A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. (hhs.gov/recovery/programs/cer/draftdefinition.html accessed 6/12/2009)
A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
The S-isomer of omeprazole.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which requires one or two intermediate arthropod hosts before finally being eaten by the final host. Its organisms occur rarely in man.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A piperidine botanical insecticide.
A suspected industrial carcinogen (and listed as such by OSHA). Its N-hydroxy metabolite is strongly carcinogenic and mutagenic.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
The climate of a very small area.
A prolonged painful erection that may lasts hours and is not associated with sexual activity. It is seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, advanced malignancy, spinal trauma; and certain drug treatments.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
A reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A; (RIMA); (see MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS) that has antidepressive properties.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.

Activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors inhibits capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys. (1/143)

8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (capsaicin) was locally applied in the tail of rhesus monkeys to evoke a nociceptive response, thermal allodynia, which was manifested as reduced tail-withdrawal latencies in normally innocuous 46 degrees C water. Coadministration of three kappa opioid ligands, U50,488 (3.2-100 microgram), bremazocine (0.1-3.2 microgram), and dynorphin A(1-13) (3.2-100 microgram), with capsaicin in the tail dose-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced allodynia. This local antinociception was antagonized by a small dose of an opioid antagonist, quadazocine; (0.32 mg), applied in the tail; however, this dose of quadazocine injected s.c. in the back did not antagonize local U50,488. Comparing the relative potency of either agonist or antagonist after local and systemic administration confirmed that the site of action of locally applied kappa opioid agonists is in the tail. In addition, local nor-binaltorphimine (0.32 mg) and oxilorphan (0.1-10 microgram) antagonist studies raised the possibility of kappa opioid receptor subtypes in the periphery, which indicated that U50,488 produced local antinociception by acting on kappa1 receptors, but bremazocine acted probably on non-kappa1 receptors. These results provide functional evidence that activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors can diminish capsaicin-induced allodynia in primates. This experimental pain model is a useful tool for evaluating peripherally antinociceptive actions of kappa agonists without central side effects and suggests new approaches for opioid pain management.  (+info)

Effects of nicotinic receptor agonists on beta-amyloid beta-sheet formation. (2/143)

Previously we demonstrated that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation protects neurons against beta-amyloid (Abeta)-induced cytotoxicity. In the present study, the effects of nicotinic receptor agonists on the beta-sheet formation were investigated using a thioflavin T (ThT)-based fluorescence assay. Nicotine, cytisine (an alpha4beta2 agonist), and 3-(2,4)-dimethoxybenzylidene anabaseine (DMXB, an alpha7 agonist) did not reduce fluorescence intensity when these agents were added to the beta-sheet-formed Abeta. Simultaneous incubation of Abeta with nicotinic agonists also did not cause a reduction in fluorescence intensity. This data suggests that nicotinic receptor agonists do not influence the formation of the beta-sheet structure.  (+info)

Increased nicotinic receptors in brains from smokers: membrane binding and autoradiography studies. (3/143)

Chronic administration of nicotine increases the density of neuronal cholinergic nicotinic receptors in cells and in rodent brain, and similar increases have been reported in brains from human smokers. To further examine this phenomenon, we measured nicotinic receptor binding sites in brain regions from matched populations of smokers and nonsmokers. We first measured binding of [3H](+/-)epibatidine ([3H]EB) and [3H]cytisine in homogenate preparations from samples of prefrontal and temporal cerebral cortex. Binding of each radioligand was significantly higher (250-300%) in both cortical regions from brains of smokers. Frozen sections from each of the cerebral cortical regions and the hippocampus were used for autoradiographic analysis of [3H]EB binding. In cerebral cortex, binding was most dense in layer VI in the prefrontal cortex and layers IV and VI in the temporal cortex. Densitometric analysis of [3H]EB binding sites revealed marked increases of 300 to 400% of control in all cortical regions examined from smokers' brains. Binding in the hippocampal formation was heterogeneously distributed, with dense areas of binding sites seen in the parasubiculum, subiculum, and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, and the lacunosum-moleculare layer of the CA1/2. Binding of [3H]EB was significantly higher in all six regions of the hippocampus examined from brains of smokers compared with nonsmokers. These increases ranged from 160% of control in parasubiculum to 290% in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. The increase in nicotinic receptors in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of smokers may modify the central nervous system effects of nicotine and contribute to an altered response of smokers to nicotine.  (+info)

kappa-Opioid receptor effects of butorphanol in rhesus monkeys. (4/143)

Butorphanol and nalbuphine have substantial affinity for mu and kappa-opioid receptor sites, yet their behavioral effects in monkeys are largely consistent with a mu receptor mechanism of action. Using ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) discrimination and diuresis assays in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), the purpose of the current investigation was to characterize the in vivo kappa-opioid activity of these compounds through the use of an insurmountable mu-opioid receptor antagonist, clocinnamox. Alone, butorphanol (0.001-0.032 mg/kg i.m.) failed to generalize to EKC, and pretreatment with the competitive opioid receptor antagonist quadazocine (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg i.m.) did not alter this generalization. At 24 h after clocinnamox (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) administration, butorphanol fully generalized to EKC, and this generalization was maintained in two of three monkeys at 72 h. Parallel results were observed in diuresis: butorphanol alone and in the presence of quadazocine (1 mg/kg i.m.) did not alter urine output, and a marked diuretic effect was demonstrated 24 h to 2 weeks after clocinnamox administration. Clocinnamox did not alter the discriminative stimulus or diuretic effects of nalbuphine or of the kappa-opioid receptor agonists EKC or U69593. These results are consistent with an in vivo agonist activity of butorphanol at kappa-opioid receptors that can only be demonstrated when an insurmountable antagonist has substantially eliminated the dominant receptor population through which it exerts its action.  (+info)

Effects of systemically administered dynorphin A(1-17) in rhesus monkeys. (5/143)

The effects of i.v. dynorphin A(1-17) and its main nonopioid biotransformation fragment, dynorphin A(2-17), were compared in rhesus monkeys with those of the selective kappa-opioid agonist, U69, 593, in assays of operant behavior, thermal antinociception, and neuroendocrine function (prolactin release). Dynorphin A(1-17) (0. 1-3.2 mg/kg i.v.) and U69,593 (0.001-0.032 mg/kg s.c.) decreased rates of schedule-controlled (fixed ratio 20) food-reinforced responding, whereas dynorphin A(2-17) (1-3.2 mg/kg i.v.) was ineffective. Pretreatment studies with the opioid antagonist quadazocine (0.32 mg/kg s.c.) revealed that the operant effects of dynorphin A(1-17) were not mediated by kappa- or micro-opioid receptors. A different profile was observed in the warm water tail withdrawal assay of thermal antinociception, where both dynorphin A(1-17) and A(2-17) (0.032-3.2 mg/kg i.v., n = 4) were modestly effective in 50 degrees C water, and both were ineffective in 55 degrees C water. By comparison, U69,593 (0.032-0.18 mg/kg s.c.) was maximally effective in 50 degrees C water and partially effective in 55 degrees C. kappa-opioid agonists increase serum levels of prolactin in animals and humans. Dynorphin A(1-17) (ED(50) = 0.0011 mg/kg i.v.), similar to U69,593 (ED(50) = 0.0030 mg/kg i.v.), was very potent in increasing serum prolactin levels in follicular phase female rhesus monkeys, whereas dynorphin A(2-17) (0.32 mg/kg i.v.) was ineffective. The effects of dynorphin A(1-17) and U69,593 on serum prolactin were both antagonized by quadazocine (0.32 mg/kg s.c.) in a surmountable manner, consistent with opioid receptor mediation. The present studies show that serum prolactin levels are a sensitive quantitative endpoint to study the systemic effects of the endogenous opioid peptide, dynorphin A(1-17), in primates.  (+info)

Discriminative stimulus effects of the nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonist SNC80 in rhesus monkeys. (6/143)

Five rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate the nonpeptidic, delta-opioid agonist SNC80 (0.32 mg/kg i.m.) from saline by using a food-reinforced drug-discrimination procedure. Cumulative doses of SNC80 produced a dose-dependent increase in SNC80-appropriate responding and a dose-dependent decrease in response rate. In time-course studies, peak effects of the training dose of SNC80 were observed after 15 min, and these effects diminished over 240 min. In substitution studies, other piperazinyl benzamide delta agonists (SNC86, SNC162, and SNC243A) substituted for SNC80 with relative potencies similar those of SNC80. However, SNC67, the (-)-enantiomer of SNC80, did not occasion SNC80-appropriate responding up to a dose (32.0 mg/kg) that produced convulsions in one monkey. The mu agonists morphine and fentanyl and the kappa agonists U-50,488 and enadoline failed to substitute for SNC80 up to doses that eliminated responding. Two nonopioids (the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine and the monoamine reuptake inhibitor cocaine) also produced primarily saline-appropriate responding. Both the discriminative stimulus and rate-decreasing effects of SNC80 were antagonized by the delta-selective antagonist naltrindole (0.01-1.0 mg/kg) but not by doses of the opioid antagonist quadazocine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) that block the effects of mu and kappa agonists. These data suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of SNC80 are mediated by delta-opioid receptors and that the discriminative stimulus effects of delta opioids in primates can be differentiated from the effects of other opioid and nonopioid compounds.  (+info)

Effects of flupenthixol and quadazocine on self-administration of speedball combinations of cocaine and heroin by rhesus monkeys. (7/143)

The simultaneous i.v. administration of heroin and cocaine, called "speedball," is often reported clinically, and identification of effective pharmacotherapies for polydrug abuse is a continuing challenge. This study compared the effects of treatment using combinations of dopamine and opioid antagonists with each antagonist alone on speedball self-administration by rhesus monkeys. Speedballs (0.01 mg/kg/inj cocaine and 0.0032 mg/kg/inj heroin) and food (1 g banana pellets) were available in four daily sessions on a second-order schedule of reinforcement [FR4 (VR16:S)]. Monkeys were treated for 10 days with saline or ascending 1:10 dose combinations of the dopamine antagonist flupenthixol and the opioid antagonist quadazocine. The combination of flupenthixol (0.018 mg/kg/day) + quadazocine (0.18 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced speedball self-administration in comparison to the saline treatment baseline (p < .05), whereas, the same doses of each antagonist alone had no significant effect on speedball-maintained responding. Treatment with 0.018 mg/kg/day flupenthixol + 0.18 mg/kg/day quadazocine produced a 3-fold rightward shift in the speedball (3:1 cocaine-heroin combination) dose-effect curve. Food-maintained responding was similar during treatment with saline and with flupenthixol + quadazocine combinations. These findings suggest that medication mixtures designed to target both the stimulant and opioid component of the speedball combination, may be an effective approach to polydrug abuse treatment.  (+info)

Diversity and distribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locus ceruleus neurons. (8/143)

The neurons of the locus ceruleus are responsible for most of the noradrenergic innervation in the brain and nicotine potentiates noradrenaline release from their terminals. Here we investigated the diversity and subcellular distribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the locus ceruleus both somatically, by combining single-cell reverse transcription-PCR with electrophysiological characterization, and at the level of nerve terminals, by conducting noradrenaline efflux experiments. The proportion of neurons in the locus ceruleus expressing the nicotinic subunit mRNAs varied from 100% (beta2) to 3% (alpha2). Yet, two populations of neurons could be distinguished on the basis of the pattern of expression of nAChR mRNAs and electrophysiological properties. One population (type A) of small cells systematically expressed alpha3 and beta4 mRNAs (and often alpha6, beta3, alpha5, alpha4), and nicotinic agonists elicited large currents with a potency order of cytisine > nicotine. Another population (type B) of cells with large soma did not contain alpha3 and beta4 mRNAs but, systematically, alpha6 and beta3 (and often alpha4) and responded to nicotinic agonists in the order of nicotine > cytisine. The nicotinic modulation of noradrenaline release in the hippocampus displayed an order of potency nicotine > cytisine, suggesting that noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus originate largely from type B cells of the locus ceruleus. Accordingly, immunocytochemical labeling showed that beta3 is present in hippocampal terminals. The alpha6beta3beta2(alpha4) heterooligomer thus behaves as the main nicotinic regulator of the ceruleo-hippocampal pathway.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 145519 submitted by ChEMBL: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding activity was determined by ability to displace [3H]- (-) cytisine binding from whole rat brain synaptic membranes..
Define cytisine. cytisine synonyms, cytisine pronunciation, cytisine translation, English dictionary definition of cytisine. n a toxic alkaloid found in several species of plants, similar in molecular structure to nicotine
119290-15-2 - XQERITKLIPGTDF-TWDUEHBNSA-N - Palmitoyl(3)-cysteinyl-seryl-(HIV-2(593-603)cyclic disulfide) - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
In this single-centre, randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, the efficacy and safety of cytisine as an aid in smoking cessation was compared with placebo. Three hundred and seventy participants were randomly assigned to either the active drug or placebo in an equal ratio for 25 days. Participants in both groups received a minimal amount of counselling during the study.. The primary outcome measure was sustained biochemically-verified smoking abstinence for 12 months after the end of treatment. Secondary outcomes were sustained abstinence for the first 6 months and point prevalence at 12 months. This study found that the rate of sustained 12-month abstinence was 8.4% (31 participants) in the cytisine group compared with 2.4% (9 participants) in the placebo group. The 7-day point prevalence for abstinence at the 12-month follow-up was 13.2% in the cytisine group and 7.3% in the placebo group. The relative difference in smoking cessation between cytisine and placebo was higher than ...
To address the issue of binding selectivity among nAChR subtypes, we measured affinities of unlabeled 5-iodo-A-85380 in four different competition assays. To determine the affinity of 5-iodo-A-85380 for the α4β2 subtype, we used previously described competition assays with (±)-[3H]epibatidine or (-)-[3H]cytisine and P2 membrane fractions of Fischer-344 rat forebrain. Consistent with the previous observations (Koren et al., 1998), Scatchard plots of (±)-[3H]epibatidine binding to these rat brain membranes, at ligand concentrations of 1 to 800 pM, revealed a single population of binding sites (data not shown) with aK d of 9.5 ± 0.5 pM (n= 4). Similar high-affinity binding of (±)-[3H]epibatidine was observed in the rat (Houghtling et al., 1995), mouse (Marks et al., 1998), and human brain (Houghtling et al., 1995; Sihver et al., 1998), as well as in transfected cells stably expressing the α4β2 nAChR subtype (Houghtling et al., 1995; Whiteaker et al., 1998). In addition, the affinity of ...
Cytisine: | | Cytisine | | | ||| | | |... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
When combined with brief behavioral support, cytisine was found to be superior to nicotine-replacement therapy in helping smokers quit smoking, but it was associated with a higher frequency of self-reported adverse events. (Funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand; Australian New Zealand …
2-a-week pill helps smokers quit habit(The Times p23) by Sam Lister, September 29 2011 12:01AM. A course of pills likely to cost less than £2 a week can help people to quit smoking as effectively as any other medication and at a tiny fraction of the price, a study has shown. Researchers said that using cytisine can triple a smokers chances of giving up. More significantly, it could become the first treatment that costs less than a packet of cigarettes.. The study, funded by the Medical Research Council and led by scientists at University College London, involved 740 patients who took cytisine or a placebo for four weeks. No other health counselling was offered.. Those on cytisine were 3.4 times more likely to succeed than those on the placebo. After a year, 8.4 per cent of participants had quit smoking, a similar rate to nicotine patches and gums.. The findings, published inThe New England Journal of Medicine, suggest that on a longer course and with counselling, cytisine will perform ...
Provides information on toxicity, therapeutic range, clinical studies and usage details. Intended for the treatment of tobacco smoking. ...
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methyl 2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-6-quinolinecarboxylate - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Galantamine: Effect on nicotinic receptor binding, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and learning Diana S. Woodruff-Pak, Richard W. Vogel III, and Gary L.
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BioAssay record AID 629811 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]epibatidine from alpha4beta2 nAChR in Sprague-Dawley rat cerebral cortex by beta counting.
(-)-Epibatidine dihydrochloride | Nicotinic agonist | Epibatidine | CAS [152378-30-8] | Axon 1078 | Axon Ligand™ with >99% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. [3H]epibatidine ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. [125I]epibatidine ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
1,2,7,8,9,10,11,13-octahydro-4-(3-hydroxyphenylthio)-13-oxo-(1)benzothieno-(2,3-4,5)pyrimido(1,2-a)azepine-3-carboxaldehyde: a 17beta-HSD1 inhibitor; structure in first source
Suppliers List, E-mail/RFQ Form, Molecular Structure, Weight, Formula, IUPAC, Synonyms for CYCLOPENTA[B]THIOPYRAN-4-OL,OCTAHYDRO-,1,1-DIOXIDE,(4-A-,4A-SS-,7A-SS-)- (CAS No. 134451-81-3)
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (2s,3as,7as)-1-[(2s)-2-{[(1s)-1-carboxybutyl]amino}propanoyl]octahydro-1h-indole-2-carboxylic acid (C17H28N2O5) from the PQR.
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China Hot Sale 100% Natural Sophora Japonica Extract Powder 99% Cytisine, Find details about China Sophora Japonica Extract, Pharamceutial Chemical from Hot Sale 100% Natural Sophora Japonica Extract Powder 99% Cytisine - Suzhou Jiameiyuan Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
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2353 Try to make winter bearable by thinking of the joys of late spring, such as seeing laburnum trees in full blossom. But you need to have plenty of garden space for the brief show they provide, and you also need to warn children against their poisonous seeds. This poison binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which, as their name implies, are also the receptors that nicotine binds to. That is why laburnum extract has been sold as an aid to stopping smoking ever since the 1920s, under the name cytisine. Apparently, it is still available in some eastern European countries, but elsewhere we prescribe its vastly more expensive derivative, varenicline. I applaud the NEJM for publishing this open label New Zealand trial in which cytisine was compared with standard nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. It was better. With vaping and cytisine becoming widely available, I really cannot see why combustible tobacco products should remain on the market.. OL What is progesterone ...
1,3,4,5,6,7,8,10-octahydro-14-hydroxy-12-methoxy-11-methyl-4-(3-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-6-thioxo-9,2,5-benzoxanthiaazacyclododecine-10-one: has antibacterial activity; structure in first source
Suppliers List, E-mail/RFQ Form, Molecular Structure, Weight, Formula, IUPAC, Synonyms for (1S,7a?)-4?-Bromo-1?-[[(1S,4S)-4-bromo-1-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl]methyl]octahydro-7-methyl-7?,3a?-(epoxymethano)-3aH-inden-9-one (CAS No. 68081-51-6)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of opioid agonists selective for mu, kappa and delta opioid receptors on schedule-controlled responding in rhesus monkeys. T2 - Antagonism by quadazocine. AU - Negus, S. S.. AU - Burke, T. F.. AU - Medzihradsky, F.. AU - Woods, J. H.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Rhesus monkeys were trained to respond under a fixed-ratio 30 schedule of food reinforcement. The mu opioid agonists alfentanil and fentanyl, the kappa opioid agonists ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) and U69,593, the delta opioid agonist BW373U86 {(±)-4-((R*)-a-((2S*5R*)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1- piperazinal)-3-hydroxy-benzyl)-N,N-diethylbenzamide dihydrochloride} and the nonopioid, noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine all produced a dose-dependent decrease in rates of responding. Quadazocine (0.1- 10 mg/kg) antagonized the rate-decreasing effects of all the opioid agonists, but not of ketamine. The in vivo apparent pA2 values (95% CL) for quadazocine in combination with each agonist were: alfentanil, ...
5-iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-iodo-A-85380) and labeled it with 125I and123I. Here we present the results of experiments characterizing this radioiodinated ligand in vitro. The affinity of 5-[125I]iodo-A-85380 for α4β2 nAChRs in rat and human brain is defined by K d values of 10 and 12 pM, respectively, similar to that of epibatidine (8 pM). In contrast to epibatidine, however, 5-iodo-A-85380 is more selective in binding to the α4β2 subtype than to other nAChR subtypes. In rat adrenal glands, 5-iodo-A-85380 binds to nAChRs containing α3 and β4 subunits with 1/1000th the affinity of epibatidine, and exhibits 1/60th and 1/190th the affinity of epibatidine at α7 and muscle-type nAChRs, respectively. Moreover, unlike epibatidine and cytisine, 5-[125I]iodo-A-85380 shows no binding in any brain regions in mice homozygous for a mutation in the β2 subunit of nAChRs. Binding of 5-[125I]iodo-A-85380 in rat brain is reversible, and is characterized by high specificity and a slow rate ...
The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the most abundant nAChR type in the brain, and this receptor type exists in alternate (α4β2)2α4 and (α4β2)2β2 forms, which are activated by agonists with strikingly differing efficacies. Recent breakthroughs have identified an additional operational agonist binding site in the (α4β2)2α4 nAChR that is responsible for the signature sensitivity of this receptor to activation by agonists, yet the structural mechanisms determining agonist efficacy at this receptor type are not yet fully understood. In this study, we characterized the ligand selectivity of the individual agonist sites of the (α4β2)2α4 nAChR to determine whether differences in agonist selectivity influence agonist efficacy. Applying the substituted cysteine accessibility method to individual agonist sites in concatenated (α4β2)2α4 receptors, we determined the agonist selectivity of the agonist sites of the (α4β2)2α4 receptor. We show that (a) accessibility of substituted
Tapentadol does not cause throws a physical dependence as does cyamemazine. So the main comic action of tapentadol is seated to block scopolamine butylbromide receptors. Scopolamine butylbromide dissociates most part slowly and memantine most rapidly extend with quadazocine being at intermediate. In the dosage range proposals for aggression which Ratio - memantine is approved, memantine produces typical
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This study was designed to determine the effects of test item on the growth of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata over a 72h period, according to the OECD 201 Guideline. Due to low water solubility (close to 10 mg/L), the test solutions were prepared from a saturated stock solution, prepared using slow-stirring conditions. The results are reported as growth rate and biomass inhibitions. As the stability of the substance was not confirmed over the test period, geometric means of measured concentrations were used to determine EC10 and EC50. ...
ECHA sudarė cheminių medžiagų, kurios gali atitikti REACH reglamento III priede nustatytus kriterijus, inventorių. Šis inventorius skirtas padėti registruotojams suprasti, ar jie turi įvykdyti tik minimalios ar visos VII priede reikalaujamos informacijos reikalavimus.. Inventorius sudarytas naudojant viešai prieinamas duomenų bazes su eksperimentiniais duomenimis ir (Q)SAR modeliavimo rezultatus. Pavojingų toksikologinių ir ekotoksikologinių savybių duomenys, informacija apie naudojimą ir kita svarbi informacija turi būti sutikrinta su III priede nustatytais kriterijais.. Jei medžiaga neįrašyta į šį sąrašą, tai dar nereiškia, kad ji neatitinka III priede nustatytų kriterijų. Lygiai taip pat jei medžiaga yra šiame inventoriuje, registruotojas vis tiek gali turėti teisę pateikti tik minimalią informaciją, jei tai pateisinama.. Atminkite, kad inventorius nėra klasifikavimo priemonė, jis tik parodo susirūpinimą keliančius požymius. Pavyzdžiui, jei medžiaga ...
Quitting nicotine--try cytisine. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn26717-plant-extract-trumps-nicotine-patches-to-quit-smoking.html. Complete, free report, image, links from New Sci.. More on quitting smoking with cysisine. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1407764?query=TOC. Short, free article, animation from New Engl. j. Med.. ...
RT-PCR and Western blotting techniques established the expression of APC protein both in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, which express native alpha 3 beta 4* nAChRs, and in a HEK293 cell line expressing recombinant bovine adrenal alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs (BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells). Transfection of BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells with siRNA to APC, reduced APC protein. levels to 52.4% and 61.9% of control values at 24 and 48 h after transfection. To investigate the effects of APC on the cellular distribution of alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs, [(3)H]epibatidine binding approaches, coupled with APC siRNA treatment, were used. Twenty-four and 48 h after APC siRNA transfection, intracellular nAChRs were significantly reduced to 71% and 68% of control, respectively, while the total population of nAChRs were. not significantly changed. Given that total cellular nAChRs represent IKK inhibitor the sum of surface and intracellular nAChRs, these studies support a re-distribution of nAChRs to the plasma membrane with APC siRNA ...
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The nitramines are the most recently introduced class of organic nitrate explosives. The most prominent member of this class is RDX (research department explosive; hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine, which is also known as cyclonite); HMX (high melting explosive; octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetrazocine), nitroguanidine, and tetryl are also significant nitramines
近年來電腦模擬計算對於實務上開發研究的輔助已日益漸增,然而在化學分析方面,到目前為止並沒有能與實際情形相匹配的模擬研究,本研究主要是以實驗室獨自開發程式為主,商用模擬軟體為輔,進行混合溶液的分離模擬運算。混合溶液中以甲醇及乙腈分子當作溶劑,待分離的溶質主要為炸藥分子:硝化甘油(nitroglycerin, NG)、黑索金 (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine, RDX)、奧托金(octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, HMX) 及三硝基甲苯(2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, TNT),溶劑分子與炸藥分子混合形成一移動相,而固定相分別建構兩種不同性質的體系,一種具有正相層析性質的異黃樟油素分子(Poly-1,2-methylenedioxy-4-propenyl benzene, PISAF),另一種具有類似逆相層析性質的有機矽氧烷分子 [O-(CH3)2-Si-C8],將移動相與多個重覆結構的固定相接合,並以物理方式進行分離模擬
Go To: Top, References, Notes. Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved. Data compiled by: Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein. Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below. ...
Todays Daily Dose brings you news about stock offering of Assembly Biosciences, AcelRx Pharmaceuticals and Myovant Sciences; anticipated milestones of Ovid Therapeutics for the second half of this year; European Commissions approval of Akceas TEGSEDI; Achieve Life Sciences progress with Cytisine as an aid to smoking cessation and a regulatory event to watch out for today.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (3s,6e,8s,9s,10r)-8,9-dihydroxy-2-oxo-10-propyl-3,4,5,8,9,10-hexahydro-2h-oxecin-3-yl (2e,4e)-2,4-hexadienoate (C18H26O6) from the PQR.
15-0392 (11bR)-2,6-Bis[4-(tert-butyl)phenyl]-8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15-octahydro-4-hydroxy-4-oxide-dinaphtho[2,1-d:1,2-f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepin, 98 ...
Phosphorus › (11bR)-8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15-Octahydro-4-hydroxy-2,6-di-1-pyrenyl-4-oxide-dinaphtho[2,1-d:1,2-f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepin, 98% (99% ee) ...
Grundmanns Ketone,(1R,3aR,7aR)-1-[(1R)-1,5-Dimethylhexyl]octahydro-7a-methyl-4H-inden-4-one,(1R,3aR,7aR)-7a-methyl-1-((R)-6-methylheptan-2-yl)-octahydroinden-4-one,Windaus-Grundmann ketone
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Molecular and cell biological characterisation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) provides an insight into their functional roles and potential as therapeutic targets for neurological disorders. Nicotinic receptors are oligomeric ligand-gated ion channels, comprising five subunits. Twelve vertebrate neuronal nAChR subunits (2-10 and 2-4) have been cloned to date, with considerable diversity observed in nAChR subunit composition. Heterologous expression of cloned subunits is a powerful method for investigating ion channel receptor pharmacology and subunit composition, but achieving efficient expression of some nAChRs in cultured cell lines has proved difficult. In this study, chimeras containing the N-terminal domain of the nAChR subunits, fused to the C-terminal region of the 5-hydroxtryptamine type 3 receptor subunit, 5HT3A, were constructed to overcome some of the challenges of recombinant nAChR expression. When combinations of wild-type and chimeric subunits were expressed ...
A nicotinic agonist is a drug that mimics the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The nAChR is named for its affinity for nicotine. Examples include nicotine (by definition), acetylcholine (the endogenous agonist of nAChRs), choline, epibatidine, lobeline, varenicline and cytisine. Nicotine has been known for centuries for its intoxicating effect. It was first isolated in 1828 from the tobacco plant by German chemists, Posselt and Reimann. The discovery of positive effects from nicotine on animal memory was discovered by in vivo researches in the mid 1980s. Those researches led to a new era in studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and their stimulation but until then the focus had mainly been on nicotine addiction. The development of nAChR agonists began in the early 1990s after the discovery of nicotines positive effects. Some research showed a possible therapy option in preclinical researches. ABT-418 was one of the first in a series of ...
Holladay, M.; Wasicak, J.; Lin, N.; He, Y.; Ryther, K.; Bannon, A.; Buckley, M.; Kim, D.; Decker, M. (1998). Identification and initial structure-activity relationships of (R)-5-(2-azetidinylmethoxy)-2-chloropyridine (ABT-594), a potent, orally active, non-opiate analgesic agent acting via neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 41 (4): 407-412. PMID 9484491. doi:10.1021/jm9706224. ...
Buy high quality 4-[[(6S)-6-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)dimethylsilyl]oxy]-1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2,2-dioxidobenzo[c]thien-1-yl]methylene]octahydro-α,7a-dimethyl-1H-indene-1-acetaldehyde 866453-60-3 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
(±)-Nornicotine is a metabolite of nicotine (Item No. 16535) that acts as a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist. The α6 and α7 subunit-c...
This article was highlighted on the Thieme Chemistry homepage.. 13. Screencasts als unterstützendes Mittel im Chemiepraktikum; C. Hirschhäuser,* M. Giese, C. Schmuck, Flexibles Lernen mit digitalen Medien ermöglichen, Münster: Waxmann, ISBN: 978-3-8309-3652-7, 2018, 264-283.. 12. Protein Surface Recognition by Synthetic Molecules; K. Samanta, P. Jana, C. Hirschhäuser and C. Schmuck*, Comprehensive Supramolecular Chemistry II, 2017, 4, 295-349.. 11. A Modular Approach to the Asymmetric Synthesis of Cytisine; F. R. Struth, C. Hirschhäuser*; European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2016, 2016, 958-964.. 10. Organometallic nucleosides induce non-classical leukemic cell death that is mitochondrial-ROS dependent and facilitated by TCL1-oncogene burden; C. Prinz, E. Vasyuntina, G. Lohmann, A. Schrader, S. Romanski, C. Hirschhäuser, P. Mayer, C. Frias, C. D. Herling, M. Hallek, H. G. Schmalz, A. Prokop, D. Mougiakakos, M. Herling*; Molecular Cancer, 2015, 14:114.. 9. Synthesis of Mono- and ...
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27114-12-1 - QXOWEHJVUGQSBP-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 1H-Pyrazino(1,2-a)quinoline, 2,3,4,4a,5,6-hexahydro-3-(2-(p-fluorobenzoyl)ethyl)-, dihydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Omapatrilat,(4S,7S,10aS)-Octahydro-4-[[(2S)-2-mercapto-1-oxo-3-phenylpropyl]amino]-5-oxo-7H-pyrido[2,1-b][1,3]thiazepine-7-carboxylic acid,BMS-186716,Vanlev
N-Methyl Moxifloxacin HCl ;. 1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-8-methoxy-7-[(4aS,7aS)-octahydro-1-methyl-6H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridin-6-yl]-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid hydrochloride ;. CAS # 721970-37-2 & 1179992-99-4 (Base) ; 1350716-67-4 (HCl Salt) ;. C22H27ClFN3O4 ;. MW: 451.92 ;. ...
Perindopril Acid ;. (2S,3aS,7aS)-1-[(2S)-2-[[(1S)-1-(Ethoxycarbonyl)butyl]amino]propanoyl]octahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid ;. CAS # 82834-16-0 ;. C19H32N2O5 ;. MW: 368.47 ;. Supplied as Perindopril t-Butylamine (PRD00T) ;. ...
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எம்.ஜீயில் தன்பிறப்பொருளெதிரிகள் பெரும்பாலாக நிகோடினிக் அசிடைல்கொலின் ஏற்பிகளுக்கு( என்.ஏ.சி.எச்.ஆர் (nAChR)) எதிராக இயக்கப்படுகின்றன.[5] என்.ஏ.சி.எச்.ஆர் தசை இறுக்கத்தைத் தூண்டும் நரம்பியத்தாண்டுவிப்பியாக அசிடைல்கொலினுக்கான இயக்க முனைத்தட்டுக்கான ஏற்பியாகும். பிறப்பொருளெதிரியின் சில வடிவங்கள் அசிடைல்கொலின் ஏற்பிகளுடன் பிணைவதை பாழாக்குகின்றன. மற்றவை ஏற்பிகள் அழியக் ...
Her eyes bled tears through the lense of her soul, disheveled, her composure limp and cold. Her carbonated personality flat, and colorless, and dry- She was bitten, as the apple she could not deny. So long to the virtue, temptation her new friend. A blinking beacon light, who cast a shadow, within. Helpless, her her holiness imprisoned in lust. Her will found liberation in a freedom she could not trust. The nutrition of guilt strengthened her debilitations, her spine was as silk; a veil of separation. What trist could compare to a home that wasnt there. It was ease, as fallen degrees had stifled her air. He once was so valiant, now absence he took. Could blame be her burden, if he wrote the book? Join us tonight for the second chapter of The book With No Title. Where we will explore Love, Trust and Faith. MORE POWER MONDAYS 6-19-17
... azocine, 6-allyl-5,6,7,12-tetrahydro-, hydrobromide , C18H20BrN , CID 205517 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical ...
  • Azocine rings are found in many natural products, including the manzamine family of marine alkaloids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of shorter alkyl substituents (4-aminobutyl and 3-aminopropyl) the free ω-aminoalkylthiophenes undergo intramolecular condensation of the amino and ketone groups affording novel fused heterocycles - thieno[2,3-c]azepine and thieno[2,3-c]azocine. (enamine.net)
  • the results explain the formation of both dihydrodibenz[b,e]azepine and tetrahydrodibenz[b,ƒ]azocine isomers from kinetic and thermodynamic points of view. (bvsalud.org)
  • Azocine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the molecular formula C7H7N. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such compound is nakadomarin A, which contains a partially saturated azocine within its hexacyclic fused ring system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The title compound, C19H22N2O2S2, consists of a tetra-cyclic ring system containing an azocine skeleton with methoxy-ethyl and dithiol-ane groups as substituents. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • Or as high as 9% cream and ointment for anorectal conditions, [from greek pente five + azocine a chemical base. (yogachicago.com)