A genus of gram-negative aerobic bacteria that occurs free-living in the soil or associated with the roots of cereal crops or grasses (POACEAE).
A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A species of gram-negative to gram-variable, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. They are free-living in SOIL or found in association with PLANT ROOTS. It is the type species of the genus AZOSPIRILLUM.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.
The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.
Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.
A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Acetylene is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound (C2H2) commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings for its high energy content and reactivity, which may have various applications in medicine such as wound healing and surgical procedures, but it is not a medical diagnosis or disease.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family OXALOBACTERACEAE, comprised of vibrioid or sometimes helical cells. They are chemoorganotrophic nitrogen fixers and are found free-living in the soil or in association with the roots of members of the GRAMINEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

Azospirillum irakense produces a novel type of pectate lyase. (1/42)

The pelA gene from the N2-fixing plant-associated bacterium Azospirillum irakense, encoding a pectate lyase, was isolated by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the region containing pelA indicated an open reading frame of 1,296 bp, coding for a preprotein of 432 amino acids with a typical amino-terminal signal peptide of 24 amino acids. N-terminal amino acid sequencing confirmed the processing of the protein in E. coli at the signal peptidase cleavage site predicted by nucleotide sequence analysis. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of PelA revealed no homology to other known pectinases, indicating that PelA belongs to a new pectate lyase family. PelA macerates potato tuber tissue, has an alkaline pH optimum, and requires Ca2+ for its activity. Of several divalent cations tested, none could substitute for Ca2+. Methyl-esterified pectin (with a degree of esterification up to 93%) and polygalacturonate can be used as substrates. Characterization of the degradation products formed upon incubation with polygalacturonate indicated that PelA is an endo-pectate lyase generating unsaturated digalacturonide as the major end product. Regulation of pelA expression was studied by means of a translational pelA-gusA fusion. Transcription of this fusion is low under all growth conditions tested and is dependent on the growth phase. In addition, pelA expression was found to be induced by pectin. An A. irakense pelA::Tn5 mutant still displayed pectate lyase activity, suggesting the presence of multiple pectate lyase genes in A. irakense.  (+info)

Growth of Azospirillum irakense KBC1 on the aryl beta-glucoside salicin requires either salA or salB. (2/42)

The rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum irakense KBC1 is able to grow on pectin and beta-glucosides such as cellobiose, arbutin, and salicin. Two adjacent genes, salA and salB, conferring beta-glucosidase activity to Escherichia coli, have been identified in a cosmid library of A. irakense DNA. The SalA and SalB enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed aryl beta-glucosides. A Delta(salA-salB) A. irakense mutant was not able to grow on salicin but could still utilize arbutin, cellobiose, and glucose for growth. This mutant could be complemented by either salA or salB, suggesting functional redundancy of these genes in salicin utilization. In contrast to this functional homology, the SalA and SalB proteins, members of family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolases, show a low degree of amino acid similarity. Unlike SalA, the SalB protein exhibits an atypical truncated C-terminal region. We propose that SalA and SalB are representatives of the AB and AB' subfamilies, respectively, in glycosyl hydrolase family 3. This is the first genetic implication of this beta-glucosidase family in the utilization of beta-glucosides for microbial growth.  (+info)

Interaction of Azospirillum lipoferum with wheat germ agglutinin stimulates nitrogen fixation. (3/42)

In vitro, the nitrogen fixation capability of A. lipoferum is efficiently increased in the presence of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). A putative WGA-binding receptor, a 32-kDa protein, was detected in the cell capsule. The stimulatory effect required N-acetyl-D-glucosamine dimer (GlcNAcdi) terminated sugar side chains of the receptor and was dependent on the number of GlcNAcdi links involved in receptor-WGA interface. Binding to the primary sugar binding sites on WGA had a larger stimulatory effect than binding to the secondary sites. The WGA-receptor complex generated stimulus led to elevated transcription of the nifH and nifA genes and of the glnBA gene cluster but not of the glnA gene from its own promoter. There may well be a signalling cascade contributing to the regulation of nitrogen fixation.  (+info)

A phase variant of Azospirillum lipoferum lacks a polar flagellum and constitutively expresses mechanosensing lateral flagella. (4/42)

Flagellation of a nonswimming variant of the mixed flagellated bacterium Azospirillum lipoferum 4B was characterized by electron microscopy, and polyclonal antibodies were raised against polar and lateral flagellins. The variant cells lacked a polar flagellum due to a defect in flagellin synthesis and constitutively expressed lateral flagella. The variant cells were able to respond to conditions that restricted the rotation of lateral flagella by producing more lateral flagella, suggesting that the lateral flagella, as well as the polar flagellum, are mechanosensing.  (+info)

Loss of cytochrome c oxidase activity and acquisition of resistance to quinone analogs in a laccase-positive variant of Azospirillum lipoferum. (5/42)

Laccase, a p-diphenol oxidase typical of plants and fungi, has been found recently in a proteobacterium, Azospirillum lipoferum. Laccase activity was detected in both a natural isolate and an in vitro-obtained phase variant that originated from the laccase-negative wild type. In this study, the electron transport systems of the laccase-positive variant and its parental laccase-negative forms were compared. During exponential (but not stationary) growth under fully aerobic (but not under microaerobic) conditions, the laccase-positive variant lost a respiratory branch that is terminated in a cytochrome c oxidase of the aa(3) type; this was most likely due to a defect in the biosynthesis of a heme component essential for the oxidase. The laccase-positive variant was significantly less sensitive to the inhibitory action of quinone analogs and fully resistant to inhibitors of the bc(1) complex, apparently due to the rearrangements of its respiratory system. We propose that the loss of the cytochrome c oxidase-containing branch in the variant is an adaptive strategy to the presence of intracellular oxidized quinones, the products of laccase activity.  (+info)

Genome structure of the genus Azospirillum. (6/42)

Azospirillum species are plant-associated diazotrophs of the alpha subclass of Proteobacteria. The genomes of five of the six Azospirillum species were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains possessed several megareplicons, some probably linear, and 16S ribosomal DNA hybridization indicated multiple chromosomes in genomes ranging in size from 4.8 to 9.7 Mbp. The nifHDK operon was identified in the largest replicon.  (+info)

Unlabeled helper oligonucleotides increase the in situ accessibility to 16S rRNA of fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes. (7/42)

Target site inaccessibility represents a significant problem for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of 16S rRNA with oligonucleotide probes. Here, unlabeled oligonucleotides (helpers) that bind adjacent to the probe target site were evaluated for their potential to increase weak probe hybridization signals in Escherichia coli DSM 30083(T). The use of helpers enhanced the fluorescence signal of all six probes examined at least fourfold. In one case, the signal of probe Eco474 was increased 25-fold with the use of a single helper probe, H440-2. In another case, four unlabeled helpers raised the FISH signal of a formerly weak probe, Eco585, to the level of the brightest monolabeled oligonucleotide probes available for E. coli. The temperature of dissociation and the mismatch discrimination of probes were not significantly influenced by the addition of helpers. Therefore, using helpers should not cause labeling of additional nontarget organisms at a defined stringency of hybridization. However, the helper action is based on sequence-specific binding, and there is thus a potential for narrowing the target group which must be considered when designing helpers. We conclude that helpers can open inaccessible rRNA regions for FISH with oligonucleotide probes and will thereby further improve the applicability of this technique for in situ identification of microorganisms.  (+info)

Azospirillum doebereinerae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with the C4-grass Miscanthus. (8/42)

A new group of nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum sp. bacteria was isolated from the roots of the C4-gramineous plant Miscanthus. Polyphasic taxonomy was performed, including auxanography using API galleries, physiological tests and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. The ability of the isolates to fix dinitrogen was evaluated by amplification of the nifD gene, immunodetection of the dinitrogenase reductase and acetylene-reduction assay. On the basis of these results, the nitrogen-fixing isolates represent a new species within the genus Azospirillum. Its closest phylogenetic neighbours, as deduced by 16S rDNA-based analysis, are Azospirillum lipoferum, Azospirillum largimobile and Azospirillum brasilense with 96.6, 96.6 and 95.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Two 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probes were developed which differentiate the new species from the other Azospirillum species by whole-cell fluorescence hybridization. Strains of the new species are curved rods or S-shaped, 1.0-1.5 microm in width and 2,0-3.0 microm in length, Gram-negative and motile with a single polar flagellum. Optimum growth occurs at 30 degrees C and at pH values between 6.0 and 7.0. No growth takes place at 37 degrees C. They have a respiratory type of metabolism, grow well on arabinose, D-fructose, gluconate, glucose, glycerol, malate, mannitol and sorbitol. They differ from A. largimobile and A. lipoferum by their inability to use N-acetylglucosamine and D-ribose, from A. lipoferum by their ability to grow without biotin supplementation and from A. brasilense by their growth with D-mannitol and D-sorbitol as sole carbon sources. Nitrogen fixation occurs in microaerobic nitrogen-limited conditions. For this species, the name Azospirillum doebereinerae sp. nov. is suggested, with strain GSF71T as the type strain (= DSM 13131T; reference strain Ma4 = DSM 13400). Its G+C content is 70.7 mol%.  (+info)

Azospirillum is a genus of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are commonly found in the soil and associated with the roots of various plants, including cereal crops and grasses. These bacteria have the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which can be used by plants as a nutrient.

Azospirillum species are gram-negative rods that are motile by means of one or more flagella. They are chemoorganotrophs, meaning they obtain energy and carbon from organic compounds. Some strains of Azospirillum have been shown to promote plant growth and yield through a variety of mechanisms, including the production of phytohormones, increased nutrient uptake, and improved stress tolerance.

Research is ongoing to better understand the interactions between Azospirillum and plants and to explore their potential as biofertilizers and biostimulants in agriculture.

'Azospirillum brasilense' is a species of free-living, nitrogen-fixing bacteria that is commonly found in the soil and in the roots of various plants. It belongs to the genus Azospirillum and is known for its ability to promote plant growth through a process called bacterial colonization. The bacteria colonize the root system of the plant and enhance nutrient uptake, leading to improved growth and yield. Additionally, 'Azospirillum brasilense' can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, making it available to the plants as a natural fertilizer. It is widely used in agricultural practices as a bioinoculant to improve crop productivity and sustainability.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen gas (N2) in the air is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other chemically reactive forms, making it available to plants and other organisms for use as a nutrient. This process is essential for the nitrogen cycle and for the growth of many types of plants, as most plants cannot utilize nitrogen gas directly from the air.

In the medical field, nitrogen fixation is not a commonly used term. However, in the context of microbiology and infectious diseases, some bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and this ability can contribute to their pathogenicity. For example, certain species of bacteria that colonize the human body, such as those found in the gut or on the skin, may be able to fix nitrogen and use it for their own growth and survival. In some cases, these bacteria may also release fixed nitrogen into the environment, which can have implications for the ecology and health of the host and surrounding ecosystems.

*Azospirillum lipoferum* is a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria that is commonly found in the soil and root systems of various plants. It is a gram-negative, motile rod-shaped bacterium that can form colonies on solid media. The name *Azospirillum* comes from the Greek words "azein," meaning to dry, and "spira," meaning coil, referring to its spiral shape and ability to survive in dry conditions. The species name *lipoferum* is derived from the Latin words "lipos," meaning fat, and "ferrum," meaning iron, indicating that this bacterium has the ability to produce siderophores, which are compounds that bind to iron and help make it available for use by the plant.

These bacteria have been studied extensively for their potential to promote plant growth through a process called associative nitrogen fixation, in which they convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which can then be taken up by plants as a source of nitrogen. *Azospirillum lipoferum* has also been shown to produce phytohormones such as auxins and gibberellins, which can stimulate plant growth and development.

In addition to their potential benefits for agriculture, *Azospirillum lipoferum* and other species of *Azospirillum* have also been studied for their potential use in bioremediation, as they are able to break down a variety of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons and pesticides.

Gram-negative aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, which is a technique used to differentiate bacterial species based on their cell wall composition. These bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS), making them resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants. They are called aerobic because they require oxygen for their growth and metabolism. Examples of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These bacteria can cause various infections in humans, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis.

Nitrogenase is not a medical term, but a biological term used in the field of microbiology and biochemistry. It refers to an enzyme complex found in certain bacteria and archaea that have the ability to fix nitrogen gas (N2) from the atmosphere into ammonia (NH3), a form of nitrogen that can be utilized by plants and other organisms for growth and development. This process is known as biological nitrogen fixation, which is essential for maintaining the global nitrogen cycle and supporting life on Earth.

The medical field may refer to nitrogenase in relation to human health in the context of understanding the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil fertility and their impact on agriculture and food production. However, there is no direct medical definition or application for nitrogenase.

Glutamate synthase is an enzyme found in bacteria, plants, and some animals that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of the amino acid glutamate. There are two types of glutamate synthases: NADPH-dependent and NADH-dependent.

The NADPH-dependent glutamate synthase, also known as glutamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase or GOGAT, catalyzes the following reversible reaction:

glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate -> 2 glutamate

This enzyme requires NADPH as a cofactor and is responsible for the conversion of glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate to two molecules of glutamate. This reaction is essential in the assimilation of ammonia into organic compounds, particularly in plants and some bacteria.

The NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, on the other hand, is found mainly in animals and catalyzes a different set of reactions that involve the conversion of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia, with the concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH.

Both types of glutamate synthases are essential for maintaining the balance of nitrogen metabolism in living organisms.

Flocculation is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a term that is used in various scientific and medical contexts to refer to the process of forming flocs or clumps. Flocs are aggregates of small particles that come together to form larger, visible clumps.

In medical contexts, flocculation may be used to describe the formation of clumps in biological samples such as urine or blood. For example, the presence of flocculent material in urine may indicate the presence of a protein abnormality or kidney disease. Similarly, flocculation of red blood cells may occur in certain medical conditions such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), where red blood cells are susceptible to complement-mediated lysis and can form clumps in the blood.

Overall, while flocculation is not a term with a specific medical definition, it is a process that can have implications for various medical diagnoses and conditions.

Agricultural inoculants are biological products that contain beneficial microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, which are applied to seeds, soil, or plant surfaces to enhance plant growth, increase yield, and improve resistance to pests and diseases. These microorganisms form a mutually beneficial relationship with the plants, known as symbiosis, in which they help the plants absorb nutrients from the soil, fix nitrogen, and produce phytohormones that promote root growth and development.

Examples of agricultural inoculants include Rhizobia bacteria, which form nodules on the roots of leguminous plants and convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by the plant; mycorrhizal fungi, which colonize plant roots and help them absorb water and nutrients from the soil; and Trichoderma fungi, which protect plants from pathogens and promote growth.

Agricultural inoculants are considered an environmentally friendly and sustainable alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides, as they improve crop productivity while reducing the negative impacts on the environment and human health.

PII nitrogen regulatory proteins are a type of signal transduction protein involved in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea. They are named "PII" because they contain two identical subunits, each with a molecular weight of approximately 12 kilodaltons. These proteins play a crucial role in sensing and responding to changes in the energy status and nitrogen availability within the cell.

The PII protein is composed of three domains: the T-domain, which binds ATP and ADP; the N-domain, which binds 2-oxoglutarate (an indicator of carbon and nitrogen status); and the B-domain, which is involved in signal transduction. The PII protein can exist in different conformational states depending on whether it is bound to ATP or ADP, and this affects its ability to interact with downstream effectors.

One of the primary functions of PII proteins is to regulate the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to glutamine. When nitrogen is abundant, PII proteins bind to GS and stimulate its activity, promoting the assimilation of ammonia into organic compounds. Conversely, when nitrogen is scarce, PII proteins dissociate from GS, allowing it to be inhibited by other regulatory proteins.

PII proteins can also interact with other enzymes and regulators involved in nitrogen metabolism, such as nitrogenase, uridylyltransferase/uridylyl-removing enzyme (UT/UR), and transcriptional regulators. Through these interactions, PII proteins help to coordinate the cell's response to changes in nitrogen availability and energy status, ensuring that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively.

Dinitrogenase reductase is a protein involved in the process of nitrogen fixation in certain bacteria and archaea. It is responsible for delivering electrons to the enzyme dinitrogenase, which converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), making it available for use by living organisms. Dinitrogenase reductase contains a cluster of iron and sulfur atoms that facilitate the transfer of electrons. The combined action of dinitrogenase reductase and dinitrogenase allows these microorganisms to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere as a source of nitrogen for growth, making them important contributors to the global nitrogen cycle.

Spirillum is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria. These bacteria are motile with flagella located at both ends of the organism, which gives them a corkscrew-like movement. Spirilla are typically found in aquatic environments and can cause disease in humans and animals, although they are less common than other bacterial pathogens. The most well-known species is Spirillum minus, which causes spirillosis, a rare disease characterized by fever, headache, and skin lesions. However, it's important to note that the study of Spirillum has contributed significantly to our understanding of bacterial motility and structure.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

I must clarify that "Fuel Oils" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Fuel oils are types of oil used as fuel, and they include various distillates of petroleum. They are commonly used for heating purposes or to generate electricity in industrial plants and ships.

However, if you're asking about the medical implications of exposure to fuel oils, it can cause respiratory irritation, headaches, dizziness, and nausea, especially if inhaled in large quantities or in a poorly ventilated space. Long-term exposure may lead to more severe health issues, such as bronchitis, heart disease, and cancer.

Hydroxybutyrates are compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a butyric acid group. More specifically, in the context of clinical medicine and biochemistry, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is often referred to as a "ketone body."

Ketone bodies are produced by the liver during periods of low carbohydrate availability, such as during fasting, starvation, or a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. BHB is one of three major ketone bodies, along with acetoacetate and acetone. These molecules serve as alternative energy sources for the brain and other tissues when glucose levels are low.

In some pathological states, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, the body produces excessive amounts of ketone bodies, leading to a life-threatening metabolic acidosis. Elevated levels of BHB can also be found in other conditions like alcoholism, severe illnesses, and high-fat diets.

It is important to note that while BHB is a hydroxybutyrate, not all hydroxybutyrates are ketone bodies. The term "hydroxybutyrates" can refer to any compound containing both a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a butyric acid group.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Rhodospirillaceae is a family of purple bacteria within the class Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to perform anoxygenic photosynthesis, using bacteriochlorophyll and other pigments to capture light energy for use in metabolism. They typically contain one or more polar flagella and have a spiral or curved cell shape. Members of this family can be found in various environments such as freshwater, marine habitats, and soil, where they play important roles in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Some species are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, making them significant contributors to the global nitrogen cycle.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyesters" is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and textile industry to describe a type of synthetic fiber made from polymers characterized by the presence of ester groups in their main chain. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

"Triticum" is the genus name for a group of cereal grains that includes common wheat (T. aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and spelt (T. spelta). These grains are important sources of food for humans, providing carbohydrates, proteins, and various nutrients. They are used to make a variety of foods such as bread, pasta, and breakfast cereals. Triticum species are also known as "wheat" in layman's terms.

Phloroglucinol is not strictly a medical term, but it is used in medicine and pharmacology. Phloroglucinol is an aromatic organic compound with the formula C6H6(OH)3. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents.

In a medical context, phloroglucinol is most commonly used as a smooth muscle relaxant. It is often found in over-the-counter medications used to treat gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal cramps, spasms, and pain. Phloroglucinol works by relaxing the smooth muscles of the digestive tract, which can help to reduce spasms and relieve pain.

Phloroglucinol is also used in some countries as a treatment for kidney stones. It is believed to help to relax the ureter, the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder, making it easier to pass small kidney stones. However, its effectiveness for this use is not well established, and it is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this purpose.

It's important to note that phloroglucinol should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and interact with other medications.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Acetylene is defined as a colorless, highly flammable gas with a distinctive odor, having the chemical formula C2H2. It is the simplest and lightest hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are bonded together by a triple bond. Acetylene is used as a fuel in welding and cutting torches, and it can also be converted into other chemicals, such as vinyl acetate and acetic acid. In medical terms, acetylene is not a substance that is commonly used or discussed.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

"Atriplex" is a genus of plants that belongs to the family Chenopodiaceae. It includes several species commonly known as saltbushes or orache. These plants are native to various parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. They are often found in salty or alkaline soils and have a tolerance for drought conditions. Some species of Atriplex are used for food, medicine, or as ornamental plants. However, I am not aware of any specific medical definition associated with the term "Atriplex." If you have more context or information about how this term is being used in a medical sense, I would be happy to help further!

"Herbaspirillum" is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in the roots and stems of various plants. They are capable of fixing nitrogen, which can benefit the growth of the host plant. These bacteria are Gram-negative, motile rods that can be curved or spiraled in shape. They are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow with or without oxygen. Some species of Herbaspirillum have been associated with plant diseases, but their exact role in the disease process is not always clear. Further research is needed to fully understand the interactions between these bacteria and their host plants.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

... gen. nov. and two species, Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck) comb. nov. and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov". ... Azospirillum are gram-negative, do not form spores, and have a slightly-twisted oblong-rod shape. Azospirillum have at least ... Azospirillum promote plant growth through a variety of mechanisms. Many Azospirillum excrete plant hormones that alter how the ... Azospirillum bacteria can promote plant growth. The genus Azospirillum belongs in the alpha-Proteobacteria class of bacteria. ...
Azospirillum gen. nov. and two species, Azospirillum lipoferum(Beijerinck) comb. nov. and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov". ... "Azospirillum brasilense" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Azospirillum brasilense at BacDive - the Bacterial ... An isolate from the genus Azospirillum was isolated from nitrogen poor soils in the Netherlands in 1925, however the species A ... Azospirillum brasilense is a well studied, nitrogen-fixing (diazotroph), genetically tractable, Gram-negative, alpha- ...
ISBN 0-387-25495-1. "Azospirillum oryzae" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Azospirillum oryzae at BacDive - the ... Azospirillum oryzae is a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with the roots of Oryza sativa. Its type strain is ... "Wheat root colonization and nitrogenase activity by Azospirillum isolates from crop plants in Korea." Canadian Journal of ... Hartmann, Anton; Baldani, Jose Ivo (2006). "The Genus Azospirillum". The Prokaryotes: 115-140. doi:10.1007/0-387-30745-1_6. ...
"Azospirillum canadense" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Azospirillum canadense at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Azospirillum canadense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from corn rhizospheres. Its type strain is DS2T (=NCCB 100108T = ... "Variabilidad genética de aislamientos no-típicos de Azospirillum brasilense por análisis PCR-RFLP del ADN 16S ribosomal." ... LMG 23617T). Mehnaz, S.; Weselowski, B.; Lazarovits, G. (2007). "Azospirillum canadense sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium ...
ISBN 0-387-25495-1. "Azospirillum doebereinerae" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Azospirillum doebereinerae at ... Azospirillum doebereinerae is a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with the roots of Miscanthus species. Its type ... "Wheat root colonization and nitrogenase activity by Azospirillum isolates from crop plants in Korea." Canadian Journal of ... Hartmann, Anton; Baldani, Jose Ivo (2006). "The Genus Azospirillum". The Prokaryotes: 115-140. doi:10.1007/0-387-30745-1_6. ...
"Azospirillum halopraeferens" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Azospirillum halopraeferens at BacDive - the ... "Root-surface colonization of black mangrove seedlings by Azospirillum halopraeferens and Azospirillum brasilense in seawater". ... Azospirillum halopraeferens is a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with the roots of Diplachne fusca and black ... Reinhold, B.; Hurek, T.; Fendrik, I.; Pot, B.; Gillis, M.; Kersters, K.; Thielemans, S.; De Ley, J. (1987). "Azospirillum ...
Azospirillum gen. nov. and two species, Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck) comb. nov. and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov". ... Azospirillum lipoferum is a species of microaerophilic, gram-negative, rod-shaped, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. They are currently ... "Azospirillum lipoferum". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved June 7, 2021. Steenhoudt, O ... Mehmood, Tahir; Li, Guihua; Anjum, Tehmina; Akram, Waheed (2021-01-01). "Azospirillum lipoferum strain AL-3 reduces early ...
Azospirillum). These organisms have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen to bioavailable forms that can be taken up by ...
One example of this is the nitrogen-fixing and heavy oil-degrading bacterium Azospirillum oleiclasticum, which was isolated ... "Azospirillum oleiclasticum sp. nov, a nitrogen-fixing and heavy oil degrading bacterium isolated from an oil production mixture ...
1995). "Selection of Azospirillum spp. and Herbaspirillum seropedicae strains to inoculate rice and maize plants". ...
induced by Azospirillum brasilense: II. Heterotrophic conditions". Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 51 (5): 300-309. doi: ... when co-immobilized in alginate beads with the microalgae-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense". Canadian Journal ... Chlorella vulgaris when coimmobilized and cocultured in alginate beads with the plant-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum ...
December 2011). Richardson PM (ed.). "Azospirillum genomes reveal transition of bacteria from aquatic to terrestrial ... Various Azospirillum species possess seven replicons; A. lipoferum, for instance, has one bacterial chromosome, five chromids, ...
Her favorite bacterium is Azospirillum brasilense. Discovery and engineering of plant chemistry, 2017 "Elizabeth Sattely, PhD ...
For non-leguminous crops, Azospirillum has been demonstrated to be beneficial in some cases for nitrogen fixation and plant ... Khammas, K. M. & Kaiser, P. (1992) Pectin decomposition and associated nitrogen fixation by mixed cultures of Azospirillum and ... Bashan, Y., Holguin, G. & E., D.-B. L. (2004) Azospirillum-plant relationships: physiological, molecular, agricultural, and ... Lippi, D., Cacciari, I., Pietrosanti, T. & Pietrosanti, W. (1992) Interactions between Azospirillum and Arthrobacter in ...
2005). "A survey of environmental and biological factors (Azospirillum spp., Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Pseudomonas aurantiaca) ...
December 2011). Richardson PM (ed.). "Azospirillum genomes reveal transition of bacteria from aquatic to terrestrial ...
Azospirillum inoculations are recommended mainly for sorghum, millets, maize, sugarcane and wheat. Blue green algae belonging ...
1985). Azospirillum III Genetics · Physiology · Ecology Proceedings of the Third Bayreuth Azospirillum Workshop. Berlin, ...
However, further studies found that R. fauriae was a strain of Azospirillum brasilense, and did not belong in the genus ... 1998 as a later heterotypic synonym of Azospirillum brasilense Tarrand et al. 1979. International Journal of Systematic and ...
Fungal mycorrhizal and Azospirillum bacterial soil amendments have gained popularity in recent years. Since the 1970s, pumpkin ...
"Isolation and characterization of Azotobacter and Azospirillum strains from the sugarcane rhizosphere" (PDF). Plant and Soil. ...
Examples of organisms that do this are rhizobia and Frankia (in symbiosis) and Azospirillum. All diazotrophs contain iron- ...
Actinomyces and Azospirillum produce growth hormones that increase root growth and uptake of nutrients. While many of these ...
Azospirillum fluorescens, and Azospirillum lipoferum and notable nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes includes ... The dominant species found in the rhizosphere is a microbe from the genus Azospirillum.[failed verification] Endophytic ...
"Bacterial chemotactic motility is important for the initiation of wheat root colonization by Azospirillum brasilense". ...
In addition to nitrogen fixation, Azospirillum species promote plant growth through production of growth phytohormones (auxins ... Steenhoudt O, Vanderleyden J (October 2000). "Azospirillum, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium closely associated with ...
Holguin G, Bashan Y (December 1996). "Nitrogen-fixation by Azospirillum brasilense Cd is promoted when co-cultured with a ... Bacteria that have been shown to be beneficial and form biofilms include Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Azospirillum. Biofilms in ...
El-Shanshoury, A. R. (September 1995). "Interactions of Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense and Streptomyces ...
"Impact of free-living diazotrophs, Azospirillum lipoferum and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, on growth and nitrogen ... Mehnaz S, Lazarovits G (2006). "Inoculation effects of Pseudomonas putida, Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, and Azospirillum ...
Her early work includes studies of Azospirillum and other bacteria that could be useful to Brazilian soil. She later played an ...
Azospirillum gen. nov. and two species, Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck) comb. nov. and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov". ... Azospirillum are gram-negative, do not form spores, and have a slightly-twisted oblong-rod shape. Azospirillum have at least ... Azospirillum promote plant growth through a variety of mechanisms. Many Azospirillum excrete plant hormones that alter how the ... Azospirillum bacteria can promote plant growth. The genus Azospirillum belongs in the alpha-Proteobacteria class of bacteria. ...
Azospirillum Biofertilizer Buy Online At Best Price In India. We Have Top Brands Of Biofertilizers Available At Our Store COD ... Azospirillum is a bio fertilizer based on nitrogen fixing bacteria.. *It helps plants in the intake of atmospheric nitrogen ... Azospirillum helps in improving plant vigor and soil health.. *It enhances root propagation by releasing growth promoting ...
Em Azospirillum brasilense os genes responsáveis pela produção do cofator FeMo, nifE e nifN, estão organizados em um único ...
Protein AZOBR_RS31230 in Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. Annotation: FitnessBrowser__azobra:AZOBR_RS31230 ...
Enter the following information to request a copy for the following item: Complementación de la mutante ΔhkhB de Azospirillum ...
Azospirillum converts atmospheric nitrogen through the process of biological nitrogen fixation into ammonium which can be ... In addition to this, Azospirillum produces plant growth promoting substances like vitamins and phytohormones which influence ... Azospirillum is an associative nitrogen fixing proteobacteria that fixes atmospheric nitrogen in loose association with plant ... Azospirillum - Nitrogen Fixation Organic Bio Fertilizer (1 Kg). Azospirillum is an associative nitrogen fixing proteobacteria ...
Biological response of Azospirillum spp. to different types of stress. Respuesta biológica de aislados de Azospirillum spp. ... Azospirillum is one of the most studied free-living rhizobacteria currently of great agricultural interest because of its ... The results revealed that the isolates (C2, C3 and C4) of Azospirillum spp. Grow in greater abundance at temperatures between ... The present research aimed at the biological response of Azospirillum spp. facing different types of stress. For this purpose, ...
Voltar aos Detalhes do Artigo Inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen doses in maize for grain production Baixar ...
Physiological quality of maize seeds treated with biostimulant, liquid fertilizer and Azospirillum brasilense.. ... liquid fertilizer and Azospirillum. The biostimulant, liquid fertilizer and Azospirilum. either on their own or in combinations ... quality of seeds of two maize cultivars treated in isolation and in association with an inoculant based on Azospirillum ...
Azospirillum sp.) are known as well. Many of these organisms have been formulated into biofertilizers and are commercially ...
keywords = "Aggregation, Azospirillum, Flocculation, cDNA-AFLP, flcA",. author = "Angel Valverde and Yaacov Okon and Saul ... cDNA-AFLP reveals differentially expressed genes related to cell aggregation of Azospirillum brasilense. In: FEMS Microbiology ... Dive into the research topics of cDNA-AFLP reveals differentially expressed genes related to cell aggregation of Azospirillum ... cDNA-AFLP reveals differentially expressed genes related to cell aggregation of Azospirillum brasilense. FEMS Microbiology ...
In this study, we grew two corn hybrids that differ for their response to Azospirillum, to investigate the effect of different ... Corn Responsiveness to Azospirillum: Accessing the Effect of Root Exudates on the Bacterial Growth and Its Ability to Fix ... a lower concentration of Azospirillum cells within the root tissues, a higher content of asparagine and glucose and a reduced ... The genotypes did not interfere in the ability of Azospirillum to colonize the substrate, but the metabolites released by the ...
Variation of secondary metabolite levels in maize seedling roots induced by inoculation with Azospirillum, Pseudomonas and ...
Using systemic inducing resistance agents Azospirillum brasilense, Trichoderma harzianum T-22 , and their mixture improved ... "The effect of immersing seedlings of capsicum annuum that infected with cucumber mosaic virus in suspensions of Azospirillum ... The effect of immersing seedlings of capsicum annuum that infected with cucumber mosaic virus in suspensions of Azospirillum ... Using systemic inducing resistance agents Azospirillum brasilense, Trichoderma harzianum T-22 , and their mixture improved ...
Pseudomonas Phl production ability resulted in lower Azospirillum cell numbers per root system (based on colony counts) and ... Here, the effects of synthetic Phl and Phl+ Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 on Azospirillum brasilense phytostimulators were ... restricted microscale root colonization of neighbouring Azospirillum cells (based on confocal microscopy), regardless of the A ... Pseudomonas Phl production ability resulted in lower Azospirillum cell numbers per root system (based on colony counts) and ...
Finally, co-inoculation with Azospirillum and other microorganisms is one of the major frontiers of Azospirillum technology and ... A plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (Azospirillum brasilense strain Az) and a biocontrol fungus (Trichoderma harzianum ... coimmobilization, alginate, Trichoderma harzianum, Azospirillum brasilense, enzyme production, nitrogen fixation, plant growth ... Immobilized and Coimmobilized Inoculants of Trichoderma harzianum and Azospirillum brasilense and Their Possible Role in Growth ...
and Azospirillum brasilense: a new biotechnological tool to improve yield and sustainability. Am. J. Plant Sci. 6, 811-817. doi ... and Azospirillum brasilense or treated with A. brasilense exudates. Biol. Fertil. Soils 56, 537-549. doi: 10.1007/s00374-020- ... 2015). Co-inoculation of soybean with Bradyrhizobium and Azospirillum promotes early nodulation. Am. J. Plant Sci. 6, 1641-1649 ... Santos, M. S., Nogueira, M. A., and Hungria, M. (2021). Outstanding impact of Azospirillum brasilense strains ab-V5 and ab-V6 ...
Azospirillum sp., endophytic microorganisms, arbuscular mycorrhiza, Chaetomium sp., and bioactive secondary metabolites in ...
Azospirillum sp. are plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) that increase grain yield in cereals and other species via growth ... Azospirillum brasilense Sp 245 produces ABA in chemically-defined culture medium and increases ABA content in arabidopsis ... These results contribute to explain, at least to some extent, the beneficial effects of Azospirillum sp. previously found in ...
Microbe of the episode: Azospirillum brasilense. News discussed. Using bacteria to protect roads from deicer deterioration ...
... crop yield and output quality in response to the different fertilization systems and the inoculation with Azospirillum ... crop yield and output quality in response to the different fertilization systems and the inoculation with Azospirillum ... Bashan, Y., and Levanony, H. (1990). Current status of Azospirillum inoculation technology: Azospirillum as a challenge for ... representatives of the Azospirillum genus have been studied in great detail. The stimulating effect of Azospirillum sp. on ...
Azospirillum canadense sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from corn rhizosphere. S Mehnaz, B Weselowski, G ... Inoculation Effects of Pseudomonas putida, Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, and Azospirillum lipoferum on Corn Plant Growth ...
Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, VAM, Others), By Application (Seed Treatment, Soil Treatment, Others), By Crop Type ( ...
Determination of Azospirillum spp.. CEN/TS 17714:2022. Plant biostimulants. Determination of microorganisms concentration ...
1.25 x 108 CFU/g each of:Azospirillum amazonense, Azospirillum lipoferum. 6 x 107 CFU/g each of:Bacillus firmus, Bacillus ...
Azospirillum and Azolla; efficiency of the process; rhizosphere and ecology; legumes. The price per volume is: $19 + $1 postage ...
AZOSPIRILLUM IV: GENETICS, PHYSIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, pp. 10-15, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris, Tokio: Springer-Verlag. ... R. Fani; C. Di Serio; G. Damiani; C. Bandi; C. Vernesi; A. Grifoni; M. Bazzicalupo (1993). Phylogeny of the genus Azospirillum ... M. Bazzicalupo; R. Fani; E. Gallori; E. Luzi; L. Turbanti (1985). The histidine operon of Azospirillum brasilense. In: ATTI A.G ... P. Liò; M. Bazzicalupo; A. Grifoni; E. Mori; R. Fani (1995). Cloning and analysis of an Azospirillum brasilense iteron and ...
  • Due to this discovery, Spirillum lipoferum was reclassified in 1978 as Azospirillum lipoferum by Jeffery Tarrand, Noel Krieg, and Döbereiner, who also added Azospirillum brasilense to the genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the remarkable plant growth-promotion properties, less than half of Azospirillum species have the genome sequenced: A. brasilense, A. thiophilum, A. lipoferum, A. oryzae, A. palustre, A. doebereinerae, A. halopraeferens and several undescribed Azospirillum sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • When accessing a phylogenetic tree with all Azospirillum genomes, it is possible to identify two monophyletic groups, one harboring exclusively A. brasilense strains and another the remaining species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alice: Physiological quality of maize seeds treated with biostimulant, liquid fertilizer and Azospirillum brasilense. (embrapa.br)
  • This work verified the physiological quality of seeds of two maize cultivars treated in isolation and in association with an inoculant based on Azospirillum brasilense, biostimulants and a liquid fertilizer. (embrapa.br)
  • The response regulatory gene flcA controls the differentiation process of Azospirillum brasilense from vegetative state to cyst-like forms, both in culture and in association with plants. (huji.ac.il)
  • This work demonstrates the usefulness of the cDNA-AFLP approach to reveal genes that are differentially expressed during aggregation in Azospirillum brasilense and provides insights into the aggregation process of this bacterium. (huji.ac.il)
  • Using systemic inducing resistance agents Azospirillum brasilense, Trichoderma harzianum T-22 , and their mixture improved pepper vegetative parameters. (iraqjournals.com)
  • Here, the effects of synthetic Phl and Phl+ Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 on Azospirillum brasilense phytostimulators were investigated. (hal.science)
  • Pseudomonas Phl production ability resulted in lower Azospirillum cell numbers per root system (based on colony counts) and restricted microscale root colonization of neighbouring Azospirillum cells (based on confocal microscopy), regardless of the A. brasilense strain used. (hal.science)
  • A plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium ( Azospirillum brasilense strain Az) and a biocontrol fungus ( Trichoderma harzianum strain T24) have been evaluated for their individual and combined production of hydrolytic enzymes, nitrogen fixation and their possible role in growth promotion of tomato seedlings. (com.hr)
  • Azospirillum brasilense Cd to sodium chloride stress. (cdc.gov)
  • The study aim was to evaluate the potential nitrogen fixation and denitrification in the rhizosphere soil of potato plants, crop yield and output quality in response to the different fertilization systems and the inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense 410. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enhanced tomato seedling growth after the co-inoculation could be due to the synergistic effect of both Trichoderma and Azospirillum . (com.hr)
  • Finally, co-inoculation with Azospirillum and other microorganisms is one of the major frontiers of Azospirillum technology and perhaps the main area for future applications. (com.hr)
  • Azospirillum is a bio fertilizer based on nitrogen fixing bacteria. (bighaat.com)
  • The cultivar P30F53YH had seeds with better physiological quality compared with the cultivar P30F53 when treated with biostimulants, liquid fertilizer and Azospirillum. (embrapa.br)
  • Description: Azospirillum is a bio fertilizer based on nitrogen fixing bacteria.It helps plants in the intake of atmospheric nitrogen that is ess. (krishibazaar.in)
  • Azospirillum bacteria can promote plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Azospirillum belongs in the alpha-Proteobacteria class of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plants' immune systems can also be primed by Azospirillum to resist attack by pathogens, a process known as induced systemic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 2020, twenty-one species of Azospirillum had been described, most of which had been discovered after the year 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 113 species of plants in 35 different plant families have been documented to have benefited from association with a species of Azospirillum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum genus harbor over than 20 described species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum is an associative nitrogen fixing proteobacteria that fixes atmospheric nitrogen in loose association with plant roots, for all plant species. (naviisha.com)
  • In 2009, the first commercial inoculants containing Azospirillum came on the market, and by 2018, over 3 million doses were applied annually to crops by farmers, mainly in South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to this, Azospirillum produces plant growth promoting substances like vitamins and phytohormones which influence plant growth especially root development to a large extent. (naviisha.com)
  • Azospirillum is one of the most studied free-living rhizobacteria currently of great agricultural interest because of its ability to bind biological nitrogen and produce phytohormones. (edu.cu)
  • Azospirillum converts atmospheric nitrogen through the process of biological nitrogen fixation into ammonium which can be easily absorbed by the plant roots and provides 30-50% of plant nitrogen requirements. (naviisha.com)
  • However, how much nitrogen Azospirillum contribute to crop plants via biological fixation is debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological response of Azospirillum spp. (edu.cu)
  • The present research aimed at the biological response of Azospirillum spp. (edu.cu)
  • Azospirillum are found in freshwater and soil habitats, especially in close relationships with plant roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum helps in improving plant vigor and soil health. (bighaat.com)
  • Growth of Azospirillum is possible between 5 °C and 42 °C and in substrates with a pH of 5 to 9, with optimal growth occurring around 30 °C and 7 pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to vascular plants, the growth of the algae Chlorella vulgaris was positively affected by the presence of Azospirillum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1970s, Azospirillum strains have been researched for their effects in improving agricultural yields and improving growth of wild plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum promote plant growth through a variety of mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant growth can also be promoted indirectly by Azospirillum reducing plant disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results contribute to explain, at least to some extent, the beneficial effects of Azospirillum sp. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • These results have biotechnological applicability and are of great importance when defining and controlling the mass production conditions of Azospirillum spp. (edu.cu)
  • Azospirillum are aerobic, but many can also function as microaerobic diazotrophs, meaning, under low oxygen conditions, they can change inert nitrogen from the air into biologically useable forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to these changes, Azospirillum can also alter the forms of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to make them more available to plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum are gram-negative, do not form spores, and have a slightly-twisted oblong-rod shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum also make antioxidants that protect the plant roots from stresses due to drought and flooding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many Azospirillum excrete plant hormones that alter how the roots of plants grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum lipoferum" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Azospirillum lipoferum" by people in this website by year, and whether "Azospirillum lipoferum" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Azospirillum lipoferum" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Azospirillum is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, non-fermentative and nitrogen-fixing bacterial genus from the family of Rhodospirillaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum genus harbor over than 20 described species. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the type species of the genus AZOSPIRILLUM. (umassmed.edu)
  • Furthermore, RvD 2 is positively correlated with order Bacteroidetes VC2.1 Bac22 , 5-HETE is positively correlated with genus Azospirillum , and 6t,12e-LTB 4 is positively correlated with genus Cupriavidus . (frontiersin.org)
  • In 2009, the first commercial inoculants containing Azospirillum came on the market, and by 2018, over 3 million doses were applied annually to crops by farmers, mainly in South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum are aerobic, but many can also function as microaerobic diazotrophs, meaning, under low oxygen conditions, they can change inert nitrogen from the air into biologically useable forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbiologists use nitrogen-free semi-solid media to isolate Azospirillum from samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to these changes, Azospirillum can also alter the forms of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to make them more available to plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, how much nitrogen Azospirillum contribute to crop plants via biological fixation is debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum Biofertilizer is a nitrogen fixing biofertilizer. (manidharmabiotech.online)
  • In order to investige the effect of nitrogen and Azospirillum biological fertilizers on the growth and yield of an Iranian bread wheat ( Roshan cultivar) this study was carried out using a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at a field in Jozan region, Isfahan, Iran in 2013. (ac.ir)
  • Since the 1970s, Azospirillum strains have been researched for their effects in improving agricultural yields and improving growth of wild plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulaci n de la Bios ntesis de Factores de Nodulaci n por Rhizobium Tropici Ciat899: Implicaciones de su Aplicaci n como Inoculante Molecular en Leguminosas y Cereales. (us.es)
  • Components of production and yield of soybean inoculated with Bradyrhizobium and Azospirillum. (uel.br)
  • In addition to vascular plants, the growth of the algae Chlorella vulgaris was positively affected by the presence of Azospirillum. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is consistent with the genetic diversity that Azospirillum has shown in sugarcane isolates. (techscience.com)
  • Azospirillum are found in freshwater and soil habitats, especially in close relationships with plant roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum also make antioxidants that protect the plant roots from stresses due to drought and flooding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many Azospirillum excrete plant hormones that alter how the roots of plants grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azospirillum competes with pathogens on the roots for space and for trace nutrients such as iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various associations between roots and microorganism can increase nutrient uptake by plants in nutrient poor environments, such as associations with mycorrhiza, rhizobia and Azospirillum . (soilhealth.com)
  • Although Azospirillum did not impose remarkable gain in any observed plant traits, future studies should focus on mechanistically understanding whether Azospirillum can naturalize in temperate region soils. (sdstate.edu)