A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.
A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.
A widely used industrial solvent.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
Resorcinols are aromatic organic compounds containing two hydroxyl groups attached to a benzene ring, known for their antiseptic and antibacterial properties, used in various medical and cosmetic applications.

Initial reactions in anaerobic oxidation of m-xylene by the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain T. (1/69)

The initial enzymatic steps in anaerobic m-xylene oxidation were studied in Azoarcus sp. strain T, a denitrifying bacterium capable of mineralizing m-xylene via 3-methylbenzoate. Permeabilized cells of m-xylene-grown Azoarcus sp. strain T catalyzed the addition of m-xylene to fumarate to form (3-methylbenzyl)succinate. In the presence of succinyl coenzyme A (CoA) and nitrate, (3-methylbenzyl)succinate was oxidized to E-(3-methylphenyl)itaconate (or a closely related isomer) and 3-methylbenzoate. Kinetic studies conducted with permeabilized cells and whole-cell suspensions of m-xylene-grown Azoarcus sp. strain T demonstrated that the specific rate of in vitro (3-methylbenzyl)succinate formation accounts for at least 15% of the specific rate of in vivo m-xylene consumption. Based on these findings, we propose that Azoarcus sp. strain T anaerobically oxidizes m-xylene to 3-methylbenzoate (or its CoA thioester) via (3-methylbenzyl)succinate and E-(3-methylphenyl)itaconate (or its CoA thioester) in a series of reactions that are analogous to those recently proposed for anaerobic toluene oxidation to benzoyl-CoA. A deuterium kinetic isotope effect was observed in the (3-methylbenzyl)succinate synthase reaction (and the benzylsuccinate synthase reaction), suggesting that a rate-determining step in this novel fumarate addition reaction involves breaking a C-H bond.  (+info)

Theoretical investigation of the [1,2]-sigmatropic hydrogen migration in the mechanism of oxidation of 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA by 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase. (2/69)

The flavin hydroperoxide at the active site of the mixed-function oxidase 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase (Azoarcus evansii) transfers an oxygen to the 5-position of the 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA substrate to provide the alkoxide intermediate II(-). Hydrogen migration from C5 to C6 follows this monooxygenation. The nature of the monooxygenation intermediate and plausible competing reactions leading to hydrogen migration have been considered. Ab initio molecular orbital theory has been used to calculate structures and electron distributions in intermediate and transition state structures. Electrostatic potential surface calculations establish that the transition state and product, associated with the C5 to C6 hydrogen transfer, are stabilized by electron distribution to the benzoyl-CoA thioester carbonyl oxygen. This is not so for the transition state and product associated with hydrogen transfer from C5 to C4. The activation energy for the 5, 6-shift is 2.5 kcal/mol lower than that for the 5,4-shift. In addition, the product of the hydrogen 5,6-shift is more stable than is the product of the hydrogen 5,4-shift, by approximately 6 kcal/mol. These results explain why only the shift of hydrogen from C5 to C6 is observed experimentally. Oxygen transfer and hydrogen migration almost coincide in the gas phase (activation energy of approximately 0.6 kcal/mol, equivalent to a single bond vibration). Enzymatic formation of alkoxide II(-) requires its stabilization; thus, the rate constant for its breakdown would be slower than in the gas phase.  (+info)

Biochemical and molecular characterization of phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase, an enzyme catalyzing the first step in aerobic metabolism of phenylacetic acid in Azoarcus evansii. (3/69)

Phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase (PA-CoA ligase; AMP forming, EC 6.2. 1.30), the enzyme catalyzing the first step in the aerobic degradation of phenylacetate (PA) in Azoarcus evansii, has been purified and characterized. The gene (paaK) coding for this enzyme was cloned and sequenced. The enzyme catalyzes the reaction of PA with CoA and MgATP to yield phenylacetyl-CoA (PACoA) plus AMP plus PPi. The enzyme was specifically induced after aerobic growth in a chemically defined medium containing PA or phenylalanine (Phe) as the sole carbon source. Growth with 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, benzoate, adipate, or acetate did not induce the synthesis of this enzyme. This enzymatic activity was detected very early in the exponential phase of growth, and a maximal specific activity of 76 nmol min(-1) mg of cell protein(-1) was measured. After 117-fold purification to homogeneity, a specific activity of 48 micromol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) was achieved with a turnover number (catalytic constant) of 40 s(-1). The protein is a monomer of 52 kDa and shows high specificity towards PA; other aromatic or aliphatic acids were not used as substrates. The apparent K(m) values for PA, ATP, and CoA were 14, 60, and 45 microM, respectively. The PA-CoA ligase has an optimum pH of 8 to 8.5 and a pI of 6.3. The enzyme is labile and requires the presence of glycerol for stabilization. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein showed no homology with other reported PA-CoA ligases. The gene encoding this enzyme is 1, 320 bp long and codes for a protein of 48.75 kDa (440 amino acids) which shows high similarity with other reported PA-CoA ligases. An amino acid consensus for an AMP binding motif (VX2SSGTTGXP) was identified. The biochemical and molecular characteristics of this enzyme are quite different from those of the isoenzyme catalyzing the same reaction under anaerobic conditions in the same bacterium.  (+info)

Characterization of the Azoarcus ribozyme: tight binding to guanosine and substrate by an unusually small group I ribozyme. (4/69)

We report novel chemical properties of the ribozyme derived from the smallest group I intron (subgroup IC3) that comes from the pre-tRNA(Ile) of the bacterium Azoarcus sp. BH72. Despite the small size of the Azoarcus ribozyme (195 nucleotides (nt)), it binds tightly to the guanosine nucleophile (Kd = 15 +/- 3 microM) and exhibits activity at high temperatures (approximately 60-70 degrees C). These features may be due to the two GA3 tetraloop interactions postulated in the intron and the high GC content of the secondary structure. The second order rate constant for the Azoarcus ribozyme, ((k(cat)/Km)S = 8.4 +/- 2.1 x 10(-5) M(-1) min(-1)) is close to that found for the related ribozyme derived from the pre-tRNA(Ile) of the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7120. pH dependence studies and kinetic analyses of deoxy-substituted substrates suggest that the chemical cleavage step is the rate-determining process in the Azoarcus ribozyme. This may be due to the short 3-nt guide sequence-substrate pairing present in the Azoarcus ribozyme. Finally, the Azoarcus ribozyme shares features conserved in other group I ribozymes including the pH profile, the stereospecificity for the Rp-phosphorothioate at the cleavage site and the 1000-fold decrease in cleavage rate with a deoxyribonucleoside leaving group.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a new denitrifying spirillum capable of anaerobic degradation of phenol. (5/69)

Two kinds of phenol-degrading denitrifying bacteria, Azoarcus sp. strain CC-11 and spiral bacterial strain CC-26, were isolated from the same enrichment culture after 1 and 3 years of incubation, respectively. Both strains required ferrous ions for growth, but strain CC-26 grew better than strain CC-11 grew under iron-limited conditions, which may have resulted in the observed change in the phenol-degrading bacteria during the enrichment process. Strain CC-26 grew on phenol, benzoate, and other aromatic compounds under denitrifying conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequences revealed that this strain is most closely related to a Magnetospirillum sp., a member of the alpha subclass of the class Proteobacteria, and is the first strain of a denitrifying aromatic compound-degrading bacterium belonging to this group. Unlike previously described Magnetospirillum strains, however, this strain did not exhibit magnetotaxis. It grew on phenol only under denitrifying conditions. Other substrates, such as acetate, supported aerobic growth, and the strain exhibited microaerophilic features.  (+info)

Reassessment of the taxonomic structure of the diazotrophic genus Azoarcus sensu lato and description of three new genera and new species, Azovibrio restrictus gen. nov., sp. nov., Azospira oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Azonexus fungiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov. (6/69)

The taxonomic structure of members of the genus Azoarcus sensu lato was reassessed in a polyphasic approach. Two species, Azoarcus communis and Azoarcus indigens, three unnamed species containing diazotrophs associated with Kallar grass roots (groups C, D) and a group of strains (E) isolated from fungi were analysed. They were compared by PAGE analyses of cellular proteins, genomic fingerprints, morphological and nutritional features to new isolates from rice roots. All strains within groups C, D and E containing 5-12 isolates showed group-specific cell and colony morphology and carbon source utilization patterns, with exception of the obligately microaerobic strain BS20-3, a member of group C. All strains, with this exception, also had almost indistinguishable electrophoretic protein patterns and genomic fingerprints generated with tDNA-directed primers, suggesting they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analyses of almost complete 16S rDNA sequences carried out with three different algorithms (neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood, parsimony) revealed that Azoarcus sensu lato is not monophyletic. Groups C, D and E formed three distinct lineages located between the Azoarcus/Thauera and the Rhodocyclus clusters. Phylogenetic distances between groups C, D and E were as large as between other genera (93-94% sequence similarity). This suggested they have the rank of three different genera. Since it was possible to differentiate them from each other and other related bacteria by phenotypic features, three new genera with one type species each are proposed: Azovibrio restrictus gen. nov., sp. nov., Azospira oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Azonexus fungiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov.  (+info)

Structure-function relationships of two closely related group IC3 intron ribozymes from Azoarcus and Synechococcus pre-tRNA. (7/69)

The two group IC3 pre-tRNA introns from Azoarcus and Synechococcus share very analogous secondary structures. They are small group I ribozymes that possess only two peripheral domains, P2 and P9. However, the 3'-splice site hydrolysis activity of the Synechococcus ribozyme critically depends on P2 whereas that of Azoarcus does not, indicating that the structure-function relationships of the two ribozymes are strikingly different despite their structural resemblance. To identify the element(s) that determines the catalytic properties of these ribozymes, we undertook analyses of chimeric ribozymes prepared by swapping their structural elements. We found that the difference can be attributed to a small number of nucleotides within the conserved core region. Further analysis by employing in vitro selection revealed that a base triple interaction (P4bp3 x J6/7-2) is a critical element for determining activity and suggests the existence of a novel base quintuple involving the base triple P4bp5 x J8/7-5.  (+info)

Reinvestigation of a new type of aerobic benzoate metabolism in the proteobacterium Azoarcus evansii. (8/69)

The aerobic metabolism of benzoate in the proteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was reinvestigated. The known pathways leading to catechol or protocatechuate do not operate in this bacterium. The presumed degradation via 3-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and gentisate could not be confirmed. The first committed step is the activation of benzoate to benzoyl-CoA by a specifically induced benzoate-CoA ligase (AMP forming). This enzyme was purified and shown to differ from an isoenzyme catalyzing the same reaction under anaerobic conditions. The second step postulated involves the hydroxylation of benzoyl-CoA to a so far unknown product by a novel benzoyl-CoA oxygenase, presumably a multicomponent enzyme system. An iron-sulfur flavoprotein, which may be a component of this system, was purified and characterized. The homodimeric enzyme had a native molecular mass of 98 kDa as determined by gel filtration and contained 0.72 mol flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 10.4 to 18.4 mol of Fe, and 13.3 to 17.9 mol of acid-labile sulfur per mol of native protein, depending on the method of protein determination. This benzoate-induced enzyme catalyzed a benzoyl-CoA-, FAD-, and O2-dependent NADPH oxidation surprisingly without hydroxylation of the aromatic ring; however, H2O2 was formed. The gene (boxA, for benzoate oxidation) coding for this protein was cloned and sequenced. It coded for a protein of 46 kDa with two amino acid consensus sequences for two [4Fe-4S] centers at the N terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with subunits of ferredoxin-NADP reductase, nitric oxide synthase, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and phenol hydroxylase. Upstream of the boxA gene, another gene, boxB, encoding a protein of 55 kDa was found. The boxB gene exhibited homology to open reading frames in various other bacteria which code for components of a putative aerobic phenylacetyl-CoA oxidizing system. The boxB gene product was one of at least five proteins induced when A. evansii was grown on benzoate.  (+info)

Azoarcus is a genus of bacteria that have the ability to degrade aromatic compounds, including toluene and benzene. These bacteria are found in various environments such as soil, water, and the rhizosphere of plants. They are gram-negative, motile rods that are capable of denitrification, which means they can use nitrate as an electron acceptor during respiration instead of oxygen. Some species of Azoarcus can also fix nitrogen, making them important contributors to the nitrogen cycle in their environments.

The name "Azoarcus" comes from the Greek word "azo," meaning nitrogen, and the Latin word "arcus," meaning bow or arc, referring to the shape of the nitrate reduction pathway in these bacteria.

It's worth noting that while Azoarcus species have potential applications in bioremediation and wastewater treatment, some strains can also cause disease in plants, so their use in certain environments must be carefully considered.

'Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods' is a term that refers to a specific group of bacteria. Here's a breakdown of the term:

1. **Gram-Negative**: This refers to the bacterial cell wall's reaction to Gram staining, a common laboratory test used to classify bacteria based on their structural differences. Gram-negative bacteria do not retain the crystal violet stain used in this process, instead taking up the counterstain (usually a pink or red dye like safranin), which makes them appear pink or red under a microscope.

2. **Facultatively Anaerobic**: This indicates that the bacteria can grow and reproduce both in the presence and absence of molecular oxygen (O2). They have the ability to switch their metabolism based on the availability of oxygen, making them versatile in different environments.

3. **Rods**: This term describes the shape of these bacteria. Rod-shaped bacteria are also known as bacilli. Their elongated form is one of several shapes bacteria can take, along with spherical (cocci) and spiral (spirochetes).

In summary, 'Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods' defines a group of rod-shaped bacteria that do not retain crystal violet during Gram staining (Gram-negative), and can grow with or without oxygen (facultatively anaerobic). Examples of such bacteria include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis.

"Thauera" is a genus of bacteria that belongs to the family of Comamonadaceae. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and wastewater treatment systems. They have the ability to degrade various organic compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons and ammonia, making them important players in bioremediation processes.

The name "Thauera" is derived from the Greek word "thauema," which means "wonder" or "marvel." This name reflects the remarkable abilities of these bacteria to break down complex organic compounds.

It's worth noting that "Thauera" is a taxonomic category, and individual species within this genus may have additional characteristics or properties that are not shared by all members of the group.

Toluene is not a medical condition or disease, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. Medically, toluene can be relevant as a substance of abuse due to its intoxicating effects when inhaled or sniffed. It is a colorless liquid with a distinctive sweet aroma, and it is a common solvent found in many products such as paint thinners, adhesives, and rubber cement.

In the context of medical toxicology, toluene exposure can lead to various health issues, including neurological damage, cognitive impairment, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, and hearing and vision problems. Chronic exposure to toluene can also cause significant harm to the developing fetus during pregnancy, leading to developmental delays, behavioral problems, and physical abnormalities.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen gas (N2) in the air is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other chemically reactive forms, making it available to plants and other organisms for use as a nutrient. This process is essential for the nitrogen cycle and for the growth of many types of plants, as most plants cannot utilize nitrogen gas directly from the air.

In the medical field, nitrogen fixation is not a commonly used term. However, in the context of microbiology and infectious diseases, some bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and this ability can contribute to their pathogenicity. For example, certain species of bacteria that colonize the human body, such as those found in the gut or on the skin, may be able to fix nitrogen and use it for their own growth and survival. In some cases, these bacteria may also release fixed nitrogen into the environment, which can have implications for the ecology and health of the host and surrounding ecosystems.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

Nitrogen compounds are chemical substances that contain nitrogen, which is a non-metal in group 15 of the periodic table. Nitrogen forms compounds with many other elements due to its ability to form multiple bonds, including covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and halogens.

Nitrogen can exist in several oxidation states, ranging from -3 to +5, which leads to a wide variety of nitrogen compounds with different properties and uses. Some common examples of nitrogen compounds include:

* Ammonia (NH3), a colorless gas with a pungent odor, used in fertilizers, cleaning products, and refrigeration systems.
* Nitric acid (HNO3), a strong mineral acid used in the production of explosives, dyes, and fertilizers.
* Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), a white crystalline solid used as a fertilizer and explosive ingredient.
* Hydrazine (N2H4), a colorless liquid with a strong odor, used as a rocket fuel and reducing agent.
* Nitrous oxide (N2O), a colorless gas used as an anesthetic and laughing gas in dental procedures.

Nitrogen compounds have many important applications in various industries, such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and energy production. However, some nitrogen compounds can also be harmful or toxic to humans and the environment if not handled properly.

Xylenes are aromatic hydrocarbons that are often used as solvents in the industrial field. They are composed of two benzene rings with methyl side groups (-CH3) and can be found as a mixture of isomers: ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and para-xylene.

In a medical context, xylenes may be relevant due to their potential for exposure in occupational settings or through environmental contamination. Short-term exposure to high levels of xylenes can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, as well as symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and nausea. Long-term exposure has been linked to neurological effects, including memory impairment, hearing loss, and changes in behavior and mood.

It is worth noting that xylenes are not typically considered a direct medical diagnosis, but rather a potential exposure hazard or environmental contaminant that may have health impacts.

Aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as aromatic compounds or arenes, are a class of organic compounds characterized by a planar ring structure with delocalized electrons that give them unique chemical properties. The term "aromatic" was originally used to describe their distinctive odors, but it now refers to their characteristic molecular structure and stability.

Aromatic hydrocarbons contain one or more benzene rings, which are cyclic structures consisting of six carbon atoms arranged in a planar hexagonal shape. Each carbon atom in the benzene ring is bonded to two other carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom, forming alternating double and single bonds between the carbon atoms. However, the delocalized electrons in the benzene ring are evenly distributed around the ring, leading to a unique electronic structure that imparts stability and distinctive chemical properties to aromatic hydrocarbons.

Examples of aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthalene. These compounds have important uses in industry, but they can also pose health risks if not handled properly. Exposure to high levels of aromatic hydrocarbons has been linked to various health effects, including cancer, neurological damage, and respiratory problems.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Benzoates are the salts and esters of benzoic acid. They are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to prevent the growth of microorganisms. The chemical formula for benzoic acid is C6H5COOH, and when it is combined with a base (like sodium or potassium), it forms a benzoate salt (e.g., sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate). When benzoic acid reacts with an alcohol, it forms a benzoate ester (e.g., methyl benzoate or ethyl benzoate).

Benzoates are generally considered safe for use in food and cosmetics in small quantities. However, some people may have allergies or sensitivities to benzoates, which can cause reactions such as hives, itching, or asthma symptoms. In addition, there is ongoing research into the potential health effects of consuming high levels of benzoates over time, particularly in relation to gut health and the development of certain diseases.

In a medical context, benzoates may also be used as a treatment for certain conditions. For example, sodium benzoate is sometimes given to people with elevated levels of ammonia in their blood (hyperammonemia) to help reduce those levels and prevent brain damage. This is because benzoates can bind with excess ammonia in the body and convert it into a form that can be excreted in urine.

Carbon-carbon lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in a substrate, resulting in the formation of two molecules with a double bond between them. This reaction is typically accompanied by the release or addition of a cofactor such as water or a coenzyme.

These enzymes play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. They are also involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, such as terpenoids and alkaloids.

Carbon-carbon lyases are classified under EC number 4.1.2. in the Enzyme Commission (EC) system. This classification includes a wide range of enzymes with different substrate specificities and reaction mechanisms. Examples of carbon-carbon lyases include decarboxylases, aldolases, and dehydratases.

It's worth noting that the term "lyase" refers to any enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a group of atoms from a molecule, leaving a double bond or a cycle, and it does not necessarily imply the formation of carbon-carbon bonds.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 40-42°C. Phenol is a weak acid, but it is quite reactive and can be converted into a variety of other chemicals.

In a medical context, phenol is most commonly used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It has a characteristic odor that is often described as "tarry" or " medicinal." Phenol is also used in some over-the-counter products, such as mouthwashes and throat lozenges, to help kill bacteria and freshen breath.

However, phenol is also a toxic substance that can cause serious harm if it is swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It can cause irritation and burns to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes, and it can damage the liver and kidneys if ingested. Long-term exposure to phenol has been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

Because of its potential for harm, phenol is regulated as a hazardous substance in many countries, and it must be handled with care when used in medical or industrial settings.

A catalytic RNA, often referred to as a ribozyme, is a type of RNA molecule that has the ability to act as an enzyme and catalyze chemical reactions. These RNA molecules contain specific sequences and structures that allow them to bind to other molecules and accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed in the process.

Ribozymes play important roles in various biological processes, such as RNA splicing, translation regulation, and gene expression. One of the most well-known ribozymes is the self-splicing intron found in certain RNA molecules, which can excise itself from the host RNA and then ligase the flanking exons together.

The discovery of catalytic RNAs challenged the central dogma of molecular biology, which held that proteins were solely responsible for carrying out biological catalysis. The finding that RNA could also function as an enzyme opened up new avenues of research and expanded our understanding of the complexity and versatility of biological systems.

Endophytes are microorganisms, typically bacteria or fungi, that live inside the tissues of plants without causing any visible disease or harm to the plant. They can be found in almost all plant species and are known to exist in a mutualistic relationship with their host plants. Endophytes can provide various benefits to the plants such as growth promotion, increased resistance to pathogens, and protection against herbivores. Some endophytic fungi also produce bioactive compounds that have potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry.

Resorcinols are a type of chemical compound that contain a resorcinol moiety, which is made up of a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups in the ortho position. In medicine, resorcinol and its derivatives have been used for various purposes, including as antiseptics, antibacterials, and intermediates in the synthesis of other pharmaceuticals.

Resorcinol itself has some medicinal properties, such as being able to reduce pain and inflammation, and it has been used topically to treat conditions like eczema, psoriasis, and acne. However, resorcinol can also be toxic in large amounts, so it must be used with caution.

It's important to note that while resorcinol is a chemical compound, the term "resorcinols" may also refer to a group of related compounds that contain the resorcinol moiety. These compounds can have different medicinal properties and uses depending on their specific structure and function.

... indigens sp. nov. and Azoarcus communis sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 43 (3): 574-584. ... Azoarcus is a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Species in this genus are usually found in contaminated water, as they are ... Reinhold-Hurek, B.; Hurek, T.; Gillis, M.; Hoste, B.; Vancanneyt, M.; Kersters, K.; De Ley, J. (1993). "Azoarcus gen. nov., ... ISBN 978-0-7923-4514-5. LPSN "Azoarcus" at the Encyclopedia of Life v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
... is a species of bacteria. It is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Its cells are Gram-negative, motile and rod- ... ISBN 0-7923-4514-2. LPSN Type strain of Azoarcus olearius at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles ... Hurek T, Reinhold-Hurek B (June 1995). "Identification of grass-associated and toluene-degrading diazotrophs, Azoarcus spp., by ... "Azoarcus olearius sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil". International Journal of ...
... is a bacterium from the genus Azoarcus. "LSPN LPSN". Retrieved 2013-08-14. "Straininfo of Azoarcus ... Type strain of Azoarcus toluvorans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (CS1: long volume value, Articles ... and Azoarcus toluclasticus sp. nov". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 49 Pt 3 (3): 1129-40. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-3-1129. PMID 10425771 ... "Taxonomic characterization of denitrifying bacteria that degrade aromatic compounds and description of Azoarcus toluvorans sp. ...
... is a gram negative bacterium from the genus Azoarcus. "LSPN LPSN". Retrieved 2013-08-13. "Straininfo of ... and Azoarcus toluclasticus sp. nov". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 49 Pt 3 (3): 1129-40. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-3-1129. PMID 10425771 ... "Taxonomic characterization of denitrifying bacteria that degrade aromatic compounds and description of Azoarcus toluvorans sp. ... Azoarcus toluclasticus". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2013-08-13. UniProt Song, B; Häggblom, MM; Zhou, J ...
Straininfo of Azoarcus anaerobius[permanent dead link] Springer, N; Ludwig, W; Philipp, B; Schink, B (1998). "Azoarcus ... Azoarcus anaerobius is a gram-negative, strictly anaerobic, catalase-negative, nitrate-reducing, rod-shaped bacterium from the ... UniProt International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology [1] Type strain of Azoarcus anaerobius at BacDive - the Bacterial ...
ISBN 0-7923-4514-2. "Azoarcus communis" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Azoarcus communis at BacDive - the ... Azoarcus indigens sp. nov. and Azoarcus communis sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 43 (3): 574-584. ... Azoarcus communis is a species of bacteria. It is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Its cells are yellow-pigmented, straight to ... Reinhold-Hurek, B.; Hurek, T.; Gillis, M.; Hoste, B.; Vancanneyt, M.; Kersters, K.; De Ley, J. (1993). "Azoarcus gen. nov., ...
"Azoarcus indigens" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Azoarcus indigens at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Azoarcus indigens sp. nov. and Azoarcus communis sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 43 (3): 574-584. ... Azoarcus indigens is a species of bacteria. It is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with roots of Leptochloa fusca . Its ... Hurek T, Reinhold-Hurek B (June 1995). "Identification of grass-associated and toluene-degrading diazotrophs, Azoarcus spp., by ...
... is a bacterium from the genus Azoarcus. "LSPN LPSN". Retrieved 2013-08-13. "Straininfo of Azoarcus buckelii ... Type strain of Azoarcus buckelii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Webarchive template wayback links, ... nov., and Azoarcus buckelii sp. nov". Arch Microbiol. 178 (1): 26-35. doi:10.1007/s00203-002-0422-6. PMID 12070766. S2CID ...
... is a species of bacteria. Its type strain is KB 740T. This particular strain of Azoarcus evansii has been ... "Azoarcus evansii" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Azoarcus evansii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... nov., and Azoarcus, as Azoarcus evansii sp. nov., Respectively, Members of the Beta Subclass of the Proteobacteria". ... The Azoarcus evansii consumes (literally eats) the Lactobacillus johnsonii to maintain a healthy population level. It has been ...
LPSN "Azoarcus tolulyticus" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Azoarcus tolulyticus at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Azoarcus tolulyticus is a species of bacteria. It is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. It is notable for degrading toluene. Tol-4 is ... Hurek T, Reinhold-Hurek B (June 1995). "Identification of grass-associated and toluene-degrading diazotrophs, Azoarcus spp., by ... Azoarcus tolulyticus, with small-subunit rRNA primers and probes". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 63 (6): 2384-90. doi ...
nov., and Azoarcus buckelii sp. nov". Arch Microbiol. 178 (1): 26-35. doi:10.1007/s00203-002-0422-6. PMID 12070766. S2CID ...
nov., and Azoarcus, as Azoarcus evansii sp. nov., Respectively, Members of the Beta Subclass of the Proteobacteria". ...
... is not valid and should be officially referred to as Azoarcus sp. EbN1 as it belongs to the Azoarcus/Thauera cluster. The ... Unlike many species in Azoarcus proper, it is incapable of fixing nitrogen. Lapage, S.; Sneath, P.; Lessel, E.; Skerman, V.; ... "Aromatoleum aromaticum (strain EbN1) aka Azoarcus sp. (strain EbN1))". UniProt Proteomes. Rabus, R; Kube, M; Heider, J; Beck, A ...
Kniemeyer O, Heider J (July 2001). "(S)-1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase of Azoarcus sp. strain EbN1, an enzyme of anaerobic ...
3-dioxygenase is involved in aerobic benzoate metabolism in Azoarcus evansii. Zaar A, Gescher J, Eisenreich W, Bacher A, Fuchs ... "Genes coding for a new pathway of aerobic benzoate metabolism in Azoarcus evansii". Journal of Bacteriology. 184 (22): 6301-15 ... "Reinvestigation of a new type of aerobic benzoate metabolism in the proteobacterium Azoarcus evansii". Journal of Bacteriology ... G (October 2004). "New enzymes involved in aerobic benzoate metabolism in Azoarcus evansii". Molecular Microbiology. 54 (1): ...
Uliginosibacterium and Azoarcus. Cells are rod shaped. Dominant respiratory quinones are ubiquinone-8 and rhodoquinone-8. G+C ...
Harder J (1997). "Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane-1,2-diol by a new Azoarcus species". Arch. Microbiol. 168 (3): 199-204. ...
Gescher J, Eisenreich W, Wörth J, Bacher A, Fuchs G (June 2005). "Aerobic benzoyl-CoA catabolic pathway in Azoarcus evansii: ... formate The enzyme is involved in the aerobic benzoyl-CoA catabolic pathway in Azoarcus evansii. ...
... a new enzyme of anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism in the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus evansii". Eur. J. Biochem. 251 (3): ...
... a denitrifying bacterium related to the genera Azoarcus and Thauera. It is a molybdenum enzyme belonging to the DMSO reductase ...
... by the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus anaerobius". Journal of Bacteriology. 180 (14): 3644-9. PMC 107334. PMID 9658009. ( ...
... developed from constructed wetland sediments exhibit electroactive nitrate reducing biofilms dominated by the genera Azoarcus ...
... catabolic pathway in Azoarcus evansii: conversion of ring cleavage product by 3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... H+ This enzyme catalyses a step in the aerobic benzoyl-coenzyme A catabolic pathway in Azoarcus evansii and Burkholderia ...
used an Azoarcus group I intron ribozyme that, when fragmented, has an ability to self-assemble by catalysing recombination ... akin to a recombination of Azoarcus ribozyme from four inactive oligonucleotide fragments described earlier. Apart from a ...
Reinhold-Hurek, B.; Hurek, T. (2000). "Reassessment of the taxonomic structure of the diazotrophic genus Azoarcus sensu lato ...
Reinhold-Hurek, B.; Hurek, T. (2000). "Reassessment of the taxonomic structure of the diazotrophic genus Azoarcus sensu lato ...
Strobel's group solved the x-ray crystal structure of the full length Azoarcus Group I catalytic intron, the glmS ribozyme, and ...
Reinhold-Hurek, B.; Hurek, T. (2000). "Reassessment of the taxonomic structure of the diazotrophic genus Azoarcus sensu lato ...
Sugarcane and unclear endophytes Foxtail millet and Azospirillum brasilense Kallar grass and Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 Rice and ...
... which was unambiguously proven by a high-resolution structure of the Azoarcus group I intron in 2006. Since the early 1990s, ...
Azoarcus indigens sp. nov. and Azoarcus communis sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 43 (3): 574-584. ... Azoarcus is a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Species in this genus are usually found in contaminated water, as they are ... Reinhold-Hurek, B.; Hurek, T.; Gillis, M.; Hoste, B.; Vancanneyt, M.; Kersters, K.; De Ley, J. (1993). "Azoarcus gen. nov., ... ISBN 978-0-7923-4514-5. LPSN "Azoarcus" at the Encyclopedia of Life v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
The Azoarcus genus is a physiologically versatile group of beta-proteobacteria of great environmental relevance. Azoarcus sp. ... Azoarcus turns out to be a new eco-friendly system to reduce selenite and produce spherical SeNPs. Moreover, this is the first ... Azoarcus cells trigger the synthesis of SeNPs when they reach the stationary-phase of growth, and either the exhaustion of ... Azoarcus becomes a promising biocatalyst, either as whole cells or cellular extracts, for the anaerobic and/or aerobic green ...
... strain DQS-4T represents a novel species in the genus Azoarcus , for which the name Azoarcus olearius sp. nov. is proposed. The ... and its closest neighbours were Azoarcus indigens VB32T and Azoarcus communis SWub3T, with sequence similarities of 97.4 and ... Azoarcus olearius sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil Ming-Hui Chen, Shih-Yi Sheu, Euan K ... Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DQS-4T belonged to the genus Azoarcus , ...
Hurek, T., Handley, L. L., Reinhold-Hurek, B., and Piché, Y. (2002). Azoarcus grass endophytes contribute fixed nitrogen to the ...
Professor Gyaneshwar Prasad working with Zachary Hying: "Effect of Nitrogen Fixing and Plant Endophytic Azoarcus on ...
Identification and Biosynthesis of a Novel Xanthomonadin-Dialkylresorcinol-Hybrid from Azoarcus sp. BH72 PLoS One; 9(3), e90922 ...
Comparative genomics provides insights into the taxonomy of Azoarcus and reveals separate origins of Nif genes in the proposed ...
Azoarcus and Paenibacillus. He authored the central chapters on the pseudomonads in the many volumes and editions of Bergeys ...
... metabolism in the bacterium Azoarcus evansii. ...
Azoarcus - Preferred Concept UI. M0328416. Scope note. A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including ... Azoarcus. Scope note:. Género de bacterias gramnegativas facultativamente anaerobias que incluye especies a menudo asociadas ...
Here, we used the ability of fragments of the Azoarcus group I intron ribozyme to covalently self-assemble via genotype-selfish ... Here, we used the ability of fragments of the Azoarcus group I intron ribozyme to covalently self-assemble via genotype-selfish ...
AZOARCUS AZOARCUS AZOARCUS AZORHIZOBIUM AZORHIZOBIUM AZORHIZOBIUM AZORHIZOBIUM CAULINODANS AZORHIZOBIUM CAULINODANS ...
AZOARCUS AZOARCUS AZOARCUS AZORHIZOBIUM AZORHIZOBIUM AZORHIZOBIUM AZORHIZOBIUM CAULINODANS AZORHIZOBIUM CAULINODANS ...
AZOARCUS AZOARCUS AZOARCUS AZORHIZOBIUM AZORHIZOBIUM AZORHIZOBIUM AZORHIZOBIUM CAULINODANS AZORHIZOBIUM CAULINODANS ...
Azoarcus sp. BH72, complete genome. putative NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit M. NC_016620:24354:32738. NC_016620:24354. ... Azoarcus sp. BH72, complete genome. putative NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain B. NC_008702:1514707:1525357. NC_008702: ... Azoarcus sp. BH72, complete genome. putative NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain D. NC_008702:1514707:1526449. NC_008702: ... Azoarcus sp. BH72, complete genome. putative NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain E. NC_008702:1514707:1527783. NC_008702: ...
Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 as a model for nitrogen- fi xing grass endophytes. J Biotechnol 106:169-178. doi: 10.1016 / j.jbiotec ... Complete genome of the mutualistic, N2-fixing grass endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72. Nature Biotech. 24: 1385-1391. ...
Azoarcus sp. EbN1 Site: position = -139. score = 47.98 sequence = CTGCCGAGGAGCGCT.... Gene: ebA1874: Adenosylhomocysteinase (EC ... Azoarcus sp. EbN1 Site: position = -169. score = 48.11 sequence = TTGCTGAGGAGCGCT.... Gene: ebA3184: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-- ... Azoarcus sp. EbN1 Gene: ebA1875: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (EC 1.5.1.20) ...
He recently patented the use of a microbial strain called DD4 (Azoarcus sp.), which degrades 1,4-dioxane, an organic chemical ...
Degradation of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate by a hybrid two-component protein protects Azoarcus sp. strain CIB from toluene ...
Azoarcus , Betaproteobacteria/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Anaerobiose , Azoarcus/ ... nov., a novel anaerobic and aerobic denitrifying betaproteobacterium and reclassification of Azoarcus pumilus as Aromatoleum ... In addition, the species Azoarcus pumilus is transferred into genus Aromatoleum and named Aromatoleum pumilum comb. nov. The ...
Bacteria Azoarcus sp.. ID: 103041 Number of atoms in DNA polymerase. Bacteriophage RB69. ID: 103049 ...
... developed from constructed wetland sediments exhibit electroactive nitrate reducing biofilms dominated by the genera Azoarcus ...
Azoarcus [B03.585.101] * Azorhizobium [B03.585.110] * Azospirillum brasilense [B03.585.120] * Azospirillum lipoferum [B03.585. ...
There are large numbers of endophytic microbiomes including Azoarcus, Burkholderia, Curtobacterium, Gluconoacetobacter, ...
Azoarcus, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Beijerinckia, Bradyrhizobium, Caulobacter, Chromobacterium, Derxia, Enterobacter ...
Azoarcus 0 domande A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with ...
Azoarcus T04019 azi Azoarcus sp. CIB Prokaryotes;Bacteria;Betaproteobacteria;Azoarcus T05691 azd Azoarcus sp. DN11 Prokaryotes; ... Azoarcus T04423 aoa Azoarcus olearius DQS4 Prokaryotes;Bacteria;Betaproteobacteria;Azoarcus T02502 aza Azoarcus sp. KH32C ... Bacteria;Betaproteobacteria;Azoarcus T06048 azr Azoarcus sp. DD4 Prokaryotes;Bacteria;Betaproteobacteria;Azoarcus T00804 tmz ... Ferribacterium T00441 azo Azoarcus olearius BH72 Prokaryotes;Bacteria;Betaproteobacteria; ...
Azoarcus [B03.585.101] * Azorhizobium [B03.585.110] * Azospirillum brasilense [B03.585.120] * Azospirillum lipoferum [B03.585. ...
Azoarcus buckelii Mechichi et al. 2002. DSM 214744-34154. MaterialSample. DSMZ. DNA Bank. ...
  • Norberto Palleroni published more than 150 papers on various microbiological subjects, including Pseudomonas taxonomy and phylogeny, and descriptions of several new species of the genera Burkholderia, Thauera, Azoarcus and Paenibacillus . (asm.org)
  • Azoarcus is a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Azoarcus genus is a physiologically versatile group of beta-proteobacteria of great environmental relevance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work is the first report of a member of the Azoarcus genus that is able to anaerobically grow in the presence of selenite. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles by Azoarcus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Schöner TA, Fuchs SW, Reinhold-Hurek B, Bode HB (2014) Identification and Biosynthesis of a Novel Xanthomonadin-Dialkylresorcinol-Hybrid from Azoarcus sp. (neb.com)
  • He recently patented the use of a microbial strain called DD4 (Azoarcus sp. (njit.edu)
  • Nitrogen-Fixing Proteobacteria Associated with Roots of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth), and Description of Two Species, Azoarcus indigens sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we used the ability of fragments of the Azoarcus group I intron ribozyme to covalently self-assemble via genotype-selfish and genotype-cooperative interactions into full-length ribozymes to investigate the dynamics of small (three- and four-membered) networks. (pdx.edu)