A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A multimeric complex that functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. ISGF3 is assembled in the CYTOPLASM and translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to INTERFERON signaling. It consists of ISGF3-GAMMA and ISGF3-ALPHA, and it regulates expression of many interferon-responsive GENES.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that bind to specific LYSOPHOSPHOLIPIDS such as lysophosphatidic acid and lysosphinglipids such as sphingosine-1-phosphate. They play an important role in the formation and function of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOPHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

BLyS: member of the tumor necrosis factor family and B lymphocyte stimulator. (1/168)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines includes both soluble and membrane-bound proteins that regulate immune responses. A member of the human TNF family, BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator), was identified that induced B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion. BLyS expression on human monocytes could be up-regulated by interferon-gamma. Soluble BLyS functioned as a potent B cell growth factor in costimulation assays. Administration of soluble recombinant BLyS to mice disrupted splenic B and T cell zones and resulted in elevated serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The B cell tropism of BLyS is consistent with its receptor expression on B-lineage cells. The biological profile of BLyS suggests it is involved in monocyte-driven B cell activation.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member TACI is a high affinity receptor for TNF family members APRIL and BLyS. (2/168)

An expression cloning approach was employed to identify the receptor for B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and identified the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member TACI as a BLyS-binding protein. Expression of TACI in HEK293T cells confers on the cells the ability to bind BLyS with subnanomolar affinity. Furthermore, a TACI-Fc fusion protein recognizes both the cleaved, soluble form of BLyS as well as the membrane BLyS present on the cell surface of a recombinant cell line. TACI mRNA is found predominantly in B-cells and correlates with BLyS binding in a panel of B-cell lines. We also demonstrate that TACI interacts with nanomolar affinity with the BLyS-related tumor necrosis factor homologue APRIL for which no clear in vivo role has been described. BLyS and APRIL are capable of signaling through TACI to mediate NF-kappaB responses in HEK293 cells. We conclude that TACI is a receptor for BLyS and APRIL and discuss the implications for B-cell biology.  (+info)

BAFF-R, a newly identified TNF receptor that specifically interacts with BAFF. (3/168)

B cell homeostasis has been shown to critically depend on BAFF, the B cell activation factor from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. Although BAFF is already known to bind two receptors, BCMA and TACI, we have identified a third receptor for BAFF that we have termed BAFF-R. BAFF-R binding appears to be highly specific for BAFF, suggesting a unique role for this ligand-receptor interaction. Consistent with this, the BAFF-R locus is disrupted in A/WySnJ mice, which display a B cell phenotype qualitatively similar to that of the BAFF-deficient mice. Thus, BAFF-R appears to be the principal receptor for BAFF-mediated mature B cell survival.  (+info)

TACI-Ig neutralizes molecules critical for B cell development and autoimmune disease. impaired B cell maturation in mice lacking BLyS. (4/168)

BLyS and APRIL have similar but distinct biological roles, mediated through two known TNF receptor family members, TACI and BCMA. We show that mice treated with TACI-Ig and TACI-Ig transgenic mice have fewer transitional T2 and mature B cells and reduced levels of circulating immunoglobulin. TACI-Ig treatment inhibits both the production of collagen-specific Abs and the progression of disease in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. In BLyS-deficient mice, B cell development is blocked at the transitional T1 stage such that virtually no mature B cells are present, while B-1 cell numbers are relatively normal. These findings further elucidate the roles of BLyS and APRIL in modulating B cell development and suggest that BLyS is required for the development of most but not all mature B cell populations found in the periphery.  (+info)

Identification of a novel receptor for B lymphocyte stimulator that is mutated in a mouse strain with severe B cell deficiency. (5/168)

BLyS (also called BAFF, TALL-1, THANK, and zTNF4), a TNF superfamily member, binds two receptors, TACI and BCMA, and regulates humoral immune responses [1-7]. These two receptors also bind APRIL [7-10], another TNF superfamily member. The results from TACI(-/-) and BCMA(-/-) mice suggest the existence of additional receptor(s) for BLyS. The TACI knockout gives the paradoxical result of B cells being hyperresponsive, suggesting an inhibitory role for this receptor [11, 12], while BCMA null mice have no discernable phenotype [13]. Here we report the identification of a third BLyS receptor (BR3; BLyS receptor 3). This receptor is unique in that, in contrast to TACI and BCMA, BR3 only binds BLyS. Treatment of antigen-challenged mice with BR3-Fc inhibited antibody production, indicating an essential role for BLyS, but not APRIL, in this response. A critical role for BR3 in B cell ontogeny is underscored by our data showing that the BR3 gene had been inactivated by a discrete, approximately 4.7 kb gene insertion event that disrupted the 3' end of the BR3 gene in A/WySnJ mice, which lack peripheral B cells.  (+info)

Competition for BLyS-mediated signaling through Bcmd/BR3 regulates peripheral B lymphocyte numbers. (6/168)

Striking cell losses occur during late B lymphocyte maturation, reflecting BcR-mediated selection coupled with requisites for viability promoting signals. How selection and survival cues are integrated remains unclear, but a key role for B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS(TM); trademark of Human Genome Sciences, Inc.) is suggested by its marked effects on B cell numbers and autoantibody formation as well as the B lineage-specific expression of BLyS receptors. Our analyses of the B cell-deficient A/WySnJ mouse have established Bcmd as a gene controlling follicular B cell life span, and recent reports show Bcmd encodes a novel BLyS receptor. Here we show that A/WySnJ B cells are unresponsive to BLyS, affording interrogation of how Bcmd influences B cell homeostasis. Mixed marrow chimeras indicate A/WySnJ peripheral B cells compete poorly for peripheral survival. Moreover, in vivo BrdU labeling shows that (A/WySnJ x BALB/c)F(1) B cells have an intermediate but uniform life span, indicating viability requires continuous signaling via this pathway. Together, these findings establish the BLyS/Bcmd pathway as a dominant mediator of B cell survival, suggesting competition for BLyS/Bcmd signals regulates follicular B cell numbers.  (+info)

Identification of downstream genes up-regulated by the tumor necrosis factor family member TALL-1. (7/168)

TALL-1 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family that binds to BCMA, TACI, and BAFF-R, three receptors mostly expressed by mature B lymphocytes. Previous studies have shown that the TALL-1 signaling is critically involved in B cell proliferation, maturation, and progression of lupus-like, autoimmune diseases. In this report, we performed cDNA subtractive hybridization experiments to identify downstream genes up-regulated by TALL-1. These experiments indicated that 10 genes, including interleukin (IL)-10, lymphocyte activation gene-1 (LAG-1), GCP-2, PBEF, ferritin, PIM-2, TFG, CD27 ligand, DUSP5, and archain, were up-regulated at the mRNA level by TALL-1 stimulation in B lymphoma RPMI-8226 cells and/or primary B lymphocytes. We also demonstrated that TALL-1 activated transcription of IL-10 and LAG-1 in a nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent manner in reporter gene assays. Moreover, our findings indicated BAFF-R, but not TACI, could dramatically up-regulate IL-10 secretion by RPMI-8226 cells. The identification of TALL-1-up-regulated genes will help explain the mechanisms of TALL-1-triggered biological and pathological effects and to identify molecular targets for intervention of lupus-like autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Aberrant expression of B-lymphocyte stimulator by B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells: a mechanism for survival. (8/168)

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is defined by the accumulation of CD5(+) B cells in the periphery and bone marrow. This disease is not characterized by highly proliferative cells but rather by the presence of leukemic cells with significant resistance to apoptosis and, therefore, prolonged survival. B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a newly identified tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member shown to be critical for maintenance of normal B-cell development and homeostasis and it shares significant homology with another TNF superfamily member, APRIL. The striking effects of BLyS on normal B-cell maintenance and survival raises the possibility that it may be involved in pathogenesis and maintenance of hematologic malignancies, including B-CLL. In this study, we investigated the status of APRIL and BLyS expression, as well as their receptors, in this disease. All B-CLL patient cells studied expressed one or more of 3 known receptors for BLyS; however, the pattern of expression was variable. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that B-CLL cells from a subset of patients aberrantly express BLyS and APRIL mRNA, whereas these molecules were not detectable in normal B cells. Furthermore, we provide in vitro evidence that BLyS protects B-CLL cells from apoptosis and enhances cell survival. Because these molecules are key regulators of B-cell homeostasis and tumor progression, leukemic cell autocrine expression of BLyS and APRIL may be playing an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease.  (+info)

The monoclonal antibody 11C1 reacts with the B cell-activating factor receptor (BAFF-R), also known as BAFF receptor 3 (BR3) or CD268. It is a 19 kDa type III transmembrane protein which belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily and is mainly expressed on B cells. BAFF-R plays an important role in B cell differentiation and promotes survival and activation of B cells. - Belgique
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DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk) is the target for mutations that cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in man and X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) in mouse. Both mouse and man have reduced circulating B cells and display defective B cell survival and tolerance. These defects have been primarily attributed to Btk function in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling. Preliminary data presented in this exploratory grant application demonstrate that Btk couples B-cell activation factor receptor (BAFF-R), a TNF-R family member, to the NF- kB pathway and facilitates B cell survival in response to its ligand, BAFF. Emerging evidence suggests that BAFF-R is as critical in B cell survival as BCR. As such, this proposal focuses on defining the molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates BAFF-R signaling to NF-kB and peripheral B cell survival. Preliminary data further suggests that (i) Btk interfaces with BAFF-R via mechanisms involving TRAF2 and cIAP2, and (ii) Btk ...
CD268 (BAFF Receptor), clone: 8A7, eBioscience™ 25μg; Unconjugated CD268 (BAFF Receptor), clone: 8A7, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD251 to CD400
CD268 (BAFF Receptor), PE, clone: 8A7, eBioscience™ 100 Tests; PE CD268 (BAFF Receptor), PE, clone: 8A7, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD251 to CD400
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on tonic signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on tonic signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
BAFF receptor (BAFF = B cell-activating factor of the TNF family) is a main pro-survival receptor expressed by human B cells. BAFFR deficiency is caused by a homologous deletion within the BAFFR gene...
Abstract 2400. Poster Board II-377. Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member BAFF-R has been shown to transduce a powerful survival signal in B lineage cells upon ligation by BAFF, its soluble high affinity ligand. The availability of BAFF in lymphoid organs and its detectable levels in the blood suggest that it is the control of receptor expression by the B cell rather than ligand production by supportive cells that limits the activity of this survival signal. The presence of BAFF-R on the surface of B cells from the transitional stages of development through maturity mirrors the expression of BAFF-R on the malignancies thought to arise from these various developmental stages and may enable B lineage malignancies to receive an anti-apoptotic signal from BAFF that reinforces and supports the expansion of the malignant cells. This additional survival signal may be crucial in indolent malignancies like chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a cancer characterized more by the prolonged survival of the ...
Follicular B cell survival requires signaling from BAFFR, a receptor for BAFF and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). This tonic BCR survival signal is distinct from that induced by antigen binding and may be ligand-independent. We show that inducible inactivation of the Syk tyrosine kinase, a key signal transducer from the BCR following antigen binding, resulted in the death of most follicular B cells because Syk-deficient cells were unable to survive in response to BAFF. Genetic rescue studies demonstrated that Syk transduces BAFFR survival signals via ERK and PI3 kinase. Surprisingly, BAFFR signaling directly induced phosphorylation of both Syk and the BCR-associated Igα signaling subunit, and this Syk phosphorylation required the BCR. We conclude that the BCR and Igα may be required for B cell survival because they function as adaptor proteins in a BAFFR signaling pathway leading to activation of Syk, demonstrating previously unrecognized crosstalk between the two receptors. ...
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The number of mature B cells is carefully controlled by signalling from receptors that support B cell survival. The best studied of these are the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and BAFFR. Recent work has shown that signalling from these receptors is closely linked, involves the CD19 co-receptor, and leads to activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways, ERK1, ERK2 and ERK5 MAP kinases, and PI-3 kinases. Importantly, studies show that investigation of the importance of signalling molecules in cell survival requires the use of inducible gene deletions within mature B cells. This overcomes the limitations of many earlier studies using constitutive gene deletions which were unable to distinguish between requirements for a protein in development versus survival. ...
The cytokine BAFF is produced by a number of cell types, including monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and some subsets of T cells (17). Receptors for BAFF, however, were initially thought to be restricted to more differentiated B-lineage cells. Therefore, the expression of BAFF receptors on transformed B-lineage lymphocytes in CLL was not entirely unexpected. In contrast, based on BAFF-null and BAFF-R-null mutants as well as other studies, it has been generally accepted that precursor B-lineage cells do not express this receptor. Our studies confirm that there is no expression of this receptor in normal bone marrow pre-B cells. Interestingly, Rodig and colleagues (35) also performed FACS on two pre-B ALL samples and reported that these were negative for expression of BAFF-R. Therefore, the prominent expression of the BAFF-R that we detected on both Ph-positive and Ph-negative ALL samples was unanticipated. In fact, all 12 samples that were tested by us, including original ALL ...
B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and its receptor BAFF-R play critical roles in the maturation and survival of conventional peripheral B cells. However, they appeared to be dispensable for the generation and maintenance of CD5(+) B-1 cells as BAFF(-/-) and BAFF-R(-/-) mice have normal B-1 cell populations. Hence, it is presently unclear if B-1 cells are responsive to BAFF and if BAFF regulates some aspects of B-1 cell function. We show here that BAFF-R and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) are the major receptors expressed by B-1 cells. Specifically, we show that BAFF treatment of B-1 cells leads to increased NF-kappaB p100 processing and CD21/CD35 expression. Interestingly, toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement of B-1 cells augmented the surface expression of BAFF receptors and rendered them responsive to BAFF costimulation, as evidenced by their increased proliferation, expression of cell surface activation markers and secretion of the pro-inflammatory
Naive peripheral B cells survive in vivo because of active stimulation by the TNF superfamily ligand B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF). Although the survival promoting properties of BLyS are well known, the signal pathways and molecular effectors that characterize this stimulation are still being elucidated. In this communication, we discuss the signal cascades that effect BLyS dependent survival and the regulation of BLyS induced signaling. We also examine the role of BLyS as a growth factor and propose that BLyS induced metabolic enhancement optimizes the B cell response to BCR and TLR-dependent signaling.
Measure human BAFF/BLyS in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma with our highly sensitive BAFF/BLyS/TNFSF13B Quantikine ELISA Kit.
BAFF belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, and its downstream signaling plays a critical role in B-cell survival and maturation.
BAFF大鼠单克隆抗体[Buffy 2](ab16081)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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TY - JOUR. T1 - BAFF expression correlates with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy disease activity measures and autoantibodies. AU - López De Padilla, Consuelo M.. AU - McNallan, Kelly T.. AU - Crowson, Cynthia S.. AU - Bilgic, Hatice. AU - Bram, Richard J.. AU - Hein, Molly S.. AU - Ytterberg, Steven R.. AU - Amin, Shreyasee. AU - Peterson, Erik J.. AU - Baechler, Emily C.. AU - Reed, Ann M.. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - Objective. To investigate B cell survival cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) levels as biomarkers of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Methods. We measured and compared mRNA levels of B cell survival cytokines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 98 patients with IIM, 38 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 21 healthy controls. The cytokines were B cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF);ΔBAFF; and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL); and their receptors BAFF-R, transmembrane activator and calcium ...
Abstract: Autoimmunity is traditionally attributed to altered lymphoid cell selection and/or tolerance, whereas the contribution of innate immune cells is less well understood. Autoimmunity is also associated with increased levels of B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF; also known as B lymphocyte stimulator), a cytokine that promotes survival of self-reactive B cell clones. We describe an important role for myeloid cells in autoimmune disease progression. Using Lyn-deficient mice, we show that overproduction of BAFF by hyperactive myeloid cells contributes to inflammation and autoimmunity in part by acting directly on T cells to induce the release of IFN-. Genetic deletion of IFN- or reduction of BAFF activity, achieved by either reducing myeloid cell hyperproduction or by treating with an anti-BAFF monoclonal antibody, reduced disease development in lyn-/- mice. The increased production of IFN- in lyn-/- mice feeds back on the myeloid cells to further stimulate BAFF release. ...
Results The mean disease duration of SLE was 7,0 [2,0-10,0] years, SLEDAI 2K score - 4 [2-13], SLICC damage index score - 0 [0-1], current prednisone dose - 10,0 [7,5-25,0] mg/day. SLE pts did not differ from healthy controls in BAFF (0,02 [0,02-0,08] vs 0,02 [0,02-0,02] ng/ml) and APRIL (0,01 [0,01-0,62] vs 0,01 [0,01-0,01] ng/ml) levels. Among SLE pts BAFF level correlated with lupus anticoagulant (r=0,88, p,0,05) and ESR (r=0,43, p,0,05); APRIL level correlated with SLEDAI 2K (r=0,55, p,0,01), CRP (r=0,50, p,0,01), antiDNA (r=0,38, p,0,05), creatinine level (r=0,39, p,0,05), current prednisone dose (r=0,55, p,0,01) and CD19 B lymphocytes absolute count (r=0,89, p,0,05). We divided SLE pts on two groups: the 1st- pts with high activity (SLEDAI 2K≥8), the 2nd - pts with low (SLEDAI 2K,8). The patients of 1st group had higher level of APRIL (1,69 [0,01-4,0] vs 0,01 [0,01-0,01] ng/ml, p,0,05) compared to 2nd group and control, there is no difference in BAFF level in these groups.. ...
The samples used in this paper were obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or RA during knee-TEP operations. First of all, expression of the known BAFF-binding receptors BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R was analyzed in SF of patients with OA and RA using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In a further step, the influence of several stimulants, including cytokines, TLR-agonists and cell activators on receptor expression was tested. Finally, taking into account BAFF function in other cell types, SF were stimulated with BAFF and stained with Annexin V in order to analyze its effect on apoptosis in SF ...
Objective: To assess the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist therapy on B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).. Methods: Blood from 38 patients with RA from a single centre was collected prior to and following initiation of TNF antagonist therapy. Plasma BLyS protein levels, blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels and disease activity were longitudinally monitored. Twelve patients with RA who either refused or were felt not to be candidates for TNF antagonist therapy and five normal healthy volunteers served as TNF antagonist-naïve controls.. Results: Baseline plasma BLyS protein levels, but not blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels, were elevated in patients with RA. Plasma BLyS protein levels declined following initiation of TNF antagonist therapy in good responders (GR) to TNF antagonist therapy but not in poor responders (PR). By contrast, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) declined in response to TNF antagonist therapy in GR and PR. ...
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN ...
In our previous study, overexpression of extracellular proteinase inhibitor (Expi) gene accelerated apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells, and induced expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF) gene. In this study, we found induction of BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R) gene expression in the Expi-transfected cells. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) gene is another TNF family member and the closest known relative of BAFF. We found induction of APRIL gene expression in the Expi-overexpressed apoptotic cells. NF-B gene was also induced in the Expi-overexpressed cells. Expression patterns of BAFF and APRIL pathway-related genes were examined in in vivo mouse mammary gland at various reproductive stages. Expression levels of BAFF gene were very low at early pregnancy, increased from mid-pregnancy, and peaked at lactation, and thereafter decreased at involution stages of mammary gland. Expression of BAFF-R gene was highly induced in involution stages compared to lactation stages. Thus, expression ...
Background B cell activating factor (BAFF) plays an important role in the differentiation, survival and activation of B cells rheumatoid arthritis (RA). BAFF receptor (BAFFR) is a crucial receptor for the survival of mature B cells in developing B cells. Paeoniflorin-6-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) exerted its anti-inflammatory effects through regulating immune cells responses. The study was to investigate the regulatory effect of CP-25 on BAFF/BAFFR-nuclear factor of kappa B (NFkapaB) signaling in B cell of collagen induced-arthritis (CIA) mice.Methods Mice CIA was induced by injection of type II collagen. Arthritis index (AI) and swollen joint count (SJC) were assessed, spleen and joints histopathology were observed.B cells subsets, BAFF receptor were analyzed by flow cytometry. BAFF and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were measured by protein antibody array. The expressions of TRAF2, MKK3, MKK6, p-P38, and p-NFkapaB65 in NF-kapaB signaling were analyzed by western blot ...
The autoimmune exocrinopathy Sjögrens syndrome (SS) is characterized by mononuclear cell (MNC) infiltrates of exocrine glands and overactivity of B lymphocytes. Although T cells have long been perceived as the prime effectors, increasing evidence indicates that the key role is rather served by B cells. Among related abnormalities are rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-SSA/Ro, and anti-SSB/La antibodies (Ab). Also, supporting this view is our finding of an increase in the number of circulating naïve mature B (Bm) cells, with a reciprocal decrease in that of memory B cells. Furthermore, a ratio of Bm2-plus-Bm2 cells to early Bm5-plus-late Bm5 above 5 is diagnostic. This variation partly reflects the migration of active memory B cells into the exocrine glands of the patients, as well as into their skin. More recently, the B-cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) has been endorsed with a pivotal role in B-cell survival and hence implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. In practice, B cells
The tumor necrosis family member BAFF is limiting for the survival of follicular B lymphocytes, but excessive BAFF signaling can lead to autoimmunity, suggesting that its activity must be tightly regulated. We have identified a conserved alternate splice isoform of BAFF, called deltaBAFF, which lacks 57 nt encoding the A-A1 loop and is co-expressed with BAFF in many mouse and human myeloid cells. Mouse deltaBAFF appears on the plasma membrane, but unlike BAFF it is inefficiently released by proteolysis. DeltaBAFF can associate with BAFF in heteromultimers and diminish BAFF bioactivity and release. Thus, alternative splicing of the BAFF gene suppresses BAFF B cell stimulatory function in several ways, and deltaBAFF may promote other functions as well ...
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) controls the proportion of transitional B cells completing differentiation and the longevity of most primary B cells. These key roles in B cell selection, survival and homeostasis make BLyS and its receptors attractive candidates for targeted B cell therapeutics. Here we have used a neutralizing hamster anti-mouse BLyS antibody to assess how BLyS depletion influences developing and primary B cell subsets, as well as how this treatment impacts primary TD and TI immune responses. Mice treated with 10F4 show rapid and substantial reductions in the transitional, follicular, and marginal zone pools which persist for ~40 days. In contrast, the only bone marrow subset affected is the mature recirculating B cell fraction. Interestingly, splenic B1 cells, but not peritoneal B1 cells, are reduced as well. Following the recovery of serum BLyS levels, peripheral reconstitution occurs gradually, such that normal B cell numbers return by day 70-80. Mice challenged with ...
Belimumab (also known as Benlysta™) is currently being studied in Phase III clinical trials to determine whether or not it is effective for lupus. Belimumab specifically reduces the actions of a protein called B lymphocyte stimulator, or BLyS. BLyS is a protein that increases the lifespan and inflammatory potential of certain immune cells called B cells, which are known to be hyperactive in lupus patients. Belimumab, which interferes with BLyS, is a human antibody. This means that it looks a lot like the antibodies that the immune system makes to fight off viruses. But in this case, belimumab targets only the protein BLyS. Because it only has one target, it is called a monoclonal antibody ...
D to neuronal cultures. Blocking BAFF-R ligation with TACI-Ig inhibited wild-type, but not Baffrm/m, neuronal survival in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 3 C).
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Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are biologic markers of endothelial function. In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the numerical reduction and functional impairment of EPCs contribute to the endothelial dysfunction. Through ex vivo and in vitro studies, we aimed at evaluating the effects of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) on EPC colonies and endothelial cells and also investigating BLyS receptor expression on these cells. EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In order to evaluate their ability to form colonies, EPCs were cultured on fibronectin-coated dishes and incubated with BlyS alone or BlyS and belimumab. Apoptosis of EPCs and endothelial cell line EA.hy926 was evaluated after 6, 12, and 24 h of incubation with BLyS and after 6 h with BLyS and belimumab. The expression of B cell activating factor-receptor (BAFF-R), B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML) interactor
A Tumor Necrosis Factor superfamily member that plays a Role in the Regulation of B-Lymphocyte Survival. It occurs as a Membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein; B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor; and B-Cell Maturation Antigen ...
Toda la información sobre las últimas publicaciones científicas de la Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Increased expression of A Proliferation-inducing Ligand (APRIL) in lung leukocytes and alveolar epithelial cells in COPD patients with non small cell lung cancer
Clinical hypertension is associated with raised serum IgG antibodies. However, whether antibodies are causative agents in hypertension remains unknown. We investigated whether hypertension in mice is associated with B-cell activation and IgG production and moreover whether B-cell/IgG deficiency affords protection against hypertension and vascular remodeling. Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.7 mg/kg per day; 28 days) was associated with (1) a 25% increase in the proportion of splenic B cells expressing the activation marker CD86, (2) an 80% increase in splenic plasma cell numbers, (3) a 500% increase in circulating IgG, and (4) marked IgG accumulation in the aortic adventitia. In B-cell-activating factor receptor-deficient (BAFF-R−/−) mice, which lack mature B cells, there was no evidence of Ang II-induced increases in serum IgG. Furthermore, the hypertensive response to Ang II was attenuated in BAFF-R−/− (Δ30±4 mm Hg) relative to wild-type (Δ41±5 mm Hg) mice, and this response was ...
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF13B/TACI and TNFRSF17/BCMA. TNFSF13/APRIL binds to the same 2 receptors. Together, they form a 2 ligands -2 receptors pathway involved in the stimulation of B- and T-cell function and the regulation of humoral immunity. A third B-cell specific BAFF-receptor (BAFFR/BR3) promotes the survival of mature B-cells and the B-cell response.
The indolent B-cell malignancies of lymphoma and myeloma account for a great number of adult cancers in the United States annually. Hi-dose combination chemotherapy, bone marrow transplants and monoclonal antibody therapeutics have improved the clinical responses of patients diagnosed with some of these deadly diseases, but relapses are common. Active immunotherapy of B-cell malignancies is an important and under-exploited field of cancer treatments that may serve to generate potent anti-tumor immunity with long-term anti-tumor memory and surveillance, given the appropriate vaccine intervention approach. We have leveraged the synergistic pairing of agonistic_CD40 monoclonal antibody with the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)-7 agonist S27609 in therapeutic protection and cellular studies in mouse models of lymphoma and multiple myeloma. In addition, we have explored BAFF/APRIL survival factor blockade in a mouse model of multiple myeloma through the use of soluble BAFF-Receptor and TACI. The studies ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
We show here that approximately 25% of the mature peripheral B cells can survive in the mouse for at least 2 months without Syk, in a manner that requires BAFF‐R and CD19 signaling. In contrast, deletion of the Syk gene in early B cells results in the appearance of a small number of immature IgM+ B cells, which, however, fail to give rise to any mature B cells in the periphery (Cheng et al, 1995). Thus, pre‐B and mature B cells have different requirements for Syk. Indeed, the pre‐BCR is an autonomously signaling receptor that continuously engages Syk, whereas the BCR forms an autoinhibited oligomer on mature B cells that is not in contact with Syk. This notion is supported by a proximity ligation analysis showing that Syk is localized near the BCR only after BCR activation (Infantino et al, 2010; Klasener et al, 2014).. The presence of large amounts of Syk‐negative mature B cells in the induced mb1‐CreERT2;Sykfl/fl mice allowed us to analyze the in vivo role of this kinase in the ...
CD180 (RP105), expressed on dendritic cells and B cells, is a receptor closely related to TLR4. CD180 signaling does not require adaptor proteins like MyD88, instead it resembles B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including the activation of PI3K and Akt. Recently, others and we have found αCD180 also induces the Pim-1 kinase, but much of the CD180 signaling pathway remains ill defined. We previously found that targeting antigen (Ag) to B cells via CD180, by coupling the Ag to an anti-CD180 antibody (Ag-αCD180), induces a rapid and strong Ag-specific IgG antibody (Ab) response in mice. Furthermore, IgG Ab responses were maintained in immunodeficient mice that lack mature B cells (BAFFR−/−). These studies led us to investigate the signaling events that occur within B cells upon coincident activation of the BCR and CD180. For this study we have employed B1-8hi transgenic mice, which have a BCR that binds to NP-hapten on some splenic B cells, and the K46μm17 murine B cell line, that expresses ...
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A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) is a TNF ligand that, via its receptors TACI and BCMA, is involved in both B cell physiology as well as in proliferation and survival of malignant B cells. To target APRIL-dependent stimulation of B cell cancers, we recently produced and characterized two monoclonal antagonistic anti-human APRIL antibodies called humanAPRIL.01A (hA.01A) and humanAPRIL.03A (hA.03A). In a first biochemical assay to validate their blocking activity, hA.01A was shown to fully prevent APRIL from binding to its receptors, whereas a substantial difference was detected for hA.03A, which inhibited APRIL binding to BCMA less efficiently than hA.01A. Epitope mapping subsequently revealed that hA.01A and hA.03A bind distinct sites on APRIL, which provided a structural rationale of their different blocking activities. Importantly, this differential inhibition profile can be used to functionally dissect BCMA and TACI-dependent signals and indicated that B cell survival and IgA ...
Buy our Recombinant Mouse BCMA protein. Ab109162 is a protein fragment produced in HEK 293 cells and has been validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free…
BLyS Human Recombinant fused to His tag at N-terminus produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 190 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 21 kDa.
"Cell Receptor and Cofactor Interactions of the Contact Activation System and Factor XI". Frontiers in Medicine. 5: 66. doi: ... adrenergic receptor binding. • translation activator activity. Cellular component. • cytosol. • extracellular region. • cell ... regulation of complement activation. • negative regulation of RIG-I signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell adhesion. ... positive regulation of trophoblast cell migration. • positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading. • ...
Often tumor cells secrete growth factors which activate receptors close to primary afferent neurons. Activation of these neural ... Through testing in mouse models, it has been shown that activation of the CB-1 receptor helps reduce reactions associated with ... Thus, a new target for potential treatments is activation of the CB-1 receptor. Modern research and techniques are attempting ... Metastatic cancer cells often establish themselves within the skeleton. When the cancer cells have metastasized, the mechanical ...
"Cell activation by glycated proteins. AGE receptors, receptor recognition factors and functional classification of AGEs". Cell ... Hirai M, Shimizu N (1990). "Purification of two distinct proteins of approximate Mr 80,000 from human epithelial cells and ... 2000). "Vacuolar system-associated protein-60: a protein characterized from bovine granulosa and luteal cells that is ...
Interaction with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors and activation of NF-kappab and c-Jun N-terminal kinase". J ... "The TNF-receptor-associated factor family: scaffold molecules for cytokine receptors, kinases and their regulators". Cell. ... "Activation of NF-kappaB by RANK requires tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 6 and NF-kappaB-inducing ... "The involvement of multiple tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factors in the signaling mechanisms of receptor ...
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... endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
... interacts with all members of the SRC family of steroid receptor coactivators. It has been shown in HeLa cells that TEAD2 ... Vassilev A, Kaneko KJ, Shu H, Zhao Y, DePamphilis ML (May 2001). "TEAD/TEF transcription factors utilize the activation domain ... Vassilev A, Kaneko KJ, Shu H, Zhao Y, DePamphilis ML (May 2001). "TEAD/TEF transcription factors utilize the activation domain ... In drosophila the transcription factor Scalloped is involved in the development of the wing disc, survival and cell growth. ...
Sheikh MS, Huang Y (2003). "Death receptor activation complexes: it takes two to activate TNF receptor 1". Cell Cycle. 2 (6): ... "Glutamate receptor activation evokes calpain-mediated degradation of Sp3 and Sp4, the prominent Sp-family transcription factors ... or B-cell receptor, NF-κB becomes activated through distinct signaling components. Upon ligation of the T-cell receptor, ... Many bacterial products and stimulation of a wide variety of cell-surface receptors lead to NF-κB activation and fairly rapid ...
Shilo BZ (2003). "Signaling by the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor pathway during development". Experimental Cell ... activating the receptor. Alternatively, Spitz can be bound and inactivated by Argos, inhibiting EGFR activation. Spitz is ... Spitz is a protein in fruit flies which is the major activator of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). Spitz is produced as ... Klein DE, Nappi VM, Reeves GT, Shvartsman SY, Lemmon MA (2004). "Argos inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signalling by ...
cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. Activation of PDGFRα requires ... PDGFRA, i.e. platelet-derived growth factor receptor A, also termed PDGFRα, i.e. platelet-derived growth factor receptor α, or ... is a receptor located on the surface of a wide range of cell types. This receptor binds to certain isoforms of platelet-derived ... blood cells, connective tissue, and mesangial cells. Somatic mutations that cause the fusion of the PDGFRA gene with certain ...
... nerve growth factor receptor subfamily that bind TNF receptor-associated factors and activate nuclear factor kappaB". Mol. Cell ... Interaction with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors and activation of NF-kappab and c-Jun N-terminal kinase". J ... "Activation of NF-kappaB by RANK requires tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 6 and NF-kappaB-inducing ... "The TNF-receptor-associated factor family: scaffold molecules for cytokine receptors, kinases and their regulators". Cell. ...
October 2008). "The adaptor protein MITA links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 transcription factor activation". Immunity. 29 ( ... Shu is mainly known for his work on cell signal transduction related to immunity. Shu Hongbing was born to a poor rural family ... "Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors signal NF-kappaB and JNK activation and apoptosis through ... June 2007). "RBCK1 negatively regulates tumor necrosis factor- and interleukin-1-triggered NF-kappaB activation by targeting ...
"Synergistic activation by the glutamine-rich domains of human transcription factor Sp1". Cell. 59 (5): 827-36. doi:10.1016/0092 ... "Activation functions 1 and 2 of nuclear receptors: molecular strategies for transcriptional activation". Molecular ... Gill G, Ptashne M (Oct 1987). "Mutants of GAL4 protein altered in an activation function". Cell. 51 (1): 121-6. doi:10.1016/ ... García-Rodríguez C, Rao A (Jun 1998). "Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent transactivation regulated by the ...
... epidermal growth factor receptor). This results in a blockade of ligand binding and receptor activation. Epidermal growth ... nimotuzumab binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a signalling protein that normally controls cell division. In ... this receptor is altered to cause uncontrolled cell division, a hallmark of cancer. These monoclonal antibodies block EGFR and ... "Humanization of a mouse monoclonal antibody that blocks the epidermal growth factor receptor: recovery of antagonistic activity ...
"Sprouty proteins are targeted to membrane ruffles upon growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Identification of a ... Cell. Biol. 22 (22): 7953-66. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.22.7953-7966.2002. PMC 134720. PMID 12391162. Lim J, Wong ES, Ong SH, Yusoff P ... a pathway crucial for developmental processes initiated by activation of various receptor tyrosine kinases. These proteins ... Cell Biol. 4 (11): 850-8. doi:10.1038/ncb867. PMID 12402043. S2CID 31064800. This article incorporates text from the public ...
"Activation of P2X7 receptors induces CCL3 production in microglial cells through transcription factor NFAT". Journal of ... On T cells activation of P2X7 receptors can activate the T cells or cause T cell differentiation, can affect T cell migration ... In melanocytic cells P2X7 gene expression may be regulated by MITF. Activation of the P2X7 receptor by ATP leads to recruitment ... The P2X7 receptor also serves as a pattern recognition receptor for extracellular ATP-mediated apoptotic cell death, regulation ...
... "beta-Arrestin-mediated ADP-ribosylation factor 6 activation and beta 2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (45 ... for ADP ribosylation factors (ARF) to the Golgi". J. Cell Sci. 113 (11): 1883-9. PMID 10806099. Claing A, Chen W, Miller WE, ... "beta-Arrestin-mediated ADP-ribosylation factor 6 activation and beta 2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (45 ... Frank S, Upender S, Hansen SH, Casanova JE (1998). "ARNO is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor 6 ...
"Sprouty proteins are targeted to membrane ruffles upon growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Identification of a ... epidermal growth factor (EGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Antagonization of growth factor mediated pathways, cell ... This protein is indirectly involved in the non-cell autonomous inhibitory effect on fibroblast growth factor two signaling. The ... In primary dermal endothelial cells this gene is transiently upregulated in response to fibroblast growth factor two. ...
Pomerantz JL, Denny EM, Baltimore D (2002). "CARD11 mediates factor-specific activation of NF-kappaB by the T cell receptor ... Narayan P, Holt B, Tosti R, Kane LP (2006). "CARMA1 is required for Akt-mediated NF-kappaB activation in T cells". Mol. Cell. ... "Phosphorylation of CARMA1 plays a critical role in T Cell receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation". Immunity. 23 (6): 575-85. ... "PDK1 nucleates T cell receptor-induced signaling complex for NF-kappaB activation". Science. 308 (5718): 114-8. Bibcode:2005Sci ...
EBI2 helps B cell homing within a lymph node. EBI2 expression increases during B cell activation, after B cell receptor and ... a transcription factor required in germinal center development. EBI2 must turn off to move B cells to the germinal center from ... G-protein coupled receptor 183 also known as Epstein-Barr virus-induced G-protein coupled receptor 2 (EBI2) is a protein that ... Expression of this gene was detected in B-lymphocyte cell lines and lymphoid tissues but not in T-lymphocyte cell lines or ...
"An Allosteric Mechanism for Activation of the Kinase Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor". Cell. 125 (6): 1137-1149. doi ... 10.1016/j.cell.2006.05.013. PMID 16777603. Aertgeerts, K.; Skene, R.; Yano, J.; Sang, B. -C.; Zou, H.; Snell, G.; Jennings, A ... "Mechanism of Activation and Inhibition of the HER4/ErbB4 Kinase". Structure. 16 (3): 460-467. doi:10.1016/j.str.2007.12.016. ... "Structural Analysis of the Mechanism of Inhibition and Allosteric Activation of the Kinase Domain of HER2 Protein". Journal of ...
regulation of cell proliferation. • angiogenesis. • regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • ... The signaling activation of SHC is implicated in tumorigenic in cancer cells there is a potential to use SHC as a prognostic ... insulin receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKA receptor binding. • ephrin receptor binding. • epidermal growth factor receptor ... epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • cellular response to growth factor stimulus. • MAPK cascade. • Fc-epsilon ...
Interleukin 1- and interleukin 2-dependent proliferation of activated T cells, and the activation of quiescent helper T cells ... Choy L, Derynck R (November 1998). "The type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor-interacting protein TRIP-1 acts ... Most immune cells (or leukocytes) secrete TGF-β1. Some T cells (e.g. regulatory T cells) release TGF-β1 to inhibit the actions ... It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions, including the control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell ...
B Activation Mediated via Components of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 Signal Transduction Pathway". Journal of Virology ... NF-κB is a transcription factor that is activated in the cytoplasm and translocates to the cell nucleus. It plays a crucial ... NF-κB is a transcription factor that is immediately activated following virus entry into cells and is important for virus ... Inhibiting and degrading this transcription factor allows the virus to further replicate without attack by the host cell. The ...
Osborne CK, Schiff R, Fuqua SA, Shou J (December 2001). "Estrogen receptor: current understanding of its activation and ... Wheaton K, Atadja P, Riabowol K (1996). "Regulation of transcription factor activity during cellular aging". Biochem. Cell Biol ... Evan G, Harrington E, Fanidi A, Land H, Amati B, Bennett M (August 1994). "Integrated control of cell proliferation and cell ... 진핵생물에 존재하는 중요한 전사인자를 일반 전사인자(영어: general transcription factors, GTFs)라고 한다. 일반 전사 인자는 전사의 시작에 관여한다.[2][4][5] ...
Over-expression or constitutive activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can promote tumor processes. EGF-induced ... "Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta)-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells involves Smad7-dependent activation of ... Recent insights into the activation of EGF/ErbB receptors". Mol. Cell. 12 (3): 541-52. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00350-2. PMID ... "Smurf1 interacts with transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor through Smad7 and induces receptor degradation". J. Biol ...
... and platelet-activating factor. Mast cell intermediaries cause an allergic inflammation and symptoms through the activation of ... IgE then binds to IgE receptors on the surface of mast cells. Then, mast cells release histamine, which then leads to the ... Beta chemokines such as eotaxin and MIP-1 alpha have been implicated in the priming and activation of mast cells in the ocular ... When histamine is released from mast cells, it binds to H1 receptors on nerve endings and causes the ocular symptom of itching ...
Occur when factors outside the cell activate cell surface death receptors (e.g., Fas) that result in the activation of caspases ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program. This process can be activated ... For example, type III PCD might be caused by trophotoxicity, or hyperactivation of trophic factor receptors. Cytotoxins that ... This sets off a cascade of signaling molecules that result in T cells, B cells, and Macrophages to cross the blood-brain ...
"ADP-ribosylation factor 4 small GTPase mediates epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent phospholipase D2 activation". J. ... Cell Genet. 68 (1-2): 91-4. doi:10.1159/000133898. PMID 7956370. Orcl L, Palmer DJ, Amherdt M, Rothman JE (1993). "Coated ... "ADP-ribosylation factor 4 small GTPase mediates epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent phospholipase D2 activation". J. ... ADP-ribosylation factor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARF4 gene. ADP-ribosylation factor 4 (ARF4) is a member ...
... sometimes called T helper cells). These T cells bind to the MHC II-antigen molecule and cause activation of the B cell. This is ... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ...
Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... Howson LJ, Salio M, Cerundolo V. MR1-Restricted Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells and Their Activation during Infectious ... Neonatal and adult recent thymic emigrants produce IL-8 and express complement receptors CR1 and CR2. JCI insight. 2017-08-17, ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ...
... to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell ... During atrophy, there is a down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways, and an activation of protein degradation. The ... selective androgen receptor modulators) are being investigated with promising results. They would have fewer side-effects, ... Another factor that contributes to the sustaining of muscle strength in hibernating bears is the occurrence of periodic ...
Radioligands that bind to dopamine receptors (D1,[14] D2 receptor,[15][16] reuptake transporter), serotonin receptors (5HT1A, ... This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... One of the factors most responsible for the acceptance of positron imaging was the development of radiopharmaceuticals. In ... One of the main advantages of using PET is that it can also provide muscle activation data about deeper lying muscles such as ...
When a cell is infected with EBOV, receptors located in the cell's cytosol (such as RIG-I and MDA5) or outside of the cytosol ( ... On TLR activation, proteins including interferon regulatory factor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 7 trigger a signalling ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... acnes readily grows and can cause inflammation within and around the follicle due to activation of the innate immune system.[10 ...
Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... ReceptorEdit. The endogenous receptor for substance P is neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-receptor, NK1R).[8] It belongs to the ... Elevation of serum, plasma, or tissue SP and/or its receptor (NK1R) has been associated with many diseases: sickle cell crisis; ...
One major pathway being through stimulation of the nociceptin receptor,[8][9][10] and blocking this receptor may therefore be a ... Hyperalgesia is induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF) which comes about in an inflammatory or an allergic response. This ... "Activation of the nociceptin opioid system in rats. Sensory neurons produce antinociceptive effects in inflammatory pain: ... seems to occur via immune cells interacting with the peripheral nervous system and releasing pain-producing chemicals ( ...
However, the effect of glutamate differs in the bipolar cells, depending upon the type of receptor imbedded in that cell's ... Activation of rods and cones is actually hyperpolarization; when they are not being stimulated, they depolarize and release ... If any of the previously mentioned factors' functions are ablated, the default photoreceptor is a S cone. These events take ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ...
... by blocking the Runx2 factor through Smad3 activation. Sox9 stimulates differentiation into chondrocytes. Sox9 blocked ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... are necessary for osteochondroprogenitor cells to differentiate into the osteoblast cell lineage. These factors also have a ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ...
... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... Re-activation of PAX8 (or Pax2) expression has been reported in pediatric Wilms Tumors, almost all subtypes of renal cell ... "Thyroid hormone receptor beta-dependent expression of a potassium conductance in inner hair cells at the onset of hearing". ... "Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. Paramutation & Pax Transcription Factors. 44: 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.09. ...
... nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to ... Again it was noted that AHN was not increase via activation of the estrogen receptors.[13] ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel. ...
"Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel. ... They act as growth factors in the prostate gland, stimulating cell division and tissue growth.[13] In accordance, therapeutic ... induced release of gonadotropins and consequent activation of gonadal androgen production.[2][64] Examples include GnRH ... Androgen receptor degradersEdit. Selective androgen receptor degraders (SARDs) are another new type of antiandrogen that has ...
cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA ... A special transcription activation function (TAF), called TAF-3, is present in the progesterone receptor-B, in a B-upstream ... Main articles: Progesterone receptor A, Progesterone receptor B, and Progesterone receptor C ...
... members of the retinoic acid receptor or retinoid X receptor nuclear transcription family) which are found in every cell ( ... stellate cell activation and daily dose consumption". Liver International. 26 (2): 182-6. doi:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2005.01207.x ... Barker ME, Blumsohn A (November 2003). "Is vitamin A consumption a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture?". The Proceedings of ... Wu J, Zern MA (2000). "Hepatic stellate cells: a target for the treatment of liver fibrosis". Journal of Gastroenterology. 35 ( ...
negative regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell ... astrocyte activation. • synapse organization. • modulation of age-related behavioral decline. • cell-cell adhesion. • cellular ... T cell receptor signaling pathway. • segmentation. • positive regulation of receptor recycling. • calcium ion transmembrane ... Protein: cell membrane proteins (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
... by activity BaP diminished NMDA receptor-dependent nerve cell activity measured as mRNA expression of the NMDA NR2B receptor ... This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ... Stribinskis, Vilius; Ramos, Kenneth S. (2006). "Activation of Human Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 Retrotransposition by ... expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2),[30] which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface ...
In the brain, cortisol acts on two types of receptor - mineralocorticoid receptors and glucocorticoid receptors, and these are ... The relationship between chronic stress and its concomitant activation of the HPA axis, and dysfunction of the immune system is ... There, CRH and vasopressin act synergistically to stimulate the secretion of stored ACTH from corticotrope cells. ACTH is ... It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ...
... more often than verbal factors do. These factors, which Rivka Bialistock[52] mentions in her article, include: *Lack of facial ... For example, the Canadian currency tactile feature is a system of raised dots in one corner, based on Braille cells but not ... Arnott, S., Thaler, L., Milne, J., Kish, D., & Goodale, M. (n.d). Shape-specific activation of occipital cortex in an early ... Leber's Congenital Amaurosis damages the light receptors in the retina and usually begins affecting sight in early childhood, ...
... activation of microRNA-127 with downregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 by chromatin-modifying drugs in human cancer cells". ... Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. Breast cancer. Under-expression. 30%. ... Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. [24]. Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ...
Peterson A, Seed B (1987). "Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the T cell erythrocyte receptor (CD2).". Nature 329 ... Samelson LE, Fletcher MC, Ledbetter JA, June CH (1990). "Activation of tyrosine phosphorylation in human T cells via the CD2 ... Lüscher B (2001). "Function and regulation of the transcription factors of the Myc/Max/Mad network.". Gene 277 (1-2): 1-14. ... Tamén recibiu o nome de antíxeno de superficie de células T T11/Leu-5, LFA-2, receptor LFA-3, receptor de eritrocitos e ...
cell junction. • dendrite. • sarcolemma. • cell projection. • perikaryon. • synapse. • postsynaptic membrane. Biological ... These activation and inactivation mechanisms both involve Ca2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM) in the IQ domain in the C-terminal ... which causes calcium-induced calcium release from the ER Stores via ryanodine receptors. It depolarizes at -30mV and helps ... high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and transcription of CACNA1c and ...
In budding yeast, the candidate gene for activation of histone gene expression is SBF. SBF is a transcription factor that is ... SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... The nociceptin/nociceptin opioid receptor system is involved in the reinforcing or conditioning effects of alcohol.[110] ... activation,[44]. repression[43] activation repression[45] acetylation activation[47] activation[46] activation[46] activation[ ...
Hall showed that activation of endogenous Gaq via G protein-coupled receptors (GCPRs) could in fact induce activation of Rho, ... "The small GTP-binding protein rac regulates growth factor-induced membrane ruffling". Cell. 70 (3): 401-410. doi:10.1016/0092- ... DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with ...
... activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of SAPK in melanoma cells". J. Biol. Chem. UNITED ... 1996). "Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during ... activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of SAPK in melanoma cells". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (5): ... and JNK1 results in efficient and specific JNK1 activation". Mol. Cell. Biol. UNITED STATES. 20 (7): 2334-42. doi:10.1128/MCB. ...
... complement receptors, Fc receptors, B cell receptors and T cell receptors.[12] ... Binding and activationEdit. Ligand binding is an equilibrium process. Ligands bind to receptors and dissociate from them ... The N terminus interacts with other cellular transcription factors in a ligand-independent manner; and, depending on these ... GABA receptors: GABA-A, GABA-C. GABA. Cl− , HCO−3 [11]. Glutamate receptors: NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor, and Kainate receptor ...
Many trauma patients suffer from an overwhelming activation of tissue factor and thus massive hyperfibrinolysis.[6] Also in ... ADP receptor/P2Y12 inhibitors. *Thienopyridines *Clopidogrel. *Prasugrel. *Ticlopidine. *Nucleotide/nucleoside analogs * ... Factor Xa inhibitors. (with some II inhibition). Heparin group/. glycosaminoglycans/. (bind antithrombin). *Low molecular ... The ELT measures fibrinolysis by clotting the euglobulin fraction (primarily the important fibrinolytic factors fibrinogen, PAI ...
T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Cancer - either by growth factors secreted by the tumor or invasion of bone marrow by the cancer ... CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD8 are known as CD8+ T cells. These cells bind antigens presented on ...
heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production. • cell-cell adhesion. • ... Wright G.J., Puklavec M.J., Willis A.C. et al. Lymphoid/neuronal cell surface OX2 glycoprotein recognizes a novel receptor on ... homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • negative regulation of macrophage activation. • regulation ... heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell recognition. • ...
Crystal structure of human stem cell factor: Implication for stem cell factor receptor dimerization and activation. Zhongtao ... Crystal structure of human stem cell factor: Implication for stem cell factor receptor dimerization and activation ... Crystal structure of human stem cell factor: Implication for stem cell factor receptor dimerization and activation ... Crystal structure of human stem cell factor: Implication for stem cell factor receptor dimerization and activation ...
Abstract 707: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha p75 Receptor, Sattelite-Cell Activation and Neovascularization. David A Goukassian, ... Abstract 707: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha p75 Receptor, Sattelite-Cell Activation and Neovascularization ... Abstract 707: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha p75 Receptor, Sattelite-Cell Activation and Neovascularization ... Abstract 707: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha p75 Receptor, Sattelite-Cell Activation and Neovascularization ...
Activation of Stat1 and Stat3 was constitutive in transformed squamou … ... leads to activation of signaling molecules including Stat1 and Stat3, two members of the signal transducers and activators of ... Stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by ligand(s) ... Requirement of Stat3 but not Stat1 activation for epidermal growth factor receptor- mediated cell growth In vitro J Clin Invest ...
Abstract 305: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α p75 Receptor, Satellite-Cell Survival, Activation and Muscle Regeneration. David A ... Abstract 305: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α p75 Receptor, Satellite-Cell Survival, Activation and Muscle Regeneration ... Abstract 305: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α p75 Receptor, Satellite-Cell Survival, Activation and Muscle Regeneration ... Abstract 305: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α p75 Receptor, Satellite-Cell Survival, Activation and Muscle Regeneration ...
Brutons Tyrosine Kinase Links the B Cell Receptor to Nuclear Factor κb Activation. Urmila D. Bajpai, Keming Zhang, Mark ... Brutons Tyrosine Kinase Links the B Cell Receptor to Nuclear Factor κb Activation ... NF-κB/Rel Function Is Essential for B Cell Activation.. NF-kB/Rel function is essential for B cell activation. Our studies with ... κB/Rel family of transcription factors, as the activation of these factors is required for a B cell response to mIgM. We found ...
Cell Biochem Funct. 2008 Jun;26(4):467-77. doi: 10.1002/cbf.1468. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... of JKTBP1 induces androgen-independent LNCaP cell proliferation through activation of epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R). ... Our data indicated that overexpression of JKTBP1 in LNCaP cells leads to abnormal cell proliferation and may be involved in the ... We originally found that the ectopic JKTBP1 expression resulted in the proliferation of LNCaP cells in an AI way, as well as ...
Growth Factor Receptor and PI3K/Akt Signaling Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Survival through Regulation of Stat3 Activation ... Growth Factor Receptor and PI3K/Akt Signaling Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Survival through Regulation of Stat3 Activation ... in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Toshinori Bito,1,2 Nahoko Sumita,1 Masashi Ashida,1 Arief Budiyanto,1 Masato Ueda,1 ... in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma," Journal of Skin Cancer, vol. 2011, Article ID 874571, 11 pages, 2011. https://doi. ...
Frizzled-5: a high affinity receptor for secreted frizzled-related protein-2 activation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells ... Frizzled-5: A High Affinity Receptor for Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein-2 Activation of Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells ... Frizzled-5: A High Affinity Receptor for Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein-2 Activation of Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells ... Frizzled-5: A High Affinity Receptor for Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein-2 Activation of Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells ...
The Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor Vav Is a Crucial Regulator of B Cell Receptor Activation and B Cell Responses to ... The Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor Vav Is a Crucial Regulator of B Cell Receptor Activation and B Cell Responses to ... The Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor Vav Is a Crucial Regulator of B Cell Receptor Activation and B Cell Responses to ... The Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor Vav Is a Crucial Regulator of B Cell Receptor Activation and B Cell Responses to ...
The ERK pathway activation appears also increased in duct epithelia adjacent to carcinoma, suggesting tumor micro-environmental ... Multiple signaling proteins are activated in pancreatic duct cell carcinogenesis including those associated with the ERK, PKB/ ... analysis of changes in signaling pathway activation downstream of growth factor receptors in pancreatic duct cell ... We compared the levels of 18 signaling proteins including growth factor receptors, tumor suppressors and 13 of their putative ...
Human Eosinophils Induce Mucin Production in Airway Epithelial Cells Via Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation. Pierre- ... Human Eosinophils Induce Mucin Production in Airway Epithelial Cells Via Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation ... Human Eosinophils Induce Mucin Production in Airway Epithelial Cells Via Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation ... Human Eosinophils Induce Mucin Production in Airway Epithelial Cells Via Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation ...
The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. Evidence that ... The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. Evidence that ... We now report that administration of SCF intradermally in vivo results in dermal mast cell activation and a mast cell-dependent ... which encodes a ligand for c-kit receptor, which we have designated stem cell factor (SCF), have a critical role in the ...
Activation of Insulin-like Growth Factor I Receptor Signaling Pathway Is Critical for Mouse Plasma Cell Tumor Growth. Weiqun Li ... Activation of Insulin-like Growth Factor I Receptor Signaling Pathway Is Critical for Mouse Plasma Cell Tumor Growth ... Activation of Insulin-like Growth Factor I Receptor Signaling Pathway Is Critical for Mouse Plasma Cell Tumor Growth ... Activation of Insulin-like Growth Factor I Receptor Signaling Pathway Is Critical for Mouse Plasma Cell Tumor Growth ...
GTP exchange factor Vav regulates guided cell migration by coupling guidance receptor signalling to local Rac activation. ... In addition, activation of the PDGF/VEGF-related receptor (PVR) by its ligand the PDGF/PVF1 factor brings about activation of ... Journal of Cell Science 126(10): 2285-2293 (2013). Resumen: Guided cell migration is a key mechanism for cell positioning in ... The current model suggests that the spatially controlled activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) by guidance cues limits ...
Epidermal growth factor receptor: mechanisms of activation and signalling. Exp Cell Res. 2003;284:31-53. [PubMed] ... Oncogenic KRAS Desensitizes Colorectal Tumor Cells to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibition and Activation1,2. Winan J ... Level and function of epidermal growth factor receptor predict the metastatic potential of human colon carcinoma cells. Clin ... Cells were plated at day 0 at a density of 2.106 cells on 10 cm disks. After overnight serum starvation, cells were stimulated ...
Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 7525-9. ... These receptors are essential in modulating cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell survival in many tissue types ( ... and Akt activation and induces cell growth in HER2/HER3-expressing cells. A, cells were seeded in 24-well plates and serum ... ErbB3 is involved in activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by epidermal growth factor. Mol Cell Biol 1994; 14: 3550-8. ...
Phosphorylation and activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in cells transformed by the src oncogene.. W J Wasilenko, D ... Phosphorylation and activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in cells transformed by the src oncogene. ... Phosphorylation and activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in cells transformed by the src oncogene. ... Phosphorylation and activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in cells transformed by the src oncogene. ...
Activation of tyrosine kinases by α1A-adrenergic and growth factor receptors in transfected PC12 cells. Hongying ZHONG, Kenneth ... Activation of tyrosine kinases by α1A-adrenergic and growth factor receptors in transfected PC12 cells ... Activation of tyrosine kinases by α1A-adrenergic and growth factor receptors in transfected PC12 cells ... Activation of tyrosine kinases by α1A-adrenergic and growth factor receptors in transfected PC12 cells ...
Co-ordinate regulation of growth factor receptors and lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 controls cell activation by exogenous ... Co-ordinate regulation of growth factor receptors and lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 controls cell activation by exogenous ... Co-ordinate regulation of growth factor receptors and lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 controls cell activation by exogenous ... Co-ordinate regulation of growth factor receptors and lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 controls cell activation by exogenous ...
Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 amplifies mesenchymal stem cell trophic factors and enhances therapeutic potency. Michalis ... Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 amplifies mesenchymal stem cell trophic factors and enhances therapeutic potency ... Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 amplifies mesenchymal stem cell trophic factors and enhances therapeutic potency ... Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 amplifies mesenchymal stem cell trophic factors and enhances therapeutic potency ...
ERK 1/2 and downstream transcription factors after P2Y2 receptor activation in a human submandibular gland cell line. Cortes, ... Our results show that UTP, the P2Y2 receptor selective agonist, causes phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor ... HSG cells, which endogenously express P2Y2 receptors and are derived from a human submandibular gland tumor, were utilized as a ... The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor is a seven transmembrane spanning domain receptor activated by the nucleotides ATP and UTP, and is ...
Decorin suppresses tumor cell growth by activating the epidermal growth factor receptor. J Clin Invest 1998;101:406-12. ... Eps15 is recruited to the plasma membrane upon epidermal growth factor receptor activation and localizes to components of the ... Inhibition Is Overcome through Protracted Expression and Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Osteosarcoma Cells ... Inhibition Is Overcome through Protracted Expression and Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Osteosarcoma Cells ...
T Cell Receptor-Induced Calcineurin Activation Regulates T Helper Type 2 Cell Development by Modifying the Interleukin 4 ... Activation of Endogenous Thrombin Receptors Causes Clustering and Sensitization of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors of Swiss ... Cell Migration Assay. Cell migration was assessed using CFSE-labeled cells in transwell chambers. Cells were grown to ... Activation of Endogenous Thrombin Receptors Causes Clustering and Sensitization of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors of Swiss ...
Crystal structure of human stem cell factor: implication for stem cell factor receptor dimerization and activation. Proc Natl ... Structural basis for stem cell factor-KIT signaling and activation of class III receptor tyrosine kinases. Heli Liu, Xiaoyan ... Stem cell factor (SCF) binds to and activates the KIT receptor, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), to stimulate ... Schlessinger J (2002) Ligand‐induced, receptor‐mediated dimerization and activation of EGF receptor. Cell 110: 669-672. ...
B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor. Alternative Names. CD268; TNFRSF13C; TNFRSF13-C; BAFF-R; BAFFR; BR3; Tumor Necrosis Factor ... Recombinant B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor (BAFFR), Cat#RPU40424. Write a Review Write a Review. × ... Recombinant B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor (BAFFR), Cat#RPU40424. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 ... Human Leukocyte Cell Derived Chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) ELISA Kit, Cat#EKU05623 Quick view Wishlist ...
T1 - The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. Evidence that ... The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. Evidence that ... title = "The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. Evidence ... The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. Evidence that ...
... genomic analysis identified epidermal growth factor receptor activation as the most common genetic event in oral squamous cell ... genomic analysis identified epidermal growth factor receptor activation as the most common genetic event in oral squamous cell ... genomic analysis identified epidermal growth factor receptor activation as the most common genetic event in oral squamous cell ... genomic analysis identified epidermal growth factor receptor activation as the most common genetic event in oral squamous cell ...
... but the initial molecular mechanisms activated following ligand interactions with the receptors remain poorly... ... The signaling pathways of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLR) are well characterized, ... Dependence of Neurotrophic Factor Activation of Trk Tyrosine Kinase Receptors on Cellular Sialidase. Glycobiology 17, 10-24 ( ... Dependence of pathogen molecule-induced Toll-like receptor activation and cell function on Neu1 sialidase. ...
Eswarakumar V, Lax I, Schlessinger J: Cellular signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 16 ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Improves Pancreatic β-Cell Function and Survival by Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Improves Pancreatic β-Cell Function and Survival by Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Improves Pancreatic β-Cell Function and Survival by Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated ...
Aims/hypothesis Loss of functional beta cells results in a gradual progression of insulin insufficiency in Wolfram syndrome ... Ex-4 treatment reversed the increases in phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor (EIF2α) and thioredoxin interacting ... GLP-1 receptor activation improves beta cell function and survival following induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell ... Activation of GLP-1 receptor signalling alleviates cellular stresses and improves beta cell function in a mouse model of ...
  • SCF mediates its biological effects by binding to and activating a receptor tyrosine kinase designated c-kit or SCF receptor. (pnas.org)
  • c-kit belongs to the type III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) subfamily, whose members include platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors α and β, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor, and the flt3 receptor. (pnas.org)
  • Like other RTKs, SCF induces dimerization of c-kit followed by trans-autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase domain, leading to subsequent recruitment of signaling proteins, tyrosine phosphorylation of substrates, and activation of multiple signaling pathways ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • We found greatly diminished IgM- but not CD40-mediated NF-κB/Rel nuclear translocation and DNA binding in B cells from X-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice that harbor an R28C mutation in btk , a mutation that produces a functionally inactive kinase. (rupress.org)
  • The kinase responsible for this phosphorylation in B cells has not been identified. (rupress.org)
  • Recent data suggest that Vav functions as a guanine-nucleotide (GDP/GTP) exchange factor for members of the Rho-like small GTPase family members RhoA, Rac1, and CDC42, which regulate cytoskeletal organization and activation of the p21-activated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways ( 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Vav interacts with the B cell costimulatory molecule CD19 and the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) 3 ( 21 , 22 ), and it was reported that Vav has an important role in CD19-mediated activation of lipid and protein kinases ( 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • EGF, TGF-α) resulted in MUC5AC mucin gene and protein synthesis in human airway epithelial (NCI-H292) cells in vitro, and selective inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase phosphorylation prevented ligand-induced mucin synthesis in vitro and prevented allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia in pathogen-free rats ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Interactions between products of the mouse W locus, which encodes the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor, and the Sl locus, which encodes a ligand for c-kit receptor, which we have designated stem cell factor (SCF), have a critical role in the development of mast cells. (rupress.org)
  • The insulin receptor substrate 2/phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase/p70S6K pathway was found to be either constitutively or IGF-I-dependently activated in all plasma cell tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that up-regulation and activation of IGF-IR and the downstream signaling pathway involving insulin receptor substrate 2, phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase, and p70S6K may play an important role in the development of a broad spectrum of plasma cell tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Plasma membrane localization of the EGFR could be restored in vitro by suppressing receptor endocytosis through Rho kinase inhibition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway by EGFR ligands is very different in time and amplitude than activation of this pathway by a constitutively active endogenous KRAS mutant protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To distinguish between a direct effect of erlotinib on HER2 kinase in intact cells or an indirect effect of erlotinib on HER2 activity that is mediated through EGFR, we generated cell lines that express either EGFR-H2 chimeric receptor or HER2 and HER3 receptors in an EGFR-negative background. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On ligand binding, the receptors form homodimers and heterodimers, and the subsequent activation of the intrinsic kinase then results in receptor autophosphorylation and the activation of downstream signaling mediators ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The IC 50 measured in in vitro kinase assays is 2 nmol/L, whereas the potency in intact cells is ∼20 nmol/L ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Yet, tumors with mutated EGFR are not the only tumors that respond to kinase inhibitors ( 16 - 18 ), suggesting that factors other than EGFR mutations contribute to the sensitivity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence or absence of other members of the EGFR family alters the responsiveness of tumor cells to EGFR kinase inhibitors ( 19 ) because these receptors modify the signaling properties of EGFR ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because functionally significant substrates for the tyrosyl protein kinase activity of pp60v-src are likely to include membrane-associated proteins involved in normal growth control, we have tested the hypothesis that pp60v-src could phosphorylate and alter the signaling activity of transmembrane growth factor receptors. (asm.org)
  • We compared the role of tyrosine kinases in α 1A -adrenergic receptor (AR) and growth factor receptor stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in PC12 cells. (biochemj.org)
  • NE increased tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion-related kinase Pyk2 and a 70 kDa protein, probably paxillin, whereas EGF strongly stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor and cytokine-activated kinase Jak2. (biochemj.org)
  • These studies show that activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by G-protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinase receptors proceed through distinct molecular pathways in PC12 cells, and support an obligatory role for Src activation in mitogenic responses to α 1A -ARs in these cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Using the RNA mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] to engage MSC Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), we found that poly(I:C), signaling through multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, induced therapeutically relevant trophic factors such as interleukin-6-type cytokines, stromal-derived factor 1, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor while slightly inhibiting the proliferation and migration potentials of MSC. (physiology.org)
  • 12 - 14 ) and erb2 ( 15 ), causing a transient receptor phosphorylation which is followed by the induction of endogenous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(waf1) expression and a subsequent arrest at the G 1 phase ( 16 , 17 ) or caspase-3-dependent apoptosis ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, in Swiss 3T3 cells the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor can potentiate the EGF tyrosine kinase receptor response when activated by EGF, and this appears to be due to the subcellular concentration of the receptor with downstream effectors and not to the overall ability of EGF to induce receptor transphosphorylation. (rupress.org)
  • Such receptors include those that couple to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins and those with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. (rupress.org)
  • Stem cell factor (SCF) binds to and activates the KIT receptor, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), to stimulate diverse processes including melanogenesis, gametogenesis and hematopoeisis. (embopress.org)
  • Stem cell factor (SCF) binds to the extracellular domains of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and plays a key role in diverse biological processes. (embopress.org)
  • Genes for downstream effectors of EGFR, including KRAS, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, and CCND1, were also found amplified or mutated, which resulted in activation of EGFR signaling in 55% of OSCC patients. (elsevier.com)
  • In rat islets and INS-1E cells, FGF-21 activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For example, mice lacking insulin receptors, insulin receptor substrate-2, or Akt (protein kinase B) display marked defects in glucose sensing, insulin secretion, and β-cell mass ( 4 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In association with the functional improvements, Ex-4 treatment reversed the increases in phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor (EIF2α) and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), and the decrease in phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), in the beta cells of the Wfs1 −/− mice. (springer.com)
  • The kinase TAK1 is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and T-cell development. (mcw.edu)
  • Here we demonstrate that receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2), a kinase known to be involved in inflammatory processes, also has novel roles in cancer cell migration and invasion. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Knock-down of RIP2 significantly decreases migration in both scratch/wound healing and transwell migration assays in MDA-MB-231, Htb126, SUM149PT, MCF7, and T47D cells and is correlated with decreased Nuclear Factor-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Papillary and follicular carcinoma cell lines were treated with EGF, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, and the MMP inhibitors GM-6001 and Col-3. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that tumor cells show elevated activity of the NF-κB transcription factor, a phenomenon often resulting from constitutive activity of IκB kinase β (IKKβ). (jci.org)
  • The receptor tyrosine kinase KIT plays an important role in development of germ cells, hematopoietic cells, and interstitial pacemaker cells. (rcsb.org)
  • mTORC2 promotes type I insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor activation through the tyrosine kinase activity of mTOR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • While both rictor and mTOR immunoprecitates from rictor(+/+) MCF-10A cells exhibit tyrosine kinase activity towards IGF-IR and InsR, mTOR immunoprecipitates from rictor(-/-) MCF-10A cells do not induce IGF-IR and InsR phosphorylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our work identifies mTOR as a dual-specificity kinase and clarifies how mTORC2 promotes IGF-IR/InsR activation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results suggest the requirement of FLNa for efficient EGFR kinase activationandthe sorting of endocytosed receptors into the degradation pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • Activation of trkA, the nerve growth factor (NGF) tyrosine kinase receptor, has been recently implicated in the process of mammalian ovulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Signaling studies indicated synergistic effects of EGFR activation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling to regulate apoptotic and survival pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • Activation of c-fos gene expression by a kinase-deficient epidermal growth factor receptor. (asm.org)
  • Recently, however, it has been shown that addition of ligand to cells expressing kinase-defective EGFR mutants can result in the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (R. Campos-González and J.R. Glenney, Jr., J. Biol. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase has been shown to phosphorylate the transcription factor p62TCF in vitro, leading to enhanced ternary complex formation between p62TCF, p67SRF, and the c-fos serum response element (SRE) [H. Gille, A.D. Sharrocks, and P.E. Shaw, Nature (London) 358:414-417, 1992]. (asm.org)
  • On the basis of these observations, we have investigated the possibility that the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the EGFR may not be necessary for transcriptional activation mediated via p62TCF. (asm.org)
  • Although inositol (1,4,5) triphosphate mobilizes Ca 2+ from intracellular stores, diacylglycerol mediates activation of protein kinase C family members ( Baier, 2003 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The TrkA tyrosine kinase is activated by autophosphorylation in response to NGF, and plays an important role in cell survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This TrkA-induced cell death was blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, K-252a and GW441756. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous studies have revealed a correlation between activation of cell cycle-regulating pathways in HR-positive breast cancer, particularly cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6/cyclin D1 signaling, and resistance to standard therapies. (jcancer.org)
  • The discovery that somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) gene are found in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas and are associated with sensitivity to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) gefitinib ( 1 , 2 ) and erlotinib ( 3 ) has generated excitement among clinicians and researchers studying non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutations outside the exons encoding the kinase domain are rare in lung cancers ( 1 - 3 ), but the EGFRvIII mutations commonly found in gliomas ( 22 ) have been found in some NSCLCs, especially in those with squamous cell histology ( 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that Mediator's dissociable cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) module (CKM), consisting of cdk-8 , cic-1 /Cyclin C , mdt-12 / dpy-22 , and mdt-13 / let-19 , is required to inhibit ectopic vulval cell fates downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. (genetics.org)
  • cdk-8 inhibits ectopic vulva formation by acting downstream of mpk-1 /ERK , cell autonomously in vulval cells, and in a kinase-dependent manner. (genetics.org)
  • Objective- Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates vascular physiology. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5,6 VEGF-A can bind to 2 different but closely related endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): fms-like tyrosine kinase (VEGFR1 or Flt-1) and kinase insert domain receptor (VEGFR2 or KDR). (ahajournals.org)
  • A major proangiogenic axis is based on VEGF-A binding to VEGFR2, stimulating tyrosine kinase activity, autophosphorylation, and signaling to downstream target proteins which regulate diverse processes including chemotaxis, migration, vascular permeability, cell survival, and proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 However, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is suppressed, showing a need for EGFR trafficking. (ahajournals.org)
  • These factors signal via multicomponent receptors that consist of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase plus a member of the GDNF family receptor α (GRFα) family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked coreceptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • By Western blot analysis and kinase assays, we demonstrate the ability of these factors to induce the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI 3-kinase) and the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • GDNF family members signal via multicomponent receptors that consist of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase plus a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked coreceptor named GDNF family receptor α (GFRα), which gives binding specificity. (jneurosci.org)
  • and the activation of protein kinase C ( Davis and Maher, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Because at least one group of the mGluRs is coupled to phospholipase C to generate the second messengers IP 3 and diacylglycerol ( Nakanishi, 1994 ), and because diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C, it follows that the mGluRs have the potential to interfere with the signal transduction pathway leading to glutamate-induced cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inhibition of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R), a tyrosine kinase receptor, prevents interleukin-34 activation. (medscape.com)
  • Platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated actin rearrangement and edge ruffle formation have previously been shown to be dependent on activation of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase, the activity of which also is important for directed migration of cells. (biologists.org)
  • This lipid kinase binds to phosphorylated tyrosine residues Y740 and Y751 in the kinase insert of the human platelet-derived growth factor ss-receptor. (biologists.org)
  • We examined the role of two other tyrosine residues in the kinase insert of this receptor, Y775 and Y778, for ligand-induced actin rearrangement. (biologists.org)
  • Mutation at Y778 had no effect on activation of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase, nor on the GTPase activating protein of Ras and phospholipase C(gamma), and the extent of directed migration towards platelet-derived growth factor of these cells was not changed. (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ). PDGF stimulates an increase in GTP-Rac via activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (biologists.org)
  • Secondly, Malt1 interacts with caspase-8, inducing caspase-8 cleavage of c-FLIP L , initiating a pathway that contributes to activation of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These data show that Zn2+ -induced activation of EGFR in HAEC involves a loss of PTP activities whose function is to dephosphorylate EGFR in opposition to baseline EGFR kinase activity. (epa.gov)
  • These receptors may use the JAK/STAT, MAP kinase, and PI3 kinase pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, B cells from CD19 mutant mice display reduced Vav tyrosine phosphorylation following IgM ligation ( 24 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Supernatant of activated eosinophils induced EGFR phosphorylation in NCI-H292 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Deletion of oncogenic KRAS not only resensitized tumor cells to EGFR inhibition but also promoted EGF-induced NRAS activation, ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and c-FOS transcription. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This caused an EGFR-dependent increase in basal and EGF-stimulated ERK phosphorylation but failed to restore tumor cell sensitivity to EGFR inhibition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Phosphorylation and activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in cells transformed by the src oncogene. (asm.org)
  • To determine whether pp60v-src altered the signaling activity of the EGF receptor, we analyzed the tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma, since phosphorylation of this enzyme occurs in response to activation of the EGF receptor but not in response to pp60v-src alone. (asm.org)
  • These findings suggest that pp60v-src-induced alterations in phosphorylation and function of growth regulatory receptors could play an important role in generating the phenotypic changes associated with malignant transformation. (asm.org)
  • Norepinephrine (NE) (noradrenaline), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) caused different patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in PC12 cells stably expressing α 1A -ARs. (biochemj.org)
  • Our results show that UTP, the P2Y2 receptor selective agonist, causes phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular regulated kinases (ERK 1/2) and the downstream transcription factors p90RSK, and ELK, suggesting that P2Y2 receptors may play a role in gene transcription in salivary gland tissues. (umsystem.edu)
  • Thrombin did not potentiate the EGF-stimulated EGF receptor phosphorylation. (rupress.org)
  • Rapamycin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of IGF-IR/InsR, which is largely dependent on rictor and mTOR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • IGF- and insulin-induced IGF-IR/InsR phosphorylation is significantly compromised in rictor-null cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) directly interacts with SIN1 thereby recruiting mTORC2 to IGF-IR/InsR and promoting rapamycin- or ligand-induced phosphorylation of IGF-IR/InsR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Phosphorylation-deficient mutation of residue Tyr1131 in IGF-IR or Tyr1146 in InsR abrogates the activation of IGF-IR/InsR by mTOR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Both tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination of EGFR were significantly lower in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated M2 cells when compared with M2A7 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Cytokine enjoyment activates Jak kinases through transphosphorylation and outcomes in tyrosine phosphorylation of receptor sites, Stats, and various other substrates. (researchreportone.com)
  • Apoptotic cell death in TrkA-overexpressing cells: kinetic regulation of ERK phosphorylation and caspase-7 activation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interestingly, TrkA overexpression induced substantial cell death even in the absence of NGF, by stimulating ERK phosphorylation and caspase-7 activation leading to PARP cleavage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 9 Simultaneously, VEGFR2 activation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • ISRIB, a potent drug-like small molecule, renders cells insensitive to eIF2α phosphorylation and enhances cognitive function in rodents by blocking long-term depression. (elifesciences.org)
  • Activation of the receptor induces Ret phosphorylation that leads the survival-promoting effects. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ret phosphorylation causes the activation of several intracellular pathways, but the biological effects caused by the activation of each of these pathways are still unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1996 ). Mutation of a Src phosphorylation site in the PDGF-receptor leads to increased PDGF-stimulated chemotaxis but decreased mitogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Loss of BTK function disrupts signaling through the IL-5R, CD38, IL-10R, FcεRI, and B cell receptor for antigen (BCR) pathways ( 10 )( 11 )( 12 )( 13 )( 14 )( 15 ). (rupress.org)
  • In T cells, coordinate activation of calcineurin and Vav pathways via the TCR and CD28 is a crucial requisite for IL-2 production, and overexpression of Vav enhances TCR-mediated NF-AT transcriptional activity and IL-2 expression ( 13 , 18 , 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Multiple signaling proteins are activated in pancreatic duct cell carcinogenesis including those associated with the ERK, PKB/AKT, mTOR and STAT3 pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Constitutive activation of KRAS and its downstream signaling pathways may reduce the dependency on upstream activators such as the EGFR. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HSG cells, which endogenously express P2Y2 receptors and are derived from a human submandibular gland tumor, were utilized as a cell model to analyze downstream signaling pathways in response to UTP. (umsystem.edu)
  • In view of the proposed design of decorin-based anticancer therapeutic strategies, our study provides new data on pathways that cancer cells might employ to overcome the established decorin-induced growth suppression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The signaling pathways of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLR) are well characterized, but the initial molecular mechanisms activated following ligand interactions with the receptors remain poorly defined. (springer.com)
  • The glucose-sensing and insulin-signaling pathways have been shown to play important roles in insulin secretion as well as β-cell growth and survival. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of the two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, in colorectal cancer and to provide new insight into the molecular pathways underlying the apoptotic activity induced by their activation. (cannabisgotasdeesperanza.com)
  • The signal transduction pathways triggered by the activation of the TCR/CD3 complex in T-cells lead to the immediate activation of transcription factors that regulate a variety of activation-associated genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The signal transduction pathways involved in T-cell activation are initiated by the activation of phospholipase C-γ by specific tyrosine kinases at the lipid rafts resulting in the hydrolysis of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate and the generation of inositol (1,4,5) triphosphate and diacylglycerol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cell signaling pathways that control proliferation and determine cell fates are tightly regulated to prevent developmental anomalies and cancer. (genetics.org)
  • Lapatinib inhibits the activation of growth signaling proteins and their signaling pathways as well as cell migration and proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers also found that lapatinib inhibited activation of the EGFR and HER2 proteins, as well as of proteins that are involved in cell signaling pathways that regulate gene expression, cell division, and cell survival - and which, ultimately, may contribute to the development of cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Growth Factors and Signal Transduction in Development thoroughly describes the interactions of several key growth factors, their receptors, and the subsequent signal transduction pathways they activate. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The editor has organized this book to contrast different signaling pathways using specific growth factors as paradigms: FGF IGF-1 PDGF IL-2 EGF TGFß Leading experts in the field have contributed to the unique mix of both molecular and biochemical perspectives as well as more integrative and organismal treatments of the well-studied amphibian, nematode, and insect developing systems. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Developmental Regulation and Signal Transduction Pathways of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Receptors (K. Miller & A. Rizzino). (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Describes the interactions of several key growth factors, their receptors, and the subsequent signal transduction pathways they activate. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Upon stimulation of these receptors, an extensive network of signal transduction pathways is activated, including the PI3K/AKT and Ras/Erk pathways. (mendeley.com)
  • Furthermore components of FGF signalling pathways have been identified in genetic screens and their relationship to FGFR activation has been resolved. (mdpi.com)
  • Stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by ligand(s) leads to activation of signaling molecules including Stat1 and Stat3, two members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein family. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, TGF-alpha/EGFR-mediated autocrine growth of transformed epithelial cells is dependent on activation of Stat3 but not Stat1. (nih.gov)
  • Because an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cascade induces MUC5AC mucin in airways, and because EGFR is up-regulated in asthmatic airways, we examined the effect of eosinophils on MUC5AC mucin production in NCI-H292 cells (a human airway epithelial cell line that produces mucins). (jimmunol.org)
  • Eosinophil supernatant obtained by culturing eosinophils with IL-3 plus GM-CSF or IL-3 plus IL-5 also increased MUC5AC synthesis in NCI-H292 cells, an effect that was prevented by selective EGFR inhibitors (AG1478, BIBX1522). (jimmunol.org)
  • Supernatant of activated eosinophils contained increased concentrations of TGF-α protein (an EGFR ligand) and induced up-regulation of TGF-α expression and release in NCI-H292 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results show that activated eosinophils induce mucin synthesis in human airway epithelial cells via EGFR activation, and they implicate TGF-α produced by eosinophils and epithelial cells in the EGFR activation that results in mucin production in human airway epithelium. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mucin production in airways is induced by an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 3 cascade ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activation of EGFR by its ligands (e.g. (jimmunol.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting therapeutics have shown efficacy in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we show that deletion of the oncogenic KRAS allele from colorectal tumor cells resensitizes those cells to EGFR inhibitors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The poor responsiveness of mutant KRAS tumor cells to EGFR inhibition and activation was accompanied by a reduced capacity of these cells to bind and internalize EGF and by a failure to retain EGFR at the plasma membrane. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our results demonstrate a causal role for oncogenic KRAS in desensitizing tumor cells not only to EGFR inhibitors but also to EGF itself. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is widely expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and stimulates proliferation of a range of cell types, including epithelial cells [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In particular, it has been suggested that erlotinib might indirectly suppress the activity of HER2 by blocking the ability of EGFR to transactivate it when the two receptors are part of a heterodimer complex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings imply that the inhibitory effect of erlotinib in HER2-expressing cells may in part be mediated through direct interaction with HER2 rather than indirectly through a process that requires the presence of EGFR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family consists of four members: EGFR/HER1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3, and HER4/ErbB4. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Aberrant expression of EGFR and HER2 has been implicated in the development of many types of human cancers, including lung, head and neck, colorectal, pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancers, and patients with tumors bearing dysregulated EGFR or HER2 receptors have been linked to poor clinical outcome ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Minimal genomic mapping verified a unique amplicon spanning from 54.6 to 55.3 Mb on chromosome 7, which contains SEC61G and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (elsevier.com)
  • Head and neck squamous cancer cells with different EGER expression levels showed differential sensitivity to antitumor effects of AG1478, a potent EGFR inhibitor. (elsevier.com)
  • We hypothesized that signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulates thyroid cancer cell invasion by altering the expression and cleavage of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). (bioscientifica.com)
  • All cell lines were found to overexpress functional EGFR. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Invasion is regulated by signaling through EGFR, an effect mediated by augmentation of gelatinase expression and activation. (bioscientifica.com)
  • To better understand a role for growth factor signaling in disease progression after intrathoracic PDT, the expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was evaluated in areas of post-treatment proliferation. (mdpi.com)
  • However, increased EGFR activation in proliferative areas was detected only after treatment at the higher fluence rate of 150 mW/cm. (mdpi.com)
  • These data suggest that fluence rate may affect the activation of survival factors, such as EGFR, and weaker activation at lower fluence rate could contribute to a smaller tumor burden after PDT at 75 mW/cm. (mdpi.com)
  • However, it is unclear whether FLNa regulates the signaling capacity and/or down-regulation of the activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (elsevier.com)
  • To gain greater insights into the role of FLNa in EGFR activation and intracellular sorting, we used M2 melanoma cells that lack endogenous FLNa and a subclone in which human FLNa cDNA has been stably reintroduced (M2A7 cells). (elsevier.com)
  • Despite comparable rates of EGF-mediated receptor endocytosis, internalized EGFR colocalized with the lysosomal marker lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 in M2A7 cells but not M2 cells, in which EGFR was found to be sequestered in large vesicles and subsequently accumulated in punctated perinuclear structures after EGF stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • When nontransformed epithelia are injured, activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) by paracrine/autocrine release of soluble ligands can induce a prosurvival program, but there is generally evidence for concomitant dedifferentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • The EGFR ligand, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), is synthesized as a membrane-anchored precursor that can activate the EGFR via juxtacrine signaling or can be released and act as a soluble growth factor. (elsevier.com)
  • We propose a model whereby the CKM controls EGFR-Ras-ERK transcriptional output by corepressing LIN-1 and by fine tuning Mediator specificity, thus balancing transcriptional repression vs. activation in a critical developmental signaling pathway. (genetics.org)
  • When epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) clathrin-dependent endocytosis is inhibited by a mutant dynamin, EGF-stimulated signaling is enhanced. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lapatinib inhibits the activation of both HER2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (nih.gov)
  • To explore the effects of lapatinib on micrometastases, the research team injected human breast cancer cells that overexpressed EGFR only, or overexpressed both EGFR and HER2, into mice. (nih.gov)
  • Those that expressed high levels of both EGFR and HER2 were approximately 30 percent more sensitive to the growth inhibition effects of lapatinib than cells that expressed high levels of only one of these receptors. (nih.gov)
  • However, cells that only expressed EGFR or HER2 were equally sensitive to the drug. (nih.gov)
  • We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads to Src-dependent activation of EGFR signaling in B82 and A431 cells. (epa.gov)
  • In order to elucidate the mechanism of Zn2+-induced EGFR activation in HAEC, we treated HAEC with 500 ╡M ZnSO4 for 5-20min and measured the state of activation of EGFR, c-Src and PTPs. (epa.gov)
  • These findings also suggest that there are marked cell-type specific differences in the mechanism of EGFR activation induced by Zn2+ exposure. (epa.gov)
  • SCF is also known as mast cell growth factor (MCGF) ( 2 ), steel ( Sl ) factor (SLF) ( 3 ), or kit ligand (KL) ( 4 ), and it elicits its biological functions by binding to and activating a cell surface receptor designated c-kit or SCF receptor (SCFR). (pnas.org)
  • The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the c-kit ligand SCF can induce the proliferation and maturation of normal mast cells in vitro or in vivo, and also can result in repair of the mast cell deficiency of Sl/Sld mice in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, activation of the PDGF/VEGF-related receptor (PVR) by its ligand the PDGF/PVF1 factor brings about activation of Vav protein by direct interaction with the intracellular domain of PVR. (csic.es)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. (northwestern.edu)
  • Here, we show a membrane controlling mechanism that is initiated by ligand binding to TLR-2, -3 and-4 to induce Neu1 sialidase activity within minutes in live primary bone marrow (BM) macrophage cells and macrophage and dendritic cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Our findings establish an unprecedented mechanism for pathogen molecule-induced TLR activation and cell function, which is critically dependent on Neu1 sialidase activity associated with TLR ligand treated live primary macrophage cells and macrophage and dendritic cell lines. (springer.com)
  • We propose that cooperative interactions mediated by multiple weak homotypic contacts between receptor molecules are responsible for regulating normal ligand-dependent or oncogenic RTK activation via a "zipper-like" mechanism for receptor activation. (rcsb.org)
  • Moreover, mTORC2 promotes ligand-induced activation of IGF-IR/InsR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 10,11 RTK trafficking comprises a series of complex highly regulated events with ligand binding leading to receptor activation and rapid internalization followed by degradation that is linked to signaling attenuation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 Receptor-ligand complexes could thus continue signaling until sequestration into the multi-vesicular body before recycling back to the plasma membrane or lysosomal degradation. (ahajournals.org)
  • OX40 is upregulated on antigen activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with costimulation by CD40-CD40 Ligand and CD28-B7. (rndsystems.com)
  • OX40 interactions with OX40 Ligand on antigen presenting cells enhances T cell survival, proliferation, and cytokine production. (rndsystems.com)
  • Ligand-receptor complexes destined for internalization are selectively recruited into coated pits followed by coat invagination, constriction and scission of the clathrin-coated vesicle containing cargo ( Kirchhausen, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • Internalized ligand-receptor complexes pass through a series of endosomal compartments where they are sorted to different intracellular destinations. (biologists.org)
  • Some receptors are recycled back to the plasma membrane with or without the ligand, whereas others are sent to the late endosomal compartment and lysosomes for degradation ( Sorkin and von Zastrow, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • BRP's which may be attached include ligand-receptor pairs, enzyme-substrate. (google.com)
  • BRP's which may be attached include ligand-receptor pairs, enzyme-substrate pairs, drug-receptor pairs, catalyst-reactant pairs, toxin-ligand pairs, absorbant-absorbate pairs and adsorbant-adsorbate pairs. (google.com)
  • 3. A composition of matter according to claim 1 wherein said bioreactive pair is selected from the group consisting of ligand-receptor pairs, enzyme-substrate pairs, drug-receptor pairs, catalyst-reactant pairs, immunological pairs, toxin-ligand pairs, absorbant-absorbate pairs and adsorbent-adsorbate pairs. (google.com)
  • 4. A composition of matter according to claim 1 wherein said bioreactive pair is selected from the group of ligand-receptor pairs consisting of lectins and lectin binding sites, HDL and HDL receptor cellular receptor site, hormones and hormone receptor sites, antibiotics and ribosomal proteins. (google.com)
  • 8. A composition of matter according to claim 1 wherein said bioreactive pair is selected from the group of toxin-ligand pairs consisting of strychnine and the glycine receptor, hemoglobin and carbon monoxide, and organophosphate compounds and acetylcholinesterase. (google.com)
  • Overexpression of JKTBP1 induces androgen-independent LNCaP cell proliferation through activation of epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R). (nih.gov)
  • However, thrombin induces the subcellular clustering of the EGF receptor at filamentous actin-containing structures at the leading edge and actin arcs of migrating cells in association with other signaling molecules, including Shc and phospholipase Cγ1. (rupress.org)
  • Endotoxin LPS binding to TLR4 induces Neu1 with subsequent activation of NFκB and the production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNFα cytokines in primary and macrophage cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Cannabinoid receptor activation induces apoptosis through tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. (cannabisgotasdeesperanza.com)
  • The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. (cannabisgotasdeesperanza.com)
  • Furthermore, the truncated form (p18) of Bax accumulated in the TrkA-induced cells, suggesting that TrkA induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Currently available data suggest a revised model in which cIAP2-Malt1 induces NF-κB activation via a mechanism that depends equally on domains contributed by cIAP2 and Malt1, which confer spontaneous oligomerization activity, polyubiquitin binding, proteolytic activity, and association with and activation of TRAF2 and TRAF6 at several independent binding sites. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signalling induces changes in cellular behaviour allowing cells in the embryo to move, to survive, to divide or to differentiate. (mdpi.com)
  • The accumulated HIF transports into the nucleus of the cell where it induces the expression of numerous target genes, including (you guessed it) VEGF. (ewg.org)
  • We compared the levels of 18 signaling proteins including growth factor receptors, tumor suppressors and 13 of their putative downstream phosphorylated (p-) signal transducers in PDAC to those in normal ductal epithelia. (nih.gov)
  • Our results unravel an important role for the Vav proteins as signal transducers that couple signalling downstream of RTKs with local Rac activation during morphogenetic movements. (csic.es)
  • Decorin can affect cell adhesion and migration through the inhibition of fibronectin binding and the interference of integrin interaction with extracellular matrix proteins ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The bone cells (osteoblasts) produce osteoid, a complex of mineralized extracellular matrix proteins ( 24 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our laboratory and others have shown that these G proteins convey receptor and downstream signals to distinct phases of the proliferative process. (rupress.org)
  • We sought to determine the regulation of electric fields on transcription and expression of a serial of import angiogenic factors by endothelial cells themselves.Using semi-quantitative PCR and ELISA we found that electric stimulation upregulates the levels of mRNAs and proteins of a number of angiogenic proteins, most importantly VEGF165, VEGF121 and IL-8 in human endothelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Nikolaos K. Robakis on Cell activation by glycated proteins. (alzforum.org)
  • Phase connectivity was assessed by measuring long-range diffusion of several membrane proteins by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in two polarized epithelial cell lines and one fibroblast cell line. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to the fibroblast plasma membrane, in which all of the proteins diffused with similar characteristics, in the apical membrane of epithelial cells the proteins could be divided into two groups according to their diffusion characteristics. (pnas.org)
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in the exoplasmic leaflet ( 10 , 11 ) and lipid-anchored proteins in the cytoplasmic leaflet ( 12 - 14 ) of cell membranes were shown to be distributed nonrandomly in the plasma membrane with cluster sizes of 4-200 nm, but whether these correlate with lipid domains in a phase-separating system is not known. (pnas.org)
  • Indications for distinct lipid environments in living cells come from the measurements of different viscous drags for different bead-coupled proteins in the plasma membrane of fibroblasts ( 15 ) and from fluorescence anisotropy measurements of diphenyl chain-labeled phosphatidylcholine revealing liquid-ordered environments in the plasma membrane of mast cells ( 16 ) and in vivo images of liquid-ordered domains in macrophages labeled with 6-lauroyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • These properties are reliant on constitutive account activation of the transcription aspect Stat5 and can end up being antagonized by the SH2 domain-containing proteins phosphatase SHP-1. (researchreportone.com)
  • This leads to the production of proteins that suppress the inflammation that would otherwise be triggered by other molecules released from the cells undergoing apoptosis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Macrophages express membrane proteins that function as receptors for PtdSer (e.g. (elifesciences.org)
  • Analysis and Transfection of Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (aFGF) cDNA Clones and Structural Analysis of the Human aFGF Gene reveals Features Shared within a Family of Homologous Proteins. (indigo.ca)
  • Using laboratory and mouse models of human breast cancer, researchers have found that a small molecule capable of targeting specific proteins on the surface of breast cancer cells can inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells that migrate to the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Xenopus oocytes, mammalian brain, invertebrate nervous system) in terms of RNA trafficking, RNA-targeting sequences (cis-elements) and RNA-transporting proteins (trans-factors), activity-dependent translational regulation and the significance of the cytoskeleton for neuronal function and plasticity. (bookdepository.com)
  • A notable feature of Growth Factors and Signal Transduction in Development is its glossary of genes and proteins referred to in this volume. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Group II (mGluRs 2 and 3) and group III (mGluRs 4, 6, 7, and 8) receptors are coupled with the G i and G o family of G-proteins, whereas group I (mGluRs 1 and 5) receptors couple to G q/11 . (jneurosci.org)
  • It is important to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the thymic regulation of T cell development and of the proteins involved in T cell recognition. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Rab proteins are present on all compartments of the endomembrane system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endosomes, lysosomes), the nucleus, the plasma membrane (including cell junctions and focal adhesions), mitochondria and centrioles. (biologists.org)
  • However, a number of more recent studies of both Malt1 and cIAP2-Malt1 now reveal that these proteins influence NF-κB activation by multiple distinct mechanisms, several of which are non-overlapping. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Among the small GTP-binding proteins, ARF1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1) and SAR1 (Secretion-Associated RAS super family 1) are commonly conserved among all eukaryotes with respect to both their functional and sequential characteristics. (mdpi.com)
  • The functional organization of eukaryotic cells requires the exchange of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides between membrane compartments through transport intermediates. (mdpi.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, small GTP-binding proteins comprise the largest family of signaling proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), GDP dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), and GTPase-activating proteins are regulators of small GTP-binding proteins ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • These phosphorylations allow for other intracellular proteins to bind to with the phosphotyrosine-binding domain which results in a series of physiological responses within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIF is a transcription factor, initiating the production of other proteins required to mediate the effects of hypoxia. (ewg.org)
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant proteins that bind to chemokine receptors, which are members of the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to stimulate the directed migration of immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) are chemokines that stimulate the receptor CCR2, which is found on monocytes and macrophages and is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using chimeric MCP proteins and mutated CCR2 receptors, Huma et al . (sciencemag.org)
  • TRAF proteins are associated with, and mediate signal transduction from members of the TNF receptor superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells could directly recognize tumor cells by genetic modification to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), and they were activated to exhibit a durable persistence in vivo through the T-cell activation endodomain with costimulatory signaling molecules [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, several groups have reported clinical trials with anti-CD19 CART cells in which favorable clinical efficacy resulted from the specific recognition and eradication of CD19-positive tumor cells [ 3 , 4 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • determined that PVSRIPO stimulates anticancer immunity by two mechanisms: lysing tumor cells to release a mix of tumor and viral antigens, as well as sublethally infecting antigen-presenting cells and thereby stimulating an interferon-driven immune response in the tumor microenvironment. (sciencemag.org)
  • A mixture containing ascorbic acid, lysine, proline and green tea extract inhibits angiogenesis of tumor cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • However, adding targeted therapies to adjuvant chemotherapy may increase the sensitivity of residual disease to adjuvant chemotherapy and, consequently, reduce the dose of chemotherapy necessary to kill the remaining tumor cells, thereby minimizing the toxicity of the prolonged treatment. (jcancer.org)
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that E-cadherin expression was decreased in the budding tumor cells located ahead of invasive tumor front in TSCC, and expression was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) is a pro-angiogenic factor expressed in the vasculature of a wide variety of human tumors, and modulates angiogenesis via the calcineurin-dependent nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 3 (NFATc3) pathway in endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • However, until now, SFRP2 receptor for this pathway was unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Our novel findings reveal that FZD5 is a receptor for SFRP2 and mediates SFRP2-induced angiogenesis via calcineurin/NFATc3 pathway in endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • The proto-oncogene product Vav is required for receptor clustering, proliferation, and differentiation of T cells, and Vav was identified as a substrate in the TCR and B cell receptor signaling pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • The ERK pathway activation was correlated with high levels of S2448p-mTOR (100%, p = 0.05), T389p-S6K (100%, p = 0.02 and S235/236p-S6 (86%, p = 0.005). (nih.gov)
  • The ERK pathway activation appears also increased in duct epithelia adjacent to carcinoma, suggesting tumor micro-environmental effects. (nih.gov)
  • however, neither NE nor UTP caused substantial activation of the Shc/Grb2 pathway. (biochemj.org)
  • Gene ontology analysis revealed that these DEGs are significantly associated with the sterol biosynthetic pathway, and further bioinformatics analysis suggested that sterol regulatory element binding factors (SREBFs) might be key upstream regulators of the DEGs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Insights into the biology of advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) and the development of agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway have positively impacted the outcomes for patients with aRCC. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) ( 1 , 2 ) had been the mainstay for treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) in the United States until agents targeting the VEGF pathway became available in 2005. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vitro studies confirmed that activation of β2‑AR can promote epithelial mesenchymal transition in TSCC by initiating an interleukin‑6/Stat3/Snail1 pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Transcription factors and coregulators are important effectors of signaling pathway output, as they regulate downstream gene programs. (genetics.org)
  • Conclusion: TGF-β1 helps to inhibit TNF-α-induced NP cell apoptosis and the Fas/FasL pathway may be involved in this process. (portlandpress.com)
  • Firstly, Malt1 directly cleaves and inactivates A20, a negative regulator of the antigen receptor-to-NF-κB pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Once growth factors bind to their receptor, a signal transduction pathway occurs within the cell to ensure the cell is working. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in cancerous cells, the pathway might never turn on or turn off. (wikipedia.org)
  • IGF-1 also produced an activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 y PI3K/Akt pathway, indicating that these transduction events may be mediated by IGF-1 receptors. (arvojournals.org)
  • These results suggest that PPARγ is an attractive target for induction of apoptosis in rheumatoid synovial cells and that the activation of the PPARγ pathway is associated with the apoptotic action of NSAIDs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Stem cell factor (SCF) plays important roles in hematopoiesis and the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of mast cells, melanocytes, and germ cells. (pnas.org)
  • Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor that stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. (pnas.org)
  • These receptors are essential in modulating cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell survival in many tissue types ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • PP2 also completely blocked NE-induced PC12 cell differentiation, but had no measurable effect on NGF-induced differentiation. (biochemj.org)
  • The serum-derived lipid growth factors, lysophosphatidate (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), activate cells selectively through different members of a family of endothelial differentiation gene (EDG) receptors. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Signal Transduction and Control of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation. (indigo.ca)
  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) represent a group of peptides that regulate diverse biological functions, including cell differentiation, cell growth, and angiogenesis ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • T cells that survive the selection processes eventually become mature cluster of differentiation (CD)4 + or CD8 + single positive T cells ( Fig. 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Characterization of around half of the known Rab GTPases has revealed the extraordinary complexity of membrane trafficking circuits and shows that Rab GTPases are also essential for signaling and the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Intercellular signalling via growth factors plays an important role in controlling cell differentiation and cell movements during the development of multicellular animals. (mdpi.com)
  • These FGF receptors affect gene expression, cell shape and cell-cell interactions during mesoderm layer formation, caudal visceral muscle (CVM) formation, tracheal morphogenesis and glia differentiation. (mdpi.com)
  • Growth factor receptors are the first stop in cells where the signaling cascade for cell differentiation and proliferation begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, in certain cancers, receptors (such as RTKs) are often observed to be overexpressed, which corresponds to the uncontrolled proliferation and differentiation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptors are involved heavily with oncogene activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recognition of antigen by membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) results in a complex series of signaling events in the cytoplasm leading to gene activation. (rupress.org)
  • We originally found that the ectopic JKTBP1 expression resulted in the proliferation of LNCaP cells in an AI way, as well as inducing the upregulated expression of EGF-R and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but did not influence the expression level of AR. (nih.gov)
  • Pretreatment of tetanus toxoid-specific T cell clones with TNF for up to 16 d impaired rechallenge proliferative responses to antigen in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent studies have highlighted the successes of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T- (CART-) cell-based therapy for B-cell malignancies, and early phase clinical trials have been launched in recent years. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, chimeric antigen receptor-modified T- (CART-) cell-based therapy, an innovative approach to tumor treatment, was demonstrated to potentially exhibit MHC-independent antitumor effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Current status of clinical trials of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CART) cells in malignancies. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we show that IFN-γ blunts osteoclast formation through direct targeting of osteoclast precursors but indirectly stimulates osteoclast formation and promotes bone resorption by stimulating antigen-dependent T cell activation and T cell secretion of the osteoclastogenic factors RANKL and TNF-α. (jci.org)
  • Five of eight NF-κBp65 antigen-positive cells stained positive for interleukin-6 (IL-6) antigen (62%), while only one of the NF-κB-negative cells showed IL-6 positivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The findings that excreted pTECs demonstrate activated NF-κB and IL-6 antigen and that AGE-albumin and CML lead to a perpetuated activation of NF-κB in vitro infer that a perpetuated increase in proinflammtory gene products, such as IL-6, plays a role in damaging the renal tubule. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The initial step is presentation of tumor antigen/s by the dendritic cells/antigen presenting cells in the context of self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to the T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the same time, sublethal infection of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, yields potent, sustained type I interferon-dominant activation in an immunosuppressed microenvironment and promotes the development of tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro and antitumor immunity in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • The vaccine contains humanized recombinant antigen (Epithelial Growth Factor) and an adjuvant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Early studies suggested that Malt1 is an essential intermediate in antigen receptor activation of NF-κB, and that the juxtaposition of the cIAP2 N-terminus and the Malt1 C-terminus results in deregulation of Malt1 NF-κB stimulatory activity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, data suggest that Malt1 plays a more limited and focused role in antigen receptor activation of NF-κB, serving to augment weak antigen signals and stimulate a defined subset of NF-κB dependent responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, the potent activation of NF-κB by cIAP2-Malt1 contrasts with the more subtle role of Malt1 in regulating specific NF-κB responses downstream of antigen receptor ligation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Early models postulated that the wild-type Malt1 protein becomes oligomerized and ubiquitinates the IKK complex following antigen receptor engagement, and that this ubiquitination activity of Malt1 was both required for and uniquely responsible for antigen receptor activation of NF-κB. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • BTK is critical for the activation of phospholipase (PLC)-γ2, leading to intracellular calcium release, extracellular calcium influx, and PKC activation ( 28 )( 29 )( 30 ). (rupress.org)
  • Functional knock-down studies further revealed that FZD5 is necessary for SFRP2-induced tube formation and intracellular calcium flux in endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells from cord blood (CB) of children with pre-eclamptic or healthy mothers were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and intracellular cytokines. (wiley.com)
  • The actin-binding protein filamin A (FLNa) affects the intracellular trafficking of various classes of receptors and has a potential role in oncogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Intracellular targeting and trafficking of thrombin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, from the possible FGFR/FGF combinations, human cells may utilize more than one at the same time and these sometimes trigger different, even antagonistic intracellular signals. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, cells stably transfected with dominant negative mutant Stat3 constructs failed to proliferate in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we show that Vav regulates B cell proliferation following in vitro activation of Ag receptors, but Vav has no apparent role in CD40-, IL-4-, or LPS-induced B cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, Vav is required for Ag receptor-induced proliferation of B and T cells in vitro and effective T cell selection ( 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Forced expression of decorin in cancer cell lines in vitro caused a severe cytostatic effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By contrast, pretreatment of T cells for prolonged periods in vitro with neutralizing anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies (mAb) enhanced proliferative responses, increased lymphokine production, and upregulated Tac expression following stimulation with OKT3. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These data demonstrate that persistent expression of TNF in vitro and in vivo impairs cell-mediated immune responses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cell migration and invasion were measured in vitro by scratch/wound healing and transwell migration assays. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In vitro invasion assays, gelatin zymography, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were used to assess the changes in invasive behavior and MMP expression and activation. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Although antitumor effects were confirmed in vitro and in animal models, CART-cell-based therapy still faces several challenges when directed towards solid tumors, and it has been difficult to achieve the desired outcomes in clinical practice. (hindawi.com)
  • AGE-albumin) and in particular carboxymethyllysine (CML) are known to play a central role in diabetic nephropathy, we studied the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in tubular epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro by AGE-albumin and CML. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interleukin-6 infusion during human endotoxaemia inhibits in vitro release of the urokinase receptor from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study investigated the in vivo effect of endotoxin, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on uPAR-release in vivo and in vitro in humans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of neurotrophic factors (GDNF, neurturin, persephin, and artemin) are able to promote in vivo and in vitro survival of different neuronal populations, including spinal cord motoneurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Islets and INS-1E cells treated with FGF-21 were partially protected from glucolipotoxicity and cytokine-induced apoptosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 1 diabetes manifests from the autoimmune destruction of β-cells, whereas type 2 diabetes is characterized by reduced β-cell mass and marked functional defects, including impaired first-phase insulin secretion, increased proinsulin-to-insulin ratio, and elevated rate of β-cell apoptosis ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • β-Cell mass is governed by the balance between β-cell growth and β-cell death (apoptosis). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetic patients display a progressive loss of β-cells caused by an increased rate of β-cell apoptosis ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TAK1-deficient B cells exhibited an increase of BCR-induced apoptosis and impaired proliferation in response to BCR ligation. (mcw.edu)
  • The effects of the CB1 agonist arachinodyl-2′-chloroethylamide and the CB2 agonist N-cyclopentyl-7-methyl-1-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)-1,8-naphthyridin-4(1H)-on-3-carboxamide (CB13) on tumor cell apoptosis and ceramide and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production were evaluated. (cannabisgotasdeesperanza.com)
  • The activation of the CB1 and, more efficiently, of the CB2 receptors induced apoptosis and increased ceramide levels in the DLD-1 and HT29 cells. (cannabisgotasdeesperanza.com)
  • Apoptosis is coupled with recruitment of macrophages for engulfment of dead cells, and with compensatory proliferation of neighboring cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • This process, which is called apoptosis, also eliminates about 100,000 cells that are too old, or just no longer needed, from the human body every second. (elifesciences.org)
  • A cell undergoing apoptosis essentially dismantles itself, and the remains of the cell are packaged up, and cleared away by the white blood cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • have addressed this issue, and shown that cells undergoing apoptosis also release a chemical called adenosine monophosphate (AMP) that acts as a 'calm down' signal. (elifesciences.org)
  • Approximately, 100,000 cells undergo apoptosis every second in our bodies, and are engulfed by macrophages and immature dendritic cells ( Fuchs and Steller, 2011 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Background: During disc degeneration, inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is correlated with nucleus pulposus (NP) cell apoptosis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Objective: To investigate the protective role of TGF-β1 against TNF-α-mediated NP cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. (portlandpress.com)
  • TGF-β1 was added into the culture medium to investigate its protective effects against TNF-α-induced NP cell apoptosis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Flow cytometry assay was used to analyze NP cell apoptosis. (portlandpress.com)
  • Results: In TNF-α-treated NP cells, TGF-β1 significantly decreased NP cell apoptosis, declined caspase-3 and -8 activity, and decreased expression of Bax and caspase-3 (cleaved-caspase-3) but increased expression of Bcl-2. (portlandpress.com)
  • The binding of thrombospondin-1 to endothelial cells triggers the activation of caspases, leading to apoptosis of the cell, as described previously. (ewg.org)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, we examined the effect of NSAIDs on the growth and apoptosis of synovial cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and analyzed the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) as a possible mechanism of action of NSAIDs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The apoptosis of synovial cells was identified by DNA fragmentation assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. (aspetjournals.org)
  • N -[2-(cyclohexyloxyl)-4-nitrophenyl]-methanesulfonamide (NS-398), a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, also inhibited cell proliferation, whereas it did not cause apoptosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rheumatoid synovial cells expressed PPARγ mRNA, and the PPARγ ligands 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 and troglitazone reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis in synovial cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that not only PPARγ ligands but also NSAIDs, which could induce apoptosis, increased the activation of PPARγ in synovial cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We show that dose-dependent inhibition of HER2 was achieved at the receptor level, on downstream signaling molecules, and more importantly was also translated into inhibition of cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neuraminidase inhibitors BCX1827, 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro- N -acetylneuraminic acid (DANA), zanamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate have a limited significant inhibition of the LPS-induced sialidase activity in live BMC-2 macrophage cells but Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate) completely blocks this activity. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of VEGF receptor (VEGFR1 or VEGFR2) signaling significantly decreased VEGF production and completely abolished IL-8 production.DC electric stimulation selectively regulates production of some growth factors and cytokines important for angiogenesis through a feed-back loop mediated by VEGF receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Nikolaos K. Robakis on Inhibition of platelet activation by the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein. (alzforum.org)
  • In the present study, we found that lysosomes were transiently activated in Schwann cells after nerve injury and that the inhibition of lysosomal activation by chloroquine or lysosomal acidification inhibitors prevented p75NGFR expression at the mRNA transcriptional level in an ex vivo Wallerian degeneration model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Trapé AP, Liu S, Cortes AC, Ueno NT, Gonzalez-Angulo AM. Effects of CDK4/6 Inhibition in Hormone Receptor-Positive/Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Breast Cancer Cells with Acquired Resistance to Paclitaxel. (jcancer.org)
  • Although CDK4/6 inhibition by palbociclib in combination with endocrine therapy has shown potent antiproliferative effects in HR-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer, the potential role of palbociclib in re-sensitizing chemotherapy-resistant HR-positive breast cancer is not well defined. (jcancer.org)
  • Adherent cells such as fibroblasts can cause inhibition of colony growth and obscure visualization of colonies. (stemcell.com)
  • Activation of Stat1 and Stat3 was constitutive in transformed squamous epithelial cells, which produce elevated levels of TGF-alpha, and was enhanced by the addition of exogenous TGF-alpha. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we provide evidence for a coexistence of at least two different lipid bilayer phases in the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • Our data are consistent with the coexistence of lipid bilayer phases, a raft and a nonraft phase, in the apical membrane of epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • Urine samples from healthy control subjects ( n = 50) and type 2 diabetic patients ( n = 100) were collected and tested for excretion of CML and the presence of proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Loss of cell-matrix adhesion is often associated with acute epithelial injury, suggesting that "anoikis" may be an important contributor to cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, these studies were designed to test the effects of juxtacrine HB-EGF signaling upon cell survival and epithelial integrity when cells are denied proper cell-matrix interactions. (elsevier.com)
  • Cells expressing a noncleavable mutated form of membrane-anchored HB-EGF demonstrated increased survival from anoikis, formed larger cell aggregates, and maintained epithelial characteristics even following prolonged detachment from the substratum. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, we propose a novel role for membrane-anchored HB-EGF in the cytoprotection of epithelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Singh, AB , Sugimoto, K & Harris, RC 2007, ' Juxtacrine activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor by membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor protects epithelial cells from anoikis while maintaining an epithelial phenotype ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 282, no. 45, pp. 32890-32901. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, our findings suggest that the T H 9 subset of helper T cells serves an important role in driving ulcerative colitis by regulating intestinal epithelial cells and that T H 9 cells represent a likely target for the treatment of chronic intestinal inflammation. (nature.com)
  • The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors play an important role in epithelial cell function. (mendeley.com)
  • Each subcompartment contains numerous subtypes of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), in addition to dendritic cells, mesenchymal cells and endothelial cells ( 1 - 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Epithelial cells represent the first barrier of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and thus are logical targets for a comprehensive integrated therapeutic approach. (bmj.com)
  • Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role-in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • The regenerating heart exhibited increased CD34 + /Ki67 + and CD34 + /GATA4 + progenitor cells in the presence of decreased inflammatory cells and cytokines. (physiology.org)
  • The SCF/KIT complex reveals a unique RTK dimerization assembly, and a novel recognition mode between four‐helix bundle cytokines and Ig‐family receptors. (embopress.org)
  • T cell-produced cytokines play a pivotal role in the bone loss caused by inflammation, infection, and estrogen deficiency. (jci.org)
  • Launch The homeostasis and advancement of hematopoietic cells is normally managed by the activities of a variety of cytokines, development elements, and human hormones [1]. (researchreportone.com)
  • Many of them are cytokines and surface receptors that play an important role in coordinating the immune response ( Crabtree and Clipstone, 1994 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • When appropriate cytokines are present, committed progenitor cells of both erythroid and granulocyte/macrophage lineages (CFU-GM, CFU-G, CFU-M) as well as multi-potential progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM), can be assayed simultaneously in the same culture dish. (stemcell.com)
  • In contrast, COX-2 is induced in inflammatory cells by a variety of stimuli, including cytokines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, usinga multidisciplinary approach, we identify the GTP exchange factor (GEF) Vav as a key regulator of Rac activity downstream of RTKs in a developmentally regulated cell migration event, that of the Drosophila border cells (BCs). (csic.es)
  • Thrombin has no direct effect on the activation state of the EGF receptor or of its downstream effectors. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, the EGF receptor subcellular localization which is altered by thrombin appears to be an important determinant of the efficacy of downstream EGF receptor signaling in cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • Recent years have seen a considerable emphasis on growth factors and the elucidation of their mode of function, which has led to the recognition that growth factors, their receptors as well as downstream elements of signalling associated with their function might be potential targets in therapeutic management of human diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate several elements downstream of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor (InsR). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this review, we will discuss the ErbB receptors and their signaling networks in breast cancer, as well as the clinical activities of trastuzumab and lapatinib in this disease. (mendeley.com)
  • Vav is rapidly phosphorylated following stimulation of various growth factor receptors and Ag receptors in T and B lymphocytes, and phosphorylated Vav associates with signaling molecules proximal to activated Ag receptors ( 2 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These results indicate that Vav has an important role in setting the threshold for Ag receptor-mediated stimulation of B lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • This is in part due to the stimulation of ectoproteases that generate EGF receptor ligands. (rupress.org)
  • We show here that this cannot account for the stimulation of proliferation or migration by thrombin of Swiss 3T3 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Cell cycle progression and cell migration can be activated by hormone receptors through stimulation of signaling systems that are incompletely characterized. (rupress.org)
  • complicating our understanding of the mechanisms of stimulation of cell proliferation by this hormone. (rupress.org)
  • Prolonged treatment with TNF impaired production of IL-2, IL-10, IFN gamma, TNF, and lymphotoxin (LT) following stimulation with immobilized OKT3, and resulted in suboptimal expression of the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac) but not CD3, CD4, or HLA-DR antigens, when compared to untreated control cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Importantly, TAK1-deficient B cells failed to activate NF-kappaB after BCR stimulation. (mcw.edu)
  • Stimulation of NF-κB binding activity was dose dependent and was one-half maximal at 250 nmol/l AGE-albumin or CML and time dependent at a maximum of activation after 4 days. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Blocking of EGF-Receptor is preventing activation and stimulation of proliferation of tumour cell. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Poor blood flow recovery in p75KO mice was associated with decreased capillary density and significant reduction in the expression of VEGF and bFGF2 mRNA transcripts in ischemic tissue and in circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Using protein analysis on endothelial cell nuclear extracts, we also discovered that FZD5 is required for SFRP2-induced activation of NFATc3. (nih.gov)
  • For example, LPA stimulates fibroblast division and S1P stimulates the chemotaxis and division of endothelial cells leading to angiogenesis. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Small direct current (DC) electric fields direct some important angiogenic responses of vascular endothelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Endothelial Cell Activation. (indigo.ca)
  • Vascular Permeability Factor/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. (indigo.ca)
  • Contribution of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to the Angiogenic Process. (indigo.ca)
  • This organ is not only composed of lipid-laden mature adipocytes and adipocyte precursors called preadipocytes, but also comprises a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which includes blood cells, endothelial cells and macrophages. (nature.com)
  • Here, we have tested endocytic Rab GTPases for regulation of VEGFR2 trafficking and signaling linked to endothelial cell migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Endothelial cell migration was increased by Rab5a depletion but decreased by Rab7a depletion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential regulator of vascular physiology. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mutant receptors Y775F, Y778F and Y775/778F were active kinases and mediated proliferative responses when expressed in porcine aortic endothelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • These signals include growth factors, which I described previously, the primary angiogenic growth factor being Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) . (ewg.org)
  • VEGF binds to VEGF receptors found on the surface of endothelial cells, which are cells that line the interior of blood vessels. (ewg.org)
  • VEGF causes endothelial cells to first break through existing blood vessels, then migrate towards the signal (i.e. (ewg.org)
  • Negative angiogenic signals include the prototypical thrombospondin-1 protein , which inhibits the growth and migration of endothelial cells. (ewg.org)
  • By activating the angiogenic switch, tumors co-opt endothelial cells. (ewg.org)
  • These are support cells, providing structural support for the newly formed blood vessels, promoting the survival of the endothelial cells, and guiding the sprouting of new blood vessels. (ewg.org)
  • How do endothelial cells recruit pericytes? (ewg.org)
  • Activated endothelial cells secrete a growth factor known as Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF). (ewg.org)
  • Glial Müller cells (MC) are known to be involved in these diseases by producing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and secreting MMPs that participate in the extracellular proteolysis during neovascularization. (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the effect of ectopic JKTBP1 on the proliferation of LNCaP cells and its mechanism was investigated. (nih.gov)
  • Guided cell migration is a key mechanism for cell positioning in morphogenesis. (csic.es)
  • Instead, the secretion of multiple trophic factors by MSC provides the underlying tissue healing mechanism ( 4 , 12 , 25 , 40 , 61 ). (physiology.org)
  • Although many studies have shown various mechanisms underlying Schwann cell dedifferentiation , the molecular mechanism contributing to the re-expression of p75NGFR in differentiated Schwann cells is largely unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • ISRIB was identified in a phenotypic cell-based screen, and its mechanism of action remained unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • In 1969, Nishizuka and Sakakura were the first to present a mechanism for the generation of regulatory T (T reg ) cells in the thymus, based on a neonatal thymectomy experiment ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Although the originally postulated mechanism of oligomerization-dependent NF-κB activation by cIAP2-Malt1 has withstood the test of time, more recent data have shown that the molecular mechanism of activation of NF-κB by cIAP2-Malt1 is more complex than initially appreciated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Again, it is through a cell signaling mechanism. (ewg.org)
  • Our study suggests that, signaling through p75 receptor is required for collateral vessel development in ischemia-induced neovascularization as well as plays a critical role in muscle regeneration and suggest a potential gene target, which could be used to improve the repair of ischemic tissue in adults. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although biochemical lesions such as ras gene activation or p53 mutation have been associated with a number of forms of cancer, very little is known about such alterations in B lineage tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An activated c- myc gene appears essential for development of most murine plasma cell tumor (15) but is less common in human myeloma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During the hour preceding follicular rupture, a marked increase in trkA and NGF gene expression occurs in thecal-interstitial cells of the ovary. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, we found that CAPE specifically inhibited both interleukin (IL)-2 gene transcription and IL-2 synthesis in stimulated T-cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A nucleotidase inhibitor and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist inhibited the apoptotic supernatant-induced gene expression, suggesting AMP was metabolized to adenosine by an ecto-5'-nucleotidase expressed on macrophages, to activate the macrophage A2a adenosine receptor. (elifesciences.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is known to bind to the globular heads of C1q molecules and inhibit C1 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • In 2004, several investigators reported that somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene were associated with clinical responses to erlotinib and gefitinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) also known as Protease-activated receptor 1 or coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2R gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) were first discovered in mammals and the horizon of insect FGF research opened up with the discovery of the first FGF receptor (FGFR) gene in Drosophila melanogaster , suggesting that FGF signalling is evolutionary conserved [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence will be presented that the LPPs cross-talk with EDG and other growth factor receptors, thus, regulating the responses of the cells to lipid phosphate mediators of signal transduction. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Signal Transduction by Growth Factor Receptors. (indigo.ca)
  • Growth Factors and Signal Transduction in Development Edited by Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Iowa State University Animal development relies on the interaction of complex combinations of growth factors and their receptors. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • It has been discovered that many growth factors have the option of more than one receptor for signal transduction. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Most chapters contain comparative analyses of the role of growth factors, as well as their signal transduction mechanisms in these different developing systems. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The Insulin Family of Growth Factors and Signal Transduction During Development (C. Ward, et al. ). (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Growth Factors and Signal Transduction in Drosophila (E. Liebl & F. Hoffman). (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 inhibited activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) by EGF but not by NE. (biochemj.org)
  • P2 nucleotide receptors mediate a variety of biological responses and are activated by the extracellular nucleotides adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), uridine triphosphate (UTP), uridine diphosphate (UDP). (umsystem.edu)
  • Decorin is secreted mainly by cells of mesenchymal origin and has been implicated in the control of extracellular matrix assembly as well as in the modulation of cell attachment, migration, and growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • All growth factor receptors are membrane bound and composed of 3 general protein domains: extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall profiles of signaling protein expression levels, activation states and sub-cellular distribution in PDAC cells were distinguishable from non-neoplastic ductal epithelia. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence that signaling through the c-kit receptor can induce expression of cellular function. (rupress.org)
  • However, repeated cell passaging necessary for large-scale expansion of MSC causes cellular senescence and reduces stem cell potency. (physiology.org)
  • The G protein-coupled thrombin receptor can induce cellular responses in some systems by transactivating the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. (rupress.org)
  • FGFs modulate cellular activity via five distinct high-affinity FGF receptors ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, cell-specific activation of trkA receptors in periovulatory follicles may provide one of the signals involved in inducing the cellular dissociation of the follicular wall that precedes ovulatory rupture. (elsevier.com)
  • Adipose tissue is not an inert cell mass contributing only to the storage of fat, but a sophisticated ensemble of cellular components with highly specialized and complex functions. (nature.com)
  • This discovery points to the potential for fine regulation of the individual cellular response to growth factors. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been implicated in a variety of cellular responses to glutamic acid. (jneurosci.org)
  • The identification of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) family has greatly expanded the potential cellular responses to glutamate within the nervous system ( Nakanishi, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath is a polyclonal cellular proliferation. (medscape.com)
  • This activation leads to cellular proliferation and survival. (mendeley.com)
  • We found that TLR2 activation of LCs, but not DCs, resulted in a significant down-regulation of APOBEC3G, which is a cellular restriction factor for HIV. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Most evidence has indicated that Langerhans cells (LCs) are the initial cellular targets for HIV, and that these cells play a crucial role in disseminating HIV. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Counterbalancing positive and negative signals circulate in the cellular microenvironment surrounding every cell, respectively encouraging or blocking angiogenesis. (ewg.org)
  • The primary response to hypoxia is mediated at the cellular level by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) . (ewg.org)
  • MMP inhibitors and growth factor antagonists may be effective tumoristatic agents for the treatment of aggressive thyroid carcinomas. (bioscientifica.com)
  • The frontline treatment options for renal cell carcinoma are evolving rapidly and will lead to the approval of other combination immunotherapies-especially those with VEGF inhibitors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interrogation of expression databases showed that RIP2 expression is significantly over-expressed in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC: estrogen-receptor (ER) negative, progesterone-receptor (PR) negative, Her2/neu- (Her2) negative), compared to other clinical subtypes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Using cell counting, flow cytometry, and western blotting, we evaluated the efficacy of palbociclib alone and in concurrent or sequential combination with paclitaxel in parental and paclitaxel-resistant T47D HR-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Nevertheless, the fact that CDK4/6 activation remained intact in paclitaxel-resistant cells indicates that patients who have HR-positive/HER2-negative residual disease after taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy may still benefit from palbociclib in combination with other regimens, such as endocrine therapies, for adjuvant therapy. (jcancer.org)
  • Patients with breast cancer that is hormone receptor (HR) positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative are less likely than patients with HR-negative disease to achieve a pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the lack of a pathologic complete response correlates with a higher risk of relapse and poorer outcome 2 . (jcancer.org)
  • Lapatinib in combination with the drug capecitabine has been approved to treat patients with HER2-positive breast cancer whose disease has progressed after treatment with trastuzumab in combination with certain other breast cancer therapies, including an anthracycline (a type of antitumor antibiotic) and a taxane (a drug that blocks cell division). (nih.gov)
  • When the researchers examined the mouse brains for metastatic breast cancer tumors, they found that lapatinib reduced the development of large brain metastases by 50 percent or more compared to the placebo solution and that it also hit one of its targets - it reduced the activation of HER2. (nih.gov)
  • In breast cancer, the EGF receptor, ErbB2 (HER2/neu), can be amplified and over-expressed and this is associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. (mendeley.com)
  • The ligands for class III RTKs are two groups of topologically unrelated growth factors. (embopress.org)
  • Cell surface area receptors guaranteed by these ligands activate many signaling paths including the Jak-Stat (sign transducer and activator of transcription) path. (researchreportone.com)
  • Growth factors, which are ligands that bind to the receptor are the initial step to activating the growth factor receptors and tells the cell to grow and/or divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background Alveolar macrophages (AM) in COPD have fundamentally impaired responsiveness to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 ligands of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). (bmj.com)
  • AMs of exacerbation-prone COPD donors were more refractory to cytokine induction by NTHI (p=0.02), MC (p=0.045) and SP (p=0.046), and to TLR2 (p=0.07) and TLR4 (p=0.028) ligands, and had diminished NF-κB nuclear activation, compared with non-exacerbation-prone counterparts. (bmj.com)
  • However, little is known about the role of TNF receptors (TNFR1/p55 and TNFR2/p75) in angiogenic signaling and muscle regeneration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our study suggests that, signaling through p75 receptor is required for collateral vessel development in ischemia-induced neovascularization as well as plays a critical role in muscle preservation or regeneration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Frizzled-5: a high affinity receptor for secreted frizzled-related protein-2 activation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells c3 signaling to prom. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these observations point to a role of Vav at the interface of Ag-induced receptor signaling and GTPase-controlled actin rearrangements and Ag receptor clustering, and show that Vav is required for normal lymphocyte function ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Herein, we have focused on the role of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling in the development of plasma cell disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that in cells coexpressing pp60v-src and the EGF receptor, phospholipase C-gamma was constitutively phosphorylated, a result we interpret as indicating that the signaling activity of the EGF receptor was altered in the src-transformed cells. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of the in vivo effects of IFN-γ in 3 mouse models of bone loss - ovariectomy, LPS injection, and inflammation via silencing of TGF-β signaling in T cells - reveals that the net effect of IFN-γ in these conditions is that of stimulating bone resorption and bone loss. (jci.org)
  • More recent studies demonstrated that activation of β2-AR signaling was involved in EMT, and contributed to invasion and metastasis in colorectal adenocarcinoma and gastric cancer ( 14 - 16 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 13 Another RTK, the nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, can also form endosomal signaling complexes in neurons. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present review addresses the signaling and transcriptional functions of the thymus, including the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory functions of T cells and their role in the immune system. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We conclude that actin rearrangement is regulated in part by Y778 in the platelet-derived growth factor ss-receptor, potentially through binding of a novel signaling molecule to this site. (biologists.org)
  • Arachidonic acid is stored within the cell membrane, and is responsible for signaling adaptive changes in the response to muscle damage and related stimuli. (steroid.com)
  • This protein mediates the signaling not only from the members of the TNF receptor superfamily, but also from the members of the Toll/IL-1 family. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRECISE regulation of transcription is required to execute developmental programs such as proliferation and cell fate determination. (genetics.org)
  • PAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in the regulation of thrombotic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • T reg cells in the thymus are vital for the negative regulation of immune-mediated inflammation, which features prominently in autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders, acute allergies, cancer, chronic infections and commensal microbiota. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Fluorescence staining of actin in platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated PAE cells revealed that Y778 is involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton since the cells contained, apart from edge ruffles and circular ruffles, a novel type of giant ruffle on the dorsal side of the cell, which consisted of irregular multilayered actin structures. (biologists.org)
  • In this work we evaluate the effect of IGF-1 on the regulation of MMPs and on the migratory capacity of an immortalized human Müller cells line, MIO-M1. (arvojournals.org)
  • This MMPs regulation was also accompanied by an increase of cell motility on the collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. (arvojournals.org)
  • Two of the three Stat5-presenting non-contiguous locations, one of which binds SHP-1 also, inhibited growth of Ba/F3 cells substantially. (researchreportone.com)
  • A growth factor receptor is a receptor that binds to a growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNFRSF4) is a T cell costimulatory molecule of the TNF receptor superfamily that coordinates with other costimulators (CD28, CD40, CD30, CD27 and 4-1BB) to manage the activation of the immune response. (rndsystems.com)
  • In mature B cells, BTK is tyrosine phosphorylated upon membrane IgM receptor cross-linking ( 16 )( 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • PtdIns-3,4,5-P 3 binding is necessary for the activation-dependent membrane localization of BTK ( 18 )( 21 ). (rupress.org)
  • The isoform LPP-1 is expressed in the plasma membrane with its active site outside the cell. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • More importantly, giant unilamellar vesicles prepared from cell membrane lipid extracts ( 9 ) also show visible fluid-fluid phase coexistence. (pnas.org)
  • In Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, expression of membrane-anchored HB-EGF increases cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. (elsevier.com)
  • When a cell dies, the membrane that surrounds it ruptures and its contents spill out, triggering inflammation of the surrounding tissues. (elifesciences.org)
  • For example, VEGFR2 plasma membrane activation leads to trafficking to endosomes and degradation in lysosomes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the plasma membrane-localized activity of Rab5 was not detected by light microscopy, overexpression of a GDP-bound mutant of CFP-Rab5(S34N) inhibited internalization of the epidermal growth factor receptor by retaining receptors in clathrin-coated pits. (biologists.org)
  • The activation of small GTPases is essential for vesicle formation from a donor membrane. (mdpi.com)
  • COX is a key enzyme in catalyzing the conversion of arachidonic acid, which is released from the cell membrane, to prostaglandin (PG) G 2 and H 2 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • We examined the ability of BTK to regulate the nuclear factor (NF)-κB/Rel family of transcription factors, as the activation of these factors is required for a B cell response to mIgM. (rupress.org)
  • Constitutive activation of the transcription factor Stat5 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells leads to several hematopoietic malignancies including myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). (researchreportone.com)
  • To further characterize the inhibitory mechanisms of CAPE at the transcriptional level, we examined the DNA binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, nuclear factor of activated cells (NFAT), and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors in Jurkat cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We also provide evidence that the CKM acts as a corepressor for the Ets-family transcription factor LIN-1 , as cdk-8 promotes transcriptional repression by LIN-1 . (genetics.org)
  • Core" Mediator consists of three of the four modules: the head and middle modules, which contact Pol II, and the tail module, which serves as a docking site for transcription factors. (genetics.org)
  • Here we found more T cells expressing the transcription factor PU.1 and interleukin 9 (IL-9) in patients with ulcerative colitis. (nature.com)
  • In conclusion, preservation of β-cell function and survival by FGF-21 may contribute to the beneficial effects of this protein on glucose homeostasis observed in diabetic animals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Preventing β-cell death and increasing survival of the β-cell can be a valuable therapeutic approach to treat and cure type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • May play a role in survival of activated T-cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Among patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer, those with residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy have a higher risk of relapse and poorer survival than those with a complete response. (jcancer.org)
  • The authors also showed that a region in the transmembrane domains of CCR2 was a critical site for chemokine-receptor interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • On the contrary, decorin seemed to be beneficial to osteosarcoma cells because it was necessary for MG-63 cell migration and acted as a mediator, counteracting the transforming growth factor-β2-induced cytostatic function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Processes that allow for tumor cell migration and invasion are important therapeutic targets. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In addition, both ERK [ 16 ] and p-38 [ 17 ] have been shown to be involved in tumor cell migration. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Macrophages express specific receptors for these signals (P2Y 2 for ATP and UTP, CX3CR1 for fractalkine, and S1PR1 for S1P), which may mediate migration to the dying cells ( Ravichandran, 2011 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • T cell migration is directed by several mediators, including chemokine receptors and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), which are supported by guiding stromal structures and by TECs, including cortical TECs and medullary TECs (mTEC). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • For example, aberrant migration of tracheal cells in embryos deficient for the btl locus implied a function of FGF signalling in cell motility [ 1 , 4 ] and Pyr and Ths were identified in screens for genes involved in mesoderm development [ 5 - 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell migration was evaluated on collagen or laminin-coated surface using time-lapse video microscopy. (arvojournals.org)
  • The current model suggests that the spatially controlled activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) by guidance cues limits Rac activity at the leading edge, which is crucial fo establishing and maintaining polarized cell protrusions at the front. (csic.es)
  • However, little is known about the mechanisms by which RTKs control the local activation of Rac. (csic.es)
  • It serves as a framework for understanding the activation mechanisms of class III RTKs. (embopress.org)
  • that interact with receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A majority of growth factor receptors consists of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). (wikipedia.org)
  • In silico screening of a public database for chemicals associated with SREBF activation identified fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, as a drug that increases the expression of known SREBF targets, raising the possibility that fenofibrate may also stimulate myelination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Myelinated Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system express the p75 nerve growth factor receptor (p75NGFR) as a consequence of Schwann cell dedifferentiation during Wallerian degeneration . (bvsalud.org)
  • Central to this process is that Neu1 and not Neu2,-3 and-4 forms a complex with TLR-2,-3 and-4 on the cell surface of naïve macrophage cells. (springer.com)
  • MethoCult™ GF M3534 is optimized for the growth and enumeration of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM, CFU-G, CFU-M) in colony-forming unit (CFU) assays of mouse bone marrow, spleen, peripheral blood, and fetal liver cells. (stemcell.com)
  • The role of Vav in B cell responses to Ag challenge in vivo is not known. (jimmunol.org)
  • In vivo, vav −/− mice mounted protective antiviral IgM and IgG responses to infections with vesicular stomatitis virus and recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein, which harbor repetitive surface epitopes that directly cross-link the Ag receptor and activate B cells in the absence of T cell help. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, vav −/− mice failed to mount immune responses to the nonrepetitive, T cell-dependent hapten Ag (4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NIP)-OVA. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results provide the first genetic evidence on the role of the guanine exchange factor Vav in immune responses to viral infections and antigenic challenge in vivo, and suggest that Vav adjusts the threshold for Ag receptor-mediated B cell activation depending on the nature of the Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • The in vivo role of Vav in B cell responses following Ag challenge is not known. (jimmunol.org)
  • We report in vav −/− mice that Vav expression is important for BCR-induced proliferation, efficient T help-dependent IgG class switching, and Ab responses to T cell-dependent hapten Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, vav −/− mice mount normal B cell responses to T cell-independent repetitive viral and polyvalent hapten Ags, implying that the Vav defect can be overcome by repetitive Ags that effectively cross-link BCR. (jimmunol.org)
  • Biological relevance was demonstrated in that plasma cell lines with up-regulated IGF-IR expression levels exhibited mitogenic responses to IGF-I. More importantly, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of IGF-IR in these lines strongly suppressed tumorigenesis in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many studies have struggled to improve the clinical responses to and benefits of CART-cell treatment of solid tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • These clinical studies indicate that CART-cell therapy can produce clinical responses in patients with advanced hematological malignancies. (hindawi.com)
  • PVSRIPO's immune adjuvancy stimulates canonical innate anti-pathogen inflammatory responses within the tumor microenvironment that culminate in dendritic cell and T cell infiltration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Immune Cells and Inflammatory Mediators as Regulators of Angiogenesis. (indigo.ca)
  • Leucocyte expression of the urokinase receptor [urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)] is regulated by inflammatory mediators. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Blocking IL-34 and the production of inflammatory mediators by macrophages and monocytes is thought to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. (medscape.com)
  • However, it is expressed in the tumor stroma by mechanisms involving hypomethylation of the decorin promoter or induction by tumor-secreted growth factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the detailed inhibitory mechanisms at the molecular level of CAPE on T-cell activation are still unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This volume contains the papers presented in the NATO Advanced Research Workshop 'Activation of Hormone and Growth Factor Receptors: Molecular Mechanisms and Consequences' held in Nafplion, Greece on September 25-30, 1988. (indigo.ca)
  • 6 Mechanisms responsible for the enhanced HIV transmission by nonulcerative STDs are as of yet unknown, but they may be related to breaching of physical barriers to infection, disturbances in normal vaginal flora, or biologic effects on potential target cells for HIV infection. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Initial experimental data further suggested that the molecular mechanisms of Malt1- and cIAP-Malt1-mediated NF-κB activation were quite similar. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By contrast, emerging data suggest that the wild-type Malt1 protein uniquely contributes to NF-κB activation primarily through the control of two proteolytic cleavage mechanisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1994 ). Platelet-derived growth factor receptor signals. (biologists.org)
  • A critical role of TAK1 in B-cell receptor-mediated nuclear factor kappaB activation. (mcw.edu)
  • 1988 ). cDNA cloning and expression of a human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor specific for B-chain-containing PDGF molecules. (biologists.org)
  • 1989 ). Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) binding promotes physical association of PDGF receptor with phospholipase C. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis to identify pharmacodynamic effects common to miconazole and clobetasol, which have been shown to stimulate myelination by mouse oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Amazingly, an 11-residue Stat5-holding peptide (residues 988-998) covered up Stat5 activity in Ba/Y3 cells and growth and myeloid difference Rabbit polyclonal to AKAP5 of hematopoietic control/progenitor cells. (researchreportone.com)
  • MethoCult™ M3534 does not support the growth of erythroid progenitor cells (BFU-E and CFU-E) as it does not contain erythropoietin (EPO). (stemcell.com)
  • Recently, β2‑adrenergic receptor (β2‑AR) has been reported to be a potential promoter in various types of solid cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) is a seven transmembrane receptor (also known as G protein-coupled receptor) required for the physiological response to adrenaline and noradrenaline. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 7. A composition of matter according to claim 1 wherein said bioreactive pair is selected from the group of drug-receptor pairs consisting of epinephrine and adrenergic receptors, methadone and opiate receptors. (google.com)
  • Efforts to determine how MG-63 cells could overcome the decorin-induced cytostatic effect established that decorin in MG-63 cells does not induce p21 expression nor does it cause protracted retraction and inactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 6 Challenging the nose with allergens will induce the influx of inflammatory cells in the lower airways and vice versa. (bmj.com)
  • They also contribute to cell-type-specific functions, such as regulated secretion (secretory granules/lysosomes in endocrine and exocrine cells), synaptic transmission [synaptic vesicles (SVs) in neurons] and phagocytosis (in macrophages and dendritic cells). (biologists.org)
  • By contrast, TLR2 agonists and related bacterial components decreased HIV susceptibility in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Studies on dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is expressed on dermal macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs), 18 , 19 have shown that it can bind to HIV glycoprotein (gp) 120 and facilitate HIV infection of T cells in trans. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These results suggest that activation of SREBFs by small molecular weight compounds may be a feasible therapeutic approach to stimulate myelination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular cloning of human fibroblast hyaluronic acid-binding protein confirms its identity with P-32, a protein co-purified with splicing factor SF2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytopathogenic infection of neoplastic cells releases the proteome and exposes pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns. (sciencemag.org)
  • Prof. Carroll currently serves on the editorial board of Cell Chemical Biology , Chemical Probes.org , Molecular Biosystems , the Journal of Biology Chemistry , and is a contributing member to the 'Faculty of 1000' . (scripps.edu)
  • To visualize active, GTP-loaded Rab5 in living cells, we developed molecular sensors consisting of the Rab5-binding fragments of Rabaptin5 or EEA.1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). (biologists.org)
  • SCF is critical for mast cell production and function and plays an important role in the development of melanocytes, germ cells, and intestinal pacemaker cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Expression of BTK is limited to B, mast, and myeloid cells. (rupress.org)
  • Mice homozygous for mutations at either locus exhibit several phenotypic abnormalities including a virtual absence of mast cells. (rupress.org)
  • We now report that administration of SCF intradermally in vivo results in dermal mast cell activation and a mast cell-dependent acute inflammatory response. (rupress.org)
  • A 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism array was used to study subchromosomal alterations in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (elsevier.com)
  • Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is more aggressive than other cancers in the head and neck region because of its potential for metastasis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common malignancy in the oral cavity. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Insulin Receptor and Insulin Action. (indigo.ca)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is a recently discovered metabolic regulator. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family play important roles in defining and regulating the development and function of endocrine tissues as well as modulating various metabolic processes ( 10 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor-2. (indigo.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is highly expressed in the liver and regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid metabolism in rodents. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1992 ). The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth factors. (biologists.org)
  • The present study demonstrates that IGF-1 regulates the proteolytic activity of MMP-2 produced by MIO-M1 cells increasing their migratory capacity in a way that seems to be associated with IGF-1R expressed in these cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, we found that the culture supernatant of apoptotic cells activated the macrophages to express anti-inflammatory genes such as Nr4a and Thbs1 . (elifesciences.org)
  • Masking the PtdSer on apoptotic cells prevents their engulfment by macrophages, supporting the idea that PtdSer is an important 'eat me' signal. (elifesciences.org)
  • Apoptotic cells also produce 'find me' signals to attract macrophages ( Ravichandran, 2011 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Although adipocytes have been recognized as secretory cells with endocrine functions for some time, the importance of macrophages and stromal vascular cells within the adipose tissue of obese animals and humans is now well accepted. (nature.com)
  • Alveolar macrophages of exacerbation-prone COPD donors were more refractory to cytokine induction by respiratory bacterial pathogens, through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 signalling, and to microbial upregulation of TLR expression, than their non-exacerbation-prone counterparts. (bmj.com)