Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC 1.10.3.3.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Photochemistry is the study of chemical reactions induced by absorption of light, resulting in the promotion of electrons to higher energy levels and subsequent formation of radicals or excited molecules that can undergo various reaction pathways.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Peroxidases are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water, while oxidizing various organic and inorganic compounds, playing crucial roles in diverse biological processes including stress response, immune defense, and biosynthetic reactions.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.

Cross-linking of two beta subunits in the closed conformation in F1-ATPase. (1/2265)

In the crystal structure of mitochondrial F1-ATPase, two beta subunits with a bound Mg-nucleotide are in "closed" conformations, whereas the third beta subunit without bound nucleotide is in an "open" conformation. In this "CCO" (beta-closed beta-closed beta-open) conformational state, Ile-390s of the two closed beta subunits, even though they are separated by an intervening alpha subunit, have a direct contact. We replaced the equivalent Ile of the alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex of thermophilic F1-ATPase with Cys and observed the formation of the beta-beta cross-link through a disulfide bond. The analysis of conditions required for the cross-link formation indicates that: (i) F1-ATPase takes the CCO conformation when two catalytic sites are filled with Mg-nucleotide, (ii) intermediate(s) with the CCO conformation are generated during catalytic cycle, (iii) the Mg-ADP inhibited form is in the CCO conformation, and (iv) F1-ATPase dwells in conformational state(s) other than CCO when only one (or none) of catalytic sites is filled by Mg-nucleotide or when catalytic sites are filled by Mg2+-free nucleotide. The alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex containing the beta-beta cross-link retained the activity of uni-site catalysis but lost that of multiple catalytic turnover, suggesting that open-closed transition of beta subunits is required for the rotation of gamma subunit but not for hydrolysis of a single ATP.  (+info)

Activation of Go-proteins by membrane depolarization traced by in situ photoaffinity labeling of galphao-proteins with [alpha32P]GTP-azidoanilide. (2/2265)

Evidence for depolarization-induced activation of G-proteins in membranes of rat brain synaptoneurosomes has been previously reported (Cohen-Armon, M., and Sokolovsky, M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 2595-2605; Cohen-Armon, M., and Sokolovsky, M. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 9824-9838). In the present work we identify the activated G-proteins as Go-proteins by tracing their depolarization-induced in situ photoaffinity labeling with [alpha32P]GTP-azidoanilide (GTPAA). Labeled GTPAA was introduced into transiently permeabilized rat brain-stem synaptoneurosomes. The resealed synaptoneurosomes, while being UV-irradiated, were depolarized. Relative to synaptoneurosomes at resting potential, the covalent binding of [alpha32P]GTPAA to Galphao1- and Galphao3-proteins, but not to Galphao2- isoforms, was enhanced by 5- to 7-fold in depolarized synaptoneurosomes, thereby implying an accelerated exchange of GDP for [alpha32P]GTPAA. Their depolarization-induced photoaffinity labeling was independent of stimulation of Go-protein-coupled receptors and could be reversed by membrane repolarization, thus excluding induction by transmitters release. It was, however, dependent on depolarization-induced activation of the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC), regardless of Na+ current. The alpha subunit of VGSC was cross-linked and co-immunoprecipitated with Galphao-proteins in depolarized brain-stem and cortical synaptoneurosomes. VGSC alpha subunit most efficiently cross-linked with guanosine 5'-O-2-thiodiphosphate-bound rather than to guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)-bound Galphao-proteins in isolated synaptoneurosomal membranes. These findings support a possible involvement of VGSC in depolarization-induced activation of Go-proteins.  (+info)

Identification of a GABAB receptor subunit, gb2, required for functional GABAB receptor activity. (3/2265)

G protein-coupled receptors are commonly thought to bind their cognate ligands and elicit functional responses primarily as monomeric receptors. In studying the recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid, type B (GABAB) receptor (gb1a) and a GABAB-like orphan receptor (gb2), we observed that both receptors are functionally inactive when expressed individually in multiple heterologous systems. Characterization of the tissue distribution of each of the receptors by in situ hybridization histochemistry in rat brain revealed co-localization of gb1 and gb2 transcripts in many brain regions, suggesting the hypothesis that gb1 and gb2 may interact in vivo. In three established functional systems (inwardly rectifying K+ channel currents in Xenopus oocytes, melanophore pigment aggregation, and direct cAMP measurements in HEK-293 cells), GABA mediated a functional response in cells coexpressing gb1a and gb2 but not in cells expressing either receptor individually. This GABA activity could be blocked with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP71872. In COS-7 cells coexpressing gb1a and gb2 receptors, co-immunoprecipitation of gb1a and gb2 receptors was demonstrated, indicating that gb1a and gb2 act as subunits in the formation of a functional GABAB receptor.  (+info)

Resolution of the paradox of red cell shape changes in low and high pH. (4/2265)

The molecular basis of cell shape regulation in acidic pH was investigated in human erythrocytes. Intact erythrocytes maintain normal shape in the cell pH range 6.3-7.9, but invaginate at lower pH values. However, consistent with predicted pH-dependent changes in the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, isolated erythrocyte membranes evaginate in acidic pH. Moreover, intact cells evaginate at pH greater than 7.9, but isolated membranes invaginate in this condition. Labeling with the hydrophobic, photoactivatable probe 5-[125I]iodonaphthyl-1-azide demonstrated pH-dependent hydrophobic insertion of an amphitropic protein into membranes of intact cells but not into isolated membranes. Based on molecular weight and on reconstitution experiments using stripped inside-out vesicles, the most likely candidate for the variably labeled protein is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Resealing of isolated membranes reconstituted both the shape changes and the hydrophobic labeling profile seen in intact cells. This observation appears to resolve the paradox of the contradictory pH dependence of shape changes of intact cells and isolated membranes. In intact erythrocytes, the demonstrated protein-membrane interaction would oppose pH-dependent shape effects of the spectrin membrane skeleton, stabilizing cell shape in moderately abnormal pH. Stabilization of erythrocyte shape in moderately acidic pH may prevent inappropriate red cell destruction in the spleen.  (+info)

Analysis of the membrane-interacting domains of myelin basic protein by hydrophobic photolabeling. (5/2265)

Myelin basic protein is a water soluble membrane protein which interacts with acidic lipids through some type of hydrophobic interaction in addition to electrostatic interactions. Here we show that it can be labeled from within the lipid bilayer when bound to acidic lipids with the hydrophobic photolabel 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine (TID) and by two lipid photolabels. The latter included one with the reactive group near the apolar/polar interface and one with the reactive group linked to an acyl chain to position it deeper in the bilayer. The regions of the protein which interact hydrophobically with lipid to the greatest extent were determined by cleaving the TID-labeled myelin basic protein (MBP) with cathepsin D into peptides 1-43, 44-89, and 90-170. All three peptides from lipid-bound protein were labeled much more than peptides from the protein labeled in solution. However, the peptide labeling pattern was similar for both environments. The two peptides in the N-terminal half were labeled similarly and about twice as much as the C-terminal peptide indicating that the N-terminal half interacts hydrophobically with lipid more than the C-terminal half. MBP can be modified post-translationally in vivo, including by deamidation, which may alter its interactions with lipid. However, deamidation had no effect on the TID labeling of MBP or on the labeling pattern of the cathepsin D peptides. The site of deamidation has been reported to be in the C-terminal half, and its lack of effect on hydrophobic interactions of MBP with lipid are consistent with the conclusion that the N-terminal half interacts hydrophobically more than the C-terminal half. Since other studies of the interaction of isolated N-terminal and C-terminal peptides with lipid also indicate that the N-terminal half interacts hydrophobically with lipid more than the C-terminal half, these results from photolabeling of the intact protein suggest that the N-terminal half of the intact protein interacts with lipid in a similar way as the isolated peptide. The similar behavior of the intact protein to that of its isolated peptides suggests that when the purified protein binds to acidic lipids, it is in a conformation which allows both halves of the protein to interact independently with the lipid bilayer. That is, it does not form a hydrophobic domain made up from different parts of the protein.  (+info)

Selective inhibition of MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by the acridone carboxamide derivative GG918. (6/2265)

The acridone carboxamide derivative GG918 (N-{4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)-ethyl]-pheny l}-9,10dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide) is a potent inhibitor of MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Direct measurements of ATP-dependent MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in plasma membrane vesicles from human and rat hepatocyte canalicular membranes indicated 50% inhibition at GG918 concentrations between 8 nM and 80 nM using N-pentyl-[3H]quinidinium, ['4C]doxorubicin and [3H]daunorubicin as substrates. The inhibition constant K for GG918 was 35 nM in rat hepatocyte canalicular membrane vesicles with [3H]daunorubicin as the substrate. Photoaffinity labelling of canalicular and recombinant rat Mdr1b P-glycoprotein by [3H]azidopine was suppressed by 10 muM and 40 muM GG918. The high selectivity of GG918-induced inhibition was demonstrated in canalicular membrane vesicles and by analysis of the hepatobiliary elimination in rats using [3H]daunorubicin, [3H]taurocholate and [3H]cysteinyl leukotrienes as substrates for three distinct ATP-dependent export pumps. Almost complete inhibition of [3H]daunorubicin transport was observed at GG918 concentrations that did not affect the other hepatocyte canalicular export pumps. The high potency and selectivity of GG918 for the inhibition of human MDR1 and rat Mdr1b P-glycoprotein may serve to interfere with this type of multidrug resistance and provides a tool for studies on the function of these ATP-dependent transport proteins.  (+info)

Influence of bioenergetic stress on heat shock protein gene expression in nucleated red blood cells of fish. (7/2265)

The physiological and biochemical signals that induce stress protein (HSP) synthesis remain conjectural. In this study, we used the nucleated red blood cells from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to address the interaction between energy status and HSP gene expression. Heat shock (25 degrees C) did not significantly affect ATP levels but resulted in an increase in HSP70 mRNA. Hypoxia alone did not induce HSP transcription in these cells despite a significant depression in ATP. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation with azide, in the absence of thermal stress, decreased ATP by 56% and increased lactate production by 62% but did not induce HSP gene transcription. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis with azide and iodoacetic acid respectively, decreased ATP by 79% and prevented lactate production, but did not induce either HSP70 or HSP30 gene transcription in these cells. This study demonstrates that a reduction in the cellular energy status will not induce stress protein gene transcription in rainbow trout red blood cells and may, in fact, limit induction during extreme metabolic inhibition.  (+info)

Influence of different types of effectors on the kinetic parameters of suicide inactivation of catalase by hydrogen peroxide. (8/2265)

The effects of cyanide and azide ions (class A), sodium-n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and 2-mercaptoethanol (class B), 3-aminotriazole (class C) and NADPH (class D) on the initial activity (ai), inactivation rate constant (ki) and the partition ratio (r) of bovine liver catalase reaction with its suicide substrate, hydrogen peroxide, were studied in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 27 degrees C. The above kinetic parameters were determined by processing the progress curve data. In class A, which contains fast and reversible inhibitors of catalase, a proportional decrease in ai and ki was observed by inhibitors, so that the r remained constant. In class B, which contains slow and irreversible inactivators, a decrease in ai and constancy of ki and r were observed when catalase was incubated in the presence of such inactivators for a determined time. In class C, containing effector which can combine with intermediate compound I, ai was relatively unchanged but an increase in ki and a decrease in r were observed. In class D, containing effector which reduces compound I to ferricatalase, ai was not affected significantly but some decrease in ki was detected which was linked with an increase in r. These results demonstrate that different classes of effectors affect the determined kinetic parameters of catalase in various ways. Thus, determination of such parameters by simple kinetic experiments can be carried out for classification of the agents which have an effect on the kinetics of catalase.  (+info)

An azide is a chemical compound that contains the functional group -N=N+=N-, which consists of three nitrogen atoms joined by covalent bonds. In organic chemistry, azides are often used as reagents in various chemical reactions, such as the azide-alkyne cycloaddition (also known as the "click reaction").

In medical terminology, azides may refer to a class of drugs that contain an azido group and are used for their pharmacological effects. For example, sodium nitroprusside is a vasodilator drug that contains an azido group and is used to treat hypertensive emergencies.

However, it's worth noting that azides can also be toxic and potentially explosive under certain conditions, so they must be handled with care in laboratory settings.

Sodium azide is a chemical compound with the formula NaN3. Medically, it is not used as a treatment, but it can be found in some pharmaceutical and laboratory settings. It is a white crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water and has a relatively low melting point.

Sodium azide is well known for its ability to release nitrogen gas upon decomposition, which makes it useful as a propellant in airbags and as a preservative in laboratory settings to prevent bacterial growth. However, this property also makes it highly toxic to both animals and humans if ingested or inhaled, as it can cause rapid respiratory failure due to the release of nitrogen gas in the body. Therefore, it should be handled with great care and appropriate safety measures.

Click chemistry is a term used to describe a group of chemical reactions that are fast, high-yielding, and highly selective. These reactions typically involve the formation of covalent bonds between two molecules in a simple and efficient manner, often through the use of a catalyst. The concept of click chemistry was first introduced by K. B. Sharpless, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2001 for his work on chiral catalysis.

In the context of medical research and drug development, click chemistry has emerged as a valuable tool for rapidly synthesizing and optimizing small molecule compounds with therapeutic potential. By using click chemistry reactions to quickly and efficiently link different chemical building blocks together, researchers can rapidly generate large libraries of potential drug candidates and then screen them for biological activity. This approach has been used to discover new drugs for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders.

One common type of click chemistry reaction is the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, which involves the reaction between an azide and an alkyne to form a triazole ring. This reaction is highly selective and can be carried out under mild conditions, making it a popular choice for chemical synthesis in the life sciences. Other types of click chemistry reactions include the Diels-Alder cycloaddition, the thiol-ene reaction, and the Staudinger ligation.

Overall, click chemistry has had a significant impact on medical research and drug development by enabling the rapid and efficient synthesis of complex small molecule compounds with therapeutic potential. Its versatility and selectivity make it a powerful tool for researchers seeking to discover new drugs and better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease.

Alkynes are a type of hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond in their molecular structure. The general chemical formula for alkynes is CnH2n-2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkyne is ethyne, also known as acetylene, which has two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms (C2H2). Ethyne is a gas at room temperature and pressure, and it is commonly used as a fuel in welding torches.

Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, meaning that they have the potential to undergo chemical reactions that add atoms or groups of atoms to the molecule. In particular, alkynes can be converted into alkenes (hydrocarbons with a carbon-carbon double bond) through a process called partial reduction, or they can be fully reduced to alkanes (hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms) through a process called complete reduction.

Alkynes are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, fibers, and pharmaceuticals. They can be synthesized from other hydrocarbons through various chemical reactions, such as dehydrogenation, oxidative coupling, or metathesis.

Cyanides are a group of chemical compounds that contain the cyano group, -CN, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. They are highly toxic and can cause rapid death due to the inhibition of cellular respiration. Cyanide ions (CN-) bind to the ferric iron in cytochrome c oxidase, a crucial enzyme in the electron transport chain, preventing the flow of electrons and the production of ATP, leading to cellular asphyxiation.

Common sources of cyanides include industrial chemicals such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN), as well as natural sources like certain fruits, nuts, and plants. Exposure to high levels of cyanides can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption, leading to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, rapid heartbeat, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Treatment for cyanide poisoning typically involves the use of antidotes that bind to cyanide ions and convert them into less toxic forms, such as thiosulfate and rhodanese.

Cyclization is a chemical process that involves forming a cyclic structure or ring-shaped molecule from a linear or open-chain compound. In the context of medicinal chemistry and drug design, cyclization reactions are often used to synthesize complex molecules, including drugs, by creating rings or fused ring systems within the molecule's structure.

Cyclization can occur through various mechanisms, such as intramolecular nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, or radical reactions. The resulting cyclized compounds may exhibit different chemical and biological properties compared to their linear precursors, making them valuable targets for drug discovery and development.

In some cases, the cyclization process can lead to the formation of stereocenters within the molecule, which can impact its three-dimensional shape and how it interacts with biological targets. Therefore, controlling the stereochemistry during cyclization reactions is crucial in medicinal chemistry to optimize the desired biological activity.

Overall, cyclization plays a significant role in the design and synthesis of many pharmaceutical compounds, enabling the creation of complex structures that can interact specifically with biological targets for therapeutic purposes.

Dinitrophenols (DNP) are a class of chemical compounds that contain two nitro groups (-NO2) attached to a phenol group. Dinitrophenols have been used in the past as industrial dyes, wood preservatives, and pesticides. However, they have also been misused as weight loss supplements due to their ability to increase metabolic rate and cause weight loss.

The use of DNP for weight loss is dangerous and has been linked to several fatalities. DNP works by disrupting the normal functioning of the mitochondria in cells, which are responsible for producing energy. This disruption causes an increase in metabolic rate, leading to a rapid breakdown of fat and carbohydrates, and ultimately weight loss. However, this increased metabolism can also produce excessive heat, leading to hyperthermia, dehydration, and damage to organs such as the heart, liver, and kidneys.

Due to their potential for serious harm, DNP-containing products are banned in many countries, including the United States. Medical professionals should be aware of the dangers associated with DNP use and advise patients accordingly.

Ascorbate oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to dehydroascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen. This reaction also results in the production of water and hydrogen peroxide as byproducts. Ascorbate oxidase plays a significant role in regulating the levels of ascorbic acid in plants, where it is primarily found. It belongs to the family of copper-containing oxidoreductases. The enzyme's active site contains two copper ions that facilitate the electron transfer during the catalytic process. Ascorbate oxidase is not considered essential for human health since humans do not produce ascorbic acid and must obtain it through dietary sources.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "photochemistry" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Photochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the chemical effects of light. It involves the absorption of light by a substance, which can lead to the promotion of an electron to a higher energy state, and subsequently result in various chemical reactions.

In a medical context, photochemical processes might be discussed in relation to certain therapies or diagnostic techniques, such as photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment, where a photosensitizing agent is used that reacts with light to produce singlet oxygen or other reactive species to destroy nearby cells. However, it's not a term used to define a specific medical condition or concept in the same way that one might define "inflammation" or "metabolism."

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various substrates using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the electron acceptor. These enzymes contain a heme prosthetic group, which plays a crucial role in their catalytic activity. Peroxidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. They play important roles in various biological processes, including defense against oxidative stress, lignin degradation, and host-pathogen interactions. Some common examples of peroxidases include glutathione peroxidase, which helps protect cells from oxidative damage, and horseradish peroxidase, which is often used in laboratory research.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

A cycloaddition reaction is a type of chemical reaction involving the formation of one or more rings through the coupling of two unsaturated molecules. This process typically involves the simultaneous formation of new sigma bonds, resulting in the creation of a cyclic structure. Cycloaddition reactions are classified based on the number of atoms involved in each component molecule and the number of sigma bonds formed during the reaction. For example, a [2+2] cycloaddition involves two unsaturated molecules, each containing two atoms involved in the reaction, resulting in the formation of a four-membered ring. These reactions play a significant role in organic synthesis and are widely used to construct complex molecular architectures in various fields, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, odorless, clear liquid with a slightly sweet taste, although drinking it is harmful and can cause poisoning. It is a weak oxidizing agent and is used as an antiseptic and a bleaching agent. In diluted form, it is used to disinfect wounds and kill bacteria and viruses on the skin; in higher concentrations, it can be used to bleach hair or remove stains from clothing. It is also used as a propellant in rocketry and in certain industrial processes. Chemically, hydrogen peroxide is composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, and it is structurally similar to water (H2O), with an extra oxygen atom. This gives it its oxidizing properties, as the additional oxygen can be released and used to react with other substances.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Catalase is a type of enzyme that is found in many living organisms, including humans. Its primary function is to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This reaction helps protect cells from the harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide, which can be toxic at high concentrations.

The chemical reaction catalyzed by catalase can be represented as follows:

H2O2 + Catalase → H2O + O2 + Catalase

Catalase is a powerful antioxidant enzyme that plays an important role in protecting cells from oxidative damage. It is found in high concentrations in tissues that produce or are exposed to hydrogen peroxide, such as the liver, kidneys, and erythrocytes (red blood cells).

Deficiency in catalase activity has been linked to several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging. On the other hand, overexpression of catalase has been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits in various disease models, such as reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.

Many inorganic covalent azides (e.g., chlorine, bromine, and iodine azides) have been described. The azide anion behaves as a ... Heavy metal azides, such as lead azide are primary high explosives detonable when heated or shaken. Heavy-metal azides are ... containing the azide functional group. The dominant application of azides is as a propellant in air bags. Sodium azide is made ... 3 N2 Silver azide AgN3 and barium azide Ba(N3)2 are used similarly. Some organic azides are potential rocket propellants, an ...
... is a versatile precursor to other inorganic azide compounds, e.g., lead azide and silver azide, which are used in ... Treatment of sodium azide with strong acids gives gaseous hydrazoic acid (hydrogen azide; HN3), which is also extremely toxic: ... Lead and silver azide can be made via double displacement reaction with sodium azide and their respective nitrate (most ... These azides can be recovered from solution through careful desiccation. Sodium azide is a useful probe reagent, and an ...
... is an inorganic compound of radium and nitrogen with the chemical formula Ra(N3)2. Radium azide can be prepared by ... Radium azide forms white crystalline solid. The compound decomposes when heated to 180-250 °C: Ra(N3)2 → Ra + 3N2 Kubach, Isa ( ...
"Reaction between azide and nitronium ions. Formation and decomposition of nitryl azide". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95 (3): 952-953. doi ... Nitryl azide (tetranitrogen dioxide) is an unstable nitrogen oxide consisting of a covalent nitrogen-nitrogen bond between a ... It has been detected by infrared spectroscopy as a short-lived product of the reaction between sodium azide and nitronium ... Zeng, Xiaoqing; Ge, Maofo; Sun, Zheng; Bian, Jiang; Wang, Dianxun (2007). "Gaseous nitryl azide N4O2: A joint theoretical and ...
Like most azides, it is explosive. Rubidium azide can be created by the reaction between rubidium sulfate and barium azide ... Rubidium azide is very sensitive to mechanical shock, with an impact sensitivity comparable to that of TNT. Like all azides, ... The II/I transition temperature of rubidium azide is within 2 °C of its melting point. Rubidium azide has a high pressure ... 3 H2O This formula is typically used to synthesize potassium azide from caustic potash. Rubidium azide has been investigated ...
... is commercially available. It may be prepared by the reaction of trimethylsilyl chloride and sodium azide ... Trimethylsilyl azide is incompatible with moisture, strong oxidizing agents, and strong acids. Azides are often explosive, as ... Trimethylsilyl azide is the organosilicon compound with the formula (CH3)3SiN3. A colorless liquid, it is a reagent in organic ... L. Birkofer and P. Wegner (1970). "Trimethylsilyl azide". Organic Syntheses. 50: 107. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.050.0107. Jafarzadeh ...
... can be prepared by the reaction of tosyl chloride with sodium azide in aqueous acetone. Tosyl azide is one of the ... Tosyl azide is a reagent used in organic synthesis. Tosyl azide is used for the introduction of azide and diazo functional ... Diphenylphosphoryl azide Trifluoromethanesulfonyl azide Heydt, H.; Regitz, M.; Mapp, A. K.; Chen, B. (2008). "P-Toluenesulfonyl ... Curphey, T. J. (1981). "Preparation of p-Toluenesulfonyl Azide. A Cautionary Note". Organic Preparations and Procedures ...
... is sensitive to impact, in which it may detonate and ignite. Calcium azide at Chemister v t e (Articles without ... Calcium azide is a chemical compound with the formula Ca(N3)2. It can be obtained from a distilled reaction between hydrazoic ... Azides, Calcium compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
Frierson, W. J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide. II. Interaction of Chlorine Azide and Silver Azide. Azino Silver ... Chlorine azide is prepared by passing chlorine gas over silver azide, or by an addition of acetic acid to a solution of sodium ... Chlorine azide reacts explosively with 1,3-butadiene, ethane, ethene, methane, propane, phosphorus, silver azide, and sodium. ... Chlorine azide is extremely sensitive. It may explode, sometimes even without apparent provocation; it is thus too sensitive to ...
... Zn(N3)2 is an inorganic compound composed of zinc cations (Zn2+) and azide anions (N−3). It is a white, explosive ... It is easily hydrolyzed, and attempts to prepare it in aqueous solution resulted in the precipitation of basic azides Zn(OH)2−x ... Schulz, Axel; Villanger, Alexander (2016). "Binary Zinc Azides". Chemistry: A European Journal. 22 (6): 2032-2038. doi:10.1002/ ... 2 C2H6 Zinc azide is a coordination polymer which crystallizes in three polymorphs, all of which feature tetrahedral zinc ...
... may be prepared by the reaction of sodium azide with Br2. This reaction forms bromine azide and sodium bromide: ... Similar samples with azide molecules did not show such an effect. This shows bromine azide's unstable tendencies in that even ... Bromine azide is an explosive inorganic compound with the formula BrN3. It has been described as a crystal or a red liquid at ... Reactions involving bromine azide are difficult to work with. The molecule is very reactive and is known to explode easily. ...
Another azide regular is tosyl azide here in reaction with norbornadiene in a nitrogen insertion reaction: Some azides are ... The azide source is most often sodium azide (NaN3), although lithium azide (LiN3) has been demonstrated. Aliphatic alcohols ... trifluoromethanesulfonyl azide and imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide react with amines to give the corresponding azides. Diazo ... or under Mitsunobu conditions with diphenylphosphoryl azide (DPPA). Trimethylsilyl azide (CH3)3SiN3, and tributyltin azide ( ...
... can also be generated in situ by reacting iodine monochloride and sodium azide under conditions where it is not ... Iodine azide can be prepared from the reaction between silver azide and elemental iodine: AgN3 + I2 → IN3 + AgI Since silver ... Despite its explosive character, iodine azide has many practical uses in chemical synthesis. Similar to bromine azide, it can ... but even small traces of water cause the iodine azide to decompose, this synthesis is done by suspending the silver azide in ...
... or cesium azide is an inorganic compound of caesium and nitrogen. It is a salt of azide with the formula CsN3. ... H2O Caesium sulfate reacts with barium azide to form insoluble barium sulfate and caesium azide: Cs2SO4 + Ba(N3)2 → 2CsN3 + ... Caesium azide can be prepared from the neutralization reaction between hydrazoic acid and caesium hydroxide: CsOH + HN3 → CsN3 ... crystallizing in a tetragonal distorted caesium chloride structure where each azide ion coordinates to eight metal cations, and ...
... is a highly labile nitrogen oxide with chemical formula N3NO. Nitrosyl azide can be synthesized via the ... Lucien, Harold W. (1958). "The Preparation and Properties of Nitrosyl Azide". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 80 (17 ... Schulz, Axel; Tornieporth-Oetting, Inis C.; Klapötke, Thomas M. (1993). "Nitrosyl Azide, N4O, an Intrinsically Unstable Oxide ... following reaction of sodium azide and nitrosyl chloride at low temperatures: Below −50 °C, nitrosyl azide exists as a pale ...
... or hydrazine azide is a chemical compound with formula H 5N 5 or [N 2H+ 5][N− 3]. It is a salt of the ... Hydrazinium azide decomposes explosively into hydrazine, ammonia, and nitrogen gas: 12 N 5H 5 → 3 N 2H 4 + 16 NH 3 + 19 N 2 ... At pressure of 40 GPa, hydrazinium azide decomposes yielding a linear nitrogen allotrope N 8 or N≡+N−−N−N=N−−N−+N≡N, that ... Reaction of hydrazinium azide with sulfuric acid gives quantitative yields of pure hydrazinediium sulfate and hydrazoic acid: [ ...
... , Be(N3)2, is an inorganic compound. It is a beryllium salt of hydrazoic acid HN3. Beryllium azide has been ... Wiberg, E.; Horst, M. (1954). "Beryllium azide, Be(N3)2". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B. 9: 502. NIOSH Pocket Guide to ... 2 CH4 IR and Raman spectra suggest that beryllium azide consists of infinite chains, with tetrahedrally coordinated Be2+ ions ... "Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of beryllium azide and two derivatives". Main Group Metal Chemistry. 22 (6): 357- ...
DPPA is very toxic and a potential explosive like most other azide compounds. Tosyl azide Trifluoromethanesulfonyl azide ... with expulsion of the azide ion. The latter then attacks the carbonyl carbon atom, to give the acyl azide and loss of the ... Finally, the acyl azide reacts in the normal manner to give the urethane. Studies show that DPPA reacts with amines giving the ... Diphenylphosphoryl azide (DPPA) is an organic compound. It is widely used as a reagent in the synthesis of other organic ...
Like sodium azide, potassium azide is very toxic. The threshold limit value of the related sodium azide is 0.07 ppm. The ... Potassium azide is the inorganic compound having the formula KN3. It is a white, water-soluble salt. It is used as a reagent in ... The azide is bound to eight cations in an eclipsed orientation. The cations are bound to eight terminal N centers. KN3 is ... The decomposition temperatures of the alkali metal azides are: NaN3 (275 °C), KN3 (355 °C), RbN3 (395 °C), CsN3 (390 °C). Under ...
... can be prepared treating an aqueous solution of thallium(I) sulfate with sodium azide. Thallium azide will ... The azide is bound to eight cations in an eclipsed orientation. The cations are bound to eight terminal N centers. All thallium ... Thallium azide, TlN3, is a yellow-brown crystalline solid poorly soluble in water. Although it is not nearly as sensitive to ... Mauer F.A.; Hubbard C.R.; Hahn T.A. (1973). "Thermal expansion and low temperature phase transition of thallous azide". J. Chem ...
... can be prepared by treating an aqueous solution of silver nitrate with sodium azide. The silver azide precipitates ... Silver azide is the chemical compound with the formula AgN3. It is a silver(I) salt of hydrazoic acid. It forms a colorless ... Pure silver azide explodes at 340 °C, but the presence of impurities lowers this down to 270 °C. This reaction has a lower ... Correspondingly, each end of each azide ligand is connected to a pair of Ag+ centers. The structure consists of two-dimensional ...
... , N3CN or CN4, is an azide compound of carbon and nitrogen which is an oily, colourless liquid at room ... "Cycloaddition of sulfonyl azides and cyanogen azide to enamines. Quantum-chemical calculations concerning the spontaneous ... Cyanogen azide is a primary explosive, although it is far too unstable for practical use as an explosive and is extremely ... It can be synthesised at below room temperature from the reaction of sodium azide with either cyanogen chloride or cyanogen ...
... is ionic, meaning it consists of ammonium cation [NH4]+ and azide anion N−3, therefore its formula is [NH4]+[N3 ... Ammonium azide contains about 93% nitrogen by mass. Frevel, Ludo K. (1 January 1936). "The Crystal Structure of Ammonium Azide ... Ammonium azide is the chemical compound with the formula [NH4]N3, being the salt of ammonia and hydrazoic acid. Like other ... Salim de Amorim, Helio; do Amaral, M. R.; Pattison P.; Ludka I. P.; Mendes, J. C. (2002). "Ammonium azide: A Commented Example ...
... can be made by reacting hydrazoic acid or sodium azide, with fluorine gas. HN3 + F2 → N3F + HF NaN3 + F2 → N3F ... Fluorine azide or triazadienyl fluoride is a yellow green gas composed of nitrogen and fluorine with formula FN3. Its ... At higher temperatures such as 1000 °C fluorine azide breaks up into nitrogen monofluoride radical: FN3 → NF + N2 The FN itself ... Seder, T.A.; D.J. Benard (1991). "The decomposition of condensed phase fluorine azide". Combustion and Flame. 85 (3-4): 353-362 ...
... and the azide anions (N−3). Strontium azide crystallizes in an orthorhombic Fddd space group. Zhu, Weihua; Xu, Xiaojuan; Xiao, ... Heming (8 May 2007). "Electronic structure and optical properties of crystalline strontium azide and barium azide by ab initio ... Strontium azide is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula Sr(N3)2. It is composed of the strontium cation (Sr2+) ... Azides, Explosive chemicals, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
Molecular Structure and Ionization Energies of Azides: An ab initio Study of Hydrazoic Acid, Methyl Azide and Ethyl Azide". ... Ethyl azide is used for organic synthesis. Campbell, H. C.; Rice, O. K. (1935). "The Explosion of Ethyl Azide". Journal of the ... Ethyl azide (CH3CH2N3) is an explosive compound sensitive to rapid heating, shock or impact. It has exploded when heated to ... Rice, O. K.; Campbell, H. C. (1939). "The Explosion of Ethyl Azide in the Presence of Diethyl Ether". The Journal of Chemical ...
... generally converts amines to azides. Tosyl azide Diphenylphosphoryl azide Sulfuryl diazide C. J ... Trifluoromethanesulfonyl azide or triflyl azide CF3SO2N3 is an organic azide used as a reagent in organic synthesis. ... Cavender & V. J. Shiner (1972). "Trifluoromethanesulfonyl azide. Its reaction with alkyl amines to form alkyl azides". The ... Trifluoromethanesulfonyl azide is not commercially available. It is prepared before use by reacting trifluoromethanesulfonic ...
... is an inorganic azide with the formula Ba(N3)2. It is a barium salt of hydrazoic acid. Like most azides, it is ... It is less sensitive to mechanical shock than lead azide. Barium azide may be prepared by reacting sodium azide with a soluble ... Calcium azide Sodium azide Hydrazoic acid Fedoroff, Basil T.; Aaronson, Henry A.; Reese, Earl F.; Sheffield, Oliver E.; Clift, ... The product should be stored submerged in ethanol.[citation needed] Barium azide can be used to make azides of magnesium, ...
... is the lithium salt of hydrazoic acid. It is an unstable and toxic compound that decomposes into lithium and ... It can be prepared by metathesis reaction between sodium azide and lithium nitrate or lithium sulfate solutions: NaN3 + LiNO3 ... LiN3 + NaNO3 2 NaN3 + Li2SO4 → 2 LiN3 + Na2SO4 It can also be prepared by reacting lithium sulfate with barium azide. Ba(N3)2 ... sodium and strontium azides". Acta Crystallogr. B. 24 (2): 262-269. doi:10.1107/S0567740868002062. Hála, Jiri. "IUPAC-NIST ...
... and the azide anions (N−3). Magnesium azide hydrolyzes easily. Like most azides, it is explosive. Patil, K. C.; Nesamani, C.; ... Magnesium azide is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula Mg(N3)2. It is composed of the magnesium cation (Mg2+) ... Pai Verneker, V. R. (6 December 2006). "Synthesis and Characterisation of Metal Hydrazine Nitrate, Azide and Perchlorate ... Azides, Explosive chemicals, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
How you could be exposed to sodium azide *Following release of sodium azide into water, you could be exposed to sodium azide by ... Where sodium azide is found and how it is used *Sodium azide is best known as the chemical found in automobile airbags. An ... How sodium azide works *The seriousness of poisoning caused by sodium azide depends on the amount, route, and length of time of ... What sodium azide is *Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, potentially deadly chemical that exists as an odorless white solid. ...
BSA and Azide Free) (CST #37349) is ready to ship. ... Supplied in 1X PBS, BSA and Azide Free.. For standard ... Cleaved Gasdermin D (Asp275) (E7H9G) Rabbit mAb (BSA and Azide Free) 37349. Toggle Between Dark and Light Modes Filter: *WB ... Cleaved Gasdermin D (Asp275) Rabbit mAb (BSA and Azide Free) recognizes endogenous levels of Gasdermin D protein only when ... Cleaved Gasdermin D (Asp275) (E7H9G) Rabbit mAb (BSA and Azide Free) #37349. ...
Azide, Azium, Sodium salt of hydrazoic acid Colorless to white, odorless, crystalline solid. [pesticide] [Note: Forms hydrazoic ... or solder in plumbing systems to form an accumulation of the HIGHLY EXPLOSIVE compounds of lead azide & copper azide.] ... Acids, metals, water [Note: Over a period of time, sodium azide may react with copper, lead, brass, ...
What are some of the symptoms associated with sodium azide poisoning? This new report looks at recent case in Texas that ... Sodium Azide Poisoning at a Restaurant. Dallas County, Texas, 2010. Evan S. Schwarz, MD; Paul M. Wax, MD; Kurt C. Kleinschmidt ... No sodium azide or hydrazoic acid was found in a control sample from a second tea urn used earlier that day. Neither chemical ... SSodium azide is a toxic chemical used widely in industry that has been added to beverages, either intentionally or ...
Testing Status of Sodium azide 10164-D. Testing Status of Sodium azide 10164-D. CASRN: 26628-22-8. Formula: N3-Na. Synonyms/ ... Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Sodium Azide (CASRN 26628-22-8) in F344 Rats (Gavage Studies) ...
How you could be exposed to sodium azide *Following release of sodium azide into water, you could be exposed to sodium azide by ... Where sodium azide is found and how it is used *Sodium azide is best known as the chemical found in automobile airbags. An ... How sodium azide works *The seriousness of poisoning caused by sodium azide depends on the amount, route, and length of time of ... What sodium azide is *Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, potentially deadly chemical that exists as an odorless white solid. ...
... NEXT PREVIOUS. Downloadable transform files: Source .src file, compiled lhasa binary ...
Copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition: regioselective synthesis of 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. Spiteri C, Moses ... A stepwise huisgen cycloaddition process: copper(I)-catalyzed regioselective "ligation" of azides and terminal alkynes Vsevolod ... Recent Advances in Recoverable Systems for the Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction (CuAAC). Mandoli A. Mandoli ... A stepwise huisgen cycloaddition process: copper(I)-catalyzed regioselective "ligation" of azides and terminal alkynes Vsevolod ...
Storage InstructionStore the Podocalyxin antibody at 2-8oC (with azide) or aliquot and store at -20oC or colder (without azide ... Storage Buffer1 mg/ml in 1X PBS; BSA free, sodium azide free ... Podocalyxin Antibody- sodium azide free. tcna700saf Podocalyxin ...
Dive into the research topics of Anomalous Azide Binding to Metmanganomyoglobin. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
How you could be exposed to sodium azide *Following release of sodium azide into water, you could be exposed to sodium azide by ... Where sodium azide is found and how it is used *Sodium azide is best known as the chemical found in automobile airbags. An ... How sodium azide works *The seriousness of poisoning caused by sodium azide depends on the amount, route, and length of time of ... What sodium azide is *Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, potentially deadly chemical that exists as an odorless white solid. ...
Sulfide, cyanide, and azide. Following exposure to sulfide, cyanide, or azide, immediate death due to heart failure is the ... Sulfide, cyanide, and azide. Gross cerebral findings of sulfide, cyanide, or azide toxicity are identical to those of acute ... Sulfide, cyanide, and azide. Microscopic findings of sulfide, cyanide, or azide toxicity are identical to those of acute ... Sulfide, cyanide, and azide. Hydrogen sulfide is formed in sewers and can be an occupational hazard in the oil and gas industry ...
The PolarGel range is ideal for use with polar solvents, such as dimethyl formamide and dimethyl sulfoxide, and for solvent combinations such as tetrahydrofuran with water. Visit this PolarGel page to learn more.
Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Sodium Azide in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study A90612 Summary Data. * ... Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Sodium Azide in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study G10164 Summary Data. * ... Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Sodium Azide in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study 201201 Summary Data. * ... TR-389 Toxicology and Carcinogeneis Studies of Sodium Azide (CASRN 26628-22-8) in F344 Rats (Gavage Studies). *[Abstract] ...
Cited in 1 publications. View Goat Polyclonal anti-DPM1 Antibody (NBP1-05034). Validated Applications: WB, ELISA, IHC. Validated Species: Human.
Sebest F, Casarrubios L, Rzepa HS, White AJP, Diez-Gonzalez Set al., 2018, Thermal Azide-Alkene Cycloaddition Reactions: ... The multi-gram synthesis of a wide range of 1,2,3-triazolines via azide-alkene cycloaddition reactions in a Deep Eutectic ... The reaction of organic azides and electron‐deficient alkenes was investigated in a deep eutectic solvent. A series of highly ... Cycloaddition reactions of azides and electron-deficient alkenes in deep eutectic solvents: pyrazolines, aziridines and other ...
Fabgennix Anti-LAT Polyclonal, Catalog # LAT1-FITC. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunoprecipitation (IP) and ELISA (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 200 µL purified antibody (0.5-1.5 mg/mL).
Sodium Azide QU 54 Sphygmomanometers WG 26 Spinal Curvatures WE 735. See also names of specific disorders, e.g., Kyphosis,. ...
Purified (azide-free) (244) Purified (Maxpar® Ready) (137) Serum (14) Solution (6) Spark Blue™ 515 (48) Spark Blue™ 550 (60) ... Biotin (azide-free) (17) Brilliant Violet 421™ (709) Brilliant Violet 510™ (330) Brilliant Violet 570™ (63) Brilliant Violet ...
Senki sincs vesz lyben, a munk latok hamarosan folytat dnak - nyilatkozta a LOCOG egyik sz viv je.
Thalidomide 4-ether-alkylC6-azide. Jan 2024. Cereblon ligand with alkyl linker and terminal azide for onward chemistry. ...
0.02% Sodium azide Storage Store as concentrated solution. Centrifuge briefly prior to opening vial. For short-term storage (1- ...
Solution in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4, containing 15 mM sodium azide. ...
J53-Na-Azide. Escherichia coli. -. AMP, CRO, SXT, CXM, CTX. 3. 8.7 × 105. ...
Caution: Sodium azide yields highly toxic hydrazoic acid under acidic conditions. Dilute azide compounds in running water ...
... inorganic azides; inorganic chromium compounds; iron and its compounds; manganese and its compounds; mercaptans; nitriles; ... Azides; Nitrophenols; Cyanates; Nitrobenzenes; Occupational safety and health; Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide; Biological effects ...
and sodium azide (. NaN. 3. ; 3. mM. ). The MMP-9 activity was then determined by negative staining with Coomassie brilliant ...
Do not use samples and controls stabilized with azide.. Ensure the patients samples, calibrators, and controls are at ambient ... Do not use samples and controls stabilized with azide.. Ensure the patients samples, calibrators, and controls are at ambient ... Do not use samples and controls stabilized with azide. Ensure the patients samples, calibrators, and controls are at ambient ...
Matrix: Purified protein matrix treated with 0.09% sodium azide * Product Type: Panel ...
Sensitivities of the blood acid-labile CS2 (AL CS2) concentration and the modified iodine-azide test (IAT) were compared as ... MeSH Terms: Animals; Azides; Carbon Disulfide/blood*; Carbon Disulfide/poisoning; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Free ...
  • Sodium azide is made industrially by the reaction of nitrous oxide, N2O with sodium amide NaNH2 in liquid ammonia as solvent: N2O + 2 NaNH2 → NaN3 + NaOH + NH3 Many inorganic azides can be prepared directly or indirectly from sodium azide. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, lead azide, used in detonators, may be prepared from the metathesis reaction between lead nitrate and sodium azide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azides decompose with nitrite compounds such as sodium nitrite when acidified. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the process, nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, and hydroxides are formed: 3 N−3 + NO−2 + 2 H2O → 5 N2 + 4 OH− N−3 + 7 NO−2 + 4 H2O → 10 NO + 8 OH− About 251 tons of azide-containing compounds are produced annually, the main product being sodium azide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide NaN3 is the propellant in automobile airbags. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide is as toxic as sodium cyanide (with an oral LD50 of 27 mg/kg in rats) and can be absorbed through the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy-metal azides are formed when solutions of sodium azide or HN3 vapors come into contact with heavy metals or their salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide exists as an odorless white solid. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons who work on automobiles regularly are at an increased risk of exposure to sodium azide, which is used as a propellant in airbags. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to sodium azide can be fatal. (cdc.gov)
  • Indoor Air: Sodium azide can be released into indoor air as fine particles (aerosol). (cdc.gov)
  • Water: Sodium azide can be used to contaminate water. (cdc.gov)
  • Agricultural: If sodium azide is released into the air as fine particles (aerosol), it has the potential to contaminate agricultural products. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or eye contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion is an important route of exposure to solid sodium azide. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, potentially deadly chemical that exists as an odorless white solid. (cdc.gov)
  • When it is mixed with water or an acid, sodium azide changes rapidly to a toxic gas with a pungent (sharp) odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is best known as the chemical found in automobile airbags. (cdc.gov)
  • An electrical charge triggered by automobile impact causes sodium azide to explode and convert to nitrogen gas inside the airbag. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is used as a chemical preservative in hospitals and laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • In one case, sodium azide was poured into a drain, where it exploded and the toxic gas was inhaled (breathed in). (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is used in agriculture (farming) for pest control. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is also used in detonators and other explosives. (cdc.gov)
  • Following release of sodium azide into water, you could be exposed to sodium azide by drinking the contaminated water. (cdc.gov)
  • Following contamination of food with sodium azide, you could be exposed to sodium azide by eating the contaminated food. (cdc.gov)
  • Following release of sodium azide into the air, you could be exposed by breathing in the dust or the gas that is formed. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide can also enter the body and cause symptoms through skin contact. (cdc.gov)
  • An explosion involving sodium azide may cause burn injury as well as expose people to the toxic gas, hydrozoic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • The seriousness of poisoning caused by sodium azide depends on the amount, route, and length of time of exposure, as well as the age and preexisting medical condition of the person exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing the gas that is formed from sodium azide causes the most harm, but ingesting (swallowing) sodium azide can be toxic as well. (cdc.gov)
  • The gas formed from sodium azide is most dangerous in enclosed places where the gas will be trapped. (cdc.gov)
  • The gas formed from sodium azide is less dense (lighter) than air, so it will rise. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide prevents the cells of the body from using oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is more harmful to the heart and the brain than to other organs, because the heart and the brain use a lot of oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to sodium azide. (cdc.gov)
  • Survivors of serious sodium azide poisoning may have heart and brain damage. (cdc.gov)
  • First, get fresh air by leaving the area where the sodium azide was released. (cdc.gov)
  • Moving to an area with fresh air is a good way to reduce the possibility of death from exposure to sodium azide. (cdc.gov)
  • If the sodium azide release was outside, move away from the area where the sodium azide was released. (cdc.gov)
  • If the sodium azide release was indoors, get out of the building. (cdc.gov)
  • If leaving the area that was exposed to sodium azide is not an option, stay as low to the ground as possible, because sodium azide fumes rise. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are near a release of sodium azide, emergency coordinators may tell you to either evacuate the area or to " shelter in place " inside a building to avoid being exposed to the chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • If you think you may have been exposed to sodium azide, you should remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible. (cdc.gov)
  • Beier's group alternatively attempted using electrophilic CF 3 I with sodium azide (NaN 3 ) as a nucleophile, but the reaction didn't work. (acs.org)
  • Our carrier-free antibodies are typically supplied in a PBS-only formulation, purified and free of BSA, sodium azide and glycerol. (abcam.com)
  • NaN 3 sodium azide. (iupac.org)
  • Sodium Azide - 1KG / Industrial is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. (ases.in)
  • Sodium nitrite converts haemoglobin to methaemoglobin which, together with sodium azide, gives azidemethaemoglobin. (who.int)
  • The researchers report that saliva samples were first stabilized by adding thioflavin S as an antiaggregation agent and sodium azide as an antibacterial agent. (medscape.com)
  • In chemistry, azide is a linear, polyatomic anion with the formula N−3 and structure −N=N+=N−. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid HN3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some azides are produced by treating the carbonate salts with hydrazoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decomposition temperatures of the alkali metal azides are: NaN3 (275 °C), KN3 (355 °C), RbN3 (395 °C), and CsN3 (390 °C). This method is used to produce ultrapure alkali metals: 2 MN3 heat→ 2 M + 3 N2 Protonation of azide salts gives toxic hydrazoic acid in the presence of strong acids: H+ + N−3 → HN3 Azide as a ligand forms numerous transition metal azide complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (acs.org)
  • A two-step, one-pot reaction creates new fluorinated azides for copper-catalyzed fluorinated click chemistry. (acs.org)
  • Azide PEG is for PEGylation via a click chemistry reaction with alkyne or acetylene or DBCO. (creativepegworks.com)
  • We present a xylosylated naphthoxyloside carrying a terminal azide functionality that can be used for conjugation using click chemistry. (lu.se)
  • Collaborative work between experimentalists and computational chemists have demonstrated a stong synergy which allowed the rationalization of allenyl azide chemistry and permited the development of an efficient synthetic tool aimed at the preparation of several alkaloids. (psu.edu)
  • The PEG chain enhances water solubility, while the azide functional group allows for conjugation with other molecules using click chemistry. (axispharm.com)
  • 5(6)-FAM PEG3 azide is an excellent alkyne-reactive fluorescent reagent for labeling alkyne-containing biological molecules through click chemistry. (tenovapharma.com)
  • They can undergo cluster-surface strain -promoted alkyne - azide cycloaddition (CS-SPAAC) chemistry with complementary strained- alkynes . (bvsalud.org)
  • Many inorganic covalent azides (e.g., chlorine, bromine, and iodine azides) have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forty bovine incisors were used for oxygen dissolved titration by means of iodometric methods modified by azide iodine and 26 for the shear bond strength and microleakage tests. (bvsalud.org)
  • The reported azidoperfluoroalkanes undergo copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions, also known as click reactions, leading to N -perfluoroalkyl triazoles as underexplored building blocks, Beier says. (acs.org)
  • Saturated allenyl azides undergo a reaction cascade involving key diradical intermediates that follow the CurtinHammett model whereas unsaturated allenyl azides form indolidene intermediates that furnish the final indole products via electrocyclic ring closure events taking place out of the Curtin-Hammett regime. (psu.edu)
  • An alternative route is direct reaction of the metal with silver azide dissolved in liquid ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, azidoperfluoroalkanes are more reactive in the click reaction with alkynes than nonfluorinated alkyl azides. (acs.org)
  • 2′, 7′-Difluorocarboxyfluorescein Azide, 6-isomer (also under Oregon Green 488 Azide (Oregon Green™ 6-Carboxamido-(6-Azidohexanyl), Triethylammonium Salt), 6-isomer name) is a bright, green-fluorescent azide-activated probe that reacts with terminal alkynes via a copper-catalyzed click reaction (CuAAC). (vectorlabs.com)
  • The PEG azide can potentially be reacted with an acetylene moiety (click reaction) or an aryl phosphine derivative, as part of several staudinger ligation options (see references). (iris-biotech.de)
  • The reaction in the microcuvette is a modified azide-methaemoglobinn reaction. (who.int)
  • Azide-PEG-Amine is a linear bifunctional PEG linker with a reactive azide (N3) and an amine group. (creativepegworks.com)
  • However, under very specific conditions, the azide is very reactive and highly selective. (iris-biotech.de)
  • an important one being N−=N+=N− Azide salts can decompose with release of nitrogen gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colloidal nanoparticles of Earth-abundant, first-row transition metal oxides and sulfide, namely magnetite (Fe3O4), manganese and cobalt ferrite, (MnFe2O4, CoFe2O4), manganese(ii) oxide (MnO) and sulfide (alpha-MnS), were used as catalysts in the cycloaddition between azides and methyl propiolate. (unimi.it)
  • Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support a mechanistic hypothesis that attributes the increased cycloaddition rate to the adsorption of the azide onto to the nanocatalyst surface. (unimi.it)
  • The azide-alkyne cycloaddition catalysed by transition metal oxide nanoparticles / G. Molteni, A.M. Ferretti, M.I. Trioni, F. Cargnoni, A. Ponti. (unimi.it)
  • Organic azides are organic compounds with the formula RN3, containing the azide functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a bifunctional molecule composed of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain, an azide functional group, and a trityl protecting group. (axispharm.com)
  • The tremendous attraction to the azide functionality is its very low reactivity and high stability under most conditions. (iris-biotech.de)
  • The trityl group serves to protect the azide functionality during chemical reactions until it is ready for use. (axispharm.com)
  • The dominant application of azides is as a propellant in air bags. (wikipedia.org)
  • Controlling the Structure, Properties and Surface Reactivity of Clickable Azide-Functionalized Au 25 (SR) 18 Nanocluster Platforms Through Regioisomeric Ligand Modifications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some organic azides are potential rocket propellants, an example being 2-dimethylaminoethylazide (DMAZ) (CH3)2NCH2CH2N3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water soluble 5(6)-FAM PEG3 azide has a long PEG3 spacer that separates the dye carboxyfluorescein (commonly known as FAM) from the terminal azide group. (tenovapharma.com)
  • The title compound, C12H11N5.2H2O, which crystallizes as a dihydrate, was obtained by Cu(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cyclo-addition from 2-azido-1-methyl-imidazole and phenyl-ethyne. (who.int)
  • [ 2 ] There were no data reported for exposure to azides. (medscape.com)
  • It decomposes on heating to give nitrogen gas, which is used to quickly expand the air bag: 2 NaN3 → 2 Na + 3 N2 Heavy metal azides, such as lead azide, Pb(N3)2, are shock-sensitive detonators which decompose to the corresponding metal and nitrogen, for example: Pb(N3)2 → Pb + 3 N2 Silver azide AgN3 and barium azide Ba(N3)2 are used similarly. (wikipedia.org)
  • El Salvador imported Hydrides, nitrides, azides, silicides and borides, whether or not chemically defined, other than compounds which are also carbides of heading no. 2849 from United States ($123.09K , 33,993 Kg), Germany ($1.54K , 0 Kg). (worldbank.org)
  • Heavy metal azides, such as lead azide are primary high explosives detonable when heated or shaken. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azide is isoelectronic with carbon dioxide CO2, cyanate OCN−, nitrous oxide N2O, nitronium ion NO+2 and cyanogen fluoride NCF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trityl-PEG-azide is commonly used in pharmaceutical research and development as a versatile building block for the synthesis of drug conjugates, imaging agents, and diagnostic tools. (axispharm.com)
  • Create an account below to get 6 C&EN articles per month, receive newsletters and more - all free. (acs.org)
  • Low Endotoxin/Azide Free Mouse IgG 1 for use as a control in flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry / immunocytochemistry, western blot, immunoprecipitation, and in vivo / in vitro assays and as a standard in ELISA. (southernbiotech.com)
  • Furthermore, the addition of an azide group generates only low additional sterical demand. (iris-biotech.de)
  • To fine-tune structure-property correlations of thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters through post-assembly surface modifications, we report the synthesis of the o, m, and p regioisomeric forms of the anionic azide -functionalized [Au25 (SCH2 CH2 -C6 H4 -N3 )18 ]1- platform. (bvsalud.org)
  • Heavy-metal azides can accumulate under certain circumstances, for example, in metal pipelines and on the metal components of diverse equipment (rotary evaporators, freezedrying equipment, cooling traps, water baths, waste pipes), and thus lead to violent explosions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azides can be used as precursors of the metal nitrido complexes by being induced to release N2, generating a metal complex in unusual oxidation states (see high-valent iron). (wikipedia.org)
  • azides' in IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology , 3rd ed. (iupac.org)
  • This is a method of destroying residual azides, prior to disposal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In surveys, blood haemoglobin concentrations are typically measured using the direct cyanmethemoglobin method in a laboratory or with a portable, battery-operated, haemoglobin photometer in the field that uses the azide-methaemoglobin method. (who.int)