Azotobacter vinelandii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Azotobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Molybdoferredoxin: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE, which is active in nitrogen fixation, and consists of two subunits with molecular weights of 59.5 kDa and 50.7 kDa, respectively.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Flavodoxin: A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)AcetyleneDinitrogenase Reductase: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Vanadium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cytochrome d Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron as a prosthetic group in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.ResorcinolsDihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.FlavoproteinsHydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase ComplexKlebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Dithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Benzyl Viologen: 1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Tetramethylphenylenediamine: Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).2,6-Dichloroindophenol: A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.Thulium: Thulium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tm, atomic number 69, and atomic weight 168.93.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methylphenazonium Methosulfate: Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rhodospirillum rubrum: Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Spectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Carbon-Sulfur Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.MethylaminesMacromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Chromatium: A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing of Caenorhabditis elegans used to identify P. aeruginosa virulence factors. (1/366)

We reported recently that the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 kills Caenorhabditis elegans and that many P. aeruginosa virulence factors (genes) required for maximum virulence in mouse pathogenicity are also required for maximum killing of C. elegans. Here we report that among eight P. aeruginosa PA14 TnphoA mutants isolated that exhibited reduced killing of C. elegans, at least five also exhibited reduced virulence in mice. Three of the TnphoA mutants corresponded to the known virulence-related genes lasR, gacA, and lemA. Three of the mutants corresponded to known genes (aefA from Escherichia coli, pstP from Azotobacter vinelandii, and mtrR from Neisseria gonorrhoeae) that had not been shown previously to play a role in pathogenesis, and two of the mutants contained TnphoA inserted into novel sequences. These data indicate that the killing of C. elegans by P. aeruginosa can be exploited to identify novel P. aeruginosa virulence factors important for mammalian pathogenesis.  (+info)

The recombinant Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 epimerizes alginate by a nonrandom attack mechanism. (2/366)

The Ca2+-dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 is a representative of a family of Azotobacter vinelandii enzymes catalyzing the polymer level epimerization of beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) to alpha-L-guluronic acid (G) in the commercially important polysaccharide alginate. The reaction product of recombinantly produced AlgE4 is predominantly characterized by an alternating sequence distribution of the M and G residues (MG blocks). AlgE4 was purified after intracellular overexpression in Escherichia coli, and the activity was shown to be optimal at pH values between 6.5 and 7.0, in the presence of 1-3 mM Ca2+, and at temperatures near 37 degrees C. Sr2+ was found to substitute reasonably well for Ca2+ in activation, whereas Zn2+ strongly inhibited the activity. During epimerization of alginate, the fraction of GMG blocks increased linearly as a function of the total fraction of G residues and comparably much faster than that of MMG blocks. These experimental data could not be accounted for by a random attack mechanism, suggesting that the enzyme either slides along the alginate chain during catalysis or recognizes a pre-existing G residue as a preferred substrate in its consecutive attacks.  (+info)

Requirement of NifX and other nif proteins for in vitro biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase. (3/366)

The iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) of nitrogenase contains molybdenum, iron, sulfur, and homocitrate in a ratio of 1:7:9:1. In vitro synthesis of FeMo-co has been established, and the reaction requires an ATP-regenerating system, dithionite, molybdate, homocitrate, and at least NifB-co (the metabolic product of NifB), NifNE, and dinitrogenase reductase (NifH). The typical in vitro FeMo-co synthesis reaction involves mixing extracts from two different mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii defective in the biosynthesis of cofactor or an extract of a mutant strain complemented with the purified missing component. Surprisingly, the in vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with only purified components failed to generate significant FeMo-co, suggesting the requirement for one or more other components. Complementation of these assays with extracts of various mutant strains demonstrated that NifX has a role in synthesis of FeMo-co. In vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with purified components is stimulated approximately threefold by purified NifX. Complementation of these assays with extracts of A. vinelandii DJ42. 48 (DeltanifENX DeltavnfE) results in a 12- to 15-fold stimulation of in vitro FeMo-co synthesis activity. These data also demonstrate that apart from the NifX some other component(s) is required for the cofactor synthesis. The in vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with purified components has allowed the detection, purification, and identification of an additional component(s) required for the synthesis of cofactor.  (+info)

The A modules of the Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan-C-5-epimerase AlgE1 are sufficient for both epimerization and binding of Ca2+. (4/366)

The industrially important polysaccharide alginate is composed of the two sugar monomers beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) and its epimer alpha-L-guluronic acid (G). In the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the G residues originate from a polymer-level reaction catalyzed by one periplasmic and at least five secreted mannuronan C-5-epimerases. The secreted enzymes are composed of repeats of two protein modules designated A (385 amino acids) and R (153 amino acids). The modular structure of one of the epimerases, AlgE1, is A1R1R2R3A2R4. This enzyme has two catalytic sites for epimerization, each site introducing a different G distribution pattern, and in this article we report the DNA-level construction of a variety of truncated forms of the enzyme. Analyses of the properties of the corresponding proteins showed that an A module alone is sufficient for epimerization and that A1 catalyzed the formation of contiguous stretches of G residues in the polymer, while A2 introduces single G residues. These differences are predicted to strongly affect the physical and immunological properties of the reaction product. The epimerization reaction is Ca2+ dependent, and direct binding studies showed that both the A and R modules bind this cation. The R modules appeared to reduce the Ca2+ concentration needed for full activity and also stimulated the reaction rate when positioned both N and C terminally.  (+info)

Incorporation of molybdenum into the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase. (5/366)

The biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) of dinitrogenase was investigated using 99Mo to follow the incorporation of Mo into precursors. 99Mo label accumulates on dinitrogenase only when all known components of the FeMo-co synthesis system, NifH, NifNE, NifB-cofactor, homocitrate, MgATP, and reductant, are present. Furthermore, 99Mo label accumulates only on the gamma protein, which has been shown to serve as a chaperone/insertase for the maturation of apodinitrogenase when all known components are present. It appears that only completed FeMo-co can accumulate on the gamma protein. Very little FeMo-co synthesis was observed when all known components are used in purified forms, indicating that additional factors are required for optimal FeMo-co synthesis. 99Mo did not accumulate on NifNE under any conditions tested, suggesting that Mo enters the pathway at some other step, although it remains possible that a Mo-containing precursor of FeMo-co that is not sufficiently stable to persist during gel electrophoresis occurs but is not observed. 99Mo accumulates on several unidentified species, which may be the additional components required for FeMo-co synthesis. The molybdenum storage protein was observed and the accumulation of 99Mo on this protein required nucleotide.  (+info)

Evidence that MgATP accelerates primary electron transfer in a Clostridium pasteurianum Fe protein-Azotobacter vinelandii MoFe protein nitrogenase tight complex. (6/366)

The nitrogenase catalytic cycle involves binding of the iron (Fe) protein to the molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein, transfer of a single electron from the Fe protein to the MoFe protein concomitant with the hydrolysis of at least two MgATP molecules, followed by dissociation of the two proteins. Earlier studies found that combining the Fe protein isolated from the bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum with the MoFe protein isolated from the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii resulted in an inactive, nondissociating Fe protein-MoFe protein complex. In the present work, it is demonstrated that primary electron transfer occurs within this nitrogenase tight complex in the absence of MgATP (apparent first-order rate constant k = 0.007 s-1) and that MgATP accelerates this electron transfer reaction by more than 10,000-fold to rates comparable to those observed within homologous nitrogenase complexes (k = 100 s-1). Electron transfer reactions were confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. Finally, the midpoint potentials (Em) for the Fe protein [4Fe-4S]2+/+ cluster and the MoFe protein P2+/N cluster were determined for both the uncomplexed and complexed proteins and with or without MgADP. Calculations from electron transfer theory indicate that the measured changes in Em are not likely to be sufficient to account for the observed nucleotide-dependent rate accelerations for electron transfer.  (+info)

A vanadium and iron cluster accumulates on VnfX during iron-vanadium-cofactor synthesis for the vanadium nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii. (7/366)

The vnf-encoded nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii contains an iron-vanadium cofactor (FeV-co) in its active site. Little is known about the synthesis pathway of FeV-co, other than that some of the gene products required are also involved in the synthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) of the widely studied molybdenum-dinitrogenase. We have found that VnfX, the gene product of one of the genes contained in the vnf-regulon, accumulates iron and vanadium in a novel V-Fe cluster during synthesis of FeV-co. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and metal analyses of the V-Fe cluster accumulated on VnfX are consistent with a VFe7-8Sx precursor of FeV-co. The EPR spectrum of VnfX with the V-Fe cluster bound strongly resembles that of isolated FeV-co and a model VFe3S4 compound. The V-Fe cluster accumulating on VnfX does not contain homocitrate. No accumulation of V-Fe cluster on VnfX was observed in strains with deletions in genes known to be involved in the early steps of FeV-co synthesis, suggesting that it corresponds to a precursor of FeV-co. VnfX purified from a nifB strain incapable of FeV-co synthesis has a different electrophoretic mobility in native anoxic gels than does VnfX, which has the V-Fe cluster bound. NifB-co, the Fe and S precursor of FeMo-co (and presumably FeV-co), binds to VnfX purified from the nifB strain, producing a shift in its electrophoretic mobility on anoxic native gels. The data suggest that a precursor of FeV-co that contains vanadium and iron accumulates on VnfX, and thus, VnfX is involved in the synthesis of FeV-co.  (+info)

In vitro biosynthesis of iron-molybdenum cofactor and maturation of the nif-encoded apodinitrogenase. Effect of substitution for NifH with site-specifically altered forms of NifH. (8/366)

NifH has three different roles in the nitrogenase enzyme system. Apart from serving as the physiological electron donor to dinitrogenase, NifH is involved in iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) biosynthesis and in maturation of the FeMo-co-deficient form of apodinitrogenase to a FeMo-co-activable form (apodinitrogenase maturation). The exact roles of NifH in these processes are not well understood. In the present study, the features of NifH required for the aforementioned processes have been investigated by the use of site-specifically altered forms of the enzyme. The ability of six altered forms of NifH inactive in substrate reduction (K15R, D39N, D43N, L127Delta, D129E, and F135Y) to function in in vitro FeMo-co synthesis and apodinitrogenase maturation reactions was investigated. We report that the ability of NifH to bind and not hydrolyze MgATP is required for it to function in these processes. We also present evidence that the ability of NifH to function in these processes is not dictated by the properties known to be required for its function in electron transfer to dinitrogenase. Evidence toward the existence of separate, overlapping sites on NifH for each of its functions (substrate reduction, FeMo-co biosynthesis, and apodinitrogenase maturation) is presented.  (+info)

AlgE1, AlgE5 and AlgE6 are members of a family of mannuronan C-5 epimerases encoded by the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, and are active in the biosynthesis of alginate, where they catalyse the post-polymerization conversion of β-D-mannuronic acid (M) residues into α-L-guluronic acid residues (G). All enzymes show preference for introducing G-residues neighbouring a pre-existing G. They also have the capacity to convert single M residues flanked by G, thus condensing G-blocks to form almost homopolymeric guluronan. Analysis of the length and distribution of G-blocks based on specific enzyme degradation combined with size-exclusion chromatography, electrospray ionization MS, HPAEC-PAD (high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection), MALDI (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization)-MS and NMR revealed large differences in block length and distribution generated by AlgE1 and AlgE6, probably reflecting their different degree of processivity. When acting ...
You Are Here: Alginate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii is increased by reducing the intracellular production of ubiquinone. ...
1. A new method has been developed for the preparation in good yield of highly purified Azotobacter vinelandii polynucleotide phosphorylase in its reduced form. 2. Aging or digestion with trypsin causes the enzyme to develop a primer requirement that is not eliminated by β-mercaptoethanol. 3. The development of a primer requirement is accompanied by marked changes of the electrophoretic mobility of the enzyme in polyacrylamide gels. 4. The enzyme is inactivated by aerial oxidation or thiol-specific reagents. The lost activity is restored by β-mercaptoethanol, but not by oligonucleotide primers.. ...
A novel poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was identified in Azotobacter vinelandii. This enzyme, now designated PhbZ1, is associated to the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules and when expressed...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter vinelandii.
It is said that when Azotobacter vinelandii faces a difficult situation ,it can have some thing like a spore ,which called cyst. So,what are the differences between them? And how can they make such changes ...
Azotobacter vinelandii bacteriophage PAV-1 ATCC ® 13705-B1™ Designation: PAV-1 TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization
1G3O: Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I: a sequence and structure comparison approach to alteration of [4Fe-4S]2+/+ reduction potential
1PC5: Mechanisms of redox-coupled proton transfer in proteins: role of the proximal proline in reactions of the [3Fe-4S] cluster in Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I
References for Abcams Recombinant Pig Interferon gamma protein (ab92801). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Pig Interferon gamma protein (ab92801). Please download our general protocols booklet
Channel that opens in response to stretch forces in the membrane lipid bilayer. May participate in the regulation of osmotic pressure changes within the cell.
The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C1DM66 (PDXB_AZOVD), Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase. Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303)
Bacterial cells have to regulate the cytoplasmic pH to survive in the constantly changing environment as bacterial growth is dependent on substrate availability, as well as the redox potential and the pH of the medium. The regulation of internal pH involves proton export that requires energy in the form of ATP. The biochemical reactions in the cytoplasm associated with metabolism can lead to a net proton production or consumption. The variations in proton concentration in the cytoplasm during growth, can affect the kinetics and the thermodynamic feasibility of biochemical reactions necessitating active regulation of pH. The energetic cost of pH regulation via exporting protons associated with metabolism can impact the biomass yield of the organism and the extent of this effect can vary with the environment.. For example, in E. coli grown with glucose as the electron donor, organic acids released during growth greatly contribute to changes in pH of the medium. Previous studies [41-43] have shown ...
Clone contains nifK (dinitrogenase reductase) gene of Azotobacter vinelandii. The 2.6 kb insert can be excised with EcoRI. Vector: pBR325 ...
01. K. Lenin Babu (1994): Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination Associated with sewage Irrigation and Sludge Amendes. Supervisor - Prof. D.K. Banerjee. 02. Shiv Kumar Bansal (1994): Trace Element Geochemistry and Partitioning Patterns in Sediment Geochemistry and Partitioning Patterns in Sediment Cores from the Lakshadweep Sea. Supervisor - Prof. V. Asthana. 03. Jyoti Rani Ahlawar (1994): Modelling Air Quality in Tropical Coastal Environment. Supervisor - Prof. B. Padmanabhamurthy. 04. Binod Bihari Dash (1994): Modelling green House-Gas-Induced Climate Change. Supervisor - Dr. V.K. Jain. 05. Adhar Chandra Manna (1994): Molecular Characterisation of the Leucine Operon and Chromosomal Analysis of Azotobacter Vinelandii. Supervisor - Dr. H.K. Das. 06. Somnath Bandopadhyay (1994): An Ecological study of the Macro-invertebrate Community in a Floodplain Wetland. Supervisor - Dr. Brij Gopal. 07. R. Sreenivasan (1994): Modelling and Simulation of Meltwater runoff Process in a Himalayan Region. ...
The 14-3-3 protein family plays critical regulatory roles in signaling pathways in cell division and apoptosis. 14-3-3gamma is mainly expressed in brain. Using primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes, we investigated the relationships between 14-3-3gamma proteins and actin in astrocytes in cell division and under ischemia. Our results showed that endogenous 14-3-3gamma proteins in immature astrocytes appeared filamentous and co-localized with filamentous actin (F-actin). During certain stages of mitosis, 14-3-3gamma proteins first aggregated and then formed a ring-like structure that surrounded the daughter nuclei and enclosed the F-actin. In 4-week-old cultures of astrocytes, 14-3-3gamma proteins appeared as punctate aggregates in the cytoplasm. Under ischemia, 14-3-3gamma proteins formed filamentous structures and were closely associated with F-actin in surviving astrocytes. However, in apoptotic astrocytes, the intensity of immunostaining of 14-3-3gamma proteins in the cytoplasm ...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter salinestris.
All we that studied Bios probably remember two known aspects of the symbiotic relationships of plant roots with microorganisms: 1) The bacterial Rhizobium nodules on the roots of legumes (Figure 1). These bacteria, with the nitrogenase complex, are among the few organisms capable of fixing atmospheric N2 transforming it into organic nitrogen, which is used…
Nitrogenase is a complex metal-containing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia. During nitrogenase catalysis the Fe protein and the molybdenum-iron protein associate and dissociate in a manner resulting in the hydrolysis of two molecules of MgATP and the transfer of at least one electron to the MoFe protein. The role of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in nitrogenase catalysis is one of the most fascinating aspects of nitrogenase function. The Fe protein upon binding to MgATP undergoes a huge conformational change which is important for subsequent steps of nitrogenase reaction mechanism. Therefore structural characterization of the Fe protein bound to MgATP will provide a basis on how MgATP binding promotes the complex formation whereas hydrolysis to MgADP leads to the dissociation of the macromolecular complex structure. Towards these ends we have conducted structural studies on a site-directed variant of the Fe protein which is a close mimic of the MgATP ...
Rhodopseudomonas viridis grows by means of nitrogen fixation under anaerobic, photosynthetic conditions. In batch culture, nitrogenase activity was highest at early-logarithmic phase, lower during mid- to late-logarithmic phase, and nearly zero during stationary phase. Nitrogen-fixing cells were morphologically and ultrastructurally similar to non-nitrogen-fixing cells as determined by electron microscopy. Electron spin resonance (esr) spectroscopy of nitrogen-fixing whole cells yielded g4.26 and g3.66 signals indicating the presence of nitrogenase molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein. Ammonia switch-off occurred upon addition of 0.2 mM NH(,4)Cl, however, nitrogenase activity did not reappear for nearly four hours. Esr spectroscopy of whole cell multilayers (WCM) of Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhodospirillum rubrum was used to detect structural associations between nitrogenase MoFe protein and cell membrane. Conditions were defined for observing MoFe protein esr signals in whole cell preparations of each
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C1DFL3 (GLMM_AZOVD), Phosphoglucosamine mutase. Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303)
1. Increasing concentrations of nitrate, amino acid and peptone decreased proportionally the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed in culture solutions of Azotobacter.. 2. Increasing concentrations of sterile, unheated, plant extracts increased the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed up to a maximum limit, after which the fixation gradually decreased with further additions.. 3. The addition of sterile, unheated plant extracts to pure solution cultures greatly stimulated the multiplication of Azotobacter.. 4. Very heavy applications of plant material to soil effectively checked the assimilation of nitrogen, and at the same time greatly increased the concentration of nitrogen in the soil solution.. 5. It is suggested that Azotobacter always prefers to derive its nitrogen from a combined source but that plant tissues contain certain unknown "essential food substances" which stimulate the growth of the organism to such an extent that the supply of available nitrogen derived from moderate ...
Iron-sulphur (FeS) clusters are important cofactors for numerous proteins involved in electron transfer, in redox and non-redox catalysis, in gene regulation, and as sensors of oxygen and iron. These functions depend on the various FeS cluster prosthetic groups, the most common being [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] [(PUBMED:16221578)]. FeS cluster assembly is a complex process involving the mobilisation of Fe and S atoms from storage sources, their assembly into [Fe-S] form, their transport to specific cellular locations, and their transfer to recipient apoproteins. So far, three FeS assembly machineries have been identified, which are capable of synthesising all types of [Fe-S] clusters: ISC (iron-sulphur cluster), SUF (sulphur assimilation), and NIF (nitrogen fixation) systems.. In the NIF system, NifS and NifU are required for the formation of metalloclusters of nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii, and other organisms, as well as in the maturation of other FeS proteins. Nitrogenase catalyses the ...
Aktiivsemateks õhulämmastiku sidujateks mullas on aeroobsed asotobakterid(Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter aglis jt). Nad on polümorfsed ja seotud lämmastiku (nitritite, nitraatide, aminohapete jt.) puudumisel omastavad õhulämmastikku. Osa seotud lämmastikust eritatakse eksosmoosil ümbritsevasse keskkonda kas amiinohapetena või ammoniaagina. Energeetilise materjalina võivad nad kasutada nii mono-, di- kui ka mõningaid teisi polüsahhariide ja mitmeid alkohole, orgaanilisi happeid, sh. ka aromaatseid (näiteks bensoehape). Nad ei kasuta tselluloosi, kuid tselluloosirikas materjal (põhk, põhurikas sõnnik) intensiivistab nende paljunemist. Põhjendatav on see sellega, et tselluloos lõhustatakse mullas tsellulolüütiliste bakterite (Cellvibrio spp., Cellulomonas spp., Cellfalcicula spp. jt) poolt lihtsamateks süsivesikuteks, mida saavad kasutada asotobakterid ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is a free-living, obligately aerobic, nitrogen-fixing gamma-proteobacteria. It is found in soils world-wide, with features of nitrogen and energy metabolism relevant to agriculture. In response to carbon starvation it differentiates to form cysts that are impervious to chemical and physical challenge. Studies have been focused on its ability to fix diatmospheric nitrogen under free-living conditions, a process that occurs in the presence of oxygen levels that typically inactivate the nitrogenase enzyme. Unusually it encodes three distinct nitrogenase systems, the molybdenum, vanadium and iron-only nitrogenases, expression of which is differentially regulated by metal availability from the medium. Diazotrophic growth under aerobic conditions is possible because it adjusts oxygen-consumption rates to help maintain low levels of cytoplasmic oxygen, a phenomenon called respiratory protection. It is able to produce alginate, a polymer that further protects the organism from ...
Little is known about substrate binding and reduction of nitrogenase. EPR spectroscopy is used here to observe intermediate states generated by different substrates. Two different spin states (S=3/2 and S=1/2) were exhibited for each substrate, which may result from different binding of the substrate to the cofactor (side-on or terminal binding) or the difference of the substrate binding to either Fe or Mo of the cofactor. Parallel studies were performed on a variant MoFe protein, alpha-195Gln, which exhibited different signals from the wild-type suggesting that the substituted amino acid maybe necessary to reach some mechanistic states that the wild-type MoFe protein can reach. Electron transfer between the Fe protein and the MoFe protein was investigated to help determine the initial electron transfer pathway in nitrogenase. The altered Fe protein, L127-deletion Fe protein, is permanently in the complex-ready conformation and complexes with the MoFe protein to allow one electron transfer. The MCD
BURGESS NO. 30® is a partially calcined clay used extensively in PVC compounds to improve insulation resistance. This product exhibits excellent dispers...
In this Business Profile, Greg Burgess, Founder and Chief Product Officer at Burgess Group shares insights and opportunities for payment integrity in the rapidly changing healthcare IT landscape.
Olympos Burgess Hill: Offers relaxation and fun. Try our sub-tropical Aztec Pools which are fabulous fun for families all the year round. Fitted with water sprays, waterfalls, rapids, tipping buckets and winding flumes or if you just want to keep fit try the 25-metre pool and for the under 8 there softplay area facility.
Just one in three workers with limiting #ChronicDisease has an adapted workplace. What can we do to change it? Read… https://t.co/ASW3xIkfPQ ...
Career: 17 HR, .266 BA, 245 RBI, 2B/3B/SS, 2xAllStar, Giants/Cardinals/... 1933-1946, b:R/t:R, born in NC 1910, died 1993, Whitey
Alginate is a family of industrially important polysaccharides composed of irregular sequences of 1-4 linked β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G). They are widely used industrially as iscosifiers and gelling agents. Medical applications include utilization as dental impression materials, wound dressings and as an encapsulation matrix for cell transplants in the treatment of various diseases. Some alginates are immunogenic or have anti-tumor activity.. Commercial alginates are extracted from brown seaweeds, but the polymer is also produced by members of the bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. Probably in all species the alginate is first synthesized as polymannuronic acid, and then the guluronic acid moieties are introduced at the postpolymerization level by the action of mannuronan C-5- epimerases. Azotobacter vinelandii encodes a family of 7 secreted, Ca2+ -dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerases, AlgE1-7, which are composed of varying numbers of two types of structural ...
The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 has shown the presence of a 41 kb cluster of genes that encode the production of a second flagellar apparatus. Among 2535 pseudomonads strains with sequenced genomes, these genes are only present in the genomes of F113 and other six strains, all but one belonging to the P. fluorescens cluster of species, in the form of a genetic island. The genes are homologous to the flagellar genes of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Regulation of these genes is mediated by the flhDC master operon, instead of the typical regulation in pseudomonads, which is through fleQ. Under laboratory conditions, F113 does not produce this flagellum and the flhDC operon is not expressed. However, ectopic expression of the flhDC operon is enough for its production, resulting in a hypermotile strain. This flagellum is also produced under laboratory conditions by the kinB and algU mutants. Genetic analysis has shown that kinB strongly represses the expression of the flhDC
The hypothesis of respiratory protection, originally formulated on the basis of results obtained with Azotobacter species, postulates that consumption of O(2) at the surface of diazotrophic prokaryotes protects nitrogenase from inactivation by O(2). Accordingly, it is assumed that, at increased ambient O(2) concentrations, nitrogenase activity depends on increased activities of a largely uncoupled respiratory electron transport system. The present review compiles evidence indicating that cellular O(2) consumption as well as both the activity and the formation of the respiratory system of Azotobacter vinelandii are controlled by the C/N ratio, that is to say the ratio at which the organism consumes the substrate (i.e. the source of carbon, reducing equivalents and ATP) per source of compound nitrogen. The maximal respiratory capacity which can be attained at increased C/N ratios, however, is controlled, within limits, by the ambient O(2) concentration. When growth becomes N-limited at increased C/N
leaving the download Management of Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the Development of More Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems: Extended versions of papers presented at the Symposium on Biological Nitrogen of war has an Iranian research in Establishing the other pair of the Application. In this evaluation, a parole favors sent as the natural next-generation order for silencing veritable applications. stakeholders between Programmed Lines and satan problems are born to be.
Nitrogenase catalyzes the biological reduction of N2 to ammonia (nitrogen fixation). The metalloclusters associated with the nitrogenase components include the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the Fe protein, and the P-cluster [8Fe7S] and FeMo-cofactor [7Fe-9S-Mo-X-homocitrate], both contained within the MoFe protein. These metal-complexes play a vital role in enzyme activity during electron transport and substrate reduction. It is known that the FeMo-cofactor provides the site of substrate reduction, but the exact site of substrate binding remains a topic of intense debate. Some models for the substrate binding location favor the molybdenum atom, while other models favor one or more iron atoms within FeMo-cofactor. We have shown that the a-70 residue of the MoFe protein plays a significant role in defining substrate access to the active site: a-70 approaches one 4Fe-4S face of the FeMo-cofactor. Substitutions at this position alter enzyme specificity for reduction of alternative alkyne substrates. These ...
ID C1DKJ8_AZOVD Unreviewed; 397 AA. AC C1DKJ8; DT 26-MAY-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 26-MAY-2009, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 67. DE RecName: Full=Elongation factor Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU004061}; DE Short=EF-Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN Name=tuf {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, GN ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Avin_06090 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}, Avin_06230 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76874.1}; OS Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; OC Pseudomonadaceae; Azotobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=322710 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=DJ {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}, and DJ / ATCC BAA-1303 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424}; RX PubMed=19429624; ...
Doug Rees had his first experience with electron transfer processes in microbes as an undergraduate studying cytochrome in Neurospora with Carolyn W. Slayman at Yale College where he completed his BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry in 1974. In 1980 he received a PhD in Biophysics, determining crystal structures of carboxypeptidase A with William Lipscomb at Harvard. While there he also became acquainted with multi-center electron-sharing bonds (e.g. in boranes). During a two year postdoctoral appointment at the University of Minnesota with James B. Howard, he successfully produced the first crystals of the nitrogenase iron protein from Azotobacter vinelandii. He has continued his work with several nitrogenases and has had a productive collaboration with Jim Howard for 35 years.. Professor Rees joined the faculty of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at UCLA in 1982 and moved to Caltech in 1989. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National ...
Learning objectives:. Biotechnology has made major contributions in agriculture with regards to improvement, production and management of agricultural produces and practice. From hybrid technology to precise genetic manipulation- everything has profoundly impacted this sector. The objectives of the course on Agricultural Biotechnology are: i) understanding the basics of agricultural principles and practice and applying modern biotechnology tools for their improvements ii) learn and understand the latest innovations and discoveries that have been applied in the fields of plant and animal biotechnology iii) raising awareness about the prospects and cautions of releasing GMOs in the environment.. Course content: The course will cover the following aspects of Agricultural Biotechnology:. Plant growth and development: Plant growth regulators; Biological nitrogen fixation; Biofertilizers-types, production, VAM, Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Mycorhiza, Actinorhiza; Vermicomposting technology; ...
The nitrogenase complex reduces the N2 gas to ammonium, but not to nitrate. The product of fixation is ammonium. The oxidation of ammonium to nitrite/nitrate happens later and as I already said this processs called nitrification ...
Broker-consultant jobs in Burgess hill. Jobs near Burgess hill from Jobsword. Jobs updated daily. Apply online for Broker consultant jobs.
Burgess Excel Rabbit Treats are Cheaper from VetUK. Burgess Excel Rabbit Treats have been manufactured with 100% natural ingredients that contain no additives, preservatives or artificial colours, to give your rabbit a healthy and delicious snack.
Withnail. Hi.. ,,"…he was quick to distance himself from S88. When he discovers ANY Link to far right activists he severs that connection.". Yeah but does he think theyre patriotic or not? Err right, so Burgess just decided to actively promote and encourage others to attend a rally he knew nothing about, organised and attended by persons he knew nothing of? When and specifically how has Shermon Burgess distanced himself from S88? When and how has Shermon Burgess distanced himself from "far right activists"? Just last week he was proudly informing his Facebook audience about being praised by a pro Nazi, white supremacist website:. "I dont know if you saw the write up that ah Whitelaw Towers gave us, it was pretty damn good. They said were pretty much kicking the oppositions arse" - Shermon Burgess, Facebook video post, Feb 9, 2015.. And when supporters of The Great Aussie Patriot Burgess, and Reclaim Australia visit this White Pride World Wide website to check out his recommended ...
Written by Brisbane-based baby photographer Minna Burgess.For a large percentage of expectant parents there is one pressing question on their lips when they excitedly go for their babys 20-week ultrasound.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Cathleen Burgess, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
The home of Dave and Edie Burgess -- and the site of the Graystone Restaurant -- was originally an apple packing shed. The Burgesses purchased the building in 1996, intending to covert it into a house.
His Malayan trilogy The Long Day Wanes was Burgesss first published fiction. Its three books are Time for a Tiger, The Enemy in the Blanket and Beds in the East. Devil of a State is a follow-on to the trilogy, set in a fictionalized version of Brunei. It was Burgesss ambition to become "the true fictional expert on Malaya."[citation needed] In these works, Burgess was working in the tradition established by Kipling for British India, and Conrad and Maugham for Southeast Asia. Burgess operated more in the mode of Orwell, who had a good command of Urdu and Burmese (necessary for Orwells work as a police officer) and Kipling, who spoke Hindi (having learnt it as a child). Like many of his fellow English expatriates in Asia, Burgess had excellent spoken and written command of his operative language(s), both as a novelist and speaker, including Malay.. Burgesss repatriate years (c. 1960-69) produced Enderby and The Right to an Answer, which touches on the theme of death and dying, and One Hand ...
A dedicated and enthusiastic junior plant microbiologist with excellent academic achievements, previous work and research experiences in terrestrial ecology as well as environmental resource management to a total of 3 published articles. Her current research focus is biological nitrogen fixation by associative diazotrophic bacteria in non-leguminous plant systems, particularly investigating the functions of nitrogenase isozymes of a plant growth promoting bacteria Kosakonia radicincitans in biological nitrogen fixation in relation to nitrogen availability.. ...
The industrial production of formaldehyde from methanol is based on two different processes. For these processes, either silver or iron-molybdenum oxides are used as catalysts. Industrial production are mainly based on the Formox process with iron-molybdenum oxides. A disadvantage here is the leaching of active material. That leads to a limited stability of the catalyst system. In the present study an alternative catalyst system based on vanadium-antimony oxide has been useed. The aim is to find a long-term stable catalyst for the oxidation of methanol. This catalyst should have similar selectivity and activity as the technically used iron-molybdenum oxide. An additional focus of this work was the study of the influence of carrier material on the partial oxidation of methanol ...
Burgess Shale is famous for the exquisite and uncommon detail in its fossilized soft-bodied organisms. Heres the science behind the phenomenon.
Replying to a question about where people could buy Totes Amazeballs, he said: "The people who put on Kendal Calling asked us to do Tim Peaks for real at their festival. It was a metaphorical diner until now but is going to be real. Were going to serve Totes Amazeballs there - we didnt want it to seem commercial and Ive done work for The David Lynch Foundation. Seeing as we borrowed the Tim Peaks name heavily from him, we decided wed give them all the money." Burgess also spoke about his new solo album, which he is currently mastering in the studio and added that he will be putting out something special as part of this years Record Store Day. ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Howard Burgess II, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
A shrimp-like creature that lived 508 million years ago in seas that are now Canadas Burgess Shale may have been the best mom of her time - and perhaps the earliest animal ever found caring for its young.
Title: Glutaredoxin S15 Is Involved in Fe-S Cluster Transfer in Mitochondria Influencing Lipoic Acid-Dependent Enzymes, Plant Growth, and Arsenic Tolerance in ...
These functions are significantly used with ebook Web 2.0 and Beyond: Understanding of the own close or unique transmural regulation structures. Hormonal: carrier of care respect recognized by iron-molybdenum to the preparations pacing the process. operative: resulting to treat with hemispheres or the metabolic production.
I think I got it last June 29th 2015 when I went to Tennessee with my wife, and we took a little walk in a trail to the Burgess Fall. Im sure about i...
Local Bio Hazardous Burgess Hill Waste Removal And Disposal Cleaners Burgess Hill - 24/7 call now on 08001123430. Our Professionals are Insured and Trained for: Bio Hazardous Waste Removal Burgess Hill.
Pena,C. Segura,D. Nunez,C. 2011. Bioprocess design: fermentation strategies for improving the production of alginate and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Azotobacter vinelandii en: Carpi,A. Progress in Molecular and Environmental Bioengineering. Intech. pags. 217-242 Krushkal,J. Puljic,M. Bin Yan Barbe,J.F. Mahadevan,R. Postier,B. ONeil,R.A. Reguera,G. Ching Leang DiDonato,L.N. Nunez,C. Methe,B.A. Adkins,R.M. Lovley,D.R. 2008. Genome Regions Involved in Multiple Regulatory Pathways Identified Using GSEL, A Genome-Wide Database of Regulatory Sequence Elements of Geobacter sulfurreducens en: BioMedical Engineering and Informatics, 2008. BMEI 2008. International Conference on. IEEE. pags. 424-431 ...
Automatic Addition Control of the External Carbon Source by the Measurement of ORP in Biological Nitrogen Removal Process - Biological nitrogen removal;External carbon source;COD/N ratio;Oxidation-reduction potential;PID control;
How is New Amyloid Component Protein abbreviated? NACP stands for New Amyloid Component Protein. NACP is defined as New Amyloid Component Protein very rarely.
... are available online with fast delivery from VioVet, the trusted supplier of veterinary medication, foods and animal care products
Delusions - Buy wall art from Joe Burgess. All wall art ships within 48 hours and includes a 30-day money-back guarantee. Choose your favorite designs and purchase them as canvas prints, art prints, posters, framed prints, metal prints, and more!
email protected]. Dr. Burgess has a strong life sciences background with a particular focus in molecular biology, in vivo drug target validation and genetic engineering. He is currently Vice President, Global Business Development for RayBiotech, Inc. He previously held the positions of Vice President of Business Development for the U.K.-based firm Stem Cell Sciences, LLC and Vice President, Research and Development for Zyvex Corporation where he guided a team of 36 scientists and research engineers and played and integral part of the companys restructuring. Prior to Zyvex, he was employed at Serologicals Corporation, a 1000 employee bio-tools and reagents company realizing $275M in 2005 revenue, as Director of Scientific Sourcing and New Technologies. There he provided long-term visionary guidance for the company regarding new producta nd technology development opportunities through the establishment of key relationships and partnerships with aademic researchers and institutions. Prior to his ...
Are you shopping for Burgess Mature Rabbit Food? At Pet Drugs Online fast delivery, low prices and great service come as standard.
The Eagles signed defensive end Derrick Burgess to a two-year contract on Wednesday, the team confirmed. - Jeff McLane, Philadelphia Inquirer
Charlotte Burgess, DC is an experienced chiropractor with skills in the diagnosis and treatment of spinal misalignments that can occur from lifestyle or injuries causing pain, discomfort, and degenerative condition.
Change your life with Coach & Therapist Beth Burgess. Addiction Recovery Specialist. Featured on BBC Radio. FREE consultation. Employee workshops available.
Delhi government has formed a committee to look into the issues related to the implementation of FDI in retail and Value Added Tax (VAT).
The first report of successful expression of functional NifH (dinitrogenase reductase) in aerobically grown S. cerevisiae established that mitochondria provide a suitable environment for production of the O2-sensitive nitrogenase proteins (16). The study also showed that activation of mitochondrial-targeted NifH only required additional coexpression of its associated maturase NifM. Thus, endogenous yeast mitochondrial [Fe-S] cluster biosynthetic machinery sufficed to provide NifH with its essential [4Fe-4S] cluster, which is normally provided by NifU and NifS (33). This result suggested that not all nif gene products essential for functional assembly of an active nitrogenase in a model prokaryotic system would necessarily be required for assembly of an active nitrogenase in a particular eukaryotic system. In other words, certain essential prokaryotic components can be replaced by eukaryotic proteins having similar functions. However, as discussed below, the present work reveals that this ...
The India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) is a BBSRC-DBT joint-funded VJC aiming to tackle the problems of food security, the environmental and economic challenges of crop production and soil improvement in India through scientific research on nitrogen fixation. Formed in 2016, with lead investigators in India and the UK and a total of eight additional co-investigators from prestigious institutes and universities in both countries, IUNFC is carrying out world-class fundamental and applied research on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to increase scientific knowledge. In the short/medium term, this knowledge will lead to changes in agricultural practices in India, bringing economic, environmental and social benefits. In the longer term, it will provide a platform to engineer nitrogen fixation in cereal crops with implications for worldwide food security.. IUNFC unites eleven renowned experts in all aspects of BNF at six research centres in India and three in the UK under the leadership of ...
Wellbeing dog food from burgess now available at feedem.co.uk, buy burgess wellbeing digestive health adult dog food in 10kg bags to save
Dental health dog food from burgess now available at feedem.co.uk, buy burgess wellbeing dental health adult dog food in 10kg bags to save
As with Odontogriphus, another Burgess Shale animal related to molluscs, Walcott collected the first specimen of Nectocaris between 1909 and 1924. The fossil was photographed by Walcott, and its print sat with the unidentified specimen in the Smithsonian collections until noticed and described by Simon Conway Morris in 1976. Due to the lateral compression of the fossil, his resulting reconstruction was laterally-oriented. The funnel, bent back over the front, resembled the head-shield of an arthropod, and yet the fin, folded along the top of the organism, looked much like the ray-bearing dorsal fin of a chordate. A chordate affinity was further suggested by the myomere-like appearance of the bars, and although Conway Morris did not offer a firm diagnosis, Simonetta (1988) promoted a chordate status (Insom et al., 1995).. Meanwhile, Glaessner had described Vetustovermis, based on an ill-preserved specimen from Australias Emu Bay Shale, and because of its segmented appearance he suggested an ...
As with Odontogriphus, another Burgess Shale animal related to molluscs, Walcott collected the first specimen of Nectocaris between 1909 and 1924. The fossil was photographed by Walcott, and its print sat with the unidentified specimen in the Smithsonian collections until noticed and described by Simon Conway Morris in 1976. Due to the lateral compression of the fossil, his resulting reconstruction was laterally-oriented. The funnel, bent back over the front, resembled the head-shield of an arthropod, and yet the fin, folded along the top of the organism, looked much like the ray-bearing dorsal fin of a chordate. A chordate affinity was further suggested by the myomere-like appearance of the bars, and although Conway Morris did not offer a firm diagnosis, Simonetta (1988) promoted a chordate status (Insom et al., 1995).. Meanwhile, Glaessner had described Vetustovermis, based on an ill-preserved specimen from Australias Emu Bay Shale, and because of its segmented appearance he suggested an ...
Rutulinės bakterijos (kokai) yra pačios paprasčiausios. Jos sudarytos iš vienos apskritos ląstelės. Tik retais atvejais jos esti pupos, inksto ar pusrutulio formos. Besidalydamos viena kryptimi, kai kurių rūšių rutulinės bakterijos neatsiskiria viena nuo kitos. Tokiu atveju susidaro porinė bakterija, vadinama diplokoku (Azotobacter chroococcum). Jei dviląstelė rutulinė bakterija toliau dalijasi ta pačia kryptimi ir naujos ląstelės viena nuo kitos neatsiskiria, gaunama daugialąstė, grandinės formos kolonija, vadinama streptokoku (Streptococcus pyogenes, Lactococcus lactis). Kai ląstelės antrojo dalijimosi kryptis yra statmena pirmajai, susidaro ląstelių tetrada (tetrakokas). Jei tetrakoko formos bakterija dar skyla pusiau, bet jau yra statmena šiai keturių ląstelių plokštumai, tada susidaro aštuonių kokų kubo formos kolonija, vadinama sarcina. Kiekviena sarcinos ląstelė dar gali panašiai dalytis trimis kryptimis ir toliau. Tuomet susidaro sudėtinga 16 arba 32 ...
Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, Clamp M, Smink LJ, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Babbage A, Bagguley C, Bailey J, Barlow K, Bates KN, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bridgeman AM, Buck D, Burgess J, Burrill WD, OBrien KP (1999). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208 ...
A roadmap for interpreting (13)C metabolite labeling patterns from cells. Buescher JM, Antoniewicz MR, Boros LG, Burgess SC, Brunengraber H, Clish CB, DeBerardinis RJ, Feron O, Frezza C, Ghesquiere B, Gottlieb E, Hiller K, Jones RG, Kamphorst JJ, Kibbey RG, Kimmelman AC, Locasale JW, Lunt SY, Maddocks OD, Malloy C, Metallo CM Curr Opin Biotechnol.. 2015 34:189-201 ...
MEPS 361:253-265 , Full text in pdf format. Natanson LJ, Wintner SP, Johansson F, Piercy A, Campbell P, De Maddalena A, Gulak SJB, Human B, Fulgosi FC, Ebert DA, Hemida F, Mollen FH, Vanni S, Burgess GH, Compagno LJV, Wedderburn-Maxwell A ...
Q: I read the story about LuAnn Burgess, the woman charged with striking and killing three women who said her flip flop fell off and caused her accelerator to get stuck. Something similar happened to … ...
Songza CEO Elias Roman makes the case for his company Songza, in front of CNBCs Julia Boorstin and Nat Burgess, Corum Group president, who share their opinions on the business model of the company.
Burgess] Reginald, R. The House of the Burgesses: Being a Genealogical History of Edward Burgess of King George and Stafford Counties, Virginia, with His Sons - Garner Burgess of Fauquier Co., Virginia; William Burgess of Stafford Co., Virginia; Moses Burgess of Orange County, Virginia; Reuben Burgess of Rowan Co., North Carolina - and His Grandsons - Edward Burgess of Culpeper Co., Virginia; John Burgess of Harrison Co., Kentucky; Henry Burgess of Fleming Co., Kentucky; Edward Burgess of Scott Co., Kentucky; John P.B. Burgess of Halifax Co., Virginia; Edward Burgess of Kanawha Co., West Virginia; William Burgess of Davie Co., North Carolina; Reuben Burgess of Davie Co., North Carolina; and Thomas Burgess of White Co., Tennessee - Together with their Known Descendants Named Burgess. San Bernardino, California: Borgo Press, 1983. Available at FHL ...
HydroFarm BioRighteous, 12 oz Hydro Organics BioRighteous, 12 oz (HOR00771) BioRighteous inch Microbes For Plants inch - Blend No. 2 A powder blend of beneficial soil and plant microbes. Easy and versatile to use. Can be mixed into fertilizers and soils, applied as a foliage spray, added to hydroponic reservoirs and is ideal for brewing plant teas. Can be used together with BioZeus inch Microbes for Plants inch - Blend No. 1. BioRighteous contains the following active ingredients: Beneficial microbes, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii, Bacillus laterosprorus, Bacillus licheniforms, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilis, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhizobium japonicum Manufacturers Product Information MSRP each $ 21.48 UPC 727644007720 Dimensions 15.25 x 3.5 x 11 Case Weight 11 Case Quantity 12 HydroFarm: BioRighteous, 12 oz [hf-HOR00771] - Nutrients & Supplements - Gardening
Main Page of the Computational Chemistry Group. Scientific interests: Free Energy calculations, QM/MM method, PAW-method, Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Nitrogenase, sodium nitroprusside
15 Field Workers Comp Case Manager Birmingham, AL, USA Are you looking for a new opportunity with a prestigious healthcare company as a Field Workers Comp Case Manager? Do you want the chance to advance your career by joining a rapidly growing company... Apply Now>> ...
Burgess Complete Sensitive premium hypo-allergenic complete dog food, free from ingredients that can cause intolerance. Made with British turkey & rice plus functional ingredients to keep dogs healthy on the inside and
Buy Diseases of Carp and other Cyprinid Fishes (9780852382523): NHBS - Edited By: David Hoole, David Bucke, Peter Burgess and I Welby, Fishing News Books
Large Bags Of Sawdust For Chickens, Rabbits, Oil Spills, Etc in Burgess Hill. View this and 1000s more Pet Supplies ads on Friday-Ad!
Cumpără cartea Trends in Muscular Dystrophy Research de V. N. Burgess la prețul de 811.3 lei, discount 11% cu livrare gratuită prin curier oriunde în România.
Thomas Burgess, CMI is a Certified Professional Inspector (CPI) in Keaau, HI and certified by the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors.
To apply for permission please send your request to [email protected] with specific details of your requirements. This should include, the Wiley title(s), and the specific portion of the content you wish to re-use (e.g figure, table, text extract, chapter, page numbers etc), the way in which you wish to re-use it, the circulation/print run/number of people who will have access to the content and whether this is for commercial or academic purposes. If this is a republication request please include details of the new work in which the Wiley content will appear ...
Smith, J. L., Tester, D. J., Hall, A. R., Burgess, D. E., Hsu, C-C., Claude Elayi, S., Anderson, C. L., January, C. T., Luo, J. Z., Hartzel, D. N., Mirshahi, U. L., Murray, M. F., Mirshahi, T., Ackerman, M. J. & Delisle, B. P., 五月 2018, 於 : Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. 11, 5, p. e005859. 研究成果: 雜誌貢獻 › 文章 ...
Acquired August 29, 2001, this true-color image of Yoho National Park shows a landscape of naked ridges, forested slopes, meandering rivers, and jewel-toned lakes.
In June, Andrew Burgess, a high-flying executive, went part-time to help look after his children. In an extract from his diary, he describes the first weeks of his new life.
Leaders in states, cities, and metropolitan areas across the United States increasingly recognize the need to help their firms and regional economies become more competitive through increased and more intentional global engagement. In response, 28 U.S. metro areas started developing and implementing export and foreign direct investment (FDI) plans through the Global Cities Initiative Exchange. This document - the "FDI Planning Guide" - intends to support practitioners and project leaders as they manage the 10-month FDI planning process. Its findings are based on our work with 12 U.S. metro areas that delivered the first plans between March 2015 and April 2016.
Genetic information processingProtein synthesisRibosomal proteins: synthesis and modificationribosomal protein S12 methylthiotransferase RimO (TIGR01125; EC 2.1.1.-,2.8.1.-; HMM-score: 295.7) ...
Burgess was born in Boston, Massachusetts on Christmas Day, December 25, the son of yacht designer Edward Burgess and Caroline "Kitty" Sullivant, a legendary beauty and the daughter of William Starling Sullivant, an eminent natural scientist. Both of Burgess parents died within weeks of each other when he was 12, leaving him and his 3-year-old brother to be raised by relatives.. Like his father, Starling had a great mechanical and mathematical ability and a refined sense of line, form and spatial relationship. From his mother he received a love of literature and poetry, which he regarded as the foundation for all accomplishment.. After the death of his parents, Burgess was mentored by many of his fathers colleagues, including Nathanael Greene Herreshoff. This relationship was terminated by Herreshoff when Burgess confided his aspiration to become a yacht designer himself.. Starling attended Milton Academy, a progressive boarding school near Boston, where he became interested in aviation, ...
Electron-delivering protein manipulates natural catalyst, changing ideas about fertilizer production. Results: In industry, synthesizing ammonia for fertilizers uses massive amounts of hydrogen, typically generated from fossil fuels, but in nature, the nitrogenase enzyme produces ammonia without added hydrogen. In studying the enzyme, scientists came up against a protein, called the Fe protein. This little protein delivers electrons to the larger nitrogenase MoFe enzyme. The smaller proteins actions limit the enzymes speed. Recently, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and three universities found that the smaller protein and larger enzyme roll across each other, likely pushing at the MoFe surface to deliver electrons.. Why It Matters: Producing ammonia for the worlds crop fertilizers consumes 1 to 2 percent of all the energy produced by humankind. Part of that energy is used to generate hydrogen gas, which is combined with nitrogen gas in the Haber-Bosch process. This ...
Introduction. Biological nitrogen fixation is a worldwide economical and sustainable alternative for nitrogen supply to legume crops. It may reduce the expenses with chemical nitrogen fertilizers, as well as eliminating the negative impact of them on the environment (Straliotto et al., 2002).. To take advantage of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nitrogen biofertilizer, several studies have sought to identify efficient and competitive strains of rhizobia to cope the nitrogen requirements of this important crop. Unfortunately, biological nitrogen fixation in common bean field crops has exhibited unstable behavior (Mostasso et al., 2002; Hafeez et al., 2005; Soares et al., 2006).. Several approaches have been used to obtain new rhizobia strains which exhibit better biological nitrogen fixation responses on common bean. Typically, these strains are evaluated individually (Hungria et al., 2003; Soares et al., 2006) or in mixture with other strains (Hassan et al., 2004; Hafeez et al., 2005; ...
"Azotobacter vinelandii". John Innes Centre - Molecular Microbiology Department.. *. "Azotobacter vinelandii". JGI. Archived ... Azotobacter sp. AR. Azotobacter beijerinckii. Azotobacter chroococcum. Azotobacter sp. DCU26. Azotobacter sp. FA8. Azotobacter ... "Azotobacter.org". Archived from the original (A project to study the genome of Azotobacter vinelandii) on 20 May 2013. ... In 1909, Lipman described Azotobacter vinelandii, and a year later Azotobacter beijerinckii Lipman, 1904, which he named in ...
I. Polynucleotide phosphorylase of azotobacter vinelandii". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 20 (1): 269-85. doi:10.1016/0006- ...
Rediers, H; Vanderleyden, J; De Mot, R (2004). "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". Microbiology. 150 (Pt 5): ... Main article: Azotobacter. In the gammaproteobacterial order Pseudomonadales, the genus Azotobacter and the species Azomonas ... Young, J. M.; Park, D. -C. (2007). "Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas". ...
alginate (Azotobacter vinelandii). *cellulose (Acetobacter xylinum). *chitosan (Mucorales spp.). *curdlan (Alcaligenes faecalis ...
Menhart, N., Thariath, A., Viswanatha, T. (1991) Characterization of the pyoverdines of Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 with ... é o mesmo sempre coa excepción da azobactina de Azotobacter vinelandii, a cal posúe un anel de urea extra.[4] ...
Purification and properties of polynucleotide phosphorylase from Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Biol. Chem. 236: 3303-3311. PMID ...
Azotobacter vinelandii". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (3): 489-500. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.489. PMID 12005040.. ...
Rault-Leonardon, M., Atkinson, M.A., Slaughter, C.A., Moomaw, C.R. and Srere, P.A. (1995). "Azotobacter vinelandii citrate ...
... and is also present in Azotobacter vinelandii, a closely related species. It is presumed to function as a non-coding RNA. ...
Azotobacter vinelandii, a obligate anaerobe diazotroph used in nitrogen fixation research. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - a ...
... she demonstrated cell free protein synthesis with a particulate preparation from Azotobacter vinelandii. She did her post- ...
acetan (Acetobacter xylinum) alginate (Azotobacter vinelandii) cellulose (Acetobacter xylinum) chitosan (Mucorales spp.) ...
... from Azotobacter chroococcum and comparison of its redox potentials with those of flavodoxins from Azotobacter vinelandii and ... "Regulation of nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii: NifL, transducing two environmental ...
... as well as the related Azotobacter vinelandii. They are consistently located in what could be the 5' untranslated regions of ...
... of MgATP and MgADP interaction with the nitrogenase of Azotobacter vinelandii. Lysine 15 of the iron protein plays a major role ... "Mössbauer Study of the MoFe Protein of Nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii Using Selective 57Fe Enrichment of the M-Centers ... "Evidence for a central role of lysine 15 of Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase iron protein in nucleotide binding and protein ... "MgATP-induced conformational changes in the iron protein from Azotobacter vinelandii, as studied by small-angle x-ray ...
"Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". Microbiology. 150 (Pt 5): 1117-9. doi:10.1099/mic.0.27096-0. PMID 15133068 ... The nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter and the species Azomonas macrocytogenes have evolved from a species in ... Due to its nitrogen fixing capabilities and deviant features, Azotobacter has been described as "Pseudomonas in disguise". The ... "Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas". International Journal of Systematic and ...
... Genome Project Current research on Azotobacter vinelandii at the Norwich Research Park Type strain of ... Azotobacter vinelandii is Gram-negative diazotroph that can fix nitrogen while grown aerobically. It is a genetically tractable ... Nagpal P, Jafri S, Reddy MA, Das HK (1989). "Multiple chromosomes of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Bacteriol. 171 (6): 3133-8. ... Maldonado R, Jiménez J, Casadesús J (1994). "Changes of ploidy during the Azotobacter vinelandii growth cycle". J. Bacteriol. ...
... radiobacter Agrobacterium tumefaciens Anaplasma Anaplasma phagocytophilum Azorhizobium caulinodans Azotobacter vinelandii ...
Azotobacter MeSH B03.440.400.425.135.135.850 --- Azotobacter vinelandii MeSH B03.440.400.425.180 --- Bdellovibrio MeSH B03.440. ... Azotobacter MeSH B03.660.250.580.045.500.820 --- Azotobacter vinelandii MeSH B03.660.250.580.100 --- Cellvibrio MeSH B03.660. ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is the most studied of these organisms. It uses very high respiration rates, and protective compounds, ... Two of the most studied systems are those of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii. These systems are used because ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Marine Nitrogen Fixation - The Basics (USC Capone Lab) Azotobacter Rhizobia ...
Imai T (January 1973). "Purification and properties of nicotinamide mononucleotide amidohydrolase from Azotobacter vinelandii ...
... new pathway for resorcinol catabolism in Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Bacteriol. 146 (2): 460-6. PMC 216987 . PMID 7217008. ...
Homologous ferredoxins from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av2FeFdI) and Aquifex aeolicus (AaFd) have been characterized. The crystal ...
Burgess, C. F.; Jacobs, D. B.; Stiefel, E. I. "Large Scale Purification of High Activity Azotobacter Vinelandii Nitrogenase". ...
The cubic core structure, found in species such as Azotobacter vinelandii, is made up of 24 subunits total. The catalytic ... structure of the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Azotobacter vinelandii. A ...
ISBN 1-904455-19-0. [1]. Rediers H, Vanderleyden J, De Mot R (2004). "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". ... The Pseudomonadaceae are family of bacteria which includes the genera Azomonas, Azomonotrichon, Azorhizophilus, Azotobacter, ...
Davidson IW, Lawson CJ, Sutherland IW (1977). "An alginate lysate from Azotobacter vinelandii phage". J. Gen. Microbiol. 98 (1 ...
... is structurally similar to azobactin, from Azotobacter vinelandii, except that the latter possesses an extra urea ... "Characterization of the pyoverdines of Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 with regard to heterogeneity". Biology of Metals. 4 (4 ...
Evaluation of three methods for preservation of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azotobacter vinelandii. Univ. Sci. 18(2): 129-139. ... Rojas-Tapias D, Ortega O, Rivera D, Bonilla R (2015). Preservation of Azotobacter chroococcum vegetative cells in dry polymers ...
Using three soil bacteria, Azotobacter vinelandii (Av), Bacillus licheniformis (Bl), and Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus (Pc), we ... 1983) Whole cell respiration and nitrogenase activities in Azotobacter-Vinelandii growing in oxygen controlled continuous ...
... the broad-host range application potential of the reporter plasmid by using Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter vinelandii as ...
The NIFS protein from Azotobacter vinelandii was found to serve as an efficient catalyst in vitro for delivery of selenium from ... The NIFS protein from Azotobacter vinelandii was found to serve as an efficient catalyst in vitro for delivery of selenium from ... The NIFS protein from Azotobacter vinelandii was found to serve as an efficient catalyst in vitro for delivery of selenium from ... that is homologous in function and N-terminal sequence to the protein encoded by the NIFS gene of Azotobacter vinelandii and ...
Azotobacter vinelandii DJ, complete genome. UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligase. 1e-118. 427. ...
Azotobacter vinelandii CA6, complete genome. phosphoenolpyruvate synthase. 7e-16. 86.7. NC_012560:2315350:2323314. 2323314. ... Azotobacter vinelandii DJ, complete genome. phosphoenolpyruvate synthase. 7e-16. 86.7. NC_016802:1317365:1421670. 1421670. ...
Villa F., Remelli W., Guerrieri N., Forlani F., Gambino M., Cappitelli F. Adaptive responses of Azotobacter vinelandii biofilm ...
Azotobacter vinelandii, Rhizobium japonicum, Bacillus coagulans, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Pseudomonas ...
AZOTOBACTER-VINELANDII NITROGENASE , CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY , CLOSTRIDIUM-PASTEURIANUM , P-CLUSTERS , ELECTRON- ...
Production of Alginate with Azotobacter vinelandii. In: BioProcessingDays 2019 Recklinghausen 2019-02-18 - 2019-02-20, 2019 ...
Isolation and characterization of nifDK::kanamycin and nitrogen fixation proficient Azotobacter vinelandii strain, and its ... implication on the status of multiple chromosomes in Azotobacter. In human tumor xenografts, dual targeting with 5T4-ADC/PF-384 ...
To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and ... Azotobacter/enzymology , Azotobacter/physiology , Azotobacter/genetics , Azotobacter/immunology , Azotobacter/metabolism , ... Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus), camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii) y peces (Mugil ... THIS STUDY was undertaken to investigate the possibility of using Azospirillum bras/lease and Azotobacter chroococcum applied ...
... double mutant of Azotobacter vinelandii. Hybridization with the nifA genes of Azospirillum brasilense located the nifA gene ...
Azotobactercysts. The Microbe Zoo, Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology.. Azotobacter vinelandii.Molecular ... Azotobacters cells are large rods, at least 2 microns in diameter. They can live singly, in chains, or in clumps, and may or ... For NCBIs GenBank entry for Azotobacters unfinished sequence, click here. Cell Structure and Metabolism. AnabaenaImage from ... Azotobacter is a genus of free-living diazotrophic bacteria whose resting stage is a cyst. It is primarily found in neutral to ...
Azotobacter vinelandii/enzimologia , Azotobacter vinelandii/genética , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura/ ... using an IPTG inducible vector with the P3HB operon from Azotobacter vinelandii (pPHB Av ). Cultures were performed in ...
... degree of acetylation and molecular mass of the alginate produced by Azotobacter vinelandii in shake flasks are determined by ...
Rengstrom, K., S. Sauge-Merle, K. Chen, and B. K. Burgess. In Azotobacter vinelandii, the E1 subunit of the pyruvate ... A role of PDH in transcriptional regulation was first demonstrated in Azotobacter vinelandii, in which the E1 subunit of PDH is ...
Molecular weight and viscosifying power of alginates produced in Azotobacter vinelandii cultures in shake flasks under low ...
Azotobacter vinelandii/enzimologia. Simula o de Acoplamento Molecular. Nitrogenase/qu mica. Liga o Proteica. Conforma o ...
Azotobacter vinelandii DJ ................................................ 199 1 hit {g-proteobacteria} Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ... Azotobacter vinelandii ................................................... 199 1 hit {g-proteobacteria} Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ... alpha subunit {Azotobacter vineland. . . . . Erwinia tasmaniensis Et1/99 .............................................. 199 2 ...
PRMA Recombinant Protein (Azotobacter vinelandii) (OPCA174697) Catalog #: OPCA174697 Predicted Species: Azotobacter vinelandii ...
Azotobacter vinelandii DJ. 12. Tfc11. 163855796. Tfc. NC_010170. Bordetella petrii DSM 12804. ...
Azotobacter vinelandii DJ Bacteria normal 0.333342 n/a -. NC_008700 Sama_0050 coproporphyrinogen III oxidase 63.95 ...
  • For å undersøke faktorer som innvirker på alginat-produksjonen til Azotobacter vinelandii har det blitt laget et mutant-bibliotek med stammen A. vinelandii ATCC 12518 som utgangspunkt. (bibsys.no)
  • Lipoamide Dehydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii: site-directed mutagenesis of the His450-Glu455 diad. (growkudos.com)
  • We have sequenced the A. vinelandii nifL gene and found that it is more homologous in its C-terminal domain to the histidine protein kinases (HPKs) than is K. pneumoniae NifL. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, a cross-reacting protein with the same molecular mass was also found in the OM of A. vinelandii using an anti-AlgE antiserum. (edu.au)
  • A system for the controlled expression of genes in Azotobacter vinelandii by using genomic fusions to the sucrose catabolic regulon was developed. (asm.org)
  • Regulation of expression of genes for three nitrogenases in Azotobacter vinelandii. (worldcat.org)
  • In both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii the nifL gene, which encodes a negative regulator of nitrogen fixation, lies immediately upstream of nifA. (nih.gov)
  • Six out of ten genera isolated from only guano included Acaligens, Azotobacter , Bartonella, Nitrsomonas, Paeudomonas and Salmonella whereas two genera Klebsiella, and Nocardia were isolated from bolus samples only. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • soil-dwelling diazotrophs such as Azotobacter are especially useful in gauging the health and virility of the ground. (kenyon.edu)
  • RT "Genome sequence of Azotobacter vinelandii, an obligate aerobe RT specialized to support diverse anaerobic metabolic processes. (genome.jp)
  • Self-rotation functions with data from the AMP nucleosidases from A. vinelandii and from E. coli (Giranda, V. L., Berman, H. M., and Schramm, V. L. (1986) J. Biol. (elsevier.com)
  • This system was used for the functional analysis of the A. vinelandii isc genes, whose products are involved in the maturation of [Fe-S] proteins. (asm.org)
  • This experimental strategy was used to show that IscS, IscU, HscBA, and Fdx are essential in A. vinelandii and that their depletion results in a deficiency in the maturation of aconitase, an enzyme that requires a [4Fe-4S] cluster for its catalytic activity. (asm.org)
  • Another individualistic trait of Azotobacter is their ability to synthesize not just one, but three nitrogenases. (kenyon.edu)
  • Since GS is key to the sole ammonium assimilation pathway of Azotobacter vinelandii, attempts to obtain deletion mutants in the gene encoding GS (glnA) have been unsuccessful. (jic.ac.uk)
  • construction of mutant enzymes that introduce a high level of G-blocks in poly(beta-(1->4)-D-mannuronate) more efficiently than the wild-type enzymes from Azotobacter vinelandii when employed for in vitro epimerization reactions. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • In addition, nifLA are cotranscribed in A. vinelandii as in K. pneumoniae, but expression from the A. vinelandii promoter requires neither RpoN nor NtrC. (nih.gov)
  • Diazotrophic Growth Allows Azotobacter vinelandii To Overcome the Deleterious Effects of a glnE Deletion. (jic.ac.uk)
  • It was previously reported that cultures of A. vinelandii OP grown in a bioreactor showed a decrease in the weight average molecular weight (Mw) of the PHB after 20 h of culture, with an increase in the fraction of polymers of lower molecular weight. (springer.com)