Azauridine: A triazine nucleoside used as an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with pyrimidine biosynthesis thereby preventing formation of cellular nucleic acids. As the triacetate, it is also effective as an antipsoriatic.Orotidine-5'-Phosphate Decarboxylase: Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC 4.1.1.23.Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.Uracil NucleotidesDihydroorotate Oxidase: An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Orotic AcidUridineUridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Flammulina: A genus of mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae, whose species are characterized by a slimy cap (FRUITING BODIES, FUNGAL).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antimitotic Agents: Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Methionine Adenosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. EC 2.5.1.6.Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.Homocystinuria: Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)CystathionineCystathionine beta-Synthase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Nutritionists: Persons specially trained in NUTRITION SCIENCES.Sports Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES during EXERCISE and ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE as well as specific NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS of ATHLETES and the relationship between NUTRITIONAL STATUS and NUTRITION DISORDERS in athletes.Manuscripts, MedicalDietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.JapanNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.

Paramyxovirus-avian cell relationship: discrepant impact of 6-azauridine on virus production by susceptible and less susceptible cells. (1/19)

The replication of mumps virus in susceptible chicken embryonic heart cells was escalated by daily treatment of cultures with 6-azauridine (6-AU). On the other hand, virus production by less susceptible liver cells was depressed by 6-AU. The population of infected susceptible cells was not increased, but the release of virus by infected susceptible cells was enhanced 20-fold by 10 mug of 6-AU per ml. Less susceptible cells, which incorporated less ribonucleic acid and protein precursor than susceptible cells, sustained a constant level of viral release during 6-AU treatment; however, the number of infected less susceptible cells underwent substantial decline.  (+info)

Mechanisms of action of 6-thioguanine, 6-mercaptopurine, and 8-azaguanine. (2/19)

The effects of 6-thioguanine on purine biosynthesis and cell viability have been examined in H.Ep. 2 cells grown in culture. Toxicity is not reversed by aminoimidazolecarboxamide, suggesting that inhibition of purine biosynthesis de novo is not the sole mechanism of toxicity. Also, 6-(methylmercapto)purine ribonucleoside, a potent inhibitor of purine biosynthesis de novo, produces more marked reductions in cellular pools of purines than does 6-thioguanine without killing cells. There is no apparent inhibition by 6-thioguanosine 5'-monophosphate of other enzymes leading to the synthesis of guanosine 5'-triphosphate as determined in whole cells by measurements of radioactive hypoxanthine or guanine incorporation. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by 1 mM thymidine protects cells from 6-mercaptopurine or 6-thioguanine but fails to protect cells from 8-azaguanine toxicity. On the other hand, inhibition of RNA synthesis by 6-azauridine plus deoxycytidine protects cells against 8-azaguanine but does not protect against 6-thioguanine or 6-mercaptopurine toxicity. In agreement with the in vitro data, arabinosylcytosine (a potent inhibitor of DNA synthesis) fails to protect mice against 8-azaguanine but has previously been shown to protect mice from 6-mercaptopurine or 6-thioguanine toxicity. The results support the hypotheses of others that incorporation into DNA (as 6-thioguanine nucleotide) is a mechanism of toxicity for these thiopurines, whereas 8-azaguanine is toxic due to its incorporation into RNA.  (+info)

Inhibition of human coronavirus NL63 infection at early stages of the replication cycle. (3/19)

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a recently discovered member of the Coronaviridae family, has spread worldwide and is associated with acute respiratory illness in young children and elderly and immunocompromised persons. Further analysis of HCoV-NL63 pathogenicity seems warranted, in particular because the virus uses the same cellular receptor as severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus. As there is currently no HCoV-NL63-specific and effective vaccine or drug therapy available, we evaluated several existing antiviral drugs and new synthetic compounds as inhibitors of HCoV-NL63, targeting multiple stages of the replication cycle. Of the 28 compounds that we tested, 6 potently inhibited HCoV-NL63 at early steps of the replication cycle. Intravenous immunoglobulins, heptad repeat 2 peptide, small interfering RNA1 (siRNA1), siRNA2, beta-D-N(4)-hydroxycytidine, and 6-azauridine showed 50% inhibitory concentrations of 125 microg/ml, 2 microM, 5 nM, 3 nM, 400 nM, and 32 nM, respectively, and low 50% cytotoxicity concentrations (>10 mg/ml, >40 microM, >200 nM, >200 nM, >100 microM, and 80 microM, respectively). These agents may be investigated further for the treatment of coronavirus infections.  (+info)

Uridine triphosphate deficiency, growth inhibition, and death in ascites hepatoma cells induced by a combination of pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibition with uridylate trapping. (4/19)

A selective deficiency of uridine triphosphate (UTP) was induced in AS-30D rat ascites hepatoma cells by the synergistic action of D-galactosamine and 6-azauridine. The resistance of these hepatoma cells to low concentrations of D-galactosamine (less than 2 mM) was due to their active de novo pyrimidine synthesis which compensated the trapping of uridylate in the form of uridine diphosphate-amino sugars derived from D-galactosamine. The additional blockage of de novo pyrimidine synthesis led to noncompensated uridylate trapping with a UTP content of less than 0.05 mmole/kg of cell wet weight as compared to the control level of 0.66 mmole/kg. The induction of UTP deficiency by incubating the cells with low concentrations of D-galactosamine and 6-azauridine (0.5 mM each) was not accompanied by significant changes in the content of adenine and guanine nucleotides, uridine diphosphate glucose, and uridine diphosphate galactose. The depletion of UTP pools could be reversed within 10 min by the addition of uridine; orotate or uracil were completely ineffective in these hepatoma cells. A UTP content in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 mmole/kg, induced by either 6-azauridine or D-galactosamine, was associated with a reversible depression of cell growth in suspension culture. A UTP content below 0.05 mmole/kg led to irreversible growth inhibition and to necrocytosis in culture, as well as to a loss of transplantability in vivo. Uridine reversal studies indicated that the percentage of cells able to resume growth in culture decreased with an increasing time period of UTP deficiency. The deficiency period required for irreparable or lethal damage in these hepatoma cells ranged from 3 to 20 hr. The principle of noncompensated uridylate trapping can be extended to other inhibitors of nucleotide synthesis combined with various nucleotide-trapping sugar analogs. Noncompensated nucleotide trapping may be useful for an induction of selective nucleotide deficiencies in tumor cells.  (+info)

Coordinate overproduction of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase in hamster cells resistant to pyrazofurin and 6-azauridine. (5/19)

Cells resistant to pyrazofurin and 6-azauridine have been selected from a simian virus 40-transformed Syrian hamster line and from a Chinese hamster lung line. By increasing the concentrations of inhibitors in several steps, mutant cells from both lines have been obtained which resist high concentrations (1 to 5 mM) of the two inhibitors separately or together. Orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.23), the sixth and last enzyme in UMP biosynthesis, is inhibited by the nucleoside monophosphates derived from pyrazofurin or 6-azauridine. The activity of this enzyme is increased in each resistant cell line tested. Furthermore, there is a parallel increase in each case in the activity of the fifth enzyme of the pathway, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.10), which is not inhibited by pyrazofurin or 6-azauridine monophosphates, and the amount of increase is up to 67 times the level found in wild type cells. In contrast, the activities of the first three enzymes of UMP biosynthesis remain essentially unchanged in the mutants. Resistant Chinese hamster cells remain sensitive to 5-fluorouridine; this indicates that uridine kinase, the enzyme necessary to convert 6-azauridine to the monophosphate, is still functional.  (+info)

Identification of 6-azauridine triphosphate in L1210 cells and its possible relevance to cytotoxicity. (6/19)

L1210 cells treated with 1 mM 6-azauridine (AzUrd) (concentration causing 50% inhibition of cell growth, 3 microM) continued to divide at a reduced rate for 72 h before stopping. However, a 24-h treatment was lethal to 99% of the cells, as determined by colony formation. To investigate the mechanism for this delayed cytotoxicity, the metabolism of AzUrd was studied. Cells incubated with AzUrd contained a new 254 nm-absorbing component, not found in control cells. It appeared to be 6-azauridine-5'-triphosphate, since it was the only peak in the triphosphate region of the chromatogram which contained 3H after incubation of cells with [3H]AzUrd. Incorporation of [3H]AzUrd into the acid-insoluble fraction (nucleic acids) was also detected. A role for this incorporation in the mechanism of AzUrd cytotoxicity was strongly suggested by the observation that cordycepin (0.01 mM) partially protected cells from the lethality of AzUrd, presumably by preventing its incorporation into RNA. The previously known inhibition of pyrimidine de novo synthesis by AzUrd was confirmed by a decrease in the intracellular contents of UTP and CTP in AzUrd-treated cells. Therefore, we propose that the inhibition of pyrimidine de novo synthesis and the incorporation into nucleic acid(s) may act in concert to produce the cytotoxic effects of AzUrd.  (+info)

Orotic aciduria fibroblasts express a labile form of UMP synthase. (7/19)

Orotic aciduria (type 1) results from a mutation in the gene for UMP synthase, a bifunctional protein containing the two enzyme activities which convert orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to UMP and CO2. In fibroblasts from individuals with orotic aciduria, these two enzymatic activities are about 1% of normal but increase dramatically when deficient cells are grown in the presence of 6-azauridine. Using a polyclonal antiserum to sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured, pure human UMP synthase, we show that fibroblasts from a patient with orotic aciduria have a low level of immunoreactive UMP synthase protein. Pulse-chase analysis reveals that the UMP synthase is degraded rapidly in the deficient cells. Growth of deficient cells in 6-azauridine leads to an increase in UMP synthase protein and its two enzymatic activities via a decreased rate of proteolytic degradation of UMP synthase. UMP synthase in extracts from deficient cells is more readily denatured by heat and is stabilized after growth of cells in 6-azauridine. These data suggest that the detrimental deficiency of this one patient results from a structurally altered UMP synthase that is probably present in low steady-state amounts due to proteolysis and that this labile protein can be stabilized against heat denaturation and proteolytic degradation by 6-aza-UMP.  (+info)

Effect of 6-azauridine on de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis in cultured Ehrlich ascites cells. Orotate inhibition of dihydroorotase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. (8/19)

The inhibition of dihydro-orotase (E 3.5.2.3) and dihydroorotate (DHO) dehydrogenase (dihydro-orotate oxidase, EC 1.3.3.1) by cellular orotate (OA) in Ehrlich ascites cells was studied by measuring the accumulation of the intermediates of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis at various times after the addition of 6-azauridine to the culture medium. The addition of 6-azauridine resulted in the accumulation of orotidine, OA, DHO, and carbamyl aspartate (CAA). The use of the observed ratios of [CCA]/[OA] and [DHO]/[OA] and other known constants allowed us to calculate that the increased cellular OA concentration caused primarily an inhibition of DHO dehydrogenase rather than an inhibition of dihydroorotase. A constant ratio of [CAA]/[DHO] was observed which probably indicates that the interconversion of these two intermediates catalyzed by dihydroorotase is near equilibrium in these cells as has been observed in vitro (Christopherson, R.I., Matsuura, T., and Jones, M.E. (1978) Anal. Biochem. 89, 225-234). It is suggested that the probable intracellular accumulation of CAA in patients with oroticaciduria may have significant secondary effects.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of 6-Azauridine or what 6-Azauridine stands for? 6-Azauridine is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Dagg, C P. and Coggin, C, "Combined effects of a mutant gene, paddlefoot, and a teratogen, 6-azauridine, on limb development of mouse embryos. Abstr." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 174 ...
Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2) has been shown to be up-regulated in activated microglia and therefore plays an important role in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimers disease. The CB2 receptor is therefore considered as a very promising target for therapeutic approaches as well as for imaging. A promising 2-oxoquinoline derivative designated KP23 was synthesized and radiolabeled and its potential as a ligand for PET imaging the CB2 receptor was evaluated. [11C]KP23 was obtained in 10%-25% radiochemical yield (decay corrected) and 99% radiochemical purity. It showed high stability in phosphate buffer, rat and mouse plasma. In vitro autoradiography of rat and mouse spleen slices, as spleen expresses a high physiological expression of CB2 receptors, demonstrated that [11C]KP23 exhibits specific binding towards CB2. High spleen uptake of [11C]KP23 was observed in dynamic in vivo PET studies with Wistar rats. In
Tiopronin - Get up-to-date information on Tiopronin side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Tiopronin
MetabolismPurines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, and nucleotidesPyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesisorotidine 5-phosphate decarboxylase (TIGR01740; EC 4.1.1.23; HMM-score: 207.2) ...
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
When I read her response, she said she found the humor in the video, that she laughed, but then she started to cry and that touched me, said Rodriguez.. His viral video brought to life an insecurity that Kelsey had lived with for years. She hardly smiled. Her teeth were rotting, broken, and in some cases missing.. It had been four years to the day, since I had posted a picture when I was smiling, said Schmidt.. The Clear Lake dentist wanted her to smile again, so together with dental technician Ron Wilson, they offered to fix her decaying smile for free.. This was a special case, said Wilson.. After multiple x-rays and tests, it was finally the big day.. Dr. Rodriguez extracted 28 teeth during two surgeries, before showing Kelsey the smile shed wished for for years. Her prayers had been answered.. I was so excited that first night, I couldnt sleep, said Schmidt. I sat up and took four years worth of selfies, Im not too embarrassed to admit it. ...
Relevant Papers 1. Yablonski, M. J., Pasek, D. A., Han, B.-D., Jones, M. E., & Traut, T. W. (1996) Intrinsic activity and stability of bifunctional UMP synthase, and of its two separate domains, orotate phosphoribosyl-transferase and orotidine-5-phosphate decarboxylase. J. Biol. Chem.271, 10704-10708. 2. Traut, T.W. (1994) Dissociation of enzyme oligomers: A mechanism for allosteric regulation. CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol.29, 125-163. 3. Matthews, M.M., Liao, W., Kvalnes-Krick, K.L., and Traut, T.W. (1992) Beta-alanine Synthase: Purification and allosteric properties. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 293, 254-263. ...
Several hits in gapped BLAST to uridine kinase sequences, e.g. residues 4-206 are 41% similar to the enzyme from B.subtilis (Z99117). UU332 is similar to MG382 and, weakly, to TP0667, two predicted uridine kinases. No similarity to C.trachomatis ...
Patient with orotic aciduria may present with symptoms and signs such as neurological disorders, failure to thrive, anemia, pallor, weakness and lethargy. Orotic aciduria may lead to accumulation of orotic acid which impair the synthesis of nuclei acid
1DQW: Anatomy of a proficient enzyme: the structure of orotidine 5-monophosphate decarboxylase in the presence and absence of a potential transition state analog.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motional dynamics of the catalytic loop in OMP synthase. AU - Wang, Gary P.. AU - Cahill, Sean M.. AU - Liu, Xiaohong. AU - Girvin, Mark E.. AU - Grubmeyer, Charles. PY - 1999/1/5. Y1 - 1999/1/5. N2 - In de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase catalyzes the formation of orotidine 5-monophosphate (OMP) from orotic acid and α-D-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). The known three- dimensional structure of the dimeric enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium is similar to that of other Type I phosphoribosyltransferases (nucleotide synthases) with a solvent-exposed active site atop a Rossman-type nucleotide binding fold. The three-dimensional structure of an enzyme - inhibitor complex [Henriksen et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 3803-3809] indicates that of the two identical solvent-exposed loops can descend to cover the active site of the adjacent subunit of the dimeric enzyme. Catalytically essential residues are known to reside on this loop. In the present ...
New treatments need to be developed for the significant human diseases of toxoplasmosis and malaria to circumvent problems with current treatments and drug resistance. Apicomplexan parasites causing these lethal diseases are deficient in pyrimidine salvage, suggesting that selective inhibition of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis can lead to a severe loss of uridine 5-monophosphate (UMP) and thymidine 5-monophosphate (dTMP) pools, thereby inhibiting parasite RNA and DNA synthesis. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) induces a severe uracil auxotrophy with no detectable parasite replication in vitro and complete attenuation of virulence in mice. Here we show that a CPSII cDNA minigene efficiently complements the uracil auxotrophy of CPSII-deficient mutants, restoring parasite growth and virulence. Our complementation assays reveal that engineered mutations within, or proximal to, the catalytic triad of the N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase (GATase) domain ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and uridine, whereas its two products are ADP and UMP. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups (phosphotransferases) with an alcohol group as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:uridine 5-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include pyrimidine ribonucleoside kinase, uridine-cytidine kinase, uridine kinase (phosphorylating), and uridine phosphokinase. This enzyme participates in pyrimidine metabolism. ...
I was planning on taking a small break from blogging after the #CAN2013 shebang, but this study is just too sweet to pass on. Serotonin! Sexual preference! Lesbian mice! From my Alma Matar! Interested? Read on.
The DHODH, or dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, gene encodes a 43-kDa enzymatic protein localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it interacts with the mitochondrial respiratory chain and acts as a rate-limiting step in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis (51-53). Mutations within DHODH have been linked with Miller Syndrome, a recessive disorder characterized by malformations of the limbs and eyes, among other symptoms (54-57). DHODH has also been investigated for a role in cancer, including melanoma (58) and acute myeloid leukemia (59), and decreased expression of DHODH was associated with breast cancer risk (60). Several other studies have examined the utility of DHODH inhibitors in cancer by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells (59, 61-66). Although DHODH has not been previously associated with lung cancer risk, the abundance of biological evidence for its pleiotropic role in cancer gives credibility to the association.. We identified significant associations on ...
Buy Potassium Orotate 150 mg - Potassium Orotate contains potassium, one of the most abundant minerals in the human body. Increases the strength - Satisfaction guaranteed, Rewards Program discount, Top European Brand - Supersmart.com.
1-Hydroxyquinolones were recently described as effective inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii replication. These compounds (e.g. HDQ and compound B) were previously shown to inhibit the alternative NADH dehydrogenase (NADH2-I) activity and thus the respiratory chain of T. gondii. However, the phenotype of ndh2-I knock-out mutants suggested the presence of additional target(s). In this study, the fourth enzyme of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, the T. gondii dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (TgDHODH), was identified as a novel 1-hydroxyquinolone target. T. gondii mutants with a partial resistance phenotype towards 1-hydroxyquinolones were used to analyze the expression profile and the coding sequence of all ubiquinone reducing mitochondrial dehydrogenases, which are the likely targets of 1-hydroxyquinolones. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed no significant differences in the mRNA expression level of these enzymes. However, DNA-sequencing identified a single point mutation in codon 302 of the TgDHODH ...
Blair, D G. and Rainnie, D J., "Specific activities of uridine kinase and uridine phosphorylase of ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells during tumor growth. Abstr." (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 23 ...
The experiments described here reveal the existence of three serendipitous pathways that allow synthesis of PLP in the ΔpdxB strain when any one of seven different genes is overexpressed. The number of genes that allow complementation is surprising; most multicopy suppression experiments reveal fewer genes that can complement a strain lacking a metabolic enzyme. For example, Patrick et al (2007) found that 21 of 104 knockout strains of E. coli could be complemented by multicopy suppression using the ASKA library, but in most cases by only one or two genes. One exception, the ΔglyA strain, was complemented by four genes, one of which encodes an antisigma factor. A second unusual case was described by Miller and Raines (2004, 2005), who found that overexpression of four genes encoding glycokinases with promiscuous glucokinase activity complemented a strain lacking glucokinase. Our finding that seven different genes complement the ΔpdxB strain is, to our knowledge, the record. Furthermore, our ...
Alfa Aesar™ 5-Fluorouridine, 97% 1g Alfa Aesar™ 5-Fluorouridine, 97% Fluorotrifluoromethylbenzy to Fmocn -Organics
(KudoZ) Italian to English translation of cromo orotato, carbossimetilcellulosa: 1. chromium orotate 2. carboxyl methylcellulose [Medical].
Large amounts of orotidine are excreted in the urine of cancer patients treated with 6-azauridine. The symbol commonly used for ...
Examples of successfully phosphorylated substrates include 6-azauridine, 5-azacytidine, 4-thiouridine, 5-fluorocytidine, and 5- ...
5-azacytidine and 6-azauridine. Finally, he was active in the field of insect juvenile hormones. Šorm was the author or co- ...
... azauridine MeSH D13.570.685.852.250 --- 3-deazauridine MeSH D13.570.685.852.300 --- deoxyuridine MeSH D13.570.685.852.300.150 ... azauridine MeSH D13.570.800.892.250 --- 3-deazauridine MeSH D13.570.800.892.628 --- pseudouridine MeSH D13.570.800.892.800 --- ...
6-AZAURIDINE 6-azauridine Azauridine PubChem Notes: Azauridine A triazine nucleoside used as an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with ... Azauridine CHEBI:35668 2beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-as-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione 2-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)- ...
2-Thio-6-azauridine 99%; CAS Number: 27089-56-1; EC Number: 248-218-7; Synonym: 6-Aza-2-thiouridine; Linear Formula: C8H11N3O5S ...
Treatment of Polycythemia Vera with Azauridine and Azaribine RONALD C. DECONTI, M.D.; PAUL CALABRESI, M.D. ... DECONTI RC, CALABRESI P. Treatment of Polycythemia Vera with Azauridine and Azaribine. Ann Intern Med. ;73:575-579. doi: ... The pyrimidine analog 6-azauridine or its oral derivative, azaribine, was used to control polycythemia vera in five patients. ...
Beneficial Effects of Triacetyl Azauridine in Psoriasis and Mycosis Fungoides PAUL CALABRESI, M.D.; RAYMOND W. TURNER, M.D. ... Beneficial Effects of Triacetyl Azauridine in Psoriasis and Mycosis Fungoides. Ann Intern Med. 1966;64:352-371. doi: 10.7326/ ...
6-Azauridine is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms ... Looking for online definition of 6-Azauridine or what 6-Azauridine stands for? ... 6-Azauridine - What does 6-Azauridine stand for? The Free Dictionary https://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/6-Azauridine ...
Learn more about 6-azauridine. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make ...
Sensitive to interferon (9); resistant to 6-azauridine (9,11) Virion Morphology. ...
Inactivated by 1 M MgCl2 at 50C for 1 hour (4); trypsin, papain, 6-azauridine (14,16) ...
6-AZA URIDINE 5-MONOPHOSPHATE. C8 H12 N3 O9 P. LRVZOSYMNMNQFR-SHUUEZRQSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Depression Provoking Medications, Medications Predisposing to Depression, Medication Causes of Depression, Suicidality Associated with Medications.
6-Azauridine 2, 3,5-triacetate. Catalog #: B1025 , Datasheet Starting at: $125.00 ...
6-Azauridine. 15.07. Antimetabolit / Antiviral. NA. NA. Irinotecan. 14.14. Topisomerase jeg hæmmer. +. 0,63. ...
... azauridine, thioguanine, vinblastine, vincristine, and bleomycin; anti-inflammatories, such as aurothioglucose and gold sodium ...
... azauridine, azaribine, fluorodeoxyuridine, deoxycoformycin, mercaptopurine, etc.; or a platinum coordination complex, such as ...
Crance, J.M.; Scaramozzino, N.; Jouan, A.; Garin, D. Interferon, ribavirin, 6-azauridine and glycyrrhizin: Antiviral compounds ...
6-azauridine, carmofur, cytarabine, dideoxyuridine, doxifluridine, enocitabine, floxuridine; androgens such as calusterone, ...
6-azauridine, glycyrrhizin, and interferon. There has also been interest in vaccine development, including virus-like particle ...
Interferon, ribavirin, 6-azauridine and glycyrrhizin: antiviral compounds active against pathogenic flaviviruses. Antiviral Res ...
The N-hetero ring is a triazine ring, including hydrogenated (e.g., 6-azauridine, etc.): This subclass is indented under ...
Interferon, ribavirin, 6-azauridine, and glycyrrhizin: antiviral compounds active against pathogenic flaviviruses.. Antiviral ... showed that ribavirin and 6-azauridine were active but not selective inhibitors when assessed with regard to inhibition of cell ... In a comparison of the antiviral potential of 6-azauridine, ribavirin, and glycyrrhizin against several pathogenic flaviviruses ... We assessed the antiviral potential of ribavirin, 6-azauridine, pyrazofurin, mycophenolic acid, and glycyrrhizin against two ...
6-azauridine, carmofur, cytarabine, dideoxyuridine, doxifluridine, enocitabine, floxuridine, 5-FU; androgens such as ...
Large amounts of orotidine are excreted in the urine of cancer patients treated with 6-azauridine. The symbol commonly used for ...
6185334 - Stimulation by 6-azauridine of carbamoyl phosphate synthesis for pyrimidine biosynthesi.... 25466144 - Comparison of ...
Examples of successfully phosphorylated substrates include 6-azauridine, 5-azacytidine, 4-thiouridine, 5-fluorocytidine, and 5- ...
Keywords: tim barrel, orotidine 5-monophosphate decarboxylase, 6-azauridine 5-monophosphate, LYASE. Deposited on 2010-10-21, ... monophosphate decarboxylase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum complexed with 6-azauridine 5-monophosphate. Class: ...
  • Results on specimens obtained from patients taking methotrexate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, nitrous oxide, anti-convulsants, or 6-azauridine triacetates should be interpreted with caution as these substances interfere with homocysteine determination. (directlabs.com)
  • His studies of antimetabolites of nucleic acid constituents as potential cancerostatics or virostatics led to the synthesis and determination of the mechanism of several highly active compounds, for example, 5-azacytidine and 6-azauridine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current status of clinical investigations with 6-Azauridine, 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, and related derivatives. (rxdrugsinfo.com)