A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE, which is active in nitrogen fixation, and consists of two subunits with molecular weights of 59.5 kDa and 50.7 kDa, respectively.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.
A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron as a prosthetic group in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
Uncontrolled release of biological material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a biological hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (1/423)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Flavodoxin: an allosteric inhibitor of AMP nucleosidase from Azotobacter vinelandii. (2/423)

Flavodoxin, which participates in nitrogen fixation, was found to be a potent allosteric inhibitor of AMP nucleosidase [EC 3.2.2.4] from Azotobacter vinelandii. It inhibited the enzyme by decreasing its affinity for ATP without affecting the maximum velocity. The inhibition constant for flavodoxin was estimated to be 10 muM, which is within the range of physiological concentration in the cells. The concentration of flavodoxin able to alter the activity in vitro suggests that this phenomenon could be of significance in the regulation of flavin biosynthesis in vivo. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), a prosthetic group of flavodoxin, was also found to act as an allosteric inhibitor. Since no inhibitory action of apo-flavodoxin was observed, it was concluded that the FMN chromophore of the flavodoxin is responsible for the inhibition of the enzyme by this protein.  (+info)

Interactions of heterologous nitrogenase components that generate catalytically inactive complexes. (3/423)

A unique method is described for inhibiting nitrogenase. When Clostridium pasteurianum nitrogenase is assayed in the presence of the Mo-Fe protein of Azotobacter vinelandii, all the characteristic activities of nitrogenase are inhibited. C. pasteurianum nitrogenase is unaffected by the Fe protein of A. vinelandii. The Fe protein, but not the Mo-Fe protein of C. pasteurianum, inhibits A. vinelandii nitrogenase. Both inhibitions described result from the formation of an inactive complex of A. vinelandii Mo-Fe protein and C. pasteurianum Fe protein. Complex formation requires active components, as oxygen-denatured proteins are ineffective. The results for titration of components of the complex against each other and kinetic data each indicate that the inactive complex consists of two molecules of C. pasteurianum Fe protein per molecule of A. vinelandii Mo-Fe protein. The results of kinetic experiments suggest that the Fe protein from each organism competes for the same site(s) on the A. vinelandii Mo-Fe protein. The Fe protein of C. pasteurianum will form an active or an inactive complex with the Mo-Fe proteins from six different organisms. Inhibition by nitrogenase components that form inactive complexes provides numeroius ways to study the mechanism of nitrogenase action.  (+info)

Transcription of bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid. Comparison of Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii sigma subunits. (4/423)

The effect of the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase on the rate and asymmetry of the in vitro transcription of Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii phage DNAs has been studied with purified E. coli and A. vinelandii RNA polymerases and hybrid enzymes containing the core subunits of one enzyme and sigma from the other. The effect of sigma on the rate of transcription is characteristic of the template and not of the enzyme and depends on ionic strength. The rate of transcription of A. vinelandii phage A21 DNA is decreased by sigma at high ionic strength, but shows the more characteristic stimulation at KCl concentrations below 0.05 M. In contrast, the stimulation by sigma of T4 DNA transcription increased with an increase in the KCl concentrations. All combinations of core and sigma subunits behaved similarly with respect to stimulation or inhibition by sigma and with respect to asymmetric transcription of S13 replicative form (RF)DNA. However, the heterologous, but not the homologous combinations of core and sigma transcribed A21 symmetrically. S13 RF DNA in the superhelical, but not in the relaxed configuration, is transcribed asymmetrically by the A. vinelandii core enzyme. A role for the core subunits in specific site recognition is indicated by this observation.  (+info)

Transcription of Azotobacter phage deoxyribonucleic acid. Salt-dependent equilibrium between steps in initiation. (5/423)

The transcription of Azotobacter phage A21 DNA by Escherichia coli or Azotobacter vinelandii RNA polymerase differs from that of some other DNAs in its inhibition by moderate concentrations of KCl. This characteristic results in an apparent low template activity for this DNA as compared with T4 DNA under standard assay conditions. From an analysis of the dependence of the various steps in initiation on KCl it is concluded that the effect is exerted on an equilibrium between an inactive polymerase-DNA complex and an active preintitiation complex. This salt-sensitive equilibrium favors the inactive complex at a lower KCl concentration than with other templates. It can be approached from other low or high salt concentrations at a measurably slow rate.  (+info)

Evidence for a two-electron transfer using the all-ferrous Fe protein during nitrogenase catalysis. (6/423)

The nitrogenase-catalyzed H(2) evolution and acetylene-reduction reactions using Ti(III) and dithionite (DT) as reductants were examined and compared under a variety of conditions. Ti(III) is known to make the all-ferrous Fe protein ([Fe(4)S(4)](0)) and lowers the amount of ATP hydrolyzed during nitrogenase catalysis by approximately 2-fold. Here we further investigate this behavior and present results consistent with the Fe protein in the [Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox state transferring two electrons ([Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0)) per MoFe protein interaction using Ti(III) but transferring only one electron ([Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](1+)) using DT. MoFe protein specific activity was measured as a function of Fe:MoFe protein ratio for both a one- and a two-electron transfer reaction, and nearly identical curves were obtained. However, Fe protein specific activity curves as a function of MoFe:Fe protein ratio showed two distinct reactivity patterns. With DT as reductant, typical MoFe inhibition curves were obtained for operation of the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](1+) redox couple, but with Ti(III) as reductant the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox couple was functional and MoFe inhibition was not observed at high MoFe:Fe protein ratios. With Ti(III) as reductant, nitrogenase catalysis produced hyperbolic curves, yielding a V(max) for the Fe protein specific activity of about 3200 nmol of H(2) min(-1) mg(-1) Fe protein, significantly higher than for reactions conducted with DT as reductant. Lag phase experiments (Hageman, R. V., and Burris, R. H. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 75, 2699-2702) were carried out at MoFe:Fe protein ratios of 100 and 300 using both DT and Ti(III). A lag phase was observed for DT but, with Ti(III) product formation, began immediately and remained linear for over 30 min. Activity measurements using Av-Cp heterologous crosses were examined using both DT and Ti(III) as reductants to compare the reactivity of the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](1+) and [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox couples and both were inactive. The results are discussed in terms of the Fe protein transferring two electrons per MoFe protein encounter using the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox couple with Ti(III) as reductant.  (+info)

Purification and properties of nitrogenase from the cyanobacterium, Anabaena cylindrica. (7/423)

The nitrogenase complex was isolated from nitrogen-starved cultures of Anabaema cylindrica. Sodium dithionite, photochemically reduced ferredoxin, and NADPH were found to be effective election donors to nitro genase in crude extracts whereas hydrogen and pyruvate were not. The Km for acetylene in vivo is ten-fold higher than the Km in vitro, whereas this pattern does not hold for the non-heterocystous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum. This indicates that at least one mechanism of oxygen protection in vivo involves a gas diffusion barrier presented by the heterocyst cell wall. The Mo-Fe component was purified to homogeneity. Its molecular weight (220,000), subunit composition, isoelectric point (4.8), Mo, Fe, and S2- content (2, 20 and 20 mol/mol component), and amino acid composition indicate that this component has similar properties to Mo-Fe-containing components isolated from other bacterial sources. The isolated components from A. cylindrica were found to cross-react, to varying degrees, with components isolated from Azotobacter vinelandii, Rhodospirillum rubrum, and P. boryanum.  (+info)

Studies on the product binding sites of the Azotobacter vinelandii ribonucleic acid polymerase. (8/423)

During chain elongation RNA polymerase exists as a ternary DNA-enzyme-RNA complex in which a discrete length of the nascent RNA chain proximal to the 3'-OH terminus will be bound to the product binding site (Krakow, J. S., and Fronk, E. (1969) J. Biol. Chem. 244, 5988). We have utilized the poly[d(A-T)]-directed reaction to determine the length of the nascent poly[r(A-U)] protected from attack by pancreatic ribonuclease. Following release of the ribonuclease resistant oligo[r(A-U)] from the ternary complex, its size was determined by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-10, and the ratio of 3'-terminal uridine to internal 2':3'-UMP following alkaline hydrolysis. The results indicate that the length of the nascent protected fragment is approximately 12 residues.  (+info)

The mid-point potentials of the Fe protein components (Ac2 and Ac2* respectively) of the Mo nitrogenase and V nitrogenase from Azotobacter chroococcum were determined in the presence of MgADP to be −450 mV (NHE) [Ac2(MgADP)2-Ac2*ox.(MgADP)2 couple] and −463 mV (NHE) [Ac2* (MgADP)2-Ac2*ox.(ADP)2 couple] at 23 degrees C at pH 7.2. These values are consistent with a flavodoxin characterized by Deistung & Thorneley [(1986) Biochem. J. 239, 69-75] with Em = −522 mV (NHE) being an effective electron donor to both the Mo nitrogenase and the V nitrogenase in vivo. Ac2*ox.(MgADP)2 and Ac2*ox.(MgADP)2 were reduced by SO2.- (formed by the predissociation of dithionite ion, S2O4(2-)) at similar rates, k = 4.7 × 10(6) +/- 0.5 × 10(6) M-1.s-1 and 3.2 × 10(6) +/- 0.2 × 10(6) M-1.s-1 respectively, indicating structural homology at the electron-transfer site associated with the [4Fe-4S] centre in these proteins. ...
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Two genetically distinct flavodoxins, designated AcFldA and AcFldB, were isolated from Azotobacter chroococcum (MCD1155) grown under nitrogen-fixing conditions. AcFldA and AcFldB differ in their midpoint potentials for the semiquinone-hydroquinone couple (Em -305 mV and -520 mV respectively). Only AcFldB was competent to act as an electron donor to the Mo-containing nitrogenase of A. chroococcum. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (20 residues) of AcFldB was identical with that predicted from the nifF DNA sequence of A. vinelandii OP [Bennett, Jacobsen & Dean (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 1364-1369], suggesting that AcFldB is the nifF gene product of A. chroococcum (MCD1155). Direct fast reversible electrochemistry of these flavodoxins has been achieved at a polished edge-plane graphite electrode using the aminoglycoside neomycin as a promoter. The heterogeneous rates of electron transfer between the graphite electrode and AcFldA and AcFldB were determined to be 1.2 x 10(-3) cm.s-1 and 2.0 x 10(-3) ...
Channel that opens in response to stretch forces in the membrane lipid bilayer. May participate in the regulation of osmotic pressure changes within the cell.
1. Increasing concentrations of nitrate, amino acid and peptone decreased proportionally the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed in culture solutions of Azotobacter.. 2. Increasing concentrations of sterile, unheated, plant extracts increased the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed up to a maximum limit, after which the fixation gradually decreased with further additions.. 3. The addition of sterile, unheated plant extracts to pure solution cultures greatly stimulated the multiplication of Azotobacter.. 4. Very heavy applications of plant material to soil effectively checked the assimilation of nitrogen, and at the same time greatly increased the concentration of nitrogen in the soil solution.. 5. It is suggested that Azotobacter always prefers to derive its nitrogen from a combined source but that plant tissues contain certain unknown essential food substances which stimulate the growth of the organism to such an extent that the supply of available nitrogen derived from moderate ...
Aktiivsemateks õhulämmastiku sidujateks mullas on aeroobsed asotobakterid(Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter aglis jt). Nad on polümorfsed ja seotud lämmastiku (nitritite, nitraatide, aminohapete jt.) puudumisel omastavad õhulämmastikku. Osa seotud lämmastikust eritatakse eksosmoosil ümbritsevasse keskkonda kas amiinohapetena või ammoniaagina. Energeetilise materjalina võivad nad kasutada nii mono-, di- kui ka mõningaid teisi polüsahhariide ja mitmeid alkohole, orgaanilisi happeid, sh. ka aromaatseid (näiteks bensoehape). Nad ei kasuta tselluloosi, kuid tselluloosirikas materjal (põhk, põhurikas sõnnik) intensiivistab nende paljunemist. Põhjendatav on see sellega, et tselluloos lõhustatakse mullas tsellulolüütiliste bakterite (Cellvibrio spp., Cellulomonas spp., Cellfalcicula spp. jt) poolt lihtsamateks süsivesikuteks, mida saavad kasutada asotobakterid ...
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SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C1DM66 (PDXB_AZOVD), Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase. Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303)
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter salinestris.
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Which of the following is a nitrifying bacterium?. A. Rhizobium. B. Nictrobacter. C. Azotobacter. DPseudomonas. Answer is B. For high score in JAMB or UTME and POST UTME Exams join our Telegram Page Here. For online tutorial classes Click Here To Get Started. We are dedicated to your success.. ...
به منظور بررسی اثر باکتری های محرک رشد در تلفیق با کودهای شیمیائی و آلی بر عملکرد کمی و غلظت عناصر غذایی سورگوم رقم پگاه، آزمایشی به صورت طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار طی فصل زراعی 91-90 در موسسه تحقیقات برنج رشت انجام شد. تیمارهای مورد استفاده، بدون کود و بدون تلقیح (شاهد)، استفاده از کود شیمیائی و بدون تلقیح، تلقیح بذر باPseudomonas fluorescens strain 12 +Azotobacter chroococcum strain 41 + بدون کود شیمیایی، تلقیح بذر با P. fluorescens strain 12+A. chroococcum strain 41 + 50 درصد کود شیمیائی، تلقیح بذر باP. fluorescens strain 12 +A. chroococcum strain 41 + 75 درصد کود شیمیائی، استفاده از ورمی-کمپوست (6 تن در هکتار) و بدون کود شیمیایی،
TY - JOUR. T1 - Siderophore production in Azotobacter vinelandii in response to Fe-, Mo- and V-limitation. AU - McRose, Darcy L.. AU - Baars, Oliver. AU - Morel, Francois M. M.. AU - Kraepiel, Anne M.L.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the Sigman lab (Princeton University) for assistance with cellular nitrogen quotas. This work was supported by NSF grants (EAR-1631814 to AMLK, EAR-1024553 to AMLK and FMMM) as well as the Princeton Environmental Institute and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment at Princeton University. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Publisher Copyright: © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. N2 - Azotobacter vinelandii is a terrestrial diazotroph well studied for its siderophore production capacity and its role as a model nitrogen fixer. In addition to Fe, A. vinelandii siderophores are used for the acquisition of the nitrogenase co-factors Mo and V. However, regulation of siderophore ...
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Ribbe M.W., Burgess B.K. (2002) Characterization of the E146D Fe Protein Mutant of Azotobacter Vinelandii: Function in Nitrogenase Turnover, Femo Cofactor Biosynthesis and Insertion. In: Pedrosa F.O., Hungria M., Yates G., Newton W.E. (eds) Nitrogen Fixation: From Molecules to Crop Productivity. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture, vol 38. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47615-0_ ...
The transition metal vanadium (V) has relatively few known biological functions. It is found in marine algaes haloperoxidase enzymes (5). It also is accumulated by ascidians (11), but its biological function (if any) in these organisms is still mysterious. Most importantly, V is found at the active center of an alternative form of the enzyme nitrogenase, which fixes atmospheric N2 gas into bioavailable ammonia and is responsible for the natural input of new nitrogen into the earths ecosystems. The molybdenum (Mo)-nitrogenase, which is the most common and efficient form of the enzyme, has a Mo cofactor at its active site, but when Mo is not available, some bacteria can express an alternative V-nitrogenase, which uses a V cofactor in place of Mo (3, 4). Some organisms also have an Fe-only nitrogenase, which requires only Fe at its active center and is used when neither Mo nor V is available (14, 20).. V is toxic at high concentrations. Unlike most transition metals (but like Mo), the most stable ...
A novel poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was identified in Azotobacter vinelandii. This enzyme, now designated PhbZ1, is associated to the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules and when expressed...
The hypothesis of respiratory protection, originally formulated on the basis of results obtained with Azotobacter species, postulates that consumption of O(2) at the surface of diazotrophic prokaryotes protects nitrogenase from inactivation by O(2). Accordingly, it is assumed that, at increased ambient O(2) concentrations, nitrogenase activity depends on increased activities of a largely uncoupled respiratory electron transport system. The present review compiles evidence indicating that cellular O(2) consumption as well as both the activity and the formation of the respiratory system of Azotobacter vinelandii are controlled by the C/N ratio, that is to say the ratio at which the organism consumes the substrate (i.e. the source of carbon, reducing equivalents and ATP) per source of compound nitrogen. The maximal respiratory capacity which can be attained at increased C/N ratios, however, is controlled, within limits, by the ambient O(2) concentration. When growth becomes N-limited at increased C/N
You Are Here: Alginate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii is increased by reducing the intracellular production of ubiquinone. ...
1. A new method has been developed for the preparation in good yield of highly purified Azotobacter vinelandii polynucleotide phosphorylase in its reduced form. 2. Aging or digestion with trypsin causes the enzyme to develop a primer requirement that is not eliminated by β-mercaptoethanol. 3. The development of a primer requirement is accompanied by marked changes of the electrophoretic mobility of the enzyme in polyacrylamide gels. 4. The enzyme is inactivated by aerial oxidation or thiol-specific reagents. The lost activity is restored by β-mercaptoethanol, but not by oligonucleotide primers.. ...
Azotobacter vinelandii bacteriophage PAV-1 ATCC ® 13705-B1™ Designation: PAV-1 TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter vinelandii.
It is said that when Azotobacter vinelandii faces a difficult situation ,it can have some thing like a spore ,which called cyst. So,what are the differences between them? And how can they make such changes ...
The hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation of polymer films of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) of different molecular mass and its copolymers with 3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) of different 3-hydroxyvalerate (3-HV) content and molecular mass, 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (PHB4MV), and polyethylene glycol (PHBV-PEG) produced by the Azotobacter chroococcum 7B by controlled biosynthesis technique were studied under in vitro model conditions. The changes in the physicochemical properties of the polymers during their in vitro degradation in the pancreatic lipase solution and in phosphate-buffered saline for a long time (183 days) were investigated using different analytical techniques. A mathematical model was used to analyze the kinetics of hydrolytic degradation of poly(3-hydroxyaklannoate)s by not autocatalytic and autocatalytic hydrolysis mechanisms. It was also shown that the degree of crystallinity of some polymers changes differently during degradation in vitro. The total mass of the films decreased slightly up
In this study, the effect of a living bacteria ( Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum, Azotobacter chroococcum ) containing biofertilizer, made in Hungary, was investigated on the germination and dry matter production of maize seedlings in germination tests. The biofertilizer was applied in...
The standard technology of seed processing uses mainly chemical products. Recent researches showed that toxic materials from chemical fertilizers can be harmful to humans, animals and the environment. Currently the attention of researches is shifting away from chemical fertlizers and toward alternative that consumers perceive to be natural, Plant Growth Promoting bacteria (PGP). PGP bacteria could be a way to reduce chemical fertilizer doses. This was the reason to test the ability of Bacillus megaterium, Azotobacter chroococcum to produce hormone auxin (IAA). Bacterial strains were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was detected and quantified by MRM experiment. This study conducted that maize seed inoculation with IAA from species mentioned above showed positive effects. They had statistically significantly higher root and steam height compared to control seedlings. Bacterial strains tested in this study may be recommended ...as PGP ...
Rutulinės bakterijos (kokai) yra pačios paprasčiausios. Jos sudarytos iš vienos apskritos ląstelės. Tik retais atvejais jos esti pupos, inksto ar pusrutulio formos. Besidalydamos viena kryptimi, kai kurių rūšių rutulinės bakterijos neatsiskiria viena nuo kitos. Tokiu atveju susidaro porinė bakterija, vadinama diplokoku (Azotobacter chroococcum). Jei dviląstelė rutulinė bakterija toliau dalijasi ta pačia kryptimi ir naujos ląstelės viena nuo kitos neatsiskiria, gaunama daugialąstė, grandinės formos kolonija, vadinama streptokoku (Streptococcus pyogenes, Lactococcus lactis). Kai ląstelės antrojo dalijimosi kryptis yra statmena pirmajai, susidaro ląstelių tetrada (tetrakokas). Jei tetrakoko formos bakterija dar skyla pusiau, bet jau yra statmena šiai keturių ląstelių plokštumai, tada susidaro aštuonių kokų kubo formos kolonija, vadinama sarcina. Kiekviena sarcinos ląstelė dar gali panašiai dalytis trimis kryptimis ir toliau. Tuomet susidaro sudėtinga 16 arba 32 ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C1DFL3 (GLMM_AZOVD), Phosphoglucosamine mutase. Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303)
misc{3a0513da-a6c0-4388-821c-b9474f344b0d, author = {Kuklane, Kalev and Vanggaard, Leif and Smolander, Juhani and Halder, Amitava and Lundgren Kownacki, Karin and Gao, Chuansi and Viik, Jari and Alametsä, Jarmo}, language = {eng}, note = {Conference Abstract}, pages = {48--48}, publisher = {International Society for Environmental Ergonomics}, series = {Environmental Ergonomics}, title = {Response patterns in finger and central body skin temperatures under mild whole body cooling in an elderly and in a young male - a pre-study}, volume = {XVI}, year = {2015 ...
Central distribution of body fat is associated with a higher risk of renal disease, but whether it is the distribution pattern or the overall excess weight that underlies this association is not well understood. Here, we studied the association between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which reflects central adiposity, and renal hemodynamics in 315 healthy persons with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.9 kg/m2 and a mean 125I-iothalamate GFR of 109 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In multivariate analyses, WHR was associated with lower GFR, lower effective renal plasma flow, and higher filtration fraction, even after adjustment for sex, age, mean arterial pressure, and BMI. Multivariate models produced similar results regardless of whether the hemodynamic measures were indexed to body surface area. Thus, these results suggest that central body fat distribution, independent of BMI, is associated with an unfavorable pattern of renal hemodynamic measures that could underlie the increased renal risk reported in ...
Spring contact elements are fabricated by depositing at least one layer of metallic material into openings defined on a sacrificial substrate. The openings may be within the surface of the substrate, or in one or more layers deposited on the surface of the sacrificial substrate. Each spring contact element has a base end portion, a contact end portion, and a central body portion. The contact end portion is offset in the z-axis (at a different height) than the central body portion. The base end portion is preferably offset in an opposite direction along the z-axis from the central body portion. In this manner, a plurality of spring contact elements are fabricated in a prescribed spatial relationship with one another on the sacrificial substrate. The spring contact elements are suitably mounted by their base end portions to corresponding terminals on an electronic component, such as a space transformer or a semiconductor device, whereupon the sacrificial substrate is removed so that the contact ends of
ID C1DKJ8_AZOVD Unreviewed; 397 AA. AC C1DKJ8; DT 26-MAY-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 26-MAY-2009, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 67. DE RecName: Full=Elongation factor Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU004061}; DE Short=EF-Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN Name=tuf {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, GN ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Avin_06090 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}, Avin_06230 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76874.1}; OS Azotobacter vinelandii (strain DJ / ATCC BAA-1303). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; OC Pseudomonadaceae; Azotobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=322710 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=DJ {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACO76861.1}, and DJ / ATCC BAA-1303 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002424}; RX PubMed=19429624; ...
The State educational programmes for vocational education are issued by the ministry of education after having discussed them with employers, founders of the schools and their professional and special-interest associations with nation-wide competence and with the ministries in the scope of their sector area of competence; for healthcare study fields preparing the pupils for performing healthcare occupations these programmes are issued by the Ministry of Health of the SR. The State educational programmes for the fields of education at schools falling under the area of competence of other central bodies of State administration are issued by these central bodies of the State administration, in matters of general subjects, after agreement with the ministry of education. In vocational secondary schools the language education and the scope of cross-sectional subjects - informatics, computer technology, ecology have been extended, and new subjects were introduced, such as management, marketing, ...
Rights: This volume was digitized by the Kansas State University Libraries, and made accessible online due to deterioration of the original print copy. If you are the author of this work and would like to have online access removed, please contact the Library Administration Office, 785-532-7400, [email protected] ...
A dominant non-symbiotic free living heterotrophic nitrogen fixing bacteria encountered in neutral to alkaline soil not only provides the nitrogen but produce a variety of growth promoting substances ...
1G20: MgATP-Bound and nucleotide-free structures of a nitrogenase protein complex between the Leu 127 Delta-Fe-protein and the MoFe-protein.
1G20: MgATP-Bound and nucleotide-free structures of a nitrogenase protein complex between the Leu 127 Delta-Fe-protein and the MoFe-protein.
Central body fat distribution, independent of BMI, is tied to unfavorable patterns of renal hemodynamics that could explain the increased renal risk reported in previous studies.
Isnt that a really nice conifer? Many of you have probably never seen one of these growing; its likely that none of you have ever seen one in its native habitat because it only grows in a pretty remote area in the Blue Mountains and only a hundred or so trees grow there. Cultivation is making it relatively more common in many botanical and personal gardens in appropriate climates and habitats (its really a tropical tree). Do you recognize it? Wollemia nobilis, the Wollemi pine, is not a real pine but a relative of Araucaria. TPP is quite jealous of people who have one growing in their garden, and then youve got a friend rubbing it in, and toasting the occasion to boot. This species is a real living fossil known from its fossil record going back to the early Cretaceous before anyone knew it was still alive albeit barely so. TPP does have one growing in the universitys glasshouse, but its not the same as having one outside in the garden. Oh yes, the garden shown is in Australia. You can ...
The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating ...
HydroFarm Green Reign All Purpose, 2 lbs Hydro Organics Green Reign All Purpose, 2 lbs (HOG10222) Green Reign inch Bio-Natural Fertilizers for the Home & Garden inch inch Crafted To Keep Gardening Fun & Simple .. & Plants Thriving Naturally inch . 10 customized granular blends of all natural ingredients with mycorrhizae, beneficial microbes, and humic acid. Green Reign offers plant specific blends for all types of indoor and outdoor plants, shrubs, and trees. Contains the following non-plant food ingredients: mycorrhizae, pisolithus tinctorius, scleroderma citrinum, scleroderma cepa, rhizopogon luteolus, rhizopogon fulvigleba, rhizopogon villosulus, rhizopogon amylopogon, glomus intradices, glomus aggregatum, glomus etunicatum, humic acid from langbenite, beneficial microbes, bacillus subtilis, bacillus megaterium, azotobacter vinelandii, rhizobium japonicum, bacillus coagulans, azotobacter chroococcum, azospirillum lipoferum, pseudomonas fluorescens, bacillus laterosprorus Manufacturers Product
Doug Rees had his first experience with electron transfer processes in microbes as an undergraduate studying cytochrome in Neurospora with Carolyn W. Slayman at Yale College where he completed his BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry in 1974. In 1980 he received a PhD in Biophysics, determining crystal structures of carboxypeptidase A with William Lipscomb at Harvard. While there he also became acquainted with multi-center electron-sharing bonds (e.g. in boranes). During a two year postdoctoral appointment at the University of Minnesota with James B. Howard, he successfully produced the first crystals of the nitrogenase iron protein from Azotobacter vinelandii. He has continued his work with several nitrogenases and has had a productive collaboration with Jim Howard for 35 years.. Professor Rees joined the faculty of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at UCLA in 1982 and moved to Caltech in 1989. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National ...
Clone contains nifK (dinitrogenase reductase) gene of Azotobacter vinelandii. The 2.6 kb insert can be excised with EcoRI. Vector: pBR325 ...
The physicochemical hypothesis of the formation of ring systems around stars, planets and their satellites with the subsequent formation of celestial bodies from these rings was first proposed by G. P. Gladyshev in 1977[33]. The model assumes that the regular structure of the planetary and satellite systems is a consequence of the spatially periodic condensation of gaseous matter from the supersaturated state during the formation of central bodies, for example, young stars or planets[33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. It is argued that periodic condensation on a cosmic scale is similar to phenomena of Liesegang. The hypothesis explains the nature of the empirical approximate law (rule) of Titius-Bode. Thus, the model considers the physicochemical stage of the formation of various space objects that arise from ring structures. It is noted that the closer the ring to the Central body, the younger the planet or satellite, formed from these rings. All statements of the hypothesis were confirmed by ...
As pioverdinas son sideróforos fluorescentes producidos por certas especies de bacterias pseudomónadas.[1][2] En Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 hai 14 xenes pvd implicados na biosíntese de pioverdina.[3] A diferenza da enterobactina, as pioverdinas/pseudobactinas son péptidos non ribosómicos que se unen ao ferro, que conteñen un derivado dihidroxiquinolina. A estrutura do péptido difire entre as distintas pseudomónadas e foron descritas unhas 40 estruturas diferentes, aínda que o cromóforo ácido (1S)-5-amino-2,3-dihidro- 8,9-dihidroxi-1H-pirimido[1,2-a]quinolina-1-carboxílico é o mesmo sempre coa excepción da azobactina de Azotobacter vinelandii, a cal posúe un anel de urea extra.[4] ...
01. K. Lenin Babu (1994): Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination Associated with sewage Irrigation and Sludge Amendes. Supervisor - Prof. D.K. Banerjee. 02. Shiv Kumar Bansal (1994): Trace Element Geochemistry and Partitioning Patterns in Sediment Geochemistry and Partitioning Patterns in Sediment Cores from the Lakshadweep Sea. Supervisor - Prof. V. Asthana. 03. Jyoti Rani Ahlawar (1994): Modelling Air Quality in Tropical Coastal Environment. Supervisor - Prof. B. Padmanabhamurthy. 04. Binod Bihari Dash (1994): Modelling green House-Gas-Induced Climate Change. Supervisor - Dr. V.K. Jain. 05. Adhar Chandra Manna (1994): Molecular Characterisation of the Leucine Operon and Chromosomal Analysis of Azotobacter Vinelandii. Supervisor - Dr. H.K. Das. 06. Somnath Bandopadhyay (1994): An Ecological study of the Macro-invertebrate Community in a Floodplain Wetland. Supervisor - Dr. Brij Gopal. 07. R. Sreenivasan (1994): Modelling and Simulation of Meltwater runoff Process in a Himalayan Region. ...
1.0 1.1 Brigle, KE et al. (1987) Products of the iron-molybdenum cofactor-specific biosynthetic genes, nifE and nifN, are structurally homologous to the products of the nitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein genes, nifD and nifK. J. Bacteriol. 169 1547-53 PubMed GONUTS page ...
Reduce pain, inflammation and swelling with world class, nitrogen-free Cryotherapy in Roseville, MN. Take you first steps to faster recovery and better health with Roseville, MN Cryotherapy.
The nitrogenase complex reduces the N2 gas to ammonium, but not to nitrate. The product of fixation is ammonium. The oxidation of ammonium to nitrite/nitrate happens later and as I already said this processs called nitrification ...
Core strength is very essential in playing golf, and in playing any other sport, in point of fact. Without it, winning each sport game will be near impossible.. Although core strength involves the central body muscles, such as in the abdomen and around the pelvis, it can still be defined as a total body power. It may sound difficult and for some, even impossible to achieve, but with proper exercise for core strength improvement, impossibility will turn into a possible outcome. Improving your core strength is a much better option than yelling get in the hole at the ball after you hit it, you need to invest in order to achieve success.. Here is a very effective workout that can dramatically improve core strength and can ultimately increase your performance in golf, your favorite sport. Do this workout 3-5 times a week.. ...
Weapon first employed by the Romulan bird of prey in 2266 against a string of Federation outposts along the Romulan Neutral Zone.2 The plasma torpedo consisted of a small but powerful force field generator which fired from a standard torpedo tube. The generator would then establish a very powerful force field around itself and a much larger concentric field with a radius of about one hundred metres. The parent vessel established a field bridge through this outer layer and vented its plasma conduit system into the empty shell between the two fields. The breach was then sealed, and the vessel would break away and let the torpedo continue on its way. A high power sensor on the central body was capable of locking onto the target, and by venting part of the plasma in a specific direction some degree of control could be established over the course of the plasma torpedo ...
Body, arms and pinnules are supported by calcareous plates. With their pinnules, each arm has a distinct feather-like appearance. The crinoids central body is small compared to its total mass, most of which is devoted to food-gathering. The mouth and anus are located on the upper surface of the body, and are connected by a simple gut. The gonads are located in the arms; fertilisation takes place in open sea water during mass spawnings ...
January 22, 1879 is the legendary Day of the Zulu, when more than twenty thousand Zulu warriors nearly wiped out the forces of the invading British army - even the sun was on the side of the Zulu Nation. A partial solar eclipse during the battle obscured the view of the redcoats, making it difficult for them to see the attacking Zulu warriors. But the Zulu triumph on that day was no freak victory: it came about through a combination of superior battle strategy and fierce weapons, aided by potent traditional medicine.. The battle took place in the shadow of a sandstone outcrop called Isandlwana, where the British forces were camped. Isandlwana turned out to be an ideal location for the Zulu to perform their famous horns of the bull encircling maneuver. In the technique, developed in the early 1800s by the Zulu king Shaka, one central body of experienced troops makes a frontal attack, while the youngest and fittest warriors simultaneously sneak around the left and right sides of the enemy ...
Ive had a great time checking this one out, Im always a biologist at heart. And starfish are really fascinating! General: Starfish are echinoderms (e-KY-no-derms) like sea urchins. There are a lot of different types, like there are different types of mammals. They all have a central body with their mouth and gut in it, […]. ...
This assignment will be useful in the Introduction & discussion sections of your final paper. ,BR, An Overview with References of how the culture techniques and media you will use will select and/or differentiate soil bacteria of the specific groups we seek. Explain how use of these media will allow us to isolate or differentiate microbes with particular metabolic or structural characteristics from other microbes in the community. You will find descriptions of all of the culture media we will use this semester and general information about the differences and definitions of categories of media in the Protocols section of the wiki in the section [http://www.openwetware.org/wiki/BISC209/S13:_Culture_Media Culture Media]. The media you should include in this discussion are: Dilute Nutrient Agar, Simmons Citrate, Azotobacter, Glycerol Yeast Extract (GYE), PEA, EMB, Starch, Cellulose Congo Red, Pidovskaya medium (PVK)and Mannitol Nitrate Motility (MNM). To find out how and why we are using ...
All we that studied Bios probably remember two known aspects of the symbiotic relationships of plant roots with microorganisms: 1) The bacterial Rhizobium nodules on the roots of legumes (Figure 1). These bacteria, with the nitrogenase complex, are among the few organisms capable of fixing atmospheric N2 transforming it into organic nitrogen, which is used…
by Jane Coleman Cabildo, Director - Santa Fe Centers. Current research and a search of the literature have given Santa Fe Childcare a new way to look at the activity level of our infants and toddlers. We were pleased to welcome Eleanor Campbell, PT, to our Infant Toddler Center, on April 16th where she spoke to parents and staff about the importance of movement in the lives of our youngest children. The title of her presentation was Babies Need to Move and she had everyone fascinated with the information shared. She reviewed typical sensory/motor development, which is similar for all children - progress on a continuum which contributes to the many vital connections that are formed between lower and higher centers in the brain.. Infants must be allowed to move in order to gain muscle strength against gravity, to get up on hands and knees, to crawl and to eventually walk. The efficient and healthy development of the neurological and motor system is dependent on freedom of movement of infants as ...
by Jane Coleman Cabildo, Director - Santa Fe Centers. Current research and a search of the literature have given Santa Fe Childcare a new way to look at the activity level of our infants and toddlers. We were pleased to welcome Eleanor Campbell, PT, to our Infant Toddler Center, on April 16th where she spoke to parents and staff about the importance of movement in the lives of our youngest children. The title of her presentation was Babies Need to Move and she had everyone fascinated with the information shared. She reviewed typical sensory/motor development, which is similar for all children - progress on a continuum which contributes to the many vital connections that are formed between lower and higher centers in the brain.. Infants must be allowed to move in order to gain muscle strength against gravity, to get up on hands and knees, to crawl and to eventually walk. The efficient and healthy development of the neurological and motor system is dependent on freedom of movement of infants as ...
Kennedy C, Rudnick P, MacDonald ML, Melton T (2015). "Azotobacter". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. pp ... ISBN 978-1-904455-19-6. [1]. Rediers H, Vanderleyden J, De Mot R (2004). "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". ... The Pseudomonadaceae are a family of bacteria which includes the genera Azomonas, Azorhizophilus, Azotobacter, Mesophilobacter ...
Dilworth M. J., Eady (1991). "Azotobacter chroococcum". Biochemical Journal. 277 (2): 465-468. doi:10.1042/bj2770465. PMC ...
"Azorhizophilus paspali (Azotobacter paspali)". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M. "Nomenclature ...
For example, the Azotobacter sp. degrades 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) into 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone due to TCP-4- ... Other species such as Pseudomonas galthei or Azotobacter sp. showed preference for para-halide over the meta- or ortho -halides ...
... s are found in members of the bacterial genus Azotobacter as well as the species Rhodopseudomonas palustris ... Miller R. W.; Eady R. R. (1988). "Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases of Azotobacter chroococcum. Low temperature favours N2 ... Eady R. R. (1989). "The Vanadium Nitrogenase of Azotobacter". Polyhedron. 8 (13/14): 1695-1700. doi:10.1016/S0277-5387(00)80619 ...
Nagpal, P.; Jafri, S.; Reddy, M. A.; Das, H. K. (1989). "Multiple chromosomes of Azotobacter vinelandii". Journal of ... Maldonado, R.; Jiménez, J.; Casadesús, J. (1994). "Changes of ploidy during the Azotobacter vinelandii growth cycle". Journal ... Azotobacter vinelandii can contain up to 80 chromosome copies per cell. However this is only observed in fast growing cultures ...
Heppel LA, Hurwitz J, Horecker BL (1957). "Adenine deaminase of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (3): 630-633. doi ...
I. Polynucleotide phosphorylase of azotobacter vinelandii". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 20 (1): 269-85. doi:10.1016/0006- ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria which is known by its high respiratory rate among aerobic organisms. Some ... The cytochrome system of Azotobacter vinelandii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1967 Sep 6;143(2):340-353. ...
The nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter and the species Azomonas macrocytogenes have evolved from a species in ... Its nitrogen-fixing capabilities and deviant features have caused Azotobacter to be described as "Pseudomonas in disguise". The ... "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". Microbiology. 150 (Pt 5): 1117-9. doi:10.1099/mic.0.27096-0. PMID 15133068 ... "Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas". International Journal of Systematic and ...
In Azotobacter the energy released by transferring one electron from NADH to Q is used to simultaneously boost the transfer of ... Homologous ferredoxins from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av2FeFdI; P82802) and Aquifex aeolicus (AaFd; O66511) have been ... Gao-Sheridan HS, Pershad HR, Armstrong FA, Burgess BK (March 1998). "Discovery of a novel ferredoxin from Azotobacter ... August 2017). "The Electron Bifurcating FixABCX Protein Complex from Azotobacter vinelandii: Generation of Low-Potential ...
In bacteria (for instance, Azotobacter sp.), encystment occurs by changes in the cell wall; the cytoplasm contracts and the ...
Eady RR (July 1988). "The vanadium-containing nitrogenase of Azotobacter". BioFactors. 1 (2): 111-6. PMID 3076437. Chan MK, ... such as vanadium in the nitrogenase of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, tungsten in the aldehyde ...
Young, J. M.; Park, D. -C. (2007). "Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas". ... Rediers, H; Vanderleyden, J; De Mot, R (2004). "Azotobacter vinelandii: a Pseudomonas in disguise?". Microbiology. 150 (Pt 5): ... In the gammaproteobacterial order Pseudomonadales, the genus Azotobacter and the species Azomonas macrocytogenes are actually ...
Davidson IW, Lawson CJ, Sutherland IW (January 1977). "An alginate lysate from Azotobacter vinelandii phage". Journal of ...
doi:10.2138/rmg.2005.59.4. Huyer M, Page WJ (1988). "Zn2+ Increases Siderophore Production in Azotobacter vinelandii". Applied ...
Stevens, A.; Hilmoe, R.J. (1960). "Studies on a nuclease from Azotobacter agilis. I. Isolation and mode of action". J. Biol. ... Stevens A, Hilmoe RJ (1960). "Studies on a nuclease from Azotobacter agilis. II. Hydrolysis of ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic ...
An example of free-living bacteria is Azotobacter. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Rhizobium usually live in the ...
The NhaH family consists of proteins from Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., Leptospira, Azotobacter, Neisseria, Ralstonia, ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is the most studied of these organisms. It uses very high respiration rates, and protective compounds, ... Two of the most studied systems are those of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii. These systems are used because ... Marine Nitrogen Fixation - The Basics (USC Capone Lab) Azotobacter Rhizobia Frankia & Actinorhizal Plants. ...
Burgess, C. F.; Jacobs, D. B.; Stiefel, E. I. (1980). "Large Scale Purification of High Activity Azotobacter Vinelandii ...
Imai T (January 1973). "Purification and properties of nicotinamide mononucleotide amidohydrolase from Azotobacter vinelandii ...
The Anf nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii is organized in an anfHDGKOR operon. This operon still requires some of the Nif ... Vanadium nitrogenase and iron-only nitrogenase can both be found in select species of Azotobacter as an alternative nitrogenase ... Figures 1-2 display the crystal structure and key catalytic components of molybdenum nitrogenase extracted from Azotobacter ... Oelze J (October 2000). "Respiratory protection of nitrogenase in Azotobacter species: is a widely held hypothesis ...
"The alternative nitrogenase of Azotobacter chroococcum is a vanadium enzyme". Nature. 322 (6077): 388-390. Bibcode:1986Natur. ...
Sala-Trepat JM, Evans WC (1971). "The meta cleavage of catechol by Azotobacter species 4-Oxalocrotonate pathway". Eur. J. ...
"Improved catalytic performance of a 2-haloacid dehalogenase from Azotobacter sp. by ion-exchange immobilisation". Biochem. ...
Sala-Trepat JM, Evans WC (1971). "The meta cleavage of catechol by Azotobacter species 4-Oxalocrotonate pathway". Eur. J. ...
Azotobacter vinelandii, an obligate aerobe diazotroph used in nitrogen fixation research. Streptomyces coelicolor, a soil- ...
Examples of bacteria using the pathway are: Pseudomonas, a genus of Gram-negative bacteria Azotobacter, a genus of Gram- ... "Further Observations on Carbohydrate Metabolism and its Regulation in Azotobacter beijerinckii". Journal of General ...
acetan (Acetobacter xylinum) alginate (Azotobacter vinelandii) cellulose (Acetobacter xylinum) chitosan (Mucorales spp.) ...
Azotobacter sp. AR. Azotobacter beijerinckii. Azotobacter chroococcum. Azotobacter sp. DCU26. Azotobacter sp. FA8. Azotobacter ... "Azotobacter.org". Archived from the original (A project to study the genome of Azotobacter vinelandii) on 20 May 2013. ... Azotobacter produces pigments. For example, Azotobacter chroococcum forms a dark-brown water-soluble pigment melanin. This ... "Azotobacter vinelandii". John Innes Centre - Molecular Microbiology Department.. *. "Azotobacter vinelandii". JGI. Archived ...
Unlike other Azotobacter species, iron was absolutely required for growth. While most Azotobacter species are commonly found in ... "ITIS Standard Report Page: Azotobacter Salinestris." ITIS Standard Report Page: Azotobacter Salinestris. N.p., 1991. Web. 8 Feb ... Azotobacter salinestris is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped organism. This organisms cells are about 2 x 4 μm in size when they are ... A. chroococcum is the most common species from Azotobacter to be isolated from soil samples. It is also a close relative to A. ...
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An azotobacter is a type of bacteria in the Azotobacter genus, which has at least 6 species. Azotobacters are characterized by ... An azotobacter is a bacterium in the genus Azotobacter, which includes at least six known species. These bacteria are found in ... Some examples of Azotobacter species include A. chrococcum and A. vinelandii. Several species have been studied extensively in ... Azotobacter bacteria are motile and rod-shaped. They are non-pathogenic, not causing diseases in humans and other organisms, ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is proposed to contain a single beta-ketothiolase activity participating in the formation of acetoacetyl ... Beta-ketothiolase genes in Azotobacter vinelandii Gene. 2000 Dec 30;260(1-2):113-20. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(00)00462-5. ... Azotobacter vinelandii is proposed to contain a single beta-ketothiolase activity participating in the formation of acetoacetyl ... Control of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii strain UWD. Microbiology 140, 953-963). We designed a ...
Azotobacter chroococcum. Azotobacter vinelandii Description and Significance. Azotobacter is a genus of free-living ... Azotobactercysts. The Microbe Zoo, Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology.. Azotobacter vinelandii.Molecular ... For NCBIs GenBank entry for Azotobacters unfinished sequence, click here. Cell Structure and Metabolism. Image from Reference ... Azotobacter. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 12:59, 1 June 2006 by WikiAdmin. (talk ...
Azotobacter chroococcum. Azotobacter vinelandii Description and Significance. Azotobacter is a genus of free-living ... Azotobactercysts. The Microbe Zoo, Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology.. Azotobacter vinelandii.Molecular ... Azotobacter. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 15:10, 1 June 2006 by Tashiror. (talk ... Azotobacters cells are large rods, at least 2 microns in diameter. They can live singly, in chains, or in clumps, and may or ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Pseudomonadales › Pseudomonadaceae › Azotobacter group ... sp,P22759,BFR_AZOVI Bacterioferritin OS=Azotobacter vinelandii OX=354 GN=bfr PE=1 SV=2 ... Azotobacter vinelandii. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names ...
The Crystal Structure of a Sulfurtransferase from Azotobacter Vinelandii Highlights the Evolutionary Relationship between the ...
... Designation: PAV-1 TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization ... Azotobacter vinelandii bacteriophage PAV-1 (ATCC® 13705-B1™) Strain Designations: PAV-1 / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 1 ... Properties of Azotobacter phage Pav-1 and its DNA. Virology 102: 262-266, 1980. PubMed: 7368569 ...
MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; AZOTOBACTER; SENSITIVITY; CYANIDES; TOXICITY; HYDROGENASES; INACTIVATION; CARBON 14 ... The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. ...
... azotobacter explanation free. What is azotobacter? Meaning of azotobacter medical term. What does azotobacter mean? ... Looking for online definition of azotobacter in the Medical Dictionary? ... azotobacter. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to azotobacter: Endospores. azotobacter. (ā-zō′tə-băk ... Varios estudios han reportado la presencia de Azotobacter sp.. Efecto de la gallinaza sobre Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp. y ...
... industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter vinelandii. ... Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; Pseudomonadaceae; Azotobacter group; Azotobacter. Industrial ... The type strain for Azotobacter vinelandii was isolated from a water sample obtained from the Black Sea. ...
... industrial applications and more information for Azotobacter salinestris. ... Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; Pseudomonadaceae; Azotobacter group; Azotobacter. Industrial ... The type strain for Azotobacter salinestris was isolated from a soil sample obtained in Alberta, Canada. ...
RESPIRATION STUDIES ON AZOTOBACTER UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Sequence and molecular analysis of the nifL gene of Azotobacter vinelandii.. Blanco G1, Drummond M, Woodley P, Kennedy C. ... In both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii the nifL gene, which encodes a negative regulator of nitrogen fixation ...
Sequences, organization and analysis of the hupZMNOQRTV genes from the Azotobacter chroococcum hydrogenase gene cluster.. Du L1 ... Hydrogen-uptake (Hup) activity in Azotobacter chroococcum depends upon a cluster of genes spread over 13,687 bp of the ... It is now clear that the genes controlling [NiFe] hydrogenase activity in many bacteria including Azotobacter chroococcum, ...
Maru V, Gadre S (2016) Melanin pigment production studies from Azotobacter vinelandii. Int J Adv Lif Sci 9:44-49Google Scholar ... Banerjee A, Supakar S, Banerjee R (2014) Melanin from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum: a spectroscopic ... Bioreduction of toxicity influenced by bioactive molecules secreted under metal stress by Azotobacter chroococcum. ... plants and stress mitigation by metal tolerant nitrogen fixing Azotobacter chroococcum. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 157:9-20Google ...
Nitrogenase Complex From Azotobacter Vinelandii Stabilized By ADP-Tetrafluoroaluminate. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1m34/pdb ...
something about Azotobacter vinelandii. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and ... It is said that when Azotobacter vinelandii faces a difficult situation ,it can have some thing like a spore ,which called ...
From the total cell lipids of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum92 a previously unknown lipid has been ... Lipid Fraction Methyl Ether Dihydroxybenzene Sodium Tetrahydroborate Azotobacter Chroococcum M. M. Shemyakin Institute of ... From the total cell lipids of the nitrogen-fixing bacteriumAzotobacter chroococcum 92 a previously unknown lipid has been ...
Nitrogenase in Azotobacter chroococcum and Klebsiella pneumoniae ROBERT R. EADY; ROBERT R. EADY ... Vanadium nitrogenase of Azotobacter chroococcum . MgATP-dependent electron transfer within the protein complex Biochem J ( ... Characterization of flavodoxin from Azotobacter chroococcum and comparison of its redox potentials with those of flavodoxins ... Nitrogenase in Azotobacter chroococcum and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Biochem Soc Trans 1 August 1975; 3 (4): 488-492. doi: https ...
The Relation of Combined Nitrogen to the Physiological Activity of Azotobacter Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... 5. It is suggested that Azotobacter always prefers to derive its nitrogen from a combined source but that plant tissues contain ... amino acid and peptone decreased proportionally the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed in culture solutions of Azotobacter. ... unheated plant extracts to pure solution cultures greatly stimulated the multiplication of Azotobacter. ...
Nucleotide sequences and genetic analysis of hydrogen oxidation (hox) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii.. A L Menon, L E ... Azotobacter vinelandii contains a heterodimeric, membrane-bound [NiFe]hydrogenase capable of catalyzing the reversible ... Nucleotide sequences and genetic analysis of hydrogen oxidation (hox) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii. ... Nucleotide sequences and genetic analysis of hydrogen oxidation (hox) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii. ...
Characterization of the gene coding for GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD) from Azotobacter vinelandii.. M Campos, J M Martínez- ... Azotobacter vinelandii presents a differentiation process leading to the formation of desiccation-resistant cysts. Alginate, ... Characterization of the gene coding for GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD) from Azotobacter vinelandii. ... Characterization of the gene coding for GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD) from Azotobacter vinelandii. ...
Control of respiration in Azotobacter vinelandii membranes. C W Jones, S K Erickson, B A C Ackrell ... Control of respiration in Azotobacter vinelandii membranes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Azotobacter vinelandii is an aerobic organism normally found in soil, and is commonly known for its ability to fix nitrogen, ... Azotobacter vinelandii is an aerobic organism normally found in soil, and is commonly known for its ability to fix nitrogen, ...
Azotobacter vinelandii / metabolism*. Biomass. Fermentation. Industrial Microbiology / methods*. Molecular Weight. Oxygen / ...
A novel poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was identified in Azotobacter vinelandii. This enzyme, now designated PhbZ1, is ... Kennedy C, Gamal R, Humphrey R, Ramos J, Brigle K, Dean D (1986) The nifH, nifM and nifN genes of Azotobacter vinelandii: ... Bali A, Blanco G, Hill S, Kennedy C (1992) Excretion of ammonium by a nifL mutant of Azotobacter vinelandii fixing nitrogen. ... Peralta-Gil M, Segura D, Guzmán J, Servín-González L, Espín G (2002) Expression of the Azotobacter vinelandii poly-β- ...
  • The first representative of the genus, Azotobacter chroococcum , was discovered and described in 1901 by Dutch microbiologist and botanist Martinus Beijerinck . (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally, A. salinestris colonies were classified as Azotobacter chroococcum, but were later identified as a separate species based on their salt-dependent growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. chroococcum is the most common species from Azotobacter to be isolated from soil samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single, dual and consortium of Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium, and Glomus fasciculatum with different level of NPK fertilizers were tested in a glass house experiment to find out the effects of different microbial inoculants on growth parameters in Capsicum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interactions of Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense and Streptomyces mutabilis, in relation to their effect on wheat development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sequences, organization and analysis of the hupZMNOQRTV genes from the Azotobacter chroococcum hydrogenase gene cluster. (nih.gov)
  • Hydrogen-uptake (Hup) activity in Azotobacter chroococcum depends upon a cluster of genes spread over 13,687 bp of the chromosome. (nih.gov)
  • It is now clear that the genes controlling [NiFe] hydrogenase activity in many bacteria including Azotobacter chroococcum, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhodobacter capsulatus and Escherichia coli are highly conserved, organized in much the same manner, and likely derived from a common ancestor. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, nitrogen fixing bacterial strain CAZ3 recovered from chilli rhizosphere tolerated 100, 1000 and 1200 µg mL −1 of cadmium, chromium and nickel, respectively and was identified as Azotobacter chroococcum by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. (springer.com)
  • From the total cell lipids of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum 92 a previously unknown lipid has been isolated which has been identified as a 1-alkyl-3,5-dihydroxybenzene. (springer.com)
  • Strains of the soil bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum (AC), plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria used as agricultural inoculants, require high Fe concentrations for aerobic respiration and nitrogen fixation. (rsc.org)
  • B3, and found that it also produces vibrioferrin and amphibactins, but not crochelin A. Genome comparisons indicate that vibrioferrin production is a vertically inherited, conserved strategy for Fe uptake in A. chroococcum and other species of Azotobacter . (rsc.org)
  • 1. Nitrogenase activity of a strain of Azotobacter chroococcum lacking the structural genes for conventional nitrogenase (nifHDK) was separated into two components: an Fe-containing protein and a vanadoprotein. (portlandpress.com)
  • Nitrogenase from Azotobacter chroococcum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Azotobacter chroococcum is a bacterium that has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. (cardesignnews.com)
  • 6]. AR Azotobacter beijerinckii Azotobacter chroococcum Azotobacter sp. (cardesignnews.com)
  • Research on Azotobacter chroococcum spp. (islah.info)
  • in crop production has LM ( ) Aislamiento de cepas nativas de Azotobacter chroococcum en la. (islah.info)
  • Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of beneficial free living bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense compared to different nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of barley Hordeum vulgare cv Reyhan a field experiment was conducted at Research Station College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. (islah.info)
  • Optimising carbon and nitrogen sources for Azotobacter The present work deals with selecting and optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources for producing biomass from Azotobacter chroococcum. (islah.info)
  • Four carbon sources glucose, sucrose, manitol and sodium benzoate and four nitrogen sources yeast extract, meat extract, NH4Cl and NH4 2SO4 were evaluated during the first Cultivation of the bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum for On the basis of the obtained results, repeated batch technique appeared to be the most suitable for the bacterial biomass production at industrial scale. (islah.info)
  • A nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Azotobacter chroococcum, was immobilized in 2% agar gel. (elsevier.com)
  • Azotobacter chroococcum is a widespread free-living soil bacterium within the genus of Azotobacter known for assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen and subsequent conversion into nitrogenous compounds, which henceforth enrich the nitrogen content of soils. (springeropen.com)
  • Non-nitrogen fixing mutants of Azotobacter chroococcum. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hydrogenase from nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter chroococcum. (worldcat.org)
  • THIS STUDY was undertaken to investigate the possibility of using Azospirillum bras/lease and Azotobacter chroococcum applied with inorganic nitrogen to enhance tomato [Lycopersicon escnlentum, Mill] production in soilless systems. (bvsalud.org)
  • Azotobacter chroococcum is dominant in arable soils and capable of fixing N2 10-15 kg N/ha (Johanna, 1997). (rkmp.co.in)
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of individual and simultaneous inoculation of endophytic fungus, Piriformospora indica , and plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Azotobacter chroococcum , on biochemical properties, antioxidant enzyme activities and growth of wheat plant (Niknejad cultivar) in Zn deficiency and sufficiency conditions. (ac.ir)
  • Die Ziele der vorliegenden Arbeit ergaben sich aus zwei Arbeitsschwerpunkten - dem Nachweis einer neuartigen prokaryotischen Phenoloxidase bei dem Bakterienisolat Azotobacter chroococcum SBUG 1484 und der Durchführung Phenoloxidase-katalysierter Biotransformationsreaktionen zur Derivatisierung von ortho- bzw. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • The aim of the work consists out of two emphases - the proof of a novel phenoloxidase activity in the bacterial strain Azotobacter chroococcum SBUG 1484 and the performance of phenoloxidase-catalyzed biotransformation reactions for derivatization of ortho- and para-dihydroxylated compounds. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Characterization of a mutant of Azotobacter chroococcum resistant to some fungicides. (worldcat.org)
  • Azotobacter is also capable of producing a protein which protects the nitrogenase from sudden oxygen-provoked stress. (kenyon.edu)
  • Nitrogenase from vanadium-grown Azotobacter: isolation, characteristics, and mechanistic implications. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The nitrogenase system from Azotobacter: two-enzyme requirement for N2 reduction, ATP-dependent H2 evolution, and ATP hydrolysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nitrogen fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii strains having deletions in structural genes for nitrogenase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In order to elucidate the function of the nifU gene product in nitrogenase maturation in Azotobacter vinelandii. (vt.edu)
  • Respiratory protection of nitrogenase in Azotobacter species: is a widely held hypothesis unequivocally supported by experimental evidence? (semanticscholar.org)
  • The hypothesis of respiratory protection, originally formulated on the basis of results obtained with Azotobacter species, postulates that consumption of O(2) at the surface of diazotrophic prokaryotes protects nitrogenase from inactivation by O(2). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Azotobacter species are Gram-negative bacteria found in neutral and alkaline soils, [1] [2] in water, and in association with some plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. salinestris was found to lose viability in the slant cultures when stored at 4 °C. Through these cultures and characterization tests, A. salinestris was found to share many of the general characteristics specific to the species Azotobacter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other Azotobacter species, iron was absolutely required for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most Azotobacter species are commonly found in soil, A. salinestris is unique due to being found in soils with high salt content and requiring the presence of iron to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • An azotobacter is a bacterium in the genus Azotobacter, which includes at least six known species. (wisegeek.com)
  • Azotobacter species also have a number of potential industrial applications, with their nitrogen fixing habits being harnessed in the production of various commercial products. (wisegeek.com)
  • Some examples of Azotobacter species include A. chrococcum and A. vinelandii . (wisegeek.com)
  • The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. (islah.info)
  • Azotobacter distribution and species composition were studied under maize rhizosphere at four growth stages and in the uncropped soil control. (islah.info)
  • for isolation,cultivation and identification of sucrose positive Azotobacter species from soil. (tmmedia.in)
  • 2016. Production of Liquid Bio fertilizer by using Azotobacter Species and their Effect on Plant Growth Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. (ijcmas.com)
  • Azotobacter ), autotrophic ( Thiobacillus ), aerobic ( Bacillus ), anaerobic ( Clostridium ), and photosynthetic ( Rhodospirillum ) species. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although the results were never published, sequencing data placed this bacterial strain in the genus Azotobacter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii strain UWD. (nih.gov)
  • Alginate production by a mutant strain of Azotobacter vinelandii using shake flask fermentataion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The type strain for Azotobacter vinelandii was isolated from a water sample obtained from the Black Sea. (thelabrat.com)
  • The type strain for Azotobacter salinestris was isolated from a soil sample obtained in Alberta, Canada. (thelabrat.com)
  • The present study was focused on the evaluation of diazotrophic Azotobacter biofertilizer potential of strain on the growth of Sorghum bicolor. (journalcra.com)
  • The result of pot culture studies reveals that the combined application of Azotobacter Strain 1 and 2 increased the growth of Sorghum crop. (journalcra.com)
  • A sample of healthy soil should include a good selection of azotobacter bacteria, which can be clearly seen under the microscope and used as one criterion when evaluating soil health. (wisegeek.com)
  • soil-dwelling diazotrophs such as Azotobacter are especially useful in gauging the health and virility of the ground. (kenyon.edu)
  • Any of various rod-shaped, aerobic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, typically found in soil and water. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii is an aerobic organism normally found in soil, and is commonly known for its ability to fix nitrogen, converting it to ammonia. (wardsci.com)
  • We investigated the V requirements, the kinetics of V uptake, and the production of catechol compounds across a range of concentrations of vanadium in diazotrophic cultures of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii . (asm.org)
  • At lower concentrations, it interferes with the activity of ferric reductase, a key enzyme involved in the uptake of Fe-siderophores in the gram-negative soil diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii . (asm.org)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii is a nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium that undergoes differentiation to form cysts resistant to desiccation. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Two hundred eighty-seven Iowa soils representing 52 soil types and 37 soil series and distributed in the five soil areas of the state -the Wisconsin drift, the Iowan drift, the Missouri loess, the Southern Iowa loess and the Mississippi loess - were examined for the presence of Azotobacter. (iastate.edu)
  • 2. The presence of the Azotobacter was determined in these soils by the Winogradsky soil plaque and the selective culture agar-plate methods using mannitol as the energy source. (iastate.edu)
  • 7. An analysis of the samples for pH, content of available phosphate, total nitrogen and calcium carbonate and a calculation of the ratio of carbonate to phosphate was made in order to determine whether or not any relation existed between the presence of the Azotobacter and anyone or all of these soil constituents. (iastate.edu)
  • 11. The presence or absence of the Azotobacter in the principal soil series of Iowa may be largely explained on the basis of the characteristic pH and the content of available phosphate of the samples in each series. (iastate.edu)
  • 12. In addition to the determination of factors which limited the occurrence of the Azotobacter in Iowa soils, a study was made of the factors which influenced the amount of growth which the Azotobacter would make in the soil. (iastate.edu)
  • 15. The results for total nitrogen indicated that this variable exerted the greatest influence upon the amount of growth which the Azotobacter would make in the soil, when other factors were not unfavorable. (iastate.edu)
  • Azotobacter Agar (Sucrose) is a selective solid medium for the separation and enrichment of nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azotobacter from the soil. (tmmedia.in)
  • Due to the function of Azotobacter in nitrogen fixation and to their probable biotechnological applications, there are few challenges in developing an effectual approach for the selective isolation of these micro-organisms from soil. (ijcmas.com)
  • Mix about 5 kgs Azotobacter with 100 kgs of organic manure, keep the mixture under shade for one week and apply to the soil. (alibaba.com)
  • In addition we show that 342 of these 348 essential genes are conserved in Azotobacter vinelandii , a nitrogen-fixing, cyst-forming, soil bacterium. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • For example, Azotobacter vinelandii is a non-pathogenic soil bacterium that produces alginate, an extracellular polysaccharide. (pucv.cl)
  • Tejera, N.C., Lluch, M.V., Martìnez-Toledo, V. and Gonzàlez-López, J. (2005) Isolation and Characterization of Azotobacter and Azospirillum Strains from the Sugarcane Rhizosphere. (scirp.org)
  • Protein quantity and quality of safflower seed improved by NP fertilizer and rhizobacteria Azospirillum ce Azotobacter spp. (islah.info)
  • The seeds of two safflower cultivar Thori and Saif, were inoculated with Azospirillum and Azotobacter and grown under field conditions. (islah.info)
  • Our Complete range of products are Organic NPK Biofertilizers, Azospirillum Biofertilizers, Azotobacter Biofertilizers, Bio organic Fertilizers and Rhizobium Biofertilizers. (exportersindia.com)
  • The mixture of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and phosphate solublizing bacteria can be used for non-leguminous crops-like cereals, oilseeds cotton, vegetable and all other crops which are usually planted as seeds. (alibaba.com)
  • Characterization of the gene coding for GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD) from Azotobacter vinelandii. (asm.org)
  • Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. (islah.info)
  • Azotobacter is a genus of usually motile , oval or spherical bacteria that form thick-walled cysts and may produce large quantities of capsular slime . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells of the genus Azotobacter are relatively large for bacteria (2-4 μm in diameter). (wikipedia.org)
  • Azotobacter is a genus of free-living diazotrophic bacteria whose resting stage is a cyst. (kenyon.edu)
  • Biological fixation of nitrogen and growth of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in liquid. (islah.info)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii is aerobic. (thelabrat.com)
  • Azotobacter salinestris is aerobic. (thelabrat.com)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii has been studied for over 100 years since its discovery as an aerobic nitrogen-fixing organism. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Spectroscopic studies of ferricyanide oxidation of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I . Azotobacter vinelandii DJ: Accession numbers: NC_012560: Background: Azotobacter vinelandii is a free-living, obligately aerobic, nitrogen-fixing gamma-proteobacteria. (cardesignnews.com)
  • Azotobacter is a group of heterotrophic and aerobic bacteria and their main property is the ability to fix nitrogen non-symbiotically. (tmmedia.in)
  • The occurrence of Azotobacter in Iowa soils and factors affecting thei" by William P. Martin, R. H. Walker et al. (iastate.edu)
  • 8. A multiple correlation of the data arbitrarily summarized on the basis of pH showed that the presence of the Azotobacter in Iowa soils was closely associated with the pH and available phosphate content of the samples and associated very little with the total nitrogen content, the calcium carbonate content or the carbonate-phosphate ratio. (iastate.edu)
  • 9. A study of the limiting pH and available phosphate content values for Azotobacter in Iowa soils led to the conclusion that soils with pH values from about pH 5.42, the limiting value obtained by an extrapolation of the simple regression equation, to pH 6.0, below which only one sample contained the bacteria, and available phosphate contents less than 35 pounds per acre would probably not contain the bacteria. (iastate.edu)
  • 10. A method recently developed by Fisher (12) was used to determine whether or not the pH, available phosphate content and total nitrogen content of the soils would serve to differentiate between the samples which contained Azotobacter and those which did not contain the organisms. (iastate.edu)
  • 16. Some experimental plots were sampled to determine whether or not soils which did not originally contain the organisms could be treated with lime and rock phosphate to correct the acidity and deficiency in available phosphate and thus be put into condition to support a flora of Azotobacter. (iastate.edu)
  • 17. A group of experimental plots on high-lime soils which contained large amounts of organic matter, as indicated by total nitrogen determinations, contained a vigorous growth of the Azotobacter as expected. (iastate.edu)
  • 32] In dry soils, Azotobacter can survive in the form of cysts for up to 24 years. (cardesignnews.com)
  • The best strains of Azotobacter were evaluated by in-vitro and in-vivo screening. (ijcmas.com)
  • At present two strains of bacteria are reported to produce alginate, Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. (edu.pk)
  • Two potential Azotobacter strains were mass cultured and used as diazotrophic biofertilizer for crop study with S.bicolor in various treatments as individual culture and its combination using pot culture for 30 days. (journalcra.com)
  • Thus, these two diazotrophic Azotobacter strains could be used as efficient and ecofriendly biofertilizer for the improved crop production. (journalcra.com)
  • Nucleotide sequences and genetic analysis of hydrogen oxidation (hox) genes in Azotobacter vinelandii. (asm.org)
  • Molecular and bioengineering strategies to improve alginate and polydydroxyalkanoate production by Azotobacter vinelandii Microbial Cell Factories, 6, 7. (unam.mx)
  • E.p.r. and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopic characterisation of bacterioferritin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Azotobacter vinelandii. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Different agricultural wastes like wheat bran, rice polishing and molasses were utilized as substrates through fermentation with Azotobacter vinelandii.On fermentation of 7.5% (w/v) wheat bran by A.vinelandii, maximum alginate production (5.21 g/L) was observed at 48 hours of incubation time with 6% (v/v) inoculum size, pH 7.0, 300C and agitation speed of 200 rpm. (edu.pk)
  • Two-component system CbrA/CbrB controls alginate production in Azotobacter vinelandii Microbiology, 163, 1105-1115. (unam.mx)
  • Azotobacter salinestris is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. It is suggested that Azotobacter always prefers to derive its nitrogen from a combined source but that plant tissues contain certain unknown "essential food substances" which stimulate the growth of the organism to such an extent that the supply of available nitrogen derived from moderate applications of vegetable material is soon exhausted, and the organism then assimilates nitrogen from the air. (biologists.org)
  • The phenotypic features of the Azotobacter vinelandii RhdA mutant MV474 (in which the rhdA gene was deleted) indicated that defects in antioxidant systems in this organism were related to the expression of the tandem-domain rhodanese RhdA. (uni-hannover.de)
  • The present review compiles evidence indicating that cellular O(2) consumption as well as both the activity and the formation of the respiratory system of Azotobacter vinelandii are controlled by the C/N ratio, that is to say the ratio at which the organism consumes the substrate (i.e. the source of carbon, reducing equivalents and ATP) per source of compound nitrogen. (semanticscholar.org)
  • however, whereas usual vegetative cells are reproductive, the cyst of Azotobacter does not serve this purpose and is necessary for surviving adverse environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azotobacter cysts can be clearly seen under magnification, and can be carefully sectioned to reveal the internal structures of the cyst. (wisegeek.com)
  • Azotobacter cyst. (kenyon.edu)
  • Roles of RpoS and PsrA in cyst formation and alkylresorcinol synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii Microbiology, 157, 1685-1693. (unam.mx)
  • Six out of ten genera isolated from only guano included Acaligens, Azotobacter , Bartonella, Nitrsomonas, Paeudomonas and Salmonella whereas two genera Klebsiella, and Nocardia were isolated from bolus samples only. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii the nifL gene, which encodes a negative regulator of nitrogen fixation, lies immediately upstream of nifA. (nih.gov)
  • Azotobacter Vinelandii Azotobacter Klebsiella Pneumoniae Escherichia Coli Clostridium Rhodospirillum Rubrum Chromatium. (cardesignnews.com)
  • Catalytic properties of Na+-translocating NADH : quinone oxidoreductases from Vibrio harveyi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Azotobacter vinelandii Fems Microbiology Letters, 279, 116-123. (unam.mx)
  • Magnesio Azotobacter vinelandii Oxigeno Azotobacter beijerinckii Rhizobium ORS571 Rhodospirillum rubrum Fosforo Rhodobacter sphaeroides Caulobacter crescentus Pseudomonas oleovorans Fuente: (Babel y Steinbuchel, 2001). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Azotobacter ), enter loose (associative) symbiosis with plants or animals ( Acetobacter and sugarcane), or establish longer-term relationships within specialized structures provided by their host ( Rhizobium and the legume nodule). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Forlani, Fabio: Involvement of the Azotobacter vinelandii Rhodanese-Like Protein RhdA in the Glutathione Regeneration Pathway. (uni-hannover.de)
  • The signaling protein MucG negatively affects the production and the molecular mass of alginate in Azotobacter vinelandii Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 101, 1521-1534. (unam.mx)
  • Azotobacter bacteria are motile and rod-shaped. (wisegeek.com)
  • Azotobacter estas genro de kutime motile, ovalaj aŭ sferaj bakterioj kiuj formas dikmurajn kistojn kaj povas produkti grandajn kvantojn de kapsula ŝlimo. (cardesignnews.com)
  • Diazotrophic organisms such as Azotobacter play a vital role in every ecosystem, working to make nitrogen available to all organisms. (kenyon.edu)
  • Diazotrophic Growth Allows Azotobacter vinelandii To Overcome the Deleterious Effects of a glnE Deletion. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Alginate synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii is increased by reducing the intracellular production of ubiquinone Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 97, 2503-2512. (unam.mx)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii lacking the Na +-NQR activity: a potential source for producing alginates with improved properties and at high yield World Journal Of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 28, 2731-2740. (unam.mx)
  • RsmA post-transcriptionally controls PhbR expression and polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii Microbiology, 158, 1953-1963. (unam.mx)
  • Post-Transcriptional Regulation of the Alginate Biosynthetic Gene algD by the Gac/Rsm System in Azotobacter vinelandii Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 21, 147-159. (unam.mx)
  • The Na+-translocating NADH : ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Azotobacter vinelandii negatively regulates alginate synthesis Microbiology, 155, 249-256. (unam.mx)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Azotobacter vinelandii. (wur.nl)
  • Lipoamide Dehydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii: site-directed mutagenesis of the His450-Glu455 diad. (growkudos.com)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii is a terrestrial diazotroph well studied for its siderophore production capacity and its role as a model nitrogen fixer. (princeton.edu)
  • We supply Azotobacter Biofertilizer is nitrogen fixing bio inoculant suitable for all crops. (alibaba.com)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii is proposed to contain a single beta-ketothiolase activity participating in the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA, a precursor for poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis, and in beta-oxidation (Manchak, J., Page, W.J., 1994. (nih.gov)
  • Another individualistic trait of Azotobacter is their ability to synthesize not just one, but three nitrogenases. (kenyon.edu)
  • Regulation of expression of genes for three nitrogenases in Azotobacter vinelandii. (worldcat.org)
  • Isolation and Evaluation of Azotobacter Spp. (ijcmas.com)
  • Crystallographic quaternary structural analysis of AMP nucleosidases from Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. (elsevier.com)
  • Adenosine monophosphate nucleosidases from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli have been studied crystallographically to determine their quarternary structures. (elsevier.com)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii presents a differentiation process leading to the formation of desiccation-resistant cysts. (asm.org)
  • Sequence and molecular analysis of the nifL gene of Azotobacter vinelandii. (nih.gov)
  • The oxygen transfer rate influences the molecular mass of the alginate produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Azotobacter vinelandii OPNA is a potential producer of large quantities of PHB, having ultra-high molecular weight by fed-batch production strategies. (pucv.cl)
  • Respecto a las BFNA, se ha reportado que Azotobacter nigricans (Garcia et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • En 1949, o microbiólogo ruso Nikolai Krasilnikov identificou a especie Azotobacter nigricans , que foi dividida en 1981 por Thompson Skerman en dúas subespecies chamadas Azotobacter nigricans subsp. (cardesignnews.com)
  • Some aspects of hydrogenase activity and nitrogen fixation in Azotobacter spp and in Clostridium pasteurianum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The amide exchange behaviour of Azotobacter vinelandii C69A flavodoxin II sheds light onto the redox potential regulation of flavodoxins. (wur.nl)
  • The Azotobacter were isolated by serial dilution method from each sample in specific Azotobacter agar (Mannitol) and incubated at 28±2 °C for 48 hour than kept in refrigerator. (ijcmas.com)
  • Influence of VAM Fungi, Azotobacter sp. (scirp.org)
  • Azotobacter,chilli and crop rhizosphere. (ijcmas.com)
  • Distribution of azotobacter in rhizosphere of maize. (islah.info)
  • 1. Increasing concentrations of nitrate, amino acid and peptone decreased proportionally the amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed in culture solutions of Azotobacter . (biologists.org)
  • Azotobacter lives in association with plant roots and fixes atmospheric nitrogen in readily available form to plants. (alibaba.com)
  • Since GS is key to the sole ammonium assimilation pathway of Azotobacter vinelandii, attempts to obtain deletion mutants in the gene encoding GS (glnA) have been unsuccessful. (jic.ac.uk)