A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myelodysplasia associated with bone marrow and peripheral blood patterns similar to CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA, but cytogenetically lacking a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr/abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for B CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 13. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.

TALL-1 is a novel member of the TNF family that is down-regulated by mitogens. (1/494)

Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family play important roles in modulation of immune responses. We describe the identification and cloning of a novel TNF family member that has been designated as TALL-1. TALL-1 is a 285-amino acid type II transmembrane protein. Its carboxy terminus shares approximately 35% sequence identity with the recently identified APRIL and approximately 20-25% with TNF, FasL, TRAIL, and lymphotoxin-alpha, suggesting that TALL-1 and APRIL belong to a subfamily of the TNF family of ligands. Northern blot analysis suggests that TALL-1 is expressed abundantly in peripheral blood leukocytes and weakly in spleen but is barely detectable in all other tissues examined. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that TALL-1 is specifically expressed in monocytes and macrophages but is undetectable in T and B lymphocytes. Furthermore, TALL-1 expression is dramatically down-regulated by phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a novel cytokine, THANK, a TNF homologue that activates apoptosis, nuclear factor-kappaB, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. (2/494)

By using the amino acid sequence motif of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), we searched the expressed sequence tag data base and identified a novel full-length cDNA encoding 285 amino acid residues and named it THANK. THANK is a type II transmembrane protein with 15-20% overall amino acid sequence homology to TNF, LT-alpha, FasL, and LIGHT, all members of the TNF family. The mRNA for THANK was expressed at high levels by peripheral blood leukocytes, lymph node, spleen, and thymus and at low levels by small intestine, pancreas, placenta, and lungs. THANK was also prominently expressed in hematopoietic cell lines. The recombinant purified protein expressed in the baculovirus system had an approximate molecular size 20 kDa with amino-terminal sequence of AVQGP. Treatment of human myeloid U937 cells with purified THANK activated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) consisting of p50 and p65. Activation was time- and dose-dependent, beginning with as little as a 1 pM amount of the cytokines and as early as 15 min. Under the same conditions, THANK also activated c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in U937 cells. THANK also strongly suppressed the growth of tumor cell lines and activated caspase-3. Although THANK had all the activities and potency of TNF, it did not bind to the TNF receptors. Thus our results indicate that THANK is a novel cytokine that belongs to the TNF family and activates apoptosis, NF-kappaB, and JNK through a distinct receptor.  (+info)

BAFF, a novel ligand of the tumor necrosis factor family, stimulates B cell growth. (3/494)

Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family induce pleiotropic biological responses, including cell growth, differentiation, and even death. Here we describe a novel member of the TNF family, designated BAFF (for B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family), which is expressed by T cells and dendritic cells. Human BAFF was mapped to chromosome 13q32-34. Membrane-bound BAFF was processed and secreted through the action of a protease whose specificity matches that of the furin family of proprotein convertases. The expression of BAFF receptor appeared to be restricted to B cells. Both membrane-bound and soluble BAFF induced proliferation of anti-immunoglobulin M-stimulated peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, increased amounts of immunoglobulins were found in supernatants of germinal center-like B cells costimulated with BAFF. These results suggest that BAFF plays an important role as costimulator of B cell proliferation and function.  (+info)

BLyS: member of the tumor necrosis factor family and B lymphocyte stimulator. (4/494)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines includes both soluble and membrane-bound proteins that regulate immune responses. A member of the human TNF family, BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator), was identified that induced B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion. BLyS expression on human monocytes could be up-regulated by interferon-gamma. Soluble BLyS functioned as a potent B cell growth factor in costimulation assays. Administration of soluble recombinant BLyS to mice disrupted splenic B and T cell zones and resulted in elevated serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The B cell tropism of BLyS is consistent with its receptor expression on B-lineage cells. The biological profile of BLyS suggests it is involved in monocyte-driven B cell activation.  (+info)

Mice transgenic for BAFF develop lymphocytic disorders along with autoimmune manifestations. (5/494)

The cause of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is unresolved, although dysregulated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family members appears to be important in many cases. BAFF, a new member of the TNF family, binds to B cells and costimulates their growth in vitro. Mice transgenic for BAFF have vastly increased numbers of mature B and effector T cells, and develop autoimmune-like manifestations such as the presence of high levels of rheumatoid factors, circulating immune complexes, anti-DNA autoantibodies, and immunoglobulin deposition in the kidneys. This phenotype is reminiscent of certain human autoimmune disorders and suggests that dysregulation of BAFF expression may be a critical element in the chain of events leading to autoimmunity.  (+info)

Severe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune disease in TALL-1 transgenic mice. (6/494)

TALL-1/Blys/BAFF is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Here, we describe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune lupus-like changes in transgenic mice expressing TALL-1 under the control of a beta-actin promoter. The TALL-1 transgenic mice showed severe enlargement of spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches because of an increased number of B220+ cells. The transgenic mice also had hypergammaglobulinemia contributed by elevations of serum IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE. In addition, a phenotype similar to autoimmune lupus-like disease was also seen in TALL-1 transgenic mice, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and immune complex deposits in the kidney. Prolonged survival and hyperactivity of transgenic B cells may contribute to the autoimmune lupus-like phenotype in these animals. Our studies further confirm TALL-1 as a stimulator of B cells that affect Ig production. Thus, TALL-1 may be a primary mediator in B cell-associated autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

BAFF binds to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-like molecule B cell maturation antigen and is important for maintaining the peripheral B cell population. (7/494)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member B cell activating factor (BAFF) binds B cells and enhances B cell receptor-triggered proliferation. We find that B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), a predicted member of the TNF receptor family expressed primarily in mature B cells, is a receptor for BAFF. Although BCMA was previously localized to the Golgi apparatus, BCMA was found to be expressed on the surface of transfected cells and tonsillar B cells. A soluble form of BCMA, which inhibited the binding of BAFF to a B cell line, induced a dramatic decrease in the number of peripheral B cells when administered in vivo. Moreover, culturing splenic cells in the presence of BAFF increased survival of a percentage of the B cells. These results are consistent with a role for BAFF in maintaining homeostasis of the B cell population.  (+info)

TACI is a TRAF-interacting receptor for TALL-1, a tumor necrosis factor family member involved in B cell regulation. (8/494)

We and others recently reported tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and apoptosis ligand-related leukocyte-expressed ligand 1 (TALL-1) as a novel member of the TNF ligand family that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing TALL-1 have severe B cell hyperplasia and lupus-like autoimmune disease. Here, we describe expression cloning of a cell surface receptor for TALL-1 from a human Burkitt's lymphoma RAJI cell library. The cloned receptor is identical to the previously reported TNF receptor (TNFR) homologue transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML) interactor (TACI). Murine TACI was subsequently isolated from the mouse B lymphoma A20 cells. Human and murine TACI share 54% identity overall. Human TACI exhibits high binding affinities to both human and murine TALL-1. Soluble TACI extracellular domain protein specifically blocks TALL-1-mediated B cell proliferation without affecting CD40- or lipopolysaccharide-mediated B cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, when injected into mice, soluble TACI inhibits antibody production to both T cell-dependent and -independent antigens. By yeast two-hybrid screening of a B cell library with TACI intracellular domain, we identified that, like many other TNFR family members, TACI intracellular domain interacts with TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2, 5, and 6. Correspondingly, TACI activation in a B cell line results in nuclear factor kappaB and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation. The identification and characterization of the receptor for TALL-1 provides useful information for the development of a treatment for B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.  (+info)

Introduction A proliferation\inducing ligand (APRIL) and B cell activation factor (BAFF) are known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including BAFF in malaria. mortality, has a wider geographic distribution and causes significant symptomatic disease 2. Currently, there is absolutely no obtainable vaccine to avoid malaria. Although sterile immunity against malaria parasite is most probably never achieved, people surviving in malaria\endemic areas may get a constant state of clinical immunity towards severe disease and loss of life. The mechanisms underlying the introduction of semi\immunity arent understood entirely. However, it really is more developed, that naturally acquired immunity against blood stage parasite involves both CD4+ T antibodies and cells 3. The need for antibodies was regarded in the research demonstrating that unaggressive transfer of serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from medically immune people into non\immune system recipients substantially ...
Objective: To assess the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist therapy on B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).. Methods: Blood from 38 patients with RA from a single centre was collected prior to and following initiation of TNF antagonist therapy. Plasma BLyS protein levels, blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels and disease activity were longitudinally monitored. Twelve patients with RA who either refused or were felt not to be candidates for TNF antagonist therapy and five normal healthy volunteers served as TNF antagonist-naïve controls.. Results: Baseline plasma BLyS protein levels, but not blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels, were elevated in patients with RA. Plasma BLyS protein levels declined following initiation of TNF antagonist therapy in good responders (GR) to TNF antagonist therapy but not in poor responders (PR). By contrast, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) declined in response to TNF antagonist therapy in GR and PR. ...
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are biologic markers of endothelial function. In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the numerical reduction and functional impairment of EPCs contribute to the endothelial dysfunction. Through ex vivo and in vitro studies, we aimed at evaluating the effects of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) on EPC colonies and endothelial cells and also investigating BLyS receptor expression on these cells. EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In order to evaluate their ability to form colonies, EPCs were cultured on fibronectin-coated dishes and incubated with BlyS alone or BlyS and belimumab. Apoptosis of EPCs and endothelial cell line EA.hy926 was evaluated after 6, 12, and 24 h of incubation with BLyS and after 6 h with BLyS and belimumab. The expression of B cell activating factor-receptor (BAFF-R), B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML) interactor
B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and its receptor BAFF-R play critical roles in the maturation and survival of conventional peripheral B cells. However, they appeared to be dispensable for the generation and maintenance of CD5(+) B-1 cells as BAFF(-/-) and BAFF-R(-/-) mice have normal B-1 cell populations. Hence, it is presently unclear if B-1 cells are responsive to BAFF and if BAFF regulates some aspects of B-1 cell function. We show here that BAFF-R and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) are the major receptors expressed by B-1 cells. Specifically, we show that BAFF treatment of B-1 cells leads to increased NF-kappaB p100 processing and CD21/CD35 expression. Interestingly, toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement of B-1 cells augmented the surface expression of BAFF receptors and rendered them responsive to BAFF costimulation, as evidenced by their increased proliferation, expression of cell surface activation markers and secretion of the pro-inflammatory
Measure human BAFF/BLyS in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma with our highly sensitive BAFF/BLyS/TNFSF13B Quantikine ELISA Kit.
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) controls the proportion of transitional B cells completing differentiation and the longevity of most primary B cells. These key roles in B cell selection, survival and homeostasis make BLyS and its receptors attractive candidates for targeted B cell therapeutics. Here we have used a neutralizing hamster anti-mouse BLyS antibody to assess how BLyS depletion influences developing and primary B cell subsets, as well as how this treatment impacts primary TD and TI immune responses. Mice treated with 10F4 show rapid and substantial reductions in the transitional, follicular, and marginal zone pools which persist for ~40 days. In contrast, the only bone marrow subset affected is the mature recirculating B cell fraction. Interestingly, splenic B1 cells, but not peritoneal B1 cells, are reduced as well. Following the recovery of serum BLyS levels, peripheral reconstitution occurs gradually, such that normal B cell numbers return by day 70-80. Mice challenged with ...
The tumor necrosis family member BAFF is limiting for the survival of follicular B lymphocytes, but excessive BAFF signaling can lead to autoimmunity, suggesting that its activity must be tightly regulated. We have identified a conserved alternate splice isoform of BAFF, called deltaBAFF, which lacks 57 nt encoding the A-A1 loop and is co-expressed with BAFF in many mouse and human myeloid cells. Mouse deltaBAFF appears on the plasma membrane, but unlike BAFF it is inefficiently released by proteolysis. DeltaBAFF can associate with BAFF in heteromultimers and diminish BAFF bioactivity and release. Thus, alternative splicing of the BAFF gene suppresses BAFF B cell stimulatory function in several ways, and deltaBAFF may promote other functions as well ...
Naive peripheral B cells survive in vivo because of active stimulation by the TNF superfamily ligand B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF). Although the survival promoting properties of BLyS are well known, the signal pathways and molecular effectors that characterize this stimulation are still being elucidated. In this communication, we discuss the signal cascades that effect BLyS dependent survival and the regulation of BLyS induced signaling. We also examine the role of BLyS as a growth factor and propose that BLyS induced metabolic enhancement optimizes the B cell response to BCR and TLR-dependent signaling.
Given the recent success in the treatment of lupus patients with BAFF inhibitors, there is considerable interest in the lupus-like disease arising in BAFF-Tg mice. Taking advantage of the variability between 2 founder lines and gender differences in BAFF-Tg mice, we found that the tipping point for the manifestation of renal pathology and premature death was the level of BAFF protein in the serum. Slight increases in BAFF expression were sufficient to expand the B cell compartment size, yet high BAFF levels correlated with vastly increased serum IgA levels, glomerular IgA+ IC deposition, and kidney pathology. Furthermore, kidney function was improved when BAFF-Tg mice were crossed onto an IgA-deficient background. Interestingly, MRL/lpr mice with renal disease had 100-400 ng/ml BAFF in the blood (Supplemental Figure 1C), and, indeed, serum IgA levels were also elevated to about 1 mg/ml (data not shown). MRL/lpr mice are reported to have increased numbers of IgA-secreting cells, excess IgA ...
Mice were rendered specifically tolerant to the fluorescein isothiocyanatedextran (FITC) epitope by injection of FITC-dextran B512. Their spleen cells were removed at various times and cultivated in vitro with different polyclonal B-cell activators, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), purified protein derivative of tuberculin, and native dextran. LPS caused the appearance of high affinity anti-FITC plaque-forming cells to an equal extent with cells from untreated and tolerant animals, whereas native dextran failed to activate cells from tolerant mice, although it was a potent activator of normal cells. It was concluded that tolerance induction only affects those B cells that could respond to the polyclonal B-cell-activating properties of the tolerogen, but not other B cells having an identical set of Ig receptors directed against the tolerogen. ...
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a factor determining the survival of B cells, and elevated levels in serum or locally have been observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Belimumab (LymphoStat-B), a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits BlyS, was developed for the treatment of these diseases. OBJECTIVE: To summarize preclinical development, efficacy and safety of belimumab in treatment of RA and SLE. METHODS: Articles found in a PubMed search and data presented in abstract form at international conferences up to August 2008 are described. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Belimumab was well tolerated in treatment of RA over 24 weeks and SLE over 3 years. It significantly decreased rheumatoid factor (RF) levels, and modestly reduced symptoms of RA, especially in some subgroups such as patients with high disease activity, positive RF and no anti-TNF treatment experience. It also significantly reduced symptoms of SLE, and decreased anti-double-stranded DNA ...
Increased Ig, RF, and CIC levels in BAFF-Tg mice. (A) Reduced SDS-PAGE of sera from five control littermates and nine BAFF-Tg mice showing that BAFF increases I
The samples used in this paper were obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or RA during knee-TEP operations. First of all, expression of the known BAFF-binding receptors BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R was analyzed in SF of patients with OA and RA using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In a further step, the influence of several stimulants, including cytokines, TLR-agonists and cell activators on receptor expression was tested. Finally, taking into account BAFF function in other cell types, SF were stimulated with BAFF and stained with Annexin V in order to analyze its effect on apoptosis in SF ...
BAFF/BLyS, a member of the tumor necrosis family (TNF) superfamily of ligands, is a crucial survival factor for B cells. BAFF binds three receptors, TACI, BCMA, and BR3, with signaling through BR3 being essential for promoting B cell function. Typical TNF receptor (TNFR) family members bind their cognate ligands through interactions with two cysteine-rich domains (CRDs). However, the extracellular domain (ECD) of BR3 consists of only a partial CRD, with cysteine spacing distinct from other modules described previously. Herein, we report the solution structure of the BR3 ECD. A core region of only 19 residues adopts a stable structure in solution. The BR3 fold is analogous to the first half of a canonical TNFR CRD but is stabilized by an additional noncanonical disulfide bond. BAFF-binding determinants were identified by shotgun alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the BR3 ECD expressed on phage. Several of the key BAFF-binding residues are presented from a beta-turn that we have shown previously to ...
CD257 (BAFF, BLyS), APC, clone: 1D6, eBioscience™ 25 Tests; APC CD257 (BAFF, BLyS), APC, clone: 1D6, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD251 to CD400
D to neuronal cultures. Blocking BAFF-R ligation with TACI-Ig inhibited wild-type, but not Baffrm/m, neuronal survival in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 3 C).
BAFF belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, and its downstream signaling plays a critical role in B-cell survival and maturation.
WASHINGTON and LONDON, November 16, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- GSKs Benlysta® (belimumab) Shows Sustained Benefits in Patients with SLE.
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BAFF大鼠单克隆抗体[Buffy 2](ab16081)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
BLyS Human Recombinant fused to His tag at N-terminus produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 190 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 21 kDa.
Welcome to the REBOOT StudyThe REBOOT study will test whether a combination of two different drugs, belimumab (Benlysta®) and ri
TY - JOUR. T1 - BAFF expression correlates with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy disease activity measures and autoantibodies. AU - López De Padilla, Consuelo M.. AU - McNallan, Kelly T.. AU - Crowson, Cynthia S.. AU - Bilgic, Hatice. AU - Bram, Richard J.. AU - Hein, Molly S.. AU - Ytterberg, Steven R.. AU - Amin, Shreyasee. AU - Peterson, Erik J.. AU - Baechler, Emily C.. AU - Reed, Ann M.. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - Objective. To investigate B cell survival cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) levels as biomarkers of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Methods. We measured and compared mRNA levels of B cell survival cytokines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 98 patients with IIM, 38 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 21 healthy controls. The cytokines were B cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF);ΔBAFF; and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL); and their receptors BAFF-R, transmembrane activator and calcium ...
Background The TNF superfamily member B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), referred to as BAFF, is known to be an effective modulator of peripheral B cell homeostasis that promotes B cell survival and differentiation. BLyS is expressed by a few stromal cells, T cells, and most myeloid cell. BLyS transgenic mice show an expansion of the peripheral mature B cell compartment, hyperglobulinemia, anti-single-stranded DNA and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, and circulating immune complexes. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) is a homolog to BLyS that is expressed by monocytes, macrophages, DCs, T cells, and others. APRIL is virtually undetectable in normal tissues but is strongly expressed in adenocarcinomas and can accelerate the growth of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. APRIL/BLyS heterotrimers are present in the serum of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), SLE, and SS. APRIL over expression promotes a strong survival signal for both CD4+ and CD8+ T ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on tonic signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
BAFF receptor (BAFF = B cell-activating factor of the TNF family) is a main pro-survival receptor expressed by human B cells. BAFFR deficiency is caused by a homologous deletion within the BAFFR gene...
Abstract: Autoimmunity is traditionally attributed to altered lymphoid cell selection and/or tolerance, whereas the contribution of innate immune cells is less well understood. Autoimmunity is also associated with increased levels of B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF; also known as B lymphocyte stimulator), a cytokine that promotes survival of self-reactive B cell clones. We describe an important role for myeloid cells in autoimmune disease progression. Using Lyn-deficient mice, we show that overproduction of BAFF by hyperactive myeloid cells contributes to inflammation and autoimmunity in part by acting directly on T cells to induce the release of IFN-. Genetic deletion of IFN- or reduction of BAFF activity, achieved by either reducing myeloid cell hyperproduction or by treating with an anti-BAFF monoclonal antibody, reduced disease development in lyn-/- mice. The increased production of IFN- in lyn-/- mice feeds back on the myeloid cells to further stimulate BAFF release. ...
Results: Salivary BAFF levels (median: 12.39 ng/ml) were significantly decreased by using HQ both at 12 (2.78 ng/ml, P = 0.008) and 24 weeks (0.54 ng/ml, P = 0.011). Similarly, decreases in serum BAFF levels (5.23 ng/ml) were seen at 12 and 24 weeks after HQ treatment (2.18 ng/ml, P = 0.008 and 0.0 ng/ml, P = 0.012, respectively). Serum and salivary BAFF levels were significantly lower in healthy controls (0.37 ng/ml and 0.0 ng/ml, resp.) compared to those of pSS before HQ therapy (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, resp.). Unstimulated salivary flows were similar in patients treated with HQ after 12 (0.38 ml/min) and 24 weeks (0.50 ml/min) (P = 0.51) but higher than the patients rate at baseline (0.04 ml/min) (P = 0.008 ...
The causes and mechanisms of late-onset neutropenia (LON) following rituximab treatment in patients with rheumatic diseases are not known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of established Fcγ receptor gene (FCGR) polymorphisms and B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) gene promoter polymorphisms for the development of LON and for the efficacy of rituximab in patients with rheumatic diseases. A single-center case-control retrospective study was nested in a cohort of 214 consecutive patients with rheumatic diseases treated with rituximab. Eleven patients presented with LON. Fifty non-LON control subjects were matched by diagnosis, age, sex, and treatments. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of FCGR (FCGR2A 131H/R, FCGR2B 232I/T, FCGR3A 158V/F) and BAFF promoter polymorphism −871C/T were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, and serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and BAFF levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flare-free survival was related to LON occurrence and
CD268 (BAFF Receptor), clone: 8A7, eBioscience™ 25μg; Unconjugated CD268 (BAFF Receptor), clone: 8A7, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD251 to CD400
In our previous study, overexpression of extracellular proteinase inhibitor (Expi) gene accelerated apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells, and induced expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF) gene. In this study, we found induction of BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R) gene expression in the Expi-transfected cells. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) gene is another TNF family member and the closest known relative of BAFF. We found induction of APRIL gene expression in the Expi-overexpressed apoptotic cells. NF-B gene was also induced in the Expi-overexpressed cells. Expression patterns of BAFF and APRIL pathway-related genes were examined in in vivo mouse mammary gland at various reproductive stages. Expression levels of BAFF gene were very low at early pregnancy, increased from mid-pregnancy, and peaked at lactation, and thereafter decreased at involution stages of mammary gland. Expression of BAFF-R gene was highly induced in involution stages compared to lactation stages. Thus, expression ...
The monoclonal antibody 11C1 reacts with the B cell-activating factor receptor (BAFF-R), also known as BAFF receptor 3 (BR3) or CD268. It is a 19 kDa type III transmembrane protein which belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily and is mainly expressed on B cells. BAFF-R plays an important role in B cell differentiation and promotes survival and activation of B cells. - Belgique
Belimumab (also known as Benlysta™) is currently being studied in Phase III clinical trials to determine whether or not it is effective for lupus. Belimumab specifically reduces the actions of a protein called B lymphocyte stimulator, or BLyS. BLyS is a protein that increases the lifespan and inflammatory potential of certain immune cells called B cells, which are known to be hyperactive in lupus patients. Belimumab, which interferes with BLyS, is a human antibody. This means that it looks a lot like the antibodies that the immune system makes to fight off viruses. But in this case, belimumab targets only the protein BLyS. Because it only has one target, it is called a monoclonal antibody ...
Follicular B cell survival requires signaling from BAFFR, a receptor for BAFF and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). This tonic BCR survival signal is distinct from that induced by antigen binding and may be ligand-independent. We show that inducible inactivation of the Syk tyrosine kinase, a key signal transducer from the BCR following antigen binding, resulted in the death of most follicular B cells because Syk-deficient cells were unable to survive in response to BAFF. Genetic rescue studies demonstrated that Syk transduces BAFFR survival signals via ERK and PI3 kinase. Surprisingly, BAFFR signaling directly induced phosphorylation of both Syk and the BCR-associated Igα signaling subunit, and this Syk phosphorylation required the BCR. We conclude that the BCR and Igα may be required for B cell survival because they function as adaptor proteins in a BAFFR signaling pathway leading to activation of Syk, demonstrating previously unrecognized crosstalk between the two receptors. ...
Background B cell activating factor (BAFF) plays an important role in the differentiation, survival and activation of B cells rheumatoid arthritis (RA). BAFF receptor (BAFFR) is a crucial receptor for the survival of mature B cells in developing B cells. Paeoniflorin-6-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) exerted its anti-inflammatory effects through regulating immune cells responses. The study was to investigate the regulatory effect of CP-25 on BAFF/BAFFR-nuclear factor of kappa B (NFkapaB) signaling in B cell of collagen induced-arthritis (CIA) mice.Methods Mice CIA was induced by injection of type II collagen. Arthritis index (AI) and swollen joint count (SJC) were assessed, spleen and joints histopathology were observed.B cells subsets, BAFF receptor were analyzed by flow cytometry. BAFF and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were measured by protein antibody array. The expressions of TRAF2, MKK3, MKK6, p-P38, and p-NFkapaB65 in NF-kapaB signaling were analyzed by western blot ...
Results SLEDAI-2K (median baseline score: 8.0; IQR: 4.0-13.8), PGA and corticosteroid use decreased during therapy, and patients reported improvements on fatigue, pain, and general health (p,0.0001 for all). SDI scores remained stable (p=0.08). Patients with baseline SDI scores,1 showed decreased probability and prolonged time to attain SRI response (HR: 0.449; 95% CI: 0.208-0.967), as did current smokers compared with non-smokers (HR: 0.103; 95% CI: 0.025-0.427). In contrast, baseline BLyS levels≥1.2 ng/mL predicted increased probability and shorter time to attain SRI response (HR: 2.566; 95% CI: 1.222-5.387). ...
Belimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets B-lymphocyte stimulator an important factor in the survival of B cells.
Background: Belimumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits B-lymphocyte stimulating protein, was the first biologic agent approved for, and the first drug approved in 55 years for, the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Objective: This article reviews the current research on belimumab and provides recommendations on its use in the treatment of SLE. Methods: The Cochrane Library, EBSCO, IPA, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS were searched for research published from January 2000 to November 2011, using the search terms belimumab, Benlysta, and Lympho-Stat B. Selection criteria included peer-reviewed original research articles on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetic properties, drug interactions, and clinical efficacy and tolerability of belimumab in the treatment of SLE. Abstracts from the annual meetings of major rheumatology medical organizations and societies were searched and reviewed for new content. Additional information on belimumab was obtained from the
vessels, giving the hystologic picture of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Clinically, this inflammation is manifested as arthralgias, fatigue, and lesions mainly in skin, kidneys and peripheral nerves, however, any organ system can be involved. Most of the so far reported clinical and laboratory investigations deal with mixed CG in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection while the data concerning essential CG vasculitis (CV) are scarce. Only recently, so-called noninfectious CV has attracted more attention of the medical community. Chronic antigenic stimulation, increased cytokine and growth factor (BLyS) levels and complement activation may are implicated in the pathogenesis of CV, etiology of which remains largely unknown. Objectives: To investigate clinical and imunoserologic characteristics of patients with CG and their relation to presence and clinical manifestations of vasculitis, as well as to the etiology of CG; explore quantitative and qualitative characteristics of cryoG; to analyze a ...
The cumulative prednisone dose over 52 weeks also was lower in the belimumab group, at a median of 4,190 mg, compared with the placebo group, at 4,758.1 mg (P=0.0005). This study builds on findings from previous studies, which suggest that belimumab has a corticosteroid-sparing effect, they noted.. With regard to safety, the overall rate of adverse events was similar in the belimumab and placebo groups, and while the incidence rate of serious adverse events was higher in the placebo group (18.3% versus 12.3%), the rate of infectious serious adverse events was similar (5.3% and 5.5%).. The investigators also considered adverse events of special interest, including malignancies, post-infusion systemic reactions, depression/suicide/self injury, and deaths, finding similar rates between the belimumab and placebo groups. In the belimumab group, there were no suicide attempts or completed suicides, although there was one case of suicidal ideation. In the placebo group, there was one suicide ...
Belimumab 10 mg/kg IV plus oral azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day; belimumab administered on Days 0, 14, 28, and then every 28 days until the end of the study. If the results in the double-blind period show that belimumab is safe and effective, then participants have the option to continue treatment with belimumab in a 6-month open-label extension phase. Patients who opt to participate in the extension will continue to receive belimumab 10 mg/kg IV every 28 plus oral azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day days for an additional 6 months ...
Recent studies suggest an association between chronic inflammation, modulating the tissue microenvironment, and tumor biology. Tumor environment consists of tumor, stromal and endothelial cells and infiltrating macrophages, T lymphocytes, and dendritic cells, producing an array of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, accounting for a complex cell interaction and regulation of differentiation, activation, function and survival of tumor and surrounding cells, responsible for tumor progression and spreading or induction of antitumor immune responses and rejection. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) family members (19 ligands and 29 receptors) represent a pleiotropic family of agents, related to a plethora of cellular events from proliferation and differentiation to apoptosis and tumor reduction. Among these members, BAFF and APRIL (CD257 and CD256 respectively) gained an increased interest, in view of their role in cell protection, differentiation and growth, in a number of lymphocyte, epithelial and
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The cytokine BAFF is produced by a number of cell types, including monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and some subsets of T cells (17). Receptors for BAFF, however, were initially thought to be restricted to more differentiated B-lineage cells. Therefore, the expression of BAFF receptors on transformed B-lineage lymphocytes in CLL was not entirely unexpected. In contrast, based on BAFF-null and BAFF-R-null mutants as well as other studies, it has been generally accepted that precursor B-lineage cells do not express this receptor. Our studies confirm that there is no expression of this receptor in normal bone marrow pre-B cells. Interestingly, Rodig and colleagues (35) also performed FACS on two pre-B ALL samples and reported that these were negative for expression of BAFF-R. Therefore, the prominent expression of the BAFF-R that we detected on both Ph-positive and Ph-negative ALL samples was unanticipated. In fact, all 12 samples that were tested by us, including original ALL ...
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Recombinant Mouse BAFF (carrier-free) - BAFF is a TNF cytokine member (a type II membrane protein) that acts in both a membrane-bound form and soluble cytokine form.
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... the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory ... Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ...
Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... cells are activated in inflammatory bowel diseases. Clinical and Experimental Immunology. May 2014, 176 (2): 266-74. PMC ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. Cellular component. • cell nucleus. ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... Scott MP (Dec 1992). "Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature". Cell. 71 (4): 551-3. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90588-4. PMID ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ...
... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells.[52] Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... While some of these factors are under personal control, such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age ... Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ...
Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and inhibits osteoblastic cell ... 2007). "The MN1 oncoprotein activates transcription of the IGFBP5 promoter through a CACCC-rich consensus sequence". J. Mol. ... "Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ...
This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... One of the factors most responsible for the acceptance of positron imaging was the development of radiopharmaceuticals. In ... This is due to the time it takes for FDG to accumulate in the activated muscles. ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ...
The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... As a causal factor in pathologyEdit. Sensitization has been implied as a causal or maintaining mechanism in a wide range of ... such as sensitization to the locomotor response of a stimulant resulting in cross-sensitization to the motor-activating effects ... a b Croner S (1992). "Prediction and detection of allergy development: influence of genetic and environmental factors". J. ...
... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... proteins including interferon regulatory factor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 7 trigger a signalling cascade that leads to ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ...
Outer hair cells serve as acoustic amplifiers for stimulation of the inner hair cells. Outer hair cells respond primarily to ... Potential risk factors[edit]. Temperature and heat exposure[edit]. The temperature and heat levels of the body are directly ... As a result, the reflex mechanism is activated again, and the cycle continues on. This ultimately leads to fatigue. ... "J. Cell Biol. 164 (6): 887-97. doi:10.1083/jcb.200310055. PMC 2172292. PMID 15024034.. ...
"Substance P induces rapid and transient membrane blebbing in U373MG cells in a p21-activated kinase-dependent manner". PLOS ONE ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... Fiebich BL, Schleicher S, Butcher RD, Craig A, Lieb K (Nov 2000). "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated ...
... is induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF) which comes about in an inflammatory or an allergic response. This ... seems to occur via immune cells interacting with the peripheral nervous system and releasing pain-producing chemicals ( ... The release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 by activated leukocytes triggered by lipopolysaccharides, ... "Venom from the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, induces a calcium-dependent current in cultured dorsal root ganglion cells" ...
Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions. The longest subsystem ... "An essential transcription factor, SciP, enhances robustness of Caulobacter cell cycle regulation". Proceedings of the ... Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ... Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ...
When light activates the melanopsin signaling system, the melanopsin-containing ganglion cells discharge nerve impulses that ... If any of the previously mentioned factors' functions are ablated, the default photoreceptor is a S cone. These events take ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ...
The organizations activate public warning systems such as sirens and the Emergency Alert System (EAS), and they forward the ... Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... Lighting conditions are a major factor in the appearance of a tornado. A tornado which is "back-lit" (viewed with the sun ... Dust kicked up by the winds of the parent thunderstorm, heavy rain and hail, and the darkness of night are all factors which ...
... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... paired domain-containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate ... "Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. Paramutation & Pax Transcription Factors. 44: 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.09. ... Some studies have suggested that the renal PAX genes act as pro-survival factors and allow tumor cells to resist apoptosis. ...
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF; PRG4). *Oncomodulin. *Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) ... It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ... Afatinib, sold under the brand name Gilotrif among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ...
"B cell maturation protein is a receptor for the tumor necrosis factor family member TALL-1". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 ( ... 1999). "Identification and characterization of a novel cytokine, THANK, a TNF homologue that activates apoptosis, nuclear ... "B cell maturation protein is a receptor for the tumor necrosis factor family member TALL-1.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 ... a tumor necrosis factor family member involved in B cell regulation". J. Exp. Med. 192 (1): 137-43. PMC 1887716. PMID 10880535 ...
transcription factor complex. • cell-cell adherens junction. • Z disc. • stress fiber. • filamentous actin. ... binds to alpha-actinin-1 and associates with actin filaments and stress fibers in activated platelets and endothelial cells.". ... cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription. • heart development. • actin cytoskeleton ... cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • muscle alpha-actinin binding. ...
... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ...
1 × 12-cell tower (single-wide, built between 2000 and 2001), 2 × 18-cell towers (double-wide, built in 2000), and 1 × 6-cell ... Dresden 1 was activated in 1960 and retired in 1978. Operating since 1970 are Dresden units 2 and 3, two General Electric BWR-3 ... Capacity factor. 98.13% (2017). 73.30% (lifetime, excluding Unit 1). Annual net output. 15,447 GWh (2017). ... The 12-cell tower is only used for supplementary cooling of the cold (return) cooling canal as necessary in order to maintain ...
They act as growth factors in the prostate gland, stimulating cell division and tissue growth.[13] In accordance, therapeutic ... nonsteroidal AR antagonists are silent antagonists of the AR and do not activate the receptor.[89][62][90][84] This may be why ... Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639.. ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... is a protein found inside cells. It is activated by the steroid hormone progesterone. ... epithelial cell maturation. • mammary gland development. • paracrine signaling. • lung alveolus development. • regulation of ...
When collected into a trade paperback, only the portions from The Uncanny X-Men, X-Factor, and The New Mutants were included, ... Meanwhile, as Domino (who was placed in a fiery prison cell) works her charm on a familiar looking kid to exploit an ... as well as trying to figure out how to activate the powers of the mutant babies. Four years later (though due to a time ... ISBN 978-0-7851-3777-1) was announced in December 2008, for publication on May 28, 2009, which would collect X-Factor #33-40, X ...
Since this activated carbon has no effect on blood clotting factors, heparin or most other anticoagulants [11] this allows a ... to higher temperatures and either combusted to do work or in the case of hydrogen gas extracted for use in a hydrogen fuel cell ... Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal. When derived from coal[1][2] it is referred to as activated coal. Activated ... Extruded activated carbon (EAC)[edit]. Extruded activated carbon (EAC) combines powdered activated carbon with a binder, which ...
2008). "Mechanically activated solid-state synthesis of hafnium carbide and hafnium nitride nanoparticles". Journal of Alloys ... Both effects reduce the overall bonding strength in the unit cell and therefore the enthalpy of formation and melting point. ... Hot pressing temperature, pressure, heating rate, reaction atmosphere, and holding times are all factors that affect the ... the number of available electrons in a unit cell is insufficient to fill all bonding orbitals, and beyond it they begin to fill ...
In-Solution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting for Single Cell and Population Genome ... Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then ... FISH can also be used to detect diseased cells more easily than standard Cytogenetic methods, which require dividing cells and ...
Compared to closed cell, Polyurethane foam insulation (R=5.5 to 6.5 per inch), cellulose has a lower R-value per inch, but is ... In some cases the insulation might also mix in a very small percentage of adhesive or activate a dry adhesive present in the ... Annual savings from insulating vary widely and depend on several factors, including insulation thickness, original wall ... The word cellulose comes from the French word cellule, for a living cell, and glucose, which is sugar. Building insulation is ...
In fact, age-related alterations are evident in all stages of T-cell development, making them a significant factor in the ... "Age-related impairment of p56lck and ZAP-70 activities in human T lymphocytes activated through the TcR/CD3 complex". Exp ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ...
B-cell activating factor (BAFF) also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13B is a protein that in humans ... "Elevated B cell-activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family in coeliac disease". Scandinavian Journal of ... B-Cell+Activating+Factor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human DTL genome location and ... Lied GA, Berstad A (January 2011). "Functional and clinical aspects of the B-cell-activating factor (BAFF): a narrative review ...
Very low-density lipoprotein activates nuclear factor-kappaB in endothelial cells.. Dichtl W1, Nilsson L, Goncalves I, Ares MP ... Here we show that VLDL (75 to 150 microg/mL) activates nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor known to play ... Aortic endothelial cells showed positive nuclear staining for the activated RelA (p65) subunit of NF-kappaB at 6 to 24 hours ... Oxidation of VLDL reduced its capacity to activate NF-kappaB in vitro, whereas free fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acid ...
2001) Maturation of marginal zone and follicular B cells requires B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family ... B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family acts through separate receptors to support B cell survival and T cell- ... B-cell survival depends on signals induced by B-cell activating factor (BAFF) binding to its receptor (BAFF-R). In mice, ... 2004) TNF family member B cell-activating factor (BAFF) receptor-dependent and -independent roles for BAFF in B cell physiology ...
Cell Immunol. 2011;271(1):16-28. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.05.016. Epub 2011 Jun 14. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... myeloid cells and/or B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a cytokine produced by activated myeloid cells, there was a significant ... B-cell activating factor (BAFF) promotes CpG ODN-induced B cell activation and proliferation.. Buchanan RM1, Popowych Y, Arsic ... all of which are markers for B cell activation. These data suggest that activated myeloid cells and BAFF prime B cells for ...
B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors Overview. B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors Disease Associated. B-Cell ... B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors Phase I and IND Filed Products. Comparative Analysis. B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF ... B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors Filed and Phase III Products. Comparative Analysis. B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) ... B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors Assessment by Stage and Route of Administration. B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) ...
Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2aImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,M3ZP49,M3ZP49_XIPMA Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2a OS=Xiphophorus maculatus OX=8083 PE=4 SV=2 ... Nuclear factor of activated T cells.... Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2a ... Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2a. sailfin molly. 882. Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2a. Poecilia mexicana ...
B-cell activating factor, BAFF) developed CD5+ B-cell leukemia resembling human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which also ... B-cell activating factor and v-Myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc) influence progression of chronic lymphocytic ... B-cell activating factor and v-Myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc) influence progression of chronic lymphocytic ... B-cell activating factor and v-Myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc) influence progression of chronic lymphocytic ...
... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... and IL-6 by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 [12]. ... F. R. Homaidan, I. Chakroun, and M. E. El-Sabban, "Regulation of nuclear factor-. κ. B in intestinal epithelial cells in a cell ... in comparison with M. genitalium LP-infected cells and LPS-treated cells (Table 1). ...
Here we demonstrate that the transcription factor NFAT controls the program of T cell exhaustion. When expre … ... T cells show a gradual decrease in effector function, referred to as exhaustion, which impairs responses in the setting of ... The transcription factor NFAT promotes exhaustion of activated CD8⁺ T cells Immunity. 2015 Feb 17;42(2):265-278. doi: 10.1016/j ... When expressed in cells, an engineered form of NFAT1 unable to interact with AP-1 transcription factors diminished T cell ...
These results indicate that Src kinase activation enhances the response of epithelial cells to TNF-alpha leading to increased ... Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates invasion of Src-activated intestinal cells Gastroenterology. 2002 Feb;122(2):331-9. doi ... The invasive potential of these cells was determined by measuring cell motility and using an in vitro invasion assay. ... on the invasive properties of epithelial cells constitutively expressing activated Ras or Src. ...
Other members such as NFATC4, NFATC3 or members of the activating protein-1 family, MAF, GATA4 and Cbp/p300 can also bind the ... Plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T-cells, especially in the induction of the IL-2 or IL-4 gene ... Also controls gene expression in embryonic cardiac cells. Could regulate not only the activation and proliferation but also the ... differentiation and programmed death of T-lymphocytes as well as lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells (PubMed:10358178). Required ...
Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by activating epidermal growth factor receptor through redox ... Our data suggest that PQQ may stimulate epithelial cell proliferation by activating EGFR by oxidation and subsequent ... Our results provide novel insight into the mechanisms by which PQQ may function as a growth factor to contribute to mammalian ... The present study revealed that PQQ induces the activation (tyrosine autophosphorylation) of epidermal growth factor receptor ( ...
Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1. Details. Name. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1. Synonyms ... Park J, Takeuchi A, Sharma S: Characterization of a new isoform of the NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) gene family ... lcl,BSEQ0013343,Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATC1) ... lcl,BSEQ0008670,Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 MPSTSFPVPSKFPLGPAAAVFGRGETLGPAPRAGGTMKSAEEEHYGYASSNVSPALPLPT ...
Nuclear factor of activated T-cells.... Nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5, NF-AT5 (Rel domain-containing transcription ... Nuclear factor of-activated T-cells 5Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,F6VCW7,F6VCW7_MOUSE Nuclear factor of-activated T-cells 5 (Fragment) OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Nfat5 PE=1 SV=1 ... DNA-binding transcription factor activity Source: InterPro. *RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ...
Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFATC2IP gene. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 interacting protein". Retrieved 2018-03-13. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ...
The nuclear factor-kappa B RelA transcription factor is constitutively activated in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Clin ... Cell isolation and culture. The AML blood cells, normal bone marrow cells, and umbilical cord blood (CB) cells were isolated ... transcription factors to regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in quiescent and mitogen-activated cells. J Exp Med. ... Nuclear factor-κB is constitutively activated in primitive human acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Monica L. Guzman, Sarah J. ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha-activated angiopoietin-like protein 4 contributes to tumor metastasis via vascular cell ... Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha-activated angiopoietin-like protein 4 contributes to tumor metastasis via vascular cell ... Dongjun Luo, Zhongxia Wang, Junyi Wu, Chunping Jiang, Junhua Wu, The Role of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 in Hepatocellular ...
... and trypsin-induced TNF release from T cells. Agonist peptides of PAR-1, but not PAR-2 induced TNF release from T cells. ... We challenged T cells from human peripheral blood with serine proteinases and agonist peptides of PARs and measured the levels ... The signaling pathways MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are involved in the thrombin- and trypsin-induced TNF release from T cells. In ... Moreover, trypsin- and thrombin-induced upregulated expression of TNF was observed in CD4+, IL-4+, or CD25+ T cells, but not in ...
Cross-linking CD40 on B cells rapidly activates nuclear factor-kappa B.. I Berberich, G L Shu and E A Clark ... NF-kappa B-like transcription factors are activated after cross-linking CD40 on resting human tonsillar B cells and on B cell ... Cross-linking CD40 on B cells rapidly activates nuclear factor-kappa B. ... Cross-linking CD40 on B cells rapidly activates nuclear factor-kappa B. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae anchor to activated human cells by the receptor for platelet-activating factor. Nature 1995;377:435-8. ... Cell viability in A549 cells exposed to CSE in vitro. The effect of CSE on cell viability was assessed in A549 cells. Lactate ... Expression of platelet-activating factor receptor mRNA in human and guinea pig lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1994;10:533-7. ... Cigarette smoke and platelet-activating factor receptor dependent adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to lower airway cells ...
BAFF-R, the major B cell-activating factor receptor, is expressed on most mature B cells and B-cell lymphoproliferative ... indicating an urgent need to better understand the factors that promote their survival. B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) and its ... and multiple myeloma express abnormal levels of B-cell-activating factor (BAFF), which protects these cells from spontaneous or ... Transcription factor NF-κB is constitutively activated in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Leukemia 2000;14:399-402. ...
NFATC3, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 3. Orthology source: HomoloGene, HGNC ... Click on grid cells to view annotations.. *Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations ... which is transcriptionally suppressed in cells transformed by src and ras. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 May;15(5):2754-62 ... IPR008366 Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). IPR008967 p53-like transcription factor, DNA-binding ...
STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients. V ... STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients. Blood, ... STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients ... STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients ...
... submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Although numerous evidence on areca toxicity is known... ... Stress activated p38 MAPK regulates cell cycle via AP-1 factors in areca extract exposed human lung epithelial cells. ... AP-1 factors Areca nut extract A549 cells Cell cycle regulators MAPK ... Aqueous areca nut extract treated A549 cells showed reduced cell viability by 48 h with IC50 value of 0.50%. The toxic nature ...
Recombinant activated factor VII in treatment of bleeding complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J ... Drug: activated recombinant human factor VII Two days repeated treatment regimen - low dose administered i.v. (into the vein) ... Drug: activated recombinant human factor VII Two days repeated treatment regimen - high dose administered i.v. (into the vein) ... Drug: activated recombinant human factor VII Two days repeated treatment regimen - medium dose administered i.v. (into the vein ...
Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Activates a Latent Neurogenic Program in Neural Stem Cells from Diverse Regions of the Adult CNS. ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Activates a Latent Neurogenic Program in Neural Stem Cells from Diverse Regions of the Adult CNS ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Activates a Latent Neurogenic Program in Neural Stem Cells from Diverse Regions of the Adult CNS ... Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Activates a Latent Neurogenic Program in Neural Stem Cells from Diverse Regions of the Adult CNS ...
CELL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. Role for Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Stress-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis. Matthew G. Hartman ... Role for Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Stress-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis ... Role for Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Stress-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis ... Role for Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Stress-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis ...
Linking Angiotensin II to Nuclear Factor-κ Light Chain Enhancer of Activated B Cells-Induced Cardiovascular Damage. Bad CARMAs ... Linking Angiotensin II to Nuclear Factor-κ Light Chain Enhancer of Activated B Cells-Induced Cardiovascular Damage ... Linking Angiotensin II to Nuclear Factor-κ Light Chain Enhancer of Activated B Cells-Induced Cardiovascular Damage ... Linking Angiotensin II to Nuclear Factor-κ Light Chain Enhancer of Activated B Cells-Induced Cardiovascular Damage ...
Neutrophil Adherence to Bladder Microvascular Endothelial Cells following Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Inhibition ... Neutrophil Adherence to Bladder Microvascular Endothelial Cells following Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Inhibition ... Neutrophil Adherence to Bladder Microvascular Endothelial Cells following Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Inhibition ... Neutrophil Adherence to Bladder Microvascular Endothelial Cells following Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Inhibition ...
... nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2), Authors: Sietse J Luk, Pancras CW Hogendoorn, ... Expression and unique functions of four nuclear factor of activated T cells isoforms in non-small cell lung cancer.. ... Expression and function of the nuclear factor of activated T cells in colon carcinoma cells: involvement in the regulation of ... NFATC2 (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2). Written. 2012-07. Sietse J Luk, Pancras CW ...
  • p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was activated by HSA and was involved in NF-κB-dependent transcription of fractalkine. (asnjournals.org)
  • Regulation of lymphoid enhancer factor 1/ T-cell factor by mitogen-activated protein kinase-related Nemo-like kinase-dependent phosphorylation in Wnt/ beta-catenin signaling. (ihop-net.org)
  • Using cell lines isolated from MCF+FIR populations, we found that the elevated NF-κB activity was correlated with enhanced clonogenic survival, and increased NF-κB subunit p65 levels were associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK in all radioresistant MCF+FIR cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) modules, composed of three protein kinases activated by successive phosphorylation, are involved in the signal transduction of a wide range of extracellular agents. (embopress.org)
  • Mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) modules are involved in the signal transduction of a wide variety of signals in all eukaryotic organisms. (embopress.org)
  • p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor release in human endothelial cells. (docphin.com)
  • Human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines (ECV304) were cultured in normoxic or hypoxic conditions for 12 approximately 24 h and harvested for determination of VEGF mRNA expression and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. (docphin.com)
  • The present study revealed that PQQ induces the activation (tyrosine autophosphorylation) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling in a ligand-independent manner, leading to increased cellular proliferation in an epithelial cell line A431. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Integrin signaling also induces formation of a complex of p130Cas, the adapter protein Crk, and a third molecule, DOCK 180, that is required for membrane ruffling, a component of cell migration ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Finally, antisense-mediated knockdown of Stat3 induces apoptosis in EGFR mutant lung cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • H 2 O 2 induces a time- and dose-dependent activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. (physiology.org)
  • Our study demonstrates that PL induces quiescent cartilage cell activation and proliferation leading to new cartilage formation, identifies PL activated pathways playing a role in these processes, and provides a rationale to the application of PL for therapeutic treatment of damaged articular cartilage. (deepdyve.com)
  • This lymphokine is produced by T helper cells (TH) and induces activated CTLp to proliferate and differentiate. (ubc.ca)
  • Our findings that PA transactivates EGFR and induces NOX activity in vascular smooth muscle cells provide new insights into molecular mechanisms of PA's role in cancer and Refsum disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This partially purified BCAF induces Ia expression, cell size increase and proliferation of small resting B cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • The inhibition of TNF-α production by the anti-folate drugs does not seem to be a result of (apoptotic) cell death of T cells whereas SSZ induces apoptosis of T cells (data not shown). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A chemical released by cancer cells that induces motility, enabling the cells to metastasize. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As(3+) potently induces Mt1 mRNA expression in mouse hepa1c1c7 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Factor Xa, a protease crucial for blood coagulation, also induces protease-activated receptor-dependent cell signaling. (lenus.ie)
  • Ulevitch, R. J. and Ye, R. D. (1995) Platelet-activating factor induces NF-kappa B activation through a G protein-coupled pathway. (springer.com)
  • We find that stimulation with exogenous IL-4 or CD40-cross-linking induces B cell expression of CD120b, but not CD120a. (docphin.com)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been recognized as an angiogenic factor that induces endothelial proliferation and vascular permeability. (elsevier.com)
  • Thrombin and the thrombin receptor agonist peptide TRP-14 activate a signaling pathway in M24met cells that involves an increase in intracellular calcium and induces cell proliferation. (scripps.edu)
  • B-cell survival depends on signals induced by B-cell activating factor (BAFF) binding to its receptor (BAFF-R). In mice, mutations in BAFF or BAFF-R cause B-cell lymphopenia and antibody deficiency. (pnas.org)
  • B-lymphocyte survival is maintained by tonic signaling of the B-cell antigen receptor complex ( 1 ) and by signals induced after binding of the cytokine BAFF/BLYS to the BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R), a member of the TNF receptor superfamily ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although bovine blood-derived CD21(+) B cells express TLR9 and proliferate in response to CpG in mixed-cell populations, purified bovine B cells do not proliferate significantly in response to CpG ODN, even when the B cell receptor is engaged. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, it has been found that mycoplasmal lipoproteins and lipopeptides are capable for leading to apoptoic cell death in macrophage through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR6 [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When expressed in cells, an engineered form of NFAT1 unable to interact with AP-1 transcription factors diminished T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, increased the expression of inhibitory cell surface receptors, and interfered with the ability of CD8(+) T cells to protect against Listeria infection and attenuate tumor growth in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by activating epidermal growth factor receptor through redox cycling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It has also been reported that cytoplasmic free calcium and phospholipase C and protein kinase C activation are increased in T-leukemic cell lines following stimulation with thrombin or the thrombin receptor agonist peptide [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Thrombin and thrombin receptor agonist also enhanced CD69 expression and IL-2 productions by cross-linking T cell receptors in both Jurkat T cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The three known receptors for BAFF on B cells include BCMA (B-cell maturation antigen), TACI (transmembrane activator, calcium modulator, and cyclophilin ligand interactor), and BAFF-R/BR3 (BAFF receptor/BLyS receptor 3). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In agreement with the proposed lack of significance of this receptor/cytokine for early B-cell development, mice lacking BAFF-R or BAFF have normal pro- and pre-B-cell compartments ( 18 , 19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the expression of both BAFF and its receptor BAFF-R in leukemias and lymphomas involving more mature B-lineage cells prompted us to examine a possible role of BAFF and its receptors in ALL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 One prominent inflammatory pathway responsive to angiotensin receptor ligation culminates in the translocation of nuclear factor-κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) to the nucleus where it drives transcription of a broad array of inflammatory mediators. (ahajournals.org)
  • We recently reported that the particulate matter from urban air simulates platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR)-dependent adhesion of pneumococci to airway cells. (bmj.com)
  • Cigarette smoke extract stimulates platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR)-dependent pneumococcal adhesion to lower airway cells. (bmj.com)
  • For example, basal expression of the proinflammatory protein protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) is transcriptionally regulated by NFATc1 in human saphenous vein SMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • We evaluated Stat3 activation in early stage non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and how this relates to upstream epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, tumor apoptosis, and prognosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • High-density tissue microarrays using tissues from 176 surgically resected NSCLC were evaluated for expression of phosphorylated Stat3 (pStat3) and epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) along with tumor apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in NSCLC and can regulate NSCLC growth and survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Angiotensin II (ANG II), an end product of the renin-angiotensin system, is an eight-amino acid peptide that can bind to its receptor, AT1 or AT2, on the surface of cells. (physiology.org)
  • implies that, in addition to TNF-induced cascades, T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signal transduction pathways could also be affected. (aspetjournals.org)
  • T lymphocytes direct specific immune functions by antigen recognition via the T cell receptor complex. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have previously identified a novel complex between the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)β receptor and the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1). (strath.ac.uk)
  • Third, SB649146 blocked the S1P-induced activation of p42/p44 MAPK in airway smooth muscle cells, a response that is mediated by the S1P1 receptor. (strath.ac.uk)
  • We now report that inverse agonism of the S1P1 receptor with SB649146 reduced the endocytosis of the PDGFβ receptor-S1P1 receptor complex and the stimulation of p42/p44 MAPK and cell migration in response to PDGF. (strath.ac.uk)
  • These findings are the first to report that a GPCR inverse-agonist reduces growth factor-induced receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, fundamentally broadening their mechanism of action. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The data obtained with SB649146 also suggest that the constitutively active endogenous S1P1 receptor enhances PDGFinduced cell migration. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and TLR‑mediated interleukin-8 production by human submandibular gland epithelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, receptor occupancy on B cells by BAFF ( 14 ), its urinary excretion in case of renal failure ( 13 ), and sequestration within immune complexes ( 15 ) all hinder assessment of BAFF. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The factor increases the frequency of IL-2 receptor expressing cells within a population, thereby increasing the response to IL-2. (ubc.ca)
  • To explore molecular mechanisms of phytanic acid-induced cellular pathology, we investigated its effect on NADPH oxidase (NOX) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • PAF exerts its function upon binding to its specific receptor, PAF receptor (PAFR), which is abundantly expressed in leukocytes and endothelial cells (ECs). (frontiersin.org)
  • PAF activates a G protein-coupled receptor named PAF receptor (PAFR) ( 5 - 7 ), which results in pleiotropic and potent biological effects including platelet activation, airway constriction, hypotension, and increased vascular permeability via signaling pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), PKC, phospholipase A2 (PLA 2 ), and PLC ( 5 , 8 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • TNF-α activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to phosphorylate and suppress the activity of insulin receptor (IR) substrate 1 ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • NRP1 partially mediates EBV-activated EGFR/RAS/ERK signalling, and NRP1-dependent receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling promotes EBV infection. (nature.com)
  • In addition, NRP1 mediates the penetration of iRGD conjugated nanoparticles into tissue and cells through functioning as a receptor for CendR motif, the proteolytic cleavage products of iRGD after binding to integrins 17 , 20 . (nature.com)
  • This occurred in the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) MCF-7 cells that express wild-type p53, the ER+ T47-D cells that express mutant p53, and the ER− MDA-MB-468 cells or MDA-MB-231 cells that both express mutant p53. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane protein that acts as a receptor for activated coagulation factor VII (FVIIa), initiating the coagulation cascade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane protein that belongs to the class II cytokine receptor superfamily that shares a significant degree of homology with the interferon gamma receptor [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activated factor X signaling via protease-activated receptor 2 suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production from LPS-stimulated myeloid cells. (lenus.ie)
  • Factor Xa can bind both monocytes and macrophages, but whether factor Xa-dependent signaling stimulates or suppresses myeloid cell cytokine production in response to Toll-like receptor activation is not known. (lenus.ie)
  • In addition, factor Xa anti-inflammatory activity was markedly attenuated by the presence of an antagonist of protease-activated receptor 2, but not protease-activated receptor 1. (lenus.ie)
  • The key role of protease-activated receptor 2 in eliciting factor Xa-dependent anti-inflammatory signaling on macrophages was further underscored by the inability of factor Xa to mediate inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release from murine bone marrow-derived protease-activated receptor 2-deficient macrophages. (lenus.ie)
  • We also show for the first time that, in addition to protease-activated receptor 2, factor Xa requires a receptor-associated protein-sensitive low-density lipoprotein receptor to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production. (lenus.ie)
  • Collectively, this study supports a novel function for factor Xa as an endogenous, receptor-associated protein-sensitive, protease-activated receptor 2-dependent regulator of myeloid cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production. (lenus.ie)
  • Protease-activated receptor-2 is essential for factor VIIa and Xa-induced signaling, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells. (lenus.ie)
  • PAF stimulation of NF-κB activation and transcription of immediate-early genes have been investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the cloned PAF receptor. (springer.com)
  • Ito, K. and Shimizu, T. (1994) Transfected platelet-activating factor receptor activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) Kinase and MAP kinase Kinase in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (springer.com)
  • Platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) is a membrane tyrosine-kinase receptor required for fibroblast activation in stromal proliferations. (elsevier.com)
  • The phenotypic changes effected by TNF-alpha can be recapitulated by crosslinking CD120b (p75 TNF-receptor), but not CD120a (p55 TNF-receptor), with mAbs presented on Fc gamma RII (CD32)-expressing L cells. (docphin.com)
  • A recent report has revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is expressed not only in adipocytes but also in monocytes/macrophages and has suggested that PPARγ may have a role in the differentiation of monocytes/macrophages. (elsevier.com)
  • When individual cells of the L3T4 (CD4)+ F23.1+ T cell clone E9.D4 were transferred by micromanipulation into wells coated with the monoclonal anti-T cell receptor antibody F23.1, up to 90% of cells produced CSF as detected by CSF-dependent hemopoietic cell lines. (sdu.dk)
  • Kelso, A & Owens, T 1988, ' Production of two hemopoietic growth factors is differentially regulated in single T lymphocytes activated with an anti-T cell receptor antibody ', Journal of Immunology , bind 140, nr. 4, s. 1159-67. (sdu.dk)
  • Immunofluorescence evidences expression of the signaling thrombin receptor on these cells. (scripps.edu)
  • Thus, M24met melanoma cells express both the initiating cell surface receptor for the coagulation pathways and the central signaling receptor of the coagulation system, suggesting the in situ generation of proliferative signals which can contribute to the malignant phenotype. (scripps.edu)
  • The receptor tyrosine kinase ERBB4, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is unusual in that ERBB4 can undergo intramembrane proteolysis, releasing a soluble intracellular domain (ICD) that modulates transcription in the nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • These observations connect the unusual nuclear function of a growth factor receptor with a mechanosensory pathway and suggest that NRG1-ERBB4-YAP signaling contributes to the aggressive behavior of tumor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • ERBB4 (also known as HER4) is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). (sciencemag.org)
  • Association of B-cell activating factor receptor deficiency with the P21R polymorphism and common variable immunodeficiency. (cdc.gov)
  • B, Flow cytometric analysis of B-cell activating factor receptor (BAFF-R) expression on CD19 + blood B cells from the patient (green) and a healthy control (dark purple). (cdc.gov)
  • Mouse small intestine tissue showed that c-Kit, stem cell factor (SCF), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the LF-CQPC03 treated mice than in control mice, while transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels were significantly lower in the LF-CQPC03 treated mice than in control mice. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been also shown to play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell activating factor (BAFF) promotes CpG ODN-induced B cell activation and proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • When co-cultured with CD14(+) myeloid cells and/or B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a cytokine produced by activated myeloid cells, there was a significant increase in CpG-specific B cell proliferation, and the number of large B cells in general or positive for CD25, all of which are markers for B cell activation. (nih.gov)
  • Could regulate not only the activation and proliferation but also the differentiation and programmed death of T-lymphocytes as well as lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells (PubMed:10358178). (rcsb.org)
  • The intracellular redox state regulates the EGFR signaling through the redox-sensitive catalytic cysteine of PTP1B and modulates cell proliferation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our data suggest that PQQ may stimulate epithelial cell proliferation by activating EGFR by oxidation and subsequent inactivation of PTP1B via its redox cycling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In these cells, activation of PARs affects their main functions such as proliferation, degranulation, and release of inflammatory mediators [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pre-B ALL cells depend on bone marrow stroma for in vitro proliferation and survival ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Angel P, Karin M (1991) The role of Jun, Fos and the AP-1 complex in cell-proliferation and transformation. (springer.com)
  • Among the factors and cytokines produced by multiple myeloma microenvironment, paracrine secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promotes multiple myeloma cell proliferation and protects against drug-induced cytotoxicity ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we analyzed extracts of the sponge Cribrochalina vasculum for their ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can undergo phenotypic modulation, 1 a process by which a quiescent, contractile SMC alters its expression profile to facilitate cell proliferation, migration, or inflammatory cell recruitment (see reviews 1 , 2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Platelet lysate activates quiescent cell proliferation and reprogramming in human articular. (deepdyve.com)
  • In a cartilage permissive culture environment, differentiated cells also resumed proliferation after exposure to PL. These findings correlated with an up‐regulation of the proliferation/survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with an induction of cyclin D1. (deepdyve.com)
  • These events were possibly related to the cell proliferation because the HIF‐1 inhibitor acriflavine inhibited HIF‐1 binding to HIF‐1 responsive elements and cell proliferation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Glioblastoma cells release factors (G-TsF) which inhibit T-cell proliferation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The importance of BAFF to B cells was confirmed when mice transfected with the gene BAFF manifested excessive lymphocytic proliferation, together with autoantibody production ( 4 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • MEF2 belongs to the MADS-box super family and is a class of key transcriptional regulators that positively regulate cell differentiation, cell proliferation, morphogenesis, cell survival, and apoptosis [ 1 , 2 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • 8-NH 2 -Ado treatment inhibited cell proliferation, activated cell death, and did not activate transcription of the p53 target gene p21 or increase protein levels of either p53 or p21. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequent assays showed that ART inhibits HCT116 cell proliferation through suppressing the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway and activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Production occurred in the absence of proliferation and did not require the addition of accessory cells or IL-2. (sdu.dk)
  • In response to injury, epithelial cells initiate a programmed series of separate yet interdependent responses, such as proliferation, migration, and matrix assembly, to rapidly restore the integrity of damaged tissue. (rupress.org)
  • Produced by thymic stromal cells, spleen cells and keratinocytes, IL-7 can also co-stimulate the proliferation of mature T cells in combination with other factors such as ConA and IL-2. (thomassci.com)
  • This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of proinflammatory cytokines gene expression and apoptosis in human monocytic cell line THP-1 stimulated by lipoproteins (LPs) prepared from Mycoplasma genitalium . (hindawi.com)
  • Cell apoptosis was also detected by Annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide (PI) staining and acridine orange (AO)-ethidium bromide (EB) staining. (hindawi.com)
  • LPs were also found to increase the DNA-binding activity of NF- B, a possible mechanism for the induction of cytokine mRNA expression and the cell apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • genitalium -derived LP may be an important etiological factor of certain diseases due to the ability of LP to produce proinflammatory cytokines and induction of apoptosis, which is probably mediated through the activation of NF- B. (hindawi.com)
  • With the intimate interaction with the host cells, LP could influence the functions of monocytes, macrophages, and brain astrocytes, then lead to proinflammatory cytokine production or, in particular cases, to necrosis or apoptosis [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • NF- κ B activation may have a two-fold influence on cell apoptosis, either inhibiting apoptosis or accelerating cell death, which depends on different cell lines and different stimuli. (hindawi.com)
  • and we have studied whether M. genitalium LP could induce human monocytes cell line THP-1 to express proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Given the expression of NF-κB in leukemic, but not normal primitive cells, the hypothesis that inhibition of NF-κB might induce leukemia-specific apoptosis was tested by treating primary cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132, a well-known inhibitor of NF-κB. (bloodjournal.org)
  • If LSCs use unique mechanisms to control processes such as apoptosis, then it may be possible to target such pathways as a means to specifically destroy leukemic, but not normal hematopoietic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Several studies have shown that malignant B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma B, and multiple myeloma express abnormal levels of B-cell-activating factor (BAFF), which protects these cells from spontaneous or drug-induced apoptosis ( 12 - 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chang MC et al (2001) Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells: association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. (springer.com)
  • e) INS832/13 cells were treated with glucose or palmitate, and apoptosis was determined by ELISA analysis of DNA fragments at 24 h after treatment. (asm.org)
  • BAFF also attenuates tumor cell apoptosis because exposure of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) B cells to recombinant BAFF increases nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, up-regulates Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), and down-regulates Bax ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, NHL B cells deregulate an otherwise physiologic autocrine survival pathway to evade apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Early-stage NSCLC tumors have activated EGFR-Stat3 signaling with low apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell lines harboring mutant EGFR molecules are dependent on EGFR for survival because inhibition of EGFR using gefitinib, RNA interference knockdown, or EGFR antibodies results in apoptosis ( 12 - 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Stat3 regulates a number of pathways important in tumorigenesis, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, and tumor cell evasion of the immune system ( 15 , 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One critical role of Stat3 is protecting cells against apoptosis through the transcriptional up-regulation of survival genes, such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 , and survivin ( 19 - 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because of the important role of Stat3 in tumor growth and survival, we evaluated activated Stat3 signaling in early-stage NSCLC tumors and correlated activated Stat3 with clinical characteristics as well as upstream EGFR signaling and tumor cell apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, NFATc1 and NFATc2 also bind to numerous other promoters, such as the Fas ligand promoter ( 4 , 8 ), and therefore also control apoptosis and further important processes in the life cycle of a T cell ( 12 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Idel and co-workers [ 12 ] have reported that supraphysiological levels of phytanic acid induce nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells suggesting thereby that phytanic acid might have a role in regulation of cell growth in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though nitric oxide has recently been implicated in phytanic acid-induced apoptosis of smooth muscle cells, any role of reactive oxygen species such as highly reactive superoxide anion production in relation to phytanic acid-mediated regulation of vascular growth remains to be examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MEF2A is one of the members of the MEF2 family and participates in various cellular processes, including muscle development, neuronal differentiation, cell-growth control, and apoptosis, in the form of homodimers or heterodimers [ 3 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • 3 4 In addition, when the overlying epithelium is damaged or infected, corneal stromal cells rapidly undergo apoptosis, effectively precluding any fibrotic response. (arvojournals.org)
  • 8-NH 2 -Ado induced apoptotic death of MCF-7 cells and apoptosis was not inhibited by knockdown of functional p53. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conversely, inhibition of endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma cell line using siRNA resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2 and sensitization to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study shows that in neuroblastoma cell lines overexpressed TF ligated with FVIIa produced upregulation of Bcl-2 expression through the JAK/STAT5 signaling pathway, resulting in resistance to apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was also a parallel expression of the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, as well as the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (nih.gov)
  • BAFF is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine is a ligand for receptors TNFRSF13B/TACI, TNFRSF17/BCMA, and TNFRSF13C/BAFF-R. This cytokine is expressed in B cell lineage cells, and acts as a potent B cell activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), on the invasive properties of epithelial cells constitutively expressing activated Ras or Src. (nih.gov)
  • Plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T-cells, especially in the induction of the IL-2 or IL-4 gene transcription. (rcsb.org)
  • Both BAFF and the related cytokine APRIL bind to TACI and BCMA, whereas only BAFF binds to BAFF-R. The BAFF-R/BR3 pathway in particular is crucial to the differentiation of late primary B cells and survival of mature B cells ( 19 , 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cytokine transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is secreted in a latent form that has no known biological activity. (portlandpress.com)
  • Originally identified as key components linking cytokine signals to transcriptional events in cells, STAT proteins, especially Stat3 and Stat5, play a major role in tumorigenesis ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Methods]: Primary and immortalized microglial cells were stimulated by sPLA2-IIA in order to characterize the cytokine-like actions of the phospholipase. (csic.es)
  • Moreover, barbiturates suppressed the expression of a luciferase reporter gene under control of NFAT (stably transfected Jurkat T cells), and of the cytokine genes interleukin-2 and interferon-γ that contain functional binding motifs for NFAT within their regulatory promotor domains (human peripheral blood CD3 + lymphocytes). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Neutrophil migration across monolayers of cytokine-prestimulated endothelial cells: a role for platelet-activating factor and IL-8. (rupress.org)
  • In a previous study we observed that neutrophils respond with a rapid rise in [Ca2+]i during adherence to cytokine-activated endothelial cells (EC), caused by EC membrane-associated platelet-activating factor (PAF). (rupress.org)
  • A murine anti-IL-8 antiserum was found to also partially inhibit the neutrophil transmigration across cytokine-activated EC. (rupress.org)
  • Our results indicate that human neutrophils are activated and guided by EC-associated PAF and EC-derived IL-8 during the in vitro diapedesis in between cytokine-stimulated EC. (rupress.org)
  • This cytokine may be expressed in and secreted by salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) after stimulation with type I IFN or viral or synthetic dsRNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We treated BMs with LPS and dapsone, and the treated cells underwent cellular activity assay, flow cytometry analysis, cytokine production assessment, and reactive oxygen species assay. (vetsci.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cytokine that plays significant roles in multiple cellular processes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TNF-α also provokes activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor- κB, which causes the expression of genes like tyrosine phosphatase-1B and suppression of cytokine signaling proteins to antagonize the insulin signaling ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study, exposure to factor Xa significantly impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lipopolysaccharide-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, THP-1 monocytic cells and murine macrophages. (lenus.ie)
  • Interaction between BAFF and BAFF-R activates classical and noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signaling pathways MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are involved in the thrombin- and trypsin-induced TNF release from T cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The Ras and Rho families of small GTPases control a diverse set of biochemical pathways in lymphoid cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3), a member of the STAT family of transcription factors, regulates multiple oncogenic pathways, including pathways regulating tumor cell survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, mutant EGFR proteins selectively activate Akt and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathways that are important in NSCLC cell survival ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a stress-sensitive heterodimeric transcription factor in the regulation of the stress-responsive genes, has been shown to initiate the prosurvival signaling pathways ( 18 - 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For instance, NF-κB activates many genes involved in inflammation, cell transformation, and antiapoptotic responses ( 24 , 25 ), suggesting that both prosurvival and antisurvival pathways can be induced by NF-κB activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Rel/nuclear factor (NF) * -κB transcription factors integrate diverse intracellular signaling pathways that are activated during normal cellular differentiation and during immune responses ( 1 - 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • Viruses induce high expression of BAFF by salivary gland epithelial cells through TLR- and type-I IFN-dependent and -independent pathways. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gemcitabine activates DNA damage pathways that signal to the tumor suppressor p53 ( 1 ), and a functional p53 pathway improves gemcitabine cytotoxicity ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We identify host cell genes and pathways relevant for infection by combining three different computational approaches: gene and pathway overdispersion analysis, prediction of cell-state transition probabilities, as well as future cell states. (nature.com)
  • The depth of data and using unspliced messenger RNA (mRNA) as a predictor for future cell states allows us to connect the course of infection to the activity of specific host cell genes and pathways. (nature.com)
  • Vitamin K-dependent proteases generated in response to vascular injury and infection enable fibrin clot formation, but also trigger distinct immuno-regulatory signaling pathways on myeloid cells. (lenus.ie)
  • Melatonin modulates TLR4-mediated inflammatory genes through MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. (lenus.ie)
  • We review signaling pathways that control local axon assembly at the growth cone and gene expression in the soma during developmental or regenerative axon growth and discuss the potential involvement of GSK3 signaling in these processes, with a particular focus on how GSK3 signaling modulates the function of axon growth-associated transcription factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • The TIR domains of TLRs interact with other TIR domain-containing adaptors, such as myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88), Myd88-adaptor-like, TIR domain containing adapter-inducing interferon (IFN)-β (TRIF), TRIF-related adaptor molecule, and sterile α and HEAT/Armadillo motif containing 1 (Sarm1), to regulate the downstream signaling pathways involved in the activation of transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-κB, AP-1, and interferon regulatory factors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Blocking of the coagulation pathways at the level of tissue factor, factor Xa, or thrombin inhibits hematogenous M24met metastasis in SCID mice, implicating a role for thrombin generation in this process. (scripps.edu)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B and NF-kappa B-like transcription factors are activated after cross-linking CD40 on resting human tonsillar B cells and on B cell lines. (jimmunol.org)
  • NFATc2 is part of the NFAT family of transcription factors. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Another, highly conserved region of the NFAT family is the DNA binding domain that is structurally related to the DNA binding domain of the Rel -Family of transcription factors. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Objective- Calcineurin (Cn) and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors are critical in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) development and pathology. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cn, a cytosolic, calcium-dependent phosphatase, activates the NFAT family of transcription factors (NFATc1-c4) for nuclear translocation and subsequent target gene transcription. (ahajournals.org)
  • In mammalian cells, two transcription factors, XBP1 and ATF6, activate ER stress-responsive genes. (plantcell.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that bradykinin could elicit long-lasting changes in nociceptor function by activating members of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part to the changes in gene expression associated with hypertrophy ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • NFAT3 belongs to the NFAT family of transcription factors, discovered as important regulators of immune responses in mammals ( 8 , 25 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • The four genuine members of the family of nuclear factor of activated T-cell transcription factors (NFAT), NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFATc4, share a conserved DNA binding domain of approximately 300 amino acids, the Rel similarity domain. (asm.org)
  • Treatment of primary CD3 + lymphocytes with barbiturates inhibited the PMA and ionomycin induced increase in DNA binding of NFAT, whereas the activity of other transcription factors, such as Oct-1, SP-1, or the cAMP response element-binding protein, remained unaffected. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These transcription factors are phosphorylated in the cytosol of resting T cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The gene expression profiles of ABC DLBCLs were notable for the high expression of target genes of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcription factors, raising the possibility that constitutive activity of the NF-κB pathway may contribute to the poor prognosis of these patients. (rupress.org)
  • GSK3 signaling is also known to regulate gene expression via controlling the functions of many transcription factors, suggesting that GSK3 may be an important regulator of gene transcription supporting axon growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • For instance, little is known about the transcription factors and the targeted genes they control that specifically regulate axon growth downstream of neurotrophic factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • BAFF steady-state concentrations depend on B cells and also on the expression of BAFF-binding receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • BAFF is the natural ligand of three unusual tumor necrosis factor receptors named BAFF-R (BR3), TACI (transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor), and BCMA (B-cell maturation antigen), all of which have differing binding affinities for it. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors are expressed mainly on mature B lymphocytes and their expression varies in dependence of B cell maturation (TACI is also found on a subset of T-cells and BCMA on plasma cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine proteinases have been recognized as playing an important role in inflammation via proteinase activated receptors (PARs). (hindawi.com)
  • Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) belong to a family of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains activated via proteolytic cleavage by serine proteinases [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, neoplastic B-lineage lymphocytes express not only BAFF but also the receptors for BAFF, which, when ligated, can promote their cell survival in vitro ( 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies establish a role for BAFF in localization and survival of multiple myeloma cells in the bone marrow microenvironment and strongly support novel therapeutics, targeting the interaction between BAFF and its receptors in human multiple myeloma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A431 cells, a human epidermoid carcinoma, possess specific [3H]platelet-activating factor (PAF) and [3H]WEB 2086 binding sites indicating the presence of PAF receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 14,15 We and others have shown that stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors effectively activates the Ca 2+ /calcineurin-dependent transcription factor NFAT in arterial smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16,17 More recently, we have shown that high glucose activates NFAT in intact arteries ex vivo by a mechanism involving the release of extracellular nucleotides (ie, UTP, UDP) acting on P2Y receptors, leading to increased intracellular Ca 2+ levels and subsequent activation of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Besides their capacity to respond to cytokines, ILCs detect their targets through a series of cell surface-activating receptors recognizing microbial and nonmicrobial ligands. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is commonly believed that these hypertrophy inducers activate phospholipase C (PLC) on binding to their G protein-coupled receptors, resulting in release of phosphoinositol from membrane phospholipids. (physiology.org)
  • ET-3-induced metabolism of phosphoinositides was inhibited completely in Kupffer cells pretreated with ET-3, suggesting homologous ligand-induced desensitization of the ET-3 receptors. (biochemj.org)
  • Expression of functional Toll-like receptors by salivary gland epithelial cells: increased mRNA expression in cells derived from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells did not adhere to immobilized von Willebrand factor and did not express receptors for von Willebrand factor suggesting that the stimulation of the mesenchymal stem cell adhesion is a result of endothelial cell activation with von Willebrand factor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During the past decades, extensive studies have shown how extracellular factors (neurotrophic or guidance), through their receptors and downstream signaling mediators, control axon assembly or pathfinding locally at the growth cone ( Lowery and Van Vactor, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These receptors recognize either engulfed DNA or RNA released from pathogens or neighboring dead cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have previously shown that tryptase increases human bladder microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 (iPLA 2 ) activity, resulting in the production of multiple biologically active phospholipid metabolites, including platelet-activating factor (PAF), that can mediate inflammation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that von Willebrand factor is an auto/paracrine regulator of endothelial cell adhesiveness and studied the effect of von Willebrand factor on adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells to endothelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell adhesion assay and protein kinase inhibitors were used to evaluate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the regulation of endothelial cell adhesiveness for mesenchymal stem cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of p38 MAPK in endothelial cells by von Willebrand factor is responsible for the regulation of endothelial cell adhesiveness for mesenchymal stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Angiogenic growth factor-induced endothelial cell migration is a key step towards tumor angiogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • The migration-stimulated caveolin rear translocation appears to play an important role in endothelial cell polarization and directional movement. (cdc.gov)
  • In the instant invention, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity through a mechanism other than preventing the formation of oxidative-LDL. (google.com)
  • As a result, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are useful in treating or preventing conditions that result from the abnormally low expression and/or activity of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase. (google.com)
  • administering to a nonhypercholesterolemic subject in need of such treatment a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject. (google.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 2 wherein the amount is sufficient to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity above normal baseline levels. (google.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 2 wherein the subject has a condition comprising an abnormally low level of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity which is hypoxia-induced. (google.com)
  • 14. A The method of claim 1 further comprising co-administering a nonHMG-CoA reductase inhibitor agent that increases endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.com)
  • In the instant invention, rho GTPase function inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.ca)
  • administering to a subject in need of such treatment a rho GTPase function inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject, provided that the rho GTPase function inhibitor is not an agent selected from the group consisting of a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, a protein kinase C inhibitor, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and cyclosporin. (google.ca)
  • 12. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering at least one different rho GTPase function inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject. (google.ca)
  • 13. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering an endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase substrate. (google.ca)
  • BAFF, the only ligand of BAFF-R, is secreted by cells of nonhematopoietic as well as of hematopoietic origin, including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and activated B cells ( 2 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this regard, the hypertensive bone marrow chimeras lacking Bcl10 on somatic cells have reduced cardiac accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes, both of which can promote tissue fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • BAFF is expressed predominantly by macrophages and dendritic cells and provides a key survival signal for the maturation of peripheral B cells ( 7 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proteinuria over time is also associated with a remarkable increase in NF-κB activity in proximal tubular cells, paralleled by upregulation of renal MCP-1 mRNA, heralding the local accumulation of monocytes, macrophages, and T cells ( 13 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The resulting T-cell hybridoma constitutively produced a lymphokine that activated murine macrophages to the tumoricidal state without the concomitant production of migration inhibition factor, colony-stimulating factor, or interferon. (elsevier.com)
  • We have reported that VEGF is remarkably expressed in activated macrophages, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells within human coronary atherosclerotic lesions, and we have proposed the significance of VEGF in the progression of atherosclerosis. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, Ox-LDL upregulates VEGF expression in macrophages and endothelial cells, at least in part, through the activation of PPARγ. (elsevier.com)
  • Produced by macrophages, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes, BAFF promotes the survival of B cells and is essential for B cell maturation. (thomassci.com)
  • Although this group may include a few cases of BTK deficiency ( 12 ), most B-lymphopenic patients have unknown defects, some of which may affect genes regulating early B-cell development and/or B-cell survival ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Signaling by TLR2 leads to an activation of nuclear transcription factor NF- κ B and an induction of NF- κ B-controlled genes such as Bcl-Xs, Bax, and Bad after its activation [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We defined the genomic regions occupied by endogenous and engineered NFAT1 in primary CD8(+) T cells and showed that genes directly induced by the engineered NFAT1 overlapped with genes expressed in exhausted CD8(+) T cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • For example, we have recently shown that primitive AML cells aberrantly express the tumor suppressor genes IRF1 (interferon regulatory factor 1) and DAPK (death-associated protein kinase). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Our results define the NF-kappa B system as an intermediate event in CD40 signaling and suggest that the CD40 pathway can influence the expression of B cell-associated genes with NF-kappa B consensus sites. (jimmunol.org)
  • Methods and Results- Genome-wide expression arrays were used to identify genes both (1) differentially activated in response to PDGF-BB and (2) whose differential expression was reduced by both the Cn inhibitor cyclosporin A and the NFAT inhibitor A-285222. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stat3 forms dimers when activated by tyrosine kinase signals and translocates to the nucleus to regulate expression of genes by binding to elements within promoters ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Due to the binding of NFATc1 and NFATc2 to the promoters of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-4, and IL-5 genes (i.e., the promoters of genes that are active either in Th1 or in Th2 cells), it has been assumed that NFATc1 and NFATc2 play an important role in driving naive T cells to effector Th1 and Th2 cells. (asm.org)
  • Like many other proinflammatory genes, MCP-1 and RANTES genes are controlled by the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ( 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Activated calcineurin dephosphorylates NFAT, allowing it to translocate to the nucleus and to bind response elements of genes critical for lymphocyte activation and regulation of immune function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • TNFα), growth factors (e.g., granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor), and pro-apoptotic genes (e.g. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is generally believed that the final decision for cell death or survival after irradiation is made based on the profile of IR-inducible genes (refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Upon phosphorylation by the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, IκBα is targeted for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, and released NF-κB dimers can translocate to the nucleus and activate transcription of target genes ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • As a very important transcription factor, MEF2A has an essential DNA-binding site in the MyoDa gene-control region and can activate many muscle-specific, growth factor-induced, and stress-induced genes [ 4 , 5 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Finally, exogenous PAF treatment increases cell permeability and upregulates the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium in primary chicken endothelial cells (chAEC). (frontiersin.org)
  • The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the expression of neurofilament and Thy-1 genes in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells was examined at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. (royalholloway.ac.uk)
  • This is the first molecular evidence for the reversible activation of neuron-specific genes during NGF-induced differentiation in PC12 cells. (royalholloway.ac.uk)
  • Overexpressing ERBB4 in cultured mammary epithelial cells or adding the ERBB4 ligand neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to breast cancer cell cultures promoted the expression of genes regulated by YAP, such as CTGF . (sciencemag.org)
  • We find that BAFF could enhance CLL-cell expression of c-MYC via activation the canonical IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Inhibition of the IKK/NF-κB pathway in mouse or human leukemia cells blocked the capacity of BAFF to induce c-MYC or promote leukemia-cell survival and significantly impaired disease progression in Myc/Baff Tg mice. (pnas.org)
  • Because Ph-positive ALL cells typically represent transformed pre-B cells that do not produce surface IgM, the BAFF-R/BAFF pathway would not be anticipated to play a role in their survival or growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A signal transduction pathway activated by many cytokines has recently been elaborated. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These studies suggest that p130Cas and HEF1-associated AND-34 may regulate B cell adhesion and motility through a Cdc42-mediated signaling pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • SMC phenotypic modulation is a critical event underlying atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis that involves several signaling cascades, such as the calcineurin (Cn)/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • have found one such mechanism-cross-talk between the alternative complement pathway and natural killer (NK) cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). (sciencemag.org)
  • They report that complement factor P (CFP), a positive regulator of the alternative complement pathway, binds NKp46, which is expressed on subsets of NK cells and ILC1 and ILC3. (sciencemag.org)
  • The calcineurin/NFAT3 pathway can be activated by classical hypertrophy inducers, including ANG II, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and catecholamines ( 27 , 49 ). (physiology.org)
  • Viral double-stranded RNA triggers Ig class switching by activating upper respiratory mucosa B cells through an innate TLR3 pathway involving BAFF. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is suggested that this factor acts through an alternative pathway of CTL activation which is independent of specific stimulation by antigen. (ubc.ca)
  • Here, we studied the effects of MEF2A on the senescent phenotype of vascular endothelial cells (VEC) and downstream signaling pathway, and the association between plasma MEF2A levels and coronary artery disease (CAD). (aging-us.com)
  • These results suggested that MEF2A can directly up-regulate PI3K gene expression, and one of the molecular mechanisms of delaying effect of MEF2A on VEC cell senescence was SIRT1-expression activation through the PI3K/p-Akt pathway. (aging-us.com)
  • Investigation into the signaling pathway for IL-1α expression in response to IL-1 revealed a requirement for reactive oxygen species and activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB. (arvojournals.org)
  • therefore, we asked if 8-NH 2 -Ado could kill breast cancer cells without activating the p53-pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly 8-NH 2 -Ado was highly cytotoxic to triple-negative breast cancer cells and worked through a pathway that did not require wild-type p53 for cytoxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It binds to coagulation factor VII (FVII) and its active form (FVIIa), thus initiating the coagulation cascade via the extrinsic pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies identified a G protein-coupled pathway for PAF induction of gene expression and transcription factor activation, which differs from the mechanisms employed by other immediate-early gene inducers. (springer.com)
  • This study identifies an ancillary, TNF-mediated pathway, whereby activated T cells can induce B cells to express enhanced levels of the important costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD54. (docphin.com)
  • Conclusions −These results suggest a novel 2-step pathway for increased tissue factor activity on smooth muscle cell surfaces in which lipoproteins regulate synthesis of a latent tissue factor and oxidants activate the protein complex. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tissue factor binding to factor VII is the first step in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • We found that ERBB4 activated the transcriptional coactivator YAP, which promotes organ and tissue growth and is inhibited by the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • B-cell activating factor (BAFF) also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF13B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • BAFF-R is involved in the positive regulation during B cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inadequate level of BAFF will fail to activate B cells to produce enough immunoglobulin and will lead to immunodeficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased levels of BAFF may initiate alloreactive B cell and T cell immunity, therefore may promote allograft rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyzing BAFF-R expression and BAFF-binding to B cells in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients, we identified two siblings carrying a homozygous deletion in the BAFF-R gene. (pnas.org)
  • Without BAFF-R, B-cell development is arrested at the stage of transitional B cells and the numbers of all subsequent B-cell stages are severely reduced. (pnas.org)
  • They also did not mount a T-independent immune response against pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharides but only one BAFF-R-deficient sibling developed recurrent infections. (pnas.org)
  • In BAFF-R-deficient mice, B cells develop normally up to the stage of IgM + immature/transitional B cells but cannot complete maturation in the spleen, as BAFF/BAFF-R-dependent survival signals are missing ( 5 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Searching for genetic defects affecting B-cell homeostasis, we identified two related individuals carrying the same homozygous deletion within the TNFRSF13C gene removing part of the BAFF-R transmembrane region. (pnas.org)
  • Human BAFF-R deficiency strongly impairs the development and homeostasis of follicular, IgM memory/marginal zone, and class-switched memory B cells. (pnas.org)
  • BAFF serum levels were analyzed in 14 patients with less than 3% B cells, BAFF-R surface expression in 40 additional patients and BAFF binding to B cells in 18 additional patients, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest that activated myeloid cells and BAFF prime B cells for significant CpG-specific activation. (nih.gov)
  • B - Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors - Pipeline Insights, 2017" provides in depth insights on the pipeline drugs and their development activities around the B - Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This report also provides detailed information on the discontinued and dormant drugs that have gone inactive over the years for B - Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This report also assesses the B - Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) Inhibitors therapeutics by Monotherapy, Combination products, Molecule type and Route of Administration. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • We found that male progeny of i Myc Cα mice mated with mice transgenic (Tg) for CD257 (B-cell activating factor, BAFF) developed CD5 + B-cell leukemia resembling human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which also displays a male gender bias. (pnas.org)
  • Surprisingly, leukemic cells of Myc/Baff Tg mice expressed higher levels of c-Myc than did B cells of i Myc Cα mice. (pnas.org)
  • We found that CLL cells of many patients with progressive disease also expressed high amounts of c-MYC, particularly CLL cells whose survival depends on nurse-like cells (NLC), which express high-levels of BAFF. (pnas.org)
  • BAFF belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family and either is displayed on the cell surface or is released in a soluble form after cleavage from the plasma membrane by a furin-like protease ( 15 , 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • BAFF is crucial for the survival, maturation, and differentiation of normal B cells ( 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • BAFF-R expression was reported to be restricted to more mature B cells, starting at the T1 transitional B-cell stage ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, BAFF-R is not present on murine pro-B or pre-B cells ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent studies have underscored the role of B-cell-activating factor (BAFF), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, in promoting the survival of malignant B cells, including human multiple myeloma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We here characterized the functional significance of BAFF in the interaction between multiple myeloma and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and further defined the molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BAFF secretion is 3- to 10-fold higher in BMSCs than in multiple myeloma cells, and tumor cell adhesion to BMSCs augments BAFF secretion by 2- to 5-fold, confirmed by both ELISA and immunoblotting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adhesion of MM1S and MCCAR multiple myeloma cell lines to KM104 BMSC line transfected with a luciferase reporter vector carrying the BAFF gene promoter (BAFF-LUC) significantly enhanced luciferase activity, suggesting that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation induced by multiple myeloma adhesion to BMSCs mediates BAFF up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • conversely, transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophylin ligand interactor-Ig or B-cell maturation antigen/Fc blocked BAFF stimulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using adenoviruses expressing dominant-negative and constitutively expressed AKT as well as NF-κB inhibitors, we further showed that BAFF-induced multiple myeloma cell adhesion is primarily mediated via activation of AKT and NF-κB signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, BAFF similarly increased adhesion of CD138-expressing patient multiple myeloma cells to BMSCs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequent studies found elevated BAFF secretion in autoimmune diseases ( 11 ) and many B-cell malignancies, including multiple myeloma ( 12 - 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, dysfunctional BAFF signaling occurs in many B-cell neoplasias with an autocrine loop stimulating tumor cell growth and survival ( 14 , 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • BAFF is present in multiple myeloma cells and in the serum derived from patients with multiple myeloma, suggesting an autocrine loop of stimulation from these tumor cells ( 13 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) plays a key role in promoting activation of autoimmune B cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Background: The B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) is upregulated in autoimmune diseases, but a number of conflicting results have cast doubts on the reliability of the ELISA protocols currently used for its quantification. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The first of these is referred to as BAFF, for B cell- a ctivating f actor of the tumor-necrosis factor f amily ( 1 ), and the second as APRIL, for a pr oliferation- i nducing l igand ( 2 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Soluble variants of BAFF are the major contributors of its activity, through regulating the survival of B cells ( 3 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Additional evidence that BAFF is involved in autoantibody production includes its upregulation by B-cell depletion in patients with RA ( 8 ), and the inverse correlation between serum concentrations of BAFF before depletion of B cells and the length of time before their return in the blood of patients with SS ( 9 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Also intriguing is that increased serum concentrations of BAFF have been associated with the production of rheumatoid factor (RF) by some ( 10 ) but not other( 11 ) authors, or with that of anti-DNA antibody by some ( 12 ) but not other ( 13 ) authors. (aaccjnls.org)
  • B-cell activating factor (BlyS), also known as BAFF, TALL-1, TNAK, and zTNF4, is a TNF ligand superfamily member and has been designated TNFSF13B. (thomassci.com)
  • July 23, 1987 DE-6(3/81) 11 ABSTRACT The maturation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effectors from CTL precursors (CTLp) requires specific signals mediated through cellular interactions and soluble factors. (ubc.ca)
  • abstract = "A method has been developed to measure the production by single activated T lymphocytes of two hemopoietic growth factors, granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) and multipotential CSF (multi-CSF or IL-3). (sdu.dk)
  • abstract = "IntroductionHypoxia can stimulate 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in cultured cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly, when cells were infected with the recombinant adenovirus expressing dominant negative mutant of the IkB kinase 2, a 55% inhibition of fractalkine mRNA was achieved. (asnjournals.org)
  • NF-κB plays a central role in the regulation of the immune system and several previously reported effects of barbiturates on the function of immune cells could be explained by inhibition of NF-κB. (aspetjournals.org)
  • DNA content analysis showed that NF-κB inhibition caused both cell death and G1-phase growth arrest. (rupress.org)
  • Previously we have shown that adhesiveness of endothelial cells for mesenchymal stem cells correlates with the inhibition of mitochondrial function of endothelial cells and secretion of von Willebrand factor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibition of p38 MAPK, but not ERK-1,2, in endothelial cells completely abrogated the stimulation of the mesenchymal stem cell adhesion by von Willebrand factor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell autophagy, by reduction of ATG7 or 3-methyladenine treatment, did not block this 8-NH 2 -Ado-mediated cytotoxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Active-site blockade, γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain truncation and a peptide mimic of the factor Xa inter-epidermal growth factor-like region prevented factor Xa inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-α release. (lenus.ie)
  • In this report, we describe the presence of constitutively activated STAT factors in peripheral blood cells from patients with acute leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Since the cells were not treated with cytokines before the nuclear proteins were extracted, we conclude that these factors are constitutively activated in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • AND-34, a novel GDP exchange factor, is expressed constitutively at significant levels in murine splenic B cells, but not in murine splenic T cells or thymocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • As previously reported for lymphoid cells transfected with constitutively active Cdc42, AND-34 overexpression inhibits SDF-1α-induced B cell polarization. (jimmunol.org)
  • We report here that ATF6 constitutively expressed as a 90-kDa protein (p90ATF6) is directly converted to a 50-kDa protein (p50ATF6) in ER-stressed cells. (psu.edu)
  • Also controls gene expression in embryonic cardiac cells. (rcsb.org)
  • In contrast, primary AML CD34 + cells display readily detectable NF-κB activity as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and gene expression studies. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We used oligonucleotide probes from the beta-casein and IRF-1 gene promoters and the ISRE probe to detect STAT proteins in nuclear extracts from acute leukemia cells in bandshift assays. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Specific DNA protein complex formation was observed with the probes from the beta-casein and IRF-1 gene promoters, but not with the ISRE oligonucleotide probe, when cell extracts from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were investigated. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFATC2IP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we used a genomics approach to identify and validate NFAT gene targets activated during platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced SMC phenotypic modulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In Arabidopsis , expression of the bZIP60 gene and cleavage of the bZIP60 protein are observed in anthers in the absence of stress treatment, suggesting that the ER stress response functions in the normal development of active secretory cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Protein overload is a promoter of fractalkine gene induction mediated by NF-κB and p38 activation in proximal tubular cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Understanding the molecular signaling network associated with the IR-induced adaptive response will provide essential information on specific gene/protein targets to resensitize radioresistant tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, major heterodimers of NF-κB p65 and p50, which are activated quickly following the phosphorylation and proteolysis of IκB ( 21 , 22 ), can function as pleiotropic gene regulators ( 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene expression profiling has revealed that diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) consists of at least two distinct diseases. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, prevention of MAPK nuclear translocation strongly inhibited Elk1‐dependent gene transcription and the ability of cells to reinitiate DNA replication in response to growth factors. (embopress.org)
  • Thus the relocalization of MAPK to the nucleus appears to be an important regulatory step for mitogen‐induced gene expression and cell cycle re‐entry. (embopress.org)
  • Treatment of endothelial cells with von Willebrand factor activated ERK-1,2 and p38 MAPK without an effect on gene or cell surface expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, VCAM1 and ICAM1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that activated B-cell factor-1 (ABF-1) binds to this site in vitro and suppresses reporter gene expression, but only in the presence of the LTA+80A allele. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results relate the progression of infection to cell cycle phases, and define a precise temporal order of viral gene expression. (nature.com)
  • Gene and siRNA transfection was used to enforce TF expression in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line and to silence endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma line, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of TF, Bcl-2, STAT5, and Akt as well as the phosphorylation of STAT5 and Akt in gene transfected cells or cells treated with JAK inhibitor and LY294002 were determined by Western blot assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, mutant ATF6 representing the cytoplasmic region translocates into the nucleus and activates transcription of the endogenous GRP78/BiP gene. (psu.edu)
  • Rosen, C. A. and Mackman, N. (1994) Lipopolysaccharide induction of tissue factor gene expression in monocytic cells is mediated by binding of c-Rel/p65 heterodimers to a kappa B-like site. (springer.com)
  • These gene activation events were independent of overt morphological differentiation of PC12 cells occurring both under conditions permissive and non-permissive for neurite outgrowth, and once established the new molecular phenotype was dependent upon the continued presence of NGF. (royalholloway.ac.uk)
  • Donor-specific antibodies bind with high affinity to the vascular endothelium of graft and activate complement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we sought to determine whether hyperglycemia activates NFAT in vivo and whether this leads to vascular complications. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the context of vascular remodeling, soluble factors, cytokines, hormones, and extracellular nucleotides have been shown to induce OPN expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18 Elevated extracellular glucose levels have also been shown to induce OPN expression in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is importantly implicated in pathological cardiac remodeling and vascular lesion formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The phospholipid platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a pro-inflammatory lipid mediator which participates in vascular- and innate immunity-associated processes by increasing vascular permeability, by facilitating leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium, and by contributing to phagocyte activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • They include agents like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and blood vessel fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moreover, specific interaction of the cytoplasmic domain of TF with actin-binding protein-280 (ABP-280) has been shown to mediate tumor cell metastasis and vascular remodeling in human bladder carcinoma cells [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) biosynthesis in vascular endothelial cells has been reported to play an obligatory role in promoting angiogenesis. (docphin.com)
  • Bone marrow stromal cells support leukemic cell growth by the production of soluble factors such as CXCL12, interleukin-7, and Wnt proteins, as well as via cell-cell adhesion mediated by molecules such as VLA-4/VCAM1 ( 6 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • STAT5- and STAT1-related factors were detected in ALL and STAT1-, STAT3-, and STAT5-related proteins were present in nuclear cell extracts from AML. (bloodjournal.org)
  • PT treatment of A431 cell membranes obliterated PAF-stimulated GTPase and indicated that PT-insensitive membrane-associated G-proteins were not involved in PAF actions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In alpha-toxin permeabilized cells, PT blocked GTP-gamma-S potentiation of PLC activation by PAF, thus suggesting that PT-insensitive G-proteins were not involved in PAF activation of PLC in A431 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PAF also activated the phosphorylation of pp60c-src and Src associated proteins in A431 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Proteins involved in cell cycling have also been identified as NFAT dependent. (ahajournals.org)
  • Proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells must be folded correctly before translocation out of the ER. (plantcell.org)
  • Secretory proteins are synthesized and folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. (plantcell.org)
  • In addition, EGFR phosphorylation and shedding of the membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (pro-HB-EGF) ectodomain, as well as a rapid activation/phosphorylation of the classical survival proteins ERK, P70S6K and rS6 were induced upon sPLA2-IIA treatment. (csic.es)
  • The present results suggest that the stimulatory effects of ET-3 and PAF on the phosphodiesteric metabolism of phosphoinositides in Kupffer cells require different guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins. (biochemj.org)
  • Their nuclear translocation and activity is controlled by the Ca 2+ -calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin that binds to and dephosphorylates the N-terminal portion of NFAT proteins upon T-cell activation ( 12 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Among cellular mechanisms that may underlie interstitial inflammation, it has been suggested that abnormally filtered proteins may have intrinsic renal toxicity and may serve as an early fosterer in tubular cells by activating the synthesis of vasoactive and proinflammatory substances ( 2 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Evidence in chronic nephropathy induced by renal mass reduction and in passive Heymann nephritis in rats revealed that excess uptake of plasma proteins in proximal tubular cells precedes because the early stage is subsequently associated with an inflammatory reaction ( 12 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Given the fact that epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important mitogen for hepatocytes we searched for disease regulated proteins to improve an understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of EGF induced HCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins of HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line with artesunate (ART) treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • The effect of hypoxia on FDG uptake, and key proteins involved in glucose transport and glycolysis, was studied in MCF7 and MDA231 breast cancer cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • Molecular analysis indicated that hypoxia upregulated glut1 and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, key proteins involved in regulating glucose transport and glycolysis, and that these changes were induced by Hypoxia-Inducible factor 1 (HIF1) upregulation and/or AMP-activated protein kinase activation. (elsevier.com)
  • A better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism is required to determine the value of FDG for studying tumour hypoxia.MethodsThe effect of hypoxia on FDG uptake, and key proteins involved in glucose transport and glycolysis, was studied in MCF7 and MDA231 breast cancer cell lines.ResultsHypoxia induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in FDG uptake. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we generated a series of domain deletion mutants of caveolin-1 as GFP-fusion proteins and investigated domain or sequence that was required for caveolin-1 polarization in migrating cells. (cdc.gov)
  • MCP2 and CCL7 are two monocyte chemotactic proteins produced by human MG63 osteosarcoma cells. (thomassci.com)
  • Moreover, a decreased phosphorylation of the growth factor signaling kinases Akt, mTOR, and ERK was evident and an increased phosphorylation of JNK was observed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Further irradiation with 30 fractions of radiation also inhibited MEK/ERK phosphorylation in paired cell lines of MCF+FIR and parental MCF-7 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both p42 and p44MAPK are activated by dual phosphorylation on a threonine and a tyrosine residue, achieved by the dual‐specificity kinase MKK1/2. (embopress.org)
  • In mammalian cells, inactivation of MAPK is achieved by a family of dual‐specificity MAPK phosphatases which target the two critical phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of MAPK ( Keyse, 1998 ). (embopress.org)
  • AMPK can be activated by AMP binding or phosphorylation by other kinases like liver kinase B1 or Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β ( 13 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In accordance with this report, an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and VEGF biosynthesis was observed in ECV304 cells cultured in hypoxia, and this increase was blocked by PD98059. (docphin.com)
  • LSCs are sufficient to perpetuate human leukemic cell growth in long-term culture assays and in the murine nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency model system. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Overexpression of AND-34 in murine B cell lines activates the Rho family GTPase Cdc42, but not Rac, Rho, RalA, or Rap1. (jimmunol.org)
  • Paper II: Calcineurin-dependent NFAT isoforms are activated in the myocardium of aortic stenosis patients and their activation is reversed by relief of pressure overload in a murine model of reverse remodeling Ida G. Lunde, Biljana Skrbic, Theis Tønnessen, Heidi Kvaløy, Ulla H. Enger, Ivar Sjaastad, Geir Christensen, Cathrine R. Carlson. (uio.no)
  • B cell-activating factor (BCAF) has been characterized and partially purified from the supernatant of the murine tumor T cell line 373. (pasteur.fr)
  • Because matrilysin is produced in Paneth cells of the murine small intestine, where it participates in innate host defense by activation of prodefensins, we speculated that its expression would be influenced by bacterial exposure. (rupress.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that the transcription factor NFAT controls the program of T cell exhaustion. (nih.gov)
  • Our data show that NFAT promotes T cell anergy and exhaustion by binding at sites that do not require cooperation with AP-1. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, we reported that high glucose activates the Ca 2+ /calcineurin-dependent transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in arteries ex vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • The NFAT family consists of four members (NFATc1-c4) originally described in T cells but later also demonstrated in cells outside the immune system. (ahajournals.org)
  • In human aortic SMCs, platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-mediated induction of cyclin D1 was attenuated by inhibitors of Cn/NFAT signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Paper I: Angiotensin II and norepinephrine activate specific calcineurin-dependent NFAT transcription factor isoforms in cardiomyocytes Ida G. Lunde, Heidi Kvaløy, Bjørg Austbø, Geir Christensen, Cathrine R. Carlson. (uio.no)
  • In peripheral T lymphocytes, NFATc1 and NFATc2 are the most abundant NFAT factors. (asm.org)
  • Comparable to CsA, MCV1 prevents NFAT activation at nanomolar potency without impairing calcineurin phosphatase activity, nuclear factor-κB nuclear import, and general cell signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, CsA but not MCV1-activated basal level extracellular signal-regulated kinases activity and prevented nuclear import of calcineurin, independent of NFAT activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In vivo MCV1 abrogated NFAT-mediated T-cell activation in a model of PMA-elicited peritonitis, whereas topical application of MCV1 markedly reduced neointima formation in a mouse model of restenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • We provide evidence that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), an essential transcription factor in T cell activation, is a target of barbiturate-mediated immunosuppression in human T lymphocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, barbiturates suppressed the calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT in intact T cells and also inhibited the enzymatic activity of calcineurin in a cell-free system, excluding upstream regulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although the current experiments do not pinpoint in vivo the precise cell lineage in the heart responsible for these effects, the authors find that knocking down Bcl10 in endothelial cells in vitro blunts Ang II-induced adhesion of monocytes to the endothelium. (ahajournals.org)
  • The conversion of latent TGF-β1 into its biologically active 25kDa form is thought to be an important step in the regulation of TGF-β activity both in cell culture and in vivo . (portlandpress.com)
  • We conclude that TSP-1, either alone or in the presence of cultured smooth-muscle cells (a cell type known to activate latent TGF-β in vitro and in vivo ) is unable to activate latent TGF-β1. (portlandpress.com)
  • We also found that TNF-α promoted the interaction between PIKE-A and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to suppress its kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whole blood from 11 RA patients and six healthy volunteers was incubated ex vivo with MTX, PT523, ZD1694 and, as a control, the DMARD sulphasalazine (SSZ) after T-cell stimulation with α-CD3/CD28. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an ex vivo setting, two novel anti-folate drugs designed to circumvent MTX resistance proved to be very effective in inhibiting TNF-α production by activated T cells from RA patients and healthy volunteers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mast cell activation in vivo is often associated with areas of oedema and connective-tissue degradation. (wiley.com)
  • Since the mechanisms of MMP activation in vivo are poorly understood we have examined the potential of mast cell proteinases to activate the precursor forms of human collagenase (MMP-1), stromelysin (MMP-3), gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9). (wiley.com)
  • Understanding the signals required to mediate efficient CpG-induced, antigen-independent and T-cell independent activation of B cells has implications for polyclonal B cell activation and the development of autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Mice bearing a v-Myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog ( c-Myc ) transgene controlled by an Ig-alpha heavy-chain enhancer (i Myc Cα mice) rarely develop lymphomas but instead have increased rates of memory B-cell turnover and impaired antibody responses to antigen. (pnas.org)
  • During persistent antigen stimulation, CD8(+) T cells show a gradual decrease in effector function, referred to as exhaustion, which impairs responses in the setting of tumors and infections. (nih.gov)
  • However, in the absence of mitogen or antigen stimulation, IL-2 alone cannot induce CTL (except in the case of very high cell density). (ubc.ca)
  • Expression of immune accessory molecules, such as CD80 (B7-1), on antigen-presenting cells governs whether such cells can activate antigen-specific T cells. (docphin.com)
  • As such, the factors that regulate the expression of these accessory molecules may determine whether presentation of antigen leads to immune activation or anergy. (docphin.com)
  • Since MAPK has been shown to phosphorylate and activate nuclear targets, such as the transcription factor Elk1, it has been proposed, but not yet demonstrated, that MAPK nuclear translocation could represent a critical step in signal transduction. (embopress.org)
  • We used Affymetrix DNA microarrays, human protein phospho-MAPK array, Western blot, cell-based ELISA and flow cytometry analysis to study the activation of endothelial cells by von Willebrand factor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These dada provide the first direct evidence for a role of p38 MAPK in mediating hypoxia-induced increase in VEGF biosynthesis in human endothelial cells. (docphin.com)
  • Quercetin disrupts tyrosine-phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and myeloid differentiation factor-88 association, and inhibits MAPK/AP-1 and IKK/NF-κB-induced inflammatory mediators production in RAW 264.7 cells. (lenus.ie)
  • In conclusion, thrombin and trypsin can induce TNF release from IL-4+ and CD25+ T cells through activation of PAR-1 and therefore contribute to regulation of immune response and inflammation of the body. (hindawi.com)
  • Significantly, p130Cas promotes cell migration in a process dependent on Rac but not Ras, although the precise mechanism by which p130Cas complexes induce Rac activation remains unclear ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Even then, corneal stasis may remain undisturbed, as corneal stromal cells are resistant to stimuli that would induce cells from other tissues to enter the cell cycle and initiate a fibrotic response. (arvojournals.org)
  • We previously reported that anti-CD3-activated T cells (Ta) can induce expression of CD80 and CD54 (ICAM-1) on human B cells through a contact-dependent signal delivered to the CD40 molecule via the CD40 ligand. (docphin.com)
  • Moreover, soluble, recombinant TNF-alpha or TNF-beta can induce significant increases in B cell expression of CD80 and CD54. (docphin.com)
  • Bacteria did not induce matrilysin in other cell types, and expression of other metalloproteinases by epithelial cells was not affected by bacteria. (rupress.org)
  • We therefore sought to determine whether CS stimulates pneumococcal adhesion to airway cells. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion CSE stimulates PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion to lower airway epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • A growth factor produced by the cell that stimulates the same cell to grow. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Smith, TAD, Zanda, M & Fleming, IN 2013, ' Hypoxia stimulates 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in breast cancer cells via hypoxia inducible factor-1 and AMP-activated protein kinase ', Nuclear Medicine and Biology , vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 858-864. (elsevier.com)
  • Using NSCLC cell lines, we evaluated how pStat3 expression relates to EGFR mutations and sensitivity of cells to gefitinib. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell lines with mutant EGFR have increased levels of pStat3 compared with cell lines without mutant EGFR and this correlates with their sensitivity to gefitinib. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We further demonstrated that the presence of an EGFR inhibitor (AG1478), a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (GM6001), an ADAM inhibitor (TAPI-1), and a HB-EGF neutralizing antibody abrogated the phenotype of activated microglia induced by the sPLA2-IIA. (csic.es)
  • Treatment of cells with EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, significantly blocked the PA-induced enhancement of NOX activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results suggest that VLDL may promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions by activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that Src kinase activation enhances the response of epithelial cells to TNF-alpha leading to increased invasion through mechanisms that involve production of reactive oxygen intermediates. (nih.gov)
  • Results showed the redox activation of MAP kinases down regulated the mRNA levels of AP-1 subunits in aqueous areca nut extract treated cells. (springer.com)
  • Chang MC et al (2004) The induction of prostaglandin E2 production, interleukin-6 production, cell cycle arrest, and cytotoxicity in primary oral keratinocytes and KB cancer cells by areca nut ingredients is differentially regulated by MEK/ERK activation. (springer.com)
  • 7 Thus, NF-κB activation by the CARMA3 CBM signalosome in endothelial cells may facilitate recruitment of profibrotic inflammatory cells into the heart during hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Role of guanine nucleotide-binding protein and tyrosine kinase in platelet-activating factor activation of phospholipase C in A431 cells: proposal for dual mechanisms. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Unlike heat shock, activation of HSF by either hypo- or hyper-osmotic stress did not lead to an accumulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in HeLa cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Any TSP-mediated activation of TGF-β1 must depend on additional factor(s) not present in our systems. (portlandpress.com)
  • These acetylenic compounds were found to cause a time-dependent increase in activation of apoptotic signaling involving cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP, as well as apoptotic cell morphology in NSCLC cells, but not in normal fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine inducers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy such as angiotensin II (ANG II) and serves as an important molecular regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
  • They are involved in the activation of T cells by controlling the transcription of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and further lymphokine promoters. (asm.org)
  • We have previously reported that activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is causally associated with the enhanced cell survival of MCF+FIR cells derived from breast cancer MCF-7 cells after chronic exposure to fractionated ionizing radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that NF-κB inhibits ERK activation to enhance cell survival during the development of tumor adaptive radioresistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases [i.e., extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK), and p38], which all are closely related with NF-κB activation, are also involved in the radiation response ( 26 - 28 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • B-cell-activating factor expressions in salivary epithelial cells after dsRNA virus infection depends on RNA-activated protein kinase activation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The role of viruses in autoreactive B cell activation within tertiary lymphoid structures in autoimmune diseases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activation of ECs under stress conditions occurs rapidly and results in massive release of von Willebrand factor (vWF) from intracellular storage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and high-molecular-weight kininogen, also called Fitzgerald , Flaujeac , or Williams factor , or contact activation cofactor . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Deletion of the C-terminal cysteine cluster or mutation of the cysteine residues abolishes or markedly reduces the transcription activation activity of MTF1 and the ability of MTF1 to restore Mt1 induction in Mtf1 knockout cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, factor Xa inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B activation in THP-1 reporter cells, requiring phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase activity for its anti-inflammatory effect. (lenus.ie)
  • Dröge, W. and Baeuerle, R A. (1992) Dithiocarbamates as potent inhibitors of nuclear factor KB activation in intact cells. (springer.com)
  • Since we have no evidence that mast cells express these four metalloenzymes, the release of mast cell serine proteinases following activation/degranulation could contribute to local metalloproteinase activation and subsequent matrix degradation. (wiley.com)
  • Secreted phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), an enzyme that interacts with cells involved in the systemic immune/inflammatory response, has been found up-regulated in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain of AD patients. (csic.es)
  • which are specialized defense cells that secrete defensins, lysozyme, phospholipase A2, and other antimicrobial molecules ( Ouellette 1997 ). (rupress.org)
  • Expression of calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 in testis of rats with chronic fluorosis]. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Cells respond to high osmolarity via the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT5). (uzh.ch)
  • The action of hydrogen peroxide did not involve a regulatory mechanism associated with the cytoplasmic tail of tissue factor because a truncated tissue factor lacking the cytoplasmic tail was activated by hydrogen peroxide. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, no change in the activity associated with small latent TGF-β1 was noted in either mink lung epithelial cell or rat aortic smooth-muscle cell culture systems in the presence of TSP-1 (or TSP-1-derived peptides). (portlandpress.com)
  • Positive staining for cytokeratin 7 (a) and cytokeratin 19 (b) and the absence of staining with cytokeratin 20 (c) indicates the specificity of ductal epithelial cell origin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, injection of triglycerides (10% Intralipid, 5 mL/kg) activated arterial expression of NF-kappaB to the same extent as VLDL. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, trypsin- and thrombin-induced upregulated expression of TNF was observed in CD4+, IL-4+, or CD25+ T cells, but not in IFN+ or IL-17+ T cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In our previous study [ 12 ], we have showed the expression of PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-3 on T cells, and thrombin-, trypsin-, and tryptase-induced interleukin (IL-6) release from T cells. (hindawi.com)
  • While IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA expression was also enhanced in lymph node cells from the lungs of infected NFATc2 −/− mice, the number of T cells secreting Th2-type lymphokines remained the same in mice infected with N. brasiliensis . (asm.org)
  • Investigated was the effect of high albumin concentrations on proximal tubular cell expression of fractalkine. (asnjournals.org)
  • Fractalkine expression was also induced in tubular epithelial cells in this model. (asnjournals.org)
  • Given that epidermal growth factor is an important mitogen for hepatocytes we were particularly interested in an understanding of the consequences of its targeted over-expression in liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results showed that MEF2A silencing promoted cell senescence and down-regulated PI3K/p-AKT/Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression. (aging-us.com)
  • Freshly isolated cultures of corneal stromal cells (keratocytes) are incompetent to synthesize the tissue remodeling proteinase, collagenase, in response to agents such as cytochalasin B (CB) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which are strong stimulators of collagenase expression in subcultured fibroblasts of all types, including those from corneal stroma. (arvojournals.org)
  • Failure to activate NF-κB explains incompetence for expression of IL-1α in corneal stromal cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Enforced expression of TF in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line in the presence of FVIIa induced upregulation of Bcl-2, leading to resistance to doxorubicin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In these malignancies, TF is expressed either by the tumor cells themselves or the adjacent stromal cells, and expression of TF has been shown to correlate with malignant grade, metastasis, and poor prognosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PDGFRα expression identified megakaryocytes, endosteal and endothelial cells while PDGFRβ was virtually absent from inter-trabecular spaces in normal marrow. (elsevier.com)
  • Activated fibroblasts characteristic for MF intensely expressed PDGFRβ but only a moderate increase in PDGFRα expression was seen. (elsevier.com)
  • Neutralizing mAbs specific for TNF-alpha can inhibit B cell expression of CD80 or CD54 that is induced when B cells are cultured with Ta cells or in Ta-cell conditioned media. (docphin.com)
  • PPARγ expression was detected in human monocyte/macrophage cell lines, human acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells, and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). (elsevier.com)
  • The mRNA expression of VEGF in THP-1 cells and HCAECs was also augmented by PPARγ activators, troglitazone (TRO), and 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 (PGJ2). (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, VEGF expression in another monocyte/macrophage cell line, human histiocytic lymphoma cells (U937), which lacks PPARγ expression, was not augmented by TRO or PGJ2. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings indicate that bacterial exposure is a potent and physiologically relevant signal regulating matrilysin expression in epithelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • These observations prompted us to study if the interaction of bacteria with host cells regulates the expression of matrilysin. (rupress.org)
  • Tissue factor expression on the smooth muscle cell surface could be of pathological significance as a contributor to plaque growth, thrombus formation, and the acute coronary syndrome after plaque rupture. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 4 5 In addition, SMC in arteries of normolipemic rats upregulate tissue factor expression within 2 to 6 hours after balloon injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 SMC expression of tissue factor may thus be important in disease complications. (ahajournals.org)
  • however, little is known about the effects of the lesion constituents, LDL, and reactive oxygen species on tissue factor expression in these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • To understand further the regulation of tissue factor in SMC, we investigated the effects of LDL and hydrogen peroxide on the surface expression and activity of tissue factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • Knocking down YAP or ERBB4 prevented the induction of CTGF expression by NRG1, as did treating cells with the ERBB inhibitors lapatinib or erlotinib, which reduced ERBB4 cleavage. (sciencemag.org)
  • MARVAngola rGPdTM is produced in Sf9 insect cells using baculovirus for expression and is purified by FPLC. (thomassci.com)
  • In nonimmune cells, CARMA3 substitutes for CARMA1 in the CBM signalosome, but either of these CARMAs must complex with Bcl10 to trigger the NF-κB inflammatory signaling cascade. (ahajournals.org)
  • Other cytokines (i.e., insulin-like growth factor-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and hepatocyte growth factor) similarly provide stimulatory signals for multiple myeloma growth and survival ( 2 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tryptase released from elevated numbers of activated mast cells is a proposed mediator of the inflammatory process in IC. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In response to a variety of insults, microglial cells produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines that are often involved in neuronal injury, and play an important role in the recognition, engulfment, and clearance of apoptotic cells and/or invading microbes. (csic.es)
  • The hallmarks of activated microglia analyzed include: mitogenic response, phagocytic capabilities and induction of inflammatory mediators. (csic.es)
  • The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dapsone on bone marrow cells (BMs), especially upon exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (vetsci.org)
  • Interestingly, dapsone modulated the inflammatory cells, including granulocytes in LPS-treated BMs, by inducing cell death. (vetsci.org)
  • This study confirmed that dapsone has anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-mediated inflammation via modulation of the number and function of inflammatory cells, providing new and useful information for clinicians and researchers. (vetsci.org)
  • ECs show limited adhesiveness for cells circulating in the bloodstream, however, they became activated after exposure to inflammatory or stress factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among these molecules, the phospholipid platelet-activating factor (PAF) potent pro-inflammatory lipid mediator. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate whether two new-generation anti-folate drugs, PT523 (DHFR-inhibitor) and ZD1694 (TS-inhibitor), have equal or better anti-inflammatory capacity compared with MTX based on their capacity to inhibit tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production by activated T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These factors are active in healing wounds, chronic inflammatory conditions, retrolental fibroplasia, and malignant tumors, which require new blood vessels for continued growth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we show that VLDL (75 to 150 microg/mL) activates nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor known to play a key role in regulation of inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Since PARs, TNF, and T cells all play roles in inflammation, we believe, there must be some linkages between them. (hindawi.com)
  • Fractalkine might contribute to direct mononuclear cells into peritubular interstitium and enhance their adhesion property, which in turn would favor inflammation and disease progression. (asnjournals.org)
  • Inflammation is a complex and a tightly coordinated biological process driven by a wide array of cells and chemical mediators ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Zimmerman, G. A., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1992) Platelet-activating factor: a fluid-phase and cell-associated mediator of inflammation. (springer.com)
  • Oxidation of VLDL reduced its capacity to activate NF-kappaB in vitro, whereas free fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acid activated NF-kappaB to the same extent as did VLDL. (nih.gov)
  • The invasive potential of these cells was determined by measuring cell motility and using an in vitro invasion assay. (nih.gov)
  • Figure 1 shows that prior to infection, T cells from the mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN), mesenteric lymph nodes (MESLN), and spleens of both types of mice secreted no or only very low amounts of IL-4 and IL-5 after in vitro stimulation with anti-CD3 (α-CD3) antibodies (Abs) and IL-2 (for descriptions of cell preparations and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs], see reference 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Dependent on cell surface tissue factor activity, M24met cells generate thrombin in vitro. (scripps.edu)
  • It is expressed as a membrane-bound type II transmembrane protein on various cell types including monocytes, dendritic cells and bone marrow stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple myeloma is a clonal B-cell malignancy characterized by accumulation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow in close contact with stromal cells, which secrete factors/cytokines, promoting tumor cell growth and survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A cell culture model of freshly isolated corneal stromal cells and subcultured stromal fibroblasts from rabbits was used for these studies. (arvojournals.org)
  • Competence to synthesize collagenase in response to CB was acquired as a differentiation property by corneal stromal cells placed in culture, and did not require subculture. (arvojournals.org)
  • Importantly, freshly isolated stromal cells were found to be relatively incompetent to activate NF-κB in comparison to subcultured stromal fibroblasts. (arvojournals.org)
  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) 1 of the corneal stroma undergoes an unusually slow rate of turnover and remodeling, and the stromal cells, or" keratocytes" replicate at a very slow rate. (arvojournals.org)
  • In B cell lines, anti-IgM treatment up-regulates AND-34 transcript levels. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our present study investigates the possible mechanism by which the interaction between TF and FVIIa regulates chemotherapy resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its transcript is translated into a type III transmembrane protein of 184 aa residues expressed by all surface Ig + B cells but not by plasma cells ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • We report here that bZIP60, an Arabidopsis thaliana basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor with a transmembrane domain, is involved in the ER stress response. (plantcell.org)
  • ARTICLE{Haze99mammaliantranscription, author = {Kyosuke Haze and Hiderou Yoshida and Hideki Yanagi and Takashi Yura and Kazutoshi Mori}, title = {Mammalian transcription factor ATF6 is synthesized as a transmembrane protein and activated by proteolysis in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress}, journal = {Mol. (psu.edu)
  • It is controversial whether naïve B cells are directly activated in response to TLR9 ligand, CpG ODN. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate that another molecule in the CD40-ligand family, namely tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), also plays a role in the Ta-mediated induction of CD80 or CD54 on human B cells. (docphin.com)
  • Both the frequency of CSF-producing cells and the average production per positive cell depended on the density of the immobilized stimulating ligand, indicating that the response of each cell is not an all-or-none phenomenon but varies with the strength of stimulation. (sdu.dk)
  • B cell AND-34 associates with both the docking molecules p130Cas and HEF1. (jimmunol.org)
  • p130Cas and HEF1 are a structurally related pair of such docking molecules that localize to the focal adhesion complex, assembling members of adhesion and growth factor-related signaling cascades ( 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In particular, growth factors and bioactive molecules derived from activated platelets emerged as promising therapeutic agents acting as trigger for repair of tissue lesions and restoration of tissue functions. (deepdyve.com)
  • These molecules are rapidly biosynthesized by myeloid and epithelial cells within seconds to minutes of acute stimulation of different origins ( 1 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon challenging Kupffer cells with both ET-3 and PAF, an additive stimulation of phosphoinositide metabolism was observed, suggesting that the actions of these factors may be exerted on separate phosphoinositide pools. (biochemj.org)
  • In contrast to the increased production of prostaglandins E2 and D2 observed upon stimulation of Kupffer cells with PAF, ET-3 stimulated the biosynthesis of prostaglandin E2 only. (biochemj.org)
  • In mammalian cells, mitogenic stimulation triggers the translocation of p42/p44MAPK from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, whereas the other protein kinases of the module remain cytosolic. (embopress.org)
  • The absence of staining for myeloperoxidase (MPO) (d), CD45 (e), CD20 (f), CD3 (g) and smooth muscle actin (h) before (subpanels 1 in (d-h)) and after (subpanels 2 in (d-h)) stimulation with IFN-α excludes the possibility of contamination with myeloid cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Addition of NGF to cultured PC12 cells produced increases in mRNAs corresponding to the 68 kd neurofilament protein (NF68) and the Thy-1 glycoprotein within 24 h, with maximal effects of some 90- and 45-fold stimulation (relative to beta-actin mRNA) being observed after 12 and 4 days of treatment, respectively. (royalholloway.ac.uk)
  • Calcium binds calmodulin and this complex activates calcineurin. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • AND-34 binds by its GDP exchange factor domain to the C terminus of HEF1, a region of HEF1 previously implicated in apoptotic, adhesion, and cell cycle-regulated signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • NRG1 stimulated YAP activity to an extent comparable to that of EGF (epidermal growth factor) or LPA (lysophosphatidic acid), known activators of YAP. (sciencemag.org)
  • LPS distinctly activated BMs with several characteristics including high cellular activity, granulocyte changes, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production increases. (vetsci.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha facilitates induction of CD80 (B7-1) and CD54 on human B cells by activated T cells: complex regulation by IL-4, IL-10, and CD40L. (docphin.com)
  • In particular, it is critical to understand how malignant stem cells regulate growth and survival. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The B cell-associated surface molecule CD40 functions to regulate B cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Specific TLR ligands regulate APRIL secretion by dendritic cells in a PKR-dependent manner. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This interaction triggers signals essential for the formation and maintenance of B cell, thus it is important for a B-cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20 Importantly, the active form of NF-κB is known to have antiapoptotic activity and is thereby considered to be a key survival factor for several types of cancer. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Subset-specific transplanted cells were correlated with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), chronic GVHD (cGVHD), malignant disease relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and overall survival. (osu.edu)
  • One such mechanism may include adhesion of MSCs to distressed/apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, 8-NH 2 -Ado caused the MDA-MB-231 cells to detach from the plate with only limited evidence of apoptotic cell death markers and the cell death was not inhibited by Z-VAD. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of doxorubicin on neuroblastoma cell lines was analyzed by WST assay and annexin-V staining (by flow cytometry) respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ratio of GTPases in these two conformations is regulated by GDP exchange factors (GEFs), enzymes that catalyze release of GDP, allowing the more abundant intracellular GTP to bind and activate the GTPase. (jimmunol.org)
  • 4 In lymphocytes, the CBM signalosome includes caspase recruitment domain 11 (CARMA1), B cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (Bcl10), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1. (ahajournals.org)
  • During homing mesenchymal stem cells adhere to endothelial cells and infiltrate underlying tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are purported to degrade almost all connective tissue elements and are secreted by cells in the form of inactive precursors. (wiley.com)
  • The human melanoma cell line M24met expresses tissue factor, the cellular initiator of the blood coagulation cascade. (scripps.edu)
  • Background −Tissue factor, which is required for the initiation of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, is known to be upregulated in cells within atherosclerotic lesions, including smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods and Results −In this study, we show that LDL increased tissue factor mRNA and cell surface protein in smooth muscle cells without a marked increase in surface tissue factor activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hydrogen peroxide activated tissue factor on the cell surface but did not increase tissue factor mRNA or cell surface protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interest in the role that tissue factor expressed by smooth muscle cells (SMC) may play in atherosclerotic lesion growth, restenosis after angioplasty, and acute coronary syndrome has been heightened by multiple observations. (ahajournals.org)
  • Wilcox et al 1 showed that tissue factor is expressed by mesenchymal cells in the SMC-rich media of carotid endarterectomy specimens 1 but not in the media of normal vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • This appeared plausible due to many previous reports describing active NF-κB in various malignant cell types, including primary lymphoid leukemia specimens. (bloodjournal.org)
  • While Ras plays a role in T cell development and T cell anergy, Rho family members, particularly Cdc42, have been linked to the establishment of lymphoid cell polarization and cell migration ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are involved in immune responses to microbes and various stressed cells, such as tumor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • also known as B lymphocyte stimulator), a CD40L-related molecule produced by myeloid cells, was identified as a critical factor in normal B-cell development and homeostasis ( 7 - 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Negative staining with myeloperoxydase (MPO) (k) and CD45 (l) excludes the possibility of contamination with myeloid cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have demonstrated previously that an exposure of mammalian cells to hypo-osmotic stress, either in growth medium (30% growth medium and 70% water) or in binary solution containing sorbitol and water, prominently induced the DNA-binding activity of the heat-shock transcription factor (HSF1) [Huang, Caruccio, Liu and Chen (1995) Biochem. (portlandpress.com)
  • Cleavage of bZIP60 is independent of the function of Arabidopsis homologs of mammalian S1P and S2P proteases, which mediate the proteolytic cleavage of the mammalian transcription factor ATF6. (plantcell.org)
  • The signal transduction mechanism that triggers the ER stress response has been characterized extensively in yeast and mammalian cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Both genomic instability and by-stander effects are known to modulate cell radiosensitivity with alterations in the mammalian genome, as well as cell phenotypes ( 1 , 2 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In mammalian cells, three well‐characterized modules co‐exist: p42/p44MAPK, p38MAPK and JNK cascades (for a review see Cano and Mahadevan, 1995 ). (embopress.org)
  • We recently isolated ATF6 as a candidate for mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor. (psu.edu)
  • Tryptase and chymase are the major serine proteinases released by mast cells, but they appear to have little activity on most components of the extracellular matrix. (wiley.com)
  • Proteinase inhibitors and PAR-1 antagonist SCH 79797 almost completely abolished thrombin- and trypsin-induced TNF release from T cells. (hindawi.com)
  • NF-κB DNA binding activity in the nuclear extract was assayed by EMSA at 15 min after treatment or at the indicated time points (c). (d) INS832/13 cells were treated with IL-1β for 30 min, and JNK/SAPK was assayed by immunoprecipitation coupled with kinase (IP-kinase) assay using glutathione S -transferase-Jun as the substrate in the absence or presence of the indicated inhibitors. (asm.org)
  • Using antipain and chymostatin, inhibitors for tryptase and chymase, respectively, it was demonstrated that both pMMP-1 and pMMP-3 were effectively processed and activated by the chymase component. (wiley.com)
  • Both PT523 and D1694 turned out to inhibit TNF-α production by activated T cells much more efficiently than MTX (5-15 times). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pretreatment of A431 cells with genistein, a putative tyrosine kinase inhibitor, abolished the ability of PAF to activate PLC, whereas pretreatment with staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, potentiated the ability of PAF to activate PLC. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor-Mobilized Allografts Contain Activated Immune Cell Subsets Associated with Risk of Acute and Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease. (osu.edu)
  • We defined associations among immune cell subsets in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized allografts and clinical outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). (osu.edu)
  • Indeed, NFATc1-deficient (−/−) lymphocytes showed a significant decrease in Th2 responses ( 11 , 18 ), and T cells doubly deficient for NFATc1 and NFATc2 were additionally defective in the synthesis of the Th1-type lymphokines IFN-γ and IL-2 ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • We fused concanavalin A-stimulated spleen lymphocytes of C57BL/6N mice with the AKR T-cell lymphoma BW-5147 G1.4. (elsevier.com)