A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE, which is active in nitrogen fixation, and consists of two subunits with molecular weights of 59.5 kDa and 50.7 kDa, respectively.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron as a prosthetic group in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.
Thulium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tm, atomic number 69, and atomic weight 168.93.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing of Caenorhabditis elegans used to identify P. aeruginosa virulence factors. (1/366)

We reported recently that the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 kills Caenorhabditis elegans and that many P. aeruginosa virulence factors (genes) required for maximum virulence in mouse pathogenicity are also required for maximum killing of C. elegans. Here we report that among eight P. aeruginosa PA14 TnphoA mutants isolated that exhibited reduced killing of C. elegans, at least five also exhibited reduced virulence in mice. Three of the TnphoA mutants corresponded to the known virulence-related genes lasR, gacA, and lemA. Three of the mutants corresponded to known genes (aefA from Escherichia coli, pstP from Azotobacter vinelandii, and mtrR from Neisseria gonorrhoeae) that had not been shown previously to play a role in pathogenesis, and two of the mutants contained TnphoA inserted into novel sequences. These data indicate that the killing of C. elegans by P. aeruginosa can be exploited to identify novel P. aeruginosa virulence factors important for mammalian pathogenesis.  (+info)

The recombinant Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 epimerizes alginate by a nonrandom attack mechanism. (2/366)

The Ca2+-dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 is a representative of a family of Azotobacter vinelandii enzymes catalyzing the polymer level epimerization of beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) to alpha-L-guluronic acid (G) in the commercially important polysaccharide alginate. The reaction product of recombinantly produced AlgE4 is predominantly characterized by an alternating sequence distribution of the M and G residues (MG blocks). AlgE4 was purified after intracellular overexpression in Escherichia coli, and the activity was shown to be optimal at pH values between 6.5 and 7.0, in the presence of 1-3 mM Ca2+, and at temperatures near 37 degrees C. Sr2+ was found to substitute reasonably well for Ca2+ in activation, whereas Zn2+ strongly inhibited the activity. During epimerization of alginate, the fraction of GMG blocks increased linearly as a function of the total fraction of G residues and comparably much faster than that of MMG blocks. These experimental data could not be accounted for by a random attack mechanism, suggesting that the enzyme either slides along the alginate chain during catalysis or recognizes a pre-existing G residue as a preferred substrate in its consecutive attacks.  (+info)

Requirement of NifX and other nif proteins for in vitro biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase. (3/366)

The iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) of nitrogenase contains molybdenum, iron, sulfur, and homocitrate in a ratio of 1:7:9:1. In vitro synthesis of FeMo-co has been established, and the reaction requires an ATP-regenerating system, dithionite, molybdate, homocitrate, and at least NifB-co (the metabolic product of NifB), NifNE, and dinitrogenase reductase (NifH). The typical in vitro FeMo-co synthesis reaction involves mixing extracts from two different mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii defective in the biosynthesis of cofactor or an extract of a mutant strain complemented with the purified missing component. Surprisingly, the in vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with only purified components failed to generate significant FeMo-co, suggesting the requirement for one or more other components. Complementation of these assays with extracts of various mutant strains demonstrated that NifX has a role in synthesis of FeMo-co. In vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with purified components is stimulated approximately threefold by purified NifX. Complementation of these assays with extracts of A. vinelandii DJ42. 48 (DeltanifENX DeltavnfE) results in a 12- to 15-fold stimulation of in vitro FeMo-co synthesis activity. These data also demonstrate that apart from the NifX some other component(s) is required for the cofactor synthesis. The in vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with purified components has allowed the detection, purification, and identification of an additional component(s) required for the synthesis of cofactor.  (+info)

The A modules of the Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan-C-5-epimerase AlgE1 are sufficient for both epimerization and binding of Ca2+. (4/366)

The industrially important polysaccharide alginate is composed of the two sugar monomers beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) and its epimer alpha-L-guluronic acid (G). In the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the G residues originate from a polymer-level reaction catalyzed by one periplasmic and at least five secreted mannuronan C-5-epimerases. The secreted enzymes are composed of repeats of two protein modules designated A (385 amino acids) and R (153 amino acids). The modular structure of one of the epimerases, AlgE1, is A1R1R2R3A2R4. This enzyme has two catalytic sites for epimerization, each site introducing a different G distribution pattern, and in this article we report the DNA-level construction of a variety of truncated forms of the enzyme. Analyses of the properties of the corresponding proteins showed that an A module alone is sufficient for epimerization and that A1 catalyzed the formation of contiguous stretches of G residues in the polymer, while A2 introduces single G residues. These differences are predicted to strongly affect the physical and immunological properties of the reaction product. The epimerization reaction is Ca2+ dependent, and direct binding studies showed that both the A and R modules bind this cation. The R modules appeared to reduce the Ca2+ concentration needed for full activity and also stimulated the reaction rate when positioned both N and C terminally.  (+info)

Incorporation of molybdenum into the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase. (5/366)

The biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) of dinitrogenase was investigated using 99Mo to follow the incorporation of Mo into precursors. 99Mo label accumulates on dinitrogenase only when all known components of the FeMo-co synthesis system, NifH, NifNE, NifB-cofactor, homocitrate, MgATP, and reductant, are present. Furthermore, 99Mo label accumulates only on the gamma protein, which has been shown to serve as a chaperone/insertase for the maturation of apodinitrogenase when all known components are present. It appears that only completed FeMo-co can accumulate on the gamma protein. Very little FeMo-co synthesis was observed when all known components are used in purified forms, indicating that additional factors are required for optimal FeMo-co synthesis. 99Mo did not accumulate on NifNE under any conditions tested, suggesting that Mo enters the pathway at some other step, although it remains possible that a Mo-containing precursor of FeMo-co that is not sufficiently stable to persist during gel electrophoresis occurs but is not observed. 99Mo accumulates on several unidentified species, which may be the additional components required for FeMo-co synthesis. The molybdenum storage protein was observed and the accumulation of 99Mo on this protein required nucleotide.  (+info)

Evidence that MgATP accelerates primary electron transfer in a Clostridium pasteurianum Fe protein-Azotobacter vinelandii MoFe protein nitrogenase tight complex. (6/366)

The nitrogenase catalytic cycle involves binding of the iron (Fe) protein to the molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein, transfer of a single electron from the Fe protein to the MoFe protein concomitant with the hydrolysis of at least two MgATP molecules, followed by dissociation of the two proteins. Earlier studies found that combining the Fe protein isolated from the bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum with the MoFe protein isolated from the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii resulted in an inactive, nondissociating Fe protein-MoFe protein complex. In the present work, it is demonstrated that primary electron transfer occurs within this nitrogenase tight complex in the absence of MgATP (apparent first-order rate constant k = 0.007 s-1) and that MgATP accelerates this electron transfer reaction by more than 10,000-fold to rates comparable to those observed within homologous nitrogenase complexes (k = 100 s-1). Electron transfer reactions were confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. Finally, the midpoint potentials (Em) for the Fe protein [4Fe-4S]2+/+ cluster and the MoFe protein P2+/N cluster were determined for both the uncomplexed and complexed proteins and with or without MgADP. Calculations from electron transfer theory indicate that the measured changes in Em are not likely to be sufficient to account for the observed nucleotide-dependent rate accelerations for electron transfer.  (+info)

A vanadium and iron cluster accumulates on VnfX during iron-vanadium-cofactor synthesis for the vanadium nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii. (7/366)

The vnf-encoded nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii contains an iron-vanadium cofactor (FeV-co) in its active site. Little is known about the synthesis pathway of FeV-co, other than that some of the gene products required are also involved in the synthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) of the widely studied molybdenum-dinitrogenase. We have found that VnfX, the gene product of one of the genes contained in the vnf-regulon, accumulates iron and vanadium in a novel V-Fe cluster during synthesis of FeV-co. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and metal analyses of the V-Fe cluster accumulated on VnfX are consistent with a VFe7-8Sx precursor of FeV-co. The EPR spectrum of VnfX with the V-Fe cluster bound strongly resembles that of isolated FeV-co and a model VFe3S4 compound. The V-Fe cluster accumulating on VnfX does not contain homocitrate. No accumulation of V-Fe cluster on VnfX was observed in strains with deletions in genes known to be involved in the early steps of FeV-co synthesis, suggesting that it corresponds to a precursor of FeV-co. VnfX purified from a nifB strain incapable of FeV-co synthesis has a different electrophoretic mobility in native anoxic gels than does VnfX, which has the V-Fe cluster bound. NifB-co, the Fe and S precursor of FeMo-co (and presumably FeV-co), binds to VnfX purified from the nifB strain, producing a shift in its electrophoretic mobility on anoxic native gels. The data suggest that a precursor of FeV-co that contains vanadium and iron accumulates on VnfX, and thus, VnfX is involved in the synthesis of FeV-co.  (+info)

In vitro biosynthesis of iron-molybdenum cofactor and maturation of the nif-encoded apodinitrogenase. Effect of substitution for NifH with site-specifically altered forms of NifH. (8/366)

NifH has three different roles in the nitrogenase enzyme system. Apart from serving as the physiological electron donor to dinitrogenase, NifH is involved in iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) biosynthesis and in maturation of the FeMo-co-deficient form of apodinitrogenase to a FeMo-co-activable form (apodinitrogenase maturation). The exact roles of NifH in these processes are not well understood. In the present study, the features of NifH required for the aforementioned processes have been investigated by the use of site-specifically altered forms of the enzyme. The ability of six altered forms of NifH inactive in substrate reduction (K15R, D39N, D43N, L127Delta, D129E, and F135Y) to function in in vitro FeMo-co synthesis and apodinitrogenase maturation reactions was investigated. We report that the ability of NifH to bind and not hydrolyze MgATP is required for it to function in these processes. We also present evidence that the ability of NifH to function in these processes is not dictated by the properties known to be required for its function in electron transfer to dinitrogenase. Evidence toward the existence of separate, overlapping sites on NifH for each of its functions (substrate reduction, FeMo-co biosynthesis, and apodinitrogenase maturation) is presented.  (+info)

The transition metal vanadium (V) has relatively few known biological functions. It is found in marine algaes haloperoxidase enzymes (5). It also is accumulated by ascidians (11), but its biological function (if any) in these organisms is still mysterious. Most importantly, V is found at the active center of an alternative form of the enzyme nitrogenase, which fixes atmospheric N2 gas into bioavailable ammonia and is responsible for the natural input of new nitrogen into the earths ecosystems. The molybdenum (Mo)-nitrogenase, which is the most common and efficient form of the enzyme, has a Mo cofactor at its active site, but when Mo is not available, some bacteria can express an alternative V-nitrogenase, which uses a V cofactor in place of Mo (3, 4). Some organisms also have an Fe-only nitrogenase, which requires only Fe at its active center and is used when neither Mo nor V is available (14, 20).. V is toxic at high concentrations. Unlike most transition metals (but like Mo), the most stable ...
Ribbe M.W., Burgess B.K. (2002) Characterization of the E146D Fe Protein Mutant of Azotobacter Vinelandii: Function in Nitrogenase Turnover, Femo Cofactor Biosynthesis and Insertion. In: Pedrosa F.O., Hungria M., Yates G., Newton W.E. (eds) Nitrogen Fixation: From Molecules to Crop Productivity. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture, vol 38. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47615-0_ ...
AlgE1, AlgE5 and AlgE6 are members of a family of mannuronan C-5 epimerases encoded by the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, and are active in the biosynthesis of alginate, where they catalyse the post-polymerization conversion of β-D-mannuronic acid (M) residues into α-L-guluronic acid residues (G). All enzymes show preference for introducing G-residues neighbouring a pre-existing G. They also have the capacity to convert single M residues flanked by G, thus condensing G-blocks to form almost homopolymeric guluronan. Analysis of the length and distribution of G-blocks based on specific enzyme degradation combined with size-exclusion chromatography, electrospray ionization MS, HPAEC-PAD (high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection), MALDI (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization)-MS and NMR revealed large differences in block length and distribution generated by AlgE1 and AlgE6, probably reflecting their different degree of processivity. When acting ...
You Are Here: Alginate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii is increased by reducing the intracellular production of ubiquinone. ...
1. A new method has been developed for the preparation in good yield of highly purified Azotobacter vinelandii polynucleotide phosphorylase in its reduced form. 2. Aging or digestion with trypsin causes the enzyme to develop a primer requirement that is not eliminated by β-mercaptoethanol. 3. The development of a primer requirement is accompanied by marked changes of the electrophoretic mobility of the enzyme in polyacrylamide gels. 4. The enzyme is inactivated by aerial oxidation or thiol-specific reagents. The lost activity is restored by β-mercaptoethanol, but not by oligonucleotide primers.. ...
A novel poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was identified in Azotobacter vinelandii. This enzyme, now designated PhbZ1, is associated to the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules and when expressed...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter vinelandii.
It is said that when Azotobacter vinelandii faces a difficult situation ,it can have some thing like a spore ,which called cyst. So,what are the differences between them? And how can they make such changes ...
Azotobacter vinelandii bacteriophage PAV-1 ATCC ® 13705-B1™ Designation: PAV-1 TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization
1G3O: Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I: a sequence and structure comparison approach to alteration of [4Fe-4S]2+/+ reduction potential
1PC5: Mechanisms of redox-coupled proton transfer in proteins: role of the proximal proline in reactions of the [3Fe-4S] cluster in Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I
nifB- MoFe protein (nifB-Av1), ΔnifE MoFe protein (ΔnifE Av1) and ΔnifZ MoFe protein ΔnifZ Av1) were obtained by chromatography on DE52, Sephacryl S-300 and Q-Sepharose columns from nifB point-mutated, nifE deleted and nifZ deleted mutant stains (UW45, DJ35 and DJ194) of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann, respectively. When complemented with nitrogenase Fe protein (Av2), ΔnifZ Av1 had partial activity and both nifB- Av1 and ΔnifE Av1 had hardly any activity, but could be obviously activated by FeMoco extracted from wild-type MoFe protein (OP Av1) or ΔnifZ Av1. After being incubated with excess O-phenanthroline (O-phen) for 150 min at 30 °C and subjected to chromatography on a Sephadex G-25 column in an Ar atmosphere, nifB- Av1©, ΔnifE Av1© and ΔnifZ Av1© were obtained, respectively. Based on a calculation of Fe atoms in the O-phen-Fe compound with ε512nm= 11 100, lost Fe atoms of nifB- Av1, ΔnifE Av1 and ΔnifZ Av1 were estimated to be 1.35, 2.89 and 8.44 per molecule of protein, ...
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Channel that opens in response to stretch forces in the membrane lipid bilayer. May participate in the regulation of osmotic pressure changes within the cell.
The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C1DM66 (PDXB_AZOVD), Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase. Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303)
Bacterial cells have to regulate the cytoplasmic pH to survive in the constantly changing environment as bacterial growth is dependent on substrate availability, as well as the redox potential and the pH of the medium. The regulation of internal pH involves proton export that requires energy in the form of ATP. The biochemical reactions in the cytoplasm associated with metabolism can lead to a net proton production or consumption. The variations in proton concentration in the cytoplasm during growth, can affect the kinetics and the thermodynamic feasibility of biochemical reactions necessitating active regulation of pH. The energetic cost of pH regulation via exporting protons associated with metabolism can impact the biomass yield of the organism and the extent of this effect can vary with the environment.. For example, in E. coli grown with glucose as the electron donor, organic acids released during growth greatly contribute to changes in pH of the medium. Previous studies [41-43] have shown ...
Clone contains nifK (dinitrogenase reductase) gene of Azotobacter vinelandii. The 2.6 kb insert can be excised with EcoRI. Vector: pBR325 ...
As pioverdinas son sideróforos fluorescentes producidos por certas especies de bacterias pseudomónadas.[1][2] En Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 hai 14 xenes pvd implicados na biosíntese de pioverdina.[3] A diferenza da enterobactina, as pioverdinas/pseudobactinas son péptidos non ribosómicos que se unen ao ferro, que conteñen un derivado dihidroxiquinolina. A estrutura do péptido difire entre as distintas pseudomónadas e foron descritas unhas 40 estruturas diferentes, aínda que o cromóforo ácido (1S)-5-amino-2,3-dihidro- 8,9-dihidroxi-1H-pirimido[1,2-a]quinolina-1-carboxílico é o mesmo sempre coa excepción da azobactina de Azotobacter vinelandii, a cal posúe un anel de urea extra.[4] ...
01. K. Lenin Babu (1994): Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination Associated with sewage Irrigation and Sludge Amendes. Supervisor - Prof. D.K. Banerjee. 02. Shiv Kumar Bansal (1994): Trace Element Geochemistry and Partitioning Patterns in Sediment Geochemistry and Partitioning Patterns in Sediment Cores from the Lakshadweep Sea. Supervisor - Prof. V. Asthana. 03. Jyoti Rani Ahlawar (1994): Modelling Air Quality in Tropical Coastal Environment. Supervisor - Prof. B. Padmanabhamurthy. 04. Binod Bihari Dash (1994): Modelling green House-Gas-Induced Climate Change. Supervisor - Dr. V.K. Jain. 05. Adhar Chandra Manna (1994): Molecular Characterisation of the Leucine Operon and Chromosomal Analysis of Azotobacter Vinelandii. Supervisor - Dr. H.K. Das. 06. Somnath Bandopadhyay (1994): An Ecological study of the Macro-invertebrate Community in a Floodplain Wetland. Supervisor - Dr. Brij Gopal. 07. R. Sreenivasan (1994): Modelling and Simulation of Meltwater runoff Process in a Himalayan Region. ...
The 14-3-3 protein family plays critical regulatory roles in signaling pathways in cell division and apoptosis. 14-3-3gamma is mainly expressed in brain. Using primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes, we investigated the relationships between 14-3-3gamma proteins and actin in astrocytes in cell division and under ischemia. Our results showed that endogenous 14-3-3gamma proteins in immature astrocytes appeared filamentous and co-localized with filamentous actin (F-actin). During certain stages of mitosis, 14-3-3gamma proteins first aggregated and then formed a ring-like structure that surrounded the daughter nuclei and enclosed the F-actin. In 4-week-old cultures of astrocytes, 14-3-3gamma proteins appeared as punctate aggregates in the cytoplasm. Under ischemia, 14-3-3gamma proteins formed filamentous structures and were closely associated with F-actin in surviving astrocytes. However, in apoptotic astrocytes, the intensity of immunostaining of 14-3-3gamma proteins in the cytoplasm ...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter salinestris.
All we that studied Bios probably remember two known aspects of the symbiotic relationships of plant roots with microorganisms: 1) The bacterial Rhizobium nodules on the roots of legumes (Figure 1). These bacteria, with the nitrogenase complex, are among the few organisms capable of fixing atmospheric N2 transforming it into organic nitrogen, which is used…
Nitrogenase is a complex metal-containing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia. During nitrogenase catalysis the Fe protein and the molybdenum-iron protein associate and dissociate in a manner resulting in the hydrolysis of two molecules of MgATP and the transfer of at least one electron to the MoFe protein. The role of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in nitrogenase catalysis is one of the most fascinating aspects of nitrogenase function. The Fe protein upon binding to MgATP undergoes a huge conformational change which is important for subsequent steps of nitrogenase reaction mechanism. Therefore structural characterization of the Fe protein bound to MgATP will provide a basis on how MgATP binding promotes the complex formation whereas hydrolysis to MgADP leads to the dissociation of the macromolecular complex structure. Towards these ends we have conducted structural studies on a site-directed variant of the Fe protein which is a close mimic of the MgATP ...
Rhodopseudomonas viridis grows by means of nitrogen fixation under anaerobic, photosynthetic conditions. In batch culture, nitrogenase activity was highest at early-logarithmic phase, lower during mid- to late-logarithmic phase, and nearly zero during stationary phase. Nitrogen-fixing cells were morphologically and ultrastructurally similar to non-nitrogen-fixing cells as determined by electron microscopy. Electron spin resonance (esr) spectroscopy of nitrogen-fixing whole cells yielded g4.26 and g3.66 signals indicating the presence of nitrogenase molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein. Ammonia switch-off occurred upon addition of 0.2 mM NH(,4)Cl, however, nitrogenase activity did not reappear for nearly four hours. Esr spectroscopy of whole cell multilayers (WCM) of Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhodospirillum rubrum was used to detect structural associations between nitrogenase MoFe protein and cell membrane. Conditions were defined for observing MoFe protein esr signals in whole cell preparations of each
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SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C1DFL3 (GLMM_AZOVD), Phosphoglucosamine mutase. Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303)
1. Increasing concentrations of nitrate, amino acid and peptone decreased proportionally the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed in culture solutions of Azotobacter.. 2. Increasing concentrations of sterile, unheated, plant extracts increased the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed up to a maximum limit, after which the fixation gradually decreased with further additions.. 3. The addition of sterile, unheated plant extracts to pure solution cultures greatly stimulated the multiplication of Azotobacter.. 4. Very heavy applications of plant material to soil effectively checked the assimilation of nitrogen, and at the same time greatly increased the concentration of nitrogen in the soil solution.. 5. It is suggested that Azotobacter always prefers to derive its nitrogen from a combined source but that plant tissues contain certain unknown essential food substances which stimulate the growth of the organism to such an extent that the supply of available nitrogen derived from moderate ...
Iron-sulphur (FeS) clusters are important cofactors for numerous proteins involved in electron transfer, in redox and non-redox catalysis, in gene regulation, and as sensors of oxygen and iron. These functions depend on the various FeS cluster prosthetic groups, the most common being [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] [(PUBMED:16221578)]. FeS cluster assembly is a complex process involving the mobilisation of Fe and S atoms from storage sources, their assembly into [Fe-S] form, their transport to specific cellular locations, and their transfer to recipient apoproteins. So far, three FeS assembly machineries have been identified, which are capable of synthesising all types of [Fe-S] clusters: ISC (iron-sulphur cluster), SUF (sulphur assimilation), and NIF (nitrogen fixation) systems.. In the NIF system, NifS and NifU are required for the formation of metalloclusters of nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii, and other organisms, as well as in the maturation of other FeS proteins. Nitrogenase catalyses the ...
Aktiivsemateks õhulämmastiku sidujateks mullas on aeroobsed asotobakterid(Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter aglis jt). Nad on polümorfsed ja seotud lämmastiku (nitritite, nitraatide, aminohapete jt.) puudumisel omastavad õhulämmastikku. Osa seotud lämmastikust eritatakse eksosmoosil ümbritsevasse keskkonda kas amiinohapetena või ammoniaagina. Energeetilise materjalina võivad nad kasutada nii mono-, di- kui ka mõningaid teisi polüsahhariide ja mitmeid alkohole, orgaanilisi happeid, sh. ka aromaatseid (näiteks bensoehape). Nad ei kasuta tselluloosi, kuid tselluloosirikas materjal (põhk, põhurikas sõnnik) intensiivistab nende paljunemist. Põhjendatav on see sellega, et tselluloos lõhustatakse mullas tsellulolüütiliste bakterite (Cellvibrio spp., Cellulomonas spp., Cellfalcicula spp. jt) poolt lihtsamateks süsivesikuteks, mida saavad kasutada asotobakterid ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is a free-living, obligately aerobic, nitrogen-fixing gamma-proteobacteria. It is found in soils world-wide, with features of nitrogen and energy metabolism relevant to agriculture. In response to carbon starvation it differentiates to form cysts that are impervious to chemical and physical challenge. Studies have been focused on its ability to fix diatmospheric nitrogen under free-living conditions, a process that occurs in the presence of oxygen levels that typically inactivate the nitrogenase enzyme. Unusually it encodes three distinct nitrogenase systems, the molybdenum, vanadium and iron-only nitrogenases, expression of which is differentially regulated by metal availability from the medium. Diazotrophic growth under aerobic conditions is possible because it adjusts oxygen-consumption rates to help maintain low levels of cytoplasmic oxygen, a phenomenon called respiratory protection. It is able to produce alginate, a polymer that further protects the organism from ...
Azotobacter vinelandii produces the biopolymer alginate, which has a wide range of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. A random transposon insertion mutant library was constructed from A. vinelandii ATCC12518Tc in order to identify genes and pathways affecting alginate biosynthesis, and abou.... ...
Little is known about substrate binding and reduction of nitrogenase. EPR spectroscopy is used here to observe intermediate states generated by different substrates. Two different spin states (S=3/2 and S=1/2) were exhibited for each substrate, which may result from different binding of the substrate to the cofactor (side-on or terminal binding) or the difference of the substrate binding to either Fe or Mo of the cofactor. Parallel studies were performed on a variant MoFe protein, alpha-195Gln, which exhibited different signals from the wild-type suggesting that the substituted amino acid maybe necessary to reach some mechanistic states that the wild-type MoFe protein can reach. Electron transfer between the Fe protein and the MoFe protein was investigated to help determine the initial electron transfer pathway in nitrogenase. The altered Fe protein, L127-deletion Fe protein, is permanently in the complex-ready conformation and complexes with the MoFe protein to allow one electron transfer. The MCD
The high TPT-decomposing capacity of FePCH, the chelate complex of PCH with Fe3+, compared to that of PCH (Fig. 1) suggests that the decomposing ability of TPT was improved in the presence of ferric iron. Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid) is a metal-chelating agent obtained from cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri KC. Its metal complexes with Cu2+ also have the capacity to dechlorinate CCl4 (16). HO· was assayed and identified in the presence of FePCH in the Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0), while no HO· was detected when FePCH was replaced by PCH. This indicates that HO· formation was dependent on the presence of iron. Other researchers have found that vanadium can form complexes with PCH and that V-PCH can undergo an oxidative cycle (1). Iron-chelated aminochelin, a kind of siderophore produced by Azotobacter vinelandii, also has the ability to catalyze the formation of HO· (6). HO· formation in the reaction system suggested that FePCH contributed to augmentation of TPT decomposition via the ...
Ochoa, S. and Mii, S. (1961). Enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. IV. Purification and properties of polynucleotide phosphorylase from Azotobacter vinelandii. J. Biol. Chem. 236: 3303-3311. PMID 14481058. ...
BURGESS NO. 30® is a partially calcined clay used extensively in PVC compounds to improve insulation resistance. This product exhibits excellent dispers...
In this Business Profile, Greg Burgess, Founder and Chief Product Officer at Burgess Group shares insights and opportunities for payment integrity in the rapidly changing healthcare IT landscape.
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My name is Ansley Burgess. I am an honest horsewoman and passionate about my work. I enjoy working with all types/levels of horses and owners. |3 My name is Ansley Burgess. I am an honest horsewoman and passionate about my work. I enjoy working with all types/levels of horses and owners. |3
Just one in three workers with limiting #ChronicDisease has an adapted workplace. What can we do to change it? Read… https://t.co/ASW3xIkfPQ ...
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Alginate is a family of industrially important polysaccharides composed of irregular sequences of 1-4 linked β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G). They are widely used industrially as iscosifiers and gelling agents. Medical applications include utilization as dental impression materials, wound dressings and as an encapsulation matrix for cell transplants in the treatment of various diseases. Some alginates are immunogenic or have anti-tumor activity.. Commercial alginates are extracted from brown seaweeds, but the polymer is also produced by members of the bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. Probably in all species the alginate is first synthesized as polymannuronic acid, and then the guluronic acid moieties are introduced at the postpolymerization level by the action of mannuronan C-5- epimerases. Azotobacter vinelandii encodes a family of 7 secreted, Ca2+ -dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerases, AlgE1-7, which are composed of varying numbers of two types of structural ...
The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 has shown the presence of a 41 kb cluster of genes that encode the production of a second flagellar apparatus. Among 2535 pseudomonads strains with sequenced genomes, these genes are only present in the genomes of F113 and other six strains, all but one belonging to the P. fluorescens cluster of species, in the form of a genetic island. The genes are homologous to the flagellar genes of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Regulation of these genes is mediated by the flhDC master operon, instead of the typical regulation in pseudomonads, which is through fleQ. Under laboratory conditions, F113 does not produce this flagellum and the flhDC operon is not expressed. However, ectopic expression of the flhDC operon is enough for its production, resulting in a hypermotile strain. This flagellum is also produced under laboratory conditions by the kinB and algU mutants. Genetic analysis has shown that kinB strongly represses the expression of the flhDC
The hypothesis of respiratory protection, originally formulated on the basis of results obtained with Azotobacter species, postulates that consumption of O(2) at the surface of diazotrophic prokaryotes protects nitrogenase from inactivation by O(2). Accordingly, it is assumed that, at increased ambient O(2) concentrations, nitrogenase activity depends on increased activities of a largely uncoupled respiratory electron transport system. The present review compiles evidence indicating that cellular O(2) consumption as well as both the activity and the formation of the respiratory system of Azotobacter vinelandii are controlled by the C/N ratio, that is to say the ratio at which the organism consumes the substrate (i.e. the source of carbon, reducing equivalents and ATP) per source of compound nitrogen. The maximal respiratory capacity which can be attained at increased C/N ratios, however, is controlled, within limits, by the ambient O(2) concentration. When growth becomes N-limited at increased C/N
TY - JOUR. T1 - 57Fe ENDOR spectroscopy and ?electron inventory? analysis of the nitrogenase E4 intermediate suggest the metal-ion core of FeMo-cofactor cycles through only one redox couple. AU - Doan, Peter E.. AU - Telser, Joshua. AU - Barney, Brett M.. AU - Igarashi, Robert Y.. AU - Dean, Dennis R.. AU - Seefeldt, Lance C.. AU - Hoffman, Brian M.. PY - 2011/11/2. Y1 - 2011/11/2. N2 - N2 binds to the active-site metal cluster in the nitrogenase MoFe protein, the FeMo-cofactor ([7Fe-9S-Mo-homocitrate-X]; FeMo-co) only after the MoFe protein has accumulated three or four electrons/protons (E3 or E4 states), with the E4 state being optimally activated. Here we study the FeMo-co 57Fe atoms of E4 trapped with the α-70Val→Ile MoFe protein variant through use of advanced ENDOR methods: ?random-hop? Davies pulsed 35 GHz ENDOR; difference triple resonance; the recently developed Pulse-Endor-SaTuration and REcovery (PESTRE) protocol for determining hyperfine-coupling signs; and Raw-DATA (RD)-PESTRE, ...
leaving the download Management of Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the Development of More Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems: Extended versions of papers presented at the Symposium on Biological Nitrogen of war has an Iranian research in Establishing the other pair of the Application. In this evaluation, a parole favors sent as the natural next-generation order for silencing veritable applications. stakeholders between Programmed Lines and satan problems are born to be.
Nitrogenase catalyzes the biological reduction of N2 to ammonia (nitrogen fixation). The metalloclusters associated with the nitrogenase components include the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the Fe protein, and the P-cluster [8Fe7S] and FeMo-cofactor [7Fe-9S-Mo-X-homocitrate], both contained within the MoFe protein. These metal-complexes play a vital role in enzyme activity during electron transport and substrate reduction. It is known that the FeMo-cofactor provides the site of substrate reduction, but the exact site of substrate binding remains a topic of intense debate. Some models for the substrate binding location favor the molybdenum atom, while other models favor one or more iron atoms within FeMo-cofactor. We have shown that the a-70 residue of the MoFe protein plays a significant role in defining substrate access to the active site: a-70 approaches one 4Fe-4S face of the FeMo-cofactor. Substitutions at this position alter enzyme specificity for reduction of alternative alkyne substrates. These ...
ID C1DKJ8_AZOVD Unreviewed; 397 AA. AC C1DKJ8; DT 26-MAY-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 26-MAY-2009, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 67. DE RecName: Full=Elongation factor Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU004061}; DE Short=EF-Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN Name=tuf {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, GN ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Avin_06090 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}, Avin_06230 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76874.1}; OS Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; OC Pseudomonadaceae; Azotobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=322710 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=DJ {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}, and DJ / ATCC BAA-1303 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424}; RX PubMed=19429624; ...
Doug Rees had his first experience with electron transfer processes in microbes as an undergraduate studying cytochrome in Neurospora with Carolyn W. Slayman at Yale College where he completed his BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry in 1974. In 1980 he received a PhD in Biophysics, determining crystal structures of carboxypeptidase A with William Lipscomb at Harvard. While there he also became acquainted with multi-center electron-sharing bonds (e.g. in boranes). During a two year postdoctoral appointment at the University of Minnesota with James B. Howard, he successfully produced the first crystals of the nitrogenase iron protein from Azotobacter vinelandii. He has continued his work with several nitrogenases and has had a productive collaboration with Jim Howard for 35 years.. Professor Rees joined the faculty of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at UCLA in 1982 and moved to Caltech in 1989. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National ...
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Learning objectives:. Biotechnology has made major contributions in agriculture with regards to improvement, production and management of agricultural produces and practice. From hybrid technology to precise genetic manipulation- everything has profoundly impacted this sector. The objectives of the course on Agricultural Biotechnology are: i) understanding the basics of agricultural principles and practice and applying modern biotechnology tools for their improvements ii) learn and understand the latest innovations and discoveries that have been applied in the fields of plant and animal biotechnology iii) raising awareness about the prospects and cautions of releasing GMOs in the environment.. Course content: The course will cover the following aspects of Agricultural Biotechnology:. Plant growth and development: Plant growth regulators; Biological nitrogen fixation; Biofertilizers-types, production, VAM, Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Mycorhiza, Actinorhiza; Vermicomposting technology; ...
The nitrogenase complex reduces the N2 gas to ammonium, but not to nitrate. The product of fixation is ammonium. The oxidation of ammonium to nitrite/nitrate happens later and as I already said this processs called nitrification ...
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Lee, J. S., Mo, Y., Gan, H., Burgess, R. J., Baker, D. J., van Deursen, J. M. & Zhang, Z., 2019, In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116, 27, p. 13311-13319 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
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I. Polynucleotide phosphorylase of azotobacter vinelandii". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 20 (1): 269-85. doi:10.1016/0006- ...
Nagpal, P.; Jafri, S.; Reddy, M. A.; Das, H. K. (1989). "Multiple chromosomes of Azotobacter vinelandii". Journal of ... Maldonado, R.; Jiménez, J.; Casadesús, J. (1994). "Changes of ploidy during the Azotobacter vinelandii growth cycle". Journal ... Azotobacter vinelandii can contain up to 80 chromosome copies per cell. However this is only observed in fast growing cultures ...
Heppel LA, Hurwitz J, Horecker BL (1957). "Adenine deaminase of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (3): 630-633. doi ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria which is known by its high respiratory rate among aerobic organisms. Some ... The cytochrome system of Azotobacter vinelandii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1967 Sep 6;143(2):340-353. ...
"Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". Microbiology. 150 (Pt 5): 1117-9. doi:10.1099/mic.0.27096-0. PMID 15133068 ... The nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter and the species Azomonas macrocytogenes have evolved from a species in ... Its nitrogen-fixing capabilities and deviant features have caused Azotobacter to be described as "Pseudomonas in disguise". The ... "Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas". International Journal of Systematic and ...
Homologous ferredoxins from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av2FeFdI; P82802) and Aquifex aeolicus (AaFd; O66511) have been ... August 2017). "The Electron Bifurcating FixABCX Protein Complex from Azotobacter vinelandii: Generation of Low-Potential ... "Discovery of a novel ferredoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii containing two [4Fe-4S] clusters with widely differing and very ... In Azotobacter the energy released by transferring one electron from NADH to Q is used to simultaneously boost the transfer of ...
Rediers, H; Vanderleyden, J; De Mot, R (2004). "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". Microbiology. 150 (Pt 5): ... Young, J. M.; Park, D. -C. (2007). "Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas". ... In the gammaproteobacterial order Pseudomonadales, the genus Azotobacter and the species Azomonas macrocytogenes are actually ...
ISBN 978-1-904455-19-6. [1]. Rediers H, Vanderleyden J, De Mot R (2004). "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". ... Kennedy C, Rudnick P, MacDonald ML, Melton T (2015). "Azotobacter". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. pp ... The Pseudomonadaceae are a family of bacteria which includes the genera Azomonas, Azorhizophilus, Azotobacter, Mesophilobacter ...
Davidson IW, Lawson CJ, Sutherland IW (January 1977). "An alginate lysate from Azotobacter vinelandii phage". Journal of ...
doi:10.2138/rmg.2005.59.4. Huyer M, Page WJ (1988). "Zn2+ Increases Siderophore Production in Azotobacter vinelandii". Applied ...
alginate (Azotobacter vinelandii). *cellulose (Acetobacter xylinum). *chitosan (Mucorales spp.). *curdlan (Alcaligenes faecalis ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is the most studied of these organisms. It uses very high respiration rates, and protective compounds, ... Two of the most studied systems are those of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii. These systems are used because ... Marine Nitrogen Fixation - The Basics (USC Capone Lab) Azotobacter Rhizobia Frankia & Actinorhizal Plants. ...
Burgess, C. F.; Jacobs, D. B.; Stiefel, E. I. (1980). "Large Scale Purification of High Activity Azotobacter Vinelandii ...
Imai T (January 1973). "Purification and properties of nicotinamide mononucleotide amidohydrolase from Azotobacter vinelandii ...
The Anf nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii is organized in an anfHDGKOR operon. This operon still requires some of the Nif ... of MgATP and MgADP interaction with the nitrogenase of Azotobacter vinelandii. Lysine 15 of the iron protein plays a major role ... "Mössbauer Study of the MoFe Protein of Nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii Using Selective 57Fe Enrichment of the M-Centers ... "Evidence for a central role of lysine 15 of Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase iron protein in nucleotide binding and protein ...
Azotobacter vinelandii, an obligate aerobe diazotroph used in nitrogen fixation research. Streptomyces coelicolor, a soil- ...
Rault-Leonardon, M., Atkinson, M.A., Slaughter, C.A., Moomaw, C.R. and Srere, P.A. (1995). "Azotobacter vinelandii citrate ...
acetan (Acetobacter xylinum) alginate (Azotobacter vinelandii) cellulose (Acetobacter xylinum) chitosan (Mucorales spp.) ...
... is structurally similar to azobactin, from Azotobacter vinelandii, except that the latter possesses an extra urea ... "Characterization of the pyoverdines of Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 with regard to heterogeneity". Biology of Metals. 4 (4 ...
... new pathway for resorcinol catabolism in Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Bacteriol. 146 (2): 460-6. PMC 216987. PMID 7217008. ...
Two of the most studied systems are those of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii. These systems are used because ... Azotobacter vinelandii is the most studied of these organisms. It uses very high respiration rates, and protective compounds, ...
Azotobacter vinelandii". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 66 (3): 489-500. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.489. PMID 12005040. ...
The cubic core structure, found in species such as Azotobacter vinelandii, is made up of 24 subunits total. The catalytic ... structure of the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Azotobacter vinelandii. A ...
The phenolic lipid synthesis by type III polyketide synthases is essential for cyst formation in Azotobacter vinelandii. Lipid ... "Phenolic lipid synthesis by type III polyketide synthases is essential for cyst formation in Azotobacter vinelandii". ...
Purification and properties of polynucleotide phosphorylase from Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Biol. Chem. 236: 3303-3311. PMID ...
... she demonstrated cell free protein synthesis with a particulate preparation from Azotobacter vinelandii. She did her post- ...
... from Azotobacter chroococcum and comparison of its redox potentials with those of flavodoxins from Azotobacter vinelandii and ... "Regulation of nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii: NifL, transducing two environmental ...
The following values are from Azotobacter vinelandii (1): KM: 0.14 ± 0.04 mM Vmax : 9 ± 3 μmol.min−1.mg−1 The reaction ... "Kinetic properties of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex from Azotobacter vinelandii evidence for the formation of a ...
... as well as the related Azotobacter vinelandii. They are consistently located in what could be the 5' untranslated regions of ...
Azotobacter vinelandii". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (3): 489-500. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.489. PMID 12005040.. ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Azotobacter vinelandii Genome Project Current research on Azotobacter vinelandii at the Norwich Research Park Type strain of ... Azotobacter vinelandii is Gram-negative diazotroph that can fix nitrogen while grown aerobically. It is a genetically tractable ... Nagpal P, Jafri S, Reddy MA, Das HK (1989). "Multiple chromosomes of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Bacteriol. 171 (6): 3133-8. ... Maldonado R, Jiménez J, Casadesús J (1994). "Changes of ploidy during the Azotobacter vinelandii growth cycle" (PDF). J. ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is proposed to contain a single beta-ketothiolase activity participating in the formation of acetoacetyl ... Beta-ketothiolase genes in Azotobacter vinelandii Gene. 2000 Dec 30;260(1-2):113-20. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(00)00462-5. ... Azotobacter vinelandii is proposed to contain a single beta-ketothiolase activity participating in the formation of acetoacetyl ... Control of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii strain UWD. Microbiology 140, 953-963). We designed a ...
sp,P22759,BFR_AZOVI Bacterioferritin OS=Azotobacter vinelandii OX=354 GN=bfr PE=1 SV=2 ... Azotobacter vinelandii. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Pseudomonadales › Pseudomonadaceae › Azotobacter group ...
The Crystal Structure of a Sulfurtransferase from Azotobacter Vinelandii Highlights the Evolutionary Relationship between the ...
... Designation: PAV-1 TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization ... Azotobacter vinelandii bacteriophage PAV-1 (ATCC® 13705-B1™) Strain Designations: PAV-1 / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 1 ... Properties of Azotobacter phage Pav-1 and its DNA. Virology 102: 262-266, 1980. PubMed: 7368569 ...
The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. ... MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; AZOTOBACTER; SENSITIVITY; CYANIDES; TOXICITY; HYDROGENASES; INACTIVATION; CARBON 14 ...
... industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter vinelandii. ... The type strain for Azotobacter vinelandii was isolated from a water sample obtained from the Black Sea. ... Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; Pseudomonadaceae; Azotobacter group; Azotobacter. Industrial ...
Sequence and molecular analysis of the nifL gene of Azotobacter vinelandii.. Blanco G1, Drummond M, Woodley P, Kennedy C. ... In both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii the nifL gene, which encodes a negative regulator of nitrogen fixation ... In addition, nifLA are cotranscribed in A. vinelandii as in K. pneumoniae, but expression from the A. vinelandii promoter ... In particular A. vinelandii NifL contains a conserved histidine at a position shown to be phosphorylated in other systems. Both ...
Expression and characterisation of the homodimeric E1 component of the Azotobacter vinelandii pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.. ... of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Azotobacter vinelandii and expressed and purified the E1p component in Escherichia ...
Nitrogenase Complex From Azotobacter Vinelandii Stabilized By ADP-Tetrafluoroaluminate. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1m34/pdb ...
something about Azotobacter vinelandii. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and ... It is said that when Azotobacter vinelandii faces a difficult situation ,it can have some thing like a spore ,which called ...
Nucleotide sequences and genetic analysis of hydrogen oxidation (hox) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii.. A L Menon, L E ... Azotobacter vinelandii contains a heterodimeric, membrane-bound [NiFe]hydrogenase capable of catalyzing the reversible ... Nucleotide sequences and genetic analysis of hydrogen oxidation (hox) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii. ... Nucleotide sequences and genetic analysis of hydrogen oxidation (hox) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii. ...
Characterization of the gene coding for GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD) from Azotobacter vinelandii.. M Campos, J M Martínez- ... Azotobacter vinelandii presents a differentiation process leading to the formation of desiccation-resistant cysts. Alginate, ... Characterization of the gene coding for GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD) from Azotobacter vinelandii. ... Characterization of the gene coding for GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD) from Azotobacter vinelandii. ...
Control of respiration in Azotobacter vinelandii membranes. C W Jones, S K Erickson, B A C Ackrell ... Control of respiration in Azotobacter vinelandii membranes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is an aerobic organism normally found in soil, and is commonly known for its ability to fix nitrogen, ... Azotobacter vinelandii is an aerobic organism normally found in soil, and is commonly known for its ability to fix nitrogen, ...
Azotobacter vinelandii / metabolism*. Biomass. Fermentation. Industrial Microbiology / methods*. Molecular Weight. Oxygen / ...
A novel poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was identified in Azotobacter vinelandii. This enzyme, now designated PhbZ1, is ... Kennedy C, Gamal R, Humphrey R, Ramos J, Brigle K, Dean D (1986) The nifH, nifM and nifN genes of Azotobacter vinelandii: ... Bali A, Blanco G, Hill S, Kennedy C (1992) Excretion of ammonium by a nifL mutant of Azotobacter vinelandii fixing nitrogen. ... Peralta-Gil M, Segura D, Guzmán J, Servín-González L, Espín G (2002) Expression of the Azotobacter vinelandii poly-β- ...
Diazotrophic Growth Allows Azotobacter vinelandii To Overcome the Deleterious Effects of a glnE Deletion. 2nd November 2017 ... Diazotrophic Growth Allows Azotobacter vinelandii To Overcome the Deleterious Effects of a glnE Deletion. ... Since GS is key to the sole ammonium assimilation pathway of Azotobacter vinelandii, attempts to obtain deletion mutants in the ... the characterization of the glnE knockout mutant of the model diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii provides significant insights ...
The involvement of iron in the respiratory system of Azotobacter vinelandii. C W Jones, B A Ackrell, S K Erickson ... The involvement of iron in the respiratory system of Azotobacter vinelandii Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Vanadium Requirements and Uptake Kinetics in the Dinitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. J. P. Bellenger, T. ... Evidence for an alternative nitrogen fixation system in Azotobacter vinelandii. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA77:7342-7346. ... Expression of an alternative nitrogen fixation system in Azotobacter vinelandii.J. Bacteriol.150:1244-1251. ... Role of molybdate and other transition metals in the accumulation of protochelin by Azotobacter vinelandii. Appl. Environ. ...
Mutant AT268 of Azotobacter vinelandii - showing diminished production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) due to a mutation in ... Mutant AT268 of Azotobacter vinelandii - showing diminished production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) due to a mutation in ... Alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii mutants altered in poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and alginate biosynthesis. ...
As in enteric bacteria, motility in A. vinelandii occurs through the use of peritrichous flagella. Pseudomonas aerugin … ... Azotobacter vinelandii is a nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium that undergoes differentiation to form cysts resistant to ... flhDC, but not fleQ, regulates flagella biogenesis in Azotobacter vinelandii, and is under AlgU and CydR negative control ... Azotobacter vinelandii is a nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium that undergoes differentiation to form cysts resistant to ...
Alginate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii is increased by reducing the intracellular production of ubiquinone. Berlin / ... Alginate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii is increased by reducing the intracellular production of ubiquinone ... You Are Here:Alginate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii is increased by reducing the intracellular production of ubiquinone ... You Are Here: Alginate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii is increased by reducing the intracellular production of ubiquinone ...
Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase: "Kinetics of nif gene expression and insights into the roles of FdxN and NifQ in FeMo-co ... Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase: "Kinetics of nif gene expression and insights into the roles of FdxN and NifQ in FeMo-co ... Jiménez Vicente, Emilio (2014). Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase: "Kinetics of nif gene expression and insights into the ...
Ribbe M.W., Burgess B.K. (2002) Characterization of the E146D Fe Protein Mutant of Azotobacter Vinelandii: Function in ... Characterization of the E146D Fe Protein Mutant of Azotobacter Vinelandii: Function in Nitrogenase Turnover, Femo Cofactor ...
Interest in studying A. vinelandii has waned in recent decades, but this bacterium still possesses great potential for new ... Azotobacter vinelandii has been studied for over 100 years since its discovery as an aerobic nitrogen-fixing organism. This ... 264. Jang CH, Piao YL, Huang X, Yoon EJ, Park SH et al. Modeling and re-engineering of Azotobacter vinelandii alginate lyase to ... 215. Peña C, Miranda L, Segura D, Núñez C, Espín G et al. Alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii mutants altered in poly ...
... ... The algJ gene from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned using a labelled RNA probe representing the coding region of the algE gene ... vinelandii using an anti-AlgE antiserum. The derived amino acid sequence of AlgJ shared approximately 52% identity with AlgE ...
In order to elucidate the function of the nifU gene product in nitrogenase maturation in Azotobacter vinelandii. the gene ...
Crystallographic quaternary structural analysis of AMP nucleosidases from Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. Journal ... Crystallographic quaternary structural analysis of AMP nucleosidases from Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. / ... T1 - Crystallographic quaternary structural analysis of AMP nucleosidases from Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. ... title = "Crystallographic quaternary structural analysis of AMP nucleosidases from Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii ...
  • The nitrogenase holoenzyme of A. vinelandii has been characterised by X-ray crystallography in both ADP tetrafluoroaluminate-bound and MgATP-bound states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii strains having deletions in structural genes for nitrogenase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In order to elucidate the function of the nifU gene product in nitrogenase maturation in Azotobacter vinelandii. (vt.edu)
  • Pre-steady state kinetics of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii. (wur.nl)
  • Analysis of nitrogenase reaction using monoclonal antibodies against -subunit of component I of A. vinelandii. (worldcat.org)
  • Azotobacter is also capable of producing a protein which protects the nitrogenase from sudden oxygen-provoked stress. (kenyon.edu)
  • Carbonyl sulfide can be reduced by nitrogenase to carbon monoxide in Azotobacter vinelandii . (ethz.ch)
  • The enzyme is nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii . (blogspot.com)
  • As in enteric bacteria, motility in A. vinelandii occurs through the use of peritrichous flagella. (nih.gov)
  • Azotobacter is a genus of usually motile, oval or spherical bacteria that form thick-walled cysts and may produce large quantities of capsular slime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azotobacter species are Gram-negative bacteria found in neutral and alkaline soils, in water, and in association with some plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells of the genus Azotobacter are relatively large for bacteria (2-4 μm in diameter). (wikipedia.org)
  • At present two strains of bacteria are reported to produce alginate, Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. (edu.pk)
  • Azotobacter is a genus of free-living diazotrophic bacteria whose resting stage is a cyst. (kenyon.edu)
  • The reason for this above average amount of DNA is not known, but it is possibly because the cells of Azotobacter are larger than those of other bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Using three soil bacteria, Azotobacter vinelandii (Av), Bacillus licheniformis (Bl), and Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus (Pc), we designed this community to survive under nutrient-limited conditions by reciprocal syntrophy. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of this study was to present the role of diazotrophic bacteria of the genera Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Klebsiella as phosphate solubilizing bacteria and indolic compounds producers, as well as to determine in a preliminary way the effect of the inoculation of maize plants with these bacteria and the assimilation of phosphorus under greenhouse conditions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A sample of healthy soil should include a good selection of azotobacter bacteria, which can be clearly seen under the microscope and used as one criterion when evaluating soil health. (wisegeek.com)
  • Azotobacter bacteria are motile and rod-shaped. (wisegeek.com)
  • Any of various rod-shaped, aerobic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, typically found in soil and water. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the case of non-leguminous plants, there is no symbiotic relation, therefore the plant is inoculate with free-living N2 fixing bacteria, such as Azotobacter and Azospirillium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The first representative of the genus, Azotobacter chroococcum, was discovered and described in 1901 by Dutch microbiologist and botanist Martinus Beijerinck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of a mutant of Azotobacter chroococcum resistant to some fungicides. (worldcat.org)
  • Nine bacterial strains were used: Azospirillum brasilense (C16 and SP7), Azospirillum lipoferum C15, Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 and AC10, Azotobacter vinelandii AV5, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110, Rhizobium sp. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Single, dual and consortium of Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium, and Glomus fasciculatum with different level of NPK fertilizers were tested in a glass house experiment to find out the effects of different microbial inoculants on growth parameters in Capsicum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interactions of Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense and Streptomyces mutabilis, in relation to their effect on wheat development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Control of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii strain UWD. (nih.gov)
  • The type strain for Azotobacter vinelandii was isolated from a water sample obtained from the Black Sea. (thelabrat.com)
  • The survivors were screened for hyper-production of alginate against the wild strain of A.vinelandii using pre-optimized conditions. (edu.pk)
  • Inclusion of 2.5% cornsteep liquor raised the alginate concentration to 15.8 g/L. Batch fermenter studies were carried out in 2 L fermenter with working volume of 1.5 L using the mutant strain A.vinelandii, EtBr-02. (edu.pk)
  • Alginate production by a mutant strain of Azotobacter vinelandii using shake flask fermentataion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We investigated the V requirements, the kinetics of V uptake, and the production of catechol compounds across a range of concentrations of vanadium in diazotrophic cultures of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii . (asm.org)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii is a nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium that undergoes differentiation to form cysts resistant to desiccation. (nih.gov)
  • Interest in studying A. vinelandii has waned in recent decades, but this bacterium still possesses great potential for new discoveries in many fields and commercial applications. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Among the microorganisms producing PHAs, the bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii can accumulate large amounts of intracellular PHB with the advantage that they grow a wide sugars variety like those found in molasses cane sugar, beet sugar and corn syrup, and swine waste, agribusiness, etc. (unesp.br)
  • Besides the PHB, the bacterium A. vinelandii is able to produce alginate, a very useful compound in the similar area of type of fruit and imitation as sliced peppers for stuffing olives, onion rings imitation, caviar, meat, fish and marine products imitation, etc. (unesp.br)
  • An azotobacter is a bacterium in the genus Azotobacter, which includes at least six known species. (wisegeek.com)
  • Here, we report the cloning and characterization of the A. vinelandii gene coding for the enzyme GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD), which is the key enzyme for alginate synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (asm.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a phylogenetically close relative of A. vinelandii, possesses a single polar flagellum. (nih.gov)
  • The algJ gene from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned using a labelled RNA probe representing the coding region of the algE gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (edu.au)
  • E.p.r. and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopic characterisation of bacterioferritin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Azotobacter vinelandii. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Bakterien Pseudomonas aeruginosa er en opportunistisk patogen som er et stort problem for personer med cystisk fibrose der den gir en kronisk lungeinfeksjon. (bibsys.no)
  • Magnesio Azotobacter vinelandii Oxigeno Azotobacter beijerinckii Rhizobium ORS571 Rhodospirillum rubrum Fosforo Rhodobacter sphaeroides Caulobacter crescentus Pseudomonas oleovorans Fuente: (Babel y Steinbuchel, 2001). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An A. vinelandii algD mutant which is completely impaired in alginate production and which is unable to form desiccation-resistant cells was constructed. (asm.org)
  • Different agricultural wastes like wheat bran, rice polishing and molasses were utilized as substrates through fermentation with Azotobacter vinelandii.On fermentation of 7.5% (w/v) wheat bran by A.vinelandii, maximum alginate production (5.21 g/L) was observed at 48 hours of incubation time with 6% (v/v) inoculum size, pH 7.0, 300C and agitation speed of 200 rpm. (edu.pk)
  • Characterization of the gene coding for GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD) from Azotobacter vinelandii. (asm.org)
  • Preliminary characterization of the A. vinelandii enzyme shows that the crystals are monoclinic, C2 with a = 347 A, b = 204 A, c = 114 A, and beta = 91.7 degrees. (elsevier.com)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii is an aerobic organism normally found in soil, and is commonly known for its ability to fix nitrogen, converting it to ammonia. (wardsci.com)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii has been studied for over 100 years since its discovery as an aerobic nitrogen-fixing organism. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The phenotypic features of the Azotobacter vinelandii RhdA mutant MV474 (in which the rhdA gene was deleted) indicated that defects in antioxidant systems in this organism were related to the expression of the tandem-domain rhodanese RhdA. (uni-hannover.de)
  • For å undersøke faktorer som innvirker på alginat-produksjonen til Azotobacter vinelandii har det blitt laget et mutant-bibliotek med stammen A. vinelandii ATCC 12518 som utgangspunkt. (bibsys.no)
  • We have sequenced the A. vinelandii nifL gene and found that it is more homologous in its C-terminal domain to the histidine protein kinases (HPKs) than is K. pneumoniae NifL. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, a cross-reacting protein with the same molecular mass was also found in the OM of A. vinelandii using an anti-AlgE antiserum. (edu.au)
  • Forlani, Fabio: Involvement of the Azotobacter vinelandii Rhodanese-Like Protein RhdA in the Glutathione Regeneration Pathway. (uni-hannover.de)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii is Gram-negative diazotroph that can fix nitrogen while grown aerobically. (wikipedia.org)
  • At lower concentrations, it interferes with the activity of ferric reductase, a key enzyme involved in the uptake of Fe-siderophores in the gram-negative soil diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii . (asm.org)
  • Lipoamide Dehydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii: site-directed mutagenesis of the His450-Glu455 diad. (growkudos.com)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Azotobacter vinelandii. (wur.nl)
  • Azotobacter species also have a number of potential industrial applications, with their nitrogen fixing habits being harnessed in the production of various commercial products. (wisegeek.com)
  • Some examples of Azotobacter species include A. chrococcum and A. vinelandii . (wisegeek.com)
  • soil-dwelling diazotrophs such as Azotobacter are especially useful in gauging the health and virility of the ground. (kenyon.edu)
  • The effects of NH4, NO3, and NaCl concentrations on algD transcription for three A. vinelandii strains producing different alginate levels were evaluated. (asm.org)
  • We have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding the homodimeric pyruvate dehydrogenase component (E1p) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Azotobacter vinelandii and expressed and purified the E1p component in Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • Crystallographic quaternary structural analysis of AMP nucleosidases from Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. (elsevier.com)
  • Adenosine monophosphate nucleosidases from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli have been studied crystallographically to determine their quarternary structures. (elsevier.com)
  • In both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii the nifL gene, which encodes a negative regulator of nitrogen fixation, lies immediately upstream of nifA. (nih.gov)
  • Six out of ten genera isolated from only guano included Acaligens, Azotobacter , Bartonella, Nitrsomonas, Paeudomonas and Salmonella whereas two genera Klebsiella, and Nocardia were isolated from bolus samples only. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Expression and characterisation of the homodimeric E1 component of the Azotobacter vinelandii pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate the presence of three genes coding for beta-ketothiolases in A. vinelandii. (nih.gov)
  • Like K. pneumoniae NifL, A. vinelandii NifL is shown here to prevent expression of nif genes in the presence of NH+4 or oxygen. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleotide sequences and genetic analysis of hydrogen oxidation (hox) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii. (asm.org)
  • At present, nothing is known about the organization and expression of flagella genes in A. vinelandii. (nih.gov)
  • Homologues of the master regulatory genes flhDC and fleQ are present in A. vinelandii. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of expression of genes for three nitrogenases in Azotobacter vinelandii. (worldcat.org)
  • A random transposon insertion mutant library was constructed from A. vinelandii ATCC12518Tc in order to identify genes and pathways affecting alginate biosynthesis, and. (sintef.no)
  • Hence present study was designed to produce alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii utilizing cheap substrates to save the foreign exchange. (edu.pk)
  • CC Azotobacter vinelandii DJ chromosome, complete genome. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • RT "Genome sequence of Azotobacter vinelandii, an obligate aerobe RT specialized to support diverse anaerobic metabolic processes. (genome.jp)
  • Sequence and molecular analysis of the nifL gene of Azotobacter vinelandii. (nih.gov)
  • The oxygen transfer rate influences the molecular mass of the alginate produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It was previously reported that cultures of A. vinelandii OP grown in a bioreactor showed a decrease in the weight average molecular weight (Mw) of the PHB after 20 h of culture, with an increase in the fraction of polymers of lower molecular weight. (springer.com)
  • A. vinelandii can contain up to 80 chromosome copies per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutagenesis of the chromosome of A. vinelandii in the area sequenced was carried out by introduction of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. (asm.org)
  • We present evidence indicating that a negative effect of the AlgU sigma factor on flhDC expression causes loss of motility in A. vinelandii, and that CydR (a homologue of Fnr) is under AlgU control and has a negative effect on flhDC expression. (nih.gov)
  • For NCBI's GenBank entry for Azotobacter' s unfinished sequence, click here . (kenyon.edu)
  • Since GS is key to the sole ammonium assimilation pathway of Azotobacter vinelandii, attempts to obtain deletion mutants in the gene encoding GS (glnA) have been unsuccessful. (jic.ac.uk)
  • however, whereas usual vegetative cells are reproductive, the cyst of Azotobacter does not serve this purpose and is necessary for surviving adverse environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azotobacter'' cyst. (kenyon.edu)
  • Azotobacter cysts can be clearly seen under magnification, and can be carefully sectioned to reveal the internal structures of the cyst. (wisegeek.com)
  • Self-rotation functions with data from the AMP nucleosidases from A. vinelandii and from E. coli (Giranda, V. L., Berman, H. M., and Schramm, V. L. (1986) J. Biol. (elsevier.com)
  • Another individualistic trait of Azotobacter is their ability to synthesize not just one, but three nitrogenases. (kenyon.edu)
  • A proof-of-concept system discussed herein demonstrates a syntrophic microbial consortium of Azotobacter vinelandii M5I3 and Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1 pAMR4-dtom1 performing methane bioreforming (MBR) and powering biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) through extracellular carbon and energy transfer. (rice.edu)
  • Changes of ploidy during the Azotobacter vinelandii growth cycle" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diazotrophic Growth Allows Azotobacter vinelandii To Overcome the Deleterious Effects of a glnE Deletion. (jic.ac.uk)
  • A. vinelandii excretes in its growth medium micromolar concentrations of the catechol siderophores azotochelin and protochelin, which bind the vanadate oxoanion. (asm.org)
  • A. vinelandii excretes in the growth medium various types of catechol ligands, the two monocatechols 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid and aminochelin, the bis(catechol) azotochelin, the tris(catechol) protochelin, and azotobactin, which has a hydroxamate group and an α-hydroxycarboxylic acid group in addition to a catechol group. (asm.org)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii presents a differentiation process leading to the formation of desiccation-resistant cysts. (asm.org)
  • The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. (osti.gov)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii contains a heterodimeric, membrane-bound [NiFe]hydrogenase capable of catalyzing the reversible oxidation of H2. (asm.org)
  • A. vinelandii is a free-living N2 fixer known to produce many phytohormones and vitamins in soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • construction of mutant enzymes that introduce a high level of G-blocks in poly(beta-(1->4)-D-mannuronate) more efficiently than the wild-type enzymes from Azotobacter vinelandii when employed for in vitro epimerization reactions. (brenda-enzymes.org)