An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Annual statements reviewing the status of the administrative and operational functions and accomplishments of an institution or organization.
Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A plant genus of the family PYROLACEAE. The common name of wintergreen is more often used for GAULTHERIA.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A highly toxic compound used as a gasoline additive. It causes acute toxic psychosis or chronic poisoning if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Material prepared from plants.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.

A toxicokinetic model to assess the risk of azinphosmethyl exposure in humans through measures of urinary elimination of alkylphosphates. (1/12)

Azinphosmethyl (APM) is one of the most common insecticides used in fruit farming. The object of this paper is to develop a quick and practical test for assessing the risk for humans coming into contact with APM. It has been shown that the principal component of occupational and/or accidental exposure is through the skin (C. A. Franklin et al., 1981, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7, 715-731), but our approach is applicable to exposures via any route or a combination of routes. The method proposed in the present paper can accommodate a single-event exposure or repeated exposures over long periods. Urinary alkylphosphate (AP) metabolites are reliable bioindicators of the presence of APM in the body; they are easily accessible and can be used to estimate APM body burden. We developed a simple toxicokinetic model to link the time varying APM body burden to absorbed doses and to rates of elimination in the form of AP urinary metabolites. Using this model and data available in the literature, we are able to propose a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) for APM body levels and for corresponding absorbed doses. We have established that after a single exposure, the safe limit corresponding to the NOAEL is reached at a cumulative 0.215 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated in urine in the first 24 hours following the beginning of exposure. For repeated daily exposures at steady state, the corresponding urinary AP metabolite level is equal to a cumulative 0.266 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated per 24 hours.  (+info)

Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach. (2/12)

There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and analyses of home-dust samples for pesticide residues of major organophosphates used in area crops. Results indicate that migrant farmworker housing is diverse, and the amounts and types of pesticide residues found in homes differ. Azinphos-methyl (AZM) was the pesticide residue found most often in both farmworker and grower homes. The median level of AZM in farmworker homes was 1.45 ppm compared to 1.64 ppm in the entry area of grower homes. The median level of AZM in the play areas of grower homes was 0.71 ppm. The levels of AZM in migrant farmworker homes were most associated with the distance from fields and the number of agricultural workers in the home. Although the levels of AZM in growers and farmworker homes were comparable in certain areas, potential for disproportionate exposures occur in areas of the homes where children are most likely to play. The relationship between home resident density, levels of pesticide residues, and play behaviors of children merit further attention.  (+info)

Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa. (3/12)

BACKGROUND: In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. METHODS: This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. RESULTS: The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 microg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 microg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 +/- 1.0 microg/L (n = 21) and 3.16 +/- 3.5 microg/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria. CONCLUSION: The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.  (+info)

Pesticide resistance via transposition-mediated adaptive gene truncation in Drosophila. (4/12)

To study adaptation, it is essential to identify multiple adaptive mutations and to characterize their molecular, phenotypic, selective, and ecological consequences. Here we describe a genomic screen for adaptive insertions of transposable elements in Drosophila. Using a pilot application of this screen, we have identified an adaptive transposable element insertion, which truncates a gene and apparently generates a functional protein in the process. The insertion of this transposable element confers increased resistance to an organophosphate pesticide and has spread in D. melanogaster recently.  (+info)

Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests. (5/12)

Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed.  (+info)

Where's the dust? Characterizing locations of azinphos-methyl residues in house and vehicle dust among farmworkers with young children. (6/12)

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Organophosphate pesticide exposure and residential proximity to nearby fields: evidence for the drift pathway. (7/12)

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An approach to an inhibition electronic tongue to detect on-line organophosphorus insecticides using a computer controlled multi-commuted flow system. (8/12)

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Four organophosphorus pesticides (azinphos-methyl, diazinone, dimethoate, and pirimiphos-methyl), and one carbamate (benomyl) were tested for cytotoxicity, reverse mutation and gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, with and without the S9 metabolic system. Furthermore, two mixtures of the above compounds, namely benomyl + pirimiphos-methyl (6/1 ratio) and dimethoate + diazinone + azinphos-methyl (10/4/6 ratio) were tested in the same experimental model. Azinphos-methyl, benomyl, and pirimiphos-methyl alone did not induce any genotoxic effect, whereas azinphos-methyl and diazinone were active in inducing reversion and gene conversion. The benomyl + pirimiphos-methyl mixture did not show any genotoxic activity. The dimethoate + diazinone + azimphos-methyl mixture was genotoxic, although an antagonistic effect between the components was observed. The addition of S9 post-mitochondrial liver fraction decreased the activity of both single and mixed genotoxic agents.. ...
Beyond Pesticides, July 5, 2012) After a 2006 cancellation of uses due to unreasonable risks to farmworker health and the environment, and a 6-year phase out scheduled to conclude this September, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a risk-benefit analysis to make a determination whether to keep in place or amend the cancellation order for the organophosphate azinphos-methyl (AZM), citing new information on the economic costs of using alternatives. In 2001, EPA found that insecticides azinphos-methyl (AZM) posed unacceptable risks to farmworkers and announced that 28 crop uses were being canceled, seven crop uses were to be phased-out over four years, and eight crop uses were to be allowed to continue under a time-limited registration for another four years. Farmworker advocates challenged that decision in federal court citing that EPA failed to take into account the costs of poisoning workers, exposing children, and polluting rivers and streams. A settlement agreement ...
Mould is omnipresentâ€mould spores are a common component of house dust, there are mould growths on your food, walls and even clothes. It grows fast, it is hard to detect, and it emmits dangerous mycotoxins. By dangerous we dont mean causes a mild infection. No, we mean carcinogenic, hallucination-inducing concoction.. Luckily, the most dangerous mould species are also the rarest, right? Wrongâ€Black mould is deadly and encountered on daily basis. Of course, black brings association with the Black Plague, which isnt too removed. Unlike most moulds, it is slimy and black-green in colour. It releases aflatoxinâ€a neurotoxic compound which kills neurons in the brain and nervous system. Aflatoxin causes tremors, confusion, personality changes and mood swings. Wait, those are only the minor inconveniences you can experience. Exposure to black mould leads to brain fog, slowed reflexes, memory loss, anxiety, depression, hallucination, numbness and seizures. Non-psychological ...
Murphy, D., Bartlett, K., Henry, B., Nicol, A. (2013) Tick Talk: Communication of protective practices against ticks for children using multi-media design and curriculum. Proceedings of the 63rd Annual International Communication Association Conference. June 17-21, London, England.Murphy, D., Balka, E., Poureslami, I., Leung, D., Cruz, T., & Nicol, A. (2007, November 12). Communicating Health Information: The Community Engagement Model for Video Production. Canadian Journal of Communication, 32(3). (for PDF click here ...
BACKGROUND:. Epidemiologic analysis of acute, reversible respiratory health effects is uncommonly performed, yet these are important health outcomes because acute responses by the respiratory defense system appear to represent one end of the continuum toward progressive, chronic and potentially disabling physiologic changes. Repeatable epidemiologic studies of dose-response relationships necessitate accurate measures of dose. However, in occupational and environmental settings, exposure to a toxin is seldom found at identical concentrations and/or particle sizes among persons with the same activity patterns. In addition, air concentration does not account for factors such as clearance or metabolism which may alter the biologically effective tissue dose. These factors cause the target tissue dose of the toxin to vary greatly despite exposure to similar air concentrations.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The results of these toxicokinetic models were individual measures of tissue dose used in a 2-stage ...
Organophosphorus pesticides are some of the most widely used insecticides in the US, and spray drift may result in human exposures. We investigate sampling methodologies using the polyurethane foam passive air sampling device to measure cumulative monthly airborne concentrations of OP pesticides chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and oxygen analogs. Passive sampling rates (m3 d-1) were determined usin
Although HIV transmission is possible in healthcare settings, it is extremely rare. Medical experts emphasize that the careful practice of infection control procedures, including universal precautions (i.e., using protective practices and personal protective equipment to prevent transmission of HIV and other bloodborne infections), protects patients as well as healthcare providers from possible HIV transmission in medical and dental settings. Healthcare personnel are at risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens including HIV. Important factors that influence the overall risk for occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens include the number of infected individuals in the patient population and the type and number of blood contacts. Transmission of HIV to patients while in healthcare settings is rare; however, proper sterilization and disinfection procedures are required.. CDC has documented rare cases of patients contracting HIV in healthcare settings from infected donor ...
A seal-less disposable flow system for use in conjunction with a centrifugal liquid processing apparatus or the like wherein a rotor assembly for subjecting a liquid to be processed to centrifugation is rotatably mounted on a rotor drive assembly, which is rotatably mounted to a stationary base. The rotor assembly is rotatably driven in the same direction as the rotor drive assembly with a speed ratio of 2:1. The flow system includes two containers adapted for mounting on the rotor assembly and a flexible umbilical cable which extends from the containers to a location external to the apparatus by way of a passageway provided in the support shaft of the rotor assembly and guide means carried on and rotatably mounted to the rotor drive assembly to maintain liquid communication with the containers during rotation of the rotor without the use of rotating seals. A reusable leader assembly facilitates installation of the flow system in the processing apparatus.
We have extended a recently published toxicokinetic model for fish (TK-fish) towards the oral up-take of contaminants. Validation with hydrophobic chemicals revealed that diffusive transport through aqueous boundary layers in the gastro-intestinal tract and in the blood is the limiting process. This process can onl Modeling in Environmental Chemistry
Black flies аrе prevalent thrоughоut mоѕt оf thе world. Black flies аrе rеаllу flies but bесаuѕе оf thеіr small size аnd оthеr behaviors, people dont gene
contact exposure of third instars) revealed that stable (no further change) LC₅₀ values often can only be obtained using after-treatment periods of ≥72 h. The ecdysone agonist tebufenozide was the only compound that did not cause any mortality (within 360 h after initial exposure) in either of the two lacewing species. While methyl-parathion was the most toxic compound within a 48 h period after initial exposure, LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ estimates, determined after 360 h, produced similar values for methyl-parathion, azinphos-methyl, cypermethrin, fenoxycarb and diflubenzuron. Comparisons showed that C. caniea was far more resistant to the 2 organophosphates and the pyrethroid than M. tasmaniae. However, both species were equally sensitive to the 2 insect growth regulators fenoxycarb and diflubenzuron, with morphological effects being more severe in C. camea. In field experiments, fenoxycarb also proved to be harmful to both species (at a rate of 0.01% AI). Preliminary ultrastructural ...
The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the presence of selected organothiophosphates (diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, phorate) and their oxo-analogues (diazoxon, malaoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, azinphos-methyl-oxon, phorate-oxon) was examined. Experimental conditions were optimized to detect the lowest posible concentrations of these compounds using AChE test. IC50 values were determined for all the mentioned compounds. Investigated organothiophosphates have been converted into their oxo-analogues in the presence of the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Oxidation products were detected using UPLC and GC/MS analysis. It was found that the products are stable within minimum 1h. In order to optimize oxidation procedure and achieve maximum concentrations of oxons, the optimal concentrations of H2O2 (50 μM) and MPO (100 nM) were determined. Also, the optimal incubation time of OPs and MPO (10 min), as well as the optimal pH (6) and temperature (25 °C) were estimated. Oxidation of ...
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a drug of abuse, exhibits saturable renal clearance and capacity-limited metabolism. The objectives of this study were to construct a mechanistic toxicokinetic (TK) model describing saturable renal reabsorption and capacity-limited metabolism of GHB and to predict the effects of inhibition
Methylmercury (MeHg), known for well over a century as a neurotoxin in adults, has more recently been studied for potential detrimental effects during early brain development. While several studies have estimated mercury exposure, they usually rely on either a single biomarker or questionnaire data, each of which has limitations. The goal of this paper was to develop a toxicokinetic model that incorporates both biomarker and questionnaire data to estimate the cumulative exposure to MeHg through seafood consumption using data collected from the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study.We utilized a previously described discrete-time model that estimates blood MeHg concentration given a piecewise-constant ingestion rate and single-compartment pharmacokinetics. We measured newborn bloodspot Hg concentrations and obtained information pertaining to maternal fish consumption using a questionnaire. Using MeHg concentration estimates from the toxicokinetic model, ...
By far the most important piece of equipment in the telecommunications room is: the air conditioner. One side effect of constant air conditioning prompted the adoption of the penguin as the telecommunications crews official mascot. Here you see several members of the crew gathered around their favorite appliance. ...
This work is devoted to the study of the endocrine-related effects on human health with special reference to carcinogenesis, and to the assessment of carcinogenic risk. After providing basic information at the general, cellular and molecular levels, the contents focus on the paradigm of biologically-based risk assessment, as developed form physiologically-based toxicokinetic models. The analysis of this material is proposed as the novel parameters for developing biologically-based models of carcinogenesis, considered to be more relevant to risk assessment than traditional approaches.
The Western Cape was the first place that Europeans settled in the country, in 1652 when Jan van Riebeecks three vessels landed at the Cape. As employees of the Dutch East India Company, they had come to establish a halfway station for ships travelling to and from the East. Their influence is evident in the buildings, some of which are 350 years old, and culture of the Western Cape.
STATEMENT BY DR NOMAFRENCH MBOMBO WESTERN CAPE MINISTRY OF HEALTH Release date: immediate In response to Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) demands delivered to various provincial health facilities, the MEC, Dr Nomafrench Mbombo, met with EFF Leadership in person last week. While recognising the reality of service pressure, she rejects and condemns any disruption of service by
From Grandmas Home Cooking booklet - a favorite of the Washington Apple Commission. I love molasses in baked breads and cookies and the addition of the apple really sounds wonderful.
Speaker, Premier and members of this House We have just entered a new electoral cycle, and with this comes the opportunity to strengthen existing policies, and develop and introduce new ones that better the lives of all of our people living in the Western Cape.
Here is the best resource for homework help with BIOTECHNOL 222 : BTN at Western Cape. Find BIOTECHNOL222 study guides, notes, and practice tests from
Most Western Cape residents turn to drugs and alcohol because their lives are humiliating, Agang SA leader Mamphela Ramphele has said.
Yesterday I returned to White Ledge in Albany, NH for the third time this Spring. This time paving on Rt 16 made parking at the campground more convenient. After timing the hike out there after multiple trips I think the campground approach is definitely better (as long as it is open). 1) You dont have…
bilder fra Uniondale: Se på TripAdvisor-medlemmers 201 objektive bilder og videoer av landemerker, hoteller og attraksjoner i Uniondale.
SynapseGrid is a framework for constructing reactive real-time immutable data flow systems. -core contains everything to run a single-threaded system, -akka contains everything to run systems over Akka actors, -slf4j - enables logging, -concurrent - running systems directly over ExecutorContext without the need for Akka, -examples - a few test systems. Also there are The current version is 1.4.4. ...
Vesicular stomatitis is an economically important arboviral disease of livestock. Viremia is absent in infected mammalian hosts, and the mechanism by which insects become infected with the causative agents, vesicular stomatitis viruses, remains unknown. Because infected and noninfected insects potentially feed on the same host in nature, infected and noninfected black flies were allowed to feed on the same host. Viremia was not detected in the host after infection by a black fly bite, but because noninfected black flies acquired the virus while co-feeding on the same host with infected black flies, it is concluded that a viremic host is not necessary for an insect to be infected with the virus. Thus co-feeding is a mechanism of infection for an insect-transmitted virus. ...
Like most biting insects, black flies (Simulium vittatum) secrete products in their saliva to prevent blood from clotting while theyre taking their meal. Hitoshi Tsujimoto and his colleagues from the University of Georgia, the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and from the National Institutes of Health have identified just such a protein in black fly saliva, dubbed Simukunin. It is expressed only in females but not males, who feed on nectar rather than blood ...
Tracer Hydrology (Uhlenbrook). This course treats different methods to analyse and assess hydrological flow systems. Special attention will be given to hydro-chemical and tracer hydrological approaches to delineate flow systems and understanding flow patterns in the environment. The use of tracer techniques will illustrate the determination of flow pathways, residence times of the water, the hydraulic properties of flow systems and the mixing of different water compartments. The learning objectives will be achieved through class lectures explaining background and methodologies, practical application exercises, which are to be worked out as assignments, and group exercises.. ...
Animal studies serve to validate mechanistic inferences derived from observational human studies. The majority of information pertaining to lead toxicokinetics has been accurately defined in humans of different ages and degrees of susceptibility to lead toxicity. A number of toxicokinetic models have been developed to predict the effects of external lead exposure upon internal or systemic levels of lead. The Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) is now widely applied to assess relationships between environmental lead exposure and blood lead in children. Due to limitations in the ability of the IEUBK model to assess the deposition and subsequent remobilisation of lead from bone, use of the IEUBK model is generally restrict to predict exposures in chidren six years of age or younger. Physiologically-based pharmacokineitc models (e.g. the OFlaherty Model) have been developed to predict lead uptake in humans of all ages but is most commonly applied in the assessment of adult exposures. Both ...
Background : The Phelophepa Health Care Train is the only primary healthcare train in the world. Phelophepa is an innovative initiative that attempts to make a positive difference to primary healthcare in rural South Africa. The primary aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological and prescribing statistics for Phelophepa during the period that the train was stationed in the Western Cape in 2009. Methods : Phelophepa visited seven stations during the eight weeks that it was stationed in the Western Cape (between 6 April and 5 June 2009). Data were collected by workers and students on the train. Results : A total of 4 026 prescriptions were dispensed by the pharmacy on Phelophepa during the eight weeks. The average number of items per prescription was 3.51. The average cost per prescription was R65,48 (average cost of R18,64 per item). Patients only paid R5,00 per prescription. There was an increase in the number of pulmonary diseases/infections as well as ophthalmic conditions (especially
HCA oversees the states top two health care purchasers - Washington Apple Health (Medicaid) and the Public Employee Benefits Board Program. We work with partners to help ensure Washingtonians have access to better health and better care at a lower cost. For more information, visit www.hca.wa.gov.. ...
Abdominal aortic ultrasound is performed by Dr Frikkie Rademan in Durbanville, Cape Town and Western Cape to diagnose the defects in the abdominal aorta.
WESTERN CAPE - Due to a COVID-19 infection at the Provincial Office in Alfred Street Green Point, the facility is closed for decontamination for the day. Employees from the various components have been advised to work from home while a few are at the POCC in Harrington Street ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Ravayi Marindo (Editor), Sam Gaisie (Editor), Cornie Groenewald (Editor) - The State of the Population in the Western Cape Province. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 0796922268
Motivation is considered to be the desired positive willingness that prompts a person to action. The factors that influence or lead to this positive willingness, are considered to be motivation factors, and include specific needs, wants, drives or impulses (Hersey ...
A method and an apparatus for detecting, locating, and quantifying contamination in a fluid flow system like a pipe or duct. This characterization technique uses a conservative and one or more interactive tracers that are injected into the fluid flow system and then monitored at another location in the system. Detection, location, and quantification are accomplished by analysis of the characteristic features of measured curves of tracer concentration.
1995-09-01 Resumo em português Correspondendo a apenas 2% do peso corpóreo, o cérebro apresenta taxa metabólica superior à maioria dos demais órgãos e sistemas. A maior parte do consumo energético encefálico ocorre no transporte iônico para manutenção do potencial de membrana celular. Praticamente desprovido de estoques, os substratos energéticos para o encéfalo são fornecidos necessariamente pela circulação sanguínea.O suprimento desses substratos sofre também a ação seletiva da ba (mais) rreira hemato-encefálica (BHE). O principal substrato, que é a glicose, tem uma demanda de 150 g/dia (0,7 mM/g/min). A metabolização intracelular parece ser controlada pela fosfofrutoquinase. A manose e os produtos intermediários do metabolismo (frutose 1,6 bifosfato, piruvato, lactato e acetato) podem substituir, em parte, a glicose, quando os níveis sangüíneos desta encontram-se elevados. Quando oxidado, o lactato chega a responder por 21% do consumo cerebral de Ov Em situações ...
A process and apparatus are provided for continuously separating blood into plasma and cellular component fractions and returning the latter to the subject in admixture with a makeup fluid. The separation is effected by continuously ultrafiltering the subjects blood at specified shear stresses and pressures employing a membrane ultrafilter, preferably having a pore size of 0.45 microns, and a disclosed flow system.
Embryonic and larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavior is commonly used to identify neurotoxic compounds. Here, we investigated whether sub-lethal exposures to the common solvents dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 0.01-1%) and methanol (MeOH, 0.01-1%), or the anti-fungal agent methylene blue (MB, 0.0001-0.0005%), can influence larval behavior in a simple light/dark paradigm conducted in 96-well plates. In addition, we tested whether the media volume within the behavioral arena or the zebrafish strain, AB wild type, AB Tübingen (AB/TU), or Tüpfel long-fin (TL), could also influence larval behavior. Following the single exposures, we co-exposed larvae to DMSO and either MB or two other compounds with known behavioral effects in larval zebrafish, flutamide and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). We found ≥0.55% DMSO and 0.0005% MB significantly affected larval behavior, but there was no effect of MeOH. Similarly, TL showed less movement compared to AB and AB/TU strains, whereas lower media volumes also ...
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels
Animated coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Black fly larva (Simulium hippovorum). Note the ribbon of silk coming from the mouth area. All known species of black flies produce silk for mooring lines for anchorage to substrates in flowing water. A pair of silk glands run the length of the body, the strands of silk emerge from a silk duct below the mouth and are cut and guided by a series of teeth on the mandible and hypostoma. Black flies are considered a human pest in some areas of the US and Canada. Adult females of certain species are fierce biters, whereas others are strictly a nuisance by their presence around exposed skin areas. Female black flies require a blood meal; males feed mainly on nectar. Black flies can transmit filarial worms to humans resulting in a disease called onchocerciasis, which cause blindness. - Stock Video Clip K006/9266
In southern California, ocular infections caused by Onchocerca lupi were diagnosed in 3 dogs (1 in 2006, 2 in 2012). The infectious agent was confirmed through morphologic analysis of fixed parasites in tissues and by PCR and sequencing of amplicons derived from 2 mitochondrially encoded genes and 1 nuclear-encoded gene. A nested PCR based on the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of the parasite was developed and used to screen Simulium black flies collected from southern California for O. lupi DNA. Six (2.8%; 95% CI 0.6%-5.0%) of 213 black flies contained O. lupi DNA. Partial mitochondrial16S rRNA gene sequences from the infected flies matched sequences derived from black fly larvae cytotaxonomically identified as Simulium tribulatum. These data implicate S. tribulatum flies as a putative vector for O. lupi in southern California ...
Background. Drug abuse is as relevant today as ever Management of such cases on a primary health care level may be challenging, particularly when laboratory facilities are unavailable. Futhermore, substance abuse and its sequelae place a significant burden on the already overstretched primary health care resources in the country, as well as on other services and society in general. Objectives. The current study surveyed the trends in demand for laboratory determination of amphetamines, opiates, methaqualone, cannabis, cocaine and ethanol for the period 1991 - 2002, in the Western Cape. The survey was conducted by extracting the relevant data from the record of the Pharmacology/Toxicology Laboratory of the University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital. This facility processes the largest number of specimens by a single laboratory in the Western Cape. Results. From the data obtained a seasonal pattern emerged for all substances except ethanol, with a trough appearing in early winter. ...
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The average farmworker dairy salary in the United States is $28,439 or an equivalent hourly rate of $14. Salary estimates based on salary survey data collected directly from employers and anonymous employees in the United States
South African destination information for Self-Catering, Guest House or Bed & Breakfast establishments, catering predominantly for the international tourist, local and foreign business people.
Fly sprays protect stable & horse from bot, deer, face, horn & black flies, as well as, midges, gnats, mosquitoes & fleas. Shop horse supplies with free shipping offer! Shop in our Fly Control Concentrates department online made by Merck. Shop, sign-up and save, or request your free catalog.
Stellenbosch [http://www.stellenboschtourism.co.za/] (pop. about 100.000) is a city in the Western Cape of South Africa and is the heart of the Cape Winelands, South Africas prime wine region.
The ANC in the Western Cape has recalled the mayor and deputy mayor of Kannaland Local Municipality in an attempt to get the party out of its coalition agreement with the DA.
JH Laubscher Broers has one of the largest potato-growing concerns in the Western Cape, with 300ha under irrigation all through the year.
Confusion was deliberately created by alleged embezzler J Arthur Brown to solicit investments in his pyramid schemes, the Western Cape High Court has heard.
Ebb and Flow Definition - An ebb and flow system, also known as a flood and drain system, is a popular hydroponic growing system where theres an...
11] azinphos-methyl Scott, Alex (August 4, 2008). "Europe Rejects Appeal for Use of Azinphos-methyl Pesticide". Chemical Week. ...
Both methyl parathion and azinphos methyl are organophosphates. Organophosphates are pesticides that kill insects by disrupting ... the EPA banned most uses of methyl parathion and azinphos methyl, citing the risks they pose to children. ...
Azinphos-Methyl, and Oxygen Analogs in a Rural Agricultural Community". Environmental Health Perspectives. 125 (3): 333-341. ...
In response the Government of PEI restricted the use of azinphos-methyl, an insecticide implicated in many of the fish kills. ...
Azinphos-methyl Azinphos-Ethyl, Chemical Sampling Information, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Azinphos-ethyl ...
Azinphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Methoxychlor, and Paraquat. Instead, by 2014 the number of active ingredients in imported ...
... a dialect of Amuzgo Azinphos-methyl, a pesticide used on nuts, vegetables, and fruits Project Azm, Pakistan Aeronautical ...
Azinphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Methoxychlor and Paraquat. As of 2019[update] sugar consumption in Thailand is 28 ...
... azinphos methyl, in what they called "kid's food". The review process was concluded in 2006 and eliminated or modified ...
Arsenic pentoxide Arsenous oxide Arsenous trichloride Arsine Azinphos-ethyl Azinphos-methyl Benzal chloride Benzenamine, 3-( ...
Asulam ATC code P03 Atrazine Atrazine controversy Avicide Azinphos-methyl Azoxystrobin Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ...
... can enter the body via inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Ingestion of azinphos-methyl is responsible ... "EPA's Azinphos-methyl Page". Retrieved 15 April 2015. Scott, Alex (August 4, 2008). "Europe Rejects Appeal for Use of Azinphos- ... Compendium of Pesticide Common Names EPA's Azinphos-methyl Page CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Azinphos-methyl ... Azinphos-methyl is a neurotoxin derived from nerve agents developed during World War II. It was first registered in the US in ...
The biological mechanism for the thinning is not entirely known, but it is believed that p,p'-DDE impairs the shell gland's ability to excrete calcium carbonate onto the developing egg.[7][9][10][11][12] Multiple mechanisms may be at work, or different mechanisms may operate in different species.[7] Some studies have shown that although DDE levels have fallen dramatically, eggshell thickness remains 10-12 percent thinner than before DDT was first used.[13]. Some studies have indicated that DDE is an endocrine disruptor[14] and contributes to breast cancer, but more recent studies provide strong evidence that there is no relationship between DDE exposure and breast cancer.[15] What is more clear is that DDE is a weak androgen receptor antagonist and can produce male genital tract abnormalities.[16][17]. Animal studies show that organochlorine pesticides-such as DDE-are neurotoxic, cause oxidative stress, and damage the brain's dopaminergic system.[18]. ...
... binds and reversibly inactivates the cholinesterases, thus inhibiting hydrolysis of acetylcholine. This increases acetylcholine concentrations at cholinergic synapses.[1] The precise mechanism of action of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood. Certainly, Alzheimer's disease involves a substantial loss of the elements of the cholinergic system and it is generally accepted that the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are related to this cholinergic deficit, particularly in the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain.[18][19] It is noted that the hippocampal formation plays an important role in the processes of control of attention, memory and learning. Just the severity of the loss of cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) has been found to correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment. In addition to its actions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil has been found to act as a potent agonist of the σ1 receptor (Ki = ...
... (DDD) is an organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin.[1] DDD is a metabolite of DDT.[2] DDD is colorless and crystalline;[3] it is closely related chemically and is similar in properties to DDT, but it is considered to be less toxic to animals than DDT.[4] The molecular formula for DDD is (ClC6H4)2CHCHCl2 or C14H10Cl4, whereas the formula for DDT is (ClC6H4)2CHCCl3 or C14H9Cl5. DDD is in the "Group B2" classification, meaning that it is a probable human carcinogen. This is based on an increased incidence of lung tumors in male and female mice, liver tumors in male mice, and thyroid tumors in male rats. Further basis is that DDD is so similar to and is a metabolite of DDT, another probable human carcinogen.[2] DDD is no longer registered for agricultural use in the United States, but the general population continues to be exposed to it due to its long persistence time. The primary source of exposure is oral ingestion of food.[5] 1946 is the ...
... is a widely used, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl. It is also employed as a casting worm control agent in amenity turf situations such as golf greens, tennis courts etc. and in some countries is licensed for that use only.[2] The fungicide is used to control plant diseases in cereals and fruits, including citrus, bananas, strawberries, pineapples, and pomes.[3] It is also controversially used in Queensland, Australia on macadamia plantations.[4] A 4.7% solution of carbendazim hydrochloride, sold as Eertavas, is marketed as a treatment for Dutch elm disease. Studies have found high doses of carbendazim cause infertility and destroy the testicles of laboratory animals.[5][6] Maximum pesticide residue limits (MRLs) have reduced since discovering its harmful effects. The MRLs for fresh produce in the EU are now between 0.1 and 0.7 mg/kg with the exception of loquat, which is 2 mg/kg.[7] The limits for more commonly consumed citrus and pome fruits are ...
While botulinum toxin is generally considered safe in a clinical setting, there can be serious side effects from its use. The use of botulinum toxin A in cerebral palsy children is safe in the upper and lower limb muscles.[5][6] Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or with time spread from the injection site, causing temporary paralysis of unintended muscles. Side effects from cosmetic use generally result from unintended paralysis of facial muscles. These include partial facial paralysis, muscle weakness, and trouble swallowing. Side effects are not limited to direct paralysis however, and can also include headaches, flu-like symptoms, and allergic reactions.[41] Just as cosmetic treatments only last a number of months, paralysis side-effects can have the same durations.[citation needed] At least in some cases, these effects are reported to dissipate in the weeks after treatment.[citation needed] Bruising at the site of injection is not a side effect of the ...
By 1974, a team of Rothamsted Research scientists had discovered three pyrethroids suitable for use in agriculture, namely permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin.[10] These compounds were subsequently licensed by the NRDC, as NRDC 143, 149 and 161 respectively, to companies which could then develop them for sale in defined territories. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) obtained licenses to permethrin and cypermethrin but their agreement with the NRDC did not allow worldwide sales. Also, it was clear to ICI's own researchers at Jealott's Hill that future competition in the marketplace might be difficult owing to the greater potency of deltamethrin compared to the other compounds. For that reason, chemists there sought patentable analogues which might have advantages compared to the Rothamsted insecticides by having wider spectrum or greater cost-benefit . The first breakthrough was made when a trifluoromethyl group was used to replace one of the chlorines in cypermethrin, especially when the ...
... has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 months. The FDA has assigned it as pregnancy category B. Animal studies have shown no effects on fertility or teratogenicity, but studies in humans have not been performed. The excretion of permethrin in breastmilk is unknown, and breastfeeding is recommended to be temporarily discontinued during treatment.[11] According to the Connecticut Department of Public Health, permethrin "has low mammalian toxicity, is poorly absorbed through the skin, and is rapidly inactivated by the body. Skin reactions have been uncommon."[14] Excessive exposure to permethrin can cause nausea, headache, muscle weakness, excessive salivation, shortness of breath, and seizures. Worker exposure to the chemical can be monitored by measurement of the urinary metabolites, while severe overdose may be confirmed by measurement of permethrin in serum or blood plasma.[15] Permethrin does not present any ...
Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water,[7] primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact.[7] In animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity.[7] Some methoxychlor's metabolites have estrogenic effects in adult and developing animals before and after birth.[7] One studied metabolite is 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) which shows reproductive toxicity in an animal model by reducing testosterone biosynthesis.[8][9] Such effects adversely affect both the male and female reproductive systems. It is expected that this "could occur in humans" but has not been proven.[7] While one study has linked methoxychlor to the development of leukemia in humans, most studies in animals and humans have been negative, thus the EPA has determined that it is ...
GV (IUPAC name: 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate) is an organophosphate nerve agent. GV is a part of a new series of nerve agents with properties similar to both the "G-series" and "V-series". It is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with properties similar to other nerve agents, being a highly poisonous vapour. Treatment for poisoning with GV involves drugs such as atropine, benactyzine, obidoxime, and HI-6.[1][2] ...
The four-membered ring in α-pinene 1 makes it a reactive hydrocarbon, prone to skeletal rearrangements such as the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. For example, attempts to perform hydration or hydrogen halide addition with the alkene functionality typically lead to rearranged products. With concentrated sulfuric acid and ethanol the major products are terpineol 2 and its ethyl ether 3, while glacial acetic acid gives the corresponding acetate ester 4. With dilute acids, terpin hydrate 5 becomes the major product. With one molar equivalent of anhydrous HCl, the simple addition product 6a can be formed at low temperature in the presence of ether, but it is very unstable. At normal temperatures, or if no ether is present, the major product is bornyl chloride 6b, along with a small amount of fenchyl chloride 6c.[5] For many years 6b (also called "artificial camphor") was referred to as "pinene hydrochloride", until it was confirmed as identical with bornyl chloride made from camphene. If more HCl is ...
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... is extracted from Huperzia serrata.[2] It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor[6][7][8][9] and NMDA receptor antagonist[10] that crosses the blood-brain barrier.[11] Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. The structure of the complex of huperzine A with acetylcholinesterase has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB code: 1VOT; see the 3D structure).[12] For some years, huperzine A has been investigated as a possible treatment for diseases characterized by neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease.[2][13] A 2013 meta-analysis found that huperzine A may be efficacious in improving cognitive function, global clinical status, and activities of daily living for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, due to the poor size and quality of the clinical trials reviewed, huperzine A should not be recommended as a treatment for ...
Neuromuscular blocking agents need to fit in a space close to 2 nanometres, which resembles the molecular length of decamethonium.[13] Some molecules of decamethonium congeners may bind only to one receptive site. Flexible molecules have a greater chance of fitting receptive sites. However, the most populated conformation may not be the best-fitted one. Very flexible molecules are, in fact, weak neuromuscular inhibitors with flat dose-response curves. On the other hand, stiff or rigid molecules tend to fit well or not at all. If the lowest-energy conformation fits, the compound has high potency because there is a great concentration of molecules close to the lowest-energy conformation. Molecules can be thin but yet rigid.[14] Decamethonium for example needs relatively high energy to change the N-N distance.[13] In general, molecular rigidity contributes to potency, while size affects whether a muscle relaxant shows a polarizing or a depolarizing effect.[3] Cations must be able to flow through ...
... is a poisonous diterpenoid found in the South American plant Ryania speciosa (Salicaceae). It was originally used as an insecticide.. The compound has extremely high affinity to the open-form ryanodine receptor, a group of calcium channels found in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and heart muscle cells.[1] It binds with such high affinity to the receptor that it was used as a label for the first purification of that class of ion channels and gave its name to it.. At nanomolar concentrations, ryanodine locks the receptor in a half-open state, whereas it fully closes them at micromolar concentration. The effect of the nanomolar-level binding is that ryanodine causes release of calcium from calcium stores as the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, leading to massive muscular contractions. The effect of micromolar-level binding is paralysis. This is true for both mammals and insects.. ...
... is very toxic to cats which cannot tolerate the therapeutic doses for dogs.[7] This is associated with UGT1A6 deficiency in cats, the enzyme responsible for metabolizing cypermethrin. As a consequence, cypermethrin remains much longer in the cat's organs than in dogs or other mammals and can be fatal in large doses. In male rats cypermethrin was shown to exhibit a toxic effect on the reproductive system. After 15 days of continual dosing, both androgen receptor levels and serum testosterone levels were significantly reduced. These data suggested that cypermethrin can induce impairments of the structure of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis in male rats at high doses.[8] Long-term exposure to cypermethrin during adulthood is found to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rats, and postnatal exposure enhances the susceptibility of animals to dopaminergic neurodegeneration if rechallenged during adulthood.[9] If exposed to cypermethrin during pregnancy, rats give birth to ...
Before DDT, malaria was successfully eliminated or curtailed in several tropical areas by removing or poisoning mosquito breeding grounds and larva habitats, for example by eliminating standing water. These methods have seen little application in Africa for more than half a century.[137] According to CDC, such methods are not practical in Africa because "Anopheles gambiae, one of the primary vectors of malaria in Africa, breeds in numerous small pools of water that form due to rainfall ... It is difficult, if not impossible, to predict when and where the breeding sites will form, and to find and treat them before the adults emerge."[138] The relative effectiveness of IRS versus other malaria control techniques (e.g. bednets or prompt access to anti-malarial drugs) varies and is dependent on local conditions.[34] A WHO study released in January 2008 found that mass distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets and artemisinin-based drugs cut malaria deaths in half in malaria-burdened Rwanda ...
... s are substances used to kill insects.[1] They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and by consumers. Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind the increase in the 20th-century's agricultural productivity.[2] Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans and/or animals; some become concentrated as they spread along the food chain. Insecticides can be classified into two major groups: systemic insecticides, which have residual or long term activity; and contact insecticides, which have no residual activity. The mode of action describes how the pesticide kills or inactivates a pest. It provides another way of classifying insecticides. Mode of action can be important in understanding whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species, such as fish, birds and mammals. Insecticides may be repellent or ...
... has role EC 3.1.1.8 (cholinesterase) inhibitor (CHEBI:37733) azinphos-methyl (CHEBI:2953) is a ... azinphos-methyl (CHEBI:2953) has role agrochemical (CHEBI:33286) azinphos-methyl (CHEBI:2953) has role EC 3.1.1.7 ( ... azinphos-methyl (CHEBI:2953) is a organic thiophosphate (CHEBI:37512) azinphos-methyl (CHEBI:2953) is a organothiophosphate ... azinphos-methyl (CHEBI:2953) has parent hydride 1,2,3-benzotriazine (CHEBI:38586) ...
Azinphos-methyl can enter the body via inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Ingestion of azinphos-methyl is responsible ... "EPAs Azinphos-methyl Page". Retrieved 15 April 2015. Scott, Alex (August 4, 2008). "Europe Rejects Appeal for Use of Azinphos- ... Compendium of Pesticide Common Names EPAs Azinphos-methyl Page CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Azinphos-methyl ... Azinphos-methyl is a neurotoxin derived from nerve agents developed during World War II. It was first registered in the US in ...
Azinphos-methyl (Guthion). CAS No: 86-50-0. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Azinphos-methyl (Guthion). Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
This Skin Notation Profile provides the SK assignments and supportive data for azinphos-methyl. In particular, this document ...
Azinphos-Methyl Compound Information and Applications for GC (Gas Chromatography) and LC (Liquid Chromatography) Analysis ... Azinphos-methyl; Azinfos-Methyl; Azinphos; Bayer 17147; Cotneon; Cotnion; ENT 23,233; Gusathion; Gusathion Methyl; Gusathion K ... Azinphos methyl mixture; BAY 9027; BAY 17147; Bayer 9027; Carfene; Cotnion methyl; Crysthion 2L ...
Field strains showed less than twofold difference in response to azinphosmethyl at LD₅₀ but had variable levels (1.3- to 18.3- ... Field strains showed less than twofold difference in response to azinphosmethyl at LD₅₀ but had variable levels (1.3- to 18.3- ... Susceptibility of Field Populations of Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to Azinphosmethyl and Permethrin. Author:. ... Susceptibility of Field Populations of Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to Azinphosmethyl and Permethrin. en_US. ...
Hydrolysis of azinphosmethyl induced by the surface of smectites M. Sanchez-Camazano M. Sanchez-Camazano ... M. Sanchez-Camazano, M. J. Sanchez-Martin; Hydrolysis of azinphosmethyl induced by the surface of smectites. Clays and Clay ...
... is a dangerous neurotoxin derived from nerve agents developed during World War II. In the US, it is registered ... Azinphos-methyl (Guthion) is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide manufactured by Bayer CropScience, Gowan Co., and ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Azinphos-methyl". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
EPA Proposes to Reverse Decision to End Azinphos-Methyl Use. July 5, 2012 ...
The injunction addresses pesticide use only within and around certain geographic areas designated by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as critical habitat, and specified non-critical habitat sections. Sections are defined one-square mile areas of land, based on the Meridian-Township-Range-Section (MTRS) geographic system. These geographic areas are within one or more of 33 counties within California.. Are you planning to apply the pesticide in one or more of the following counties in California? If you answer "no", the courts injunction does not apply to the pesticide application. If you answer "yes", click on the county name to view a map of critical habitat and non-critical habitat sections within that county to which the injunction applies.. Is your proposed use within 400 feet of the general critical habitat areas or non-critical habitat sections? If you answer "no", the courts injunction does not apply to your pesticide application. If you answer "yes", continue to step 3.. You will need ...
86-50-0................................... Azinphos-methyl*. 86-74-8................................... Carbazole. 87-86-5 ...
Azinphos-Methyl. 1. 10/10,000 86-88-4. ANTU. 100. 500/10,000 88-05-1. Aniline, 2,4,6-Trimethyl-. 500. 500 ...
Azinphosmethyl. AZP. 112. CH. 350. 410. 2. 60. .... 10. 350. AZP. 122. ETOH. 340. 420. 2. 80. .... 4. 340. ...
Azinphos methyl. ,0.1 m g L-1. (10 ng L-1). River/lake/fresh waters - Hexane/DCM extraction GC-MS. ...
AZINPHOS-METHYL. 802. 86-50-0. 131. CHLOROBENZENE. 802. 108-90-7. 132. CHLORDECONE. 802. 143-50-0. ...
Azinphos-Methyl. 86500. The initial analysis using the exposure based criteria for chemical selection found azinphos-methyl in ... All uses of azinphos-methyl will cease by 2012. For this reason azinphos-methyl will not be tested. ... Two of the chemicals, azinphos-methyl and fenvalerate, were removed from the list because all uses of these pesticides have ...
Todays Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) seeks comment on two issues concerning the removal credits provisions in the General Pretreatment Regulations. EPA requests comments on whether to amend the list of pollutants for which removal credits are available to add certain pollutants....
AZINPHOS-METHYL. 802.5. 134. 000086-50-0. 133. CHLORDECONE. 802.1. 135. 000143-50-0. ...
AZINPHOS-METHYL. ACRYLIC ACID B-PROPIOLACTONE. ACRYLONITRILE BARIUM, SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS. ACTINOMYCIN C* BAYTEX. ...
Azinphos methyl. 5,094. 7,34. 0,998031. 42. Azoxystrobine. 4,956. 2,82. 0,998182. 119. ...
This multi-residue method is a qualitative tool used to screen liver, GI contents and suspect material for possible toxins. It consists of a general extraction method and analysis of the extract by GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and LC/MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) methods.. GC/MS is a method suitable for volatile/semi-volatile, heat stable compounds analysed in the gas phase. The GC/MS method is both targeted (looking for specific known compounds) and non-targeted (looking for unknown compounds). This method involves several targeted analyses (see Table 1) and a non-targeted analysis that screen the extract for compounds and subsequent match with a comprehensive mass spectrum library. Matches are based on the specific mass spectral fingerprint produced for a compound based on the standardized ionization energy of the GC/MS instrumentation.. LC/MS is a method suitable for non-volatile compounds analysed in the liquid phase. LC/MS in a targeted method (Table 1). ...
azinphos-methyl * isoindole organothiophosphate insecticides * dialifos * phosmet * isoxazole organothiophosphate insecticides ...
Azinphos-methyl (CAS 86-50-0). Proposed for addition to Part 1 of the Export Control List. ...
Products containing azinphosmethyl or EPN are a good choice for controlling twig girdlers on pecan trees. Spray the trees as ...
Azinphos-methyl. Trade and Other Names: Common names include azinphos-methyl and metiltriazotion. Trade names include Azimil, ... Appearance: Pure azinphos-methyl is a white crystalline solid. Technical azinphos-methyl is a brown waxy solid [13,37]. ... Outside of the U.S., azinphos-methyl is used in lowland rice production. Azinphos-methyl is available in emulsifiable liquid, ... Effects on birds: Azinphos-methyl is slightly to moderately toxic to birds. Acute symptoms of azinphos-methyl poisoning include ...
The order also replaces Schedule 2 of the principal order. Schedule 2 lists the chemicals to which the Rotterdam Convention applies. The replacement schedule adds 16 new items, broadens the scope of the item relating to methamidophos, and corrects the descriptions of 2 items, so as to implement amendments made to the Rotterdam Convention in 2011, 2013, and 2015 and to ensure that all Rotterdam Convention chemicals are correctly included in Schedule 2. ...
Azinphos-methyl. 1.0. Bromide, inorganic (as bromide ion). 50. Bromophos-ethyl. 0.05. Bromophos-methyl. 0.05. ...
... ; find Supelco-48391 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
We are reviewing the Workplace exposure standards for airborne contaminants to ensure they are based on the highest quality, contemporary evidence and supported by a rigorous, scientific approach.. The draft evaluation reports for each chemical will be available for public comment. Chemicals will be released alphabetically throughout 2019 and 2020. Public comment will be open for each release for a period of four weeks on Engage.. The chemical release groups and the anticipated dates for opening public comment are outlined below. Please note these dates are indicative only. For the latest information please continue to visit Engage.. ...
azinphos-methyl *^ Scott, Alex (August 4, 2008). "Europe Rejects Appeal for Use of Azinphos-methyl Pesticide". Chemical Week. ... Azinphos-methyl[39] Guthion, Methyl-Guthion Organophosphate 2.5 days banned in the European Union since 2006.[40] highly toxic ...
  • The enclosed packets containing Azinphosmethyl 50W insecticide are water soluble. (greenbook.net)