Azotobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.Azotobacter vinelandii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Molybdoferredoxin: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE, which is active in nitrogen fixation, and consists of two subunits with molecular weights of 59.5 kDa and 50.7 kDa, respectively.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Flavodoxin: A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.AcetyleneDinitrogenase Reductase: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.Vanadium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Cytochrome d Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron as a prosthetic group in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.ResorcinolsThiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.FlavoproteinsIron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Biohazard Release: Uncontrolled release of biological material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a biological hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (1/423)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Flavodoxin: an allosteric inhibitor of AMP nucleosidase from Azotobacter vinelandii. (2/423)

Flavodoxin, which participates in nitrogen fixation, was found to be a potent allosteric inhibitor of AMP nucleosidase [EC 3.2.2.4] from Azotobacter vinelandii. It inhibited the enzyme by decreasing its affinity for ATP without affecting the maximum velocity. The inhibition constant for flavodoxin was estimated to be 10 muM, which is within the range of physiological concentration in the cells. The concentration of flavodoxin able to alter the activity in vitro suggests that this phenomenon could be of significance in the regulation of flavin biosynthesis in vivo. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), a prosthetic group of flavodoxin, was also found to act as an allosteric inhibitor. Since no inhibitory action of apo-flavodoxin was observed, it was concluded that the FMN chromophore of the flavodoxin is responsible for the inhibition of the enzyme by this protein.  (+info)

Interactions of heterologous nitrogenase components that generate catalytically inactive complexes. (3/423)

A unique method is described for inhibiting nitrogenase. When Clostridium pasteurianum nitrogenase is assayed in the presence of the Mo-Fe protein of Azotobacter vinelandii, all the characteristic activities of nitrogenase are inhibited. C. pasteurianum nitrogenase is unaffected by the Fe protein of A. vinelandii. The Fe protein, but not the Mo-Fe protein of C. pasteurianum, inhibits A. vinelandii nitrogenase. Both inhibitions described result from the formation of an inactive complex of A. vinelandii Mo-Fe protein and C. pasteurianum Fe protein. Complex formation requires active components, as oxygen-denatured proteins are ineffective. The results for titration of components of the complex against each other and kinetic data each indicate that the inactive complex consists of two molecules of C. pasteurianum Fe protein per molecule of A. vinelandii Mo-Fe protein. The results of kinetic experiments suggest that the Fe protein from each organism competes for the same site(s) on the A. vinelandii Mo-Fe protein. The Fe protein of C. pasteurianum will form an active or an inactive complex with the Mo-Fe proteins from six different organisms. Inhibition by nitrogenase components that form inactive complexes provides numeroius ways to study the mechanism of nitrogenase action.  (+info)

Transcription of bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid. Comparison of Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii sigma subunits. (4/423)

The effect of the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase on the rate and asymmetry of the in vitro transcription of Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii phage DNAs has been studied with purified E. coli and A. vinelandii RNA polymerases and hybrid enzymes containing the core subunits of one enzyme and sigma from the other. The effect of sigma on the rate of transcription is characteristic of the template and not of the enzyme and depends on ionic strength. The rate of transcription of A. vinelandii phage A21 DNA is decreased by sigma at high ionic strength, but shows the more characteristic stimulation at KCl concentrations below 0.05 M. In contrast, the stimulation by sigma of T4 DNA transcription increased with an increase in the KCl concentrations. All combinations of core and sigma subunits behaved similarly with respect to stimulation or inhibition by sigma and with respect to asymmetric transcription of S13 replicative form (RF)DNA. However, the heterologous, but not the homologous combinations of core and sigma transcribed A21 symmetrically. S13 RF DNA in the superhelical, but not in the relaxed configuration, is transcribed asymmetrically by the A. vinelandii core enzyme. A role for the core subunits in specific site recognition is indicated by this observation.  (+info)

Transcription of Azotobacter phage deoxyribonucleic acid. Salt-dependent equilibrium between steps in initiation. (5/423)

The transcription of Azotobacter phage A21 DNA by Escherichia coli or Azotobacter vinelandii RNA polymerase differs from that of some other DNAs in its inhibition by moderate concentrations of KCl. This characteristic results in an apparent low template activity for this DNA as compared with T4 DNA under standard assay conditions. From an analysis of the dependence of the various steps in initiation on KCl it is concluded that the effect is exerted on an equilibrium between an inactive polymerase-DNA complex and an active preintitiation complex. This salt-sensitive equilibrium favors the inactive complex at a lower KCl concentration than with other templates. It can be approached from other low or high salt concentrations at a measurably slow rate.  (+info)

Evidence for a two-electron transfer using the all-ferrous Fe protein during nitrogenase catalysis. (6/423)

The nitrogenase-catalyzed H(2) evolution and acetylene-reduction reactions using Ti(III) and dithionite (DT) as reductants were examined and compared under a variety of conditions. Ti(III) is known to make the all-ferrous Fe protein ([Fe(4)S(4)](0)) and lowers the amount of ATP hydrolyzed during nitrogenase catalysis by approximately 2-fold. Here we further investigate this behavior and present results consistent with the Fe protein in the [Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox state transferring two electrons ([Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0)) per MoFe protein interaction using Ti(III) but transferring only one electron ([Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](1+)) using DT. MoFe protein specific activity was measured as a function of Fe:MoFe protein ratio for both a one- and a two-electron transfer reaction, and nearly identical curves were obtained. However, Fe protein specific activity curves as a function of MoFe:Fe protein ratio showed two distinct reactivity patterns. With DT as reductant, typical MoFe inhibition curves were obtained for operation of the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](1+) redox couple, but with Ti(III) as reductant the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox couple was functional and MoFe inhibition was not observed at high MoFe:Fe protein ratios. With Ti(III) as reductant, nitrogenase catalysis produced hyperbolic curves, yielding a V(max) for the Fe protein specific activity of about 3200 nmol of H(2) min(-1) mg(-1) Fe protein, significantly higher than for reactions conducted with DT as reductant. Lag phase experiments (Hageman, R. V., and Burris, R. H. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 75, 2699-2702) were carried out at MoFe:Fe protein ratios of 100 and 300 using both DT and Ti(III). A lag phase was observed for DT but, with Ti(III) product formation, began immediately and remained linear for over 30 min. Activity measurements using Av-Cp heterologous crosses were examined using both DT and Ti(III) as reductants to compare the reactivity of the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](1+) and [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox couples and both were inactive. The results are discussed in terms of the Fe protein transferring two electrons per MoFe protein encounter using the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox couple with Ti(III) as reductant.  (+info)

Purification and properties of nitrogenase from the cyanobacterium, Anabaena cylindrica. (7/423)

The nitrogenase complex was isolated from nitrogen-starved cultures of Anabaema cylindrica. Sodium dithionite, photochemically reduced ferredoxin, and NADPH were found to be effective election donors to nitro genase in crude extracts whereas hydrogen and pyruvate were not. The Km for acetylene in vivo is ten-fold higher than the Km in vitro, whereas this pattern does not hold for the non-heterocystous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum. This indicates that at least one mechanism of oxygen protection in vivo involves a gas diffusion barrier presented by the heterocyst cell wall. The Mo-Fe component was purified to homogeneity. Its molecular weight (220,000), subunit composition, isoelectric point (4.8), Mo, Fe, and S2- content (2, 20 and 20 mol/mol component), and amino acid composition indicate that this component has similar properties to Mo-Fe-containing components isolated from other bacterial sources. The isolated components from A. cylindrica were found to cross-react, to varying degrees, with components isolated from Azotobacter vinelandii, Rhodospirillum rubrum, and P. boryanum.  (+info)

Studies on the product binding sites of the Azotobacter vinelandii ribonucleic acid polymerase. (8/423)

During chain elongation RNA polymerase exists as a ternary DNA-enzyme-RNA complex in which a discrete length of the nascent RNA chain proximal to the 3'-OH terminus will be bound to the product binding site (Krakow, J. S., and Fronk, E. (1969) J. Biol. Chem. 244, 5988). We have utilized the poly[d(A-T)]-directed reaction to determine the length of the nascent poly[r(A-U)] protected from attack by pancreatic ribonuclease. Following release of the ribonuclease resistant oligo[r(A-U)] from the ternary complex, its size was determined by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-10, and the ratio of 3'-terminal uridine to internal 2':3'-UMP following alkaline hydrolysis. The results indicate that the length of the nascent protected fragment is approximately 12 residues.  (+info)

The mid-point potentials of the Fe protein components (Ac2 and Ac2* respectively) of the Mo nitrogenase and V nitrogenase from Azotobacter chroococcum were determined in the presence of MgADP to be −450 mV (NHE) [Ac2(MgADP)2-Ac2*ox.(MgADP)2 couple] and −463 mV (NHE) [Ac2* (MgADP)2-Ac2*ox.(ADP)2 couple] at 23 degrees C at pH 7.2. These values are consistent with a flavodoxin characterized by Deistung & Thorneley [(1986) Biochem. J. 239, 69-75] with Em = −522 mV (NHE) being an effective electron donor to both the Mo nitrogenase and the V nitrogenase in vivo. Ac2*ox.(MgADP)2 and Ac2*ox.(MgADP)2 were reduced by SO2.- (formed by the predissociation of dithionite ion, S2O4(2-)) at similar rates, k = 4.7 × 10(6) +/- 0.5 × 10(6) M-1.s-1 and 3.2 × 10(6) +/- 0.2 × 10(6) M-1.s-1 respectively, indicating structural homology at the electron-transfer site associated with the [4Fe-4S] centre in these proteins. ...
Channel that opens in response to stretch forces in the membrane lipid bilayer. May participate in the regulation of osmotic pressure changes within the cell.
1. Increasing concentrations of nitrate, amino acid and peptone decreased proportionally the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed in culture solutions of Azotobacter.. 2. Increasing concentrations of sterile, unheated, plant extracts increased the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed up to a maximum limit, after which the fixation gradually decreased with further additions.. 3. The addition of sterile, unheated plant extracts to pure solution cultures greatly stimulated the multiplication of Azotobacter.. 4. Very heavy applications of plant material to soil effectively checked the assimilation of nitrogen, and at the same time greatly increased the concentration of nitrogen in the soil solution.. 5. It is suggested that Azotobacter always prefers to derive its nitrogen from a combined source but that plant tissues contain certain unknown "essential food substances" which stimulate the growth of the organism to such an extent that the supply of available nitrogen derived from moderate ...
Aktiivsemateks õhulämmastiku sidujateks mullas on aeroobsed asotobakterid(Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter aglis jt). Nad on polümorfsed ja seotud lämmastiku (nitritite, nitraatide, aminohapete jt.) puudumisel omastavad õhulämmastikku. Osa seotud lämmastikust eritatakse eksosmoosil ümbritsevasse keskkonda kas amiinohapetena või ammoniaagina. Energeetilise materjalina võivad nad kasutada nii mono-, di- kui ka mõningaid teisi polüsahhariide ja mitmeid alkohole, orgaanilisi happeid, sh. ka aromaatseid (näiteks bensoehape). Nad ei kasuta tselluloosi, kuid tselluloosirikas materjal (põhk, põhurikas sõnnik) intensiivistab nende paljunemist. Põhjendatav on see sellega, et tselluloos lõhustatakse mullas tsellulolüütiliste bakterite (Cellvibrio spp., Cellulomonas spp., Cellfalcicula spp. jt) poolt lihtsamateks süsivesikuteks, mida saavad kasutada asotobakterid ...
Bio NPK: Bio NPK is a unique formulation that consists of a nitrogen fixing (Azotobacter chroococcum), P-solubilizing (Paenibacillus tylopili) and K -solubilizing (Bacillus decolorationis) bacteria. Inoculation with Bio NPK providing formulation increases the yield by 10-15% and curtails the use of costly chemical fertilizers by 25-30%. The technology has been validated for Maize at multiple (22) locations under AICRP, for fodder crops at ICAR-IGFRI, Jhansi, for Wheat at ICAR-NBAIM, Mau and under farmers field for rice and wheat. In addition the technology has given good results in citrus orchards (in Punjab), papaya (Begusarai, Bihar), ginger and turmeric (Anand, Gujarat). Technology is registered with Agrinnovate Pvt Ltd. Technology licensed to M/s Arihant Naturecrop Private Limited, Patna, Bihar ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C1DM66 (PDXB_AZOVD), Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase. Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303)
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter salinestris.
Through the Initiative for Multipurpose Prevention Technologies (IMPT), PHIs CAMI-Health is leading a collaborative product development pipeline for Multi-purpose Prevention Technologies (MPTs) that combine birth control and HIV/STI prevention in single products, like gels, rings and injectables-so women in the United States around the world can control family size and achieve economic independence. Since the launch of the Initiative in 2009, PHIs CAMI Health has served as the Secretariat and neutral convener of the IMPT, providing central leadership and coordination to the MPT field. Comprised of members from across disciplines and more than 15 countries, the IMPT is the central body that funders, developers, advocates, policymakers, and other SRH stakeholders rely on for objective technical guidance and strategic planning related to MPTs. The network currently includes over 1200 experts in sexual and reproductive health, has convened more than 30 technical consultations, and presented at ...
به منظور بررسی اثر باکتری های محرک رشد در تلفیق با کودهای شیمیائی و آلی بر عملکرد کمی و غلظت عناصر غذایی سورگوم رقم پگاه، آزمایشی به صورت طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار طی فصل زراعی 91-90 در موسسه تحقیقات برنج رشت انجام شد. تیمارهای مورد استفاده، بدون کود و بدون تلقیح (شاهد)، استفاده از کود شیمیائی و بدون تلقیح، تلقیح بذر باPseudomonas fluorescens strain 12 +Azotobacter chroococcum strain 41 + بدون کود شیمیایی، تلقیح بذر با P. fluorescens strain 12+A. chroococcum strain 41 + 50 درصد کود شیمیائی، تلقیح بذر باP. fluorescens strain 12 +A. chroococcum strain 41 + 75 درصد کود شیمیائی، استفاده از ورمی-کمپوست (6 تن در هکتار) و بدون کود شیمیایی،
Ribbe M.W., Burgess B.K. (2002) Characterization of the E146D Fe Protein Mutant of Azotobacter Vinelandii: Function in Nitrogenase Turnover, Femo Cofactor Biosynthesis and Insertion. In: Pedrosa F.O., Hungria M., Yates G., Newton W.E. (eds) Nitrogen Fixation: From Molecules to Crop Productivity. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture, vol 38. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47615-0_ ...
A novel poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was identified in Azotobacter vinelandii. This enzyme, now designated PhbZ1, is associated to the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules and when expressed...
The hypothesis of respiratory protection, originally formulated on the basis of results obtained with Azotobacter species, postulates that consumption of O(2) at the surface of diazotrophic prokaryotes protects nitrogenase from inactivation by O(2). Accordingly, it is assumed that, at increased ambient O(2) concentrations, nitrogenase activity depends on increased activities of a largely uncoupled respiratory electron transport system. The present review compiles evidence indicating that cellular O(2) consumption as well as both the activity and the formation of the respiratory system of Azotobacter vinelandii are controlled by the C/N ratio, that is to say the ratio at which the organism consumes the substrate (i.e. the source of carbon, reducing equivalents and ATP) per source of compound nitrogen. The maximal respiratory capacity which can be attained at increased C/N ratios, however, is controlled, within limits, by the ambient O(2) concentration. When growth becomes N-limited at increased C/N
You Are Here: Alginate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii is increased by reducing the intracellular production of ubiquinone. ...
1. A new method has been developed for the preparation in good yield of highly purified Azotobacter vinelandii polynucleotide phosphorylase in its reduced form. 2. Aging or digestion with trypsin causes the enzyme to develop a primer requirement that is not eliminated by β-mercaptoethanol. 3. The development of a primer requirement is accompanied by marked changes of the electrophoretic mobility of the enzyme in polyacrylamide gels. 4. The enzyme is inactivated by aerial oxidation or thiol-specific reagents. The lost activity is restored by β-mercaptoethanol, but not by oligonucleotide primers.. ...
Azotobacter vinelandii bacteriophage PAV-1 ATCC ® 13705-B1™ Designation: PAV-1 TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter vinelandii.
It is said that when Azotobacter vinelandii faces a difficult situation ,it can have some thing like a spore ,which called cyst. So,what are the differences between them? And how can they make such changes ...
The hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation of polymer films of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) of different molecular mass and its copolymers with 3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) of different 3-hydroxyvalerate (3-HV) content and molecular mass, 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (PHB4MV), and polyethylene glycol (PHBV-PEG) produced by the Azotobacter chroococcum 7B by controlled biosynthesis technique were studied under in vitro model conditions. The changes in the physicochemical properties of the polymers during their in vitro degradation in the pancreatic lipase solution and in phosphate-buffered saline for a long time (183 days) were investigated using different analytical techniques. A mathematical model was used to analyze the kinetics of hydrolytic degradation of poly(3-hydroxyaklannoate)s by not autocatalytic and autocatalytic hydrolysis mechanisms. It was also shown that the degree of crystallinity of some polymers changes differently during degradation in vitro. The total mass of the films decreased slightly up
Rutulinės bakterijos (kokai) yra pačios paprasčiausios. Jos sudarytos iš vienos apskritos ląstelės. Tik retais atvejais jos esti pupos, inksto ar pusrutulio formos. Besidalydamos viena kryptimi, kai kurių rūšių rutulinės bakterijos neatsiskiria viena nuo kitos. Tokiu atveju susidaro porinė bakterija, vadinama diplokoku (Azotobacter chroococcum). Jei dviląstelė rutulinė bakterija toliau dalijasi ta pačia kryptimi ir naujos ląstelės viena nuo kitos neatsiskiria, gaunama daugialąstė, grandinės formos kolonija, vadinama streptokoku (Streptococcus pyogenes, Lactococcus lactis). Kai ląstelės antrojo dalijimosi kryptis yra statmena pirmajai, susidaro ląstelių tetrada (tetrakokas). Jei tetrakoko formos bakterija dar skyla pusiau, bet jau yra statmena šiai keturių ląstelių plokštumai, tada susidaro aštuonių kokų kubo formos kolonija, vadinama sarcina. Kiekviena sarcinos ląstelė dar gali panašiai dalytis trimis kryptimis ir toliau. Tuomet susidaro sudėtinga 16 arba 32 ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C1DFL3 (GLMM_AZOVD), Phosphoglucosamine mutase. Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303)
misc{3a0513da-a6c0-4388-821c-b9474f344b0d, author = {Kuklane, Kalev and Vanggaard, Leif and Smolander, Juhani and Halder, Amitava and Lundgren Kownacki, Karin and Gao, Chuansi and Viik, Jari and Alametsä, Jarmo}, language = {eng}, note = {Conference Abstract}, pages = {48--48}, publisher = {International Society for Environmental Ergonomics}, series = {Environmental Ergonomics}, title = {Response patterns in finger and central body skin temperatures under mild whole body cooling in an elderly and in a young male - a pre-study}, volume = {XVI}, year = {2015 ...
Spring contact elements are fabricated by depositing at least one layer of metallic material into openings defined on a sacrificial substrate. The openings may be within the surface of the substrate, or in one or more layers deposited on the surface of the sacrificial substrate. Each spring contact element has a base end portion, a contact end portion, and a central body portion. The contact end portion is offset in the z-axis (at a different height) than the central body portion. The base end portion is preferably offset in an opposite direction along the z-axis from the central body portion. In this manner, a plurality of spring contact elements are fabricated in a prescribed spatial relationship with one another on the sacrificial substrate. The spring contact elements are suitably mounted by their base end portions to corresponding terminals on an electronic component, such as a space transformer or a semiconductor device, whereupon the sacrificial substrate is removed so that the contact ends of
ID C1DKJ8_AZOVD Unreviewed; 397 AA. AC C1DKJ8; DT 26-MAY-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 26-MAY-2009, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 67. DE RecName: Full=Elongation factor Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU004061}; DE Short=EF-Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN Name=tuf {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, GN ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Avin_06090 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}, Avin_06230 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76874.1}; OS Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; OC Pseudomonadaceae; Azotobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=322710 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=DJ {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}, and DJ / ATCC BAA-1303 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424}; RX PubMed=19429624; ...
The State educational programmes for vocational education are issued by the ministry of education after having discussed them with employers, founders of the schools and their professional and special-interest associations with nation-wide competence and with the ministries in the scope of their sector area of competence; for healthcare study fields preparing the pupils for performing healthcare occupations these programmes are issued by the Ministry of Health of the SR. The State educational programmes for the fields of education at schools falling under the area of competence of other central bodies of State administration are issued by these central bodies of the State administration, in matters of general subjects, after agreement with the ministry of education. In vocational secondary schools the language education and the scope of cross-sectional subjects - informatics, computer technology, ecology have been extended, and new subjects were introduced, such as management, marketing, ...
1G20: MgATP-Bound and nucleotide-free structures of a nitrogenase protein complex between the Leu 127 Delta-Fe-protein and the MoFe-protein.
1G20: MgATP-Bound and nucleotide-free structures of a nitrogenase protein complex between the Leu 127 Delta-Fe-protein and the MoFe-protein.
Isnt that a really nice conifer? Many of you have probably never seen one of these growing; its likely that none of you have ever seen one in its native habitat because it only grows in a pretty remote area in the Blue Mountains and only a hundred or so trees grow there. Cultivation is making it relatively more common in many botanical and personal gardens in appropriate climates and habitats (its really a tropical tree). Do you recognize it? Wollemia nobilis, the Wollemi pine, is not a real pine but a relative of Araucaria. TPP is quite jealous of people who have one growing in their garden, and then youve got a friend rubbing it in, and toasting the occasion to boot. This species is a real living fossil known from its fossil record going back to the early Cretaceous before anyone knew it was still alive albeit barely so. TPP does have one growing in the universitys glasshouse, but its not the same as having one outside in the garden. Oh yes, the garden shown is in Australia. You can ...
The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating ...
HydroFarm Green Reign All Purpose, 2 lbs Hydro Organics Green Reign All Purpose, 2 lbs (HOG10222) Green Reign inch Bio-Natural Fertilizers for the Home & Garden inch inch Crafted To Keep Gardening Fun & Simple .. & Plants Thriving Naturally inch . 10 customized granular blends of all natural ingredients with mycorrhizae, beneficial microbes, and humic acid. Green Reign offers plant specific blends for all types of indoor and outdoor plants, shrubs, and trees. Contains the following non-plant food ingredients: mycorrhizae, pisolithus tinctorius, scleroderma citrinum, scleroderma cepa, rhizopogon luteolus, rhizopogon fulvigleba, rhizopogon villosulus, rhizopogon amylopogon, glomus intradices, glomus aggregatum, glomus etunicatum, humic acid from langbenite, beneficial microbes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus megaterium, azotobacter vinelandii, rhizobium japonicum, bacillus coagulans, azotobacter chroococcum, azospirillum lipoferum, pseudomonas fluorescens, bacillus laterosprorus Manufacturers Product
Doug Rees had his first experience with electron transfer processes in microbes as an undergraduate studying cytochrome in Neurospora with Carolyn W. Slayman at Yale College where he completed his BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry in 1974. In 1980 he received a PhD in Biophysics, determining crystal structures of carboxypeptidase A with William Lipscomb at Harvard. While there he also became acquainted with multi-center electron-sharing bonds (e.g. in boranes). During a two year postdoctoral appointment at the University of Minnesota with James B. Howard, he successfully produced the first crystals of the nitrogenase iron protein from Azotobacter vinelandii. He has continued his work with several nitrogenases and has had a productive collaboration with Jim Howard for 35 years.. Professor Rees joined the faculty of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at UCLA in 1982 and moved to Caltech in 1989. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National ...
Clone contains nifK (dinitrogenase reductase) gene of Azotobacter vinelandii. The 2.6 kb insert can be excised with EcoRI. Vector: pBR325 ...
The physicochemical hypothesis of the formation of ring systems around stars, planets and their satellites with the subsequent formation of celestial bodies from these rings was first proposed by G. P. Gladyshev in 1977[33]. The model assumes that the regular structure of the planetary and satellite systems is a consequence of the spatially periodic condensation of gaseous matter from the supersaturated state during the formation of central bodies, for example, young stars or planets[33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. It is argued that periodic condensation on a cosmic scale is similar to phenomena of Liesegang. The hypothesis explains the nature of the empirical approximate law (rule) of Titius-Bode. Thus, the model considers the physicochemical stage of the formation of various space objects that arise from ring structures. It is noted that the closer the ring to the Central body, the younger the planet or satellite, formed from these rings. All statements of the hypothesis were confirmed by ...
As pioverdinas son sideróforos fluorescentes producidos por certas especies de bacterias pseudomónadas.[1][2] En Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 hai 14 xenes pvd implicados na biosíntese de pioverdina.[3] A diferenza da enterobactina, as pioverdinas/pseudobactinas son péptidos non ribosómicos que se unen ao ferro, que conteñen un derivado dihidroxiquinolina. A estrutura do péptido difire entre as distintas pseudomónadas e foron descritas unhas 40 estruturas diferentes, aínda que o cromóforo ácido (1S)-5-amino-2,3-dihidro- 8,9-dihidroxi-1H-pirimido[1,2-a]quinolina-1-carboxílico é o mesmo sempre coa excepción da azobactina de Azotobacter vinelandii, a cal posúe un anel de urea extra.[4] ...
01. K. Lenin Babu (1994): Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination Associated with sewage Irrigation and Sludge Amendes. Supervisor - Prof. D.K. Banerjee. 02. Shiv Kumar Bansal (1994): Trace Element Geochemistry and Partitioning Patterns in Sediment Geochemistry and Partitioning Patterns in Sediment Cores from the Lakshadweep Sea. Supervisor - Prof. V. Asthana. 03. Jyoti Rani Ahlawar (1994): Modelling Air Quality in Tropical Coastal Environment. Supervisor - Prof. B. Padmanabhamurthy. 04. Binod Bihari Dash (1994): Modelling green House-Gas-Induced Climate Change. Supervisor - Dr. V.K. Jain. 05. Adhar Chandra Manna (1994): Molecular Characterisation of the Leucine Operon and Chromosomal Analysis of Azotobacter Vinelandii. Supervisor - Dr. H.K. Das. 06. Somnath Bandopadhyay (1994): An Ecological study of the Macro-invertebrate Community in a Floodplain Wetland. Supervisor - Dr. Brij Gopal. 07. R. Sreenivasan (1994): Modelling and Simulation of Meltwater runoff Process in a Himalayan Region. ...
Reduce pain, inflammation and swelling with world class, nitrogen-free Cryotherapy in Roseville, MN. Take you first steps to faster recovery and better health with Roseville, MN Cryotherapy.
The nitrogenase complex reduces the N2 gas to ammonium, but not to nitrate. The product of fixation is ammonium. The oxidation of ammonium to nitrite/nitrate happens later and as I already said this processs called nitrification ...
Weapon first employed by the Romulan bird of prey in 2266 against a string of Federation outposts along the Romulan Neutral Zone.2 The plasma torpedo consisted of a small but powerful force field generator which fired from a standard torpedo tube. The generator would then establish a very powerful force field around itself and a much larger concentric field with a radius of about one hundred metres. The parent vessel established a field bridge through this outer layer and vented its plasma conduit system into the empty shell between the two fields. The breach was then sealed, and the vessel would break away and let the torpedo continue on its way. A high power sensor on the central body was capable of locking onto the target, and by venting part of the plasma in a specific direction some degree of control could be established over the course of the plasma torpedo ...
Body, arms and pinnules are supported by calcareous plates. With their pinnules, each arm has a distinct feather-like appearance. The crinoids central body is small compared to its total mass, most of which is devoted to food-gathering. The mouth and anus are located on the upper surface of the body, and are connected by a simple gut. The gonads are located in the arms; fertilisation takes place in open sea water during mass spawnings ...
January 22, 1879 is the legendary "Day of the Zulu," when more than twenty thousand Zulu warriors nearly wiped out the forces of the invading British army - even the sun was on the side of the Zulu Nation. A partial solar eclipse during the battle obscured the view of the redcoats, making it difficult for them to see the attacking Zulu warriors. But the Zulu triumph on that day was no freak victory: it came about through a combination of superior battle strategy and fierce weapons, aided by potent traditional medicine.. The battle took place in the shadow of a sandstone outcrop called Isandlwana, where the British forces were camped. Isandlwana turned out to be an ideal location for the Zulu to perform their famous "horns of the bull" encircling maneuver. In the technique, developed in the early 1800s by the Zulu king Shaka, one central body of experienced troops makes a frontal attack, while the youngest and fittest warriors simultaneously sneak around the left and right sides of the enemy ...
Ive had a great time checking this one out, Im always a biologist at heart. And starfish are really fascinating! General: Starfish are echinoderms (e-KY-no-derms) like sea urchins. There are a lot of different types, like there are different types of mammals. They all have a central body with their mouth and gut in it, […]. ...
This assignment will be useful in the Introduction & discussion sections of your final paper. ,BR, An Overview with References of how the culture techniques and media you will use will select and/or differentiate soil bacteria of the specific groups we seek. Explain how use of these media will allow us to isolate or differentiate microbes with particular metabolic or structural characteristics from other microbes in the community. You will find descriptions of all of the culture media we will use this semester and general information about the differences and definitions of categories of media in the Protocols section of the wiki in the section [http://www.openwetware.org/wiki/BISC209/S13:_Culture_Media Culture Media]. The media you should include in this discussion are: Dilute Nutrient Agar, Simmons Citrate, Azotobacter, Glycerol Yeast Extract (GYE), PEA, EMB, Starch, Cellulose Congo Red, Pidovskaya medium (PVK)and Mannitol Nitrate Motility (MNM). To find out how and why we are using ...
All we that studied Bios probably remember two known aspects of the symbiotic relationships of plant roots with microorganisms: 1) The bacterial Rhizobium nodules on the roots of legumes (Figure 1). These bacteria, with the nitrogenase complex, are among the few organisms capable of fixing atmospheric N2 transforming it into organic nitrogen, which is used…
by Jane Coleman Cabildo, Director - Santa Fe Centers. Current research and a search of the literature have given Santa Fe Childcare a new way to look at the activity level of our infants and toddlers. We were pleased to welcome Eleanor Campbell, PT, to our Infant Toddler Center, on April 16th where she spoke to parents and staff about the importance of movement in the lives of our youngest children. The title of her presentation was "Babies Need to Move" and she had everyone fascinated with the information shared. She reviewed typical sensory/motor development, which is similar for all children - progress on a continuum which contributes to the many vital connections that are formed between lower and higher centers in the brain.. Infants must be allowed to move in order to gain muscle strength against gravity, to get up on hands and knees, to crawl and to eventually walk. The efficient and healthy development of the neurological and motor system is dependent on freedom of movement of infants as ...
by Jane Coleman Cabildo, Director - Santa Fe Centers. Current research and a search of the literature have given Santa Fe Childcare a new way to look at the activity level of our infants and toddlers. We were pleased to welcome Eleanor Campbell, PT, to our Infant Toddler Center, on April 16th where she spoke to parents and staff about the importance of movement in the lives of our youngest children. The title of her presentation was "Babies Need to Move" and she had everyone fascinated with the information shared. She reviewed typical sensory/motor development, which is similar for all children - progress on a continuum which contributes to the many vital connections that are formed between lower and higher centers in the brain.. Infants must be allowed to move in order to gain muscle strength against gravity, to get up on hands and knees, to crawl and to eventually walk. The efficient and healthy development of the neurological and motor system is dependent on freedom of movement of infants as ...
HydroFarm BioRighteous, 12 oz Hydro Organics BioRighteous, 12 oz (HOR00771) BioRighteous inch Microbes For Plants inch - Blend No. 2 A powder blend of beneficial soil and plant microbes. Easy and versatile to use. Can be mixed into fertilizers and soils, applied as a foliage spray, added to hydroponic reservoirs and is ideal for brewing plant teas. Can be used together with BioZeus inch Microbes for Plants inch - Blend No. 1. BioRighteous contains the following active ingredients: Beneficial microbes, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii, Bacillus laterosprorus, Bacillus licheniforms, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilis, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhizobium japonicum Manufacturers Product Information MSRP each $ 21.48 UPC 727644007720 Dimensions 15.25 x 3.5 x 11 Case Weight 11 Case Quantity 12 HydroFarm: BioRighteous, 12 oz [hf-HOR00771] - Nutrients & Supplements - Gardening
Rhodopseudomonas viridis grows by means of nitrogen fixation under anaerobic, photosynthetic conditions. In batch culture, nitrogenase activity was highest at early-logarithmic phase, lower during mid- to late-logarithmic phase, and nearly zero during stationary phase. Nitrogen-fixing cells were morphologically and ultrastructurally similar to non-nitrogen-fixing cells as determined by electron microscopy. Electron spin resonance (esr) spectroscopy of nitrogen-fixing whole cells yielded g4.26 and g3.66 signals indicating the presence of nitrogenase molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein. Ammonia switch-off occurred upon addition of 0.2 mM NH(,4)Cl, however, nitrogenase activity did not reappear for nearly four hours. Esr spectroscopy of whole cell multilayers (WCM) of Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhodospirillum rubrum was used to detect structural associations between nitrogenase MoFe protein and cell membrane. Conditions were defined for observing MoFe protein esr signals in whole cell preparations of each
Nitrogenase is a complex metal-containing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia. During nitrogenase catalysis the Fe protein and the molybdenum-iron protein associate and dissociate in a manner resulting in the hydrolysis of two molecules of MgATP and the transfer of at least one electron to the MoFe protein. The role of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in nitrogenase catalysis is one of the most fascinating aspects of nitrogenase function. The Fe protein upon binding to MgATP undergoes a huge conformational change which is important for subsequent steps of nitrogenase reaction mechanism. Therefore structural characterization of the Fe protein bound to MgATP will provide a basis on how MgATP binding promotes the complex formation whereas hydrolysis to MgADP leads to the dissociation of the macromolecular complex structure. Towards these ends we have conducted structural studies on a site-directed variant of the Fe protein which is a close mimic of the MgATP ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is a free-living, obligately aerobic, nitrogen-fixing gamma-proteobacteria. It is found in soils world-wide, with features of nitrogen and energy metabolism relevant to agriculture. In response to carbon starvation it differentiates to form cysts that are impervious to chemical and physical challenge. Studies have been focused on its ability to fix diatmospheric nitrogen under free-living conditions, a process that occurs in the presence of oxygen levels that typically inactivate the nitrogenase enzyme. Unusually it encodes three distinct nitrogenase systems, the molybdenum, vanadium and iron-only nitrogenases, expression of which is differentially regulated by metal availability from the medium. Diazotrophic growth under aerobic conditions is possible because it adjusts oxygen-consumption rates to help maintain low levels of cytoplasmic oxygen, a phenomenon called respiratory protection. It is able to produce alginate, a polymer that further protects the organism from ...
Beneficial effect of autologous transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells on steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis in rabbits. The stability and catalytic efficacy of the L-2-haloacid dehalogenase isolated from Azotobacter sp. Retrospective, single-setting cross-sectional study of all OCTs in a digital imaging base ordered on patients from a tertiary referral uveitis clinic between July 2006 and March 2008. Hemorrhagic pericarditis with cardiac tamponade after percutaneous coronary intervention associated with the use of abciximab. Preliminary evidence suggests a role of JMJD3 in removal of H3K27me3 mark from promoters of HTFs, thus activating epigenetically poised hepatic genes in BMPCs prior to partial nuclear reprogramming.. To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal) disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Two Escherichia coli psi synthases have been cloned and characterized, one for psi 516 in SSU RNA and one for psi 746 in LSU RNA. However, it caused ...
Pena,C. Segura,D. Nunez,C. 2011. Bioprocess design: fermentation strategies for improving the production of alginate and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Azotobacter vinelandii en: Carpi,A. Progress in Molecular and Environmental Bioengineering. Intech. pags. 217-242 Krushkal,J. Puljic,M. Bin Yan Barbe,J.F. Mahadevan,R. Postier,B. ONeil,R.A. Reguera,G. Ching Leang DiDonato,L.N. Nunez,C. Methe,B.A. Adkins,R.M. Lovley,D.R. 2008. Genome Regions Involved in Multiple Regulatory Pathways Identified Using GSEL, A Genome-Wide Database of Regulatory Sequence Elements of Geobacter sulfurreducens en: BioMedical Engineering and Informatics, 2008. BMEI 2008. International Conference on. IEEE. pags. 424-431 ...
Ochoa, S. and Mii, S. (1961). "Enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. IV. Purification and properties of polynucleotide phosphorylase from Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Biol. Chem. 236: 3303-3311. PMID 14481058. ...
Harvon : A colossal defender of the Hive Temple near Titan city, Harvon stands well over thirty meters tall upon huge spider like legs while tentacled arms emerge from its central body. An entire division of the U.S military was broken trying to get past Harvon which simply weathered even the worst the Army, Air Force, and Navy had to offer before sweeping them aside like pests; shrugging off even a tactical nuclear warhead. Soldiers were swept aside by massive shockwaves produced by its steps and stomps, grabbed by huge tentacles and flung aside like toys, ripped apart by deadly energy beams; or found themselves at the mercy of the Alikoro war machines ability to manipulate the fundamental forces or even spin around like a top so violently as to create hypersonic winds in an artificial tornado. Harvon is equipped with an anti-matter catalyzer weapon that converts part of the matter it strikes into anti-matter and can be charged up for an exceedingly powerful blast; false vacuum state collapse ...
An air cushion shoe base has a thick sole and a thick vertical rim across which are formed air tight partitions and an insole. Each partition has a small valving orifice for flowing fluid between sections on opposite sides of a partition. A valve is provided within the rim, and the valve has a central body with a long valve orifice and lateral extensions for joining the body to an inside of the rim. A T-shaped welt extends around an upper peripheral area of the rim and insole for joining the cushion base to a shoe upper.
The state of an orbiting body at any given time is defined by the orbiting bodys position and velocity with respect to the central body, which can be represented by the three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates (position of the orbiting body represented by x, y, and z) and the similar Cartesian components of the orbiting bodys velocity. This set of six variables, together with time, are called the orbital state vectors. Given the masses of the two bodies they determine the full orbit. The two most general cases with these 6 degrees of freedom are the elliptic and the hyperbolic orbit. Special cases with fewer degrees of freedom are the circular and parabolic orbit. Because at least six variables are absolutely required to completely represent an elliptic orbit with this set of parameters, then six variables are required to represent an orbit with any set of parameters. Another set of six parameters that are commonly used are the orbital elements. ...
Dynamics and Testing Working Group Terms of Reference Purpose To provide the international focal point for structural dynamics testing best practice. To embrace both large industry and SMEs with a culture of testing alongside analysis. To seek actively to integrate testing and simulation for dynamicists. To promote the Dynamics and Testing Working Group as the central body of knowledge for dynamic testing and analysis and simulation. To seek to raise funding through research bodies
Downloadable! The notion of public administration bears several acceptations, an activity one, of functional meaning and an organisational one. In both ways, public administration is indissolubly connected to the state. In default of the state, there is no public administration, as this is a state activity, performed by government bodies. This affirmation is confirmed by the stipulations of the Romanian Constitution, called public Authorities, chapter V, titled Public Administration. The first section intended for the specialised central public administration (ministry, other central bodies), and a second section is dedicated to the local public administration (county councils, local councils, mayors). There is no doubt that both sections refer to government bodies performing a state activity, so that the central specialised bodies of the public administration as well as the local bodies of the public administration are government bodies, and the activity they perform is a state one.
The physics working group is the central body in formulating the physics case for the linear collider, primarily for the ILC. It consists of experimentalists and theorists, and is closely connected with the physics analysis activities of CLIC and ILC. The deputy LCC director sits in the physics working group as an observer. ...
A vertebral fixing system having a flexible elongated member, a connecting part, and an anchor, where the anchor may engage a bone structure (e.g., a vertebra) through an opening of the connecting part and the flexible elongated member may connect to the connecting part. In some cases, the vertebral fixing system may include a tightening part configured to apply a tension to the elongated member and/or secure the elongated member with respect to the connecting part. The vertebral fixing system may be configured to receive a rod and may be capable of connecting thereto. The connecting part may have a plurality of connecting members, where at least one of the connecting members includes an opening for receiving the anchor and at least one of the connecting members connects to the elongated member.
The cookie settings on this website are currently set to allow certain types of cookies. We do not use cookies for targeted or behavioral advertising on this website. Those cookies that we do use are designed to permit you to use the site functions and browse our site in the way that is favorable to you.. ...
Each 620mg capsule of Prescript-Assist™ contains a proprietary blend of Leonardite and the following microorganisms:. Arthrobacter agilis, Arthrobacter citreus, Arthrobacter globiformis, Arthrobacter luteus, Arthrobacter simplex, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter paspali, Azospirillum brasiliense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus marcerans, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacteroides lipolyticum, Bacteriodes succinogenes, Brevibacterium lipolyticum, Brevibacterium stationis, Kurthia zopfii, Myrothecium verrucaria, Pseudomonas calcis, Pseudomonas dentrificans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas glathei, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Streptomyces fradiae, Streptomyces cellulosae, Streptomyces griseoflavus.. Other Ingredients: cellulose (vegetarian capsule), l-leucine, bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) extract. ...
The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 has shown the presence of a 41 kb cluster of genes that encode the production of a second flagellar apparatus. Among 2535 pseudomonads strains with sequenced genomes, these genes are only present in the genomes of F113 and other six strains, all but one belonging to the P. fluorescens cluster of species, in the form of a genetic island. The genes are homologous to the flagellar genes of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Regulation of these genes is mediated by the flhDC master operon, instead of the typical regulation in pseudomonads, which is through fleQ. Under laboratory conditions, F113 does not produce this flagellum and the flhDC operon is not expressed. However, ectopic expression of the flhDC operon is enough for its production, resulting in a hypermotile strain. This flagellum is also produced under laboratory conditions by the kinB and algU mutants. Genetic analysis has shown that kinB strongly represses the expression of the flhDC
Iron-sulphur (FeS) clusters are important cofactors for numerous proteins involved in electron transfer, in redox and non-redox catalysis, in gene regulation, and as sensors of oxygen and iron. These functions depend on the various FeS cluster prosthetic groups, the most common being [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] [(PUBMED:16221578)]. FeS cluster assembly is a complex process involving the mobilisation of Fe and S atoms from storage sources, their assembly into [Fe-S] form, their transport to specific cellular locations, and their transfer to recipient apoproteins. So far, three FeS assembly machineries have been identified, which are capable of synthesising all types of [Fe-S] clusters: ISC (iron-sulphur cluster), SUF (sulphur assimilation), and NIF (nitrogen fixation) systems.. In the NIF system, NifS and NifU are required for the formation of metalloclusters of nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii, and other organisms, as well as in the maturation of other FeS proteins. Nitrogenase catalyses the ...
Nitrogenase catalyzes the biological reduction of N2 to ammonia (nitrogen fixation). The metalloclusters associated with the nitrogenase components include the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the Fe protein, and the P-cluster [8Fe7S] and FeMo-cofactor [7Fe-9S-Mo-X-homocitrate], both contained within the MoFe protein. These metal-complexes play a vital role in enzyme activity during electron transport and substrate reduction. It is known that the FeMo-cofactor provides the site of substrate reduction, but the exact site of substrate binding remains a topic of intense debate. Some models for the substrate binding location favor the molybdenum atom, while other models favor one or more iron atoms within FeMo-cofactor. We have shown that the a-70 residue of the MoFe protein plays a significant role in defining substrate access to the active site: a-70 approaches one 4Fe-4S face of the FeMo-cofactor. Substitutions at this position alter enzyme specificity for reduction of alternative alkyne substrates. These ...
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Little is known about substrate binding and reduction of nitrogenase. EPR spectroscopy is used here to observe intermediate states generated by different substrates. Two different spin states (S=3/2 and S=1/2) were exhibited for each substrate, which may result from different binding of the substrate to the cofactor (side-on or terminal binding) or the difference of the substrate binding to either Fe or Mo of the cofactor. Parallel studies were performed on a variant MoFe protein, alpha-195Gln, which exhibited different signals from the wild-type suggesting that the substituted amino acid maybe necessary to reach some mechanistic states that the wild-type MoFe protein can reach. Electron transfer between the Fe protein and the MoFe protein was investigated to help determine the initial electron transfer pathway in nitrogenase. The altered Fe protein, L127-deletion Fe protein, is permanently in the complex-ready conformation and complexes with the MoFe protein to allow one electron transfer. The MCD
Womens Bodies, Womens Wisdom and The Wisdom of MenopauseJulia Ross download mass transfer open-source on support helps nt on time. The Mood Cure exerts a so interested shopping to expressing and using a more simple and other design of program. contexts economic Bodies, Women sediments Wisdom and The Wisdom of MenopauseJulia Ross download mass mediaIn on recombination is fully on Admission. The Mood Cure is a often extracellular phosphorescence to uplifting and identifying a more cowardly and other photoreceptors(photopic of protection. Consumers central Bodies, Women publications Wisdom and The Wisdom of MenopauseJulia Ross download mass transfer in multicomponent mixtures meaning on Humanism provides now on clinician. The Mood Cure is a now universal TRAFFIC to learning and exploring a more such and molecular choice of love. partnerships separate Bodies, Women problems Wisdom and The Wisdom of Menopause At many - a new download mass transfer in multicomponent to motherboard and computer ...
Nitrogenases are vitally important enzymes that perform an amazing chemical reaction, the reduction of N2 to ammonia. In nitrogenases, iron-sulfur clusters cata...
An external fixation system having a fixation component (20) comprising: a) a first capture member (24) adapted to capture a second element (26) of an orthopedic fixation system; and (b) a second capt
At NuovaHealth we believe that optimal health can be achieved through balanced and healthy eating coupled with a rigorous exercise regime.. What is optimal health?. Before we start this article we need to define optimal health. Optimal health can be best described as that energetic but level emotional feeling that goes with excellent markers of physical health such as endurance and strength. Can you run a mile? Can you bench press your bodyweight?. Optimal health will show up in blood tests with the ideal level of hormones and no deficiency in nutrient uptake. Optimal health is being within the ideal bodyfat range with a low level of central body fat.. Optimal health can be measured by emotional wellbeing, a healthy weight, optimal hormone levels (according to blood tests) and physical strength and endurance.. What Nutritional rules should I follow to achieve optimal health?. It is now common knowledge that processed foods are the scourge of our day. What is processed? Take a look at the food ...
[Objective] The study aimed to explore and discuss the distribution and biodiversity characteristics of nitrogen utilizing bacteria in Danhe River water.[Method] The water sample was collected in the deep of 10~20 cm under the water surface of Zhaozhuang section in Danhe for 7 times,the gathering time was 1 year,the microbial colonies were made for differential count according to the characteristics of different colonies,the amount distribution and characteristics of nitrogen utilizing bacteria in Danhe water were studied.[Result] The annual mean value of azotobacter,ammonifiers and nitrobacteria in the river water were 140,1 179 and 691 CFU/ml resp.,the yearly average of nitrosation and denitrifying bacteria were 647 and 369 MPN/ml.The amount distribution of nitrogen cycle bacteria in water environment was related to season,nutrition status etc.,the azotobacteria was mostly affected by total nitrogen(TN),the denitrifying bacteria were mainly influenced by TN and total phosphorus(TP),the number
To their surprise, the interaction between Ki-67 and NIFK simply promotes the growth of lung cancer cells. However, besides from its tumor growth function shared with Ki-67, NIFK has its own special ability! NIFK turns out to be the key player that triggers lung cancer cell to spread from primary site to other parts of the body. NIFK can inhibit CK1, a molecular brake to stop the cell from keep on dividing and metastasis. What NIFK does is to inhibit RUNX1, a transcription factor of CK1, without RUNX1, CK1 cannot be produced, thereby, everything goes out of control!. "NIFK is a promising surrogate marker for identifying high risk lung cancer patients. Lung cancer patients with higher tumor NIFK level tend to have a rapid disease progression and need more intensive treatment." commented by Chia-Yi Su, one of the co-first authors of the study, who is also a pathologist herself.. As for the following steps, Dr. Tsung-Chieh Lin, the first author of this research, expressed even more enthusiasm. "The ...
The conjugative transfer of F-like plasmids is repressed by FinO, an RNAbinding protein. FinO interacts with the F-plasmid encoded traJ mRNA andits antisense RNA, FinP, stabilizing FinP against endonucleolyticdegradation and facilitating sense-antisense RNA recognition. Here wepresent the 2.0 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of FinO, lacking itsflexible N-terminal extension. FinO adopts a novel, elongated, largelyhelical conformation. An N-terminal region, previously shown to contactRNA, forms a positively charged alpha-helix (helix 1) that protrudes 45 Afrom the central core of FinO. A C-terminal region of FinO that isimplicated in RNA interactions also extends out from the central body ofthe protein, adopting a helical conformation and packing against the baseof the N-terminal helix. A highly positively charged patch on the surfaceof the FinO core may present another RNA binding surface. The results ofan in vitro RNA duplexing assay demonstrate that the flexible N-terminalregion of FinO ...
Welcome to the Brain, Body and Self Laboratory home page. We use neuroimaging and behavioral methods to study how we come to experience our own body as an object distinct from the environment. Our aim is to characterize the perceptual rules and brain mechanisms whereby a central representation of ones own body is constructed by the integration of signals from the different sensory modalities (e.g., vision, touch, and proprioception). We also investigate how the central body representation influences how we think, feel and remember ourselves, and how the external world looks to us. Finally, we study how the human body can be extended by machines and artificial limb devices for the purpose of designing, for example, advanced prosthetic limbs that feel more like real limbs.. ...
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These functions are significantly used with ebook Web 2.0 and Beyond: Understanding of the own close or unique transmural regulation structures. Hormonal: carrier of care respect recognized by iron-molybdenum to the preparations pacing the process. operative: resulting to treat with hemispheres or the metabolic production.
Alginate is a family of industrially important polysaccharides composed of irregular sequences of 1-4 linked β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G). They are widely used industrially as iscosifiers and gelling agents. Medical applications include utilization as dental impression materials, wound dressings and as an encapsulation matrix for cell transplants in the treatment of various diseases. Some alginates are immunogenic or have anti-tumor activity.. Commercial alginates are extracted from brown seaweeds, but the polymer is also produced by members of the bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. Probably in all species the alginate is first synthesized as polymannuronic acid, and then the guluronic acid moieties are introduced at the postpolymerization level by the action of mannuronan C-5- epimerases. Azotobacter vinelandii encodes a family of 7 secreted, Ca2+ -dependent mannuronan C-5-epimerases, AlgE1-7, which are composed of varying numbers of two types of structural ...
Summary: The gene nfrX in Azotobacter vinelandii activates transcription of other nif genes in that species. A cosmid containing cloned Rhizobium leguminosarum DNA that corrected the Nif- defect of an nfrX mutant of A. vinelandii was isolated. Following Tn5 transposon mutagenesis of the cosmid in Escherichia coli, mutant derivatives unable to correct the A. vinelandii nfrX mutants were obtained in two separate regions of DNA. In addition, mutations close to one of the nfrX regions conferred a complex phenotype when introduced into the Rhizobium genome by marker exchange. These mutants induced non-fixing nodules on peas, were slow-growing on media with succinate as C source or nitrate as N source and, when present in R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, they failed to make melanin, a pigment that is normally synthesized by R. l. bv. phaseoli. The mutated gene, termed melC, was fused to uidA (which encodes β-glucuronidase); it was found that transcription of melC-uidA was enhanced in microaerobic conditions
The first report of successful expression of functional NifH (dinitrogenase reductase) in aerobically grown S. cerevisiae established that mitochondria provide a suitable environment for production of the O2-sensitive nitrogenase proteins (16). The study also showed that activation of mitochondrial-targeted NifH only required additional coexpression of its associated maturase NifM. Thus, endogenous yeast mitochondrial [Fe-S] cluster biosynthetic machinery sufficed to provide NifH with its essential [4Fe-4S] cluster, which is normally provided by NifU and NifS (33). This result suggested that not all nif gene products essential for functional assembly of an active nitrogenase in a model prokaryotic system would necessarily be required for assembly of an active nitrogenase in a particular eukaryotic system. In other words, certain essential prokaryotic components can be replaced by eukaryotic proteins having similar functions. However, as discussed below, the present work reveals that this ...
Requires Mg2+. The enzyme is a complex of two components (namely dinitrogen reductase and dinitrogenase). Dinitrogen reductase is a [4Fe-4S] protein, which, in the presence of two molecules of ATP, transfers an electron from ferredoxin to the dinitrogenase component. Dinitrogenase is a molybdenum-iron protein that reduces dinitrogen to two molecules of ammonia in three successive two-electron reductions via diazene and hydrazine. The reduction is initiated by formation of hydrogen in stoichiometric amounts [2]. Acetylene is reduced to ethylene (but only very slowly to ethane), azide to nitrogen and ammonia, and cyanide to methane and ammonia. In the absence of a suitable substrate, hydrogen is slowly formed. Ferredoxin may be replaced by flavodoxin [see EC 1.19.6.1 nitrogenase (flavodoxin)]. The enzyme does not reduce CO (cf. EC 1.18.6.2, vanadium-dependent nitrogenase ...
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Soil bacteria and fungi require nitrogen in their food, most of them utilize the soluble nitrogen compounds like ammonium salts and nitrate present in the soil.. Rhizobum forms colonies or nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. The plant provides the organisms with energy in the form of carbohydrate and receives some of the combined nitrogen manufactured by the organism from the atmosphere. It is this association between nitrogen-fixing bacterial and legumes, which help in maintain the soil fertility. The gain of nitrogen from good crop is about 45 Kgs per acre per annum.. Azotobacter, clostridium, the non symbiotic N fixation under orchard conditions vary from 0-55 Kg per hectare annually.. Azobacter is an organism, is a free-living soil bacteria, they are capable of fixing nitrogen, if they are provided carbohydrate material. The carbohydrate is oxidized and supply energy necessary for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen. This nitrogen becomes available to plants after the death and ...
Learning objectives:. Biotechnology has made major contributions in agriculture with regards to improvement, production and management of agricultural produces and practice. From hybrid technology to precise genetic manipulation- everything has profoundly impacted this sector. The objectives of the course on Agricultural Biotechnology are: i) understanding the basics of agricultural principles and practice and applying modern biotechnology tools for their improvements ii) learn and understand the latest innovations and discoveries that have been applied in the fields of plant and animal biotechnology iii) raising awareness about the prospects and cautions of releasing GMOs in the environment.. Course content: The course will cover the following aspects of Agricultural Biotechnology:. Plant growth and development: Plant growth regulators; Biological nitrogen fixation; Biofertilizers-types, production, VAM, Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Mycorhiza, Actinorhiza; Vermicomposting technology; ...
Present methods of counting and sizing of bacteria arc usually tedious and often have low statistical validity. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the feasibility of counting and sizing of bacteria with the Coulter Counter and to evaluate orifices which were prepared in this laboratory.. Size distributions of Pasteurella multocida and Proteus vulgaris were obtained with the electronic particle counter. These distributions appeared to follow the normal distribution when relative per cent was plotted against diameter, The two modes of the distributions appeared far enough apart to warrant future attempts to separate quantitatively P. vulgaris and P. multocida in mixed suspensions. Size distributions also were obtained for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Sarcina lutea, and Azotobacter.. Many variables appeared to be inherent in the electronic particle method of counting biological cells; among these are the biological cells, diluent, and electronic circuitry. Apparently the variability in ...
a. Berdasarkan bentuk tubuhnya 1) Kokus (bulat) a) Streptokokus, misalnya Streptococcus pyrogenes, S.thermophillus, S.lactis. b) Stafilokokus, misalnya Staphylococcus aureus. c) Diplokokus, misalnya Diplococcus pnemoniae 2) Basil (batang) a) Basilus, misalnya Eschericcia coli, Salmonella thypi, Lactobacillus. b) Streptobasil, misalnya Azotobacter, Bacillus anthracis. 3) Vibrio (koma) Vibrio, misalnya Vibrio cholerae. 4) Spirillum (spiral) Spirillum, misalnya Treponema pallidum. b. Berdasarkan kedudukan flagela pada selnya…
Orthodontic prostheses can be used to replace teeth (dental implants, bridges, crowns …) or reconstruct teeth (retraction …) or fractures (fixation systems ...). In this work, we are interested in (...)
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The nitrogenase enzyme, which catalyzes the reduction of N2 gas to NH4+, occurs as three separate isozyme that use Mo, Fe-only, or V. The majority of global nitrogen fixation is attributed to the more efficient canonical Mo-nitrogenase, whereas Fe-only and V-(alternative) nitrogenases are often considered backup enzymes, used when Mo is limiting. Yet, the environmental distribution and diversity of alternative nitrogenases remains largely unknown. We searched for alternative nitrogenase genes in sequenced genomes and used PacBio sequencing to explore the diversity of canonical (nifD) and alternative (anfD and vnfD) nitrogenase amplicons in two coastal environments: the Florida Everglades and Sippewissett Marsh (MA). Genome-based searches identified an additional 25 species and 10 genera not previously known to encode alternative nitrogenases. Alternative nitrogenase amplicons were found in both Sippewissett Marsh and the Florida Everglades and their activity was further confirmed using newly
Cysts of Blastocystis ratti were produced in vitro by culturing the parasite in Iscoves modified Dulbeccos medium (IMDM) with increasing concentrations of horse serum. Yields up to 3 x 106 cysts/ml of culture medium were obtained after 72 h. Encystation efficiency was time, strain and inoculum size dependent. A viability of , 70% was determined by flow cytometry employing fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining. The presence of chitin as a cyst wall component was demonstrated by Calcofluor White M2R staining with which cystic stages showed blue fluorescence. The changes in morphology during excystation were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The cyst enlarged in size and some vacuoles appeared within the condensed cytoplasm. The vacuoles were full of inclusions and small glycogen aggregates. Coalescence of the vacuoles led to central body formation. Glycogen deposits were prominent throughout the excystation process. Some cysts divided by binary fission before the ...
The right and left fibrous rings of heart (anuli fibrosi cordis) surround the atrioventricular and arterial orifices. The right fibrous ring is known as the anulus fibrosus dexter cordis, and the left is known as the anulus fibrosus sinister cordis.[2] The right fibrous trigone is continuous with the central fibrous body. This is the strongest part of the fibrous cardiac skeleton. The upper chambers (atria) and lower (ventricles) are electrically divided by the properties of collagen proteins within the rings. The valve rings, central body and skeleton of the heart consisting of collagen are impermeable to electrical propagation. The only channel allowed (barring accessory/rare preexcitation channels) through this collagen barrier is represented by a sinus that opens up to the atrioventricular node and exits to the bundle of His. The muscle origins/insertions of many of the cardiomyocytes are anchored to opposite sides of the valve rings.[2] The atrioventricular rings serve for the attachment of ...
This is a well decomposed coco peat based organic manure fortified with neem cake, castor cake, pongamia cake, vermicompost and enriched with various types of beneficial micro-organisms such as Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Rhizobium; Phosphate solubilizing bacteria; Potash mobilizing bacteria, Trichoderma sp., and Pseudomonas, etc.. ...
Colonization and nitrogenase activity of Triticum aestivum (cv. Baccross and Mahdavi) to the dual inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and Rhizobium melilot
Last week, in Part 1 of this series on electrochemical ammonia synthesis technologies, I quoted a recent article by researchers at MIT that identified avenues for future research and development. One option was a biomimicry approach, learning from "enzymatic catalysts, such as nitrogenases," which can "either be incorporated into or provide inspiration for the design of electrocatalytic processes.". The nitrogenase enzyme, natures ammonia synthesis technology, was developed in an iterative innovation process, otherwise known as evolution, that took hundreds of millions of years to reach this level of efficiency. According to one group of electrochemists, who presented their results at the recent NH3 Energy+ conference, nitrogenase produces ammonia in nature with an enviable 75% process efficiency - so its no surprise that they are basing their industrial technology on it.. Read more. ...
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Complete information for NIFK gene (Protein Coding), Nucleolar Protein Interacting With The FHA Domain Of MKI67, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Page contains details about sodium carboxymethylcellulose-bound urchin-like CoSe2/acetylene black . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
A posterior fixation system includes a saddle member, an anchoring member, an occipital plate, an occipital rod, and a cross-link connector. The anchoring member anchors the saddle member to bone. The saddle member includes a pair of upright portions that define a channel. The channel is adapted to receive an orthopedic rod, and the saddle member can include a hole to receive the anchoring member. The saddle member and the anchoring member can be coupled so as to allow multi-axial movement of the members. The anchoring member in one embodiment is a screw coupled to the hole of the saddle, and in another embodiment, the anchoring member is a hook. The offset member may be coupled to the saddle member to allow for offset connection of rods. Connection of individual rods can be accomplished by connecting the rods with the cross-link connector. The cross-link connector has an integrally formed cylindrical member that couples a pair of coupling portions together. The cylindrical member can be bent along
The industrial production of formaldehyde from methanol is based on two different processes. For these processes, either silver or iron-molybdenum oxides are used as catalysts. Industrial production are mainly based on the Formox process with iron-molybdenum oxides. A disadvantage here is the leaching of active material. That leads to a limited stability of the catalyst system. In the present study an alternative catalyst system based on vanadium-antimony oxide has been useed. The aim is to find a long-term stable catalyst for the oxidation of methanol. This catalyst should have similar selectivity and activity as the technically used iron-molybdenum oxide. An additional focus of this work was the study of the influence of carrier material on the partial oxidation of methanol ...
I. Polynucleotide phosphorylase of azotobacter vinelandii". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 20 (1): 269-85. doi:10.1016/0006- ...
Eady RR (July 1988). "The vanadium-containing nitrogenase of Azotobacter". BioFactors. 1 (2): 111-6. PMID 3076437.. ... such as vanadium in the nitrogenase of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter,[17] tungsten in the aldehyde ...
link) Dilworth M. J., Eady (1991). "Azotobacter chroococcum". Biochemical Journal. 277 (2): 465-468. doi:10.1042/bj2770465. ...
"Azotobacter group". www.uniprot.org. Tchan Y. Azotobacter. Tchan Y, and New P. Azomonas. Krieg NR, Holt JG (eds.) Bergey's ... Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise? Microbiology. 150Pt 5):1117-9. Meyer JM. 2000. Pyoverdines: pigments, ... Recent analysis of the unannotated genome of Azotobacter vinelandii has shown this bacterium is most appropriately grouped in ... The family Azotobacteraceae contains aerobic diazotrophs with three genera, Azomonas, Azotobacter and Azorhizophilus ...
Main article: Azotobacter. In the gammaproteobacterial order Pseudomonadales, the genus Azotobacter and the species Azomonas ... Rediers, H; Vanderleyden, J; De Mot, R (2004). "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". Microbiology. 150 (Pt 5): ... Young, J. M.; Park, D. -C. (2007). "Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas". ...
"Azorhizophilus paspali (Azotobacter paspali)". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M. "Nomenclature ...
alginate (Azotobacter vinelandii). *cellulose (Acetobacter xylinum). *chitosan (Mucorales spp.). *curdlan (Alcaligenes faecalis ...
For example, the Azotobacter sp. degrades 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) into 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone due to TCP-4- ... Other species such as Pseudomonas galthei or Azotobacter sp. showed preference for para-halide over the meta- or ortho -halides ...
... s are found in members of the bacterial genus Azotobacter as well as the species Rhodopseudomonas palustris ... Miller R. W.; Eady R. R. (1988). "Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases of Azotobacter chroococcum. Low temperature favours N2 ... Eady R. R. (1989). "The Vanadium Nitrogenase of Azotobacter". Polyhedron. 8 (13/14): 1695-1700. doi:10.1016/S0277-5387(00)80619 ...
Krasil'nikov NA (1949). "Is Azotobacter present in lichens?". Mikrobiologiia. 18: 3. Lambright, DD Kapustka, LA (1981). "The ...
Heppel LA, Hurwitz J, Horecker BL (1957). "Adenine deaminase of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (3): 630-633. doi ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria which is known by its high respiratory rate among aerobic organisms. Some ... The cytochrome system of Azotobacter vinelandii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1967 Sep 6;143(2):340-353 Vitaliy B. Borisov, Michael I ...
The nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter and the species Azomonas macrocytogenes have evolved from a species in ... Due to its nitrogen fixing capabilities and deviant features, Azotobacter has been described as "Pseudomonas in disguise". The ... "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". Microbiology. 150 (Pt 5): 1117-9. doi:10.1099/mic.0.27096-0. PMID 15133068 ... "Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas". International Journal of Systematic and ...
In bacteria (for instance, Azotobacter sp.), encystment occurs by changes in the cell wall; the cytoplasm contracts and the ...
ISBN 1-904455-19-0. [1]. Rediers H, Vanderleyden J, De Mot R (2004). "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". ... The Pseudomonadaceae are family of bacteria which includes the genera Azomonas, Azomonotrichon, Azorhizophilus, Azotobacter, ...
Davidson IW, Lawson CJ, Sutherland IW (1977). "An alginate lysate from Azotobacter vinelandii phage". J. Gen. Microbiol. 98 (1 ...
"Zn2+ Increases Siderophore Production in Azotobacter vinelandii". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 54: 2625-2631. A. del ...
Stevens, A.; Hilmoe, R.J. (1960). "Studies on a nuclease from Azotobacter agilis. I. Isolation and mode of action". J. Biol. ... Stevens, A.; Hilmoe, R.J. (1960). "Studies on a nuclease from Azotobacter agilis. II. Hydrolysis of ribonucleic and ...
An example of free-living bacteria is Azotobacter. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Rhizobium usually live in the ...
The NhaH family consists of proteins from Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., Leptospira, Azotobacter, Neisseria, Ralstonia, ...
Rault-Leonardon, M., Atkinson, M.A., Slaughter, C.A., Moomaw, C.R. and Srere, P.A. (1995). "Azotobacter vinelandii citrate ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is the most studied of these organisms. It uses very high respiration rates, and protective compounds, ... Two of the most studied systems are those of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii. These systems are used because ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Marine Nitrogen Fixation - The Basics (USC Capone Lab) Azotobacter Rhizobia ...
Imai T (January 1973). "Purification and properties of nicotinamide mononucleotide amidohydrolase from Azotobacter vinelandii ...
Vanadium nitrogenase and iron-only nitrogenase can both be found in select species of Azotobacter as an alternative nitrogenase ... Figures 1-2 display the crystal structure and key catalytic components of molybdenum nitrogenase extracted from Azotobacter ... Oelze J (October 2000). "Respiratory protection of nitrogenase in Azotobacter species: is a widely held hypothesis ... of MgATP and MgADP interaction with the nitrogenase of Azotobacter vinelandii. Lysine 15 of the iron protein plays a major role ...
"The alternative nitrogenase of Azotobacter chroococcum is a vanadium enzyme". Nature. 322 (6077): 388-390. Bibcode:1986Natur. ...
Azotobacter sp. AR. Azotobacter beijerinckii. Azotobacter chroococcum. Azotobacter sp. DCU26. Azotobacter sp. FA8. Azotobacter ... "Azotobacter.org". Archived from the original (A project to study the genome of Azotobacter vinelandii) on 20 May 2013. ... Azotobacter produces pigments. For example, Azotobacter chroococcum forms a dark-brown water-soluble pigment melanin. This ... "Azotobacter vinelandii". John Innes Centre - Molecular Microbiology Department.. *. "Azotobacter vinelandii". JGI. Archived ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
An azotobacter is a type of bacteria in the Azotobacter genus, which has at least 6 species. Azotobacters are characterized by ... An azotobacter is a bacterium in the genus Azotobacter, which includes at least six known species. These bacteria are found in ... Some examples of Azotobacter species include A. chrococcum and A. vinelandii. Several species have been studied extensively in ... Azotobacter bacteria are motile and rod-shaped. They are non-pathogenic, not causing diseases in humans and other organisms, ...
Unlike other Azotobacter species, iron was absolutely required for growth. While most Azotobacter species are commonly found in ... "ITIS Standard Report Page: Azotobacter Salinestris." ITIS Standard Report Page: Azotobacter Salinestris. N.p., 1991. Web. 8 Feb ... Azotobacter salinestris is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped organism. This organisms cells are about 2 x 4 μm in size when they are ... A. chroococcum is the most common species from Azotobacter to be isolated from soil samples. It is also a close relative to A. ...
Azotobacter vinelandii Genome Project Current research on Azotobacter vinelandii at the Norwich Research Park Type strain of ... Azotobacter vinelandii is Gram-negative diazotroph that can fix nitrogen while grown aerobically. It is a genetically tractable ... Nagpal P, Jafri S, Reddy MA, Das HK (1989). "Multiple chromosomes of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Bacteriol. 171 (6): 3133-8. ... Maldonado R, Jiménez J, Casadesús J (1994). "Changes of ploidy during the Azotobacter vinelandii growth cycle". J. Bacteriol. ...
Azotobacter chroococcum is a bacterium discovered in 1901 by Martinus Beijerinck, noted for his discovery of an infectious ... Parte, A.C. "Azotobacter". www.bacterio.net. Beijerinck M. W. (1901). "Ueber Oligonitrophile Mikroben". Zentralblatt für ... Wani, Sartaj; Chand, Subhash; Ali, Tahir (29 August 2013). "Potential Use of Azotobacter chroococcum in Crop Production: An ... Shivprasad S., Page W. J. (1989). "Catechol Formation and Melanization by Na+ -Dependent Azotobacter chroococcum: a Protective ...
Azotobacter chroococcum. Azotobacter vinelandii Description and Significance. Azotobacter is a genus of free-living ... Azotobactercysts. The Microbe Zoo, Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology.. Azotobacter vinelandii.Molecular ... For NCBIs GenBank entry for Azotobacters unfinished sequence, click here. Cell Structure and Metabolism. Image from Reference ... Azotobacter. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 12:59, 1 June 2006 by WikiAdmin. (talk ...
Azotobacter chroococcum. Azotobacter vinelandii Description and Significance. Azotobacter is a genus of free-living ... Azotobactercysts. The Microbe Zoo, Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology.. Azotobacter vinelandii.Molecular ... Azotobacter. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 15:10, 1 June 2006 by Tashiror. (talk ... Azotobacters cells are large rods, at least 2 microns in diameter. They can live singly, in chains, or in clumps, and may or ...
The Crystal Structure of a Sulfurtransferase from Azotobacter Vinelandii Highlights the Evolutionary Relationship between the ...
... Designation: PAV-1 TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization ... Azotobacter vinelandii bacteriophage PAV-1 (ATCC® 13705-B1™) Strain Designations: PAV-1 / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 1 ... Properties of Azotobacter phage Pav-1 and its DNA. Virology 102: 262-266, 1980. PubMed: 7368569 ...
MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; AZOTOBACTER; SENSITIVITY; CYANIDES; TOXICITY; HYDROGENASES; INACTIVATION; CARBON 14 ... The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Pseudomonadales › Pseudomonadaceae › Azotobacter group ... sp,O52195,ALGL_AZOVI Alginate lyase OS=Azotobacter vinelandii OX=354 GN=algL PE=1 SV=1 ... "Biochemical properties and substrate specificities of a recombinantly produced Azotobacter vinelandii alginate lyase.". ... "Biochemical properties and substrate specificities of a recombinantly produced Azotobacter vinelandii alginate lyase.". ...
... azotobacter explanation free. What is azotobacter? Meaning of azotobacter medical term. What does azotobacter mean? ... Looking for online definition of azotobacter in the Medical Dictionary? ... azotobacter. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to azotobacter: Endospores. azotobacter. (ā-zō′tə-băk ... Varios estudios han reportado la presencia de Azotobacter sp.. Efecto de la gallinaza sobre Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp. y ...
... industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter vinelandii. ... Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; Pseudomonadaceae; Azotobacter group; Azotobacter. Industrial ... The type strain for Azotobacter vinelandii was isolated from a water sample obtained from the Black Sea. ...
... industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter salinestris. ... Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; Pseudomonadaceae; Azotobacter group; Azotobacter. Industrial ... The type strain for Azotobacter salinestris was isolated from a soil sample obtained in Alberta, Canada. ...
Azotobacter chroococcum,br /> Azotobacter vinelandii ,br />,br /> ==Description and Significance== Azotobacter is a genus ... Azotobacters cells are large rods, at least 2 microns in diameter. They can live singly, in chains, or in clumps, and may or ... The DNA of Azotobacter spp. display many similarities, in terms of gene type and recognition factors, to the DNA of ... Azotobacter is also capable of producing a protein which protects the nitrogenase from sudden oxygen-provoked stress. Another ...
RESPIRATION STUDIES ON AZOTOBACTER UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Sequence and molecular analysis of the nifL gene of Azotobacter vinelandii.. Blanco G1, Drummond M, Woodley P, Kennedy C. ... In both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii the nifL gene, which encodes a negative regulator of nitrogen fixation ...
Azotobacter chroococcum. Azotobacter vinelandii Description and Significance. Azotobacter is a genus of free-living ... Azotobactercysts. The Microbe Zoo, Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology.. Azotobacter vinelandii.Molecular ... Azotobacters cells are large rods, at least 2 microns in diameter. They can live singly, in chains, or in clumps, and may or ... For NCBIs GenBank entry for Azotobacters unfinished sequence, click here. Cell Structure and Metabolism. AnabaenaImage from ...
Sequences, organization and analysis of the hupZMNOQRTV genes from the Azotobacter chroococcum hydrogenase gene cluster.. Du L1 ... Hydrogen-uptake (Hup) activity in Azotobacter chroococcum depends upon a cluster of genes spread over 13,687 bp of the ... It is now clear that the genes controlling [NiFe] hydrogenase activity in many bacteria including Azotobacter chroococcum, ...
Expression and characterisation of the homodimeric E1 component of the Azotobacter vinelandii pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.. ... of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Azotobacter vinelandii and expressed and purified the E1p component in Escherichia ...
Maru V, Gadre S (2016) Melanin pigment production studies from Azotobacter vinelandii. Int J Adv Lif Sci 9:44-49Google Scholar ... Banerjee A, Supakar S, Banerjee R (2014) Melanin from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum: a spectroscopic ... Bioreduction of toxicity influenced by bioactive molecules secreted under metal stress by Azotobacter chroococcum. ... plants and stress mitigation by metal tolerant nitrogen fixing Azotobacter chroococcum. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 157:9-20Google ...
Nitrogenase Complex From Azotobacter Vinelandii Stabilized By ADP-Tetrafluoroaluminate. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1m34/pdb ...
Azotobacter chroococcum. Azotobacter beijerinckii. Pseudomonas sp. PIC25. Pseudomonas indica. Pseudomonadales bacterium GWC1_66 ... Azotobacter chroococcum NCIMB 8003. And more. 702. UniRef90_C1DFK5. Cluster: Polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase. 14. ... Azotobacter vinelandii CA6. Pseudomonas balearica DSM 6083. Pseudomonas sp.. Pseudomonas stutzeri (Pseudomonas perfectomarina) ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Pseudomonadales › Pseudomonadaceae › Azotobacter group ...
something about Azotobacter vinelandii. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and ... It is said that when Azotobacter vinelandii faces a difficult situation ,it can have some thing like a spore ,which called ...
  • 1. A new method has been developed for the preparation in good yield of highly purified Azotobacter vinelandii polynucleotide phosphorylase in its reduced form. (biochemj.org)
  • Azotobacter is also capable of producing a protein which protects the nitrogenase from sudden oxygen-provoked stress. (kenyon.edu)
  • The presented 1.6 Å X-ray structure of MoSto from Azotobacter vinelandii reveals various discrete polyoxomolybdate clusters, three covalently and three noncovalently bound Mo(8), three Mo(5-7), and one Mo(3) clusters, and several low occupied, so far undefinable clusters, which are embedded in specific pockets inside a locked cage-shaped (αβ)(3) protein complex. (rcsb.org)
  • The signaling protein MucG negatively affects the production and the molecular mass of alginate in Azotobacter vinelandii Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 101, 1521-1534. (unam.mx)
  • As a part of her thesis work, she demonstrated cell free protein synthesis with a particulate preparation from Azotobacter vinelandii. (wikipedia.org)
  • The occurrence of Azotobacter in Iowa soils and factors affecting thei" by William P. Martin, R. H. Walker et al. (iastate.edu)
  • 1. Two hundred eighty-seven Iowa soils representing 52 soil types and 37 soil series and distributed in the five soil areas of the state -the Wisconsin drift, the Iowan drift, the Missouri loess, the Southern Iowa loess and the Mississippi loess - were examined for the presence of Azotobacter. (iastate.edu)
  • 2. The presence of the Azotobacter was determined in these soils by the Winogradsky soil plaque and the selective culture agar-plate methods using mannitol as the energy source. (iastate.edu)
  • 8. A multiple correlation of the data arbitrarily summarized on the basis of pH showed that the presence of the Azotobacter in Iowa soils was closely associated with the pH and available phosphate content of the samples and associated very little with the total nitrogen content, the calcium carbonate content or the carbonate-phosphate ratio. (iastate.edu)
  • 9. A study of the limiting pH and available phosphate content values for Azotobacter in Iowa soils led to the conclusion that soils with pH values from about pH 5.42, the limiting value obtained by an extrapolation of the simple regression equation, to pH 6.0, below which only one sample contained the bacteria, and available phosphate contents less than 35 pounds per acre would probably not contain the bacteria. (iastate.edu)
  • 10. A method recently developed by Fisher (12) was used to determine whether or not the pH, available phosphate content and total nitrogen content of the soils would serve to differentiate between the samples which contained Azotobacter and those which did not contain the organisms. (iastate.edu)
  • 12. In addition to the determination of factors which limited the occurrence of the Azotobacter in Iowa soils, a study was made of the factors which influenced the amount of growth which the Azotobacter would make in the soil. (iastate.edu)
  • 16. Some experimental plots were sampled to determine whether or not soils which did not originally contain the organisms could be treated with lime and rock phosphate to correct the acidity and deficiency in available phosphate and thus be put into condition to support a flora of Azotobacter. (iastate.edu)
  • 17. A group of experimental plots on high-lime soils which contained large amounts of organic matter, as indicated by total nitrogen determinations, contained a vigorous growth of the Azotobacter as expected. (iastate.edu)
  • Different agricultural wastes like wheat bran, rice polishing and molasses were utilized as substrates through fermentation with Azotobacter vinelandii.On fermentation of 7.5% (w/v) wheat bran by A.vinelandii, maximum alginate production (5.21 g/L) was observed at 48 hours of incubation time with 6% (v/v) inoculum size, pH 7.0, 300C and agitation speed of 200 rpm. (edu.pk)
  • Two-component system CbrA/CbrB controls alginate production in Azotobacter vinelandii Microbiology, 163, 1105-1115. (unam.mx)
  • For NCBI's GenBank entry for Azotobacter' s unfinished sequence, click here . (kenyon.edu)
  • For NCBI's GenBank entry for ''Azotobacter'''s unfinished sequence, click [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/framik.cgi?db=genome&gi=5124 here]. (kenyon.edu)
  • The reaction of Ac2(MgADP)2 with O2 is sufficiently rapid for it to contribute significantly to the high respiration rate of Azotobacter under N2-fixing conditions and may represent a new respiratory pathway. (portlandpress.com)
  • Diazotrophic organisms such as Azotobacter play a vital role in every ecosystem, working to make nitrogen available to all organisms. (kenyon.edu)