An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.

A toxicokinetic model to assess the risk of azinphosmethyl exposure in humans through measures of urinary elimination of alkylphosphates. (1/12)

Azinphosmethyl (APM) is one of the most common insecticides used in fruit farming. The object of this paper is to develop a quick and practical test for assessing the risk for humans coming into contact with APM. It has been shown that the principal component of occupational and/or accidental exposure is through the skin (C. A. Franklin et al., 1981, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7, 715-731), but our approach is applicable to exposures via any route or a combination of routes. The method proposed in the present paper can accommodate a single-event exposure or repeated exposures over long periods. Urinary alkylphosphate (AP) metabolites are reliable bioindicators of the presence of APM in the body; they are easily accessible and can be used to estimate APM body burden. We developed a simple toxicokinetic model to link the time varying APM body burden to absorbed doses and to rates of elimination in the form of AP urinary metabolites. Using this model and data available in the literature, we are able to propose a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) for APM body levels and for corresponding absorbed doses. We have established that after a single exposure, the safe limit corresponding to the NOAEL is reached at a cumulative 0.215 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated in urine in the first 24 hours following the beginning of exposure. For repeated daily exposures at steady state, the corresponding urinary AP metabolite level is equal to a cumulative 0.266 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated per 24 hours.  (+info)

Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach. (2/12)

There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and analyses of home-dust samples for pesticide residues of major organophosphates used in area crops. Results indicate that migrant farmworker housing is diverse, and the amounts and types of pesticide residues found in homes differ. Azinphos-methyl (AZM) was the pesticide residue found most often in both farmworker and grower homes. The median level of AZM in farmworker homes was 1.45 ppm compared to 1.64 ppm in the entry area of grower homes. The median level of AZM in the play areas of grower homes was 0.71 ppm. The levels of AZM in migrant farmworker homes were most associated with the distance from fields and the number of agricultural workers in the home. Although the levels of AZM in growers and farmworker homes were comparable in certain areas, potential for disproportionate exposures occur in areas of the homes where children are most likely to play. The relationship between home resident density, levels of pesticide residues, and play behaviors of children merit further attention.  (+info)

Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa. (3/12)

BACKGROUND: In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. METHODS: This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. RESULTS: The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 microg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 microg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 +/- 1.0 microg/L (n = 21) and 3.16 +/- 3.5 microg/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria. CONCLUSION: The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.  (+info)

Pesticide resistance via transposition-mediated adaptive gene truncation in Drosophila. (4/12)

To study adaptation, it is essential to identify multiple adaptive mutations and to characterize their molecular, phenotypic, selective, and ecological consequences. Here we describe a genomic screen for adaptive insertions of transposable elements in Drosophila. Using a pilot application of this screen, we have identified an adaptive transposable element insertion, which truncates a gene and apparently generates a functional protein in the process. The insertion of this transposable element confers increased resistance to an organophosphate pesticide and has spread in D. melanogaster recently.  (+info)

Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests. (5/12)

Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed.  (+info)

Where's the dust? Characterizing locations of azinphos-methyl residues in house and vehicle dust among farmworkers with young children. (6/12)

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Organophosphate pesticide exposure and residential proximity to nearby fields: evidence for the drift pathway. (7/12)

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An approach to an inhibition electronic tongue to detect on-line organophosphorus insecticides using a computer controlled multi-commuted flow system. (8/12)

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Azinphosmethyl is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control various pests in agriculture. Its chemical formula is C6H12NO6PS. It works by inhibiting the activity of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that is crucial for the proper functioning of the nervous system. This leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which can result in a variety of symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and eventually respiratory failure.

Azinphosmethyl is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, and it can pose significant risks to human health if not handled properly. Exposure to this chemical can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and it can cause a range of adverse health effects, including headaches, nausea, dizziness, and respiratory problems. Long-term exposure has been linked to more serious health issues such as neurological damage and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

Due to its high toxicity and potential risks to human health, the use of azinphosmethyl is regulated by various governmental agencies around the world. In the United States, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified azinphosmethyl as a restricted-use pesticide, which means that it can only be applied by certified applicators who have received special training in its safe use.

... can enter the body via inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Ingestion of azinphos-methyl is responsible ... "EPA's Azinphos-methyl Page". Retrieved 15 April 2015. Scott, Alex (August 4, 2008). "Europe Rejects Appeal for Use of Azinphos- ... Compendium of Pesticide Common Names EPA's Azinphos-methyl Page CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Azinphos-methyl ... Azinphos-methyl is a neurotoxin derived from nerve agents developed during World War II. It was first registered in the US in ...
"Azinphos-methyl". Extoxnet. Retrieved July 24, 2021. Scott, Alex (August 4, 2008). "Europe Rejects Appeal for Use of Azinphos- ...
Azinphos-methyl has been banned in Europe since 2006. In May 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reviewed the use ... In 2001, the EPA placed new restrictions on the use of the organophosphates phosmet and azinphos-methyl to increase protection ... Scott, Alex (4 Aug 2008). "Europe Rejects Appeal for Use of Azinphos-methyl Pesticide". IHS Chemical Week. Archived from the ... Hess, Glenn (1 Nov 2011). "US EPA restricts pesticides azinphos-methyl, phosmet". ICIS.com. Peck, Chuck; Aubee, Catherine (29 ...
Both methyl parathion and azinphos methyl are organophosphates. Organophosphates are pesticides that kill insects by disrupting ... the EPA banned most uses of methyl parathion and azinphos methyl, citing the risks they pose to children. ...
Azinphos-Methyl, and Oxygen Analogs in a Rural Agricultural Community". Environmental Health Perspectives. 125 (3): 333-341. ...
In response the Government of PEI restricted the use of azinphos-methyl, an insecticide implicated in many of the fish kills. ...
Azinphos-methyl Azinphos-Ethyl, Chemical Sampling Information, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Azinphos-ethyl ...
Azinphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Methoxychlor, and Paraquat. Instead, by 2014 the number of active ingredients in imported ...
Azinphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Methoxychlor and Paraquat. As of 2019[update] sugar consumption in Thailand is 28 ...
... alpha-endosulfan amidithion aminocarb amiton amitraz anabasine athidathion azadirachtin azamethiphos azinphos-ethyl azinphos-methyl ...
... azinphosmethyl MeSH D02.705.539.170 - chlorpyrifos MeSH D02.705.539.199 - coumaphos MeSH D02.705.539.208 - cystaphos MeSH ... azinphosmethyl MeSH D02.886.309.170 - chlorpyrifos MeSH D02.886.309.199 - coumaphos MeSH D02.886.309.208 - cystaphos MeSH ...
... azinphos methyl, in what they called "kid's food". The review process was concluded in 2006 and eliminated or modified ...
... a dialect of Amuzgo Azinphos-methyl, an organophosphate insecticide American Zionist Movement, the American federation of ...
Arsenic pentoxide Arsenous oxide Arsenous trichloride Arsine Azinphos-ethyl Azinphos-methyl Benzal chloride Benzenamine, 3-( ...
Asulam ATC code P03 Atrazine Atrazine controversy Avicide Azinphos-methyl Azoxystrobin Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ...
Azinphos-methyl can enter the body via inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Ingestion of azinphos-methyl is responsible ... "EPAs Azinphos-methyl Page". Retrieved 15 April 2015. Scott, Alex (August 4, 2008). "Europe Rejects Appeal for Use of Azinphos- ... Compendium of Pesticide Common Names EPAs Azinphos-methyl Page CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Azinphos-methyl ... Azinphos-methyl is a neurotoxin derived from nerve agents developed during World War II. It was first registered in the US in ...
1985)‎. Azinphos-methyl. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/60887 ...
This Skin Notation Profile provides the SK assignments and supportive data for azinphos-methyl. In particular, this document ...
Testing Status of Azinphosmethyl 10424-L. Testing Status of Azinphosmethyl 10424-L. CASRN: 86-50-0. Formula: C10-H12-N3-O3-P-S2 ...
1985)‎. Azinphos-methyl. World Health Organization. https://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/60887 ...
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Association of azinphos-methyl with rat erythrocytes and hemoglobin. Title. Association of azinphos-methyl with rat ... Association of azinphos-methyl with rat erythrocytes and hemoglobin. ...
Azinphos-methyl preliminary review findings report: Occupational health and safety, residues, trade and environment assessment ... Azinphos-methyl preliminary review findings report: Occupational health and safety, residues, trade and environment assessment ...
Evaluation of the Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Azinphosmethyl (86-50-0) in Male B6C3F1 Mice Exposed via Dosed Feed ... Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Azinphosmethyl in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study 256211 Summary Data. * ... Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Azinphosmethyl in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study 909450 Summary Data. * ... Azinphosmethyl (86-50-0). Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS). Research Triangle Park, NC (USA): National Toxicology ...
... to 7.3 ng/m3 for azinphos-methyl, and < LOD to 0.8 ng/m3 for azinphos-methyl-oxon. Samples from proximal households (≤ 250 m) ... For example, all outdoor air samples for chlorpyrifos and 97% of samples for azinphos-methyl were > LOD. Indoors, only 78% of ... Mean indoor and outdoor air concentration ratios for chlorpyrifos and azinphos-methyl were 0.17 and 0.44, respectively. ... Passive Sampling for Indoor and Outdoor Exposures to Chlorpyrifos, Azinphos-Methyl, and Oxygen Analogs in a Rural Agricultural ...
Bioassay of Azinphosmethyl for Possible Carcinogenicity (CASRN 86-50-0)Chemical (Study Title) ... Azinphosmethyl: Target Organs and Levels of Evidence for TR-069. Bioassay of Azinphosmethyl for Possible Carcinogenicity (. ... Azinphosmethyl. 86-50-0. 06/29/1978. Dosed-Feed. FR&FM: 0,62.5,125, MR: 0,78,156 (AVG), MM: 0,31.3,62.5 PPM/50 PER GROUP. Gulf ...
CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products - NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods - Alpha List A
AZINPHOS-METHYL. 802. 86-50-0. 134. CHLORDANE, TECHNICAL. 802. 12789-03-6. ...
We found a seasonally persistent association between the detected blood concentration of the insecticide azinphos-methyl and ... Human Oral Buccal Microbiomes Are Associated with Farmworker Status and Azinphos-Methyl Agricultural Pesticide Exposure [ ...
Field worker exposure to azinphosmethyl (86500) residues during peach harvest was evaluated via dermal dosimeters and urine and ... Findings were consistent with literature reports of an AChE, but not BChE, effect of azinphosmethyl. ... Monitoring peach harvest workers exposed to azinphosmethyl residues in Sutter County, California, 1991. ...
Beyond Pesticides, November 6, 2012) In efforts to stamp out the deadly disease Dengue fever, officials in Brazil are in the process of releasing millions of genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes into the environment. However, some in the environmental community are concerned about the possible non-target effects of this experiment, and urge additional research in the lab before releasing the insects into the natural world.. According to the Los Angeles Times, the experiment is taking place in the small town of Itaberaba, in Brazils Bahia state. The company overseeing the release, London-based Oxitec, also developed the GE insects. GE mosquitoes are raised in the laboratory, where the eggs of female mosquitoes are injected with a gene that produces sterile male mosquitoes. The modified male mosquitoes are then released into the environment en masse where they crowd out native males and mate with available females. The offspring from these mosquitoes are supposed to die before they ...
It is a formulation that includes the active ingredient of azinphos-methyl.. Guthion does not occur naturally in the ...
There has been a flurry of activity and mergers in the big agricultural and chemical industries lately. In December 2015, chemical giants DuPont and Dow Chemical Companies announced that their boards of directors unanimously approved a merger of their companies through an all-stock deal, valuing the combined market capitalization at $130 billion. Then, in May of 2016, Bayer AG made a takeover bid for Monsanto, worth $42 billion, in an attempt to swallow the global seed and chemical producer and become the worlds biggest farm chemical supplier. Though the first bid was rejected, the companies are reportedly close to reaching a final deal to move this merger forward. Specific details of the terms remain unknown. The ChemChina takeover of Syngenta would be the largest merger yet, valued at $43 billion. Many of these big agricultural and chemical companies have been struggling to cope with falling demand for farm chemicals due to falling crop prices and a strong dollar, and may believe that a ...
Beyond Pesticides, October 1, 2019) Commonly used fungicides induce trophic cascades that can lead to the overgrowth of algae, according to research published in the journal Chemosphere. While the current process for regulating pesticides in the U.S. focuses on the acute toxicity of pesticides, and may consider some chronic impacts, real world complexities as described in the current study are not reviewed. This gap in our assessment can lead to significant adverse effects not just on individual species, but entire ecosystems.. Researchers investigated how fungal parasites known as chytrids control the growth of phytoplankton. While some strains of chytrids are notorious for their impact to frog species, some do in fact provide important stopgaps within ecosystems.. "By infecting cyanobacteria, parasitic fungi limit their growth and thus reduce the occurrence and intensity of toxic algal blooms," says IGB researcher Ramsy Agha, PhD, co-author the study. "Whereas we usually perceive disease as a ...
Abstract: To investigate whether hemoglobin might serve as a biomarker of exposure to azinphos-methyl (AZM) encountered by ... MeSH Terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism; Animals; Azinphosmethyl/metabolism*; Biomarkers; Brain/drug effects; Brain/ ... agricultural workers, we exposed rats to [14C]azinphos-methyl ([14C]AZM). We administered single doses of 1.5 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, ...
Azinphos methyl 9.2% Conventional. vs. Organic. Other Foods Fenpyroximate 8.5% Conventional. vs. Organic. Other Foods ...
Azinphos-methyl (AZM) was the pesticide residue found most often in both farmworker and grower homes. The median level of AZM ...
The pesticide, azinphos-methyl (AZM, also known as guthion), is a highly neurotoxic organophosphate insecticide. ...
Azinphos-methyl oxygen analog, water, filtered, recoverable, micrograms per liter. 61636. 6. 2002-10-09. 2003-08-25. ... Azinphos-methyl, water, filtered (0.7 micron glass fiber filter), recoverable, micrograms per liter. ...
Significant correlations between urinary methyl metabolite levels and total methyl organophosphate (azinphos-methyl, phosmet, ...
Guidance for the reregistration of pesticide products containing azinphos-methyl as the active ingredient, EPA case number 235. ...
AZINPHOS-METHYL-dimethyl-S-[(4-oxo-1,2,3,-benzotriazin-3(4 H)-yl)methyl] phosphorodithioate. MORPHOTHION-dimethyl-S-2-keto-2-(N ...
Organophosphate insecticides, such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, disulfoton, azinphos-methyl, and fonofos, have been used widely ...
A few of the ones that may be used are Metaldehyde, Permethrin, Azinphos-methyl and Chlorpyrifos. As an example of these toxic ...
  • Field worker exposure to azinphosmethyl (86500) residues during peach harvest was evaluated via dermal dosimeters and urine and blood analyses. (cdc.gov)