A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that specifically binds B-CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR. It is found on B-LYMPHOCYTES and plays a role in maturation and survival of B-cells. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Non-hematopoietic cells, with extensive dendritic processes, found in the primary and secondary follicles of lymphoid tissue (the B cell zones). They are different from conventional DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-CELLS. They are derived from MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS and are negative for class II MHC antigen and do not process or present antigen like the conventional dendritic cells do. Instead, follicular dendritic cells have FC RECEPTORS and C3B RECEPTORS that hold antigen in the form of ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES on their surfaces for long periods for recognition by B-CELLS.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.
B-cells that have a role in regulating the immune response including the production of CYTOKINES. This function is in addition to their traditional role in making antibodies.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; and B CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member found expressed on peripheral B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 13.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
Membrane proteins in precursor B-LYMPHOCYTES (pre-B Cells). They are composed of membrane-bound MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in complex with SURROGATE LIGHT CHAINS instead of conventional IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Only successful rearrangement of the VDJ segments, at the Ig heavy chain gene locus (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES), will generate mu heavy chains that can pair with surrogate light chains. Thus formation of the pre-B cell receptors is an important checkpoint in the development of mature B cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A DNA-binding protein that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target genes by recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Aberrant Blc-6 expression is associated with certain types of human B-CELL LYMPHOMA.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cell surface receptors for interleukin 21. They are heterodimeric proteins found on DENDRITIC CELLS and LYMPHOCYTES that consist of the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.

TALL-1 is a novel member of the TNF family that is down-regulated by mitogens. (1/494)

Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family play important roles in modulation of immune responses. We describe the identification and cloning of a novel TNF family member that has been designated as TALL-1. TALL-1 is a 285-amino acid type II transmembrane protein. Its carboxy terminus shares approximately 35% sequence identity with the recently identified APRIL and approximately 20-25% with TNF, FasL, TRAIL, and lymphotoxin-alpha, suggesting that TALL-1 and APRIL belong to a subfamily of the TNF family of ligands. Northern blot analysis suggests that TALL-1 is expressed abundantly in peripheral blood leukocytes and weakly in spleen but is barely detectable in all other tissues examined. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicates that TALL-1 is specifically expressed in monocytes and macrophages but is undetectable in T and B lymphocytes. Furthermore, TALL-1 expression is dramatically down-regulated by phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a novel cytokine, THANK, a TNF homologue that activates apoptosis, nuclear factor-kappaB, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. (2/494)

By using the amino acid sequence motif of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), we searched the expressed sequence tag data base and identified a novel full-length cDNA encoding 285 amino acid residues and named it THANK. THANK is a type II transmembrane protein with 15-20% overall amino acid sequence homology to TNF, LT-alpha, FasL, and LIGHT, all members of the TNF family. The mRNA for THANK was expressed at high levels by peripheral blood leukocytes, lymph node, spleen, and thymus and at low levels by small intestine, pancreas, placenta, and lungs. THANK was also prominently expressed in hematopoietic cell lines. The recombinant purified protein expressed in the baculovirus system had an approximate molecular size 20 kDa with amino-terminal sequence of AVQGP. Treatment of human myeloid U937 cells with purified THANK activated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) consisting of p50 and p65. Activation was time- and dose-dependent, beginning with as little as a 1 pM amount of the cytokines and as early as 15 min. Under the same conditions, THANK also activated c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in U937 cells. THANK also strongly suppressed the growth of tumor cell lines and activated caspase-3. Although THANK had all the activities and potency of TNF, it did not bind to the TNF receptors. Thus our results indicate that THANK is a novel cytokine that belongs to the TNF family and activates apoptosis, NF-kappaB, and JNK through a distinct receptor.  (+info)

BAFF, a novel ligand of the tumor necrosis factor family, stimulates B cell growth. (3/494)

Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family induce pleiotropic biological responses, including cell growth, differentiation, and even death. Here we describe a novel member of the TNF family, designated BAFF (for B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family), which is expressed by T cells and dendritic cells. Human BAFF was mapped to chromosome 13q32-34. Membrane-bound BAFF was processed and secreted through the action of a protease whose specificity matches that of the furin family of proprotein convertases. The expression of BAFF receptor appeared to be restricted to B cells. Both membrane-bound and soluble BAFF induced proliferation of anti-immunoglobulin M-stimulated peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, increased amounts of immunoglobulins were found in supernatants of germinal center-like B cells costimulated with BAFF. These results suggest that BAFF plays an important role as costimulator of B cell proliferation and function.  (+info)

BLyS: member of the tumor necrosis factor family and B lymphocyte stimulator. (4/494)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines includes both soluble and membrane-bound proteins that regulate immune responses. A member of the human TNF family, BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator), was identified that induced B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion. BLyS expression on human monocytes could be up-regulated by interferon-gamma. Soluble BLyS functioned as a potent B cell growth factor in costimulation assays. Administration of soluble recombinant BLyS to mice disrupted splenic B and T cell zones and resulted in elevated serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The B cell tropism of BLyS is consistent with its receptor expression on B-lineage cells. The biological profile of BLyS suggests it is involved in monocyte-driven B cell activation.  (+info)

Mice transgenic for BAFF develop lymphocytic disorders along with autoimmune manifestations. (5/494)

The cause of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is unresolved, although dysregulated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family members appears to be important in many cases. BAFF, a new member of the TNF family, binds to B cells and costimulates their growth in vitro. Mice transgenic for BAFF have vastly increased numbers of mature B and effector T cells, and develop autoimmune-like manifestations such as the presence of high levels of rheumatoid factors, circulating immune complexes, anti-DNA autoantibodies, and immunoglobulin deposition in the kidneys. This phenotype is reminiscent of certain human autoimmune disorders and suggests that dysregulation of BAFF expression may be a critical element in the chain of events leading to autoimmunity.  (+info)

Severe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune disease in TALL-1 transgenic mice. (6/494)

TALL-1/Blys/BAFF is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Here, we describe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune lupus-like changes in transgenic mice expressing TALL-1 under the control of a beta-actin promoter. The TALL-1 transgenic mice showed severe enlargement of spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches because of an increased number of B220+ cells. The transgenic mice also had hypergammaglobulinemia contributed by elevations of serum IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE. In addition, a phenotype similar to autoimmune lupus-like disease was also seen in TALL-1 transgenic mice, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and immune complex deposits in the kidney. Prolonged survival and hyperactivity of transgenic B cells may contribute to the autoimmune lupus-like phenotype in these animals. Our studies further confirm TALL-1 as a stimulator of B cells that affect Ig production. Thus, TALL-1 may be a primary mediator in B cell-associated autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

BAFF binds to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-like molecule B cell maturation antigen and is important for maintaining the peripheral B cell population. (7/494)

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member B cell activating factor (BAFF) binds B cells and enhances B cell receptor-triggered proliferation. We find that B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), a predicted member of the TNF receptor family expressed primarily in mature B cells, is a receptor for BAFF. Although BCMA was previously localized to the Golgi apparatus, BCMA was found to be expressed on the surface of transfected cells and tonsillar B cells. A soluble form of BCMA, which inhibited the binding of BAFF to a B cell line, induced a dramatic decrease in the number of peripheral B cells when administered in vivo. Moreover, culturing splenic cells in the presence of BAFF increased survival of a percentage of the B cells. These results are consistent with a role for BAFF in maintaining homeostasis of the B cell population.  (+info)

TACI is a TRAF-interacting receptor for TALL-1, a tumor necrosis factor family member involved in B cell regulation. (8/494)

We and others recently reported tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and apoptosis ligand-related leukocyte-expressed ligand 1 (TALL-1) as a novel member of the TNF ligand family that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing TALL-1 have severe B cell hyperplasia and lupus-like autoimmune disease. Here, we describe expression cloning of a cell surface receptor for TALL-1 from a human Burkitt's lymphoma RAJI cell library. The cloned receptor is identical to the previously reported TNF receptor (TNFR) homologue transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML) interactor (TACI). Murine TACI was subsequently isolated from the mouse B lymphoma A20 cells. Human and murine TACI share 54% identity overall. Human TACI exhibits high binding affinities to both human and murine TALL-1. Soluble TACI extracellular domain protein specifically blocks TALL-1-mediated B cell proliferation without affecting CD40- or lipopolysaccharide-mediated B cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, when injected into mice, soluble TACI inhibits antibody production to both T cell-dependent and -independent antigens. By yeast two-hybrid screening of a B cell library with TACI intracellular domain, we identified that, like many other TNFR family members, TACI intracellular domain interacts with TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2, 5, and 6. Correspondingly, TACI activation in a B cell line results in nuclear factor kappaB and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation. The identification and characterization of the receptor for TALL-1 provides useful information for the development of a treatment for B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.  (+info)

Introduction A proliferation\inducing ligand (APRIL) and B cell activation factor (BAFF) are known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including BAFF in malaria. mortality, has a wider geographic distribution and causes significant symptomatic disease 2. Currently, there is absolutely no obtainable vaccine to avoid malaria. Although sterile immunity against malaria parasite is most probably never achieved, people surviving in malaria\endemic areas may get a constant state of clinical immunity towards severe disease and loss of life. The mechanisms underlying the introduction of semi\immunity arent understood entirely. However, it really is more developed, that naturally acquired immunity against blood stage parasite involves both CD4+ T antibodies and cells 3. The need for antibodies was regarded in the research demonstrating that unaggressive transfer of serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from medically immune people into non\immune system recipients substantially ...
Objective: To assess the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist therapy on B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).. Methods: Blood from 38 patients with RA from a single centre was collected prior to and following initiation of TNF antagonist therapy. Plasma BLyS protein levels, blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels and disease activity were longitudinally monitored. Twelve patients with RA who either refused or were felt not to be candidates for TNF antagonist therapy and five normal healthy volunteers served as TNF antagonist-naïve controls.. Results: Baseline plasma BLyS protein levels, but not blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels, were elevated in patients with RA. Plasma BLyS protein levels declined following initiation of TNF antagonist therapy in good responders (GR) to TNF antagonist therapy but not in poor responders (PR). By contrast, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) declined in response to TNF antagonist therapy in GR and PR. ...
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are biologic markers of endothelial function. In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the numerical reduction and functional impairment of EPCs contribute to the endothelial dysfunction. Through ex vivo and in vitro studies, we aimed at evaluating the effects of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) on EPC colonies and endothelial cells and also investigating BLyS receptor expression on these cells. EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In order to evaluate their ability to form colonies, EPCs were cultured on fibronectin-coated dishes and incubated with BlyS alone or BlyS and belimumab. Apoptosis of EPCs and endothelial cell line EA.hy926 was evaluated after 6, 12, and 24 h of incubation with BLyS and after 6 h with BLyS and belimumab. The expression of B cell activating factor-receptor (BAFF-R), B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML) interactor
B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and its receptor BAFF-R play critical roles in the maturation and survival of conventional peripheral B cells. However, they appeared to be dispensable for the generation and maintenance of CD5(+) B-1 cells as BAFF(-/-) and BAFF-R(-/-) mice have normal B-1 cell populations. Hence, it is presently unclear if B-1 cells are responsive to BAFF and if BAFF regulates some aspects of B-1 cell function. We show here that BAFF-R and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) are the major receptors expressed by B-1 cells. Specifically, we show that BAFF treatment of B-1 cells leads to increased NF-kappaB p100 processing and CD21/CD35 expression. Interestingly, toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement of B-1 cells augmented the surface expression of BAFF receptors and rendered them responsive to BAFF costimulation, as evidenced by their increased proliferation, expression of cell surface activation markers and secretion of the pro-inflammatory
Introduction Blisibimod is a potent B cell-activating aspect (BAFF) antagonist that binds to both cell membrane-expressed and soluble BAFF. B cells reverted to baseline, resulting in a calculated 30 percent30 % decrease in total B cells by around 160 days following the 1st dosage. In both solitary- and multiple-dosing SC cohorts, the pharmacokinetic profile indicated sluggish absorption, dose-proportional publicity from 0.3 through 3.0 mg/kg SC and 1 through 6 mg/kg IV, linear pharmacokinetics over the dosage selection of 1.0C6.0 mg/kg, and accumulation ratios which range from 2.21 to 2.76. The comparative increase in memory space B cells had not been associated with security signals, as well as the 1192500-31-4 supplier occurrence of adverse occasions, anti-blisibimod antibodies, and medical laboratory abnormalities had been similar between blisibimod- and placebo-treated topics. Conclusions Blisibimod transformed the constituency from the B cell pool and solitary and multiple dosages of ...
Measure human BAFF/BLyS in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma with our highly sensitive BAFF/BLyS/TNFSF13B Quantikine ELISA Kit.
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) controls the proportion of transitional B cells completing differentiation and the longevity of most primary B cells. These key roles in B cell selection, survival and homeostasis make BLyS and its receptors attractive candidates for targeted B cell therapeutics. Here we have used a neutralizing hamster anti-mouse BLyS antibody to assess how BLyS depletion influences developing and primary B cell subsets, as well as how this treatment impacts primary TD and TI immune responses. Mice treated with 10F4 show rapid and substantial reductions in the transitional, follicular, and marginal zone pools which persist for ~40 days. In contrast, the only bone marrow subset affected is the mature recirculating B cell fraction. Interestingly, splenic B1 cells, but not peritoneal B1 cells, are reduced as well. Following the recovery of serum BLyS levels, peripheral reconstitution occurs gradually, such that normal B cell numbers return by day 70-80. Mice challenged with ...
The tumor necrosis family member BAFF is limiting for the survival of follicular B lymphocytes, but excessive BAFF signaling can lead to autoimmunity, suggesting that its activity must be tightly regulated. We have identified a conserved alternate splice isoform of BAFF, called deltaBAFF, which lacks 57 nt encoding the A-A1 loop and is co-expressed with BAFF in many mouse and human myeloid cells. Mouse deltaBAFF appears on the plasma membrane, but unlike BAFF it is inefficiently released by proteolysis. DeltaBAFF can associate with BAFF in heteromultimers and diminish BAFF bioactivity and release. Thus, alternative splicing of the BAFF gene suppresses BAFF B cell stimulatory function in several ways, and deltaBAFF may promote other functions as well ...
Naive peripheral B cells survive in vivo because of active stimulation by the TNF superfamily ligand B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF). Although the survival promoting properties of BLyS are well known, the signal pathways and molecular effectors that characterize this stimulation are still being elucidated. In this communication, we discuss the signal cascades that effect BLyS dependent survival and the regulation of BLyS induced signaling. We also examine the role of BLyS as a growth factor and propose that BLyS induced metabolic enhancement optimizes the B cell response to BCR and TLR-dependent signaling.
Given the recent success in the treatment of lupus patients with BAFF inhibitors, there is considerable interest in the lupus-like disease arising in BAFF-Tg mice. Taking advantage of the variability between 2 founder lines and gender differences in BAFF-Tg mice, we found that the tipping point for the manifestation of renal pathology and premature death was the level of BAFF protein in the serum. Slight increases in BAFF expression were sufficient to expand the B cell compartment size, yet high BAFF levels correlated with vastly increased serum IgA levels, glomerular IgA+ IC deposition, and kidney pathology. Furthermore, kidney function was improved when BAFF-Tg mice were crossed onto an IgA-deficient background. Interestingly, MRL/lpr mice with renal disease had 100-400 ng/ml BAFF in the blood (Supplemental Figure 1C), and, indeed, serum IgA levels were also elevated to about 1 mg/ml (data not shown). MRL/lpr mice are reported to have increased numbers of IgA-secreting cells, excess IgA ...
Mice were rendered specifically tolerant to the fluorescein isothiocyanatedextran (FITC) epitope by injection of FITC-dextran B512. Their spleen cells were removed at various times and cultivated in vitro with different polyclonal B-cell activators, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), purified protein derivative of tuberculin, and native dextran. LPS caused the appearance of high affinity anti-FITC plaque-forming cells to an equal extent with cells from untreated and tolerant animals, whereas native dextran failed to activate cells from tolerant mice, although it was a potent activator of normal cells. It was concluded that tolerance induction only affects those B cells that could respond to the polyclonal B-cell-activating properties of the tolerogen, but not other B cells having an identical set of Ig receptors directed against the tolerogen. ...
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a factor determining the survival of B cells, and elevated levels in serum or locally have been observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Belimumab (LymphoStat-B), a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits BlyS, was developed for the treatment of these diseases. OBJECTIVE: To summarize preclinical development, efficacy and safety of belimumab in treatment of RA and SLE. METHODS: Articles found in a PubMed search and data presented in abstract form at international conferences up to August 2008 are described. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Belimumab was well tolerated in treatment of RA over 24 weeks and SLE over 3 years. It significantly decreased rheumatoid factor (RF) levels, and modestly reduced symptoms of RA, especially in some subgroups such as patients with high disease activity, positive RF and no anti-TNF treatment experience. It also significantly reduced symptoms of SLE, and decreased anti-double-stranded DNA ...
Increased Ig, RF, and CIC levels in BAFF-Tg mice. (A) Reduced SDS-PAGE of sera from five control littermates and nine BAFF-Tg mice showing that BAFF increases I
The samples used in this paper were obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or RA during knee-TEP operations. First of all, expression of the known BAFF-binding receptors BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R was analyzed in SF of patients with OA and RA using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In a further step, the influence of several stimulants, including cytokines, TLR-agonists and cell activators on receptor expression was tested. Finally, taking into account BAFF function in other cell types, SF were stimulated with BAFF and stained with Annexin V in order to analyze its effect on apoptosis in SF ...
BAFF/BLyS, a member of the tumor necrosis family (TNF) superfamily of ligands, is a crucial survival factor for B cells. BAFF binds three receptors, TACI, BCMA, and BR3, with signaling through BR3 being essential for promoting B cell function. Typical TNF receptor (TNFR) family members bind their cognate ligands through interactions with two cysteine-rich domains (CRDs). However, the extracellular domain (ECD) of BR3 consists of only a partial CRD, with cysteine spacing distinct from other modules described previously. Herein, we report the solution structure of the BR3 ECD. A core region of only 19 residues adopts a stable structure in solution. The BR3 fold is analogous to the first half of a canonical TNFR CRD but is stabilized by an additional noncanonical disulfide bond. BAFF-binding determinants were identified by shotgun alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the BR3 ECD expressed on phage. Several of the key BAFF-binding residues are presented from a beta-turn that we have shown previously to ...
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D to neuronal cultures. Blocking BAFF-R ligation with TACI-Ig inhibited wild-type, but not Baffrm/m, neuronal survival in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 3 C).
BAFF belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, and its downstream signaling plays a critical role in B-cell survival and maturation.
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BAFF大鼠单克隆抗体[Buffy 2](ab16081)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
BLyS Human Recombinant fused to His tag at N-terminus produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 190 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 21 kDa.
Welcome to the REBOOT StudyThe REBOOT study will test whether a combination of two different drugs, belimumab (Benlysta®) and ri
TY - JOUR. T1 - BAFF expression correlates with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy disease activity measures and autoantibodies. AU - López De Padilla, Consuelo M.. AU - McNallan, Kelly T.. AU - Crowson, Cynthia S.. AU - Bilgic, Hatice. AU - Bram, Richard J.. AU - Hein, Molly S.. AU - Ytterberg, Steven R.. AU - Amin, Shreyasee. AU - Peterson, Erik J.. AU - Baechler, Emily C.. AU - Reed, Ann M.. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - Objective. To investigate B cell survival cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) levels as biomarkers of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Methods. We measured and compared mRNA levels of B cell survival cytokines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 98 patients with IIM, 38 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 21 healthy controls. The cytokines were B cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF);ΔBAFF; and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL); and their receptors BAFF-R, transmembrane activator and calcium ...
Background The TNF superfamily member B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), referred to as BAFF, is known to be an effective modulator of peripheral B cell homeostasis that promotes B cell survival and differentiation. BLyS is expressed by a few stromal cells, T cells, and most myeloid cell. BLyS transgenic mice show an expansion of the peripheral mature B cell compartment, hyperglobulinemia, anti-single-stranded DNA and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, and circulating immune complexes. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) is a homolog to BLyS that is expressed by monocytes, macrophages, DCs, T cells, and others. APRIL is virtually undetectable in normal tissues but is strongly expressed in adenocarcinomas and can accelerate the growth of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. APRIL/BLyS heterotrimers are present in the serum of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), SLE, and SS. APRIL over expression promotes a strong survival signal for both CD4+ and CD8+ T ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on tonic signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
BAFF receptor (BAFF = B cell-activating factor of the TNF family) is a main pro-survival receptor expressed by human B cells. BAFFR deficiency is caused by a homologous deletion within the BAFFR gene...
Abstract: Autoimmunity is traditionally attributed to altered lymphoid cell selection and/or tolerance, whereas the contribution of innate immune cells is less well understood. Autoimmunity is also associated with increased levels of B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF; also known as B lymphocyte stimulator), a cytokine that promotes survival of self-reactive B cell clones. We describe an important role for myeloid cells in autoimmune disease progression. Using Lyn-deficient mice, we show that overproduction of BAFF by hyperactive myeloid cells contributes to inflammation and autoimmunity in part by acting directly on T cells to induce the release of IFN-. Genetic deletion of IFN- or reduction of BAFF activity, achieved by either reducing myeloid cell hyperproduction or by treating with an anti-BAFF monoclonal antibody, reduced disease development in lyn-/- mice. The increased production of IFN- in lyn-/- mice feeds back on the myeloid cells to further stimulate BAFF release. ...
Results: Salivary BAFF levels (median: 12.39 ng/ml) were significantly decreased by using HQ both at 12 (2.78 ng/ml, P = 0.008) and 24 weeks (0.54 ng/ml, P = 0.011). Similarly, decreases in serum BAFF levels (5.23 ng/ml) were seen at 12 and 24 weeks after HQ treatment (2.18 ng/ml, P = 0.008 and 0.0 ng/ml, P = 0.012, respectively). Serum and salivary BAFF levels were significantly lower in healthy controls (0.37 ng/ml and 0.0 ng/ml, resp.) compared to those of pSS before HQ therapy (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, resp.). Unstimulated salivary flows were similar in patients treated with HQ after 12 (0.38 ml/min) and 24 weeks (0.50 ml/min) (P = 0.51) but higher than the patients rate at baseline (0.04 ml/min) (P = 0.008 ...
The causes and mechanisms of late-onset neutropenia (LON) following rituximab treatment in patients with rheumatic diseases are not known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of established Fcγ receptor gene (FCGR) polymorphisms and B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) gene promoter polymorphisms for the development of LON and for the efficacy of rituximab in patients with rheumatic diseases. A single-center case-control retrospective study was nested in a cohort of 214 consecutive patients with rheumatic diseases treated with rituximab. Eleven patients presented with LON. Fifty non-LON control subjects were matched by diagnosis, age, sex, and treatments. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of FCGR (FCGR2A 131H/R, FCGR2B 232I/T, FCGR3A 158V/F) and BAFF promoter polymorphism −871C/T were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, and serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and BAFF levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flare-free survival was related to LON occurrence and
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In our previous study, overexpression of extracellular proteinase inhibitor (Expi) gene accelerated apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells, and induced expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF) gene. In this study, we found induction of BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R) gene expression in the Expi-transfected cells. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) gene is another TNF family member and the closest known relative of BAFF. We found induction of APRIL gene expression in the Expi-overexpressed apoptotic cells. NF-B gene was also induced in the Expi-overexpressed cells. Expression patterns of BAFF and APRIL pathway-related genes were examined in in vivo mouse mammary gland at various reproductive stages. Expression levels of BAFF gene were very low at early pregnancy, increased from mid-pregnancy, and peaked at lactation, and thereafter decreased at involution stages of mammary gland. Expression of BAFF-R gene was highly induced in involution stages compared to lactation stages. Thus, expression ...
The monoclonal antibody 11C1 reacts with the B cell-activating factor receptor (BAFF-R), also known as BAFF receptor 3 (BR3) or CD268. It is a 19 kDa type III transmembrane protein which belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily and is mainly expressed on B cells. BAFF-R plays an important role in B cell differentiation and promotes survival and activation of B cells. - Belgique
Belimumab (also known as Benlysta™) is currently being studied in Phase III clinical trials to determine whether or not it is effective for lupus. Belimumab specifically reduces the actions of a protein called B lymphocyte stimulator, or BLyS. BLyS is a protein that increases the lifespan and inflammatory potential of certain immune cells called B cells, which are known to be hyperactive in lupus patients. Belimumab, which interferes with BLyS, is a human antibody. This means that it looks a lot like the antibodies that the immune system makes to fight off viruses. But in this case, belimumab targets only the protein BLyS. Because it only has one target, it is called a monoclonal antibody ...
Follicular B cell survival requires signaling from BAFFR, a receptor for BAFF and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). This tonic BCR survival signal is distinct from that induced by antigen binding and may be ligand-independent. We show that inducible inactivation of the Syk tyrosine kinase, a key signal transducer from the BCR following antigen binding, resulted in the death of most follicular B cells because Syk-deficient cells were unable to survive in response to BAFF. Genetic rescue studies demonstrated that Syk transduces BAFFR survival signals via ERK and PI3 kinase. Surprisingly, BAFFR signaling directly induced phosphorylation of both Syk and the BCR-associated Igα signaling subunit, and this Syk phosphorylation required the BCR. We conclude that the BCR and Igα may be required for B cell survival because they function as adaptor proteins in a BAFFR signaling pathway leading to activation of Syk, demonstrating previously unrecognized crosstalk between the two receptors. ...
Background B cell activating factor (BAFF) plays an important role in the differentiation, survival and activation of B cells rheumatoid arthritis (RA). BAFF receptor (BAFFR) is a crucial receptor for the survival of mature B cells in developing B cells. Paeoniflorin-6-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) exerted its anti-inflammatory effects through regulating immune cells responses. The study was to investigate the regulatory effect of CP-25 on BAFF/BAFFR-nuclear factor of kappa B (NFkapaB) signaling in B cell of collagen induced-arthritis (CIA) mice.Methods Mice CIA was induced by injection of type II collagen. Arthritis index (AI) and swollen joint count (SJC) were assessed, spleen and joints histopathology were observed.B cells subsets, BAFF receptor were analyzed by flow cytometry. BAFF and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were measured by protein antibody array. The expressions of TRAF2, MKK3, MKK6, p-P38, and p-NFkapaB65 in NF-kapaB signaling were analyzed by western blot ...
Results SLEDAI-2K (median baseline score: 8.0; IQR: 4.0-13.8), PGA and corticosteroid use decreased during therapy, and patients reported improvements on fatigue, pain, and general health (p,0.0001 for all). SDI scores remained stable (p=0.08). Patients with baseline SDI scores,1 showed decreased probability and prolonged time to attain SRI response (HR: 0.449; 95% CI: 0.208-0.967), as did current smokers compared with non-smokers (HR: 0.103; 95% CI: 0.025-0.427). In contrast, baseline BLyS levels≥1.2 ng/mL predicted increased probability and shorter time to attain SRI response (HR: 2.566; 95% CI: 1.222-5.387). ...
Belimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets B-lymphocyte stimulator an important factor in the survival of B cells.
Background: Belimumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits B-lymphocyte stimulating protein, was the first biologic agent approved for, and the first drug approved in 55 years for, the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Objective: This article reviews the current research on belimumab and provides recommendations on its use in the treatment of SLE. Methods: The Cochrane Library, EBSCO, IPA, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS were searched for research published from January 2000 to November 2011, using the search terms belimumab, Benlysta, and Lympho-Stat B. Selection criteria included peer-reviewed original research articles on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetic properties, drug interactions, and clinical efficacy and tolerability of belimumab in the treatment of SLE. Abstracts from the annual meetings of major rheumatology medical organizations and societies were searched and reviewed for new content. Additional information on belimumab was obtained from the
vessels, giving the hystologic picture of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Clinically, this inflammation is manifested as arthralgias, fatigue, and lesions mainly in skin, kidneys and peripheral nerves, however, any organ system can be involved. Most of the so far reported clinical and laboratory investigations deal with mixed CG in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection while the data concerning essential CG vasculitis (CV) are scarce. Only recently, so-called noninfectious CV has attracted more attention of the medical community. Chronic antigenic stimulation, increased cytokine and growth factor (BLyS) levels and complement activation may are implicated in the pathogenesis of CV, etiology of which remains largely unknown. Objectives: To investigate clinical and imunoserologic characteristics of patients with CG and their relation to presence and clinical manifestations of vasculitis, as well as to the etiology of CG; explore quantitative and qualitative characteristics of cryoG; to analyze a ...
The cumulative prednisone dose over 52 weeks also was lower in the belimumab group, at a median of 4,190 mg, compared with the placebo group, at 4,758.1 mg (P=0.0005). This study builds on findings from previous studies, which suggest that belimumab has a corticosteroid-sparing effect, they noted.. With regard to safety, the overall rate of adverse events was similar in the belimumab and placebo groups, and while the incidence rate of serious adverse events was higher in the placebo group (18.3% versus 12.3%), the rate of infectious serious adverse events was similar (5.3% and 5.5%).. The investigators also considered adverse events of special interest, including malignancies, post-infusion systemic reactions, depression/suicide/self injury, and deaths, finding similar rates between the belimumab and placebo groups. In the belimumab group, there were no suicide attempts or completed suicides, although there was one case of suicidal ideation. In the placebo group, there was one suicide ...
Belimumab 10 mg/kg IV plus oral azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day; belimumab administered on Days 0, 14, 28, and then every 28 days until the end of the study. If the results in the double-blind period show that belimumab is safe and effective, then participants have the option to continue treatment with belimumab in a 6-month open-label extension phase. Patients who opt to participate in the extension will continue to receive belimumab 10 mg/kg IV every 28 plus oral azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day days for an additional 6 months ...
Recent studies suggest an association between chronic inflammation, modulating the tissue microenvironment, and tumor biology. Tumor environment consists of tumor, stromal and endothelial cells and infiltrating macrophages, T lymphocytes, and dendritic cells, producing an array of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, accounting for a complex cell interaction and regulation of differentiation, activation, function and survival of tumor and surrounding cells, responsible for tumor progression and spreading or induction of antitumor immune responses and rejection. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) family members (19 ligands and 29 receptors) represent a pleiotropic family of agents, related to a plethora of cellular events from proliferation and differentiation to apoptosis and tumor reduction. Among these members, BAFF and APRIL (CD257 and CD256 respectively) gained an increased interest, in view of their role in cell protection, differentiation and growth, in a number of lymphocyte, epithelial and
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The cytokine BAFF is produced by a number of cell types, including monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and some subsets of T cells (17). Receptors for BAFF, however, were initially thought to be restricted to more differentiated B-lineage cells. Therefore, the expression of BAFF receptors on transformed B-lineage lymphocytes in CLL was not entirely unexpected. In contrast, based on BAFF-null and BAFF-R-null mutants as well as other studies, it has been generally accepted that precursor B-lineage cells do not express this receptor. Our studies confirm that there is no expression of this receptor in normal bone marrow pre-B cells. Interestingly, Rodig and colleagues (35) also performed FACS on two pre-B ALL samples and reported that these were negative for expression of BAFF-R. Therefore, the prominent expression of the BAFF-R that we detected on both Ph-positive and Ph-negative ALL samples was unanticipated. In fact, all 12 samples that were tested by us, including original ALL ...
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Recombinant Mouse BAFF (carrier-free) - BAFF is a TNF cytokine member (a type II membrane protein) that acts in both a membrane-bound form and soluble cytokine form.
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APRIL, a member of the TNF superfamily, is expressed in monocytes, macrophages, certain transformed cell lines, certain cancers of the colon, and lymphoid tissues. APRIL, along with another TNF family member, BAFF, competes for two receptors, TACI and BCM
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... (BAFF) also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13B and CD257 among other names, ... "Elevated B cell-activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family in coeliac disease". Scandinavian Journal of ... B-Cell+Activating+Factor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human DTL genome location and ... Lied GA, Berstad A (January 2011). "Functional and clinical aspects of the B-cell-activating factor (BAFF): a narrative review ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFATC2IP gene. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: Nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 interacting protein". Retrieved 2018-03-13. PDBe-KB provides an overview of ...
... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (24): 8398-413. doi: ... Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ...
PAF is produced by a variety of cells, but especially those involved in host defense, such as platelets, endothelial cells, ... Platelet Activating Factor) Platelet+Activating+Factor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ( ... cytoplasmic platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 2, and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b. Cations are one ... Platelet-activating factor receptor Platelet-derived growth factor Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Stafforini DM (May ...
1995). "Streptococcus pneumoniae anchor to activated human cells by the receptor for platelet-activating factor". Nature. 377 ( ... The platelet-activating factor receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor which binds platelet-activating factor. The PAF ... "Entrez Gene: PTAFR platelet-activating factor receptor". Correa-Costa M (Apr 2014). "Activation of platelet-activating factor ... Kunz D, Gerard NP, Gerard C (1992). "The human leukocyte platelet-activating factor receptor. cDNA cloning, cell surface ...
Green, M. R.; Persengiev, S. P. (2003-06-01). "The role of ATF/CREB family members in cell growth, survival and apoptosis". ... Activating transcription factor, ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... Activating+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with ... Hai, Tsonwin; Hartman, Matthew G. (2001-07-25). "The molecular biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/ ...
It is an intrinsic protective signaling programme to limit cell death activated by the heart. This pathway allows ischaemic ... Survivor Activating Factor Enhancement (SAFE) is a metabolic pathway. ... "Activation of the protective Survivor Activating Factor Enhancement (SAFE) pathway against reperfusion injury: Does it go ... "Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase and Survivor Activating Factor Enhancement Prosurvival Signaling Pathways in Ischemic ...
The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and adipogenesis by fat cells. PPARG knockout mice are devoid of adipose ... Kim JH, Song J, Park KW (March 2015). "The multifaceted factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in ... 1995). "Isolation of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma cDNA: expression in hematopoietic cells and ... Cell. 123 (6): 993-9. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.11.026. PMID 16360030. S2CID 18526710. ...
... complex not only activates cell cycle Cdks but also regulates gene expression because it is part of the transcription factor ... However compared to normal cells, CAK activity is reduced in quiescent G0 cells and slightly elevated in tumor cells. In ... Although activating phosphorylation by CAK is not exploited for cell-cycle regulation purposes, it is a highly conserved ... Lolli G, Johnson LN (April 2005). "CAK-Cyclin-dependent Activating Kinase: a key kinase in cell cycle control and a target for ...
"The human leukocyte platelet-activating factor receptor. cDNA cloning, cell surface expression, and construction of a novel ...
... and Activating Transcription Factors 6α and 6β That Activates the Mammalian Unfolded Protein Response". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (4 ... Activating transcription factor ATF6 has been shown to interact with YY1 and Serum response factor. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Distinct roles of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic ... "Entrez Gene: ATF6 activating transcription factor 6". Li M, Baumeister P, Roy B, Phan T, Foti D, Luo S, Lee AS (2000). "ATF6 as ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ...
... is a transcription factor that contains a bZip domain. Activating transcription factor ATF5 has been shown to interact ... Forgacs E, Gupta SK, Kerry JA, Semmes OJ (2005). "The bZIP transcription factor ATFx binds human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 ( ... Activating transcription factor 5, also known as ATF5, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF5 gene. First ... "Entrez Gene: ATF5 activating transcription factor 5". Pati D, Meistrich ML, Plon SE (July 1999). "Human Cdc34 and Rad6B ...
Johnson ES, Gupta AA (September 2001). "An E3-like factor that promotes SUMO conjugation to the yeast septins". Cell. 106 (6): ... In cell culture, overexpression of PIAS3 demonstrated an increased resistance of HeLa cells to ionizing radiation. This ... Additionally, overexpression of PIAS3 inhibited human lung cancer cell growth in vitro and rendered cancer cells up to twelve ... While inhibition of PIAS by siRNAs led cancer cells to accelerate cell proliferation and demonstrate higher levels of ...
"Platelet-activating factor as a potential retrograde messenger". Journal of Lipid Mediators and Cell Signalling. 14 (1-3): 341- ... Kato K, Clark GD, Bazan NG, Zorumski CF (January 1994). "Platelet-activating factor as a potential retrograde messenger in CA1 ... platelet-activating factor, arachidonic acid, and nitric oxide. Nitric oxide has received a great deal of attention in the past ... the postsynaptic cell must communicate with the presynaptic cell. Because normal synaptic transmission occurs in a presynaptic ...
Apoptotic protease activating factor 1, also known as APAF1, is a human homolog of C. elegans CED-4 gene. The protein was ... Activated caspase-9 stimulates the subsequent caspase cascade that commits the cell to apoptosis. Alternative splicing results ... "Entrez Gene: APAF1 apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1". Zou H, Henzel WJ, Liu X, Lutschg A, Wang X (Aug 1997). "Apaf-1, a ... Riedl SJ, Li W, Chao Y, Schwarzenbacher R, Shi Y (Apr 2005). "Structure of the apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 bound to ...
"Calcineurin/nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT)-activating and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)- ... Manley K, O'Hara BA, Atwood WJ (March 2008). "Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) plays a role in SV40 infection". ... "Entrez Gene: NFAT activating protein with ITAM motif 1". Retrieved 2018-03-13. Yang J, Hu G, Wang SW, Li Y, Martin R, Li K, Yao ... NFAT activating protein with ITAM motif 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFAM1 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
... cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated ... Zhu H, Joliot V, Prywes R (February 1994). "Role of transcription factor TFIIF in serum response factor-activated transcription ... Serum response factor, also known as SRF, is a transcription factor protein. Serum response factor is a member of the MADS ( ... "Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (20): 7550-8. ...
Activates T cells. IL-2 - T-cell growth factor. Stimulates IL-1 synthesis. Activates B-cells and NK cells. IL-3 - Stimulates ... Growth factor for activated B cells, resting T cells, and mast cells. IL-5 - Induces differentiation of activated B cells and ... Growth factor for plasma cells. IL-7 - Growth factor for pre-B cells. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) Migration-stimulating ... Placental growth factor (PGF) Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) Renalase (RNLS) - Anti-apoptotic survival factor T-cell ...
RAF/MEK/Mitogen-activated protein kinases; PKC/Ca2+/Calcineurin/Nuclear factor of activated T-cells; and the EGF cellular ... In certain cells, activation of FP also stimulates G12/G13-Gβγ G proteins to activate the Rho family of GTPases signaling ... PGF2α triggers the NFATC2 pathway stimulating skeletal muscle cell growth. PGF2α, shown or presumed to operate by activating FP ... In particular, Gq stimulates cell signal pathways involving a) phospholipase C/IP3/cell Ca2+ mobilization/diacylglycerol/ ...
Hexadecyl platelet-activating factor has profound effects on the lung, and hexadecyl glyceryl ether participates in the ... "Radioactive cell labeling agent". KR101130737B1. 2012. Haroldsen, P. E.; Voelkel, N. F.; Henson, J. E.; Henson, P. M.; Murphy, ... R. C. (1987). "Metabolism of platelet-activating factor in isolated perfused rat lung". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 79 ( ... specifically non-small-cell lung cancer. Hexadecyl was used from 1982 for radiolabelling, and this continues to be useful, for ...
IL-2 - a cytokine key activating factor for T cells and B cells secreted by T cells. Cells in early-stage activation ... "B-cell growth factor (B-cell growth factor I or B-cell-stimulating factor, provisional 1) is a differentiation factor for ... B-cell growth factor, and a B-cell differentiation factor on resting and activated human B cells". Cellular Immunology. 96 (1 ... "B cell growth factors and B cell differentiation factor from human T hybridomas. Two distinct kinds of B cell growth factor and ...
SOS1 activates the small G protein Ras. eIF-2b is a eukaryotic initiation factor necessary to initiate protein translation. eIF ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.018. PMID 17540168. Feig LA (April 1994). "Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors: a family of positive ... Some GEFs can activate multiple GTPases while others are specific to a single GTPase. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs ... Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains that activate monomeric GTPases by stimulating the ...
May 2004). "Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung ... "Carbachol-stimulated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase in T(84) cells is ... including epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor α (TGFα). ErbB2 has no known direct activating ligand, and may ... Zhang X, Chang A (March 2007). "Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor and non-small-cell lung cancer". ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5 gene. EIF5 is a GTPase-activating ... 2005). "CK2 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 potentiates cell cycle progression". Proc. Natl. Acad ... Das S, Ghosh R, Maitra U (2001). "Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 functions as a GTPase-activating protein". J. Biol ... 2006). "Structure of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 5 reveals a fold common to several translation factors". ...
Das S, Ghosh R, Maitra U (2001). "Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 functions as a GTPase-activating protein". J. Biol ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. v t e (Articles with short ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 2 (eIF2β) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF2S2 gene. ... Cell. Biol. 22 (1): 343-56. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.1.343-356.2002. PMC 134226. PMID 11739746. Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, ...
When macrophages are activated by cord factor, they can arrange into granulomas around M. tuberculosis cells. Activated ... cells, while also leading to mature Th1 cells, and thus leading to immunity. Then, with IL-12 available, Th1 cells and NK cells ... Thus, cord factor can act as a nonspecific irritant or a T-cell dependent antigen. Granulomas enclose M. tuberculosis cells to ... Cord factor influences the arrangement of M. tuberculosis cells into long and slender formations, giving its name. Cord factor ...
Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7IP gene. ATF7IP has ... Cell. 12 (2): 475-87. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2003.08.007. PMID 14536086. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete ... "Entrez Gene: ATF7IP activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein". Fujita, Naoyuki; Watanabe Sugiko; Ichimura Takaya; ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Activating transcription factor 7- ...
Humans produce NLRP1, but human NLRP1 is not activated by lethal factor. NLRP1 could be activated by proteolytic cleavage ... May 2015). "A Plant Immune Receptor Detects Pathogen Effectors that Target WRKY Transcription Factors". Cell. 161 (5): 1089- ... can be activated by the lethal factor (LF) protease. The lethal factor protease is produced and secreted by Bacillus anthracis ... immune responses are specifically activated by virulence factors. It is not clear what stimuli might activate NLRP1A, the other ...
... which is in fact a transcription factor) binds to the DNA. The complex can inhibit or activate unknown genes. Chloracne, an ... This cell protein initiates effects of most of dioxin-like chemicals. The exact function of the protein of the cell is unknown ... However, there are not many studies on humans that assess the health risk factors of HpCDD. HpCDD seems to be more potent once ... When a dioxin enters the cell and binds to the AH receptor, a complex is formed with another protein, ARNKT[dubious - discuss ...
In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein ... These complexes then activate S-Cdk complexes that move forward with DNA replication in the S phase. Concurrently, anaphase- ... but it changes the course of the cell. After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters ... G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, ...
Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The histone-interacting domain of nuclear factor I activates simian virus 40 DNA replication in ... In embryonic cells, Nfix has been shown to regulate intermediate progenitor cell (IPC) generation by promoting the ... "Entrez Gene: NFIX nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)". Singh SK, Bhardwaj R, Wilczynska KM, Dumur CI, ... for the human transcription factor nuclear factor I by FISH". Genomics. 28 (1): 66-73. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1107. PMID 7590749 ...
This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. When src is activated, it ... "Characterization of human epidermal growth factor receptor and c-Src interactions in human breast tumor cells". Mol. Carcinog. ... Lyn and Fgr are highly expressed in malignant prostate cells compared to normal prostate cells. When the primary prostate cells ... HSP90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800 has been described to affect stability of Src tyrosine kinase and growth of T-cell and B-cell acute ...
... and c-Src are activated in human aortic smooth muscle cells by pressure stress". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 262 (1-2): 71-8. doi: ... binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". Mol Cell Biol. 19 (11): 7539-48. doi:10.1128 ... 2006). "JSAP1/JIP3 cooperates with focal adhesion kinase to regulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase and cell migration". J. Biol. Chem ... MAPK8IP3 has been shown to interact with ASK1, C-Raf, PTK2, MAPK10, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9, MAPK8, MAP2K1, KLC2, ...
The factor that seems to induce more cell differentiation is caspase-3 protease. This was identified as the penultimate stage ... October 2005). "The contribution of apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-activated DNase, and inhibitor of caspase-activated ... Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell. Caspase-3 activation is a cell requirement during early stages of the skeletal ... Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene ...
When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the ... The omnipresence of Daxx in the cell nucleus suggests that the protein may also function as a transcription factor. Although it ... After Fas stimulation, Daxx is activated and plays its role of pro-apoptotic protein in activating the c-JUN-N-Terminal Kinase ... The real apoptotic process starts after activating this pathway. Daxx does not activate JNK itself but rather the upstream JNK ...
These cells, which are not myoepithelial cells, have been termed globoid cells. They have eosinophilic cytoplasm (i.e. pink or ... when having activating mutations, may promote the development and/or progression of breast and other cancers. Recurrent ... "Prognostic Factors, Treatment, and Outcomes in Early Stage, Invasive Papillary Breast Cancer: A SEER Investigation of Less ... Epithelial cells lining the fronds' inner surfaces commonly form solid, cribriform (i.e. large nests of cells perforated by ...
Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by specific receptors on the cell ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ...
Bcl-2-modifying factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMF gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ... Cell. 17 (4): 525-35. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.02.003. PMID 15721256. Soung YH, Lee JW, Park WS, et al. (2006). "BH3 domain ... activated by anoikis". Science. 293 (5536): 1829-32. Bibcode:2001Sci...293.1829P. doi:10.1126/science.1062257. PMID 11546872. ... Cell. 17 (3): 393-403. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.12.030. PMID 15694340. Kuwana T, Bouchier-Hayes L, Chipuk JE, et al. (2005). " ...
As a result, the ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling pathway becomes constitutively activated, cell-cell interactions are lost and signet ... The role of other risk factors in gastric cancer such as salt-preserved food, smoking, auto-immune gastritis are not well ... Some cases are inherited, and these cases are often caused by mutations in the CDH1 gene, which encodes the important cell-cell ... July 2013). "Signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma: a distinct subset of mucin-poor microsatellite-stable signet ring cell ...
Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
Gui JF, Lane WS, Fu XD (June 1994). "A serine kinase regulates intracellular localization of splicing factors in the cell cycle ... Ramchatesingh J, Zahler AM, Neugebauer KM, Roth MB, Cooper TA (September 1995). "A subset of SR proteins activates splicing of ... Splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another ...
June 2012). "Nucleophosmin (NPM1/B23) interacts with activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) protein and promotes proteasome- ... Molecular Cell Biology. 20 (11): 665-680. doi:10.1038/s41580-019-0133-3. PMID 31253954. S2CID 195739183. Kishor A, White EJ, ... This protein is deactivated by binding ATP, and activated by its dephosphorylation to ADP, which requires a potassium ion to ... Hsp70-2 specifically is developmentally expressed in male germ line cells during meiosis, where it is necessary for the ...
In a second stage of operation, fuel cell vehicles (LINT) would be used or the S 6 would be extended from Weil der Stadt to ... of the costs of re-activating the Hermann-Hesse-Bahn to the district of Calw. The re-commissioning would take place in two ... followed by the option of an isolated operation with light rail vehicles with a benefit cost factor of 1.45 and the diesel- ...
Kim (2012). "Sparassis crispa suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: Role of calcium, mitogen-activated protein ... Harada T, Ohno N (2008). "Contribution of dectin-1 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to ... kinase and nuclear factor-κB". Int. J. Mol. Med. 30 (2): 344-50. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2012.1000. PMID 22614038. Bang (2017). "New ... Purified from Sparassis crispa Mediated Neuro-Protection against Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells". Int ...
Activated B-cells with low affinity to antigen captured on FDCs surface as well as autoreactive B-cells undergo apoptosis, ... Factor Mfge produced in lymphoid tissues mainly by FDCs is known to enhance engulfment of apoptotic cells. Deficit of this ... In normal lymphoid tissue, recirculating resting B cells migrate through the FDC networks, whereas antigen-activated B cells ... and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 ...
IFNs also have various other functions: they activate immune cells, such as natural killer cells and macrophages, and they ... naming the responsible factor viral inhibitory factor (VIF). It took another fifteen to twenty years, using somatic cell ... Interferons, such as interferon gamma, directly activate other immune cells, such as macrophages and natural killer cells. ... A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can protect neighboring ...
Bacterial replication in host cells causes endothelial cell proliferation and inflammation, resulting in mononuclear cell ... RickA, expressed on the rickettsial surface, activates Arp2/3 and causes actin polymerization. The rickettsiae use the actin to ... Host factors associated with severe or fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever include advanced age, male sex, African or Caribbean ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ...
Additional research suggests that the reasons for alcohol abstinence may be a determining factor in the outcomes for abstainers ... alcohol activates the HPA axis, causing glucocorticoid secretion and thus elevating levels of stress hormones in the body. ... including nerve cell degeneration in the hippocampus. According to the National Institutes of Health, researchers now ... "Distilled Spirits Overconsumption as the Most Important Factor of Excessive Adult Male Mortality in Europe". Alcohol and ...
... of a novel activated RhoB binding protein containing a PDZ domain whose expression is specifically modulated in thyroid cells ... Arthur WT, Ellerbroek SM, Der CJ, Burridge K, Wennerberg K (November 2002). "XPLN, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ... "The HIV-1 vpr protein induces anoikis-resistance by modulating cell adhesion process and microfilament system assembly". Cell ... Wennerberg K, Der CJ (March 2004). "Rho-family GTPases: it's not only Rac and Rho (and I like it)". Journal of Cell Science. ...
The copy number of RK2 is about 4-7 per cell in E. coli and 3 in P. aeruginosa. Several minimal derivatives of RK2 have been ... 2/2003, p. 425-453 LEWIS C. INGRAM, M. H. RICHMOND, AND R. B. SYKES: "Molecular Characterization of the R Factors Implicated in ... binds to and activates oriV. In Escherichia coli, replication proceeds unidirectionally from oriV after activation by TrfA. In ... In addition, RK2 contains a set of potentially lethal (to the cell) genes, called kil genes, and a set of complementary ...
"Stem cell factor induces phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-dependent Lyn/Tec/Dok-1 complex formation in hematopoietic cells". ... The BCR-ABL transcript encodes a tyrosine kinase, which activates mediators of the cell cycle regulation system, leading to a ... cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response such as DNA repair. Activity of ABL1 protein is negatively regulated by its ... a site for phosphorylation in leukaemia cells". Genes to Cells. 9 (9): 781-90. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2004.00772.x. PMID ...
The most well-studied and well-established function of viroporins is the permeabilization of the cell membrane to ions and ... Viroporins can also be considered virulence factors; in viruses in which viroporins are not essential, their pathogenicity is ... In some cases the membrane permeabilization effects of viroporins activate the inflammasome, a protein complex associated with ... Pinto LH, Holsinger LJ, Lamb RA (May 1992). "Influenza virus M2 protein has ion channel activity". Cell. 69 (3): 517-28. doi: ...
as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of ... "Activated protein kinase C directly phosphorylates the CD34 antigen on hematopoietic cells". The Journal of Biological ... Kees UR, Ford J (February 1999). "Synergistic action of stem-cell factor and interleukin-7 in a human immature T-cell line". ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as haematopoietic cells, or in ...
Phosphorylation of the transcription factor may activate it and that activated transcription factor may then activate the ... Several cell function specific transcription factors (there are about 1,600 transcription factors in a human cell) generally ... February 2018). "The Human Transcription Factors". Cell. 172 (4): 650-665. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.029. PMID 29425488. ... December 2017). "YY1 Is a Structural Regulator of Enhancer-Promoter Loops". Cell. 171 (7): 1573-1588.e28. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
1987). "Analysis of mutation in human cells by using an Epstein-Barr virus shuttle system". Mol. Cell. Biol. 7 (1): 379-87. doi ... This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene ... Zheng, L; Schickling O; Peter M E; Lenardo M J (August 2001). "The death effector domain-associated factor plays distinct ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ...
Furthermore, when the cell begins to swell, this automatically activates the Na⁺-K⁺ pump because it changes the internal ... but these were later found to be inaccurate due to additional complicating factors.[citation needed] The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase is ... When this is higher than the osmolarity outside of the cell, water flows into the cell through osmosis. This can cause the cell ... In fact, all cells expend a large fraction of the ATP they produce (typically 30% and up to 70% in nerve cells) to maintain ...
"High expression of TIAF-1 in chronic kidney and liver allograft rejection and in activated T-helper cells". Transplantation. 75 ... "Entrez Gene: TIAF1 TGFB1-induced anti-apoptotic factor 1". Ji H, Zhai Q, Zhu J, Yan M, Sun L, Liu X, Zheng Z (April 2000). "A ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. v t e (Genes on human chromosome, All stub ... TGFB1-induced anti-apoptotic factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TIAF1 gene. TIAF1 has been shown to ...
... found on the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria or macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP2), found on the cell membrane of ... which leads to nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ... But MyD88 also activates mitogen‐activated protein kinases (MAPKs). However, several strains of lactic acid bacteria have been ... Among the immune cells, TLR6 has been detected in conventional dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, microglia, neutrophils ...
Dead Cell is a black-ops unit introduced in Metal Gear Solid 2 as the game's bosses. Formed by Solidus Snake, Dead Cell's ... The explosives are revealed to be nothing more than dummy bombs serving to activate the real bomb in the basement of Strut A. A ... regardless of other factors. Kaz Miller helps develop MSF into a private military contractor offering a wide range of services ... Your Dead Cell comrades loved your father and husband - we needed a pathetic wretch like you to keep them focused. Kojima ...
2021) B cell-activating factor modulates the factor VIII immune response in hemophilia A. Journal of Clinical Investigation. ... B cell activating factor modulates the factor VIII immune response in hemophilia, and was published in the Journal of Clinical ... Immune tolerance in hemophilia can be modulated by B cell activating factor. *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Animal Model, Antibodies, Antibody, B Cell, Bleeding, Bleeding Disorder, Blood, Cancer, Cell, Children, Healthcare, ...
... in the sub-populations comprising Mvt1 cells from the aggressive CD24-positive cells toward less aggressive CD24-negative cells ... is an anti-apoptotic factor and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating ... is an anti-apoptotic factor, and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating ... Using the delivery of shRNA vectors into the Mvt1 and Met1 cell lines, we tested the role of ATF5 in the development of mammary ...
Cytokine deprivation from activated T cells leads to apoptosis associated with down-regulation of the bcl-2 gene product. It is ... Interleukin-2 receptor common gamma-chain signaling cytokines regulate activated T cell apoptosis in response to growth factor ... Cytokine deprivation from activated T cells leads to apoptosis associated with down-regulation of the bcl-2 gene product. It is ... We show that a group of cytokines including IL-2 (IL-2R gamma), prevent the apoptosis of IL-2-deprived activated T cells. This ...
HTLV-1 bZIP factor HBZ promotes cell proliferation and genetic instability by activating OncomiRs. ... Meanwhile, HBZ is expressed in both untransformed infected cells and ATLL cells and is involved in sustaining cell ... Example: +cell +stem * Tip 3. You can use + and - symbols to force inclusion or exclusion of specific words.. Example: +cell - ... Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) replication relies on the clonal expansion of its host CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, ...
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) (BLyS/TALL-1) plays an ... leading to a severe depletion of marginal zone and follicular B2 B cells, but not of peritoneal B1 B cells. In contrast, mice ... This demonstrates a crucial role for BAFF in B cell maturation and strongly suggests that it signals via a BCMA-independent ... They display a developmental block of B cell maturation in the periphery, ...
As a result, cells experience extensive dehydration when water exits as well as anoxia due to interruption of blood flow. ... Adapting to such challenges requires metabolic rearrangement, partially mediated by transcription factor control over ... Regulation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cell (NFAT) Family of Transcription Factors in the Freeze Tolerant Wood Frog, ... Here, involvement of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factors, isoforms c1-c4, was analyzed in ...
Demonstration of an activated platelet-derived growth factor autocrine pathway and its role in human tumor cell proliferation ... Demonstration of an activated platelet-derived growth factor autocrine pathway and its role in human tumor cell proliferation ... Demonstration of an activated platelet-derived growth factor autocrine pathway and its role in human tumor cell proliferation ... Demonstration of an activated platelet-derived growth factor autocrine pathway and its role in human tumor cell proliferation ...
PLATELET-ACTIVATING factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory phospholipid that activates cells involved in inflammation1,2. ... PLATELET-ACTIVATING factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory phospholipid that activates cells involved in inflammation1,2. ... Liver cells secrete the plasma form of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.. *E. B. Tarbet, D. Stafforini, M. Elstad, G ... Platelet-activating factor (PAF) stimulates the production of PAF acetylhydrolase by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2.. *K. ...
Platelet-activating factor (PAF): signalling and adhesion in cell-cell interactions. Adv Exp Med Biol 416: 297-304. ... Endothelial cell-associated platelet-activating factor: a novel mechanism for signaling intercellular adhesion. J Cell Biol 110 ... Activated mast cells release extracellular type platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase that contributes to autocrine ... Platelet-activating factor inhibits the secretion of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase by human decidual macrophages. ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3, nuclear factor (NF)-,i,κ,/i,B p65, Syk, Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK ... Activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) is a common subtype of non-Hodgkins lymphoma and is very ... Protein expression of bone marrow cells from patients with activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. ... According to the different cell origins, DLBCL is divided into activated B-cell-like (ABC)-DLBCL and germinal center B-cell- ...
An activating mutation of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in adult T-cell leukemia. In: Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... An activating mutation of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in adult T-cell leukemia. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2018 ... An activating mutation of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in adult T-cell leukemia. / Cherian, Mathew A.; Olson, Sydney; ... Dive into the research topics of An activating mutation of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in adult T-cell leukemia. ...
Ligand-activated T cell growth factor-induced proliferation: absorption of T cell growth factor by activated T cells. (English) ... Ligand-activated T cell growth factor-induced proliferation: absorption of T cell growth factor by activated T cells.. ...
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by epidermal growth factor in hippocampal neurons and neuronal cell lines.. ... Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by epidermal growth factor in hippocampal neurons and neuronal cell lines. J ...
DC: Dendritic cell; PAF: Platelet-activating factor; TSLP: Thymic stromal lymphopoeitin.. Data taken from [53,127]. ... CD4+ T cell. Airway hyperresponsiveness. IL-33. Epithelial cells. NF-κB and MAP kinase pathway activation and Th2 cell function ... IgE, mast cells and dendritic cells are key players that drive an allergic immune response; however, the response is ... Th2-cell differentiation and effector functions. IL-13, IL-33, IL-18. STAT6 IL-4, IL-4R. Th2-mediated responses. [115-120]. ...
HUVECs viability, levels of inflammatory factors, formation of foam cells and cholesterol efflux were respectively analyzed by ... KLF2 alleviates endothelial cell injury and inhibits the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by activating Nrf2 ... ox‑LDL induced decreased KLF2 expression in THP‑1 macrophage derived foam cells and KLF2 overexpression activated Nrf2 ... In conclusion, KLF2 alleviated endothelial cell injury and inhibited the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by ...
Dive into the research topics of Acetyl-CoA: lyso-platelet-activating factor acetyltransferase activity in neutrophils from ... Acetyl-CoA: lyso-platelet-activating factor acetyltransferase activity in neutrophils from asthmatic and normal subjects. ...
Toll-like receptor 4 mediates cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and nuclear factor-κB in ... Toll-like receptor 4 mediates cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and nuclear factor-κB in ...
... epithelial neutrophil-activating; GRO, growth related protein; I-TAC, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant. ... CCL, CC chemokine ligand; CXCL, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand; IL, interleukin; INF, interferon; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; MCP ... normal t cell expressed and presumably secreted; MIP, macrophage inflammatory proteins; MIG, monokine-induced γ interferon; ENA ...
Fibroblast growth factor 10 protects against UVB-induced skin injury by activating the ERK/YAP signalling pathway. ... Fibroblast growth factor 10 protects against UVB-induced skin injury by activating the ERK ... CCK8 kit was used to further detect cell proliferation ability. RESULTS:. We found that FGF10 is highly expressed in skin ... The purpose of this study was to explore the role and potential mechanism of FGF10 in promoting keratinocytes cell cycle and ...
Blood growth factor activates neural stem cells. Cell Press. Journal. Cell Reports. Keywords. * /Life sciences/Cell biology/ ... Cells/Stem cells/Neural stem cells * /Life sciences/Cell biology/Cellular physiology/Cell stimulation/Growth factor stimulation ... Blood growth factor activates neural stem cells A growth factor that controls the formation of blood vessels in the brain can ... www.cell.com/cell-reports. To receive media alerts for Cell Reports or other Cell Press journals, contact [email protected]cell.com. ...
The Angiocrine Factor Rspondin3 Is a Key Determinant of Liver Zonation. Cell Reports 13, 1757-1764. doi:10.1016/j.celrep. ... Wnt7a Activates the Planar Cell Polarity Pathway to Drive the Symmetric Expansion of Satellite Stem Cells. Cell Stem Cell 4, ... 333 cells sorted cells per 50μl Matrigel) after 7 days. Axin2pos cells formed more organoids than Axin2neg cells. ... Following digestion, cells were washed and dissociated into single cells at 37° C in TrypLE. Cells were stained with antibodies ...
Epigenetics and Molecular Carcinogenesis department at MD Anderson focuses on defining the mechanisms that control normal cell ... ZNF410 Uniquely Activates the NuRD Component CHD4 to Silence Fetal Hemoglobin Expression. Mol Cell. 2021 Jan 21;81(2):239-254. ... 2011) E2F1 promotes the recruitment of DNA repair factors to sites of DNA double-strand breaks. Cell Cycle. 10(8):1287-94. ... Cancer Stem Cells & Programmed Cell Death Stem cells in intestinal crypts give rise to all cell types of the intestinal ...
Atractylenolide‑1 alleviates gastroparesis in diabetic rats by activating the stem cell factor/c‑kit signaling pathway. , ... Tumor cell-derived SPON2 promotes M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and cancer progression by activating ... Tumor cell-derived SPON2 promotes M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and cancer progression by activating ... Cells within the sCT group had been handled with varied concentrations (3, 6, 12, 25, and 50 µg/mL) of sCT for 24 h. Cells ...
... were used to verify the synergistic effect of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) on IgG stimulation of microglia. We found that ... In vivo intracerebral injection of SLE-serum in mouse was used to activate microglia and the production of pro-inflammatory ... B cell maturation antigen, the receptor for a proliferation-inducing ligand and B cell-activating factor of the TNF family, ... Association of serum B cell activating factor from the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand ...
... as well as P388D1 cells stimulated with PHA-activated guinea pig T lymphocytes or LPS, produced a lymphocyte activating fac ... as well as P388D1 cells stimulated with PHA-activated guinea pig T lymphocytes or LPS, produced a lymphocyte activating factor ... Characterization of Lymphocyte-Activating Factor (LAF) Produced by a Macrophage Cell Line, P388D1: II. Biochemical ... Characterization of Lymphocyte-Activating Factor (LAF) Produced by a Macrophage Cell Line, P388D1: II. Biochemical ...
Spatial relationship of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor and activated AKT in head and neck squamous cell ... Since not all tumors show coexpression to the same extent, other factors must be involved in the activation of this pathway as ... BACKGROUND: Overexpression of EGFR correlates with decreased survival after radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell ... carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the contribution of the activated form, pEGFR, and its downstream signaling (PI3-K/AKT) pathway is ...
TGFBR2 phosphorylates TGFBR1, which in turn activates TGFBR1 kinase. Defects in this mechanism can lead to unrestricted cell ... Cytokines include the interleukins, lymphokines, and cell signal molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor and the interferons. ... Cell cycle regulatory genes (CCND1). Cyclin D1, encoded by the CCND1 gene, has a key role in the cell cycle. A recent meta- ... CDH1: Of the many cell-cell adhesion molecules, E-cadherin (encoded by CDH1l) has so far received the greatest attention in ...
cell wall biogenesis 43 N-terminal homolog. *CWH43-N. *FGF receptor activating protein 1 ... post-GPI attachment to proteins factor 2. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. * ... GPI anchor-associated proteins that cannot attach to the cell membrane are released from the cell. ... The GPI anchor is made up of many different pieces and is assembled in a cell structure called the endoplasmic reticulum, which ...
  • Using the delivery of short hairpin RNA vectors into the Mvt1 and Met1 cell lines, we tested the role of ATF5 in the development of mammary tumors in vivo and in regulating proliferation and migration of these cells in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that knockdown of ATF5 (ATF5-KD) in both cell lines results in a decreased tumor volume and weight, as well as in a reduced proliferation rate and migratory potential of the cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • It was demonstrated that the mitogenic effects of both insulin and IGF-I are mediated, among others, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway ( 9 ), which is known to play a significant role in cell proliferation, survival, and migration, thereby promoting tumor growth and invasiveness ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, we have shown that insulin or IGF-I stimulation of Mvt1 cells leads to the upregulation of several mRNA transcripts, associated with cell proliferation and migration, such as Cyclin D1 and the transcription factor ETS2, as well as to the downregulation of transcriptional repressor, high mobility group (HMG) box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The viral oncoprotein Tax, which is rarely expressed in ATLL cells, has long been recognized for its involvement in tumor initiation by promoting cell proliferation, genetic instability, and miRNA dysregulation. (pasteur.fr)
  • Meanwhile, HBZ is expressed in both untransformed infected cells and ATLL cells and is involved in sustaining cell proliferation and silencing virus expression. (pasteur.fr)
  • Here, we show that an HBZ-miRNA axis promotes cell proliferation and genetic instability, as indicated by comet assays that showed increased numbers of DNA-strand breaks. (pasteur.fr)
  • BAFF and its close homologue a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) have both been shown to interact with at least two receptors, B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) and transmembrane activator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), however their relative contribution in transducing BAFF signals in vivo remains unclear. (garvan.org.au)
  • These findings demonstrate that autocrine PDGF stimulation contributes to proliferation of some human tumors and that agents which interfere with ligand-receptor interactions at the cell surface can significantly interfere in this process. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • The human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax drives cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis early in the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). (wustl.edu)
  • Ligand-activated T cell growth factor-induced proliferation: absorption of T cell growth factor by activated T cells. (wikidata.org)
  • However, the molecular understanding of the repair during UVB-induced cell proliferation inhibition remains poorly understood. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the role and potential mechanism of FGF10 in promoting keratinocytes cell cycle and proliferation after UVB injury . (bvsalud.org)
  • CCK8 kit was used to further detect cell proliferation ability . (bvsalud.org)
  • Our research aims to define the mechanisms that control normal cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and genome maintenance to identify the aberrations in these processes that drive cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • While it is recognized that the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway orchestrates hepatocyte proliferation in both homeostasis and injury, little is known about the importance of β-catenin in biliary epithelial cell (BEC) plasticity. (biorxiv.org)
  • Importantly, loss of AKAP8L decreased mTORC1-mediated processes such as translation, cell growth, and cell proliferation. (jbc.org)
  • Highly enriched, bipotent, hematopoietic granulocyte macrophage colony-forming cells (GM-CFC) require cytokines for their survival, proliferation, and development. (openrepository.com)
  • Luseogliflozin increases beta cell proliferation through humoral factors that activate an insulin receptor- and IGF-1 receptor-independent pathway. (theopenscholar.com)
  • We treated C57BL/6J male mice either with vehicle, luseogliflozin, OSI-906 or OSI-906 plus luseogliflozin for 7 days, and phenotyping was performed to determine beta cell mass and proliferation. (theopenscholar.com)
  • Subsequently, we tested whether serum-derived factors have an effect on beta cell proliferation in genetically engineered beta cells, mouse islets or human islets. (theopenscholar.com)
  • Beta cell mass and proliferation were further increased by SGLT2 inhibition with luseogliflozin in the OSI-906-treated mice. (theopenscholar.com)
  • The increase in beta cell proliferation was recapitulated in a co-culture of Irs2 knockout and Insr/IR knockout (βIRKO) beta cells with serum from both luseogliflozin- and OSI-906-treated mice, but not after SGLT2 inhibition in beta cells. (theopenscholar.com)
  • Circulating factors in both luseogliflozin- and OSI-906-treated mice promoted beta cell proliferation in both mouse islets and cadaveric human islets. (theopenscholar.com)
  • These results suggest that luseogliflozin can increase beta cell proliferation through the activation of the FoxM1/PLK1/CENP-A pathway via humoral factors that act in an insulin/IGF-1 receptor-independent manner. (theopenscholar.com)
  • fruits in RSC96 Schwann cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fruits facilitate the survival and proliferation of RSC96 cells via insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Schwann cells are capable of dedifferentiation, migration, proliferation, the expression of growth-promoting factors and the myelination of regenerating axons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, enhancing Schwann cell proliferation might be a potential approach for neuron regeneration in neuron injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The inhibitory effects of strawberry extracts on the proliferation and transformation of human and mouse cancer cells were also evaluated. (cdc.gov)
  • Strawberry extracts inhibited the proliferation of human lung epithelial cancer cell line A549 and decreased TPA-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The strawberries may be highly effective as a chemopreventive agent that acts by targeting the down-regulation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB activities, blocking MAPK signaling, and suppressing cancer cell proliferation and transformation. (cdc.gov)
  • As a result, Sox3 increases cell proliferation, delays neurogenesis and inhibits epidermal and neural crest formation to expand the neural plate . (xenbase.org)
  • IL-2 is a potent lymphoid cell growth factor which exerts its biological activity primarily on T cells, promoting proliferation and maturation. (biolegend.com)
  • CD137 appears to be important for T cell proliferation and survival (4) and induces monocyte activation (5). (ancell.com)
  • Curcumol reduced the proliferation of breast cancer cells by targeting NCL/ERα36 and inactivating the PI3K/AKT pathway' - See curcumin at Amazon.com . (qualitycounts.com)
  • Mast cells also release chemotactic factors that contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, whose proliferation and differentiation from bone marrow progenitors is promoted by IL-5. (kegg.jp)
  • It inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration [5]. (who.int)
  • 10 Astragalus polysaccharides are also shown to promote proliferation and function of intestinal intraepithelial T cells - a group of specialized T cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa that may also have systemic immune modulating effects. (ndnr.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) activity is crucial for survival and proliferation of many kinds of malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC). (who.int)
  • mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase, is thought to play a central role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, cellular metabolism and angiogenesis [ 7 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Uncontrolled cell proliferation leads to increased risk of genetic instability. (info-tecuci.ro)
  • Neosartoricin was shown to inhibit T-cell proliferation with an IC 50 of 3 μM and was proposed to possibly play a role in suppressing host adaptive immune response during infection 11 . (cdc.gov)
  • This demonstrates a crucial role for BAFF in B cell maturation and strongly suggests that it signals via a BCMA-independent pathway and in an APRIL-dispensable way. (garvan.org.au)
  • The Cyst-LT pathway in AERD is upregulated due to increased Th2 cytokines in cells associated with Th2 inflammation (eosinophils, basophils and mast cells). (medscape.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 10 protects against UVB-induced skin injury by activating the ERK/YAP signalling pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using ductal organoids to model BECs transitioning into hepatocytes, we found that activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in these cells promoted partial escape from a biliary fate and triggered the acquisition of progenitor cell features. (biorxiv.org)
  • Additional analysis indicated that atractylenolide‑1 regulated oxidative stress reactions and improved gastric operate by activating the SCF/c‑ equipment signaling pathway. (inacj.com)
  • The current research was undertaken to research whether or not oxymatrine attenuates oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (ox‑LDL)‑induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) harm, an in vitro cell mannequin of atherosclerosis, by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome‑mediated pyroptosis, and elucidate the position of the sirtuin (SIRT)1/nuclear issue‑erythroid 2‑associated issue 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway on this course of. (inacj.com)
  • However, the contribution of the activated form, pEGFR, and its downstream signaling (PI3-K/AKT) pathway is not clear yet. (ru.nl)
  • Since not all tumors show coexpression to the same extent, other factors must be involved in the activation of this pathway as well. (ru.nl)
  • The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway is activated by intracellular nutritional sufficiency and extracellular growth signals. (jbc.org)
  • Therefore, it is likely that bFGF contributes to maintenance of human ES cells, at least in part, through the MEK1/ERK pathway. (kribb.re.kr)
  • fruits triggers the phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor- phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine-threonine kinase pathway, and up-regulated the proliferating cell nuclear antigen in a dose-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resveratrol reverses TGF-β1-mediated invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells via the SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy signal axis - Phytother Res 2022 Sep 9 - 'Taken together, our study provided novel insight into the anticancer effects of Resv and revealed that targeting the SIRT3/AMPK/autophagy pathway can serve as a new therapeutic target against breast cancer' - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com . (qualitycounts.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 suppresses gastric tumor progression through nuclear factor‑κB pathway. (who.int)
  • Yong‑zheng X, Wan‑li M, Ji‑ming M, Xue‑qun R. Receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 suppresses gastric tumor progression through nuclear factor‑κB pathway. (who.int)
  • The calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling pathway regulates osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Akbari MR, Malekzadeh R, Nasrollahzadeh D, activates EGFR pathway signaling in the lung. (who.int)
  • Thus this test activates both Protein-C and factors of the intrinsic pathway. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Researchers have identified a molecular pathway that activates sperm . (medlineplus.gov)
  • In tumor cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligand(s) and receptor(s), immunoblot analysis established tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs) in the absence of any exogenous ligand, implying chronic receptor activation. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • The researchers then observed that mice without the receptor were more anxious than mice with intact receptors in stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the requirement of bFGF in human ES cells, we investigated expression of FGF receptors and intracellular signaling events in response to bFGF in human ES cell line MizhESl. (kribb.re.kr)
  • In the induction phase of EAE, inflammation is initiated by the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) to pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on innate immune cells, including inflammatory dendritic cells and monocytes (Fig. 1 ). (springer.com)
  • In the induction phase, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) from commensal bacteria and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) from dead/dying cells bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on monocytes and dendritic cells (DC). (springer.com)
  • Activated DC present antigenic peptide by MHC class II molecules to T cell receptors (TCR) on T naive (CD4) T cells. (springer.com)
  • Fcγ-receptors play a critical role in triggering the adapted immune system, and a lower activation provides a less robust cell immunity response. (forbes.com)
  • IgE molecules bind to IgE receptors located on mast cells. (kegg.jp)
  • Probable mediators in these pathways are oxidants that phosphorylate either receptors on the cell surface or other signaling proteins occurring upstream of transcription factor interaction with DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • Although clinical trials are mostly lacking, Astragalus has been credited with immune-modulating actions via numerous molecular, cell culture, animal, and in-vitro research, including effects on T cells, T-cell receptors, and cytokines. (ndnr.com)
  • reabsorption chaperones via precursor virus Protease Activated Receptors( PARs). (erik-mill.de)
  • When enough receptors are simultaneously activated by NTs, the neuron will either "fire" an electric current all over its surface membrane, if the transmitter/receptors are excitatory, or else the neuron will be inhibited from electrically discharging, if the NT/receptors are inhibitory. (antiaging-nutrition.com)
  • Other factors that stimulate Protein-C activation are thrombomodulin, endothelial protein-C receptors (present in the blood vessels) etc. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by epidermal growth factor in hippocampal neurons and neuronal cell lines. (uchicago.edu)
  • The activation of the extracellular signaling kinase/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade by crocidolite asbestos after phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor was considered. (cdc.gov)
  • PLATELET-ACTIVATING factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory phospholipid that activates cells involved in inflammation1,2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulating inflammation through the anti-inflammatory enzyme platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Roles of plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in allergic, inflammatory, and atherosclerotic diseases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is one of the most potent lipid mediators involved in inflammatory events. (scielo.br)
  • HUVECs viability, levels of inflammatory factors, formation of foam cells and cholesterol efflux were respectively analyzed by CCK‑8 assay, ELISA and Oil Red O staining. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In vivo intracerebral injection of SLE-serum in mouse was used to activate microglia and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine was assessed by ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When activating to the M1 phenotype, microglia elaborate pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines promoting inflammation and cytotoxic responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent advances have indicated that inflammasomes contribute the etiology of MS. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes of the innate immune response involved in the processing of caspase-1, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 as well as the cell death-mediated mechanism of pyroptosis and the activation of the adaptive immune response. (springer.com)
  • Infiltrating γδ T cells, Th1 and Th17 secrete the inflammatory cytokines IL-17, granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) that activate microglia and oligodendroglia inducing the production of inflammatory mediators such as IL-8 that recruits neutrophils and promotes the production of matrix metalloproteinases and chemokines. (springer.com)
  • These cytokines are also released from activated γδ T cells and jointly combine to initiate pro-inflammatory feedback loops that augment the production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 by antigen presenting cells (APC), leading to enhanced Th17 responses and continued γδ T cell activation of the effector phase. (springer.com)
  • Lastly, activated γδ T cells suppress T regulatory (T reg ) responses, promoting the pro-inflammatory profile by effector T cells. (springer.com)
  • Key pathological processes within blood and central nervous system (CNS) during EAE and MS. (1) Danger associate molecular patterns (DAMP) and Pathogen-Associated molecular patterns (PAMP) released into the peripheral blood activate inflammatory myeloid and T cells that migrate into the CNS after blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. (springer.com)
  • The importance of tracking cells throughout the circulatory system, including those of hematopoietic origin, derives from the impact of mobile cells on tissue injury and repair, and the remote targeting of pathological processes such as inflammatory involvement of the heart, lung and blood vessels. (nih.gov)
  • As the neurons deteriorate, they release inflammatory factors that trigger a cascade of brain inflammation and cause other brain cells to run haywire. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Interestingly, professional inflammatory cells contribute to sebocyte differentiation and homeostasis, whereas the regulation of sebaceous gland function by immune cells is antigen-independent. (nih.gov)
  • Expressing inflammatory mediators, sebocytes also contribute to the polarization of cutaneous T cells towards the Th17 phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • This is your direct access to the cell-mediated immune response as well as inflammatory response. (robbwolf.com)
  • The levels of pro-infalmmatory cytokines (CCL2, TNF-α) were increased, the infiltration of inflammatory cells (CCR2) was elevated, and the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of Angptl2, NF-κB and Foxo1 were increased to different degrees. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activated protein-C (APC) other than regulating blood clotting, and apoptosis (programmed cell death), has Cytoprotective effects (anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells and leucocytes), and it is also involved in process inflammation, thus it has a modulatory role in inflammation (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory actions. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • IRF4 RNA, protein, and IRF4 transcriptional targets are uniformly elevated in HTLV-1-transformed cells and ATL cell lines, and IRF4 was bound to genomic regulatory DNA of many of these transcriptional targets in HTLV-1-transformed cell lines. (wustl.edu)
  • This fusion gene encodes for the FIP1L1-PDGFR alpha protein, the constitutively activated tyrosine kinase that induces eosinophilia. (medscape.com)
  • The GPI anchor is made up of many different pieces and is assembled in a cell structure called the endoplasmic reticulum, which is involved in protein processing and transport. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, the PGAP2 protein cannot efficiently modify the GPI anchor, likely impairing the anchor's ability to attach itself and its associated protein to the cell membrane. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate that Ragulator, a heteropentameric protein complex required for mTORC1 activation in response to amino acids, is critical for inhibiting the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB). (jbc.org)
  • An activated protein kinase C alpha gives a differentiation signal for hematopoietic progenitor cells and mimicks macrophage colony-stimulating factor-stimulated signaling events. (openrepository.com)
  • Greater than 95% of the transfected cells showed over a twofold increase in PKCalpha expression with the protein being located primarily within the nucleus. (openrepository.com)
  • Transfection with a small interfering RNA blocked the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and induced down-regulation both on the mRNA and protein levels, which resulted in a reduction of the expression of the survival factor B-cell lymphoma 2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibitory effect on activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and cell transformation by extracts of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. (cdc.gov)
  • antioxidant enzymes on tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet-B (UVB) induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were studied. (cdc.gov)
  • It's kind of a mesh of molecules and sugars and protein that holds your cells in place. (jwz.org)
  • Sox3 activates geminin and sox2 expression in the absence of protein synthesis. (xenbase.org)
  • We report that stimulation of B cell lines with PAF induced tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein, approximately 42 kDa in size. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunoblot analysis, using an antibody to microtubule-associated protein-2 kinase, demonstrated the presence of a single protein species in unstimulated cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of the 42-kDa protein was rapid, detectable within 30 s, and evident over a wide range of PAF concentrations (10 -7 to 10 -10 M). Treatment of cells with phorbol myristate acetate induced tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein with the same mobility in SDS- PAGE gels as the protein induced after PAF stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Lysates from PAF- stimulated lymphoblastoid cells exhibited more than twice the ability to phosphorylate myelin basic protein than lysates from untreated cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, the results suggest that PAF stimulation of B cells induces the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of microtubule-associated protein-2 kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • The effects of ER stress were transcriptional because of downregulation of CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transcriptional activators and upregulation of the transcriptional repressor CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein-10 (CHOP10). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, PLD1 precipitated from cell lysates with immobilized glutathione S-transferase-RalA fusion protein is active. (embl.de)
  • CD137 is a type I membrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (1,2). (ancell.com)
  • The receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) is known to regulate tumor development, whereas the underlined mechanism has not been described clearly. (who.int)
  • Inhibition of protein synthesis by parasites exposed to products of activated macrophages was abrogated by preincubating macrophages with catalase but not with SOD, mannitol, or histidine. (aai.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether the increased AKT or MAPK kinase-1/2 (MEK1/2) activity observed in endometriotic stromal cells (OSIS) from ovarian endometriomas influences levels of PR protein. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Inhibiting AKT with MK-2206 or MEK1/2 with U0126 for 24 hours in the absence of R5020 increased total and nuclear PRA and PRB protein levels in OSIS but not in eutopic endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients from disease-free patients. (webpediatrica.com)
  • We evaluated receptor mRNA and protein expression levels and effects of octreotide, pasireotide, and cabergoline on ACTH secretion by cultured human corticotroph adenoma cells. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Protein-C (PC) is also known as auto-pro-thrombin IIA and/or blood coagulation factor XIX). (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Protein-C is homologous to factors VII, IX and X. The gene for Protein-C is located on the long arm of chromosome 2. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Two types of congenital Protein-C deficiency are either due to a reduction in Protein-C deficiency/activity or because of dysfunctional Protein-C, thus resulting in a condition called as activated protein-C resistance. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Hence these pathological conditions contribute in formation of frequent blood clots (thrombophilia) and thus these patients are to be monitored since they are at a very high risk of intravascular thrombus formation (thrombosis) leading to complications such as VTE (venous thrombo-embolism), DIC, DVT, pulmonary embolism, stroke, purpura fulminans, death of newborn (neonatal purpura in newborn babies could be a clinical manifestation for the deficiency of APC-Activated Protein-C) etc. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Protein-C activity: Protein-C serine protease pro-enzyme is converted to activate form i.e activated protein-C (APC) by thrombin and thrombomodulin. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Thus upon activation APC (activated protein-C) forms a complex with protein-S on a phospholipid surface and hence rapidly it inactivates blood clotting factors such as factor Va and factor VIIIa. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Protein-C is activated when it binds to thrombin. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Activated Protein-C prevents coagulopathies. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Elevated levels of Activated protein-C are seen in conditions like increased hepatic insulin resistance in patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia, nephrotic syndrome, with the use of anabolic steroids, oral contraceptives, alcohol and with increasing age. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Additional tests include chromogen (amidolytic) based assay - the formation of chromogenic colour is proportional to the amount of Activated protein-C - APC (hence Protein-C) in the plasma sample specimen (test results can be interfered with by hemolysis, lipemia, icterus etc), partially activated Protein-C test, antithrombin, lupus anticoagulant, antiphospholipid antibodies, factor V Leiden test, prothrombin test etc. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Here we investigated the impact of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist GW501516 (GW), an agent known to boost FAO in other tissues, on CD8 + T-cell metabolism, function, and efficacy in a murine ACT model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sex steroids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands, neuropeptides, endocannabinoids and a selective apoptotic process contribute to a complex regulation of sebocyte-induced immunological reaction in numerous acquired and congenital skin diseases, including hair diseases and atopic dermatitis. (nih.gov)
  • ABSTRACT We evaluated the prognostic value of serum endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. (who.int)
  • An in vitro AS model was established by the induction of oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (ox‑LDL) for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • They induce transcription factors that limit inflammation and prothrombotic functions of activated endothelial cells. (medscape.com)
  • B cells undergo a complex series of maturation and selection steps in the bone marrow and spleen during differentiation into mature immune effector cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • Previous studies have widely characterized the signaling pathways important for astrocyte differentiation and unveiled a number of transcription factors that guide oligodendrocyte differentiation in the CNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, SRF-deficient NPCs generated fewer astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in response to several lineage-specific differentiation factors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Interestingly, ectopic expression of a constitutively active SRF (SRF-VP16) in NPCs augmented astrocyte differentiation in the presence of pro-astrocytic factors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, immunologic and metabolic signaling are intrinsically linked: through mitigation of metabolic stress, T cell differentiation can be altered to promote more functional cellular fates. (nature.com)
  • T cell differentiation is a complex process of integrating numerous signals from the environment, engaging transcriptional machinery and making epigenetic changes to support that new functional program 1 . (nature.com)
  • However, a fate alternative to effector or memory differentiation is induced in pathologies in which antigen persists, notably chronic infections and cancer: T cell exhaustion. (nature.com)
  • Embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation has the potential to be instrumental in cell based therapies and in vitro disease modeling and chemical screens. (nyu.edu)
  • To understand cell differentiation and to gain control of cell fate during direct programming, it is necessary to rationalize how selector factors recognize their genomic targets and control gene expression. (nyu.edu)
  • Therefore, successful in vitro differentiation protocols to be applied either for cell based therapies or disease modeling should produce neurons with defined generic and subtype identity. (nyu.edu)
  • During in vivo and in vitro differentiation, members of the Hox family of transcription factors impose subtype identity and control motor neuron (MN) connectivity. (nyu.edu)
  • that regulate the differentiation and activation of these cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3, nuclear factor (NF)- κ B p65, Syk, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), and Bcl2 proteins were strongly expressed in bone marrow aspirate smears of ABC-DLBCL patients. (hindawi.com)
  • The expression of KLF2, adhesion factors, cholesterol efflux regulatory proteins and autophagy‑associated proteins in HUVECs or/and THP‑1 monocytes was detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our data furthermore support that BECs are source of Wnt ligands and that Rspo proteins potentially act as the limiting factor controlling the activation of β-catenin activation and BEC reprogramming during severe liver damage. (biorxiv.org)
  • The GPI anchor attaches (binds) to various proteins and then binds them to the outer surface of the cell membrane, ensuring that they are available when needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The anchor is then transferred to a different cell structure called the Golgi apparatus, which modifies newly produced enzymes and other proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • GPI anchor-associated proteins that cannot attach to the cell membrane are released from the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unclear how PGAP2 gene mutations lead to the other features of Mabry syndrome, but these signs and symptoms are likely due to a lack of proper GPI anchoring of proteins to cell membranes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A increased in a dose-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If improper activation of one or both signals occurs, this information will help to identify the proteins that are necessary to effectively guide the axons of stem cell-derived neurons to their appropriate targets in Parkinson's disease. (dana.org)
  • The SRY -related, HMG box SoxB1 transcription factors are highly homologous, evolutionarily conserved proteins that are expressed in neuroepithelial cells throughout neural development. (xenbase.org)
  • Entirely changing the proteins, causing major catastrophes inside the body such as cell deaths, and toxification. (ipl.org)
  • The small intestines allows properly digested fats, proteins and starches to pass through the cells in order to be used by the body while providing a barrier to keep out foreign substances, large undigested molecules and bacterial products. (robbwolf.com)
  • Active oxygen species may also be important in the degradation of proteins in these cascades or in the initiation of lipid peroxidation cell signaling pathways yet to be characterized after exposure of cells to minerals. (cdc.gov)
  • Changes in vascular permeability are lial cells tethered together by junctional proteins commonly present in certain clinical diseases such as tight and adherens junctions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Interacting with various cellular proteins, E6 and E7 influence fundamental cellular functions like cell cycle regulation, telomere maintenance, susceptibility to apoptosis, intercellular adhesion and regulation of immune responses. (info-tecuci.ro)
  • The virus is taken up by dendritic cells, which, after antigen processing, presents it to T cells, leading to immune activation and release of a cascade of cytokines that are believed to mediate the systemic effects of plasma leakage and circulatory insufficiency. (who.int)
  • Inhaled allergens encounter antigen presenting cells (APC) that line the airway. (kegg.jp)
  • Upon recognition of the antigen and activation by APC, naive T cells differentiate into TH2 cells. (kegg.jp)
  • The antigens (either dietary related or microbial or viral) pass through the weakened junctional complex(JC), they are presented by an antigen-presenting cell (APC) to the T-cells (a lymphocyte produced by the Thymus gland). (robbwolf.com)
  • Once intestinal permeability is increased and a leaky gut is present, the antigen enters the body and stimulates the cell-mediated immune response. (robbwolf.com)
  • Pre- hematopoietic and other cells, but the Duffy sence of one copy of the deleted CCR5 gene also antigen of erythrocytes (DARC) is the only influences the course of disease as the onset of member expressed on cells of erythroid lineage. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigen presentation by the dendritic cell with the lymphocyte and cytokine response leading to airway inflammation and asthma symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Parasites incubated in microchambers separated from macrophages by a 0.45-micron filter were susceptible to H2O2 released by LK-activated macrophages incubated with PMA, opsonized zymosan, or P. yoelii antigen. (aai.org)
  • Phorbol‑12‑myristate‑13‑acetate (PMA)‑induced THP‑1 monocytes were differentiated into macrophages which were transformed to foam cells by ox‑LDL incubation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Based on the results of chemical characterization studies, the P388D 1 -derived LAF appears to be similar in size and charge to the lymphocyte activating factor produced by normal macrophages. (aai.org)
  • Many of these will grow into powerful immune system defenders, like T-cells and interstitial macrophages, which has been shown to be potent protectors against lung diseases. (alsearsmd.com)
  • Oxidative killing of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii by activated macrophages. (aai.org)
  • The capacity of macrophages activated in vivo and in vitro to kill Plasmodium yoelii was investigated. (aai.org)
  • Macrophages activated by BCG-, Con A-, or malaria-induced lymphokines (LK) were cultured with P. yoelii-parasitized erythrocytes (PE). (aai.org)
  • Activated macrophages killed target PE in a dose-dependent manner by elaborating a membrane-permeable soluble factor(s). (aai.org)
  • LK-activated macrophages underwent an oxidative burst upon the phagocytosis of PE as evidenced by the accumulation of reduced formazan in the NBT assay. (aai.org)
  • Clinical phenotype of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) may also have a component of Th2 inflammation related to eosinophils and mast cells. (medscape.com)
  • Investigations in the EAE model have identified key immune cells mediating inflammation in the CNS. (springer.com)
  • Other studies show K2 fights inflammation - the root of all disease - by controlling the production of certain immune system stem cells. (alsearsmd.com)
  • Th2 cells are critical in maintaining both the state of chronic and relapsing eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the acute hypersensitivity responses characteristic of the atopic diseases. (jci.org)
  • NP-induced oxidative stress responses are torch bearers for further pathophysiological effects including genotoxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis as demonstrated by activation of associated cell signaling pathways. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of the paradigms for NP-mediated toxicity include oxidative stress, inflammation, genetic damage, and the inhibition of cell division and cell death [ 8 - 11 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulforaphane also inactivates nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), a key inducer of inflammation, while activating Nrf2, which lowers inflammation in mice. (mara-labs.com)
  • Expression of both WT and the K59R mutant of IRF4 from a constitutive promoter in retrovirally transduced murine bone marrow cells increased the abundance of T lymphocytes but not myeloid cells or B lymphocytes in mice. (wustl.edu)
  • IRF4 may represent a therapeutic target in ATL because ATL cells select for a mutant of IRF4 with higher nuclear expression and transcriptional activity, and overexpression of IRF4 induces the expansion of T lymphocytes in vivo. (wustl.edu)
  • Unstimulated P388D 1 cells, as well as P388D 1 cells stimulated with PHA-activated guinea pig T lymphocytes or LPS, produced a lymphocyte activating factor (LAF). (aai.org)
  • Some cell types, such as lymphocytes, are capable of activating telomerase, an enzyme that can elongate telomere sequences and thereby modulate cellular lifespan. (researchsquare.com)
  • Z200595SCF is a stromal cell-derived cytokine synthesized by fibroblasts and other cell types. (topsan.org)
  • Cytokine deprivation from activated T cells leads to apoptosis associated with down-regulation of the bcl-2 gene product. (nih.gov)
  • Neurotrophic Effects of Cytokine-activated Astrocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Yoshida K., Toya S.: 'Neurotrophic activity in cytokine-activated astrocytes' Keio J Med. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Studies using these samples found associations between fatal outcomes and elevated liver enzyme levels, renal dysfunction, cytokine dysregulation, and genetic factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Astragaloside IV is the primary pure saponin of Astragalus , and has been shown to be important to its cytokine and T-cell modulation effects, promoting T-helper cells toward a T-helper 1 (Th1) phenotype. (ndnr.com)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF5 plays an important role in enhancing mammary tumor cells overall aggressiveness and in promoting mammary tumor growth and emphasize the possible benefit of anti-ATF5 therapy in breast cancer patients, particularly, against tumors characterized with the positive expression of cell surface CD24. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, the mammary tumor effect of hyperinsulinemia was demonstrated in females of the transgenic MKR mouse model of T2D, inoculated with the mammary cancer cell lines, Met1 ( 7 ) and Mvt1 ( 8 ), where tumors derived from both cell lines showed a significant increase in growth rate in MKR females compared with wild-type mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have shown that Mvt1 expressing CD24 on their cell surface (CD24-positive cells) are more aggressive than Mvt1 cells not expressing CD24 on their cell surface (CD24-negative cells) and that inoculation of CD24-expressing cells into the mammary fat pad of female mice results in significantly larger tumors compared to inoculation with CD24-negative cells ( 12 , 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Collaborative departmental research has revealed that patients who respond to immunotherapy have antibody responses against their tumors and that the presence of B cells within a tumor may serve as a marker to predict patient immunotherapy response. (mdanderson.org)
  • We show that a group of cytokines including IL-2 (IL-2R gamma), prevent the apoptosis of IL-2-deprived activated T cells. (nih.gov)
  • These cytokines can thus regulate the persistence or removal of effector T cells by coordinating the balance between genes which promote and those which inhibit apoptosis, events which are probably mediated at least in part by signals through the common gamma chain. (nih.gov)
  • These data also implicate inappropriate T cell apoptosis resulting from a dysfunctional common gamma-chain as part of the pathophysiological defect in patients with X-linked severe-combined immunodeficiency (SCID). (nih.gov)
  • and Cancer Stem Cells, Apoptosis and Autophagy. (mdanderson.org)
  • Cell apoptosis was detected by circulation cytometry. (inacj.com)
  • To make the dream of becoming a superhuman come true, the artificial cells need to contain reactive oxygen, an isotope of the natural oxygen, which once inside the human body it leads to "oxidative stress, activation of signaling pathways, and apoptosis" (Gwinn). (ipl.org)
  • In addition, there is evidence for increased apoptosis and endothelial cell dysfunction, which may also contribute to its pathogenesis. (who.int)
  • In between the epithelial cells are tight junctions held together by the junctional complex. (robbwolf.com)
  • When the junctional complex is disrupted, the epithelial cells separate and allow particles into the body without policing them. (robbwolf.com)
  • The virus infects basal epithelial cells of stratified squamous epithelium. (info-tecuci.ro)
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.015 epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle cells. (cdc.gov)
  • This treatment induces collagen and the growth factor is supposedly to renew skin and improve the appearance of scars. (whatclinic.com)
  • Freezing activated NFATc3 in liver, leading to increased osteopontin expression and glycogen synthase kinase 3β repression (the latter potentially linked with glucose production as a cryoprotectant). (carleton.ca)
  • Our published and preliminary data demonstrate that we can measure dynamic changes in Src kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and Cdc42 activity with high spatial and temporal precision in living cells. (dana.org)
  • Furthermore, strawberry extract also blocked TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and UVB-induced phosphorylation of ERKs and JNK kinase in JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cell culture. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the ribosomal S6 peptide kinase activity (S6PK) was increased after PAF stimulation of the B cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Phphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are activated in 30% and 60% of human gastric carcinoma, respectively [ 5 , 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • ox‑LDL induced decreased KLF2 expression in THP‑1 macrophage derived foam cells and KLF2 overexpression activated Nrf2 expression and enhanced autophagy. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In conclusion, KLF2 alleviated endothelial cell injury and inhibited the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by activating Nrf2 and enhancing autophagy. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Tan Z, Ren H, Liu Y, Yang H, Luo Q and Deng X: KLF2 alleviates endothelial cell injury and inhibits the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells by activating Nrf2 and enhancing autophagy. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Overexpression of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase II protected HaCaT cells against apop tosis induced by oxidative stressors t-butylhydroperoxide and ultraviolet B radiation, and evidence that this specialized phospholipase is involved in protecting this organ against oxidative stress through the degradation of oxidatively modified bioactive phospholIPids is provided. (semanticscholar.org)
  • KLF2 overexpression attenuated ox‑LDL‑induced endothelial cell injury, as evidenced by increased cell viability and decreased levels of TNF‑α, IL‑6, IL‑1β, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule‑1 and E‑selectin. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition, KLF2 overexpression inhibited the formation of THP‑1 macrophage‑derived foam cells and promoted lipid efflux. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Overexpression of EGFR correlates with decreased survival after radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (ru.nl)
  • Effects of RACK inhibition with small interfering RNA or its overexpression in cultured GC cell lines were evaluated in cell viabilities. (who.int)
  • Knockdown of RACK elevated GC cell viabilities, whereas overexpression of RACK1 suppressed tumorigenesis of GC cells. (who.int)
  • Since this test is highly sensitive, the possible errors in test results may either arise (because of many factors involved) due to the occurrence of an under-estimate value in some cases or in a few rare cases even the overexpression might be rarely projected occasionally. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 controls neural stem cell activation in mice and humans" Cell Reports . (eurekalert.org)
  • Although considerable evidence supports the prevailing view that amino acids activate mTOR complex 1 but not mTORC2, several studies reported paradoxical activation of mTORC2 signaling by amino acids. (jbc.org)
  • Following breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), activation of Th1, Th17 and γδ T cells enter the brain and spinal cord. (springer.com)
  • We found that activation of the Met receptor for hepatocyte growth factor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of β4, which is instrumental for integrin-mediated recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2. (rupress.org)
  • Evidence in humans and animal models suggests that IgE-mediated mast cell activation gives rise to both the acute and late-phase responses. (jci.org)
  • Acute responses are accompanied by evidence of mast cell activation and mediator release. (jci.org)
  • Human CD137 (4-1BB) is expressed on activated T cells within 24-48 hours of activation (3). (ancell.com)
  • Evidence indicated that crocidolite asbestos causes nuclear factor kappa-B activation in HTE cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. (cdc.gov)
  • Once harvested, separated, activated by photo-activation and combined with powerful growth factors harvested from your own platelets, the cells are returned to the body. (pensummed.pro)
  • It is a vitamin-K dependent plasma glycoprotein, on activation functions as an anticoagulant by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa. (rtdiagnostics.net)
  • These include transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), BAFF-R (BR3), and B cell maturation Ag (BCMA). (topsan.org)
  • FVIII is ineffective for hemostasis in inhibitor individuals, solved some unmet needs of HA treatment, such as regimen intravenous bypassing agents (activated prothrombin com- (once weekly up to once monthly infusion) and route of admin- plex concentrate [aPCC] or recombinant activated factor VII istration (subcutaneous). (bvsalud.org)
  • Activated prothrombin complex (aPCC) 50-100 μg kg −1 or recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) 270 μg kg −1 as a single dose (or 90 μg kg −1 2-3 hourly) are equally acceptable treatments for joint or soft tissue bleeds, with repeated doses as necessary. (medscape.com)
  • The B cell-activating factor from the TNF family (BAFF), is emerging as an important regulator of B cell and T cell responses. (topsan.org)
  • BAFF was originally identified as a factor responsible for B cell survival and maturation. (topsan.org)
  • BAFF-R appears to be particularly important for the regulation of B cell survival and maturation in the spleen, because A/WySnJ mice expressing a defective BAFF-R have disrupted B cell maturation, similar to that seen in BAFF-deficient mice. (topsan.org)
  • The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) (BLyS/TALL-1) plays an important role in B cell homeostasis. (garvan.org.au)
  • Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to verify the synergistic effect of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) on IgG stimulation of microglia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have demonstrated that production and secretion of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) from astrocytes was enhanced by cytokines such as fibroblast growth factor(FGF), interleukin-1beta(IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha), epidermal growth factor(EGF), transforming growth factor-beta1(TGF-beta1), which are likely to be present in the brain following injury. (nii.ac.jp)
  • GM-CFC will form neutrophils in the presence of the cytokines stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, whereas macrophage colony-stimulating factor leads to macrophage formation. (openrepository.com)
  • In addition, resident microglia of the CNS, infiltrating monocytes and neutrophils secrete IL-1β and IL-23 to further activate and expand these cells (Fig. 2 ). (springer.com)
  • Neuron injury stimulates various physiological responses that facilitate nerve cell regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ability of neuron regeneration is a result of intrinsic neuronal activities and other associated components, such as the Schwann cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activates cell regeneration, releases the skin of micro-particles, and protects it against oxidative stress caused by factors such as UV radiation. (mariagalland.com)
  • Originally, mesenchymal stem cells were thought to be the drivers of tissue regeneration. (pensummed.pro)
  • Factors secreted by MSCs are mitotic to tissue-specific progenitors that add to tissue regeneration. (pensummed.pro)
  • Stimulates skin regeneration, activates proteosomes to enhance internal detoxicating mechanisms and shows anti-glycation activity. (zelens.com)
  • Platelet activating factor (PAF), a phospholipid mediator produced by a variety of cell types, has potent biological activities in many cellular systems. (elsevier.com)
  • Activating transcription factor-5 (also known as ATFx) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding family of transcription factors ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers will use "fluorescence imaging biosensors" to visualize biochemical signals within neurons derived from embryonic stem cells to test whether these neurons respond appropriately to molecular guidance cues. (dana.org)
  • The guidance cues to be tested regulate the orientation the axons (communication cables) of developing and regenerating neurons, which controls neural network formation, necessary for stem cell therapy to benefit patients with Parkinson's disease. (dana.org)
  • Researchers have been experimenting with stem cell therapy to determine whether the stem cell-derived neurons can effectively be reincorporated into the correct neural networks. (dana.org)
  • To do so, stem cell-derived neurons need to respond to environmental factors that attract of repel outgrowth, to guide axon extension in the correct direction. (dana.org)
  • They will use fluorescence imaging to determine whether two key biochemical signals are activated normally within dopaminergic neurons derived from stem cells. (dana.org)
  • One promising treatment of PD patients is stem cell therapy, which requires the integration of new DA neurons into existing circuits. (dana.org)
  • For cell therapy to succeed, new DA neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ESC) must respond appropriately to extracellular guidance information. (dana.org)
  • Two extracellular factors that guide fetal DA neurons are Netrin and Slit. (dana.org)
  • However, a recent study using dopaminergic neurons derived from embryonic stem cells found that these neurons do not respond to chemotropic gradients of Netrin or Slit. (dana.org)
  • In Aim 2, we will perform similar experiments using dopaminergic neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. (dana.org)
  • Therefore, the expression of few factors programs ESC into neurons at high efficiency allowing us to apply biochemical interrogation techniques to study gene expression, physiological properties, chromatin status and genomic occupancy of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • We take advantage of sets of transcription factors that program mouse ESC to two types of human neurons with different sensitivities to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). (nyu.edu)
  • Stem cell-derived cranial and spinal motor neurons reveal proteostatic differences between ALS resistant and sensitive motor neurons. (nyu.edu)
  • However, scientists previously believed that senescence primarily occurred in dividing cells, not in neurons. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In this study, Gage and his team took skin samples from people with Alzheimer's disease and converted those cells directly into neurons in the lab. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The mechanisms involved include direct stimulation of airway smooth muscle and indirect stimulation by pharmacologically active substances from mediator-secreting cells such as mast cells or nonmyelinated sensory neurons. (medscape.com)
  • ASP is also a major excitatory neurotransmitter, and ASP can activate neurons in place of GLU (1,2). (antiaging-nutrition.com)
  • The prevalence of such a mutation is 0.4% in unselected cases of eosinophilia, but it can be as high as 12-88% in cohorts with HES, particularly those with features of MPD (increased levels of tryptase and mast cells in the bone marrow). (medscape.com)
  • Cross-linking of IgE bound to mast cells by FcεRI triggers the release of preformed vasoactive mediators, synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and the transcription of cytokines. (jci.org)
  • Despite being a cell-matrix adhesion molecule, β4 integrin can prompt the multiplication of neoplastic cells dislodged from their substrates (anchorage-independent growth). (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, gene expression analysis between CD24-positive and -negative Mvt1 cells revealed activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) as one of the top 10 genes that were upregulated in the aggressive CD24-positive cells over CD24-negative cells ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Adapting to such challenges requires metabolic rearrangement, partially mediated by transcription factor control over gene expression. (carleton.ca)
  • Additionally, the gene KRAS, which is commonly involved in cancer, could activate the senescent response. (medicalxpress.com)
  • B cell activating factor gene polymorphisms in patients with risk of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease may be due to an activating mutation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene. (cdc.gov)
  • One family has been reported with a mutation in the gene encoding the glial cells missing homolog b (GCMB) transcription factor. (cdc.gov)
  • A growth factor that controls the formation of blood vessels in the brain can also stimulate mouse and human neural stem cells to produce new brain cells, Yale University researchers have discovered. (eurekalert.org)
  • Surprisingly, one form of the growth factor (VEGF-C) does not stimulate brain blood vessel formation at doses that activate brain stem cells, which highlights its clinical potential. (eurekalert.org)
  • On the other hand, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been characterized as a biochemical marker that is secreted in response to growth hormone to stimulate tissue growth [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, if guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate was added to activate Arf and stimulate translocation to the membrane, high levels of Arf were precipitated by RalA from cell lysates. (embl.de)
  • Activated TH2 stimulate the formation of IgE by B cells. (kegg.jp)
  • Although cell origin is currently not used to guide therapy, treatments for ABC-DLBCL and GCB-DLBCL differ in their efficacy due to differences in signaling pathways [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • High-throughput whole-exome sequencing revealed recurrent activating genetic alterations in the T-cell receptor, CD28, and NF-B pathways. (wustl.edu)
  • We found that IRF4, which is transcriptionally activated downstream of these pathways, is frequently mutated in ATL. (wustl.edu)
  • Because MAPK, PI3K, and PKC pathways are well-known pathways triggered by bFGF in other cells, these pathways were investigated after stimulation with bFGF. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Induction and interactions of γδ T cell and Th17 cell signaling pathways in MS and EAE. (springer.com)
  • The induction of multiple signaling pathways by exposure to asbestos (1332214) fibers was investigated in hamster tracheal epithelial (HTE) cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that multiple cell signaling pathways may be stimulated by mineral dusts. (cdc.gov)
  • For instance, CNT-induced oxidative stress triggers cell signaling pathways resulting in increased expression of proinflammatory and fibrotic cytokines [ 12 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • This condition can be due to abnormally acidic blood or a lack of critical enzymes necessary for releasing oxygen from red blood cells, so when this oxidative cycle is oxygen deficient, it can't produce the quantity nor quality of ATP necessary for normal cellular functioning. (ipl.org)
  • Through physicochemical characterization and understanding of the multiple signaling cascades activated by NP-induced ROS, a systemic toxicity screen with oxidative stress as a predictive model for NP-induced injury can be developed. (cdc.gov)
  • Human embryonic stem (hES) cells can be maintained in a proliferative undifferentiated state in vitro by growing them on feeder layers of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells along with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF/FGF-2). (kribb.re.kr)
  • Together, our observations suggest that SRF plays a critical cell-autonomous role in NPCs to regulate astrocyte and oligodendrocyte specification in vivo and in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • In vitro, although CD8 + T cells experiencing continuous stimulation or hypoxia alone differentiated into functional effectors, the combination rapidly drove T cell dysfunction consistent with exhaustion. (nature.com)
  • These cells would become an in vitro human model to investigate intrinsic resistance to ALS. (nyu.edu)
  • Thus, M-CSF-stimulated translocation of PKCalpha to the nucleus is a signal associated with macrophage development in primary mammalian hematopoietic progenitor cells, and this signal can be mimicked by ectopic PKAC, which is also expressed in the nucleus. (openrepository.com)
  • IL-4 promotes macrophage development by rapidly stimulating lineage restriction of bipotent granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells. (openrepository.com)
  • IL-β and IL-23 activate γδ T cells leading to IL-17, IL-21, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production. (springer.com)
  • Under a magnification of 1125X, this photomicrograph revealed the presence of a macrophage containing a number of phagocytized red blood cells (RBCs). (cdc.gov)
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is not one of them. (aacr.org)
  • Diagram of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (aacr.org)
  • Currently, anti-EGFR therapies are approved by the FDA for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (erlotinib and afatinib), squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (cetuximab), pancreatic cancer (erlotinib), and colorectal cancer (cetuximab and panitumumab). (aacr.org)
  • The most frequent activating EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancers include the exon 19 deletion and L858R. (aacr.org)
  • However, clinical trials have shown that many second-generation EGFR TKIs inhibit both mutant and wild-type (normal) EGFR, which make them toxic to normal cells at the doses required to inhibit mutant EGFR. (aacr.org)
  • As a result, third-generation TKIs are being developed, such as AZD9291 and CO-1686, which are more selective to both the activating EGFR mutations and the acquired T790M mutation while sparing wild-type EGFR, potentially making them more specific and less toxic. (aacr.org)
  • In a couple of studies, researchers conducted elegant laboratory experiments to show that mutated lung cancer cells find ways to develop resistance to the third-generation EGFR TKIs as well. (aacr.org)
  • Here we have transfected freshly prepared GM-CFC with a constitutively activated form of PKCalpha, namely PKAC, in which the regulatory domain has been truncated. (openrepository.com)
  • The key features of T2D, namely, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia, as well as increased bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), have been indicated as potential molecular mechanisms underlying this association ( 4 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The overall goal of our carcinogenesis research is to understand the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms that allow the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. (mdanderson.org)
  • Here we will give a brief overview of the roles of IgE in allergic pathophysiology, and the molecular and cellular factors that ultimately regulate IgE production and Th2 expansion. (jci.org)
  • The need for the development of improved methods for molecular and cellular imaging and for cell tracking was identified at several NIH-sponsored workshops and meetings. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of these factors is therefore highly important towards understanding the molecular basis of host-pathogen interactions 6 , 7 . (cdc.gov)
  • The study, led by IU School of Medicine's Moanaro Biswas, PhD, and Valder R. Arruda, MD, PhD, from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania, is titled 'B cell activating factor modulates the factor VIII immune response in hemophilia,' and was published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation earlier this month. (news-medical.net)
  • 2021) B cell-activating factor modulates the factor VIII immune response in hemophilia A. Journal of Clinical Investigation . (news-medical.net)
  • meaning that the higher concentrations of cytokines and chemokines direct activated immune cells to inflamed organs, exacerbating the current state. (forbes.com)
  • They display a developmental block of B cell maturation in the periphery, leading to a severe depletion of marginal zone and follicular B2 B cells, but not of peritoneal B1 B cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • In short, for the first time in human history, science can finally explain the mystery of the stem cell maturation process. (alsearsmd.com)
  • Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is an important mediator of juxtacrine and paracrine signals between cells (Zimmerman et al. (scielo.br)
  • Activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) is an anti-apoptotic factor and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating the autophagy process. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling controls cell metabolism, promotes cell survival, and contributes to tumorigenesis, yet its upstream regulation remains poorly defined. (jbc.org)
  • In the future, both cell types can be the substrate for chemical screens to identify molecules that enhance MN survival. (nyu.edu)
  • The relatively large number of pediatric cases in this outbreak enabled closer investigation of factors associated with increased survival of pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease. (cdc.gov)
  • A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because Arf stimulates PLD1, we looked for the presence of Arf in the active RalA-PLD1 complexes isolated from v-Src- and v-Ras-transformed cell lysates. (embl.de)
  • Can Cellular Imaging Provide Pivotal Information for Improving Stem Cell Therapy in Parkinson's Disease? (dana.org)
  • As cells age, they can undergo cellular senescence , which contributes to tissue dysfunction and age-related disorders. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The sulforaphane in BrocElite® is a potent inducer of Phase 2 detoxifying liver enzymes and helps protect cellular DNA as well as promotes healthy cell replication and liver health. (mara-labs.com)
  • These data implicate Arf in the transduction of intracellular signals activated by v-Src and mediated by the Ras-RalA GTPase cascade. (embl.de)
  • An enzyme called alkaline phosphatase is normally attached to the cell membrane by a GPI anchor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furthermore, we show that our DNA-based enzyme can control the composition of human cell membranes, which opens new avenues for applications of membrane-interacting DNA systems in medicine. (nature.com)
  • Improperly activated signals can cause mis-wiring of the axons. (dana.org)
  • As intratumoral exhausted T cells experience severe hypoxia, we hypothesized that metabolic stress alters their responses to other signals, specifically, persistent antigenic stimulation. (nature.com)
  • Antigenic peptide presentation along with co-stimulatory signals from DC (IL1-β, IL-6 and IL-23) activates Th17 cells that respond and secrete IL-17, GM-CSF, and IL-21. (springer.com)
  • As the researchers started looking deeper into this organ, they noticed that the signals shooting back and forth through the fluid also influenced stem cells. (alsearsmd.com)
  • Specifically, they noticed these signals would nudge stem cells in a certain direction. (alsearsmd.com)
  • Some signals would tell certain stem cells to mature into a muscle cell. (alsearsmd.com)
  • Other signals made a stem cell mature into a bone cell. (alsearsmd.com)
  • Still other signals would tell stem cells to divide and create more stem cells for the reserves - all transported via interstitium fluid. (alsearsmd.com)
  • This function is counterintuitive given the established notion that transformed cells are able to grow and survive in the absence of adhesion and, thus, without demanding integrin-derived signals ( Guo and Giancotti, 2004 ). (rupress.org)
  • To fulfill those expectations, ESCs have to be directed at high efficiency to disease relevant cell types, either by the application of extracellular signals or direct programming by forced expression of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • Therefore, our long term goal is to understand how extracellular signals and transcription factors control cell fate and apply that knowledge to differentiate ESC into disease relevant neuronal cell types. (nyu.edu)
  • risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (who.int)
  • PMID:18786442 mutations and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (who.int)
  • Arbyn M, Bergeron C, Klinkhamer P, Martin-Hirsch squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk region in Iran. (who.int)
  • We report the detection of HPV 52 in a sample taken from a year-old patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva of the left eye. (info-tecuci.ro)
  • Case Report Hpv high risk not 16 18 detected, Human papillomavirus 52 positive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva Hpv high risk with 16 and 18 genotyping. (info-tecuci.ro)
  • 14 Departments of Dermatology and Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. (nih.gov)
  • IgE-induced mast cell degranulation in vivo is often followed by a late-phase reaction (LPR), a second wave of hypersensitivity responses occurring many hours after the acute reaction and dependent upon eosinophils. (jci.org)
  • In particular, some studies have found that children have weaker memory T-cells and lower neutralizing and Fcγ-receptor activating responses compared to adults. (forbes.com)
  • Induction of immunogenic cell demise (ICD) is anticipated to draw immune cell populations that promote innate and adaptive immune responses. (nfkb-p65.info)
  • Continuous stimulation promoted Blimp-1-mediated repression of PGC-1α-dependent mitochondrial reprogramming, rendering cells poorly responsive to hypoxia. (nature.com)
  • The WRKY transcription factor, WRKY13, activates PDR8 expression to positively regulate cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis. (uidaho.edu)
  • Both amplification and point mutations of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) have been previously detected in ATL. (wustl.edu)
  • These findings extend the oncogenic potential of HBZ and suggest that viral expression might be involved in the remarkable genetic instability of ATLL cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • The plastic genetic state of ESC is particularly receptive to the programming activity of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • These changes and markers of genetic instability are driven by a failure of DNA repair systems and cell cycle regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Non-HLA genetic factors also influence sus- followed HIV-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Neurobiologist Jean-Leon Thomas and colleagues, in collaboration with vascular biologist Anne Eichmann, found that neural stem cells lacking a receptor for the blood vessel growth factor produced fewer new brain cells in the hippocampus of mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Exactly how mTORC1 promotes cell growth remains unclear. (jbc.org)
  • mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) senses amino acids to control cell growth, metabolism, and autophagy. (jbc.org)
  • The growth factors that are produced by Schwann cells play an important role in peripheral nerve repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4. Hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) receptor, c-Met was expressed in cultured rat hippocampal astrocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Concentrated fish oil ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating fibroblast growth factor 21-adiponectin axis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 is required for the therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against fructose-induced fatty liver. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-21 could potentially be used as a hormone therapy to extend lifespan in mammals. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • HGF, hepatocyte growth factor. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, statins have antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects, potentiate nitric oxide production, and upregulate transforming growth factor beta receptor III, leading to less collagen deposition and pulmonary fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • This article focuses on the use of targeted therapies in cervical cancer, specifically evaluating antiangiogenesis and endothelial growth factor receptor-related treatments. (jnccn.org)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in physiological vasculogenesis and vascular permeability and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. (who.int)
  • We investigated the relationship of VEGF as an angiogenic growth factor and endostatin as an angiogenic inhibitor in patients with pre-eclampsia. (who.int)
  • A Novel BSD Domain-containing Transcription Factor Controlling Vegetative Growth, Leaf Senescence and Fruit Quality in Tomato. (uidaho.edu)
  • They are believed to be responsible for growth, wound healing and replacing cells that are lost through daily wear and tear and pathological conditions. (pensummed.pro)
  • A plant-Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (plant-IGF1). (zelens.com)
  • Best, 'How to Apply Tips' for Skin Care Applications TOTAL SKIN CARE SOLUTIONS FOR: Repairing, Activating, Rejuvenating Skin CELLTERMI contains growth factors that have been developed on the foundation of research results accumulated through researches founded on skin cells. (promedicalskincare.com)
  • Here, involvement of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factors, isoforms c1-c4, was analyzed in liver and skeletal muscle over freeze/thaw and anoxia/re-oxygenation cycles. (carleton.ca)
  • However, the identities of the transcription factors critical for astrocyte specification in the brain remain unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent advances in cell programming demonstrated that terminal cell fate can be established by a handful of selector transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • Preliminary data suggests that programming transcription factors synergize to activate cell-specific transcriptional programs. (nyu.edu)
  • Activated DC and monocytes secrete interleukin (IL)-β, IL-23, and IL-6. (springer.com)
  • Immobilized mAb has been shown to induce TNF a production by monocytes(6) and IFNg production by NK cells(7). (ancell.com)
  • Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, plays a critical role in the immunological regulation in CNS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Your bone marrow produces red blood cells, platelets, and immune cells that allow your body to stave off infections and diseases. (alsearsmd.com)
  • The underlying causes have yet to be identified, but current research finds that increased immune cells and cytokines are involved. (forbes.com)