A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
Surgical anastomosis or fistulization of the spermatic ducts to restore fertility in a previously vasectomized male.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.
Abnormal genetic constitution in males characterized by an extra Y chromosome.
A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A type of defective gonadal development in patients with a wide spectrum of chromosomal mosaic variants. Their karyotypes are of partial sex chromosome monosomy resulting from an absence or an abnormal second sex chromosome (X or Y). Karyotypes include 45,X/46,XX; 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX; 46,XXp-; 45,X/46,XY; 45,X/47,XYY; 46,XYpi; etc. The spectrum of phenotypes may range from phenotypic female to phenotypic male including variations in gonads and internal and external genitalia, depending on the ratio in each gonad of 45,X primordial germ cells to those with normal 46,XX or 46,XY constitution.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A variation from the normal set of chromosomes characteristic of a species.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.
Surgical construction of an artificial opening (stoma) for external fistulization of a duct or vessel by insertion of a tube with or without a supportive stent.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.

Constitutional mosaic trisomy 21 and azoospermia: a case report. (1/302)

Constitutional full trisomy 21 is a common disorder in which abnormal spermatogenesis has been previously described. However, constitutional mosaic trisomy 21 in an otherwise normal but infertile male has not been explored. We report a case with low level mosaic trisomy 21 in a non-syndrome but azoospermic patient. We also propose that the patient's azoospermia may be related to the constitutional mosaic trisomy 21 and thus resulting in a late onset of testicular failure.  (+info)

Mutations in the chromosome pairing gene FKBP6 are not a common cause of non-obstructive azoospermia. (2/302)

Although it is generally thought that spermatogenic failure has a genetic background, to date only a limited percentage of men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are diagnosed with a genetic defect. The only common and well-established genetic causes of NOA in humans are numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities and Y-chromosome deletions. In addition, some infrequent mutations have been identified in the ubiquitin-specific protease 9, Y-linked (USP9Y) and the synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3) gene that cause azoospermia. FK506-binding protein 6 (Fkbp6) is a newly discovered component of the synaptonemal complex (SC), which is essential for proper chromosome pairing and meiotic division. A null mutation of the Fkbp6 gene causes azoospermia in mice as well as in rats. We tested the hypothesis whether mutations in this gene can also cause azoospermia in humans. We performed a mutation screen in 51 men with NOA through direct sequencing methods. No homozygous mutations were identified. Two heterozygous mutations (T173T and R183C) were identified, which are likely to disrupt FKBP6 protein function. However, both mutations were also found in a group of 218 normospermic controls indicating that one FKBP6 allele appears to be sufficient for normal spermatogenesis. In conclusion, our results suggest that genetic defects in FKBP6 can be excluded as a common cause of azoospermia in humans.  (+info)

Decrease of both stem cell factor and clusterin mRNA levels in testicular biopsies of azoospermic patients with constitutive or idiopathic but not acquired spermatogenic failure. (3/302)

BACKGROUND: Sertoli cells nurse germ cells during spermatogenesis, and alterations of Sertoli cell functions have been suggested in cases of spermatogenic failures. METHODS: In this work, we measured stem cell factor (SCF) and clusterin mRNA levels, by quantitative RT-PCR, in RNA extracted from testicular biopsies of 49 azoospermic patients classified according to testicular histology as having normal spermatogenesis or spermatogenic failure. RESULTS: When related to the percentage of Sertoli cells counted on a histological section of a neighbouring tissue sample, SCF and clusterin mRNA levels were significantly lower in the 'spermatogenic failure' group compared with the control group (P = 0.0297 and P = 0.0043, respectively). These levels were also significantly lower in the cases of 'constitutive' (cryptorchidism and Yq microdeletion) and 'idiopathic' spermatogenic failures when compared with the control group; conversely, they were not significantly decreased in the group with 'acquired spermatogenic failure' (orchitis, testicular traumatism, chemoradiotherapy and varicocele). CONCLUSIONS: These data further demonstrate an alteration of Sertoli cell functions in some human spermatogenic failures and suggest that a lack of Sertoli cell maturation may be involved in cases of constitutive or idiopathic spermatogenic failures.  (+info)

Association of spermatogenic failure with decreased CDC25A expression in infertile men. (4/302)

BACKGROUND: DAZ gene family is crucial for human spermatogenesis that requires the precise co-ordination of cell cycle events. CDC25A is recognized as the downstream substrate of DAZ gene family and is thought to function on the M-phase regulation of cell cycles. We investigated the expression profiles of CDC25A in the testes of infertile men and evaluated the relationship between CDC25A levels and testicular phenotype, clinical hormonal parameters and sperm retrieval results. METHODS: The protein and mRNA transcript levels of CDC25A in the testes of 40 azoospermic men were determined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time-PCR. CDC25A in human spermatozoa was investigated by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: The CDC25A protein was expressed mainly in spermatocyte, spermatid and spermatozoa. CDC25A transcript levels were significantly decreased (P = 0.0009) in patients with spermatogenic failure, especially in men with meiotic arrest and Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Significantly higher CDC25A transcript levels were detected in patients with successful sperm retrieval than in patients with failed sperm retrieval (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased CDC25A is associated with spermatogenic failure and failed sperm retrieval in infertile men. Further studies are necessary to explore the functional roles of CDC25A in human spermatozoa.  (+info)

Beta-endorphin in serum and seminal plasma in infertile men. (5/302)

AIM: To access beta-endorphin levels in serum as well as seminal plasma in different infertile male groups. METHODS: Beta-endorphin was estimated in the serum and seminal plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in 80 infertile men equally divided into four groups: non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), obstructive azoospermia (OA), congenital bilateral absent vas deferens (CBVAD) and asthenozoospermia. The results were compared to those of 20 normozoospermic proven fertile men. RESULTS: There was a decrease in the mean levels of beta-endorphin in the seminal plasma of all successive infertile groups (mean +/- SD: NOA 51.30 +/- 27.37, OA 51.88 +/- 9.47, CBAVD 20.36 +/- 13.39, asthenozoospermia 49.26 +/- 12.49 pg/mL, respectively) compared to the normozoospermic fertile control (87.23 +/- 29.55 pg/mL). This relation was not present in mean serum level of beta-endorphin between four infertile groups (51.09 +/- 14.71, 49.76 +/- 12.4, 33.96 +/- 7.2, 69.1 +/- 16.57 pg/mL, respectively) and the fertile control group (49.26 +/- 31.32 pg/mL). The CBVAD group showed the lowest seminal plasma mean level of beta-endorphin. Testicular contribution of seminal beta-endorphin was estimated to be approximately 40%. Seminal beta-endorphin showed significant correlation with the sperm concentration (r = 0.699, P = 0.0188) and nonsignificant correlation with its serum level (r = 0.375, P = 0.185) or with the sperm motility percentage (r = 0.470, P = 0.899). CONCLUSION: The estimation of beta-endorphin alone is not conclusive to evaluate male reproduction as there are many other opiates acting at the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis.  (+info)

Does PGD for aneuploidy screening change the selection of embryos derived from testicular sperm extraction in obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermic men? (6/302)

BACKGROUND: An increased incidence of aneuploid embryos has been recently described from azoospermic men. The aim of this study was to assess if embryo selection on day 5, based on morphological criteria, would be different from the selection based on PGD for aneuploidy screening (AS) in couples undergoing ICSI for male azoospermia. METHODS: Sixty-two cycles of testicular sperm extraction (TESE)-ICSI with PGD-AS were included in the analysis. Two embryologists, blinded to the PGD-AS results, retrospectively reviewed the available embryology data from day 5 embryos and selected one, two or three embryos to be transferred. These results were compared with the selected embryos based on PGD-AS. RESULTS: A total of 39 cycles from non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and 23 cycles from obstructive azoospermia (OA) were retrospectively analysed. If single embryo transfer (SET) had been performed, in 64.8% of the NOA cycles and 54.5% of the OA cycles, no difference in embryo choice would have occurred compared to PGD-AS and in 10.8 and 36.6% of the cycles, respectively, an aneuploid embryo would have been chosen. If double ET (DET) had been performed, in 72.9% of the NOA cycles and 86.5% of the OA cycles, no difference in embryo choice would have occurred compared to PGD-AS and in 2.7 and 4.5% of the cycles, respectively, an aneuploid embryo would have been chosen. If triple ET (TET) had been performed, the outcome would have been the same as for DET. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that under the terms of an SET policy, the performance of PGD-AS in azoospermia would result in a higher chance of success, as the possibility of selecting a euploid embryo is enhanced.  (+info)

Role of transrectal ultrasonography in the evaluation of azoospermic men with low-volume ejaculate. (7/302)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the incidence of distal ejaculatory system defects with transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) among patients evaluated for azoospermia. METHODS: Forty-two patients with low-volume ejaculate and azoospermia were evaluated by physical examination, serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone level determination, karyotyping, selective screening for cystic fibrosis mutations, and TRUS. RESULTS: On physical examination, in 29 patients (69%), either 1 (12 patients) or both (17 patients) of the vasa deferentia could not be palpated. In the group of 17 patients with bilateral involvement of the vasa deferentia, the ultrasonographic imaging universally showed bilateral absence or hypoplasia of the seminal vesicles with bilateral agenesis of the vasa deferentia and nonvisualization of both ejaculatory ducts. In the patients with a unilateral abnormality on physical examination, the ultrasonographic imaging showed absence of the ipsilateral seminal vesicle in 7 patients and the hypoplastic seminal vesicle in 5. In the group of 13 patients with normal physical examination findings, a variety of obstructive causes were diagnosed by TRUS examination. CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, TRUS appears to be a sensitive method for evaluating the anatomy of the distal ejaculatory system. Its safety and low costs make it a good alternative to the other invasive and expensive methods.  (+info)

Can inhibin-B predict the outcome of microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration in patients with suspected primary obstructive azoospermia. (8/302)

AIM: To evaluate whether inhibin-B can predict the outcome of a microsurgical epidymal sperm aspiration (MESA) procedure in patients with suspected primary obstructive azoospermia (OA) and if inhibin-B can replace testicular biopsy in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. METHODS: Inhibin-B levels and testicular biopsy scores were related to the outcome of MESA in 43 patients with suspected primary OA. MESA was considered to be successful when epididymal sperm could be identified during the procedure. RESULTS: Spermatozoa were present in the epididymal aspirate in 28 out of the 43 patients (65%). Inhibin-B values were not significantly different in patients with successful or unsuccessful MESA. The modified Johnsen score, however, was significantly lower in patients with unsuccessful MESA (P = 0.003). A rete testis obstruction or epididymal malfunctioning was found in 15% of patients with suspected primary OA, reflected by unsuccessful MESA despite normal inhibin-B levels and normal testicular histology. CONCLUSION: Inhibin-B cannot replace testicular biopsy as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with suspected primary OA. Testicular biopsy is useful in identifying patients with spermatogenic arrest, who might have normal inhibin-B values.  (+info)

Azoospermia is a medical condition where there is no measurable level of sperm in the semen. This means that during ejaculation, the seminal fluid does not contain any sperm cells. Azoospermia can be caused by various factors including problems with testicular function, obstruction of the genital tract, or hormonal imbalances. It is an important cause of male infertility and may require further medical evaluation and treatment to determine the underlying cause and explore potential options for fertility.

There are two types of azoospermia: obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia. Obstructive azoospermia is caused by blockages or obstructions in the genital tract that prevent sperm from being released into the semen, while non-obstructive azoospermia is due to problems with sperm production in the testicles.

In some cases, men with azoospermia may still be able to father children through assisted reproductive technologies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg for fertilization. However, this will depend on the underlying cause of the azoospermia and whether or not there are viable sperm available for extraction.

Oligospermia is a medical term used to describe a condition in which the semen contains a lower than normal number of sperm. Generally, a sperm count of less than 15 million sperm per milliliter (ml) of semen is considered to be below the normal range.

Oligospermia can make it more difficult for a couple to conceive naturally and may require medical intervention such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). The condition can result from various factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic abnormalities, varicocele, environmental factors, and certain medications.

It's important to note that oligospermia is not the same as azoospermia, which is a condition where there is no sperm present in the semen at all.

Sperm retrieval is a medical procedure that involves obtaining sperm from a male patient, usually for the purpose of assisted reproduction. This can be indicated in cases where the man has obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia (absence of sperm in the semen), ejaculatory dysfunction, or other conditions that prevent the successful collection of sperm through conventional means, such as masturbation.

There are several methods for sperm retrieval, including:

1. Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA): A procedure where a fine needle is inserted into the testicle to aspirate (or draw out) sperm.
2. Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA): Similar to TESA, but the needle is inserted into the epididymis, a small structure that stores and transports sperm from the testicle.
3. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA): A more invasive procedure where an incision is made in the scrotum to directly visualize the epididymis with a surgical microscope, allowing for the careful removal of sperm.
4. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE): Involves making a small incision in the testicle and removing a piece of tissue containing sperm-producing tubules. The tissue is then processed to extract viable sperm.
5. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (microTESE): A refined version of TESE, where a surgical microscope is used to identify and isolate individual seminiferous tubules containing sperm in men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

The retrieved sperm can then be used for various assisted reproductive techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to facilitate fertilization.

Male infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It is typically defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The causes of male infertility can be varied and include issues with sperm production, such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality, problems with sperm delivery, such as obstructions in the reproductive tract, or hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production. Other factors that may contribute to male infertility include genetic disorders, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions or treatments.

It is important to note that male infertility can often be treated or managed with medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A healthcare provider can help diagnose the underlying cause of male infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Human Y chromosomes are one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the X chromosome). They are found in the 23rd pair of human chromosomes and are significantly smaller than the X chromosome.

The Y chromosome is passed down from father to son through the paternal line, and it plays a crucial role in male sex determination. The SRY gene (sex-determining region Y) on the Y chromosome initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

In addition to the SRY gene, the human Y chromosome contains several other genes that are essential for sperm production and male fertility. However, the Y chromosome has a much lower gene density compared to other chromosomes, with only about 80 protein-coding genes, making it one of the most gene-poor chromosomes in the human genome.

Because of its small size and low gene density, the Y chromosome is particularly susceptible to genetic mutations and deletions, which can lead to various genetic disorders and male infertility. Nonetheless, the Y chromosome remains a critical component of human genetics and evolution, providing valuable insights into sex determination, inheritance patterns, and human diversity.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are produced in male organisms. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and involves several stages:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: This is the initial stage where diploid spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce more spermatogonia, some of which will differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis: The primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division to form haploid secondary spermatocytes, which then divide again to form haploid spermatids. This process results in the reduction of chromosome number from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
3. Spermiogenesis: The spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, undergoing morphological changes such as the formation of a head and tail. During this stage, most of the cytoplasm is discarded, resulting in highly compacted and streamlined sperm cells.
4. Spermation: The final stage where mature sperm are released from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis for further maturation and storage.

The entire process takes approximately 72-74 days in humans, with continuous production throughout adulthood.

Seminal plasma proteins are a group of proteins that are present in the seminal fluid, which is the liquid component of semen. These proteins originate primarily from the accessory sex glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands, and play various roles in the maintenance of sperm function and fertility.

Some of the key functions of seminal plasma proteins include:

1. Nutrition: Seminal plasma proteins provide energy sources and essential nutrients to support sperm survival and motility during their journey through the female reproductive tract.
2. Protection: These proteins help protect sperm from oxidative stress, immune attack, and other environmental factors that could negatively impact sperm function or viability.
3. Lubrication: Seminal plasma proteins contribute to the formation of a fluid medium that facilitates the ejaculation and transport of sperm through the female reproductive tract.
4. Coagulation and liquefaction: Some seminal plasma proteins are involved in the initial coagulation and subsequent liquefaction of semen, which helps ensure proper sperm release and distribution during ejaculation.
5. Interaction with female reproductive system: Seminal plasma proteins can interact with components of the female reproductive tract to modulate immune responses, promote implantation, and support early embryonic development.

Examples of seminal plasma proteins include prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP), and semenogelins. Abnormal levels or dysfunctions in these proteins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, such as infertility, prostatitis, and prostate cancer.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Sperm count, also known as sperm concentration, is the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. The World Health Organization (WHO) previously defined a normal sperm count as at least 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. However, more recent studies suggest that fertility may be affected even when sperm counts are slightly lower than this threshold. It's important to note that sperm count is just one factor among many that can influence male fertility. Other factors, such as sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move properly) and morphology (the shape of the sperm), also play crucial roles in successful conception.

Testicular diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the testicles, the male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. These diseases can affect either one or both testicles and may cause pain, swelling, or impact fertility. Here are some examples of testicular diseases:

1. Testicular cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the testicle. It is a relatively rare cancer but is highly treatable if detected early.
2. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency that occurs when the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicle, becomes twisted, cutting off the blood flow.
3. Epididymitis: An infection or inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube that stores and carries sperm from the testicle.
4. Orchitis: An infection or inflammation of the testicle itself. It can occur on its own or as a complication of mumps.
5. Hydrocele: A fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle, causing swelling.
6. Varicocele: Enlarged veins in the scrotum that can cause pain and affect fertility.
7. Inguinal hernia: A condition where a portion of the intestine or fat protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, often appearing as a bulge in the groin or scrotum.
8. Testicular trauma: Injury to the testicle, which can result from accidents, sports injuries, or other causes.
9. Undescended testicles: A condition where one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth.

It is essential for men to perform regular self-examinations to check for any unusual lumps, swelling, or pain in the testicles and seek medical attention if they notice any changes.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically used in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It involves the direct injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm of a mature egg (oocyte) to facilitate fertilization. This technique is often used when there are issues with male infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, to increase the chances of successful fertilization. The resulting embryos can then be transferred to the uterus in hopes of achieving a pregnancy.

Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSDs) related to sex chromosomes are conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. These disorders are caused by differences in the number or structure of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). Some examples of DSDs related to sex chromosomes include:

1. Turner Syndrome (45,X): This condition occurs when an individual has only one X chromosome instead of the typical pair. Affected individuals typically have female physical characteristics but may have short stature, webbed neck, and other features. They usually have underdeveloped ovaries and are unable to menstruate or bear children without medical intervention.

2. Klinefelter Syndrome (47,XXY): This condition occurs when an individual has an extra X chromosome, resulting in a total of 3 sex chromosomes (XXY). Affected individuals typically have male physical characteristics but may have reduced fertility, breast development, and other features.

3. Triple X Syndrome (47,XXX): This condition occurs when an individual has an extra X chromosome, resulting in a total of 3 sex chromosomes (XXX). Affected individuals typically have normal female physical characteristics but may have learning disabilities and other developmental delays.

4. Jacobs Syndrome (47,XYY): This condition occurs when an individual has an extra Y chromosome, resulting in a total of 3 sex chromosomes (XYY). Affected individuals typically have normal male physical characteristics but may have learning disabilities and other developmental delays.

5. Other variations such as 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or 46,XX/46,XY true hermaphroditism can also occur, leading to a range of physical and developmental characteristics that may not fit typical definitions of male or female.

It's important to note that individuals with DSDs should receive comprehensive medical care from a team of specialists who can provide individualized treatment plans based on their specific needs and circumstances.

Sex chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical abnormalities in the sex chromosomes, which are typically represented as X and Y chromosomes in humans. These aberrations can result in variations in the number of sex chromosomes, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), and Jacobs/XYY syndrome (47,XYY). They can also include structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of sex chromosome material.

Sex chromosome aberrations may lead to a range of phenotypic effects, including differences in physical characteristics, cognitive development, fertility, and susceptibility to certain health conditions. The manifestation and severity of these impacts can vary widely depending on the specific type and extent of the aberration, as well as individual genetic factors and environmental influences.

It is important to note that while sex chromosome aberrations may pose challenges and require medical management, they do not inherently define or limit a person's potential, identity, or worth. Comprehensive care, support, and education can help individuals with sex chromosome aberrations lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Klinefelter Syndrome: A genetic disorder in males, caused by the presence of one or more extra X chromosomes, typically resulting in XXY karyotype. It is characterized by small testes, infertility, gynecomastia (breast enlargement), tall stature, and often mild to moderate intellectual disability. The symptoms can vary greatly among individuals with Klinefelter Syndrome. Some men may not experience any significant health problems and may never be diagnosed, while others may have serious medical or developmental issues that require treatment. It is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, affecting about 1 in every 500-1,000 newborn males.

The Y chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans and many other animals, along with the X chromosome. The Y chromosome contains the genetic information that helps to determine an individual's sex as male. It is significantly smaller than the X chromosome and contains fewer genes.

The Y chromosome is present in males, who inherit it from their father. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, one inherited from each parent. The Y chromosome includes a gene called SRY (sex-determining region Y), which initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

It is worth noting that the Y chromosome has a relatively high rate of genetic mutation and degeneration compared to other chromosomes, leading to concerns about its long-term viability in human evolution. However, current evidence suggests that the Y chromosome has been stable for at least the past 25 million years.

Vasovasostomy is a surgical procedure that reconnects the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra, after they have been cut or blocked during a vasectomy. This allows for the restoration of fertility and the possibility of natural conception. The success rate of this procedure can vary depending on several factors, including the time since the vasectomy was performed and the skill of the surgeon.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Semen is a complex, whitish fluid that is released from the male reproductive system during ejaculation. It is produced by several glands, including the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands. Semen contains several components, including sperm (the male reproductive cells), as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Its primary function is to transport sperm through the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse, providing nutrients and aiding in the protection of the sperm as they travel toward the egg for fertilization.

A vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. It involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland, to prevent the release of sperm during ejaculation. This procedure is typically performed in an outpatient setting, using local anesthesia, and takes about 20-30 minutes. It is considered a highly effective form of birth control with a low risk of complications. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so additional protection such as condoms may still be necessary.

Reproductive techniques refer to various methods and procedures used to assist individuals or couples in achieving pregnancy, carrying a pregnancy to term, or preserving fertility. These techniques can be broadly categorized into assisted reproductive technology (ART) and fertility preservation.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes procedures such as:

1. In vitro fertilization (IVF): A process where an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish, and then the resulting embryo is transferred to a woman's uterus.
2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A procedure where a single sperm is directly injected into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
3. Embryo culture and cryopreservation: The process of growing embryos in a laboratory for a few days before freezing them for later use.
4. Donor gametes: Using eggs, sperm, or embryos from a known or anonymous donor to achieve pregnancy.
5. Gestational surrogacy: A method where a woman carries and gives birth to a baby for another individual or couple who cannot carry a pregnancy themselves.

Fertility preservation techniques include:

1. Sperm banking: The process of freezing and storing sperm for future use in artificial reproduction.
2. Egg (oocyte) freezing: A procedure where a woman's eggs are extracted, frozen, and stored for later use in fertility treatments.
3. Embryo freezing: The cryopreservation of embryos created through IVF for future use.
4. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: The freezing and storage of ovarian tissue to restore fertility after cancer treatment or other conditions that may affect fertility.
5. Testicular tissue cryopreservation: The collection and storage of testicular tissue in prepubertal boys undergoing cancer treatment to preserve their future fertility potential.

Contraceptive agents for males are substances or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy by reducing the likelihood of fertilization. These can include:

1. Barrier methods: Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides create a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the egg.
2. Hormonal methods: Testosterone and progestin hormone therapies can decrease sperm production and reduce fertility.
3. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for men: These are still in the experimental stage, but they involve placing a device in the male reproductive tract to prevent sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.
4. Withdrawal method: This involves the man withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, although this is not a highly reliable form of contraception.
5. Fertility awareness methods: These involve tracking the woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile period.
6. Sterilization: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks or cuts the vas deferens, preventing sperm from leaving the body. It is a permanent form of contraception for men.

It's important to note that no contraceptive method is 100% effective, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider to determine which option is best for them based on their personal needs, lifestyle, and medical history.

Spermatids are immature sperm cells that are produced during the process of spermatogenesis in the male testes. They are the product of the final stage of meiosis, where a diploid spermatocyte divides into four haploid spermatids. Each spermatid then undergoes a series of changes, including the development of a tail for motility and the condensation of its nucleus to form a head containing the genetic material. Once this process is complete, the spermatids are considered mature spermatozoa and are capable of fertilizing an egg.

Sequence Tagged Sites (STSs) are specific, defined DNA sequences that are mapped to a unique location in the human genome. They were developed as part of a physical mapping strategy for the Human Genome Project and serve as landmarks for identifying and locating genetic markers, genes, and other features within the genome. STSs are typically short (around 200-500 base pairs) and contain unique sequences that can be amplified by PCR, allowing for their detection and identification in DNA samples. The use of STSs enables researchers to construct physical maps of large genomes with high resolution and accuracy, facilitating the study of genome organization, variation, and function.

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move actively and effectively through the female reproductive tract towards the egg for fertilization. It is typically measured as the percentage of moving sperm in a sample, and their progressiveness or velocity. Normal human sperm motility is generally defined as forward progression of at least 25 micrometers per second, with at least 50% of sperm showing progressive motility. Reduced sperm motility, also known as asthenozoospermia, can negatively impact fertility and reproductive outcomes.

The epididymis is a tightly coiled tube located on the upper and posterior portion of the testicle that serves as the site for sperm maturation and storage. It is an essential component of the male reproductive system. The epididymis can be divided into three parts: the head (where newly produced sperm enter from the testicle), the body, and the tail (where mature sperm exit and are stored). Any abnormalities or inflammation in the epididymis may lead to discomfort, pain, or infertility.

Semen analysis is a laboratory test that evaluates various characteristics of semen, the fluid that is released during ejaculation. These characteristics include:

1. Volume: The amount of semen produced in one ejaculation.
2. Liquefaction time: The time it takes for the semen to change from a gel-like consistency to a liquid state.
3. pH: The acidity or alkalinity of the semen.
4. Sperm concentration: The number of sperm present in each milliliter of semen.
5. Total sperm count: The total number of sperm in the entire ejaculate.
6. Motility: The percentage of sperm that are moving and their forward progression.
7. Morphology: The shape and size of the sperm.
8. Vitality: The percentage of live sperm in the sample.
9. White blood cell count: The presence of white blood cells, which can indicate an infection.

Semen analysis is often used to help diagnose male infertility, as well as to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for infertility. It may also be used to detect abnormalities in the reproductive system or to evaluate the effects of certain medications on sperm production and quality.

In medical terms, suction refers to the process of creating and maintaining a partial vacuum in order to remove fluids or gases from a body cavity or wound. This is typically accomplished using specialized medical equipment such as a suction machine, which uses a pump to create the vacuum, and a variety of different suction tips or catheters that can be inserted into the area being treated.

Suction is used in a wide range of medical procedures and treatments, including wound care, surgical procedures, respiratory therapy, and diagnostic tests. It can help to remove excess fluids such as blood or pus from a wound, clear secretions from the airways during mechanical ventilation, or provide a means of visualizing internal structures during endoscopic procedures.

It is important to use proper technique when performing suctioning, as excessive or improperly applied suction can cause tissue damage or bleeding. Medical professionals are trained in the safe and effective use of suction equipment and techniques to minimize risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

The vas deferens is a muscular tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra during ejaculation in males. It is a part of the male reproductive system and is often targeted in surgical procedures like vasectomy, which is a form of permanent birth control.

XYY karyotype is a chromosomal abnormality where an individual's cells have one extra Y chromosome, resulting in a 47, XYY pattern of sex chromosomes. This condition is also known as Jacob's syndrome or XYY syndrome. Typically, human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, with one pair being the sex chromosomes (XX in females and XY in males). In an XYY karyotype, there are two Y chromosomes and one X chromosome, which can lead to developmental differences and various health concerns.

Individuals with XYY karyotype may have a higher risk of developing learning disabilities, speech and language delays, and behavioral issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders. However, many people with XYY karyotype do not experience significant health problems and can lead typical lives with appropriate support and interventions.

It is important to note that an XYY karyotype does not typically affect physical characteristics, and most individuals with this condition are phenotypically male. However, they may be taller than their peers due to the influence of the extra Y chromosome on growth hormones.

A varicocele is defined as an abnormal dilation and tortuosity (twisting or coiling) of the pampiniform plexus, which is a network of veins that surrounds the spermatic cord in the scrotum. This condition is most commonly found on the left side, and it's more prevalent in men of reproductive age.

The dilation of these veins can cause a decrease in the temperature around the testicle, leading to impaired sperm production, reduced sperm quality, and, in some cases, pain or discomfort. Varicoceles are often asymptomatic but may present as a scrotal mass, discomfort, or infertility issues. In severe cases or when accompanied by symptoms, treatment options include surgical ligation (tying off) or embolization of the affected veins to improve testicular function and alleviate symptoms.

Tissue and organ harvesting is the surgical removal of healthy tissues or organs from a living or deceased donor for the purpose of transplantation into another person in need of a transplant. This procedure is performed with great care, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines, to ensure the safety and well-being of both the donor and the recipient.

In the case of living donors, the harvested tissue or organ is typically removed from a site that can be safely spared, such as a kidney, a portion of the liver, or a segment of the lung. The donor must undergo extensive medical evaluation to ensure they are physically and psychologically suitable for the procedure.

For deceased donors, tissue and organ harvesting is performed in a manner that respects their wishes and those of their family, as well as adheres to legal and ethical requirements. Organs and tissues must be recovered promptly after death to maintain their viability for transplantation.

Tissue and organ harvesting is an essential component of the transplant process, allowing individuals with terminal illnesses or severe injuries to receive life-saving or life-enhancing treatments. It is a complex and highly regulated medical practice that requires specialized training, expertise, and coordination among healthcare professionals, donor families, and recipients.

Ejaculation is the discharge of semen, typically accompanied by orgasm, during sexual activity. It occurs when the male reproductive system releases semen from the penis. This process is usually brought on by sexual arousal and stimulation, which cause the sperm-carrying vas deferens to contract and push the semen into the urethra, from where it is expelled through the tip of the penis.

There are two types of ejaculation:

1. **Reflex ejaculation**: This occurs when there is a high level of sexual excitement or stimulation, leading to an involuntary and automatic response.
2. **Premature ejaculation**: This refers to the condition where ejaculation happens too quickly, often before or shortly after penetration, causing distress and affecting sexual satisfaction for both partners.

It is essential to understand that a healthy male can experience variations in the timing of ejaculation throughout their life, influenced by factors such as age, stress levels, and overall health. If you have concerns about your ejaculation patterns or any related issues, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for advice and treatment options.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

A chromosome deletion is a type of genetic abnormality that occurs when a portion of a chromosome is missing or deleted. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain our genetic material, which is organized into genes.

Chromosome deletions can occur spontaneously during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs or sperm) or can be inherited from a parent. They can affect any chromosome and can vary in size, from a small segment to a large portion of the chromosome.

The severity of the symptoms associated with a chromosome deletion depends on the size and location of the deleted segment. In some cases, the deletion may be so small that it does not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, larger deletions can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, physical abnormalities, and various medical conditions.

Chromosome deletions are typically detected through a genetic test called karyotyping, which involves analyzing the number and structure of an individual's chromosomes. Other more precise tests, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific location and size of the deletion.

A genetic locus (plural: loci) is a specific location on a chromosome where a particular gene or DNA sequence is found. It is the precise position where a specific genetic element, such as a gene or marker, is located on a chromsomere. This location is defined in terms of its relationship to other genetic markers and features on the same chromosome. Genetic loci can be used in linkage and association studies to identify the inheritance patterns and potential relationships between genes and various traits or diseases.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

The ejaculatory ducts are a pair of small tubes in the male reproductive system that transport sperm from the vas deferens to the urethra, which runs through the penis and carries both semen and urine. Each duct is formed by the joining of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicle, and they pass through the prostate gland before opening into the urethra. The ejaculatory ducts are important for the proper functioning of the male reproductive system as they allow sperm to mix with other fluids from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland to create semen, which is necessary for fertilization.

Semen preservation is the process of collecting, liquefying, testing, and storing semen samples for future use in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The semen sample is usually collected through masturbation, and then it is mixed with a cryoprotectant solution to prevent damage during the freezing and thawing process. After that, the sample is divided into straws or vials and frozen in liquid nitrogen tanks at temperatures below -196°C. Properly preserved semen can be stored for many years without significant loss of quality or fertility potential. Semen preservation is often recommended for men who are about to undergo medical treatments that may affect their sperm production or fertility, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or for those who wish to postpone fatherhood for personal or medical reasons.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Microinjection is a medical technique that involves the use of a fine, precise needle to inject small amounts of liquid or chemicals into microscopic structures, cells, or tissues. This procedure is often used in research settings to introduce specific substances into individual cells for study purposes, such as introducing DNA or RNA into cell nuclei to manipulate gene expression.

In clinical settings, microinjections may be used in various medical and cosmetic procedures, including:

1. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): A type of assisted reproductive technology where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to increase the chances of fertilization during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.
2. Botulinum Toxin Injections: Microinjections of botulinum toxin (Botox, Dysport, or Xeomin) are used for cosmetic purposes to reduce wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing the muscles responsible for their formation. They can also be used medically to treat various neuromuscular disorders, such as migraines, muscle spasticity, and excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis).
3. Drug Delivery: Microinjections may be used to deliver drugs directly into specific tissues or organs, bypassing the systemic circulation and potentially reducing side effects. This technique can be particularly useful in treating localized pain, delivering growth factors for tissue regeneration, or administering chemotherapy agents directly into tumors.
4. Gene Therapy: Microinjections of genetic material (DNA or RNA) can be used to introduce therapeutic genes into cells to treat various genetic disorders or diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, or cancer.

Overall, microinjection is a highly specialized and precise technique that allows for the targeted delivery of substances into small structures, cells, or tissues, with potential applications in research, medical diagnostics, and therapeutic interventions.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Sertoli cells, also known as sustentacular cells or nurse cells, are specialized cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis in mammals. They play a crucial role in supporting and nurturing the development of sperm cells (spermatogenesis). Sertoli cells create a microenvironment within the seminiferous tubules that facilitates the differentiation, maturation, and survival of germ cells.

These cells have several essential functions:

1. Blood-testis barrier formation: Sertoli cells form tight junctions with each other, creating a physical barrier called the blood-testis barrier, which separates the seminiferous tubules into basal and adluminal compartments. This barrier protects the developing sperm cells from the immune system and provides an isolated environment for their maturation.
2. Nutrition and support: Sertoli cells provide essential nutrients and growth factors to germ cells, ensuring their proper development and survival. They also engulf and digest residual bodies, which are byproducts of spermatid differentiation.
3. Phagocytosis: Sertoli cells have phagocytic properties, allowing them to remove debris and dead cells within the seminiferous tubules.
4. Hormone metabolism: Sertoli cells express receptors for various hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and estradiol. They play a role in regulating hormonal signaling within the testis by metabolizing these hormones or producing inhibins, which modulate FSH secretion from the pituitary gland.
5. Regulation of spermatogenesis: Sertoli cells produce and secrete various proteins and growth factors that influence germ cell development and proliferation. They also control the release of mature sperm cells into the epididymis through a process called spermiation.

Epitestosterone is a steroid hormone that is structurally similar to testosterone. It is produced in the body, primarily in the testes and adrenal glands, and is a natural component of human urine. Epitestosterone is a weak androgen, meaning it has minimal male sex hormone effects.

The ratio of epitestosterone to testosterone (T/E ratio) in urine is often used as a marker for the detection of doping with anabolic steroids, which are synthetic versions of testosterone. In athletes who have not taken performance-enhancing drugs, the T/E ratio is typically less than 1. However, when anabolic steroids are used, the level of testosterone in the body increases, while the level of epitestosterone remains relatively unchanged, leading to a higher T/E ratio.

Medical professionals and anti-doping agencies use a specific cutoff value for the T/E ratio to determine if an individual has violated doping regulations. It's important to note that some individuals may have naturally higher T/E ratios due to genetic factors, which can complicate the interpretation of test results in anti-doping tests.

Tuberculosis (TB) of the male genital system, also known as genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB), is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the urinary and genital organs. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which typically enters the body through inhalation and spreads to other parts of the body via the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

In males, GUTB can affect the epididymis, testes, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and urethra. The most common site of infection is the epididymis, followed by the prostate gland. Symptoms may include pain or swelling in the affected area, discharge from the urethra, blood in the urine, fever, fatigue, and weight loss.

Diagnosis of GUTB typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), and laboratory tests (such as urinalysis, culture, or biopsy). Treatment usually involves a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics that are effective against TB, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Surgery may be necessary in some cases to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

GUTB can lead to serious complications if left untreated, including infertility, chronic pain, and spread of the infection to other parts of the body. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms suggestive of GUTB.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Sperm maturation is the process by which spermatids, immature sperm cells produced in meiosis, transform into fully developed spermatozoa capable of fertilization. This complex process occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and includes several stages:

1. **Golfi formation:** The first step involves the spermatids reorganizing their cytoplasm and forming a cap-like structure called the acrosome, which contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg's outer layers during fertilization.
2. **Flagellum development:** The spermatid also develops a tail (flagellum), enabling it to move independently. This is achieved through the assembly of microtubules and other associated proteins.
3. **Nuclear condensation and elongation:** The sperm's DNA undergoes significant compaction, making the nucleus smaller and more compact. Concurrently, the nucleus elongates and aligns with the flagellum.
4. **Mitochondrial positioning:** Mitochondria, which provide energy for sperm motility, migrate to the midpiece of the sperm, close to the base of the flagellum.
5. **Chromatin packaging:** Histones, proteins that help package DNA in non-sperm cells, are replaced by transition proteins and then protamines, which further compact and protect the sperm's DNA.
6. **Sperm release (spermiation):** The mature sperm is finally released from the supporting Sertoli cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule, where it mixes with fluid secreted by the testicular tissue to form seminal plasma.

This entire process takes approximately 64 days in humans.

Asthenozoospermia is a term used in the field of andrology, which is the study of male reproductive health. It refers to a condition where the majority of sperm in a semen sample have reduced motility, meaning they do not move normally or efficiently. This can make it more difficult for the sperm to reach and fertilize an egg, potentially leading to infertility issues.

To be more specific, asthenozoospermia is defined as having less than 40% of sperm with progressive motility, which means they move forward in a straight line or in a large circle. The condition can be caused by various factors, including genetic abnormalities, environmental toxins, infections, and structural issues with the sperm themselves.

It's worth noting that asthenozoospermia is often diagnosed through a semen analysis, which is a routine test used to assess male fertility. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with this condition, it may be helpful to consult with a reproductive endocrinologist or andrologist who can provide more information and guidance on potential treatment options.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Gonadal dysgenesis, mixed is a medical condition that refers to the abnormal development and function of the gonads (ovaries or testes). In this form of gonadal dysgenesis, both ovarian and testicular tissues are present in the same individual, but they are not properly organized or functioning. This can lead to ambiguous genitalia, infertility, and an increased risk of developing gonadal tumors. The condition is often associated with genetic disorders such as Turner, Klinefelter, or other sex chromosome abnormalities.

Inhibins are a group of protein hormones that play a crucial role in regulating the function of the reproductive system, specifically by inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland. They are produced and secreted primarily by the granulosa cells in the ovaries of females and Sertoli cells in the testes of males.

Inhibins consist of two subunits, an alpha subunit, and a beta subunit, which can be further divided into two types: inhibin A and inhibin B. Inhibin A is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovary, while inhibin B is mainly produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes.

By regulating FSH production, inhibins help control the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. Abnormal levels of inhibins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and certain types of cancer.

Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididymis, a curved tube-like structure located at the back of the testicle that stores and transports sperm. The inflammation can result from infection, trauma, or other causes, and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tenderness in the scrotum. In some cases, epididymitis may also be associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, or other medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as pain relief measures and supportive care to help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both of a male infant's testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth or within the first year of life. Normally, the testicles descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal development in the second trimester. If the testicles do not descend on their own, medical intervention may be necessary to correct the condition.

Cryptorchidism is a common birth defect, affecting about 3-5% of full-term and 30% of preterm male infants. In most cases, the testicle will descend on its own within the first six months of life. If it does not, treatment may be necessary to prevent complications such as infertility, testicular cancer, and inguinal hernia.

Treatment for cryptorchidism typically involves surgery to bring the testicle down into the scrotum. This procedure is called orchiopexy and is usually performed before the age of 2. In some cases, hormonal therapy may be used as an alternative to surgery. However, this approach has limited success and is generally only recommended in certain situations.

Overall, cryptorchidism is a treatable condition that can help prevent future health problems if addressed early on. Regular check-ups with a pediatrician or healthcare provider can help ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

An abnormal karyotype refers to an abnormal number or structure of chromosomes in a person's cells. A karyotype is a visual representation of a person's chromosomes, arranged in pairs according to their size, shape, and banding pattern. In a normal karyotype, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

An abnormal karyotype can result from an extra chromosome (as in trisomy 21 or Down syndrome), missing chromosomes (as in monosomy X or Turner syndrome), rearrangements of chromosome parts (translocations, deletions, duplications), or mosaicism (a mixture of cells with different karyotypes).

Abnormal karyotypes can be associated with various genetic disorders, developmental abnormalities, intellectual disabilities, and increased risks for certain medical conditions. They are typically detected through a procedure called chromosome analysis or karyotyping, which involves staining and visualizing the chromosomes under a microscope.

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a class of proteins that selectively interact with RNA molecules to form ribonucleoprotein complexes. These proteins play crucial roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA stability, transport, localization, and translation. RBPs recognize specific RNA sequences or structures through their modular RNA-binding domains, which can be highly degenerate and allow for the recognition of a wide range of RNA targets. The interaction between RBPs and RNA is often dynamic and can be regulated by various post-translational modifications of the proteins or by environmental stimuli, allowing for fine-tuning of gene expression in response to changing cellular needs. Dysregulation of RBP function has been implicated in various human diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Seminiferous tubules are the long, convoluted tubes within the testicles that are responsible for producing sperm in males. They are lined with specialized epithelial cells called Sertoli cells, which provide structural support and nourishment to developing sperm cells. The seminiferous tubules also contain germ cells, which divide and differentiate into spermatozoa (sperm) through the process of spermatogenesis.

The seminiferous tubules are surrounded by a thin layer of smooth muscle called the tunica albuginea, which helps to maintain the structure and integrity of the testicle. The tubules are connected to the rete testis, a network of channels that transport sperm to the epididymis for further maturation and storage before ejaculation.

Damage or dysfunction of the seminiferous tubules can lead to male infertility, as well as other reproductive health issues.

Desogestrel is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various forms of hormonal contraception such as birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings to prevent pregnancy. Desogestrel works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Desogestrel is also used in some hormone replacement therapies (HRT) to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may be prescribed alone or in combination with estrogen.

Like all hormonal contraceptives, desogestrel has potential side effects, including irregular menstrual bleeding, headaches, mood changes, breast tenderness, and nausea. In rare cases, it may also increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of desogestrel with a healthcare provider before using it.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Genital diseases in males refer to various medical conditions that affect the male reproductive and urinary systems, including the penis, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urethra. These conditions can be infectious, inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic (cancerous) in nature. Some common examples of male genital diseases include:

1. Balanitis: Inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis, often caused by infection, irritants, or poor hygiene.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be acute or chronic, bacterial or non-bacterial in origin.
3. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. It is often caused by infection.
4. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle, usually resulting from infection or autoimmune disorders.
5. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency characterized by twisting of the spermatic cord, leading to reduced blood flow and potential tissue damage in the testicle.
6. Varicocele: Dilated veins in the scrotum that can cause pain, discomfort, or fertility issues.
7. Peyronie's disease: A connective tissue disorder causing scarring and curvature of the penis during erections.
8. Penile cancer: Malignant growths on the penis, often squamous cell carcinomas, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause lower urinary tract symptoms such as difficulty initiating or maintaining a steady stream of urine.
10. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Infectious diseases, like chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papillomavirus (HPV), that can be transmitted through sexual contact and affect the male genital region.

Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are medical procedures that involve the handling of human sperm and ova to establish a pregnancy. These techniques are used when other methods of achieving pregnancy have failed or are not available. Examples of ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). These procedures may be used to treat infertility, prevent genetic disorders, or to help same-sex couples or single people have children. It is important to note that the use of ART can involve significant physical, emotional, and financial costs, and it may not always result in a successful pregnancy.

An Adrenal Rest Tumor is a rare, benign (non-cancerous) growth that occurs in the adrenal glands. These tumors are made up of cells called "adrenal rests," which are small clusters of adrenal tissue that can be found outside of the adrenal glands.

Adrenal rest tumors are typically asymptomatic and are often discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other medical reasons. However, in some cases, these tumors may produce hormones such as cortisol or aldosterone, leading to symptoms associated with hormonal imbalances, such as Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome.

Treatment for adrenal rest tumors typically involves surgical removal of the tumor. In cases where the tumor is producing hormones, medication may be used to manage the hormonal imbalance before and after surgery. It is important to monitor patients with adrenal rest tumors for recurrence, as these tumors can grow back over time.

An ostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening (a stoma) in the abdominal wall through which the function of an impaired digestive or urinary organ can be performed. This procedure is often necessary for patients with certain diseases such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or birth defects that prevent normal bodily functions.

There are several types of ostomies, including colostomy, ileostomy, and urostomy. A colostomy involves creating a stoma from the colon (large intestine), an ileostomy involves creating a stoma from the ileum (the last part of the small intestine), and a urostomy involves creating a stoma for the urinary system.

After the ostomy procedure, patients will need to wear a pouching system to collect waste that is expelled through the stoma. With proper care and management, most people with an ostomy can lead active and fulfilling lives.

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by the inability of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) to produce sufficient amounts of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. This can lead to various symptoms including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction in men, irregular menstrual periods in women, and reduced fertility in both sexes. Hypogonadism may be caused by genetic factors, aging, injury to the gonads, or certain medical conditions such as pituitary disorders. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsies (PME) is a group of rare, genetic disorders characterized by myoclonus (rapid, involuntary muscle jerks), tonic-clonic seizures (also known as grand mal seizures), and progressive neurological deterioration. The term "progressive" refers to the worsening of symptoms over time.

The myoclonic epilepsies are classified as progressive due to the underlying neurodegenerative process that affects the brain, leading to a decline in cognitive abilities, motor skills, and overall functioning. These disorders usually begin in childhood or adolescence and tend to worsen with age.

Examples of PMEs include:

1. Lafora disease: A genetic disorder caused by mutations in the EPM2A or NHLRC1 genes, leading to the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates called Lafora bodies in neurons. Symptoms typically start between ages 6 and 16 and include myoclonus, seizures, and progressive neurological decline.
2. Unverricht-Lundborg disease: Also known as Baltic myoclonus, this is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CSTB gene. It is characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy, ataxia (loss of coordination), and cognitive decline. Symptoms usually begin between ages 6 and 18.
3. Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs): A group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of lipopigments in neurons. Several types of NCLs can present with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, including CLN2 (late-infantile NCL), CLN3 (juvenile NCL), and CLN6 (early juvenile NCL).
4. Myoclonus Epilepsy Associated with Ragged Red Fibers (MERRF): A mitochondrial disorder caused by mutations in the MT-TK gene, leading to myoclonic epilepsy, ataxia, and ragged red fibers on muscle biopsy.
5. Dentatorubral-Pallidoluysian Atrophy (DRPLA): An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the ATN1 gene, characterized by myoclonic epilepsy, ataxia, chorea (involuntary movements), and dementia.

These are just a few examples of disorders that can present with progressive myoclonic epilepsy. It is essential to consult a neurologist or epileptologist for proper diagnosis and management.

Fertilization is the process by which a sperm cell (spermatozoon) penetrates and fuses with an egg cell (ovum), resulting in the formation of a zygote. This fusion of genetic material from both the male and female gametes initiates the development of a new organism. In human biology, fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube after sexual intercourse, when a single sperm out of millions is able to reach and penetrate the egg released from the ovary during ovulation. The successful fusion of these two gametes marks the beginning of pregnancy.

Glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a choline-containing phospholipid that can be found in various tissues and fluids within the human body. It is also available as a dietary supplement. Here's a definition of Glycerylphosphorylcholine:

Glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) is a natural choline-containing compound that is present in various tissues and fluids within the human body, including neural tissue, muscle, and blood. It plays an essential role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in memory, learning, and other cognitive functions. GPC can also be found in some foods, such as egg yolks and soybeans, and is available as a dietary supplement. In the body, GPC can be converted to phosphatidylcholine, another important phospholipid that is necessary for maintaining cell membrane structure and function.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

A karyotype is a method used in genetics to describe the number and visual appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. It includes the arrangement of the chromosomes by length, position of the centromeres, and banding pattern. A karyotype is often represented as a photograph or image of an individual's chromosomes, arranged in pairs from largest to smallest, that has been stained to show the bands of DNA. This information can be used to identify genetic abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations. A karyotype is typically obtained by culturing cells from a sample of blood or tissue, then arresting the cell division at metaphase and staining the chromosomes to make them visible for analysis.

Infertility is a reproductive health disorder defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person's capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with their partner. It can be caused by various factors in both men and women, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, genetic issues, infections, age, lifestyle factors, and others. Infertility can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on individuals and couples experiencing it, and medical intervention may be necessary to help them conceive.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

  • In humans, azoospermia affects about 1% of the male population and may be seen in up to 20% of male infertility situations in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • While rare, about 1 percent of men have azoospermia, and it's the root of between 10 to 15 percent of infertility cases. (healthline.com)
  • Azoospermia is found in 10% of male infertility cases. (arcfertility.com)
  • Azoospermia, which accounts for 10 to 15 percent of all male infertility, refers to a complete absence of sperm in your ejaculate. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The diagnosis of azoospermia is made during an infertility consultation, which in men systematically includes a spermogram. (ivfclinic.com)
  • Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), or testicular failure, is the most challenging type of male-factor infertility to manage. (medscape.com)
  • Five to ten percent of men who are assessed for infertility have Azoospermia. (surrogacydesk.com)
  • Male infertility is caused by azoospermia. (bornfertilelady.com)
  • NON-OBSTRUCTIVE AZOOSPERMIA (NOA) is the most severe type of male infertility , characterized by an absence of sperms in the ejaculate as a result of the inability of spermatogenesis to take place. (doctoromarchughtai.com)
  • Azoospermia (a-zoo-SPER-mee-ah) is a common cause of male infertility in which there is no detectable sperm in a man's ejaculate (semen). (doctoromarchughtai.com)
  • Azoospermia affects 5-10% of males who are assessed for infertility . (doctoromarchughtai.com)
  • The most severe form of male infertility is nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), which is defined as no sperm in the ejaculate due to spermatogenesis failure. (doctoromarchughtai.com)
  • Non-obstructive azoospermia can be caused by a number of hereditary reasons of male infertility. (doctoromarchughtai.com)
  • Azoospermia accounts for about 20% of all cases of male infertility and in 10-20 % of abnormal Semen Reports. (indoreinfertilityclinic.com)
  • The authors theorized that other genes coding for enzymes involved in processing non-coding RNAs also might be involved in infertility due to azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • If no living sperm is observed in the ejaculate, it's possible you may have azoospermia. (healthline.com)
  • Until the mid 1990′s, donor sperm was the only azoospermia treatment for the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. (arcfertility.com)
  • Azoospermia, also known as zero sperm count, sperm means that are not present in the ejaculate. (mystic-news.com)
  • Along with performing surgeries to unblock those who have "obstructive" azoospermia, Dr. Clavijo has special expertise in treating men with non-obstructive azoospermia - men who do not have sperm in the ejaculate due to testicular failure (poor or no production of sperm). (ucdavis.edu)
  • Azoospermia is the absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, and it is classified as obstructive or non-obstructive. (com.gr)
  • In obstructive azoospermia, sperm production is normal but no sperm appear in the ejaculate due to an obstruction of the male reproductive tract. (com.gr)
  • In the event of azoospermia, no sperm is found after centrifugation of the entire ejaculate. (ivfclinic.com)
  • Azoospermia is the absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate. (artfertilityclinics.com)
  • Azoospermia is a condition where there is no sperm found in the ejaculate (or semen) after orgasm. (planbwellness.com)
  • Five percent (5%) of infertile men have azoospermia , or an absence of sperm in the ejaculate. (planbwellness.com)
  • To understand azoospermia, having at least a basic understanding of how sperm are produced and get into the ejaculate (semen) can help. (planbwellness.com)
  • Azoospermia is a condition in which a man's ejaculate contains no detectable sperm (semen). (bornfertilelady.com)
  • Azoospermia is when a man's ejaculate contains no sperm (No sperm count). (bornfertilelady.com)
  • Azoospermia is defined as the absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate or simply absence of sperms in semen or when no sperm is found in semen. (indoreinfertilityclinic.com)
  • Azoospermia Treatment ConsultationAzoospermia, also known as complete absence of sperm from a man's ejaculate, is a male fertility issue that is present in 2% of the general male population, and is a frequent contributing factor toward the inability to conceive. (andrologyinstituteofamerica.org)
  • Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), a lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to defective spermatogenesis, affects as many as 100,000 men in the US, and represents an unmet medical need because many of these men would like to father children, but cannot without surgical intervention. (sbir.gov)
  • Increased prevalence of oligospermia and azoospermia was noted among the painters as well as an increased odds ratio for a lower sperm count per ejaculate. (cdc.gov)
  • The likelihood of sperm retrieval in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia can be estimated on the basis of the most advanced pattern of spermatogenesis (not the most predominant pattern) seen on histopathology, if a previous testis biopsy has been performed. (medscape.com)
  • a new candidate gene in nonobstructive azoospermia? (lww.com)
  • 15. Variations of C14ORF39 and SYCE1 Identified in Idiopathic Premature Ovarian Insufficiency and Nonobstructive Azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • Anti-psychotics such as risperidone can cause male sexual dysfunction such as ejaculatory disorders, loss of libido etc. but to our knowledge, no case of azoospermia (total absence of sperms) has been reported. (ndtv.com)
  • No sperms are found in case of azoospermia. (artfertilityclinics.com)
  • It will enlighten you on your particular case of azoospermia and the way out. (planbwellness.com)
  • our healthcare professional may propose genetic testing of your sperm before considering assisted conception techniques if the cause of azoospermia is deemed to be something that can be passed down to offspring. (bornfertilelady.com)
  • Till date there is no test that can report the actual cause of azoospermia in patients since it is not completely understood yet. (indoreinfertilityclinic.com)
  • As an alternative to testicular biopsy the fine needle aspiration cytology of the testis is being used increasingly to find out the cause of azoospermia. (aijournals.com)
  • FNAC of testis is an alternative to biopsy to find out the cause of azoospermia. (aijournals.com)
  • Discover the New Holistic Organic Therapy That Turns Around Zero Sperm Count/Azoospermia in a Matter of Weeks into Multiple Millions of Active Sperm Cells! (planbwellness.com)
  • In the last 8 years , our highly potent herbal medicines for azoospermia have successfully helped men with zero sperm count to father a child naturally , either non-obstructive azoospermia or obstructive azoospermia . (planbwellness.com)
  • FNA was performed in 119 patients, aged 20-38 years with zero sperm count (Azoospermia), detailed clinical history and physical examination was performed on each patient and patients having any gross testicular abnormalities were not included in the study. (aijournals.com)
  • Azoospermia means the complete absence of sperm in the ejaculated semen. (ivfclinic.com)
  • A complete absence of sperm is called azoospermia. (google.com)
  • The main cause is a physical obstruction (obstructive azoospermia) of the post-testicular genital tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-testicular azoospermia (obstructive) is caused by problems with ejaculation due to an obstruction of some sort in the reproductive tract. (healthline.com)
  • Azoospermia affects 1% of men, and it can be due to: (i) hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, (ii) primary quantitative spermatogenic disturbances, (iii) urogenital duct obstruction. (nih.gov)
  • Obstructive azoospermia means produced sperm, but there is an obstruction or blockage of the reproductive tract. (mystic-news.com)
  • Depending on the cause and type of azoospermia, the obstruction can be surgically corrected, or recovery method sperm can be used. (mystic-news.com)
  • Azoospermia can also be due to obstruction of sperm transport through blockage in any part of a sperm's route of transport from the testicle, to the outside. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Of the remaining 114 cases, 44 (36.9%) were classified as normal maturation (azoospermia due to obstruction). (aijournals.com)
  • Males with the condition, known as non-obstructive azoospermia, fail to produce any sperm, even though they do not have any obstruction in the ducts through which sperm are released. (nih.gov)
  • In a non-pathological context, azoospermia is also the intended result of a successful vasectomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other causes of obstructive azoospermia include things like previous or current infection, cysts, injury, or vasectomy. (healthline.com)
  • however, by 12 weeks after the vasectomy, 80% of men have azoospermia, and almost all others have rare nonmotile sperm (defined as ≤100,000 nonmotile sperm per milliliter) ( 317 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The number of ejaculations after vasectomy is not a reliable indicator of when azoospermia or rare nonmotile sperm will be achieved ( 317 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Once azoospermia or rare nonmotile sperm has been achieved, patients can rely on the vasectomy for contraception, although not with 100% certainty. (cdc.gov)
  • The aims of this prospective, non-comparative study were to determine time to azoospermia and vasectomy success rate based on the results of semen analysis. (who.int)
  • Pretesticular and testicular azoospermia are known as non-obstructive azoospermia, whereas post-testicular azoospermia is considered obstructive. (wikipedia.org)
  • In post-testicular azoospermia, sperm are produced but not ejaculated, a condition that affects 7-51% of azoospermic men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre- and post-testicular azoospermia are frequently correctible, while testicular azoospermia is usually permanent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obstructive post-testicular azoospermia is caused by difficulty with ejaculation induced by a blockage in the reproductive system. (bornfertilelady.com)
  • The most common chromosomal problem that causes azoospermia in male is when there is an extra X chromosome (Klinefelter Syndrome). (atozdiseases.com)
  • Another causes of azoospermia is deletion of Y-chromosome that is responsible for male characteristics. (atozdiseases.com)
  • 6] Massive deletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the Y chromosome, specifically in AZFb/b+c, have been found in men with SCO syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Azoospermia is a condition when there is absence of sperm in males. (atozdiseases.com)
  • Evaluating and Treating Zero Sperm in Males (Azoospermia) is a necessary step in order to decide the course of IVF treatment. (indoreinfertilityclinic.com)
  • Azoospermia is a condition in which males have zero/ nil sperms in the semen upon ejaculation. (newlifeindiafertilityclinic.com)
  • It is noteworthy to understand that males with obstructive Azoospermia can be easily treated and can conceive with their own sperms mostly with ICSI process. (newlifeindiafertilityclinic.com)
  • Each type of azoospermia has its own set of possible causes or associated conditions. (healthline.com)
  • Issues with the brain, specifically damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, may also cause this type of azoospermia. (healthline.com)
  • Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of testicular FNAC in cases of azoospermia. (aijournals.com)
  • This condition accounts for about 13 percent of cases of azoospermia and 5 percent of severe oligospermia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 16. Genetics of Azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • For example, a review in 2013 came to the result that oligospermia and azoospermia are significantly associated with being overweight (odds ratio 1.1), obese (odds ratio 1.3) and morbidly obese (odds ratio 2.0), but the cause of this is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seminal plasma proteins TEX101 and ECM1 were recently proposed for the differential diagnosis of azoospermia forms and subtypes, and for prediction of TESE outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the semen analysis shows total absence of sperms, then the diagnosis of azoospermia is logical. (ndtv.com)
  • Azoospermia can't be said 'untreatable' till a thorough diagnosis, including biopsy of both the testes, is made. (ivfclinic.com)
  • In the absence of sperm production over 2 to 3 consecutive cycles, the diagnosis of azoospermia will be made. (ivfclinic.com)
  • Later, the doctor called to give his diagnosis of non-obstructive azoospermia, which, after our aforementioned research, was exactly what we didn't want to hear. (momstired.com)
  • 10. Whole-exome sequencing improves the diagnosis and care of men with non-obstructive azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • The findings may provide insight into how sperm is produced and may one day lead to information helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • Pretesticular azoospermia is characterized by inadequate stimulation of otherwise normal testicles and genital tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testicular azoospermia (non-obstructive) is caused by any abnormalities in the function or structure of the testicles. (healthline.com)
  • In non-obstructive azoospermia there is no production of spermatozoa in the testicles. (com.gr)
  • In obstructive azoospermia, sperms are produced inside the testicles. (atozdiseases.com)
  • The causes of non-obstructive azoospermia is abnormalities with the reproductive hormones or the testicles that control production of sperm. (atozdiseases.com)
  • Testicular azoospermia means the testes are abnormal, atrophic, or absent, and sperm production severely disturbed to absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum inhibin-B weakly indicates presence of sperm cells in the testes, raising chances for successfully achieving pregnancy through testicular sperm extraction (TESE), although the association is not very substantial, having a sensitivity of 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.74) and a specificity of 0.83 (CI: 0.64-0.93) for prediction the presence of sperm in the testes in non-obstructive azoospermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under obstructive azoospermia the testes produce quality sperms in right number, however, the transfer of sperms via vas deferens is obstructed or blocked. (newlifeindiafertilityclinic.com)
  • Novel OCT Technology for Detection of Occult Sperm in the Testes inNon- Obstructed Azoospermia. (sbir.gov)
  • Idiopathic azoospermia is where there is no known cause of the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The etiology of azoospermia affects the treatment. (bornfertilelady.com)
  • Clinical efficacy of treatments against non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), which affects 1% of men, are currently limited by the incomplete understanding of NOA pathogenesis and normal spermatogenic microenvironment. (nih.gov)
  • What is The Azoospermia Treatment Cost in Hyderabad 2023? (selectivf.com)
  • Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • Male suffering from Non-Obstructive Azoospermia is not capable of producing sperms. (artfertilityclinics.com)
  • When no sperms are seen in the semen sample provided for testing even after centrifugation of the sample, the report mentions Azoospermia. (indoreinfertilityclinic.com)
  • In case it is confirmed that the case is of non obstructive azoospermia, patient can be counseled to opt for Donor sperms along with IVF treatment. (indoreinfertilityclinic.com)
  • Pre-Testicular Non-Obstructive Azoospermia - Under this condition a man is unable to produce sperms due hormonal imbalance. (newlifeindiafertilityclinic.com)
  • Testicular Non-Obstructive Azoospermia - When an underlying condition restricts the proper production of sperms, the condition is termed as testicular non obstructive azoospermia. (newlifeindiafertilityclinic.com)
  • The causes of obstructive azoospermia can be congenital, genetic, or acquired. (atozdiseases.com)
  • Bi-allelic MEI1 variants cause meiosis arrest and non-obstructive azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • Polymorphic alleles of the human MEI1 gene are associated with human azoospermia by meiotic arrest. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Sequencing of a 'mouse azoospermia' gene panel in azoospermic men: identification of RNF212 and STAG3 mutations as novel genetic causes of meiotic arrest. (nih.gov)
  • 4. A new MEIOB mutation is a recurrent cause for azoospermia and testicular meiotic arrest. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Novel bi-allelic MSH4 variants causes meiotic arrest and non-obstructive azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • You may not have any symptoms or even know you have azoospermia until your efforts conceive are unsuccessful. (healthline.com)
  • You may not notice any signs or even realize you have azoospermia until your attempts to conceive fail. (bornfertilelady.com)
  • This article will discuss advances in obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia treatment and does not include hormonal disorders such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (arcfertility.com)
  • Azoospermia can be due to a sperm production defect that can be triggered by various hormonal or genetic defects. (ucdavis.edu)
  • I have azoospermia and have been advised intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (ndtv.com)
  • In obstructive azoospermia sperm can be easily obtained surgically using aspiration (FNA) or testicular biopsy (TESE). (com.gr)
  • In non-obstructive azoospermia, it is quite rare to retrieve sperm following testicular biopsy (TESE). (com.gr)
  • Non-Obstructive Azoospermia (NOA) is a medical condition in which the man cannot produce sperm due to the failure of spermatogenesis. (artfertilityclinics.com)
  • Pre-testicular azoospermia (non-obstructive) is caused by impaired production of the hormones responsible for creating sperm. (healthline.com)
  • Pre-testicular azoospermia (non-obstructive) is caused by a decrease in the generation of sperm-producing hormones. (bornfertilelady.com)
  • Azoospermia is the absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculated semen, and invasive techniques are necessary for their recovery, such as epididymal aspiration, testicular puncture or biopsy. (invitra.com)
  • What is the load, distribution and added clinical value of secondary findings (SFs) identified in exome sequencing (ES) of patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA)? (nih.gov)
  • Often patients want to know if Azoospermia is same as Nil Sperm. (indoreinfertilityclinic.com)
  • Patients with obstructive Azoospermia, do have normal level of FSH. (indoreinfertilityclinic.com)
  • 7. Targeted next-generation sequencing panel screening of 668 Chinese patients with non-obstructive azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • If you don't want to continue wasting your money, energy and time on azoospermia treatments that won't work for you, it is better you go through the details below about azoospermia. (planbwellness.com)
  • Testicular cancer or other tumors of the reproductive system is responsible for azoospermia or very low sperm counts. (atozdiseases.com)
  • In this article you will get to learn more about the condition known as Azoospermia, Azoospermia drugs and treatment in Nigeria. (bornfertilelady.com)
  • WANT TO KNOW THE COST OF AZOOSPERMIA TREATMENT IN HYDERABAD- YOU'VE CLICKED RIGHT Azoospermia is one of the male fertility issues, where men do not have sperm in their. (selectivf.com)
  • Stanford Health Care is a pioneer in the treatment of azoospermia and sperm extraction. (doctoromarchughtai.com)
  • Depending on the condition of a male partner and the category of Azoospermia he falls under, treatment options are available. (newlifeindiafertilityclinic.com)
  • Are you looking for Azoospermia Nil Sperm Treatment in Ashok Vihar? (searchcityclassifieds.com)
  • If yes, so contact Dr. Monga clinic, this clinic is providing best treatment for Azoospermia Nil Sperm. (searchcityclassifieds.com)
  • Do drugs for mental problems induce azoospermia? (ndtv.com)
  • 6. Disruption of human meiotic telomere complex genes TERB1, TERB2 and MAJIN in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. (nih.gov)
  • Up to 10% of non-obstructive azoospermia i ndividuals will have identifiable genetic defects that result in reduced sperm production. (doctoromarchughtai.com)
  • This complete lack of production or minimal production of sperm (oligoasthenoteratospermia, which is practically as severe as azoospermia) suggests testicular failure. (com.gr)

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