of metabolic wastes is slowed. The interruption ... Individuals with sickle cell anemia, compressed blood vessels, ventricular tachycardia, plaque buildup in the arteries, blood ...
... and cell death. Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is ... The omnipresence of Daxx in the cell nucleus suggests that the protein may also function as a transcription factor. Although it ... "TGF-beta-induced apoptosis is mediated by the adapter protein Daxx that facilitates JNK activation". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (8): 708 ... At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well ...
... in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by specific receptors on the cell ... their activation into reactive forms using energy from ATP, and thirdly, the assembly of these precursors into complex ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ...
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... a cellular factor linked to the G2/M phase transition of the mammalian cell cycle". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... This activity is usually attributed to the role of proteasomes in the activation of NF-κB which further regulates the ... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
... an oncogenic receptor. When MUC4 and ErbB2 are able to interact, they trigger an activation loop. As a result, the ErbB2/ErbB3 ... The role of other risk factors in gastric cancer such as salt-preserved food, smoking, auto-immune gastritis are not well ... Some cases are inherited, and these cases are often caused by mutations in the CDH1 gene, which encodes the important cell-cell ... July 2013). "Signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma: a distinct subset of mucin-poor microsatellite-stable signet ring cell ...
... endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
TNF-a binds on the TNFRI receptor, while LT interacts with LTβ-receptor expressed on FDC precursors. In mice lacking B cells, ... "Endocytosis and recycling of immune complexes by follicular dendritic cells enhances B cell binding and activation". Frontiers ... Factor Mfge produced in lymphoid tissues mainly by FDCs is known to enhance engulfment of apoptotic cells. Deficit of this ... FDCs, in turn, attract B cells with chemoattractant CXCL13. B cells lacking CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, still enter the ...
... type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that ... naming the responsible factor viral inhibitory factor (VIF). It took another fifteen to twenty years, using somatic cell ... STAT activation initiates the most well-defined cell signaling pathway for all IFNs, the classical Janus kinase-STAT (JAK-STAT ... A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can protect neighboring ...
"Direct interaction of nerve growth factor receptor, TrkA, with non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Abl, through the activation loop ... "Stem cell factor induces phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-dependent Lyn/Tec/Dok-1 complex formation in hematopoietic cells". ... Splice variants of an insulin and growth factor receptor-binding protein with PH and SH2 domains". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (5): 2659 ... Shaul Y (2000). "c-Abl: activation and nuclear targets". Cell Death Differ. 7 (1): 10-6. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400626. PMID ...
Several cell function specific transcription factors (there are about 1,600 transcription factors in a human cell) generally ... "MAP kinase phosphorylation-dependent activation of Elk-1 leads to activation of the co-activator p300". The EMBO Journal. 22 (2 ... June 2009). "Sex steroid receptors in skeletal differentiation and epithelial neoplasia: is tissue-specific intervention ... February 2018). "The Human Transcription Factors". Cell. 172 (4): 650-665. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.029. PMID 29425488. ...
Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Wang, J; Chun H J; Wong W; Spencer D M; Lenardo M J (November 2001). "Caspase-10 is an initiator caspase in death receptor ... Zheng, L; Schickling O; Peter M E; Lenardo M J (August 2001). "The death effector domain-associated factor plays distinct ... 1987). "Analysis of mutation in human cells by using an Epstein-Barr virus shuttle system". Mol. Cell. Biol. 7 (1): 379-87. doi ...
... as well as activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) in different intracellular ... When this is higher than the osmolarity outside of the cell, water flows into the cell through osmosis. This can cause the cell ... but these were later found to be inaccurate due to additional complicating factors.[citation needed] The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase is ... In fact, all cells expend a large fraction of the ATP they produce (typically 30% and up to 70% in nerve cells) to maintain ...
Among the immune cells, TLR6 has been detected in conventional dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, microglia, neutrophils ... leading to a pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation of innate immune response. TLR6 has also been designated as ... which leads to nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ... This receptor functionally interacts with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to mediate cellular response to gram-positive bacteria, ...
The mechanism of many SARMs may also allow for the treatment of prostate cancer through the activation of AR-induced expression ... and transcription factors. Although the exact mechanisms still remain unclear, tissue specificity and complexity of the pathway ... profiles, cytotoxic to cancer cells with fewer negative effects than seen in traditional antiandrogen therapies. Additionally, ... Selective receptor modulator Selective estrogen receptor modulator Selective progesterone receptor modulator Selective ...
... cell division and cell activations. However, having too much or too little zinc can cause these functions to be compromised. ... Ikeda M, Ikui A, Komiyama A, Kobayashi D, Tanaka M (February 2008). "Causative factors of taste disorders in the elderly, and ... These effects may be mediated by the defective functioning of estrogen via the estrogen receptor, which contains a zinc finger ... Maret W (2013). "Chapter 14 Zinc and the Zinc Proteome". In Banci L (ed.). Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life ...
... in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper ... of cell cycle transcription factors by Cdk1 may alter the localization or activity of the transcription factors in order to ... hormone-receptor-positive (HR-positive, HR+), HER2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer. For example, palbociclib is an orally active ... Controlling the Cell Cycle The cell cycle & Cell death Transcriptional program of the cell cycle: high-resolution timing Cell ...
... phosphorylates INSIG to activate SREBP and lipogenesis in cancer cells. Lu demonstrated that growth factor receptor activation ... In addition, he showed that activation of growth factor receptors, expression of K-Ras G12V and B-Raf V600E, and hypoxia induce ... Cell. 150 (4): 685-696. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.07.018. PMC 3431020. PMID 22901803. Jiang, Yuhui; Li, Xinjian; Yang, Weiwei; ... "PKM2 regulates chromosome segregation and mitosis progression of tumor cells". Molecular Cell. 53 (1): 75-87. doi:10.1016/j. ...
In some cases, obesity in individuals is due to the overproduction of corticoids leads to the over-activation of receptor type ... This is done through the activation by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), also known as the corticotropin-releasing ... Adrenocorticotropic hormones bind to ACTH receptors on the cells within the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex, causing a ... activation of either receptor causes the individual to sustain eating. During exercise, the body undergoes a stress response in ...
... this activation is not considered physiological. DP2 and DP1 are G protein-coupled receptors, with the DP2 receptor coupled to ... 14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for the adipocyte determination factor PPAR gamma". Cell. 83 (5): 803-12. doi:10.1016/0092-8674 ... 14-PGJ2 causes cells to engage the pathway of Programmed cell death termed Paraptosis, a form of cell suicide that differs from ... The PGJ2 series of cyclopentenone PGs bind to and activate the G protein-coupled receptor, Prostaglandin DP2 receptor, with 15- ...
Lin YL, Wang YH, Lee HJ (November 2006). "Transcriptional regulation of the human TR2 orphan receptor gene by nuclear factor 1- ... "A minicircuitry comprised of microRNA-223 and transcription factors NFI-A and C/EBPalpha regulates human granulopoiesis". Cell ... is required for basal promoter activation of the human intestinal NaPi-IIb cotransporter gene". American Journal of Physiology ... Nuclear factor 1 A-type is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFIA gene. Nuclear factor I (NFI) proteins constitute a ...
2002). "C-Cbl is involved in Met signaling in B cells and mediates hepatocyte growth factor-induced receptor ubiquitination". J ... CBL proteins, such as CBLC, are phosphorylated upon activation of a variety of receptors that signal via protein tyrosine ... 1999). "Cbl-b inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signaling". Oncogene. 18 (10): 1855-66. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202499. ... 2002). "Sprouty2 attenuates epidermal growth factor receptor ubiquitylation and endocytosis, and consequently enhances Ras/ERK ...
... nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to ... Again it was noted that AHN was not increase via activation of the estrogen receptors. Androgen regulation decreases the ... "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel. ... One cell type, called the myoblast, conveys androgen receptors for generating muscle. Fusion of myoblasts generates myotubes, ...
In innate immunity, the MyD88 plays a pivotal role in immune cell activation through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which belong ... to activate the transcription factor NF-κB. Mal (also known as TIRAP) is necessary to recruit Myd88 to TLR 2 and TLR 4, and ... Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88 complex formation and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 activation in endotoxin-tolerant cells". ... June 2000). "Tollip, a new component of the IL-1RI pathway, links IRAK to the IL-1 receptor". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (6): 346- ...
... mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, epithelial cells and Paneth cells. This cytokine can induce NF-κB activation, and stimulate ... "Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 receptors". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 14 (2): 155-74. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(03)00002-9 ... IL-25 is produced by many cell types. These cells include T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, ... Th9 cells can arise not only from naive T cells but also from differentiated Th2 cells. Another function of IL-25 is the ...
"Stat1 as a Component of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Receptor 1-TRADD Signaling Complex To Inhibit NF-κB Activation". Mol. Cell ... "The TNF receptor 1-associated protein TRADD signals cell death and NF-kappa B activation". Cell. 81 (4): 495-504. doi:10.1016/ ... "The tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 signal transducers TRAF2 and c-IAP1 are components of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 ... "The tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 signal transducers TRAF2 and c-IAP1 are components of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 ...
"Glucocorticoid receptor inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling by directly targeting the transcriptional activation ... The unbound receptor resides in the cytosol of the cell. After the receptor is bound to glucocorticoid, the receptor- ... The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor ... The biological response depends on the cell type.[citation needed] In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors ...
Cannabinoids produce a "marked depression of motor activity" via activation of neuronal cannabinoid receptors belonging to the ... A confounding factor in cannabis research is the prevalent usage of other recreational drugs, especially alcohol and nicotine. ... "Marijuana use and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention ... Cannabis is suspected of being a potential contributory factor or direct cause of sudden death, due to the strain it can place ...
Various factors effectuate the dysregulation of AML cell proliferation; for instance, the upregulation of insu … ... of cancers occurring within the bone marrow that are initiated by the unrestricted proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells. ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibits the proliferation of acute myeloid leukaemia cells via NK cell activation ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibits the proliferation of acute myeloid leukaemia cells via NK cell activation ...
Calcium sensing receptor activation elevates proinflammatory factor expression in human adipose cells and adipose tissue.. ... The CaSR activation by the calcimimatic cinacalcet (5µM) in adipose tissue and in vitro cultured LS14 adipose cells elicited an ... Human adipose cells express the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), and its expression is elevated in inflammatory states, such as ... This was in part reverted by SN50, an inhibitor of the inflammatory mediator nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). Our observations ...
Pioneer factor Foxa2 mediates chromatin conformation changes in ligand-dependent activation of nuclear receptor FXR. Yi Hao, Lu ... Activation of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-dependent transcription factors, is used extensively in development of drug ... Pioneer factor Foxa2 mediates chromatin conformation changes in ligand-dependent activation of nuclear receptor FXR ... Pioneer factor Foxa2 mediates chromatin conformation changes in ligand-dependent activation of nuclear receptor FXR ...
... receptor antagonist; RANTES, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted; SDF, stromal cell-derived factors. ... G-CSF, granulocyte colony stimulating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; GROa, growth-regulated ...
... and the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. The platelets arise from the fragmentation of the cytoplasm of ... purinergic receptor; PAR = protease-activated receptor; PDGF = platelet-derived growth factor; PF4 = platelet factor 4; PIP2 = ... immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif; P2Y = purinergic receptor; PAR = protease-activated receptor; PDGF = platelet- ... in which the factor VIII activity level is low because of a defect in factor VIII itself, in von Willebrand disease the factor ...
To interrogate signaling pathways activated in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) in vivo, we contrasted gene expression profiles of 55 ... AKT, protein kinase B; APRIL, a proliferation inducing ligand; BAFF, B-cell activating factor; E2F, E2F transcription factor; ... Pathogenic role of B-cell receptor signaling and canonical NF-κB activation in mantle cell lymphoma Nakhle S Saba 1 , Delong ... Pathogenic role of B-cell receptor signaling and canonical NF-κB activation in mantle cell lymphoma Nakhle S Saba et al. Blood. ...
MeSH Terms: Binding Sites/genetics; Cell Line, Tumor; Estrogen Receptor alpha/genetics*; Estrogen Receptor beta/genetics*; ... Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics*; Transcription, Genetic; Transcriptional Activation* ... Title: Cell- and ligand-specific regulation of promoters containing activator protein-1 and Sp1 sites by estrogen receptors ... The ability of ligands to modulate transcription of AP-1- or Sp1-containing promoters was dependent on cell context, but the ...
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotes uptake of influenza A viruses (IAV) into host cells.. Eierhoff T; Hrincius ... Epidermal growth factor and membrane trafficking. EGF receptor activation of endocytosis requires Rab5a.. Barbieri MA; Roberts ... Phosphatidic acid induces ligand-independent epidermal growth factor receptor endocytic traffic through PDE4 activation. ... The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Governs Epithelial Cell Invasion during Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.. Solis NV; Swidergall M; Bruno ...
... epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway; cell chemotaxis; cell division; B cell receptor signaling pathway; T cell ... positive regulation of macrophage activation; B cell activation; T cell activation; B cell proliferation; protein maturation; ... cell-cell junction assembly; homophilic cell adhesion; cell-cell adhesion; calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion; protein ... cell migration; calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion; synapse assembly; heterophilic cell-cell adhesion; homophilic cell ...
Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) is required for somatic hypermutation (SHM) of the B cell receptor during normal ... Identification of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) is an important, but difficult area of study. TFBSs, short ... Cancer cell methionine dependency describes the phenomenon in which cancer cells undergo cell cycle arrest followed by ... Our approach of combining in silico database screening and cell culture assays for human breast cancer cells may easily be ...
IL-6 functions as a potent factor for B-cell maturation and T-cell activation. It also acts on endothelial cells to increase ... cells involves receptors for these molecules as well as adhesion molecules expressed on endothelial cells and their receptors ... These changes included retraction from sites of contact at cell-cell junctions without loss of cell viability as judged by ... initiation of signal transduction by binding to cell membrane receptors. Brain microvascular endothelial cells have also been ...
Platelet activation produces lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). LPA is a signaling molecule for cell proliferation and myofibroblast ... epidermal-derived growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor. [19, 20] This milieu of cytokines and growth factors ... 8, 9] Male predominance may be related to expression of androgen receptors in Dupuytren fascia. [10] ... Genetic factors. Though the cause of Dupuytren contracture remains unknown, genetic factors are thought to play a role. [28] ...
In certain clinical settings, however, elimination of unactivated B cells, which participate in regulation of T cells and ot … ... Clinical benefit from anti-CD20 treatment may relate to inhibition of proinflammatory B cell APC function. ... Our study highlights distinct roles for B cells in CNS autoimmunity. ... Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism * Glycoproteins / adverse effects * Humans * Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit ...
The NTRK1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is essential for the development and survival of nerve cells ( ... Constant activation of the protein signals for the cells to grow and divide continuously, which can lead to papillary thyroid ... genetic disorder unveiled by functional analysis of neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase type 1/nerve growth factor receptor ... gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase for nerve growth factor. Hum Mutat. 2001 Dec;18(6):462-71. doi: 10.1002/humu.1224. ...
The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G‑CSF) receptor through which GRANIX acts has been found on tumor cell lines. The ... G-CSF is known to stimulate differentiation commitment and some end-cell functional activation, which increases neutrophil ... Sickle cell crisis. You may have a serious sickle cell crisis if you have a sickle cell disorder and use GRANIX. Call your ... Sickle Cell Disorders In patients with sickle cell disorders, sickle cell crisis and death has occurred. Discuss the potential ...
Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation via myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling is central to pathogen responses. ... Cell cultures; Cellular reactions; Inhalants; Cell alteration; Cell migration; Blood cells; Neutrophils; Lung cells; Lung ... In conclusion, MyD88 deficiency enhances airway mucous cell metaplasia under environments with high TLR activation. ... Cell type; Cell transformation; Author Keywords: agriculture; airway; epithelial; lung; Muc5ac; Muc5b; mucin; MyD88; organic ...
Neutrophils, the most numerous innate immune cell, patrol for problems by circulating in the bloodstream. They can phagocytose ... The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of cytokines stimulates immune-cell proliferation and activation. They are critical for ... B-cell receptors (BCRs) and T-cell receptors (TCRs) are expressed on adaptive immune cells. They are both found on the cell ... The B-cell receptor (BCR), which sits on the surface of a B cell, is actually an antibody. B cells also secrete antibodies to ...
Mol Cell Biol. 22: 4113-4123, 2002. ]. *Xing, W. and Archer, T.K.: Upstream stimulatory factors mediate estrogen receptor ... Selective activation of the glucocorticoid receptor by steroid antagonists in human breast cancer and osteosarcoma cells. J. ... Selective activation of the glucocorticoid receptor by steroid antagonists in human breast cancer and osteosarcoma cells. J. ... Glucocorticoid receptor activation of the IkBa promoter within chromatin. Mol. Biol. Cell 12: 3365-74, 2001. ...
... cells in which activation of the death receptor pathways does not occur during anoikis.52 Another BH3-only protein, Bmf, has ... Primary mammary epithelial cells depend upon adhesion to laminin along with the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).32 ... 36 In type 1 cells, activation of caspase 8 is sufficient to cleave effector caspases and result in cell death. In type 2 cells ... 24 Cell shape is controlled by the cytoskeleton and its connections with integrins at cell/ECM and cell/cell junctions. Changes ...
B Cell-Activating Factor Receptor BAFF Receptor BR3 B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor CD268 Antigen CD268 Antigens Receptor, B ... 2007; for B CELL-ACTIVATING FACTOR RECEPTOR and RECEPTOR, B CELL-ACTIVATING FACTOR use RECEPTORS, INTERLEUKIN-4 1998-2006. Date ... 2007; for B CELL-ACTIVATING FACTOR RECEPTOR and RECEPTOR, B CELL-ACTIVATING FACTOR see RECEPTORS, INTERLEUKIN-4 1998-2006. ... Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 9 [D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.220] * B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor [ ...
The NTRK1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is essential for the development and survival of nerve cells ( ... Constant activation of the protein signals for the cells to grow and divide continuously, which can lead to papillary thyroid ... genetic disorder unveiled by functional analysis of neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase type 1/nerve growth factor receptor ... gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase for nerve growth factor. Hum Mutat. 2001 Dec;18(6):462-71. doi: 10.1002/humu.1224. ...
... it appeared to be associated with the activation of progenitor cells, which are involved in the creation of new cells. This ... The "mezzo-forte" subtype had specific chromosomal changes as well as mutations in the growth factor receptor gene EGFR, which ... Environmental risk factors, such as exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, radon, air pollution, and asbestos, or having had ... who had been diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer. The tumors included 189 adenocarcinomas (the most common type of lung ...
Despite the significant role of the AXL receptor, it is unknown how its ligand and other factors influence AXL activation. ... The AXL Receptor Is a Sensor of Ligand Spatial Heterogeneity. Meyer AS et al. Cell Systems. 2015 July 29; doi: 10.1016/j.cels. ... Spatial Recognition in Receptors. The tyrosine kinase AXL receptor plays an important role in blood clotting and immune ... The system was tested on the beta-2 adrenergic receptor and adenosine receptor and successfully and robustly bound nanobodies ...
  • 25. Effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on clathrin-coated pit recruitment and internalization of epidermal growth factor receptor. (nih.gov)
  • 29. Overexpression of cellular Src in fibroblasts enhances endocytic internalization of epidermal growth factor receptor. (nih.gov)
  • 30. The role of tyrosine kinase activity in endocytosis, compartmentation, and down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. (nih.gov)
  • 34. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotes uptake of influenza A viruses (IAV) into host cells. (nih.gov)
  • 36. Phosphatidic acid induces ligand-independent epidermal growth factor receptor endocytic traffic through PDE4 activation. (nih.gov)
  • This endosomal protein regulates the cell-surface expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. (nih.gov)
  • The NTRK1 protein is turned on (activated) when another protein called nerve growth factor beta (NGFβ) attaches (binds) to it and signals the NTRK1 protein to phosphorylate itself (autophosphorylation). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR . (nih.gov)
  • Aldosterone is a steroidal hormone produced in the cortex of suprarenal gland that specifically binds to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). The production and secretion of this hormone are mainly triggered in response to changes in blood perfusion, which is sensed by principal cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The type A PDGF Receptor binds all three PDGFs with high affinity, whereas the type B PDGF Receptor is selective for PDGF-BB. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This class of antibodies binds to phospholipids, a major component of the cell membrane. (the-scientist.com)
  • Binds through its extracellular N-terminus growth factors, extracellular matrix proteases modulating their activity. (abcam.com)
  • Indo Y. Molecular basis of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA): mutations and polymorphisms in TRKA (NTRK1) gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase for nerve growth factor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PDGFR (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor) is a receptor tyrosine kinase for the PDGF family of growth factors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This binding results in the dimerization of the receptor and the subsequent kinase activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and its autophosphorylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Platelet activation allows binding of these proteins, which bridges adjacent platelets. (medscape.com)
  • The alpha granules contain hemostatic proteins such as fibrinogen, vWf, and growth factors (eg, platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factors). (medscape.com)
  • The ability of ligands to modulate transcription of AP-1- or Sp1-containing promoters was dependent on cell context, but the expression of AP-1 or Sp1 proteins was not necessarily related to transcriptional response. (nih.gov)
  • They contain intracellular compartments called granules, which are filled with proteins that can form holes in the target cell and also cause apoptosis, the process for programmed cell death. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, plating cells onto anti-integrin antibodies prevented anoikis, whereas attachment to antibodies recognising other cell surface proteins did not, suggesting that specific integrin-dependent signalling is required. (nature.com)
  • Adhesion receptors not only provide a physical attachment to the ECM but they also create an adhesion-dependent signalling scaffold containing a number of adaptor proteins and kinases. (nature.com)
  • After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-EGF Receptor proteins are captured by the coated antibody. (cellsignal.com)
  • In particular, apoptotic cells expose specific membrane phospholipids that can be detected with labelled marker proteins (for example, phosphatidylserine detected with fluorescently labelled annexin V) and cleave their DNA into specific fragments that are the basis for the enzyme linked assays to detect fragmented DNA (for example, terminal UTP nick end labelling, or TUNEL). (bmj.com)
  • These phosphorylations allow for various proteins, such as PI3 Kinase, PLCg, and Grb2, to bind through their SH2 domains and transduce signals into the cell. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • TGFbeta modulates gene transcription by receptor-mediated activation of Smad proteins which act as transcription factors. (eurekamag.com)
  • RSV is recognized by a range of cellular receptors including both toll-like receptors (TLR) and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RIG-I). This interaction initiates signaling through mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) proteins, resulting in the induction of type I interferons (IFN). (mdpi.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) denotes a heterogeneous category of cancers occurring within the bone marrow that are initiated by the unrestricted proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • for instance, the upregulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) within AML cells influences their proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Although anchorage dependence of cells has been recognised for many years, particularly regarding proliferation, 3 anoikis as we understand it was first described in the early 1990s. (nature.com)
  • MicroRNA-95 promotes cell proliferation and targets sorting Nexin 1 in human colorectal carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulation of purified T lymphocytes by a combination of monoclonal antibodies directed at CD2 and CD28 adhesion molecules gives rise to a long lasting proliferation in the absence of accessory cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • The mitogenic combination of anti CD2 + anti CD28 released the footprint as cells were committed to proliferation. (cnrs.fr)
  • Modulating the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of satellite cells are the signaling mechanisms of local and systemic growth factors [7, 8] -- primarily the local. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta) is involved in the regulation of liver cell proliferation and apoptosis, and escape of hepatoma cells from the growth restraining signals of TGFbeta has been suggested to contribute to tumor development. (eurekamag.com)
  • Proteoglycan playing a role in cell proliferation and migration which stimulates endothelial cells motility during microvascular morphogenesis. (abcam.com)
  • These growth factors then bind to the beta-isoform of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR-b). (mdanderson.org)
  • Irrespective of the EAE model used, B-cell depletion reduced the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), and increased the proinflammatory polarizing capacity of remaining myeloid APCs. (nih.gov)
  • Little is known about molecular mecha- desmosomal glycoproteins, resulting in the nisms affecting mast cell and T lympho- loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion [ 1 ]. (who.int)
  • The purpose of this review is to show that rather than anoikis being a specific stimulus of cell death, it is in fact a broad range of cellular responses to loss of adhesion that utilise diverse signalling and apoptotic pathways. (nature.com)
  • Elevated lavels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever. (who.int)
  • CD11b/CD18 is critical for the transendothelial migration of monocytes and neutrophils as well as adhesion, phagocytosis, and neutrophil activation. (biolegend.com)
  • Additional reported applications (for the relevant formats) include: immunoprecipitation, and blocking cell adhesion to fibrinogen and ICAM-1 1 . (biolegend.com)
  • In EAE induced by rMOG, B cells became activated and, when serving as antigen-presenting cells (APCs), promoted differentiation of proinflammatory MOG-specific Th1 and Th17 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) are an important antigen-presenting cell (APC), and they also can develop from monocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Under physiological circumstances, the resistance of the endothelial cell lining to interactions with platelets and coagulation factors prevents thrombosis. (medscape.com)
  • Antigens are molecules from pathogens, host cells, and allergens that may be recognized by adaptive immune cells. (nih.gov)
  • APCs like DCs are responsible for processing large molecules into "readable" fragments (antigens) recognized by adaptive B or T cells. (nih.gov)
  • However, antigens alone cannot activate T cells. (nih.gov)
  • B cells have two major functions: They present antigens to T cells, and more importantly, they produce antibodies to neutralize infectious microbes. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, ODE-induced Muc5ac levels were enhanced in MyD88-deficient airway epithelial cells in vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, epithelial cells can be switched between anoikis sensitive and insensitive by oncogenic transformation or treatment with scatter factor. (nature.com)
  • The lung is protected from pathogens by alveolar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, tissue resident alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is important to distinguish between apoptosis and other forms of cell death like necrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Apoptosis, unlike necrosis, does not release danger signals that can lead to greater immune activation and inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Through apoptosis, immune cells can discreetly remove infected cells and limit bystander damage. (nih.gov)
  • An important aspect of multicellularity is that cells only grow and differentiate when in the correct context within a tissue, and remove themselves by apoptosis when they are not. (nature.com)
  • Apoptosis in response to inappropriate cell/ECM interactions is termed anoikis, a name that in some way implies a special case of cell death initiated by signals not used in response to other proapoptotic insults. (nature.com)
  • 1 In practice, different cell types use diverse mechanisms to interpret signals from the ECM, all of which are found to regulate apoptosis in response to many other stimuli. (nature.com)
  • Anoikis is apoptosis induced by lack of correct cell/ECM attachment, and many experimental systems study this by completely detaching cells from the ECM. (nature.com)
  • Almost simultaneous papers from the groups of Martin Schwartz and Steve Frisch showed that cells that were deprived of attachment to the ECM underwent classical apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a process through which multicellular organisms dispose of cells efficiently. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Apoptosis defines a type of cell death distinct from the more conventional necrotic death, seen classically in myocardial infarction, on the basis of characteristic morphological features (table 1, fig 1). (bmj.com)
  • Indeed, apoptosis is frequently followed by secondary necrosis of cells, especially if there is failure of clearance or ingestion of apoptotic bodies. (bmj.com)
  • Electron microscopic appearances of a human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) undergoing apoptosis in culture. (bmj.com)
  • Apoptotic cells undergo a characteristic cascade of biochemical events (see Regulation of apoptosis), many of which are useful in detecting apoptotic cells. (bmj.com)
  • Biochemical signalling during apoptosis, such as activation or cleavage of specific caspase enzymes (see below) can also be used on both cells and tissue samples. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, acute myocardial infarction manifests both forms of cell death, 3 with apoptosis particularly occurring at the hypoperfused "border" zones, between a central area of necrosis and viable myocardium. (bmj.com)
  • TGFbeta-mediated primary signaling responses as well as effects on the cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated in the human hepatoblastoma line HepG2, the rat hepatoma line FTO-2B and the mouse hepatoma line 55.1c. (eurekamag.com)
  • HepG2 cells, however, were completely resistant to TGFbeta-induced growth arrest and apoptosis and 55.1c cells were only slightly susceptible to TGFbeta-induced apoptosis. (eurekamag.com)
  • By contrast, treatment of FTO-2B cells with TGFbeta led to a partial G0/G1 arrest and a strong induction of apoptosis. (eurekamag.com)
  • TGFbeta-induced apoptosis of FTO-2B cells was inhibited by dexamethasone, insulin, phenobarbital and dieldrin. (eurekamag.com)
  • Of these agents, only insulin led to a significant reduction of TGFbeta-stimulated Smad-reporter activity, suggesting that the other compounds interfere with TGFbeta-induced apoptosis downstream of Smad-mediated primary transcriptional responses at a level that may be constitutively altered in apoptosis-resistant hepatoma cell lines. (eurekamag.com)
  • The activation of PDGFFR triggers the intracellular loop and activates Ras, Erk1/2, and ROS. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In opsonization, an antibody-bound pathogen serves as a red flag to alert immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages, to engulf and digest the pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • The B-cell receptor (BCR), which sits on the surface of a B cell, is actually an antibody. (nih.gov)
  • OD 450 nm readings are shown in the top figure, while the corresponding Western blot using Phospho-EGF Receptor (Tyr1173) Rabbit mAb #4407 (right panel) or EGF Receptor Antibody #2232 (left panel), is shown in the bottom figure. (cellsignal.com)
  • related to other transmembrane receptors. (who.int)
  • Our observations suggest that CaSR activation elevates cytokine and chemokine production , partially mediated by NFκB. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a pivotal cytokine in host defences with broad ranging effects on the innate and adaptive immune systems. (bmj.com)
  • Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a key cytokine in the integrated host defence system against infectious diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Although it is widely accepted that the estrogen-occupied receptor mediates its effects by interacting with estrogen response elements (EREs) residing in target genes, a number of estrogen-responsive genes contain no identifiable ERE. (nih.gov)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that the calcineurin (CN)-dependent transcription factor NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells) mediates deleterious effects of astrocytes in progressive neurodegenerative conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Activation of nuclear receptors, a family of ligand-dependent transcription factors, is used extensively in development of drug targets. (biorxiv.org)
  • To understand how estrogen-responsive genes lacking EREs but containing activator protein 1 (AP-1) and Sp1 sites respond to hormone treatment, we have identified four discrete regions of the human progesterone receptor gene that contain AP-1 or Sp1 sites and examined their abilities to modulate transcription in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol, ICI 182,780, tamoxifen, raloxifene, genistein, or daidzein. (nih.gov)
  • Transient cotransfection assays demonstrated that ER alpha was a more potent activator of transcription than ER beta in bone, uterine, and mammary cells. (nih.gov)
  • Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to inhibit the calcineurin-dependent activation of the transcription factor NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells) selectively, we have shown that activated astrocytes contribute to neural dysfunction in animal models characterized by progressive/chronic neuropathology. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor. (hindawi.com)
  • Ligand activation of TLR4 activates nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and the transcription of NF-κB-regulated inflammatory cytokines, which are involved in the development of atherosclerosis. (medscimonit.com)
  • Cyclin A transcription is cell cycle regulated and induced by cell proliferative signals. (cnrs.fr)
  • Antibodies coat the surface of a pathogen and serve three major roles: neutralization, opsonization, and complement activation. (nih.gov)
  • Neutralization occurs when the pathogen, because it is covered in antibodies, is unable to bind and infect host cells. (nih.gov)
  • B cells also secrete antibodies to diffuse and bind to pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • The activated B cell responds by secreting antibodies, essentially the BCR but in soluble form. (nih.gov)
  • The importance of anoikis in vivo can readily be seen when alterations that perturb its normal control are seen to enhance tumour metastasis, a process which requires cells to survive in totally inappropriate ECM environments. (nature.com)
  • The Sp1-containing promoters were substantially more potent transcriptional enhancers than the AP-1-containing promoters, but a 1.5-kb region of the human progesterone receptor gene containing both AP-1 and Sp1 sites was the most hormone-responsive promoter tested. (nih.gov)
  • The NTRK1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is essential for the development and survival of nerve cells (neurons), especially those that transmit information about sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch (sensory neurons). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many of the NTRK1 gene mutations lead to a protein that cannot be activated by phosphorylation, which means the mutated NTRK1 protein cannot transmit cell growth and survival signals to neurons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Consistent with this notion, macrophages can undergo two types of activation, characterized by differential gene expression programs depending of the triggering stimulus [ 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, TGFbeta-inducible early gene was transiently activated by TGFbeta in all cell lines as shown by RT-PCR. (eurekamag.com)
  • The NTRK1 protein is found on the surface of cells, particularly sensory neurons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Opioid drugs, such as morphine, bind to the mu opioid receptor (MOR) on the surface of nerve cells. (mdanderson.org)
  • The precursor stem cells (satellite cells) are located outside the myofiber in depressions in the fiber surface between the plasma membrane (sarcolemma) and basal lamina (matrix that surrounds the muscle cells). (bodybuilding.com)
  • Cell surface receptor for collagen alpha 2(VI) which may confer cells ability to migrate on that substrate. (abcam.com)
  • Macrophages also have important non-immune functions, such as recycling dead cells, like red blood cells, and clearing away cellular debris. (nih.gov)
  • Myocardial infarction has been considered to be a prime example of necrotic cell death, because of the breakdown of cellular energy metabolism. (bmj.com)
  • Recent findings have demonstrated that TNFα mediated pathways play a critical role in regulating the molecular interactions between cellular and viral factors within infected cells and that many viral pathogens have learned to exploit the TNF pathway, using it to escape control and favour their spread. (bmj.com)
  • Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation via myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling is central to pathogen responses. (cdc.gov)
  • The enhanced Muc5ac levels in MyD88-deficient mice were not explained by differences in the differentiation program of airway secretory cells in naïve mice. (cdc.gov)
  • We have previously shown that pioneer factor Foxa2 opens chromatin for binding of nuclear receptors FXR and LXRα during acute ligand activation. (biorxiv.org)
  • We hypothesized that Foxa2 also enables chromatin conformational changes during ligand activation. (biorxiv.org)
  • Cell- and ligand-specific regulation of promoters containing activator protein-1 and Sp1 sites by estrogen receptors alpha and beta. (nih.gov)
  • 27. A novel role of Rho-kinase in the regulation of ligand-induced phosphorylated EGFR endocytosis via the early/late endocytic pathway in human fibrosarcoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Even though aldosterone is the cognate ligand of the MR, glucocorticoids (GCs) such as cortisol can also bind to this receptor with equivalent affinity [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In certain clinical settings, however, elimination of unactivated B cells, which participate in regulation of T cells and other APC, may be undesirable. (nih.gov)
  • To understand the mechanisms underlined in this regulation in normal human cells, we have analysed in vivo protein-DNA interactions at the Cyclin A locus in primary T lymphocytes. (cnrs.fr)
  • Expression of Aquaporin-1 water channel protein in mouse erythro-leukemia cells: genetic regulation of corticosteroid and chemical induction. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In these animals, MR has been mainly studied in hypertension models, demonstrating that its activation in myeloid cells is necessary to develop such a pathology [ 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We investigate crosstalk between cancer cells and stromal myeloid cells. (elsevier.com)
  • We find that Lewis lung carcinoma cells significantly induce PPARβ/δ activity in myeloid cells invitro and invivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Myeloid cell-specific knockout of PPARβ/δ results in impaired growth of implanted tumors, and this is restored by adoptive transfer of wild-type myeloid cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is shown to be an upstream regulator of PPARβ/δ in myeloid cells and is induced by M-CSF secreted from tumor cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Platelets play a primary role in this process, interacting with subendothelium-bound von Willebrand factor (vWf) via the membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib complex. (medscape.com)
  • 38. Epidermal growth factor and membrane trafficking. (nih.gov)
  • CD11b non-covalently associates with integrin β 2 (CD18) and is expressed on granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and subsets of T and B cells. (biolegend.com)
  • In mice, MR expression has been shown in monocytes/macrophages [ 21 , 22 ] and dendritic cells (DCs) [ 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Secreted by the acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary, circulating GH shoots to the liver where it can bind GH receptors to stimulate the expression of IGF-I and its cohort IGFBP3 (IGF binding protein 3, there are six in total), a protein that carries IGF-I and magnifies its effects. (bodybuilding.com)
  • PDGF homo and hetero- dimmers (dimer of A (17 kDa) and B (14 kDa) chains (AA, AB, or BB)) bind to the two structurally related a and b PDGF Receptors (PDGFRa and PDGFRb). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It is thought that MR modulates the function and activation of macrophages during the development of cardiac fibrosis [ 25 , 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Keratinocyte growth factor modulates alveolar epithelial cell phenotype in vitro: expression of aquaporin-5 (AQP5). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This process stimulates the release of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF-AB and BB) from the cell. (mdanderson.org)
  • This was in part reverted by SN50, an inhibitor of the inflammatory mediator nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study we examined the effect of LPA on MMP9 expression and activity in THP-1 cells and the involvement of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB (TLR4/NF-κB) signaling pathway in this effect. (medscimonit.com)
  • Consistent with theses results, nuclear extracts prepared from quiescent cells formed a specific complex with this element, whereas extracts prepared from cells treated with anti CD2 + anti CD28 failed to do so after cells entered a proliferative state. (cnrs.fr)
  • Living at Altitude is an Independent Risk Factor for Increased Prescription Opioid Misuse and Fatal Overdose by Prescription Opioids [Abstract]. (utah.edu)
  • 6 Humans have at least 24 different integrins, and although some are expressed on the same cells and even recognise the same ECM components, many have essential roles in specific tissues. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Treatment of A431 cells with EGF stimulates phosphorylation of EGF Receptor at Tyr1173, detected by PathScan ® Phospho-EGF Receptor (Tyr1173) Sandwich ELISA kit #7187, but does not affect the level of total EGF Receptor detected by PathScan ® Total EGF Receptor Sandwich ELISA kit #7250. (cellsignal.com)
  • Human adipose cells express the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), and its expression is elevated in inflammatory states, such as that associated with obesity . (bvsalud.org)
  • Given the CaSR's association with inflammation in other tissues , we evaluated its role elevating the adipose expression of inflammatory factors. (bvsalud.org)
  • CD117 by immunohistochemical methods sion molecules, involved in cell-cell and in order to clarify the role of the infiltrating cell matrix interactions and thought to take inflammatory cells in the pathomechanisms part in cell motility [ 2,3 ]. (who.int)
  • Mast cells are found in tissues and can mediate allergic reactions by releasing inflammatory chemicals like histamine. (nih.gov)
  • The first type of activation is known as classical and leads to inflammatory or M1 activated macrophages. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, it has been shown that mast cells can be directly activated in response to IAV, releasing mediators such histamine, proteases, leukotrienes, inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral chemokines, which participate in the excessive inflammatory and pathological response observed during IAV infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • LPA can promote MMP9 expression and enhance MMP9 activity in THP-1 cells, in part via the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway. (medscimonit.com)
  • Activation of a Smad (Sma and Mad homolog) response-element-driven luciferase reporter by TGFbeta was very similar in all three cell lines, indicating functionality of the primary TGFbeta signaling pathway. (eurekamag.com)
  • Neutrophils, the most numerous innate immune cell, patrol for problems by circulating in the bloodstream. (nih.gov)
  • The most striking finding was that tissue factor expression on the maternal neutrophils was responsible for trophoblast injury and pregnancy loss. (the-scientist.com)
  • Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS . (nih.gov)
  • this process is needed to transmit signals for cell growth and survival. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Constant activation of the protein signals for the cells to grow and divide continuously, which can lead to papillary thyroid carcinoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Their coordinated movement and exchange of signals then instructs other innate immune cells called macrophages and monocytes to surround the neutrophil cluster and form a tight wound seal. (nih.gov)
  • 2 Anoikis, therefore, should not be considered as an experimental system in vitro , but the mechanism by which cells in vivo use ECM-derived signals to maintain tissue integrity. (nature.com)
  • 1 , 4 The significance of these papers was that signals from the ECM were recognised to be required to prevent cells from actively undergoing programmed cell death. (nature.com)
  • Miranda C, Di Virgilio M, Selleri S, Zanotti G, Pagliardini S, Pierotti MA, Greco A. Novel pathogenic mechanisms of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis genetic disorder unveiled by functional analysis of neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase type 1/nerve growth factor receptor mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We find that IL-10 is a downstream effector of PPARβ/δ and facilitates tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • CST's PathScan® Phospho-EGF Receptor (Tyr1173) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-EGF Receptor (Tyr1173) protein. (cellsignal.com)
  • Le pourcentage de CD44 dans les lymphocytes T périphériques était significativement plus élevé chez les patients que chez les témoins, comme détecté par la cytométrie en flux. (who.int)
  • It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. (nih.gov)
  • Human recombinant interleukin-2 activated sheep lymphocytes lyse sheep pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • B-cell depletion prevented or reversed established rMOG-induced EAE, which was associated with less central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, elimination of meningeal B cells, and reduction of MOG-specific Th1 and Th17 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammation from airborne microbes can overwhelm compensatory mucociliary clearance mechanisms, leading to mucous cell metaplasia. (cdc.gov)
  • Upon activation, monocytes and macrophages coordinate an immune response by notifying other immune cells of the problem. (nih.gov)
  • 19 normal healthy in- receptor protein (CD117) that is structurally dividuals were recruited as a control group. (who.int)
  • Cells in tissues require very specific ECM attachments, and the wrong type of ECM can have the same consequences as no ECM at all. (nature.com)
  • However, there is growing evidence indicating that MR expression is not restricted to vascular and renal tissues, as it can be also expressed by cells of the immune system, where it responds to stimulation or antagonism, controlling immune cell function. (hindawi.com)
  • The CaSR activation by the calcimimatic cinacalcet (5µM) in adipose tissue and in vitro cultured LS14 adipose cells elicited an elevation in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL6 , IL1ß, TNFα, and the chemoattractant CCL2. (bvsalud.org)
  • Specificity for particular types of ECM occurs through the range of integrins expressed on cells. (nature.com)
  • Calcium sensing receptor activation elevates proinflammatory factor expression in human adipose cells and adipose tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • MyD88 controls airway epithelial Muc5ac expression during TLR activation conditions from agricultur al organic dust exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • This dual expression is important because the initial problem, for instance a bacterium, is recognized by a unique BCR and activates the B cell. (nih.gov)
  • In conjunction with these seemingly beneficial effects, VIVIT treatment elicited a marked increase in the expression of the prosynaptogenic factor SPARCL1 (hevin), especially in hippocampal tissue ipsilateral to the CCI injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hypertrophy of astrocyte somata and processes, along with a corresponding increase in the expression of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), are the most robust and recognizable biomarkers of activated astrocytes, yet the functional phenotype of these cells appears highly complex. (jneurosci.org)
  • On the contrary, expression of this receptor in lymphoid cells remains controversial. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the mechanism responsible for the effect of LPA on the expression and activation of MMP9 has not been fully elucidated. (medscimonit.com)
  • Transfection of cells with TLR4-siRNA-2 or treatment with CAPE significantly inhibited the upregulated MMP9 expression and activation. (medscimonit.com)
  • Our study gives insight into how cancer cells influence myeloid stromal cells to get a pro-tumoral phenotype. (elsevier.com)
  • Epithelial and endothelial cells were found to be more sensitive than fibroblasts, the latter being able to survive in the absence of ECM if serum growth factors were present. (nature.com)
  • 21. Endophilin B2 facilitates endosome maturation in response to growth factor stimulation, autophagy induction, and influenza A virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • 35. Essential roles for soluble virion-associated heparan sulfonated proteoglycans and growth factors in human papillomavirus infections. (nih.gov)
  • GRANIX (tbo-filgrastim) is a leukocyte growth factor indicated in adult and pediatric patients 1 month and older for reduction in the duration of severe neutropenia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive anti-cancer drugs associated with a clinically significant incidence of febrile neutropenia. (nih.gov)
  • 5 , 6 Thus, integrins function in an analogous way to growth factor receptors (GFRs), and indeed activate many of the same downstream pathways. (nature.com)
  • This article seeks to examine some of the factors implicated in processes of muscle growth, and, in keeping with the spirit of Mind and Muscle Magazine, elucidate the elaborate chemical pathways that transduce their effects. (bodybuilding.com)
  • The compensatory adaptation is stifled, nonetheless, if satellite cells are rendered inert [6], suggesting that satellite cell mobilization is an absolutely necessary part of muscle growth. (bodybuilding.com)
  • HiChIP contact analysis shows that global chromatin interactions are dramatically increased during FXR activation. (biorxiv.org)
  • Cells sense their location through specific interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as neighbouring cells. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: The relationship between protein concentration of lysates from untreated and EGF-treated A431 cells and kit assay optical density readings. (cellsignal.com)
  • Try to imagine a small population of little water sacs (satellite cells) sitting on top of a huge self-sealing water balloon (muscle cell), constantly dividing (mitosis), growing, becoming activated, and fusing with the balloon to spill their soggy contents and form an ever-larger one (hypertrophy of a multinucleate muscle cell). (bodybuilding.com)
  • Muscle subjected to functional overload mobilizes the mitotically-active satellite cells, in turn increasing myonuclei number of the recipient muscle cells and facilitating hypertrophy [2] -- an adaptation that will allow each nucleus to regulate more cytoplasm [3], and ultimately the enlarged muscles to undergo more forceful contractions (lift heavier loads). (bodybuilding.com)
  • SDF, stromal cell-derived factors. (cdc.gov)
  • They are important for recognizing and killing virus-infected cells or tumor cells. (nih.gov)