Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Roxithromycin: Semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin. It is concentrated by human phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly. While the drug is active against a wide spectrum of pathogens, it is particularly effective in the treatment of respiratory and genital tract infections.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Ketolides: Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Josamycin: A macrolide antibiotic from Streptomyces narbonensis. The drug has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of pathogens.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Conjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Rifabutin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Penicillin G Benzathine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Urethritis: Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.Aza CompoundsChlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Cefaclor: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Eyelid DiseasesPenicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Chlamydophila Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bites, Human: Bites inflicted by humans.Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.NaphthyridinesNeisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Spiramycin: A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. The drug is effective against gram-positive aerobic pathogens, N. gonorrhoeae, and staphylococci. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and Toxoplasma gondii.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.QuinolinesVitellins: Major egg yolk proteins from egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. They are high-density lipoglycoproteins derived from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellins serve as nutrients for the growing non-mammalian embryos (EMBRYO, NONMAMMALIAN).Gingival Crevicular Fluid: A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Sulfadiazine: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Lymphogranuloma Venereum: Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Erythromycin Estolate: A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. It is the lauryl sulfate salt of the propionic ester of erythromycin. This erythromycin salt acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Pityriasis Rosea: A mild exanthematous inflammation of unknown etiology. It is characterized by the presence of salmon-colored maculopapular lesions. The most striking feature is the arrangement of the lesions such that the long axis is parallel to the lines of cleavage. The eruptions are usually generalized, affecting chiefly the trunk, and the course is often self-limiting.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Uterine Cervicitis: Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Miocamycin: A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.Sulfamerazine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an antibacterial agent.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Scrub Typhus: An acute infectious disease caused by ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI. It is limited to eastern and southeastern Asia, India, northern Australia, and the adjacent islands. Characteristics include the formation of a primary cutaneous lesion at the site of the bite of an infected mite, fever lasting about two weeks, and a maculopapular rash.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the PALATINE TONSILS but the ADENOIDS (pharyngeal tonsils) and lingual tonsils may also be involved. Tonsillitis usually is caused by bacterial infection. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.NepalMeglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)ConjunctivitisHair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.4-Quinolones: QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.Naegleria fowleri: A species of parasitic protozoa having both an ameboid and flagellate stage in its life cycle. Infection with this pathogen produces PRIMARY AMEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS.Ureaplasma Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus UREAPLASMA.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Leishmania braziliensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.Chloranil: A quinone fungicide used for treatment of seeds and foliage.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Nasopharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the NASOPHARYNX.Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Granuloma Inguinale: Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Streptogramins: A class of natural cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by certain subspecies of STREPTOMYCES. They include two structurally unrelated components, STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP A and STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP B, which generally act synergistically to inhibit bacterial growth.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicTobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Paratyphoid Fever: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Bacteria, AerobicQuinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Piroplasmida: An order of protozoa comprising heteroxenous tick-borne blood parasites. Representative genera include BABESIA, Dactylosoma, and THEILERIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Loperamide: One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Eyelashes: The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Chancroid: Acute, localized autoinoculable infectious disease usually acquired through sexual contact. Caused by HAEMOPHILUS DUCREYI, it occurs endemically almost worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries and more commonly in seaports and urban areas than in rural areas.Chlamydia: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Ureaplasma: A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Tinidazole: A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Procainamide: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Tylosin: Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.Rosacea: A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Gingival Hyperplasia: Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Male Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE).Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Lincosamides: A family of LINCOMYCIN-related glycosides that contain a pyrrolidine ring linked via an amide-bond to a pyranose moiety. Individual members of this family are defined by the arrangement of specific constituent groups on the lyncomycin molecule. Many lincosamides are ANTIBIOTICS produced by a variety STREPTOMYCES species.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.

Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. (1/966)

New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)

Lysosomal alterations induced in cultured rat fibroblasts by long-term exposure to low concentrations of azithromycin. (2/966)

Computer-aided simulations suggest that the doses and schedules of administration of azithromycin proposed in treatment and prophylaxis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in AIDS patients will result in drug concentrations in serum and extracellular fluids remaining for sustained periods of time in the 0.03-0.1 mg/L range. We exposed cultured rat embryo fibroblasts to these concentrations (and multiples up to 20 mg/L) for up to 16 days. Electron microscopy showed that after 7 days' incubation in 0.03 mg/L azithromycin, there was conspicuous accumulation of osmiophilic, lamellar structures (myeloid bodies) in lysosomes, suggesting the onset of a phospholipidosis. Assay of total cell phospholipids and cholesterol showed significant increases in cells exposed to > or = 1 to 5 mg/L of azithromycin in association with hyperactivity of the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B. The data suggest that azithromycin, at extracellular concentrations pertinent to its use for MAC treatment, and perhaps also prophylaxis, causes limited morphological alterations of the lysosomes in cultured cells which are of the same nature as those developing rapidly and extensively at higher concentrations.  (+info)

Persistent chlamydial envelope antigens in antibiotic-exposed infected cells trigger neutrophil chemotaxis. (3/966)

An in vitro coculture model system was used to explore conditions that trigger neutrophil chemotaxis to Chlamydia trachomatis infected human epithelial cells (HEC-1B). Polarized HEC-1B monolayers growing on extracellular matrix (ECM) were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E. By 36 h, coincident with the secretion of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane protein to the surfaces of infected cells, human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) loaded with azithromycin migrated through the ECM and infiltrated the HEC-1B monolayer. Bioreactive azithromycin was delivered by the chemotactic PMNL to infected epithelial cells in concentrations sufficient to kill intracellular chlamydiae. However, residual chlamydial envelopes persisted for 4 weeks, and PMNL chemotaxis was triggered to epithelial cells containing residual envelopes. Infected endometrial cells demonstrated up-regulation of ENA-78 and GCP-2 chemokine mRNA. Thus, despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy, residual chlamydial envelope antigens may persist in infected tissues of culture-negative women and provide one source for sustained inflammation.  (+info)

Chlamydia trachomatis infections: progress and problems. (4/966)

Chalmydia trachomatis infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. A substantial proportion of initial infections in both men and women are asymptomatic. Use of nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostic tests on first-void urine makes it possible to initiate community-based screening programs aimed at identifying asymptomatically infected men and women. Directly observed single-dose therapy with azithromycin is now available. Screening programs have been demonstrated to reduce the overall prevalence of chlamydial infection in the tested population and to reduce the incidence of subsequent pelvic inflammatory disease in previously screened women. The sequelae of chlamydial infections are likely due to immunopathologically mediated events in which both the chlamydial 60 kDa heat-shock protein and genetic predisposition of specific patients play a role. An improved understanding of immunologic events leading to upper genital tract scarring is needed to target specific interventions and facilitate development of a vaccine.  (+info)

Randomized secondary prevention trial of azithromycin in patients with coronary artery disease and serological evidence for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: The Azithromycin in Coronary Artery Disease: Elimination of Myocardial Infection with Chlamydia (ACADEMIC) study. (5/966)

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory infection, is vasotropic, causes atherosclerosis in animal models, and has been found in human atheromas. Whether it plays a causal role in clinical coronary artery disease (CAD) and is amenable to antibiotic therapy is uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: CAD patients (n=302) who had a seropositive reaction to C pneumoniae (IgG titers >/=1:16) were randomized to receive placebo or azithromycin, 500 mg/d for 3 days, then 500 mg/wk for 3 months. Circulating markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha), C pneumoniae antibody titers, and cardiovascular events were assessed at 3 and 6 months. Treatment groups were balanced, with age averaging 64 (SD=10) years; 89% of the patients were male. Azithromycin reduced a global rank sum score of the 4 inflammatory markers at 6 (but not 3) months (P=0. 011) as well as the mean global rank sum change score: 531 (SD=201) for active drug and 587 (SD=190) for placebo (P=0.027). Specifically, change-score ranks were significantly lower for CRP (P=0.011) and IL-6 (P=0.043). Antibody titers were unchanged, and number of clinical cardiovascular events at 6 months did not differ by therapy (9 for active drug, 7 for placebo). Azithromycin decreased infections requiring antibiotics (1 versus 12 at 3 months, P=0.002) but caused more mild, primarily gastrointestinal, adverse effects (36 versus 17, P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In CAD patients positive for C pneumoniae antibodies, global tests of 4 markers of inflammation improved at 6 months with azithromycin. However, unlike another smaller study, no differences in antibody titers and clinical events were observed. Longer-term and larger studies of antichlamydial therapy are indicated.  (+info)

Efficacy of doxycycline, azithromycin, or trovafloxacin for treatment of experimental Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs. (6/966)

Dogs were experimentally inoculated with Rickettsia rickettsii (canine origin) in order to compare the efficacies of azithromycin and trovafloxacin to that of the current antibiotic standard, doxycycline, for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Clinicopathologic parameters, isolation of rickettsiae in tissue culture, and PCR amplification of rickettsial DNA were used to evaluate the response to therapy or duration of illness (untreated infection control group) in the four groups. Concentrations of the three antibiotics in plasma and blood cells were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Doxycycline and trovafloxacin treatments resulted in more-rapid defervescence, whereas all three antibiotics caused rapid improvement in attitudinal scores, blood platelet numbers, and the albumin/total-protein ratio. Based upon detection of retinal vascular lesions by fluorescein angiography, trovafloxacin and doxycycline substantially decreased rickettsia-induced vascular injury to the eye, whereas the number of ocular lesions in the azithromycin group did not differ from that in the infection control group. As assessed by tissue culture isolation, doxycycline resulted in the earliest apparent clearance of viable circulating rickettsiae; however, rickettsial DNA could still be detected in the blood of some dogs from all four groups on day 21 postinfection, despite our inability to isolate viable rickettsiae at that point. As administered in this study, trovafloxacin was as efficacious as doxycycline but azithromycin proved less efficacious, possibly due to the short duration of administration.  (+info)

Interpretation of middle ear fluid concentrations of antibiotics: comparison between ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin. (7/966)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the potential influence of variables such as the cell content in the fluid, and serum levels, on the concentrations of ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin in the middle ear fluid of patients suffering from acute otitis media. METHODS: This randomized, open study compared the penetration of ceftibuten (9 mg kg(-1) 18 patients), cefixime (8 mg kg(-1), 16 patients) and azithromycin (10 mg kg(-1) 16 patients) into the intracellular and extracellular compartments of middle ear fluid of 50 paediatric patients (aged 8-14 years) with acute otitis media. Middle ear fluid was extracted by tympanocentesis 4, 12 and 24 h after dosing and divided into two fractions: with cells (as collected) (C+) and cell-free (C-). Antibiotics were assayed in C+ and C- samples by h.p.l.c. RESULTS: Ceftibuten achieved greater penetration into middle ear fluid than cefixime and azithromycin. Higher concentrations of ceftibuten (CTB) and cefixime (CFX) were found in the C- fraction (CTB: 4h 13.3+/-1.86; 12h 4.7+/-1.18; 24h 0.5+/-0.2. CFX: 4h 3.2+/-1.4; 12h 1.5+/-0.5; 24h>(0.1 mgl(-1)) than in the C+ fraction (CTB:4 h 8.4+/-4.3; 12 h 2.88+/-1.19; 24 h 0.3+/-0.27. CFX: 4 h 1.2+/-0.6; 12 h 0.8+/-0.2; 24 h>0.1 mg l(-1)) at the each time point, while the opposite was true for azithromycin (C-: 4 h 0.11+/-0.04; 12 h 0.12+/-0.08; 24 h 0.23+/-0.12. C+: 4 h 0.38+/-0.24; 12 h 0.9+/-0.03; 24 h 1.05+/-0.3 mg l(-1)). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the penetration of antibiotics into the middle ear fluid is influenced by its serum concentrations as well as by the cell content in the fluid. Ceftibuten achieved higher middle ear fluid concentrations than cefixime in C+ and C- fractions at all time points. Both ceftibuten and cefixime concentrations are negatively influenced by the cell content in the fluid. In contrast the concentration of azithromycin to the middle ear fluid is positively influenced by the cell content in the fluid.  (+info)

Lack of effect of zafirlukast on the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin in healthy volunteers. (8/966)

This randomized, open-label, crossover study was conducted to investigate whether the coadministration of zafirlukast would affect the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin, clarithromycin, or 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (14-OHC). Twelve healthy subjects (six males and six females) received single 500-mg doses of azithromycin and clarithromycin with and without zafirlukast given to a steady-state concentration. Blood was collected prior to all macrolide doses and for 3 and 10 days after each clarithromycin and azithromycin dose, respectively. Serum was assayed for azithromycin, clarithromycin, and 14-OHC concentrations by validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay systems. Data analyses were done by noncompartmental and nonparametric methods. Analysis of the patients indicated that the addition of steady-state concentrations of zafirlukast did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of or overall exposure (based on the area under the concentration-time curve) to azithromycin, clarithromycin, and 14-OHC. While zafirlukast is a known inhibitor of CYP3A4, it does not appear to exert a clinically or statistically significant pharmacokinetic effect on azithromycin, clarithromycin, or 14-OHC.  (+info)

What does this mean and reasons for caution?. Long term azithromycin treatment appears to have no negative effect on mitochondrial energy production in white blood cells. Caution should still be exerted since our results do not entirely rule out side effects in other tissues ...
Vanderbilt researchers have discovered a rare, but important risk posed by the antibiotic azithromycin, commonly called a Z-pack. The study found a 2.5-fold higher risk of death from cardiovascular death in the first five ...
An overview of macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin) treatment for severe asthma including an overview of treatment, safety considerations, patient screening and monitoring. This document has been developed as a guide only. Note: use of macrolide antibiotics for the treatment of asthma is off-label in Australia.
HIV-positive persons with chlamydia should receive the same treatment as those who are HIV-negative. Persons with chlamydia should abstain from sexual
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Results Between January 2014-July 2016, 1893 persons were diagnosed with GC, 74% of whom were presumptively treated at the initial visit. Among the 395 men and 234 women not presumptively treated, 54% and 68% completed treatment within 30 days, respectively. Among women, CE vs. ET was not associated with treatment completion [Adjusted relative risk (aRR): 1.14, 95% CI:(0.95-1.37)], adjusting for year, clinic, age, and presumptive azithromycin treatment. Men diagnosed through CE vs. ET were 24% less likely to complete treatment [aRR:0.76, (0.65-0.91)], adjusting for the same factors. Men presumptively treated with azithromycin treatment alone were 46% less likely to complete treatment [aRR:0.54, (0.41-0.70)]. ...
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Inflammatory cytokines up-regulate the expression of the receptor for Stx on endothelial cells and allow the endothelial cells to be more sensitive to the toxic effect of Stx (32, 33). Elevated concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma have been reported in HUS patients, and the degree of HUS is closely related to the levels of inflammatory cytokines (12, 16). Therefore, inflammatory cytokines are thought to be important in modifying the disease caused by STEC infection.. The roles of antimicrobial agents in the prevention and amelioration of HUS remain controversial, and an optimal treatment regimen for STEC infection has not been established (9, 31). In this study, we demonstrated that azithromycin has a strong effect on Stx production by STEC. Azithromycin inhibited the in vitro growth of STEC strains and did not induce Stx-converting phage or stimulate the production of Stx at a wide range of concentrations in vitro. This was in sharp contrast to newer fluoroquinolones such as norfloxacin ...
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Ahora bien, skinoren cream price in pakistan saleably ¿por qué tomar un medicamento prohibido (Meldonium) para enmascarar una sustancia permitida (carnitina)? Conti HR, Baker O, Freeman AF, Jang WS, Holland SM, Li RA, et al? However, buy nurofen tetracyclines inhibit protein syntheses in mitochondria ( 221) due to the presence of 70S ribosomes in these organelles? Deanna immediately saw the letters for what they were: forgeries by Jodi Arias. The cardiac impact is rather similar to an overdose of Darvon, since Darvon is a sodium channel blocker as well! As in all other medications, buy nurofen taking too much may lead to serious consequences which may include kidney failure, lethargy, agitation and seizures. For inpatient, non-ICU patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), use in combination with a macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin, clarithromycin, or erythromycin) or with doxycycline! 1495, nurofen kautabletten 146 LEd2d 389 (2000), the Supreme Court resolved a disagreement among the ...
Can you drink on azithromycin - ED medications, pain killers, cancer tablets and other types of pharmaceuticals can be easily bought in the online drugstore Choose the required pharmaceuticals, purchase them and receive quality drugs at your doorstep in a couple of days Notice all the merits of online shopping for remedies here
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The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
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In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain 177, zithromax for gonorrhea389 competitors from developing substantially similar products and bringing those products to market earlier than we can. The US Coast Guard is also undertaking an inquiry into the grounding of the Kulluk drilling barge. This gift includes jelly Belly beans, fudge brownies, teddy bear, crunchy caramel corn, sour balls, birthday candles, cream center chocolates, and Happy Birthday horn and noise maker. Young core of David Duke, AJ Reeves, and Gantt has Big East title potential. Hi this is kinda of off topic but I was wondering if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML. In a small pilot study, Avraham Beigelman, MD, and his Washington University colleagues showed that the antibiotic azithromycin may reduce recurrent wheezing in babies hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).. While many of us do like vibrant lights, but notice that it is practically in ...
If you have heart disease and abnormal heart rhythms, or are taking certain medications (e.g., verapamil, atazanavir), discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.. Antibiotic-associated colitis: This medication, like other antibiotics, may cause a potentially dangerous condition called antibiotic-associated colitis or pseudomembranous colitis. Symptoms include severe, watery diarrhea that may be bloody. If you notice these symptoms, stop taking azithromycin and contact your doctor as soon as possible.. Bacterial resistance: Misuse of an antibiotic such as azithromycin may lead to the growth of resistant bacteria that will not be killed by the antibiotic. If this happens, azithromycin may not work for you in the future. Although you may begin to feel better early in your course of treatment with azithromycin, you need to take the ...
zithromax antibiotico 3 compresse prezzo italian The effects of co-administration of azithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of other drugs are shown in Table 1 and the effect of other drugs on the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin are shown in Table. Most pharmacists will end up dispensing the generic equivalent to Flagyl 500mg, which is metronidazole 500mg. The mean C max and AUC 0-120 increased 61 and 35, respectively in subjects with severe renal impairment (GFR 10 mL/min) compared to subjects with normal renal function (GFR 80 mL/min). Azithromycin concentrates in phagocytes and fibroblasts as demonstrated by in vitro incubation techniques. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to discontinuation of the drug alone. Geriatric Patients When studied in healthy elderly subjects aged 65 to 85 years, the pharmacokinetic parameters of azithromycin in elderly men were similar to those in young adults; however, in elderly women, although higher peak concentrations (increased by 30 to ...
The Food and Drug Administration is warning that that the antibiotic azithromycin can cause dangerous changes in heart rhythm in patients already taking medications for heart arrhythmia.
Zithromax is a brand of the antibiotic azithromycin produced by Pfizer and is one of the best-selling antibiotics in the world. It is an azalide that is part of the macrolide class of antibiotics and is derived from erythromycin. It is used in the treatment and prevention of a number of.... Read More What Is Generic Zithromax? ...
1 Answer - Posted in: nexium, infections, otitis media, azithromycin - Answer: Yes, it is fine to take Nexium while you are taking azithromycin. ...
Zithromax is a brand name of a wide spectrum acting antibiotic - Azithromycin. It is one of the first aid medicine for treatment of respiratory tract bacterial infections, middle ear infections or pneumonias. The medicine is also effective against sexually passed diseases and is used to prevent travellers diarrhea. The maximum one time dosage of the drug completely recovers a patients from such sexual infections as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Zithromax in http://1canadianantibiotics.com/buy-zithromax-online/ is a well tolerable drug but commonly it can perform some side effects which are considered to be a variation of norm and do not require any additional treatment. In most cases these side effects are a response from digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Such reactions can be easily corrected with proper nutrition during and after treatment. Mind that the side effect can keep presence up to a month after the end of the treatment. Zithromax belongs to the risk group B and this means that ...
Zithromax is a brand name of a wide spectrum acting antibiotic - Azithromycin. It is one of the first aid medicine for treatment of respiratory tract bacterial infections, middle ear infections or pneumonias. The medicine is also effective against sexually passed diseases and is used to prevent travellers diarrhea. The maximum one time dosage of the drug completely recovers a patients from such sexual infections as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Zithromax in http://1canadianantibiotics.com/buy-zithromax-online/ is a well tolerable drug but commonly it can perform some side effects which are considered to be a variation of norm and do not require any additional treatment. In most cases these side effects are a response from digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Such reactions can be easily corrected with proper nutrition during and after treatment. Mind that the side effect can keep presence up to a month after the end of the treatment. Zithromax belongs to the risk group B and this means that ...
Zithromax is a brand name of a wide spectrum acting antibiotic - Azithromycin. It is one of the first aid medicine for treatment of respiratory tract bacterial infections, middle ear infections or pneumonias. The medicine is also effective against sexually passed diseases and is used to prevent travellers diarrhea. The maximum one time dosage of the drug completely recovers a patients from such sexual infections as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Zithromax in http://1canadianantibiotics.com/buy-zithromax-online/ is a well tolerable drug but commonly it can perform some side effects which are considered to be a variation of norm and do not require any additional treatment. In most cases these side effects are a response from digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Such reactions can be easily corrected with proper nutrition during and after treatment. Mind that the side effect can keep presence up to a month after the end of the treatment. Zithromax belongs to the risk group B and this means that ...
Zithromax is a brand name of a wide spectrum acting antibiotic - Azithromycin. It is one of the first aid medicine for treatment of respiratory tract bacterial infections, middle ear infections or pneumonias. The medicine is also effective against sexually passed diseases and is used to prevent travellers diarrhea. The maximum one time dosage of the drug completely recovers a patients from such sexual infections as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Zithromax in http://1canadianantibiotics.com/buy-zithromax-online/ is a well tolerable drug but commonly it can perform some side effects which are considered to be a variation of norm and do not require any additional treatment. In most cases these side effects are a response from digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Such reactions can be easily corrected with proper nutrition during and after treatment. Mind that the side effect can keep presence up to a month after the end of the treatment. Zithromax belongs to the risk group B and this means that ...
Zithromax is a brand name of a wide spectrum acting antibiotic - Azithromycin. It is one of the first aid medicine for treatment of respiratory tract bacterial infections, middle ear infections or pneumonias. The medicine is also effective against sexually passed diseases and is used to prevent travellers diarrhea. The maximum one time dosage of the drug completely recovers a patients from such sexual infections as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Zithromax in http://1canadianantibiotics.com/buy-zithromax-online/ is a well tolerable drug but commonly it can perform some side effects which are considered to be a variation of norm and do not require any additional treatment. In most cases these side effects are a response from digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Such reactions can be easily corrected with proper nutrition during and after treatment. Mind that the side effect can keep presence up to a month after the end of the treatment. Zithromax belongs to the risk group B and this means that ...
Zithromax is a brand name of a wide spectrum acting antibiotic - Azithromycin. It is one of the first aid medicine for treatment of respiratory tract bacterial infections, middle ear infections or pneumonias. The medicine is also effective against sexually passed diseases and is used to prevent travellers diarrhea. The maximum one time dosage of the drug completely recovers a patients from such sexual infections as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Zithromax in http://1canadianantibiotics.com/buy-zithromax-online/ is a well tolerable drug but commonly it can perform some side effects which are considered to be a variation of norm and do not require any additional treatment. In most cases these side effects are a response from digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Such reactions can be easily corrected with proper nutrition during and after treatment. Mind that the side effect can keep presence up to a month after the end of the treatment. Zithromax belongs to the risk group B and this means that ...
There was a small absolute increase in cardiovascular deaths, which was most pronounced among patients with a high baseline risk of cardiovascular disease during the five-day administration of the antibiotic azithromycin (Zithromax, Pfizer) therapy. This study, which evaluated nearly 350,000 prescriptions of azithromycin and was published May 17 in the New England Journal of Medicine, has prompted an FDA review of its results.
The trial is looking at the use of the antibiotic azithromycin in treatment of patients following acute asthma attacks to show whether or not azithromycin in as an adjunct to standard care leads to quicker recovery from the exacerbation. The trial also examines the mechanism for azithromycis potential benefit i.e. - if it is having an anti-bacterial and/or anti-viral effect. Recruitment and follow up have completed for the study ...
[Posted 08/03/2018]AUDIENCE: Patient, Health Professional, Oncology ISSUE: The antibiotic azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax) should not be given long-term to
According to a new study, people taking the commonly prescribed antibiotic azithromycin -- better known as Zithromax or Z-Pak -- have an increased risk of sudden heart death. The risk is higher for those with heart failure or diabetes.
Dosage: 500 mg per tab. Total amount: 3 tabs per box. Component: Azithromycin. Azithromycin is in a group of drugs called macrolide antibiotics. Azithromycin fights bacteria in the body.. Azithromycin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as respiratory infections, skin infections, ear infections, and sexually transmitted diseases.. Azithromycin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.. Pharmacology: Interferes with microbial protein synthesis.. ...
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The Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP) in England and Wales has monitored azithromycin resistance since 2001. In 2007, high-level azithromycin resistance (MICs >256 mg/L) was identified for the first time in six isolates, all of which were the same sequence type (ST 649).
Azithromycin 250 mg has in many ways revolutionized the treatment of chlamydial infections. Its importance derives from its unusual pharmacokinetic properties. Anti-chlamydial levels of the drug are readily achieved inside cells or tissues, particularly useful for treating intracellular chlamydial infections. Furthermore adequate intracellular levels may be sustained for several days because of the slow efflux of the drug from cells. To treat toxoplasmosis, azithromycin is used in combination with pyrimethamine at an initial dose of 1000 mg followed by 500 mg per day. Azithromycin used alone has been associated with early relapse. To treat MAC, azithromycin has been studied at 500 mg per day with promising results in individuals taking it for 30 days. Some individuals may develop azithromycin-resistant strains of MAC. To treat chlamydia, azithromycin is given in a single 1000 mg oral dose. ...
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Commonly used antibiotics include ciprofloxacin or azithromycin. Globally shigellosis occurs in at least 80 million people and ...
Also, azithromycin has been suggested to be better at treating typhoid in resistant populations than both fluoroquinolone drugs ... Treatment of disease is with antibiotics such as azithromycin, fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins.[3] ... and ceftriaxone.[27] Azithromycin significantly reduces relapse rates compared with ceftriaxone. ...
The treatment of choice is often azithromycin and cefixime to cover both gonorrhoeae and chlamydia. Fluoroquinolones are no ... Doxycycline may be used as an alternative to azithromycin. In chronic epididymitis, a four- to six-week course of antibiotics ...
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Treatment with macrolide antibiotics like clarithromycin and azithromycin is being studied. In addition, steroids may be ...
With proper testing and diagnosis, the mortality rate falls to less than 1%. Antibiotics such as azithromycin are particularly ... Treatment of the disease is with antibiotics such as azithromycin.[1] Resistance to a number of other previously effective ...
A number of different antibiotics may be used including amoxicillin, doxycycline and azithromycin; whether one is better than ... Concerns include that of antibiotic resistance and hearing problems with azithromycin. Methylxanthines such as theophylline ...
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Doxorubicin Azithromycin Kitamura, Tsuyoshi; Yoshihiro Sato; Miwako Mori (2004). "Synthetic study of (+)-anthramycin using ring ...
a b c Cohn, L.A.; Birkenheuer, A.J., Brunker J.D., Ratcliff E.R., Craig, A.W. (2011). "Efficacy of Atovaquone and Azithromycin ... Cohn, L.A.; Birkenheuer, A.J.; Brunker J.D.; Ratcliff E.R.; Craig, A.W. (2011). "Efficacy of Atovaquone and Azithromycin or ... The most often used treatments for cytauxzoonosis are imidocarb dipropionate and a combination of atovaquone and azithromycin. ... sick cats treated with supportive care and the combination of the anti-malarial drug atovaquone and the antibiotic azithromycin ...
Azithromycin has been used to treat strep throat (Group A streptococcal (GAS) infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes) in ... US FDA-approved : Azithromycin - unique; does not extensively inhibit CYP3A4 Clarithromycin Erythromycin Fidaxomicin ... This is because some macrolides (clarithromycin and erythromycin, not azithromycin) are potent inhibitors of the cytochrome ... "Macrolide Antibiotics Comparison: Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Azithromycin". Retrieved 22 March 2017. Giguere, S.; Prescott, ...
Greenhawt, Matthew; McMorris, Marc; Baldwin, James (2009). "Carmine hypersensitivity masquerading as azithromycin ...
One such azalide is the antibiotic azithromycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 June; 35(6): 1186-1190.. ...
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The discovery that oral antibiotic azithromycin can be used instead of the previous standard, injected penicillin, was tested ... "Mass Treatment with Single-Dose Azithromycin for Yaws". New England Journal of Medicine. 372 (8): 703-710. doi:10.1056/ ...
November 2000). "Atovaquone and azithromycin for the treatment of babesiosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (20): 1454-8. doi:10.1056/ ... For babesia, it is often used in conjunction with oral azithromycin. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX, Bactrim) is ...
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Treatment options include oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline. Azithromycin is preferred because it can be used as a ... Azithromycin can be used in children from the age of six months and in pregnancy. As a community-based antibiotic treatment, ... Antibiotic selection: Azithromycin (single oral dose of 20 mg/kg) or topical tetracycline (one percent eye ointment twice a day ... October 2005). "A randomised controlled trial of azithromycin following surgery for trachomatous trichiasis in the Gambia". Br ...
NTM infections are usually treated with a three-drug regimen of either clarithromycin or azithromycin, plus rifampicin and ... People with AIDS are given macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin for prophylactic treatment. People with HIV infection and ... Although other drugs, such as azithromycin and clarithromycin, have laboratory and clinical activity against MAC, none has been ... Every regimen should contain either azithromycin or clarithromycin; many experts prefer ethambutol as a second drug. Many ...
November 2000). "Atovaquone and azithromycin for the treatment of babesiosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (20): 1454-8. doi:10.1056/ ... treatment regimens have been increasingly leaning towards oral atovaquone with oral azithromycin. The latter are preferred, as ...
Effect of Azithromycin on Patients with Diffuse Panbronchiolitis: Retrospective Study of 51 Cases. Internal Medicine. 2011, 50 ...
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Patients instilled azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% BID on days 1 and 2 and QD on days 3-28. Tear samples for cytokine ... Purpose: : To evaluate the efficacy of 4-week treatment with azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1.0% in reducing the eyelid ... Tear cytokine concentrations did not appear to be affected by azithromycin treatment. Median scores for all symptoms (eyelid ... Efficacy of Topical Azithromycin Ophthalmic Solution 1.0% in the Treatment of Chronic Blepharitis Patients ...
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Azithromycin is supplied as tablets containing azithromycin monohydrate equivalent to either 250 mg or 500 mg azithromycin and ... AZITHROMYCIN MONOHYDRATE (UNII: JTE4MNN1MD) (AZITHROMYCIN ANHYDROUS - UNII:J2KLZ20U1M) AZITHROMYCIN ANHYDROUS. 250 mg. ... Azithromycin tablets can be taken with or without food.. •. Do not skip any doses of azithromycin tablets or stop taking it, ... How should I store azithromycin tablets? •. Store azithromycin tablets at 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).. •. Safely throw away any ...
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  • Recommended regimen is doxycycline 100 mg orally twice a day, alternatively azithromycin 1 g orally once per week or ciprofloxacin 750 mg orally twice a day or erythromycin base 500 mg orally four times a day or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole one double-strength (160 mg/800 mg) tablet orally twice a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each dark pink, coated, modified capsule-shaped tablet, debossed with a 'P' logo on one side and '250' on the other side, contains azithromycin monohydrate hemiethanolate equivalent to 250 mg of azithromycin. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Each white to off-white, coated, modified capsule-shaped tablet, debossed with a 'P' logo on one side and '600' on the other side, contains azithromycin monohydrate hemiethanolate equivalent to 600 mg of azithromycin. (medbroadcast.com)
  • If you stop taking azithromycin too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Azithromycin therefore stops the spread of infection and remaining bacteria are killed by the body's immune system or eventually die. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Like all antibiotics, azithromycin can only fight certain bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Azithromycin can fight a wide range of bacteria, including many in the Streptococcus family. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Azithromycin works by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria causing your infection. (news-medical.net)
  • 2/27/2010 After several consecutive treatments with 'Z-Pack'(Azithromycin), the oral bacteria (abscess) developed resistance to the antibiotic and I begin to experience dizziness and, of more concern, heart palpitations and irregular heartbeat. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • Azithromycin is useful only against bacteria that are susceptible to its effects. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • The particular bacteria causing your illness may be resistant to azithromycin. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Azithromycin has similar antimicrobial spectrum as erythromycin, but is more effective against certain gram-negative bacteria, particularly Haemophilus influenzae . (scielo.br)
  • Azithromycin prevents bacteria from growing by interfering with their protein synthesis. (scielo.br)
  • Azithromycin prevents the spread of the bacteria, so that your body's natural defences can fight back and remove the infection from your system. (healthexpress.co.uk)
  • They note that there is a potential for syphilis-causing bacteria to acquire resistance to macrolide drugs such as azithromycin and they recommend continued research into this possibility. (redorbit.com)
  • Carbapenems are less commonly used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, as community-acquired strains of the most common responsible pathogens (Streptocuccus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenazae, atypical bacteria, and Enterobactericeace) are typically susceptible to narrower spectrum and/or orally administered agents such as fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin, or azithromycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you receive azithromycin extended-release suspension (Zmax) as a dry powder, you must first add water to the bottle before you take the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Azithromycin is a prescription medication. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although the exact time it takes for azithromycin to cure an infection varies, most patients notice an improvement in symptoms after taking the medication for a few days, states MedlinePlus. (reference.com)
  • The primary hypothesis is that azithromycin will significantly improve asthma control (decrease symptoms and medication use) by 3 months (end treatment) and the improvement will continue to 12 months (end study). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We recently reported a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) that demonstrated a 6.2% improvement in the 168-d relative change in FEV1 among azithromycin participants compared with placebo participants. (nih.gov)
  • Children were given azithromycin (110 participants) or placebo (111 participants) three times weekly in addition to standardized TIS. (drugs.com)
  • The researchers found that compared with placebo, the risk of pulmonary exacerbation was significantly reduced by 44 percent in the azithromycin group. (drugs.com)
  • There was a significant 1.27 kg increase in weight in the azithromycin versus the placebo group. (drugs.com)
  • Experimental Design: The investigators propose a one-year randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded (investigator, patient, data collector, data analyst) trial of 12 weekly doses of azithromycin/placebo as adjunctive therapy (in addition to usual care) in 100 adult asthma patients recruited from practice-based research networks (e.g. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Children aged 1 to 59 months who weighed at least 3,800 g were randomly assigned to receive biannual azithromycin or a placebo. (healio.com)
  • For the secondary analysis, Porco and colleagues compared survival time after treatment in the azithromycin and placebo-treated communities, and the distribution of time of death posttreatment, season of treatment and season of death in participants who died. (healio.com)
  • Azithromycin-treated hebt organisms was monitored by host at epidemiologic doctor companies tablet. (sezame.cz)
  • Azithromycin comes as a tablet, an extended-release (long-acting) suspension (liquid), and a suspension (liquid) to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1 tablet (filmovertrukken) indeholder 500 mg azithromycin (som monohydrat). (medicin.dk)
  • There were no interactions found in our database between Aspirin Low Strength and azithromycin - however, this does not necessarily mean no interactions exist. (drugs.com)
  • Treatment of cohort 2: The aim is to confirm the local tolerance of the selected doses and to evaluate the local skin and plasma concentration of azithromycin after application of SHB001 dermal formulation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatotoxicity: Severe, and sometimes fatal, hepatotoxicity has been reported, Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur. (nih.gov)
  • Azithromycin usually causes diarrhea/loose stools (7%), nausea (5%), abdominal pain (5%), vomiting (2%), dyspepsia (indigestion) (1%) and vaginitis (1%), not the symptoms you describe. (drugs.com)
  • For more information regarding the availability of azithromycin, visit the FDA Drug Shortage Website external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved azithromycin in 1991 . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide or ketolide drug. (nih.gov)
  • If you have an allergy to azithromycin or any other part of this drug. (mskcc.org)
  • Drug-dependent anti-platelet antibody testing was not done during admission as the patient's platelet count began to slowly improve after stopping the azithromycin. (hindawi.com)
  • Although drug manufacturers don't usually address the effectiveness of azithromycin with alcohol directly, most do warn against using it with antacids that have an aluminum or magnesium base. (wisegeek.com)
  • Azithromycin ophthalmic solutions were claimed to contain 1.667 mg/mL (as anhydrous base) of the drug. (scielo.br)
  • The safety and effectiveness of azithromycin use in patients under 16 years of age have not been established, although no special problems are expected. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Some decrease the effectiveness of azithromycin, while others increase the potential for side effects. (wisegeek.com)
  • To compare the effectiveness of azithromycin to amoxycillin or amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (amoxyclav) in the treatment of LRTI, in terms of clinical failure, incidence of adverse events and microbial eradication. (cochrane.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae with Reduced Susceptibility to Azithromycin - San Diego County, California, 2009" on May 13, 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • This report summarizes the laboratory and epidemiologic findings associated with this reduced susceptibility to azithromycin. (cdc.gov)
  • Isolates are azithromycin doxycycline together in in pale malaria airway. (sezame.cz)
  • More recently, Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with high minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azithromycin, one of the antibiotics recommended in dual therapy treatment for gonorrhea, have now been reported worldwide, including within the U.S. (cdc.gov)
  • During August--October 2009, five of 55 (9.1%) N. gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from men with symptomatic urethritis tested at San Diego County's main municipal sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic had high azithromycin MICs: three with 8 µ g/mL and two with 16 µ g/mL. (cdc.gov)
  • Azithromycin should not be used in patients with pneumonia who are judged to be inappropriate for oral therapy because of moderate to severe illness or risk factors. (nih.gov)
  • DBL Azithromycin for Injection is indicated for community acquired pneumonia caused by susceptible organisms in patients who require initial intravenous therapy. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Azithromycin may also be given by injection to treat severe pneumonia or pelvic inflammatory disease. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Azithromycin may also have collateral benefits against a number of infectious diseases including malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia," they wrote. (healio.com)
  • Azithromycin is most commonly prescribed orally for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and is recommended as first-line treatment in patients with this condition who are being managed on an outpatient basis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In a study comparing the safety and efficacy of levofloxacin to that of azithromycin or ceftriaxone in 712 children with community-acquired pneumonia, serious adverse events were experienced by 6% of those treated with levofloxacin and 4% of those treated with comparator antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all drugs, azithromycin can have certain side effects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Azithromycin belongs to the class of drugs known as macrolide antibiotics. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Other antimycobacterial drugs that have shown in vitro activity against MAC may be added to the regimen of azithromycin plus ethambutol at the discretion of the physician or health care provider. (rxlist.com)
  • Before using azithromycin, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the drugs you take and if you have any of the following conditions: certain heart problems (heart failure, slow heartbeat, QT prolongation in the EKG), family history of certain heart problems (QT prolongation in the EKG, sudden cardiac death). (medhelp.org)
  • Five patients died from other causes in that window, but the risk was not higher with azithromycin compared with other drugs (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.15-5.40), the researchers reported in a letter to the editor in the New England Journal of Medicine . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Azithromycin is a class of drugs, belongs to antibacterials antibiotics. (bccresearch.com)
  • It is recommended that you tell your physicians to avoid drugs that end in mycin ( Azithromycin, Erythromycin ) because of possible reactions which could lead to setbacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project's alert values were used to interpret the MIC values for azithromycin (Susceptible 1.0 µg/mL, Resistant 2.0 µg/mL). (cdc.gov)
  • We expect a formal recommendation on the potential use of azithromycin MDA as a child survival intervention will be forthcoming after this meeting. (healio.com)