Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups, -N=N-, linking two aromatic rings, which can impart various colors and are used in dyes, pharmaceuticals, and chemical research.
A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The reaction of two molecular entities via oxidation usually catalyzed by a transition metal compound and involving dioxygen as the oxidant.
Amidines are organic compounds containing the functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom connected to two carbon atoms by double bonds, with the remaining two bonds attached to hydrogen and any other organic substituent.

Purification and characterization of a novel peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum dec 1 involved in decolorization of dyes. (1/1159)

A peroxidase (DyP) involved in the decolorization of dyes and produced by the fungus strain Geotrichum candidum Dec 1 was purified. DyP, a glycoprotein, is glycosylated with N-acetylglucosamine and mannose (17%) and has a molecular mass of 60 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 3.8. The absorption spectrum of DyP exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm corresponding to a hemoprotein, and its Na2S2O4-reduced form revealed a peak at 556 nm that indicates the presence of a protoheme as its prosthetic group. Nine of the 21 types of dyes that were decolorized by Dec 1 cells were decolorized by DyP; in particular, anthraquinone dyes were highly decolorized. DyP also oxidized 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and guaiacol but not veratryl alcohol. The optimal temperature for DyP activity was 30 degrees C, and DyP activity was stable even after incubation at 50 degrees C for 11 h.  (+info)

Enhanced fatty streak formation in C57BL/6J mice by immunization with heat shock protein-65. (2/1159)

Recent data suggest that the immune system is involved in atherogenesis. Thus, interest has been raised as to the possible antigens that could serve as the initiators of the immune reaction. In the current work, we studied the effects of immunization with recombinant heat shock protein-65 (HSP-65) and HSP-65-rich Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) on early atherogenesis in C57BL/6J mice fed either a normal chow diet or a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). A rapid, cellular immune response to HSP-65 was evident in mice immunized with HSP-65 or with MT but not in the animals immunized with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone. Early atherosclerosis was significantly enhanced in HCD-fed mice immunized with HSP-65 (n=10; mean aortic lesion size, 45 417+/-9258 microm2) or MT (n=15; 66 350+/-6850 microm2) compared with PBS-injected (n=10; 10 028+/-3599 microm2) or nonimmunized (n=10; 9500+/-2120 microm2) mice. No fatty streak lesions were observed in mice fed a chow diet regardless of the immunization protocol applied. Immunohistochemical analysis of atherosclerotic lesions from the HSP-65- and MT-immunized mice revealed infiltration of CD4 lymphocytes compared with the relatively lymphocyte-poor lesions in the PBS-treated or nonimmunized mice. Direct immunofluorescence analysis of lesions from HSP-65- and MT-immunized mice fed an HCD exhibited extensive deposits of immunoglobulins compared with the fatty streaks in the other study groups, consistent with the larger and more advanced lesions found in the former 2 groups. This model, which supports the involvement of HSP-65 in atherogenesis, furnishes a valuable tool to study the role of the immune system in atherogenesis.  (+info)

ApoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice transplanted with ApoE-expressing macrophages. (3/1159)

Along with apolipoprotein (apo) E, which promotes cholesterol efflux from foam cells, apoA1-containing high density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to facilitate the transport of cholesterol from lesions. This role for apoA1 was tested in vivo by lethally irradiating apoE-deficient and apoE- plus apoA1-deficient mice and reconstituting them with bone marrow cells isolated from wild-type (WT) mice. ApoE, but not apoA1, was synthesized by the transplanted bone marrow-derived cells. Therefore, this transplantation procedure generated apoE-deficient animals with atherosclerotic lesions that contained both apoE and apoA1 (E/A1 mice) and apoE-deficient animals with lesions that contained apoE but no apoA1 (E/A1o mice). As shown previously, the transplanted WT macrophage-derived apoE dramatically lowered the plasma hypercholesterolemia in both groups. On feeding with an atherogenic diet after transplantation, plasma cholesterol levels were raised in both groups of mice, but the levels in the E/A1 mice at 20 weeks were 2- to 3-fold higher than in E/A1o mice. Immunohistochemical staining verified that apoE was abundant in lesions of both groups, whereas apoA1 was detected in the lesions of E/A1 mice only. Despite a 2- to 3-fold lower total plasma cholesterol in the E/A1o mice, the free cholesterol recovered from isolated aortas was approximately 60% higher and the mean lesion area in serial sections of the aortic valves 45% larger. Therefore, apoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in vivo in atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Azo dyes prevent hydrocarbon-induced leukemia in the rat. (4/1159)

A set of intraveous injections of 7,8,12-trimethylbenz[a]anthracene consistently elicited leukemia in more than 75% of young adult Long-Evans female rats. There was a profound reduction in the incidence of leukemia in companion groups of rats fed small amounts (1--10 mg) of Sudan III or Sudan IV prior to each injection of the carcinogenic hydrocarbon. Repeated feedings of 1 mg of Sudan III induced cumulative increases in the concentration of menadione reductase (EC 1.6.99.2) in liver, whereas protein concentration was unchanged. A single feeding of 1 mg of Sudan III prevented fatal toxicity in all members of large groups of rats injected with massive doses of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, but 50% of the survivors developed leukemia; unprotected rats succumbed in 1--3 days. Sudan III was not carcinogenic under the experimental conditions.  (+info)

Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits differentiation of pre- and post- confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but inhibits cell proliferation only in preconfluent cells. (5/1159)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2) is a group of isomers (mainly 9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) of linoleic acid. CLA is the product of rumen fermentation and can be found in the milk and muscle of ruminants. Animals fed CLA have a lower body fat content. The objective of this study was to establish the possible mechanisms by which CLA affects adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 is a well-established cell line that is used extensively in studying adipocyte biology. These cells typically grow in a culture medium until they reach confluence, at which time they are induced to differentiate by hormonal treatment (d 0). Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 25 to 100 micromol/L CLA inhibited differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, while linoleic acid treatment did not differ from DMSO-treated controls. Continuous treatment from d -2, -1, 0 or 2 to d 8 and treatment from d -2 to d 0 and from d 0 to d 2 inhibited differentiation. Differentiation was monitored morphologically (oil Red-O staining), enzymatically (reduction of activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), and by northern analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and adipocyte specific protein 2 mRNA. CLA inhibited cell proliferation of nonconfluent cells but did not affect cell division of confluent cells, as indicated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and mitochondria metabolism. Therefore, CLA inhibited differentiation before confluence and during induction. However, cellular proliferation was only inhibited prior to induction. These results imply that fat reduction caused by CLA treatment may be attributed to its inhibition of both proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes in animals.  (+info)

Oxidation of low density lipoprotein and plasma by 15-lipoxygenase and free radicals. (6/1159)

It is generally accepted that the oxidation of pentadiene structures of polyunsaturated lipids by lipoxygenase (LOX) is regio- and enantio-specific, while the free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation gives stereo-random racemic products. It was confirmed that the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) by 15-LOX from rabbit reticulocytes gave phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesteryl ester (CE) hydroperoxides regio-, stereo- and enantio-specifically. 15-LOX also oxidized human plasma to give specific PC and CE hydroperoxides in spite of the presence of high concentrations of antioxidants. More CE hydroperoxides were formed than PC hydroperoxides from LDL, but the reverse order was observed for plasma oxidation. The S/R ratio of the hydroperoxides decreased during long time incubation but remained significantly larger than one, while free radical-mediated oxidation of LDL and plasma gave racemic products.  (+info)

Fluorimetric determination of aluminum traces in hemodialysis solutions using Mordant Red 19. (7/1159)

A sensitive and accurate method for the spectrofluorimetric determination of trace levels of aluminum in hemodialysis solutions using Mordant Red 19 as the complexation reagent has been developed. The optimal experimental conditions for the concentration of fluorimetric reagent, pH, temperature, and the specific type of matrix are reported. The emission of the fluorescent metal chelate was measured at 555 nm, excitation at 478 nm. Linearity between emission intensity and aluminum concentration was found in the 2-20 ppb range in standard aluminum solutions. Limit of detection was 0.4 ppb. The aluminum amounts in some commercial hemodialysis solutions were determined by means of the extrapolation method. The proposed method proved to be suitable in terms of sensitivity and accuracy for the determination of aluminum in dialysis fluids.  (+info)

The structure and function of acid proteases. V. Comparative studies on the specific inhibition of acid proteases by diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methyl ester, 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy) propane and pepstatin. (8/1159)

Comparative studies have been made on the effects of diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methyl ester (DAN), 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane (EPNP) and pepstatin on acid proteases, including those from Acrocylindrium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus saitoi, Mucor pusillus, Paecilomyces varioti, Rhizopus chinensis, and Trametes sanguinea, and also porcine pepsin [EC 3.4.23.1] and calf rennin [EC 3.4.23.4] for comparative purposes. These enzymes were rapidly inactivated at similar rates and in 1:1 stiochiometry by reaction with DAN in the presence of cupric ions. The pH profiles of inactivation of these enzymes were similar and had optima at pH 5.5 to 6. They were also inactivated at similar rates by reaction with EPNP, with concomitant incorporation of nearly 2 EPNP molecules per molecule of enzyme. The pH profiles of inactivation were again similar and maximal inactivation was observed at around pH 3 to 4. Some of the EPNP-inactivated enzymes were treated with DAN and shown still to retain reactivity toward DAN. All these enzymes were inhibited strongly by pepstatin, and the reactions of DAN and EPNP with them were also markedly inhibited by prior treatment with pepstatin. These results indicate that the active sites of these enzymes are quite similar and that they presumably have at least two essential carboxyl groups at the active site in common, one reactive with DAN in the presence of cupric ions and the other reactive with EPNP, as has already been demonstrated for porcine pepsin and calf rennin. Pepstatin appears to bind at least part of the active site of each enzyme in a simmilar manner.  (+info)

Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups (-N=N-) in their molecular structure. The term "azo" is derived from the Greek word "azō," meaning "to boil" or "to sparkle," which refers to the brightly colored nature of many azo compounds.

These compounds are synthesized by the reaction between aromatic amines and nitrous acid or its derivatives, resulting in the formation of diazonium salts, which then react with another aromatic compound containing an active methylene group to form azo compounds.

Azo compounds have diverse applications across various industries, including dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. They are known for their vibrant colors, making them widely used as colorants in textiles, leather, paper, and food products. In addition, some azo compounds exhibit unique chemical properties, such as solubility, stability, and reactivity, which make them valuable intermediates in the synthesis of various organic compounds.

However, certain azo compounds have been found to pose health risks due to their potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. As a result, regulations have been imposed on their use in consumer products, particularly those intended for oral consumption or direct skin contact.

I could not find a medical definition specifically for "Amaranth dye," as it is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. However, Amaranth is a type of plant that contains a red-colored pigment called "amaranth dye" or "red 2." It has been used as a food coloring and also in textiles.

In the context of medicine, amaranth dye may be mentioned in relation to its potential toxicity. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified amaranth dye as a food additive that is "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS), but it has been banned for use in foods in several countries due to concerns about its potential health effects. Some studies have suggested that amaranth dye may cause DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, and mutations in laboratory animals, and it has been linked to cancer in some studies. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and determine the safety of amaranth dye for human consumption.

It's worth noting that amaranth dye is not commonly used as a food coloring in the United States, and it is not approved for use in cosmetics or other personal care products. If you have any concerns about the safety of a particular product or ingredient, it's always a good idea to speak with your healthcare provider or consult with a trusted source of information.

"Oxidative coupling" is not a widely recognized medical term, but it does have applications in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. It generally refers to a chemical reaction between two molecules where one or both of them undergo oxidation, leading to the formation of a new covalent bond between them.

In a biological context, "oxidative coupling" can refer to enzymatic reactions that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of their function. For example, in the electron transport chain during cellular respiration, oxidative phosphorylation results in the production of ATP, but also generates superoxide radicals as byproducts. These ROS can then undergo further oxidative coupling reactions to form other types of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radicals.

In some cases, these oxidative coupling reactions may contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, in other contexts, oxidative coupling reactions may play important roles in cellular signaling pathways or in the detoxification of harmful substances.

Overall, while "oxidative coupling" is not a medical term per se, it does have relevance to various physiological and pathophysiological processes that are of interest to medical researchers and healthcare professionals.

Amidines are organic compounds that contain a functional group with the structure R-C=N-R, where R can be an alkyl or aromatic group. This functional group consists of a carbonyl (C=O) group and a nitrogen atom (N) connected to two organic groups (R).

In medical terminology, amidines are not commonly used. However, some amidine derivatives have been investigated for their potential therapeutic properties. For example, certain amidine compounds have shown antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. Some of these compounds have also been studied as potential drugs for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

It is important to note that while some amidines may have therapeutic potential, they can also be toxic at high concentrations and should be handled with care.

The commercial success of azo dyes motivated the development of azo compounds in general. Aliphatic azo compounds (R and/or R ... Aryl azo compounds are usually stable, crystalline species. Azobenzene is the prototypical aromatic azo compound. It exists ... aliphatic) are less commonly encountered than the aryl azo compounds. A commercially important alkyl azo compound is ... Azo compounds are organic compounds bearing the functional group diazenyl (R−N=N−R′, in which R and R′ can be either aryl or ...
They are a commercially important family of azo compounds, i.e. compounds containing the C-N=N-C linkage. Azo dyes are ... azo dyes can be classified according to the number of azo groups. As a consequence of п-delocalization, aryl azo compounds have ... Many azo dyes are produced by reactions from pre-existing azo compounds. Typical reactions include metal complexation and ... Most azo dyes contain only one azo group, but some dyes contain two or three azo groups, called "diazo dyes" and "triazo dyes" ...
The term 'azobenzene' or simply 'azo' is often used to refer to a wide class of similar compounds. These azo compounds are ... "azo compounds". doi:10.1351/goldbook.A00560 Saul Patai, ed. (1975). Hydrazo, Azo and Azoxy Groups. PATAI'S Chemistry of ... It is the simplest example of an aryl azo compound. ... "Protonation of azo-compounds. Part II: The structure of the ... The compounds similar to the unsubstituted azobenzene exhibit a low-intensity n-π* absorption in the visible region, and a much ...
Direct Formation of cis-Azo Compounds". J. Org. Chem. 26 (6): 1764. doi:10.1021/jo01065a017. Markies, P; Schat, Gerrit; ... Diphenylzinc is an organozinc compound. It is commonly used as the synthetic equivalent of a Ph− synthon. Solvent-free ... "Coordinational behavior of solvent-free diorganylzinc compounds: the remarkable x-ray structure of dimeric diphenylzinc". ...
It is a free radical-generating azo compound. It is gaining prominence as a model oxidant in small molecule and protein ... 2,2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) is a chemical compound used to study the chemistry of the oxidation of ... Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation: ...
... , or C.I. 11020, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5N2C6H4N(CH3)2. It is an azo dye derived from ... ISBN 978-0-691-00196-8. Kinosita R (January 1940). "Studies on the Cancerogenic Azo and Related Compounds". The Yale Journal of ... It was in the 1930s that research led by Riojun Kinosita showed the link between several azo dyes and cancer, linking butter ... Structurally similar compounds: Methyl red Solvent Yellow 56 Dimethyl yellow NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0220". ...
Dyes, Azo compounds, Organic pigments, Carbohydrate chemistry, Carbohydrates). ... Converting a parent azo dye to a Glycoazodye may produce a small hypsochromic shift in the absorption spectra. Several ... The point of the ester group is controlled by choosing a azo dye with a different alcohol group position. Either the dye or the ... The point of the ether bond is controlled by selectively protecting alcohol groups on the sugar, or by choosing an azo dye with ...
Azo, diazo, azido, hydrazine and organic azide compounds. esters, sulfate esters, phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and ... The chemical compound is susceptible to highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas formation in the presence of strong reducing ... Triazofos is a chemical compound used in acaricides, insecticides, and nematicides. Triazofos has been registered in the ...
Azo compound Blueprint Heliographic copier Ozalid Parmeggiani, Fabio (2014). "Fear of the Dark: Diazo Printing by Photochemical ... In a related sense, the process relies on two properties of diazonium compounds: they are deactivated by light, i.e. they ... degrade irreversibly to products that cannot form deeply colored dyes they (the diazonium compounds that were not degraded by ...
über das Hydrazin" [Diazo- and azo- compounds of alkanes. Fourth treatise. On hydrazine.]. In Erdmann OL (ed.). Journal für ... Specific compounds include azodicarbonamide and azobisisobutyronitrile, which produce 100-200 mL of gas per gram of precursor. ... The name "hydrazine" was coined by Emil Fischer in 1875; he was trying to produce organic compounds that consisted of mono- ... Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula N2H4. It is a simple pnictogen hydride, and is a colourless ...
ISBN 952-5216-18-7. Azo compounds#European regulation Gardiner, Bryan (15 September 2010). "Yamaha's NS-10: The Most Important ... when used as a wrapper for food as a result of degradation of Azo compounds used as paper dyes. In the late 1970s and early ...
... the azo compound (5) could be crystallized with 65% yield. The last step is a photolysis of the azo compound. This photolysis ... Albert Ladenburg proposed this structure for the compound now known as benzene. The compound was not synthesized until 1973. In ... The compound is explosive, which is unusual for a hydrocarbon. Due to this ring strain, the bonds have a low bond energy and ... atoms of the prismane molecule are arranged in the shape of a six-atom triangular prism-this compound is the parent and ...
Azo compound Blueprint Ozalid Contact copier League of Nations (1937). Economic Committee: Sub-committee of Experts for the ... Using the right compound some "cyano copiers" could be adapted to be used as "diazo copiers". The light sensitivity of certain ... In this procedure a distinctly blue compound is formed and the process is also known as cyanotype. The paper is impregnated ... Different blueprint processes based on photosensitive ferric compounds have been used. The best known is probably a process ...
... an azo coupling is an organic reaction between a diazonium compound (R−N≡N+) and another aromatic compound that produces an azo ... Aromatic azo compounds tend to be brightly colored due to the extended conjugated systems. Many are used as dyes (see azo dye ... Prontosil, a first sulfa drug, was once produced by azo coupling. The azo compound is a prodrug that is activated in-vivo to ... Phenol reacts with benzenediazonium chloride to give a Solvent Yellow 7, a yellow-orange azo compound. The reaction is faster ...
... (Magneson I; p-nitrobenzeneazoresorcinol) is an azo compound with the chemical formula C12H9N3O4. It is used ... The para-position tautomerization of azo violet provides mechanical insight into the behavior of the compound in an acidic ... Azo violet's intense indigo color (λmax 432 nm) approximates Pantone R: 102 G: 15 B: 240. Azo violet can be synthesised by ... The chemical character of azo violet may be attributed to its azo group (-N=N-), six-membered rings, and hydroxyl side groups. ...
... is an organic compound and an azo compound. It is a widely used yellow pigment. It is also classified as a ...
... is an organic compound and an azo compound. It is a commercial orange pigment. It is also classified as a ...
... oxidation of a sulfamide generates a azo compound. The necessary α-halo sulfones are accessible through oxidation of the ...
... is an organic compound and an azo compound. It is a widely used yellow pigment. It is also classified as a ...
Treatment of aromatic nitro compounds with metal hydrides gives good yields of azo compounds. For example, one could use: ... Excess zinc will reduce the azo group to a hydrazino compound.) Hydrodenitration (replacement of a nitro group with hydrogen) ... Metal hydrides are typically not used to reduce aryl nitro compounds to anilines because they tend to produce azo compounds. ( ... Alkyl and aryl nitro compounds behave differently. Most useful is the reduction of aryl nitro compounds. The reduction of ...
The chiral auxiliaries on these compounds are easily removed after hydrazine formation (with azo compounds) or azidation (with ... Azo compounds afford hydrazines after addition to the N=N bond. These additions have been rendered enantioselective through the ... Tosylamines: tributyltin hydride Azo compounds: H2/Pd Triazenes: sodium borohydride Azides: H2/Pd, H2/Pt, lithium aluminum ... Addition reactions have employed imines, oximes, azides, azo compounds, and others. A nitrogen bound to both a good electrofuge ...
Although rarely examined, azo compounds (N=N) are susceptible to ozonolysis. Nitrosamines (N−N=O) are produced. The main use of ... The reaction is predominantly applied to alkenes, but alkynes and azo compounds are also susceptible to cleavage. The outcome ...
... and azo compounds. Photoinitiation can also occur by bi-molecular H abstraction when the radical is in its lowest triplet ... This method is used most often with organic peroxides or azo compounds. Photolysis Radiation cleaves a bond homolytically, ...
The Sudan dyes are a group of azo compounds which have been used to color hydrocarbon solvents, oils, fats, waxes, shoes, and ... results with 24 azo compounds. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 2000, 465 (1), 11-26 Larsen, ... The EU azo Colorants Directive 2002/61/EC' has been replaced by the REACH regulation in 2009, when azo dyes where put on the ... A certificate for azo dyes exists to ensure that dyes that cleave to one of the forbidden amines are not being used for dyeing ...
... is usually coloured with artificial food colouring, azo compounds often being used. red colouring: azorubine (E ...
Safety hazards have resulted in rapid decline of DEAD usage and replacement with DIAD and other similar compounds. Diethyl azo ... the solubility in water is higher for the related azo compound dimethyl azodicarboxylate. DEAD is a strong electron acceptor ... Azo compounds, Reagents for organic chemistry, Ethyl esters, Carboxylate esters). ... The azo group in DEAD is a Michael acceptor. In the presence of a copper(II) catalyst, DEAD assists conversion of β-keto esters ...
... is an organic compound that is one of many azo dyes. This salt is used as a substantive dye for textiles with ... Azo dyes, Naphthalenes, Phenol ethers, Sulfonates, Organic sodium salts, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... It is prepared by the azo coupling of the aminonaphthalene and diazotized derivative of o-dianisidine. Dye at "Chemical Book" ... Klaus Hunger, Peter Mischke, Wolfgang Rieper, Roderich Raue, Klaus Kunde, Aloys Engel: "Azo Dyes" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
The compound is obtained by azo coupling of aniline and acetoacetanilide or their derivatives. The class of compounds was ... Arylide yellow, also known as Hansa yellow and monoazo yellow, is a family of organic compounds used as pigments. They are ...
... is an organic compound that is classified as an azo dye. It is a dark blue water soluble solid. It is a popular ... It is produced by azo coupling of o-dianisidine with the appropriate naphthalene disulfonate. Klaus Hunger; Peter Mischke; ... Wolfgang Rieper; Roderich Raue; Klaus Kunde; Aloys Engel (2005). "Azo Dyes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ...
... (also Orange I) is an organic compound and an azo dye. It is one of the first water soluble dyes to be ... ISBN 0-8247-9245-9. (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, ...
The commercial success of azo dyes motivated the development of azo compounds in general. Aliphatic azo compounds (R and/or R ... Aryl azo compounds are usually stable, crystalline species. Azobenzene is the prototypical aromatic azo compound. It exists ... aliphatic) are less commonly encountered than the aryl azo compounds. A commercially important alkyl azo compound is ... Azo compounds are organic compounds bearing the functional group diazenyl (R−N=N−R′, in which R and R′ can be either aryl or ...
US-3170910-A chemical patent summary.
EP-0905200-A1 chemical patent summary.
Azo compounds. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, compd. with 6-(2-(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4- ... Inorganic Silicon compounds. Quartz. 14808-60-7. 10.589992. 2.500000. 2.128669. Inorganic Silicon compounds. Silica, vitreous. ... Inorganic compounds. Carbon Black. 1333-86-4. 0.635400. 0.150000. 0.127720. Phenols and Phenolic Resins. Proprietary Material- ... Inorganic Silicon compounds. Silicon, doped. 22.434985. 98.000000. 4.509604. Miscellaneous substances. Other miscellaneous ...
Categories: Azo Compounds Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
Azo Compounds. *Computer-Aided Design. *Protein engineering. *Protein Conformation. *allosteric regulation. *computational ...
Free of azo chemical compounds. *Recyclable packaging in compliance with the Green Dot initiative ...
Azo dyes that release carcinogenic amine compounds are prohibited. - Discharge printing methods using aromatic solvents and ...
The treatment of rheumatic polyarthritis with acid azo compounds. Rheumatism 1948;4:180-5. ... With the advent of biological compounds, the numbers and types of DMARDs have increased and the term biological DMARDs ( ... It is a synthetic, chemical, orally applied compound that has been specifically designed to inhibit Janus kinases and, indeed, ... Without doubt, different biosimilars of a specific compound, such as infliximab, rituximab or etanercept, may differ minimally ...
PP 1307-1309 TAUTOMERISM OF ALIPHATIC AZO COMPOUNDS, PART 1. AZOMETHANE FORMALDEHYDE-METHYHYDRAZONE ARWIREDSTONE MULLER, E. // ... MAKROMOLEKULARE CHEMIE// 00/00/1%2,VO057,N----, PP 0027-0051 MASKED METHLY COMPOUNDS OF UNSATURATED CARSOXYLIC ACID AMIDES AND ... 5736-73 DEP DESTRUCTIVE-REDUCTIVE DECOMPOSITION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 18 PP ERD/LICRL/TR-11225-77 0 MUMINOVA, R. A. 000000077907 ... 000000211277 //DESTRUCTIVE-REDUCTIVE DECOMPOSITION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS/I 00/00/1973,V -----N----- DESTRUCTIVE-REDUCTIVE ...
Science of Synthesis Category 5 comprises 9 volume s and covers compounds with one carbon-heteroatom bond e.g. alcohols; ... Nitro, Nitroso, Azo, Azoxy, and Diazonium Compounds; Azides, Triazenes, and Tetrazenes (TOC). Banert (Preface). 2009. ... Compounds with One-Heteroatom Bond e.g. Alcohols; Peroxides; Sulfides, Selenides, and Tellurides; Amines, Ammonium Salts, ... Organophosphorus Compounds (incl. RO-P and RN-P) (TOC). Mathey (Preface). 2008. ...
Red - Mercuric sulfide (cinnabar), sienna (ferric hydrate), sandalwood, brazilwood, organic pigments (aromatic azo compounds), ...
... acid to form diazonium salt which can undergo coupling reaction to form azo compound. As azo-compounds are highly coloured, ... Chemical class: Alcohol • Aldehyde • Alkane • Alkene • Alkyne • Amide • Amine • Azo compound • Benzene derivative • Carboxylic ... ions can also undergo a coupling reaction with a highly activated aromatic compound such as a phenol to form an azo compound.. ... Similarly, an organic compound with multiple amino groups is called a diamine, triamine, tetraamine and so forth. ...
C-Metal, N-Metal (e.g. Grignard reagents, organo-lithium compounds); - Contiguous nitrogen atoms (e.g. azides, aliphatic azo ... N-O (e.g. hydroxyl amines, nitrates, nitro compounds, nitroso compounds, N-oxides, 1,2-oxazoles); ... O-halogen (e.g. chlorates, perchlorates, iodosyl compounds). Analysis of the above depicted molecular structure revealed, that ...
A new homologous series (ten compounds) of 2-hydroxy azo compounds SRn (where n:1-10) were synthesized. Their structures were ... A new homologous series (ten compounds) of 2-hydroxy azo compounds SRn (where n:1-10) were synthesized. Their structures were ... a curated database of 989 herbal compounds). Then the hits (147 herbal compounds) were continued to be filtered by a docking ... The possibility of using the BPA-MIP as a selective sorbent to preconcentrate these compounds from other samples such as urine ...
Process for the preparation of reactive azo compounds US4091004A (en) * 1976-07-30. 1978-05-23. Burlington Industries, Inc.. ... C09B62/08-Azo dyes * C09B62/082-Azo dyes dyes containing in the molecule at least one azo group and at least one other ... hydroxyl or mercapto compounds into consideration, which have the formula RNHRi, ROH or or RSH. Examples of such compounds are ... MIXTURE OF 6/7 HALOGEN ANTHRACHINONE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR PRODUCTION. DE1198469B (en) 1965-08-12. Process for the production of ...
... have the molecular structure in which R is an atomic grouping formed by removal of a hydrogen atom from an organic compound. ... any of a class of organic compounds that ... and their utility in the preparation of azo compounds was soon ... diazonium salt, any of a class of organic compounds that have the molecular structure in which R is an atomic grouping formed ... diazonium salts are stable enough to be isolated but react readily either by loss of nitrogen or by formation of azo compounds. ...
... in basic ethanolic solution turned out to furnish the azo compound 4 reproducibly in more than 20% yield. The acetamide ... compound half life [h] PSS 405 nm % trans PSS 520 nm % trans ... Rau, H. In Azocompounds in Photochromism, Molecules and Systems ... Amino and alkylamino substituents in para position to the azo group reduce the lifetime of the cis states of azobenzenes [15,16 ... Rau, H. In Azocompounds in Photochromism, Molecules and Systems; Dürr, H.; Bouas-Laurent, H., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1990; ...
Lovedbaby dont use Azo dyes that release carcinogenic amine compounds. The trims and snaps conform to strict standards (e.g. ...
L electrochemical reactor applied to remove an azo dye with an efficiency of 70% is reported. The photovoltaic modules ... the chemical structure of these compounds is complex, generally of the type azo [6-8]. This group consists of colored ... The feasibility of using photovoltaic modules to power a continuous 14 L electrochemical reactor applied to remove an azo dye ... J. Rajeev, N. Sharma, and K. Radhapyari, "Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical azo dye amaranth from waste water," ...
Resveratrol inhibits copper ion-induced and azo compound-initiated oxidative modification of human low density lipoprotein. ... Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, is an agonist for the estrogen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... Rosa, F. T., Zulet, M. A., Marchini, J. S., and Martinez, J. A. Bioactive compounds with effects on inflammation markers in ... Pendurthi, U. R., Williams, J. T., and Rao, L. V. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in wine, inhibits tissue factor ...
And in the process they may damage DNA as many other azo compounds.Even if they have lower acute toxicity they SIMPLY have NO ... Most of the food dyes are azo compounds (-N=N-). Those are prone to be reduced to anilines and benzidines in the human body. ...
and Sudan-I, both azo compounds, were mixed separately with store-bought turmeric and curry ... The electron-withdrawing character of the azo group in the synthetic dyes sometimes develops an electron deciency and is ... Comparative Phytochemical Screening of Bioactive Compounds in Curcuma caesia Roxb. and Curcuma longa. February 2013 · Research ... Presence of medicinally important bioactive compounds in Curcuma caesia depicts that it has great potential for becoming a ...
In the case of an aromatic amine the major product is the azo compound while in the case of an aliphatic amine a carbonyl ...
Theoretical Study and Investigation of Optical Properties of One New Ligand Based on Azo-azomethine Compounds in the Presence ...
the second step uses Griess Reagent to convert nitrite to a deep purple azo compound.. The amount of the azochromophore ... Lau M et al. Enhanced Antioxidant Effects of the Anti-Inflammatory Compound Probucol When Released from Mesoporous Silica ...
The feasibility of using a single vessel reactor for the biological treatment of recalcitrant compounds, namely reactive azo ...
HXKKTXMJSVFQSL-WPDLWGESSA-M 5-[(p-nitrophenyl)azo]salicylic acid sodium salt Chemical compound [Na+].C1=C(C([O-])=O)C(O)=CC=C1\ ... Chemical initiators such as, for example, organic peroxides or azo-compounds are preferred for making the cross-linked toner ... Suitable azo-compounds include azobis-isobutyronitrile, 2,2′-azobis (isobutyronitrile), 2,2′-azobis (2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile ... GRJISTUCPUHFOJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N BrC(O)C(C)(C(O)Br)C Chemical compound BrC(O)C(C)(C(O)Br)C GRJISTUCPUHFOJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N 0.000 ...
  • The feasibility of using a single vessel reactor for the biological treatment of recalcitrant compounds, namely reactive azo dyes discharged by the textile finishing industry was investigated. (bl.uk)
  • Application of redox mediators to accelerate the transformation of reactive azo dyes in anaerobic bioreactors. (wur.nl)
  • Many textile and leather articles are dyed with azo dyes and pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • CH3)2C(CN)]2N2 + 2 HCl}}} Many azo pigments are non-toxic, although some, such as dinitroaniline orange, ortho-nitroaniline orange, or pigment orange 1, 2, and 5 have been found to be mutagenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, several case studies have linked azo pigments with basal cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azo compounds are organic compounds bearing the functional group diazenyl (R−N=N−R′, in which R and R′ can be either aryl or alkyl groups). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aryl azo compounds are usually stable, crystalline species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aliphatic azo compounds (R and/or R′ = aliphatic) are less commonly encountered than the aryl azo compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their instability, aliphatic azo compounds pose the risk of explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of an aromatic amine the major product is the azo compound while in the case of an aliphatic amine a carbonyl compound is formed. (ias.ac.in)
  • A commercially important alkyl azo compound is azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), which is widely used as an initiator in free-radical polymerizations and other radical-induced reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • ArN=NAr' + H+}}} Since diazonium salts are often unstable near room temperature, the azo coupling reactions are typically conducted near 0 °C. The oxidation of hydrazines (R−NH−NH−R′) also gives azo compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • These compounds have a charged nitrogen center, and necessarily come with a negative counterion, so they are called quaternary ammonium salts. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • certain aromatic diazonium salts are stable enough to be isolated but react readily either by loss of nitrogen or by formation of azo compounds . (britannica.com)
  • Diazonium salts were first obtained from aromatic amines in 1858, and their utility in the preparation of azo compounds was soon recognized by the dye industry. (britannica.com)
  • This will also help you comprehend the significance of these salts in aromatic compound production. (extramarks.com)
  • Some azo compounds, e.g., methyl orange, are used as acid-base indicators due to the different colors of their acid and salt forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A simple dialkyl diazo compound is diethyldiazene, EtN=NEt, which can be synthesized through a variant of the Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inorganic and organometallic compounds / this publication is the outcome of the meeting of two IARC Working Groups on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, Lyon, 7 October and 29 November - 4 December 1972. (who.int)
  • Certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds / this publication is the outcome of the meeting of the IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, Lyon, 5-11 December 1972. (who.int)
  • Friedel, R. A. and M. Orchin (1951) Ultraviolet Spectra of Aromatic Compounds. (photochemcad.com)
  • This category presents the methods for the synthesis of organic compounds organized according to the functional group or groups prepared in the product. (thieme.de)
  • Azo coupling IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • remember that chemical compounds are not proper nouns, so lower case is indicated throughout. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • By varying the chemical structures of the amines that are diazotized (the diazo components) and of the compounds with which they react (the coupling components), colours throughout the visible spectrum are imparted to dyes applicable to many types of fibres by several techniques. (britannica.com)
  • Specifically for the textile industry, the chemical structure of these compounds is complex, generally of the type azo [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The PPS predicts plausible pathways for microbial degradation of chemical compounds. (europa.eu)
  • Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Organol brown azo dye was synthesized and altered with functional group conversions to see the effect it would have on its color. (stkate.edu)
  • Azo dyes are organic compounds that have a R-N=N-R functional group, and are commonly used in dyeing materials like clothing. (stkate.edu)
  • The underlying organizational principle is the oxidation state i.e. all compounds are organized into product classes and product subclasses according to descending oxidation state. (thieme.de)
  • This perspective focuses on two areas that have yielded new useful information during the last 20 years: (i) structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of contact allergy based on the concept of hapten-protein binding and (ii) mechanistic investigations regarding activation of nonsensitizing compounds to contact allergens by air oxidation or skin metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • Many compounds are not allergenic themselves but are activated in the skin (e.g., metabolically) or before skin contact (e.g., via air oxidation) to form skin sensitizers. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical importance of air oxidation to activate nonallergenic compounds has been demonstrated. (cdc.gov)
  • mechanistic investigations regarding activation of nonsensitizing compounds to contact allergens by air oxidation or skin metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • In particular, aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is very attractive because its dielectric permittivity can be engineered over a broad range in the near infrared and infrared. (arxiv.org)
  • IUPAC defines azo compounds as: "Derivatives of diazene (diimide), HN=NH, wherein both hydrogens are substituted by hydrocarbyl groups, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theseare derivatives of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene as is azo compound 3, which had been obtained previously from 5 and 2 equiv of benzvalene (4). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Whereas 7 and 8 on direct irradiation in benzene gave rise exclusively to the bicyclo[2.2.0]hexane derivatives 9 and 10, respectively, from 3 in addition to the Diels-Alder reaction of dimethyl 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-dicarboxylate (5) with benzvalene (4), norbornene, and norbornadiene afforded the azo compounds 7 and 8. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Similarly, an organic compound with multiple amino groups is called a diamine , triamine , tetraamine and so forth. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nitrate, which is introduced to the growing tobacco plant through the application of fertilizer, can be converted to ammonia, which, in turn, is converted to other nitrogenous organic compounds such as amino acids. (cdc.gov)
  • In this research, a PV system was evaluated in a pilot electrochemical wastewater reactor using a synthetic wastewater model containing azo dye, in this case remazol yellow dye 3GL (RYD), which is mainly used in textile industry [ 4 , 8 , 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Certain azo dyes can break down under reductive conditions to release any of a group of defined aromatic amines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consumer goods which contain listed aromatic amines originating from azo dyes were prohibited from manufacture and sale in European Union countries in September 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important exception to this rule is that compounds of the type RC(O)NR 2 , where the C(O) refers to a carbonyl group, are called amides rather than amines. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nous avons réalisé une estimation de la pollution dans le lac Edkou et en Méditerranée (région d'El-Maadiya), sur la base de trois amines aromatiques (1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine et benzidine) dans les tissus musculaires de poissons. (who.int)
  • The proximity of the bicyclobutane systems in 1l causes unprecedented reactions leading to cage compounds. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • This allowed for the testing of what reactions can be used to create new variations of azo dyes. (stkate.edu)
  • in which R is an atomic grouping formed by removal of a hydrogen atom from an organic compound . (britannica.com)
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (acs.org)
  • Leucogentian violet and leucomalachite green are used as precursors in the production of their parent compounds and have direct applications as chromogenic reagents in analytical chemistry and as radiochromic indicators in dosimeters. (who.int)
  • 1963) Tables of Spectrophotometric Absorption Data of Compounds Used for the Colorimetric Determination of Elements. (photochemcad.com)
  • Hirayama, K. (1967) Handbook of Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Spectra of Organic Compounds. (photochemcad.com)
  • For example, if an acid chloride is generated, these compounds almost invariably undergo spontaneous hydrolysis in water very rapidly. (europa.eu)
  • With the advent of biological compounds, the numbers and types of DMARDs have increased and the term 'biological DMARDs (bDMARDs)' came into use. (bmj.com)
  • The feasibility of using photovoltaic modules to power a continuous 14 L electrochemical reactor applied to remove an azo dye with an efficiency of 70% is reported. (hindawi.com)
  • The unique properties of the demonstrated AZO thin films are the result of a low temperature fabrication procedure promoting oxygen vacancies and an ultra-high carrier concentration. (arxiv.org)
  • Since oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen, RO- H is typically more acidic than the related R 2 N- H compound. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Azo compounds are efficient electron acceptors. (bvsalud.org)
  • The structure of cage compound 10 was established by a singlc-crystal X-ray analysis of dialcohol 11 prepared from 20 and methyllithium. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The system is able to recognize organic functional groups found in a compound and predict transformations based on biotransformation rules. (europa.eu)
  • Intermediate NH2 radicals, forming during the pyrolysis of ammonia during tobacco combustion, may react with aromatic CH groups (from compounds already present in the tobacco leaves) to form the AAs (Patrianakos, C., et. (cdc.gov)
  • The commercial success of azo dyes motivated the development of azo compounds in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, bis(bicyclobutane) ll was converted by 1 equiv of thiophenol into cagc compound 30 in a process involving both the strained a systems. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Our results overcome the traditional 'modulation depth vs. speed' trade-off by at least an order of magnitude, placing AZO among the most promising compounds for tunable/switchable nanophotonics. (arxiv.org)
  • 100 ps) electron-hole recombination time typical of these compounds still represents a fundamental limitation impeding ultrafast optical modulation. (arxiv.org)
  • As a proof-of-concept, an all-optical AZO-based plasmonic modulator achieving 3 dB modulation in 7.5 {\mu}m and operating at THz frequencies is numerically demonstrated. (arxiv.org)
  • 1986. Excretion of radioactivity from rats and rabbits following cutaneous application of two 14C-labeled azo dyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Most DVD-R/+R and some CD-R discs use blue azo dye as the recording layer. (wikipedia.org)