An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Leukopenia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low white blood cell count (less than 4,000 cells per microliter of blood) in peripheral blood, increasing the risk of infection due to decreased immune defense.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
An antischistosomal agent that has become obsolete.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Guanine nucleotides are cyclic or linear molecules that consist of a guanine base, a pentose sugar (ribose in the cyclic form, deoxyribose in the linear form), and one or more phosphate groups, playing crucial roles in signal transduction, protein synthesis, and regulation of enzymatic activities.
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.

Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with membranous glomerulonephritis. (1/943)

A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our department for evaluation of liver dysfunction and proteinuria. A liver biopsy specimen showed ductular proliferation and moderate portal fibrosis indicating stage II primary biliary cirrhosis. A renal biopsy specimen showed mild to moderate mesangial cell proliferation without crescent formation or interstitial nephritis. Immunofluorescent staining revealed deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG), third component of complement (C3), and Clq on glomerular basement membranes. The findings indicated stage I membranous glomerulonephritis. Administration of ursodesoxycholic acid together with prednisolone, azathioprine, and dipyridamole decreased proteinuria and improved cholestatic liver dysfunction.  (+info)

Reduced kidney transplant rejection rate and pharmacoeconomic advantage of mycophenolate mofetil. (2/943)

BACKGROUND: Several multinational controlled clinical trials have shown that triple therapy immunosuppressive regimens which include mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin A (CSA) and steroids (S) are superior compared with conventional regimens which include azathioprine (AZA), CSA and S, mainly because MMF reduces the rate of acute rejection episodes in the first 6 months after kidney transplantation. Post-marketing studies are useful to evaluate the general applicability and costs of MMF-based immunosuppressive regimens. METHODS: Based on the excellent results of the published controlled clinical trials, we have changed the standard triple therapy immunosuppressive protocol (AZA+CSA+S) to an MMF-based regimen (MMF+CSA+S) at our centre. To analyse the impact of this change in regimen, we have monitored 6-month patient and graft survival, rejection rate, serum creatinine and CSA levels, as well as the costs of the immunosuppressive and anti-rejection treatments, in 40 consecutive renal transplant recipients (MMF group) and have compared the data with 40 consecutive patients transplanted immediately prior to the change in regimen (AZA group). RESULTS: Recipient and donor characteristics were similar in the AZA and MMF groups. Patient survival (37/40; 92.5% in the AZA group vs 38/40; 95% in the MMF group), graft survival (36/40 vs 36/40; both 90%) and serum creatinine (137+/-56 vs 139+/-44 micromol/l) after 6 months were not significantly different. However, the rate of acute rejection episodes (defined as a rise in creatinine without other obvious cause and treated at least with pulse steroids) was significantly reduced with MMF from 60 to 20% (P=0.0005). The resulting cost for rejection treatment was lowered 8-fold (from sFr. 2113 to 259 averaged per patient) and the number of transplant biopsies was lowered > 3-fold in the MMF group. The cost for the immunosuppressive therapy was increased 1.5-fold with MMF (from sFr. 5906 to 9231 per patient for the first 6 months). CONCLUSIONS: The change from AZA to MMF resulted in a significant reduction in early rejection episodes, resulting in fewer diagnostic procedures and rehospitalizations. The optimal long-term regimen in terms of patient and pharmacoeconomic benefits remains to be defined.  (+info)

Long-term results of pancreas transplantation under tacrolius immunosuppression. (3/943)

BACKGROUND: The long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in pancreas transplantation has not yet been demonstrated. The observation of prolonged pancreatic graft function under tacrolimus would indicate that any potential islet toxicity is short-lived and clinically insignificant. We report herein the results of pancreas transplantation in patients receiving primary tacrolimus immunosuppression for a minimum of 2 years. METHODS: From July 4, 1994 until April 18, 1996, 60 patients received either simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (n=55), pancreas transplant only (n=4), or pancreas after kidney transplantation (n=1). Baseline immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids without antilymphocyte induction. Azathioprine was used as a third agent in 51 patients and mycophenolate mofetil in 9. Rejection episodes within the first 6 months occurred in 48 (80%) patients and were treated with high-dose corticosteroids. Antilymphocyte antibody was required in eight (13%) patients with steroid-resistant rejection. RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 35.1+/-5.9 months (range: 24.3-45.7 months), 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 33-year graft survival is 88%, 82%, 80%, and 80% (pancreas) and 98%, 96%, 93%, and 91% (kidney), respectively. Six-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient survival is 100%, 98%, 98%, and 96.5%. Mean fasting glucose is 91.6+/-13.8 mg/dl, and mean glycosylated hemoglobin is 5.1+/-0.7% (normal range: 4.3-6.1%). Mean tacrolimus dose is 6.5+/-2.6 mg/day and mean prednisone dose 2.0+/-2.9 mg/day at follow-up. Complete steroid withdrawal was possible in 31 (65%) of the 48 patients with functioning pancreases. CONCLUSIONS: These data show for the first time that tacrolimus is a safe and effective long-term primary agent in pancreas transplantation and provides excellent long-term islet function without evidence of toxicity while permitting steroid withdrawal in the majority of patients.  (+info)

Pediatric renal transplantation under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. (4/943)

BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus has been used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in adult and pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable outcomes. Methods. Between December 14, 1989 and December 31, 1996, 82 pediatric renal transplantations alone were performed under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction anti-lymphocyte antibody therapy. Patients undergoing concomitant or prior liver and/or intestinal transplantation were not included in the analysis. The mean recipient age was 10.6+/-5.2 years (range: 0.7-17.9). Eighteen (22%) cases were repeat transplantations, and 6 (7%) were in patients with panel-reactive antibody levels over 40%. Thirty-four (41%) cases were with living donors, and 48 (59%) were with cadaveric donors. The mean donor age was 27.3+/-14.6 years (range: 0.7-50), and the mean cold ischemia time in the cadaveric cases was 26.5+/-8.8 hr. The mean number of HLA matches and mismatches was 2.8+/-1.2 and 2.9+/-1.3; there were five (6%) O-Ag mismatches. The mean follow-up was 4.0+/-0.2 years. RESULTS: The 1- and 4-year actuarial patient survival was 99% and 94%. The 1- and 4-year actuarial graft survival was 98% and 84%. The mean serum creatinine was 1.1+/-0.5 mg/dl, and the corresponding calculated creatinine clearance was 88+/-25 ml/min/1.73 m2. A total of 66% of successfully transplanted patients were withdrawn from prednisone. In children who were withdrawn from steroids, the mean standard deviation height scores (Z-score) at the time of transplantation and at 1 and 4 years were -2.3+/-2.0, -1.7+/-1.0, and +0.36+/-1.5. Eighty-six percent of successfully transplanted patients were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. The incidence of acute rejection was 44%; between December 1989 and December 1993, it was 63%, and between January 1994 and December 1996, it was 23% (P=0.0003). The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was 5%. The incidence of delayed graft function was 5%, and 2% of patients required dialysis within 1 week of transplantation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus was 13%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 12%. The incidence of early Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 9%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 4%. All of the early PTLD cases were treated successfully with temporary cessation of immunosuppression and institution of antiviral therapy, without patient or graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the short- and medium-term efficacy of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable patient and graft survival, routine achievement of steroid and anti-hypertensive medication withdrawal, gratifying increases in growth, and, with further experience, a decreasing incidence of both rejection and PTLD.  (+info)

Global biventricular dysfunction in patients with asymptomatic coronary artery disease may be caused by myocarditis. (5/943)

BACKGROUND: The causal role of asymptomatic critical coronary artery obstruction in patients presenting with severe global biventricular dysfunction but no evidence of myocardial infarction is uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 291 patients aged >40 years undergoing a noninvasive (2-dimensional echocardiography) and invasive (catheterization, coronary angiography, and biventricular endomyocardial biopsy, 6 to 8 samples/patient) cardiac study because of progressive heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class III or IV) with global biventricular dysfunction and no history of myocardial ischemic events, 7 patients (2.4%; 7 men; mean age, 49+/-6.9 years) had severe coronary artery disease (3 vessels in 4 patients; 2 vessels in 1 patient, proximal occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery in 2 patients). Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and ejection fraction by 2-dimensional echocardiography were 73+/-10.5 mm and 23+/-6.5%, respectively, and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter and ejection fraction were 39+/-7 mm and 29+/-7.2%, respectively. Biopsy specimens showed extensive lymphocytic infiltrates with focal myocytolysis meeting the Dallas criteria for myocarditis in all patients (in 5 patients with and 2 patients without fibrosis). Cardiac autoantibodies were detected with indirect immunofluorescence in the serum of 2 patients with active myocarditis. The 2 patients with active inflammation received prednisone (1 mg. kg-1. d-1 for 4 weeks followed by 0.33 mg. kg-1. d-1 for 5 months) and azathioprine (2 mg. kg-1. d-1 for 5 months) in addition to conventional drug therapy for heart failure. At 8-month overall follow-up, cardiac volume and function improved considerably in immunosuppressed patients but remained unchanged in conventionally treated patients, of whom 1 died. CONCLUSIONS: Global biventricular dysfunction in patients with severe asymptomatic coronary artery disease and no evidence of previous myocardial infarction may be caused by myocarditis. Histologic findings may influence the treatment.  (+info)

Randomised trial of mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine for treatment of chronic active Crohn's disease. (6/943)

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the alimentary tract. Azathioprine is an effective agent in the management of chronic active Crohn's disease leading to long term remission of disease activity. Such treatment leads to limited efficacy or side effects in a small subset of patients. AIMS: To compare efficacy and side effects of treatment with azathioprine plus corticosteroids versus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) plus corticosteroids in patients with chronic active Crohn's disease. METHODS: Seventy patients with chronic active Crohn's disease (Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) greater than 150) were randomised for treatment with azathioprine/cortisone or MMF/cortisone. Corticosteroid dosage was tapered according to a standard protocol. Disease activity was monitored by clinical scores after one, two, three, and six months. RESULTS: Treatment of patients with moderately active (CDAI 150-300) Crohn's disease with MMF/cortisone led to a significant reduction in clinical activity scores comparable to treatment with azathioprine/cortisone. Treatment of patients with highly active Crohn's disease (CDAI greater than 300) with MMF/cortisone caused significant suppression of clinical activity earlier than azathioprine/cortisone treatment. Treatment with MMF/cortisone was associated with few adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Treatment of chronic active Crohn's disease with MMF plus cortisone appears to be effective and well tolerated and should be considered in patients allergic to azathioprine or in whom azathioprine has failed.  (+info)

Intestinal T lymphocytes of different rat strains in immunotoxicity. (7/943)

In order to study the intestinal mucosal immune cells, with emphasis on single T lymphocytes, an inventory was made of single and organized lymphocytes in the epithelium and lamina propria of the small intestines of untreated Wistar, Fischer 344, and Lewis rats. The single and organized lymphocytes were examined microscopically. In addition, the single lymphocytes in the epithelium (IEL) and lamina propria (LPL) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Next, the use of flow cytometry analysis was explored to detect changes in the IEL T-lymphocyte population in subacute oral studies with the immunomodulating agents azathioprine and hexachlorobenzene. Untreated random-bred Wistar rats exhibited a large interindividual variability in IEL composition, while the variability was small in inbred Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. The explorative study with the 2 model immunomodulating compounds demonstrated that hexachlorobenzene increased the number of intraepithelial T lymphocytes with CD8+ phenotype at the cost of T cells with CD4+ phenotype in Lewis rats. Azathioprine did not induce distinct effects on the percentages of IEL. The data indicate that the intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestines are a potential target for orally administered immunomodulating compounds and should therefore receive more attention in toxicologic pathology studies.  (+info)

Bone loss in long-term renal transplantation: histopathology and densitometry analysis. (8/943)

BACKGROUND: There is little information of the spectrum and factors implicated in the bone loss in long-term renal transplantation, and virtually no data using both histomorphometric and densitometric analysis. METHODS: Twenty-three males and 22 females (13 postmenopausal) were studied with a bone biopsy and densitometry. Sixteen patients were on cyclosporine A monotherapy, 20 on azathioprine + prednisolone, and 9 on cyclosporine A + prednisolone or triple therapy. The mean time after transplantation was 127 +/- 70 months. RESULTS: No group had a significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of the axial skeleton compared with an age- and sex-matched normal population. Compared with sex-matched young controls, osteopenia was observed in all groups at the femoral neck (except premenopausal women and triple therapy) and in the triple-therapy group at the L1-L4 spine region. At the distal radius, osteopenia was found in all the groups. Histopathological diagnosis was mixed uremic osteodystrophy in 46.5%, adynamic bone in 23.2%, hyperparathyroid disease in 13.9%, and normal bone in 16.3%. The diagnosis was not different according to immunosuppressive therapy, but men tended to show more mixed uremic bone disease. There was no significant difference in BMD between histopathological subtypes. In general, patients showed slight osteoclast function increase, osteoblast function decrease, and marked retardation of dynamic parameters. The cyclosporine A monotherapy group had a significantly lower appositional rate than azathioprine + prednisolone. Men had a significantly lower bone volume than women, and premenopausal women had a significantly lower mineralizing surface than postmenopausal women and men. In the multivariate analysis, male gender, time after transplantation, old age, and time on dialysis prior to transplantation were significant predictive factors for a negative effect on bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term renal transplant-patients showed reduced BMD in both trabecular and cortical bone. This reduction in BMD was not as severe as in short-term reports and was associated with osteoclast stimulation, osteoblast suppression, and retardation of mineral apposition and bone formation rates. Bone mass loss was not different between the immunosuppression therapy groups. Male gender and age were the strongest predictive factors for low bone mass.  (+info)

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a medication used primarily in the treatment of cancer, specifically acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It is an antimetabolite that works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA and RNA, thereby inhibiting cell division and growth.

6-MP is a prodrug, meaning it requires metabolic activation in the body to exert its therapeutic effects. Once absorbed, 6-MP is converted into several active metabolites, including thioguanine nucleotides (TGN), which are incorporated into DNA and RNA, leading to cytotoxicity and cell death.

Common side effects of 6-MP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of the medication can also lead to liver toxicity, pancreatitis, and anemia. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function tests, and TGN levels is necessary during treatment with 6-MP to minimize potential side effects and ensure safe and effective dosing.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive drug that is primarily used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It works by inhibiting the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which is a key enzyme for the de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides, an essential component for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. By doing this, MPA reduces the activity of the immune system, thereby preventing it from attacking the transplanted organ.

Mycophenolic Acid is available in two forms: as the sodium salt (Mycophenolate Sodium) and as the morpholinoethyl ester (Mycophenolate Mofetil), which is rapidly hydrolyzed to Mycophenolic Acid after oral administration. Common side effects of MPA include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as an increased risk of infections due to its immunosuppressive effects.

Methyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group (-CH3) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, which is often a protein, DNA, or RNA. This transfer of a methyl group can modify the chemical and physical properties of the acceptor molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as gene expression, signal transduction, and DNA repair.

In biochemistry, methyltransferases are classified based on the type of donor molecule they use for the transfer of the methyl group. The most common methyl donor is S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a universal methyl group donor found in many organisms. Methyltransferases that utilize SAM as a cofactor are called SAM-dependent methyltransferases.

Abnormal regulation or function of methyltransferases has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these conditions.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Cyclosporine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, livers, and hearts. Cyclosporine works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce the risk of the body attacking the transplanted organ.

In addition to its use in organ transplantation, cyclosporine may also be used to treat certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It does this by suppressing the overactive immune response that contributes to these conditions.

Cyclosporine is available in capsule, oral solution, and injectable forms. Common side effects of the medication include kidney problems, high blood pressure, tremors, headache, and nausea. Long-term use of cyclosporine can also increase the risk of certain types of cancer and infections.

It is important to note that cyclosporine should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it requires regular monitoring of blood levels and kidney function.

Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic (long-term) disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the liver, leading to inflammation and damage. This results in decreased liver function over time if not treated. The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is unknown, but it is believed to be associated with genetic factors and exposure to certain environmental triggers, such as viral infections or medications.

There are two main types of autoimmune hepatitis:

1. Type 1 (classic) autoimmune hepatitis: This form can affect both adults and children, and it is more common in women than men. People with this type may also have other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, or ulcerative colitis.
2. Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis: This form primarily affects children and young women. It is less common than type 1 and tends to be more severe. People with this type may also have other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease or chronic candidiasis.

Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis can vary widely, from mild to severe. They may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and light-colored stools.

Diagnosis typically involves blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes a liver biopsy to assess the extent of damage. Treatment usually includes medications that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, which can help reduce inflammation and slow or stop liver damage. In some cases, lifestyle changes and supportive care may also be necessary.

Thioguanine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called antimetabolites. It is primarily used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other various types of cancer.

In medical terms, thioguanine is a purine analogue that gets metabolically converted into active thiopurine nucleotides, which then get incorporated into DNA and RNA, thereby interfering with the synthesis of genetic material in cancer cells. This interference leads to inhibition of cell division and growth, ultimately resulting in cell death (apoptosis) of the cancer cells.

It is important to note that thioguanine can also affect normal cells in the body, leading to various side effects. Therefore, it should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Graft rejection is an immune response that occurs when transplanted tissue or organ (the graft) is recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells to attack and destroy the graft. This results in the failure of the transplant and the need for additional medical intervention or another transplant. There are three types of graft rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic. Hyperacute rejection occurs immediately or soon after transplantation due to pre-existing antibodies against the graft. Acute rejection typically occurs within weeks to months post-transplant and is characterized by the infiltration of T-cells into the graft. Chronic rejection, which can occur months to years after transplantation, is a slow and progressive process characterized by fibrosis and tissue damage due to ongoing immune responses against the graft.

Immunosuppression is a state in which the immune system's ability to mount an immune response is reduced, compromised or inhibited. This can be caused by certain medications (such as those used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), diseases (like HIV/AIDS), or genetic disorders. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to infections and cancer development. It's important to note that immunosuppression should not be confused with immunity, which refers to the body's ability to resist and fight off infections and diseases.

Leukopenia is a medical term used to describe an abnormally low white blood cell (WBC) count in the blood. White blood cells are crucial components of the body's immune system, helping to fight infections and diseases. A normal WBC count ranges from 4,500 to 11,000 cells per microliter (μL) of blood in most laboratories. Leukopenia is typically diagnosed when the WBC count falls below 4,500 cells/μL.

There are several types of white blood cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutropenia, a specific type of leukopenia, refers to an abnormally low neutrophil count (less than 1,500 cells/μL). Neutropenia increases the risk of bacterial and fungal infections since neutrophils play a significant role in combating these types of pathogens.

Leukopenia can result from various factors, such as viral infections, certain medications (like chemotherapy or radiation therapy), bone marrow disorders, autoimmune diseases, or congenital conditions affecting white blood cell production. It is essential to identify the underlying cause of leukopenia to provide appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of hormones that naturally occur in the body and are produced by the adrenal gland. It is often used to treat various medical conditions such as inflammation, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Methylprednisolone works by reducing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce symptoms such as swelling, pain, and redness.

Methylprednisolone is available in several forms, including tablets, oral suspension, and injectable solutions. It may be used for short-term or long-term treatment, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite, weight gain, insomnia, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of methylprednisolone can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, cataracts, and adrenal suppression.

It is important to note that methylprednisolone should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on various factors such as the patient's age, weight, medical history, and the condition being treated.

Gastrointestinal agents are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs involved in digestion such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. These agents can have various effects on the GI tract, including:

1. Increasing gastric motility (promoting bowel movements) - laxatives, prokinetics
2. Decreasing gastric motility (reducing bowel movements) - antidiarrheal agents
3. Neutralizing gastric acid - antacids
4. Reducing gastric acid secretion - H2-blockers, proton pump inhibitors
5. Protecting the mucosal lining of the GI tract - sucralfate, misoprostol
6. Relieving symptoms associated with GI disorders such as bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea - antispasmodics, antiemetics

Examples of gastrointestinal agents include:

* Laxatives (e.g., psyllium, docusate)
* Prokinetics (e.g., metoclopramide)
* Antacids (e.g., calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide)
* H2-blockers (e.g., ranitidine, famotidine)
* Proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, lansoprazole)
* Sucralfate
* Misoprostol
* Antispasmodics (e.g., hyoscyamine, dicyclomine)
* Antiemetics (e.g., ondansetron, promethazine)

It is important to note that gastrointestinal agents can have both therapeutic and adverse effects, and their use should be based on a careful evaluation of the patient's condition and medical history.

Mesalamine is an anti-inflammatory drug that is primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It works by reducing inflammation in the intestines, which can help alleviate symptoms like diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

Mesalamine is available in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, suppositories, and enemas. The specific formulation and dosage may vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation in the gut.

The drug's anti-inflammatory effects are thought to be mediated by its ability to inhibit the activity of certain enzymes involved in the inflammatory response, such as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. By reducing inflammation, mesalamine can help promote healing and prevent recurrences of IBD symptoms.

It's important to note that mesalamine may cause side effects, including headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, it may also cause more serious side effects like kidney damage or allergic reactions. Patients should talk to their healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of taking mesalamine.

Antimetabolites are a class of drugs that interfere with the normal metabolic processes of cells, particularly those involved in DNA replication and cell division. They are commonly used as chemotherapeutic agents to treat various types of cancer because many cancer cells divide more rapidly than normal cells. Antimetabolites work by mimicking natural substances needed for cell growth and division, such as nucleotides or amino acids, and getting incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or protein structures, which ultimately leads to the termination of cell division and death of the cancer cells. Examples of antimetabolites include methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and capecitabine.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Aminosalicylic acids are a group of medications that contain a chemical structure related to salicylic acid, which is the active ingredient in aspirin. These medications are primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The most common aminosalicylates used for IBD include mesalamine, sulfasalazine, and olsalazine.

These drugs work by reducing the production of chemicals in the body that cause inflammation in the lining of the intestines. By decreasing inflammation, they can help alleviate symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding associated with IBD. Additionally, aminosalicylates may also have a protective effect on the lining of the intestines, helping to prevent further damage.

Aminosalicylates are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suppositories, and enemas, depending on the specific medication and the location of the inflammation within the digestive tract. While these medications are generally well-tolerated, they can cause side effects such as headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in some individuals. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking aminosalicylates to ensure their safe and effective use.

Cyclosporins are a group of cyclic undecapeptides that have immunosuppressive properties. The most well-known and widely used cyclosporin is cyclosporine A, which is commonly used in organ transplantation to prevent rejection. It works by inhibiting the activation of T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. By suppressing the activity of T-cells, cyclosporine A reduces the risk of an immune response against the transplanted organ.

Cyclosporins are also used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, where they help to reduce inflammation and prevent damage to tissues. Like all immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporins can increase the risk of infection and cancer, so they must be used with caution and under close medical supervision.

Niridazole is an anti-parasitic medication that was previously used to treat infections caused by parasites such as schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever) and loiasis (also known as African eye worm). It works by inhibiting the metabolism of the parasites, leading to their death. However, due to its side effects, including neurotoxicity and potential for causing optic neuritis, it is no longer commonly used in clinical practice.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Sulfasalazine is defined as a medication that is commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine has an anti-inflammatory effect, which helps to reduce inflammation in the gut or joints.

The medication contains two components: sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). The sulfapyridine component is an antibiotic that may help to reduce the number of harmful bacteria in the gut, while the 5-ASA component is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect.

Sulfasalazine works by being broken down into its two components after it is ingested. The 5-ASA component then acts directly on the lining of the gut to reduce inflammation, while the sulfapyridine component is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted in the urine.

Common side effects of sulfasalazine include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, headache, and loss of appetite. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, liver or kidney problems, and blood disorders. It is important to take sulfasalazine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Lupus nephritis is a type of kidney inflammation (nephritis) that can occur in people with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease. In lupus nephritis, the immune system produces abnormal antibodies that attack the tissues of the kidneys, leading to inflammation and damage. The condition can cause a range of symptoms, including proteinuria (protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), hypertension (high blood pressure), and eventually kidney failure if left untreated. Lupus nephritis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to suppress the immune system and control inflammation, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs.

Guanine nucleotides are molecules that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling, cellular regulation, and various biological processes within cells. They consist of a guanine base, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and one or more phosphate groups. The most common guanine nucleotides are GDP (guanosine diphosphate) and GTP (guanosine triphosphate).

GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP and inorganic phosphate by certain enzymes called GTPases, releasing energy that drives various cellular functions such as protein synthesis, signal transduction, vesicle transport, and cell division. On the other hand, GDP can be rephosphorylated back to GTP by nucleotide diphosphate kinases, allowing for the recycling of these molecules within the cell.

In addition to their role in signaling and regulation, guanine nucleotides also serve as building blocks for RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis during transcription, where they pair with cytosine nucleotides via hydrogen bonds to form base pairs in the resulting RNA molecule.

Pulse therapy, in the context of drug treatment, refers to a therapeutic regimen where a medication is administered in large doses for a short period of time, followed by a break or "drug-free" interval before the next dose. This cycle is then repeated at regular intervals. The goal of pulse therapy is to achieve high concentrations of the drug in the body to maximize its therapeutic effect while minimizing overall exposure and potential side effects.

This approach is often used for drugs that have a long half-life or slow clearance, as it allows for periodic "washing out" of the drug from the body. Pulse therapy can also help reduce the risk of developing drug resistance in certain conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. Common examples include pulse methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis and intermittent preventive treatment with anti-malarial drugs.

It is important to note that the use of pulse therapy should be based on a thorough understanding of the drug's pharmacokinetics, therapeutic index, and potential adverse effects. Close monitoring of patients undergoing pulse therapy is essential to ensure safety and efficacy.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Thionucleotides are chemical compounds that are analogs of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In thionucleotides, one or more of the oxygen atoms in the nucleotide's chemical structure is replaced by a sulfur atom. This modification can affect the way the thionucleotide interacts with other molecules, including enzymes that work with nucleotides and nucleic acids.

Thionucleotides are sometimes used in research to study the biochemistry of nucleic acids and their interactions with other molecules. They can also be used as inhibitors of certain enzymes, such as reverse transcriptase, which is an important target for HIV/AIDS therapy. However, thionucleotides are not normally found in natural biological systems and are not themselves components of DNA or RNA.

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant drug that is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs. It works by inhibiting the activity of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the body's immune response. By suppressing the activity of these cells, tacrolimus helps to reduce the risk of an immune response being mounted against the transplanted organ.

Tacrolimus is often used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil, to provide a comprehensive approach to preventing organ rejection. It is available in various forms, including capsules, oral solution, and intravenous injection.

The drug was first approved for use in the United States in 1994 and has since become a widely used immunosuppressant in transplant medicine. Tacrolimus is also being studied as a potential treatment for a variety of other conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.

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Azathioprine Tioguanine "Mercaptopurine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 ... Nørgård B, Pedersen L, Fonager K, Rasmussen SN, Sørensen HT (March 2003). "Azathioprine, mercaptopurine and birth outcome: a ... April 2014). "Pharmacogenetics of azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease: a role for glutathione-S-transferase?". World ... or the related azathioprine) showed a seven-fold incidence of fetal abnormalities as well as a 20-fold increase in miscarriage ...
Thiopurine metabolites (from azathioprine) and a folate level can help. UC may cause high levels of inflammation throughout the ... "Azathioprine Product Information" (PDF). Access FDA. Food and Drug Administration. Dignass AU, Gasche C, Bettenworth D, ... Anemia may be due to a complication of treatment from azathioprine, which can cause low blood counts, or sulfasalazine, which ... Immunosuppressive medications such as azathioprine and biological agents such as infliximab and adalimumab are given only if ...
Maltzman JS, Koretzky GA (April 2003). "Azathioprine: old drug, new actions". J. Clin. Invest. 111 (8): 1122-4. doi:10.1172/ ...
Azathioprine has also been used. Surgical removal of the pericardium, pericardiectomy, may be used in severe cases and where ...
Azathioprine is the main immunosuppressive cytotoxic substance. A prodrug, it is widely used in transplantation to control ...
50% of patients respond to corticosteroid therapy alone in early phases Methotrexate or Azathioprine are an alternative to ... Cyclophosphamide Azathioprine Mycophenolate mofetil "Cerebral Vasculitis". Prime Health Channel. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 1 ...
Joshi R, Singh S (July 2010). "Plica Neuropathica (Plica polonica) Following Azathioprine-induced Pancytopenia". International ...
Colchicine, azathioprine, and NSAIDs have also been used. Garcia-Rodiguez JA, Pattullo A (2013). "Idiopathic granulomatous ...
May 2005). "Azathioprine induced nodular regenerative hyperplasia in IBD patients". Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol. 29 (5): 600-3. ... Some cases are known to be caused by treatment with azathioprine, an immunosuppressant drug commonly used to prevent rejection ... October 2007). "Nodular regenerative hyperplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine". Gut. ...
Azathioprine treatment can also lead to liver damage. However, the risk of infection appears to be about 40% lower in those ... Medications such as methotrexate, chloroquine, or azathioprine may occasionally be used in an effort to decrease the side ... Antimetabolites, also categorized as steroid-sparing agents, such as azathioprine, methotrexate, mycophenolic acid, and ... "Infection risk in sarcoidosis patients treated with methotrexate compared to azathioprine: A retrospective 'target trial' ...
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Corticosteroids or azathioprine may be used for polyarthritis. Stomatitis is very difficult to treat. Antibiotics, ...
This study found that the combination of prednisone, azathioprine, and NAC increased the risk of death and hospitalizations and ... Raghu G, Anstrom KJ, King TE, Lasky JA, Martinez FJ (May 2012). "Prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine for pulmonary ... to reduce the decline in VC and DLCO over 12 months of follow-up when used in combination with prednisone and azathioprine ( ...
Therapy with steroid-free immunosuppressant azathioprine]". Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen ...
These immunosuppressive drugs include methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine or azathioprine. In some cases, combinations ...
... with case reports of methotrexate and azathioprine), infections such as HIV or chronic viral hepatitis or endogenous T cell ... "Rituximab for pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis which developed as a complication of methotrexate and azathioprine therapy ... "Lymphomatoid granulomatosis associated with azathioprine therapy in Crohn disease". BMC Gastroenterology. 14: 127. doi:10.1186/ ...
... azathioprine) that allowed human organ transplantation; the first drug to induce remission of childhood leukemia; pivotal anti- ...
Withdrawal of azathioprine leads to remission in kidney transplant; bacillary peliosis responds to antibiotics. In rare ... Haboubi NY, Ali HH, Whitwell HL, Ackrill P (1988). "Role of endothelial cell injury in the spectrum of azathioprine-induced ... Drugs and toxins: Corticosteroids, androgens, azathioprine, tamoxifen The pathogenesis of peliosis hepatis is unknown. Several ... can be related to azathioprine or cyclosporine use, and may be associated with increased risk of transplant rejection. ...
Calcineurin inhibitors and azathioprine have been linked with post-transplant malignancies and skin cancers in organ transplant ... Azathioprine (Prometheus' Imuran), is the main immunosuppressive cytotoxic substance. It is extensively used to control ... These include: folic acid analogues, such as methotrexate purine analogues, such as azathioprine and mercaptopurine pyrimidine ...
The most commonly used are ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate. Dupilumab is a new medication that improves eczema ...
Roberts RL, Gearry RB, Barclay ML, Kennedy MA (2007). "IMPDH1 promoter mutations in a patient exhibiting azathioprine ...
... because of the structural similarity with the mutagenic azathioprine. The final confirmation of the azathioprine/aildenafil ... who suggested the structure was an azathioprine/aildenafil hybrid. This newly suggested structure was dubbed 'mutaprodenafil' ...
Compared with azathioprine it has higher incidence of diarrhea, and no difference in risk of any of the other side effects in ... Mycophenolate is potent and can, in many contexts, be used in place of the older anti-proliferative azathioprine. It is usually ... Mycophenolic acid is 15 times more expensive than azathioprine. Common adverse drug reactions (≥ 1% of people) include diarrhea ... November 2011). "Mycophenolate versus azathioprine as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis". The New England Journal of ...
Immunosuppressive agents include T-cell inhibitors such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus; antimetabolites such as azathioprine, ...
Another drug a physician may administer is Apo-Azathioprine. Azathioprine, also known by its brand name Imuran, is an ...
Commonly used cytotoxic agents include azathioprine, methotrexate, or cyclophosphamide. The dose of glucocorticoid medication ...
These include: azathioprine and mycophenolate, and ciclosporin and tacrolimus. The indication for kidney transplantation is end ... Some recipients may instead take ciclosporin, sirolimus, or azathioprine. The risk of early rejection of the transplanted ...
azathioprine (Imuran), the first immunosuppressive agent, used for organ transplants. allopurinol (Zyloprim), for gout. ...
Azathioprine can cause birth defects. A 2003 population-based study in Denmark showed that the use of azathioprine and related ... American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (January 2012). "Azathioprine, Azathioprine Sodium". AHFS Drug Information 2012. ... with azathioprine, but the combination with other DMARDs is not recommended. Azathioprine has been used in the management of ... Milk lists azathioprine as "L3", termed "moderately safe". Azathioprine is absorbed from the gut to about 88%. Bioavailability ...
The use of azathioprine tablets in nursing mothers is not recommended. Azathioprine or its metabolites are transferred at low ... Azathioprine tablets should not be given to patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug. Azathioprine tablets should ... Azathioprine tablets can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Azathioprine tabletsshould not be given during ... The father was on long-term azathioprine therapy.16 Benefit versus risk must be weighed carefully before use of azathioprine ...
Thiopurines (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) are likely to be the most effective pharmacotherapy for preventing ... Azathioprine for prevention of postoperative recurrence in Crohns disease Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001 Nov;13(11):1277-9. ... Thiopurines (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) are likely to be the most effective pharmacotherapy for preventing ...
Taking Azathioprine. *Take azathioprine exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these directions, ask your ... Azathioprine and Pregnancy. Use of azathioprine is not recommended during pregnancy. It may cause birth defects if either the ... How Azathioprine Works. Azathioprine is an antimetabolite that reduces inflammation and interferes with the growth of rapidly ... Before taking azathioprine, tell your doctor if you are taking, have taken, or need to take any of the following medicines:. ...
Risk. Risk of environmental impact of azathioprine cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. ... Risk of environmental impact of azathioprine cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. ... Assessment report for Jayempi (azathioprine), 22 April 2021, EMA/303143/2021.. No Environmental Risk Assessment studies were ... Toxicity. It cannot be excluded that azathioprine is toxic, due to the lack of data. ...
Time courses of HEV viral load (A) and infliximab and azathioprine treatment (B) in pregnant woman with chronic hepatitis E who ... Chronic Genotype 3 Hepatitis E in Pregnant Woman Receiving Infliximab and Azathioprine Caroline Charre. , Christophe Ramière, ... Chronic Genotype 3 Hepatitis E in Pregnant Woman Receiving Infliximab and Azathioprine. ...
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... azathioprine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules ... azathioprine oral AZATHIOPRINE - ORAL (AY-za-THYE-oh-preen) COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Imuran WARNING: Azathioprine may rarely ... encoded search term (azathioprine (Azasan%2C Imuran)) and azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran) What to Read Next on Medscape ... You should not become pregnant while using azathioprine. Azathioprine may harm an unborn baby. Ask about reliable forms of ...
Azathioprine did not negatively influence the steroid effect on bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Azathioprine does not seem ... Azathioprine did not negatively influence the steroid effect on bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Azathioprine does not seem ... azathioprine, bone mineral density, corticosteroids, Crohns disease, prednisolone. in Journal of Internal Medicine. volume. ... Bone mineral density in patients with Crohns disease during long-term treatment with azathioprine. *Mark ...
Azathioprine Sentence Examples *. How to take azathioprine The dose has been worked out especially for you. ... Words Related to Azathioprine Related words are words that are directly connected to each other through their meaning, even if ... Liver toxicity Azathioprine, methotrexate, sulphasalazine and leflunomide can all regularly cause liver problems, which are ... Drugs commonly used to suppress the immune system after transplant include prednisone, azathioprine (Imuran ), cyclosporin, ...
IMURAN® (azathioprine) and PURINETHOL® (mercaptopurine) labels have been updated for HSTCL and physicians should discuss the ... IMURAN® (azathioprine) or PURINETHOL® (mercaptopurine) monotherapies are not authorized by Health Canada for the treatment of ... IMURAN (azathioprine) or PURINETHOL (mercaptopurine) - Association with a Type of Blood Cancer - Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma ... Cases of HSTCL (including fatalities) have been reported with IMURAN® (azathioprine) or PURINETHOL® (mercaptopurine), mostly in ...
title = "Relapse of vasculitis, sepsis, or azathioprine allergy?",. keywords = "Allergy, Azathioprine, Infection, Vasculitis", ... Stratton, J. D., & Farrington, K. (1998). Relapse of vasculitis, sepsis, or azathioprine allergy? Nephrology Dialysis ... Relapse of vasculitis, sepsis, or azathioprine allergy? / Stratton, Jon D.; Farrington, Ken. In: Nephrology Dialysis ... Relapse of vasculitis, sepsis, or azathioprine allergy?. In: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 1998 ; Vol. 13, No. 11. pp. ...
... toegevoegd aan prednison en azathioprine zorgt voor meer sterfte bij idiopathische longfibrose in vergelijking met placebo ... Prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine for pulmonary fibrosis.. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinical Research Network ... Dit is de reactie van arts-bioloog Engelbert Valstar: "in de eerste studie is prednison met azathioprine plus NAC - N- ... A combination of prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been widely used as a treatment for idiopathic ...
Azathioprine is a common medication used in the treatment of immune mediated disease. It is a drug to respect and use wisely. ... Because azathioprine can disrupt rapid cell division, it can help treat cancers.. Because azathioprine is a DNA poison, it has ... Because it can take a good month or two before the benefits of azathioprine are seen, it is a good idea to begin azathioprine ... If azathioprine is to be used with allopurinol, the dose of azathioprine must be dramatically reduced. ...
Comparison of azathioprine with mycophenolate mofetil in a living donor kidney transplant programme ... Meier-Kreische HU, Morris JA, Chu AH, Steffen BJ, Gotz VP, Gordon RD, . Mycophenolate mofetil vs azathioprine in a large ... Remuzzi G, Lesti M, Gotti E, Ganeva M, Dimitrov BD, Ene-Iordache B, . Mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine for prevention ... Remuzzi G, Cravedi P, Costantini M, Lesti M, Ganeva M, Gherardi G, . Mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine for prevention ...
OpenSAFELY: The impact of COVID-19 on azathioprine, leflunomide, and methotrexate monitoring, and factors associated with ... OpenSAFELY: The impact of COVID-19 on azathioprine, leflunomide, and methotrexate monitoring, and factors associated with ...
... N Engl J Med. 2011 Nov 17;365(20):1886-95. doi: ... Mycophenolate mofetil was superior to azathioprine in maintaining a renal response to treatment and in preventing relapse in ... A total of 227 patients were randomly assigned to maintenance treatment (116 to mycophenolate mofetil and 111 to azathioprine ... Maintenance therapy, often with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, is required to consolidate remission and prevent relapse ...
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... Catalog No: Product Name: Azathioprine impurity B. CAS No:N/A,,Chemical Formula:C5H4N4S,,7H-purine-6- ... Azathioprine impurity E. Catalog No: Product Name: Azathioprine impurity E. CAS No:N/A,,Chemical Formula:C4H5N3O3,,1-methyl-4- ... Azathioprine impurity F. Catalog No: Product Name: Azathioprine impurity F. CAS No:N/A,,Chemical Formula:C5H4N4O,,1,7-dihydro- ... Azathioprine. Catalog No: Product Name: Azathioprine. CAS No:446-86-6,,Chemical Formula:C9H7N7O2S,,6-[(1-Methyl-4-nitro-1H- ...
... is an immunosuppressant utilized to address conditions related to the immune system. ... Azathioprine 25mg *28 tablets is an immunosuppressant utilized to address conditions related to the immune system. ...
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Azathioprine. Azathioprine (AZA), although a category D medication, can be used if the benefits outweigh the risks. AZA crosses ... Is azathioprine (AZA) safe for pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?. Is rituximab (Rituxan) safe for pregnant women ... What are the guidelines on the use of azathioprine (AZA) by pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)? ...
Azathioprine is a specialty drug on the Reformulary and can be used to treat Rheumatoid Arthritis. Check with your doctor if ...
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  • Drugs commonly used to suppress the immune system after transplant include prednisone, azathioprine (Imuran ), cyclosporin, OKT3 and ALG. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Triton Pharma Inc. and Teva Canada Ltd., in consultation with Health Canada, would like to inform you of the association between the use of purine antagonists IMURAN ® (azathioprine) or PURINETHOL ® (mercaptopurine) and the development of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a rare 1 but serious cancer, mostly in patients where it is used for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (canada.ca)
  • IMURAN ® (azathioprine) is a drug used to treat adult rheumatoid arthritis and help prevent kidney transplant rejection. (canada.ca)
  • Cases of Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma (including fatalities) have been reported in IBD patients treated with IMURAN ® (azathioprine) or PURINETHOL ® (mercaptopurine) monotherapy. (canada.ca)
  • IMURAN ® (azathioprine) and PURINETHOL ® (mercaptopurine) labels have been updated for HSTCL and physicians should discuss the currently available information regarding risks and benefits of these treatments with their patients. (canada.ca)
  • IMURAN ® (azathioprine) or PURINETHOL ® (mercaptopurine) monotherapies are not authorized by Health Canada for the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). (canada.ca)
  • Cases of HSTCL (including fatalities) have been reported with IMURAN ® (azathioprine) or PURINETHOL ® (mercaptopurine), mostly in patients where it is used for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (canada.ca)
  • Azathioprine (brand names include: Azasan / Imuran / Azap) belongs to a group of medicines known as immunosuppressants. (fasterthantheworld.com)
  • Imuran contains azathioprine, which is an immunosuppressant. (canadianoipharmacy.com)
  • Imuran, also known as azathioprine , is an immunosuppressant medication commonly prescribed to prevent organ rejection following a transplant surgery. (houseofmercydesmoines.org)
  • Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive antimetabolite. (nih.gov)
  • Time courses of HEV viral load (A) and infliximab and azathioprine treatment (B) in pregnant woman with chronic hepatitis E who was undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for ulcerative colitis. (cdc.gov)
  • There are conflicting data regarding the comparative efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus azathioprine (AZA) as maintenance immunosuppressive agent in kidney transplantation. (indianjnephrol.org)
  • Azathioprine sodium is an immunosuppressive medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as Purine Analogs. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • Other medicines used in JDM now include cyclosporine, azathioprine , cyclophosphamide and anti-TNF drugs. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Azathioprine is usually prescribed when cyclosporine is either contraindicated or not effective. (clincosm.com)
  • According to the guidelines, the first-line therapy choices for achieving immunosuppression after transplantation are tacrolimus , cyclosporine , mycophenolic acid , azathioprine , sirolimus , everolimus " and corticosteroids . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mycophenolate mofetil was superior to azathioprine in maintaining a renal response to treatment and in preventing relapse in patients with lupus nephritis who had a response to induction therapy. (suny.edu)
  • This trial will be conducted to test the hypothesis that baricitinib 4-mg daily in combination with TCS is superior to azathioprine 1.5-2.5 mg/kg a day in combination with TCS for moderate-to-severe AD at week 12 in terms of efficacy and safety. (clincosm.com)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids may be combined or continued (if they were already in use) with azathioprine, but the combination with other DMARDs is not recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine is in the purine analogue and antimetabolite family of medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic immunosuppression with azathioprine, a purine antimetabolite increases risk of malignancy in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Azathioprine is chemically 6-[(1-methyl-4-nitro- 1H -imidazol-5-yl)thio]- 1H -purine. (nih.gov)
  • Azathioprine Sodium is a medication belonging to the Purine Analogs class and is manufactured by HIKMA PHARMACEUTICALS USA. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • 2. Increased Risk of Infection: As Azathioprine Sodium suppresses the immune system, it can make the individual more susceptible to infections. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • Azathioprine is an immunosuppressant and antimetabolite agent interferes with the formation of lymphocytes, and suppresses prostaglandin synthesis, both of which are implicated in the inflammation associated with eczema. (clincosm.com)
  • Other drugs are frequently prescribed and used together with steroids to improve or maintain the condition including azathioprine and cyclosporin. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Azathioprine may be considered as an alternate therapy option when existing drugs have proven ineffective or are not well tolerated. (harriethealthcare.com)
  • To avoid potential interactions with Azathioprine, inform your doctor about any other drugs, supplements, or herbal remedies you are taking. (harriethealthcare.com)
  • Azathioprine is used to prevent rejections of kidney or liver allografts, usually in conjunction with other therapies including corticosteroids, other immunosuppressants, and local radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD), azathioprine has been used for the management of the signs and symptoms of adult rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a research study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , concurrent use of azathioprine and certain medications can result in increased toxicity and potential harm. (houseofmercydesmoines.org)
  • Azathioprine can relieve symptoms and improve the overall quality of life in people with autoimmune diseases. (harriethealthcare.com)
  • They can do neither in the presence of azathioprine, which means they cannot participate in immune-mediated disease. (vin.com)
  • Azathioprine is typically started once a day and then tapered to every other day use, and is almost always started in conjunction with other immune-suppressive agents. (vin.com)
  • Liver toxicity Azathioprine , methotrexate, sulphasalazine and leflunomide can all regularly cause liver problems, which are reversible if the drug is discontinued. (yourdictionary.com)
  • A second-line treatment, mainly low-dose methotrexate and azathioprine, is indicated in case of corticosteroid resistance, intolerance, or contraindication or more often as a corticosteroid-sparing agent when a prolonged treatment of more than 10 mg/d equivalent prednisone is expected. (medscape.com)
  • Influence of azathioprine on hepatic reserve in chronic active liver disease. (bmj.com)
  • Some patients develop a liver toxicity with azathioprine. (vin.com)
  • While taking this medication, it is important to regularly monitor your blood counts and liver function, as Azathioprine Sodium can affect these parameters. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • 4. Hepatotoxicity: Azathioprine Sodium can cause liver damage, leading to abnormal liver function tests. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • Azathioprine is sometimes used in systemic lupus erythematosus, requiring a maintenance dose of 15 mg or higher of prednisone in those who experience recurrent flares. (wikipedia.org)
  • A widely used therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was azathioprine in combination with prednisone and N-acetylcysteine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients who do not have any problems with azathioprine (and most do not), prednisone can be reduced and possibly even discontinued. (vin.com)
  • Because it can take a good month or two before the benefits of azathioprine are seen, it is a good idea to begin azathioprine in conjunction with an aggressive prednisone course. (vin.com)
  • The prednisone will hopefully control the disease rapidly such that by the time the azathioprine has kicked in the prednisone can be tapered to a maintenance level. (vin.com)
  • Mycophenolate versus azathioprine as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis. (suny.edu)
  • Maintenance therapy, often with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, is required to consolidate remission and prevent relapse after the initial control of lupus nephritis. (suny.edu)
  • We carried out a 36-month, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3 study comparing oral mycophenolate mofetil (2 g per day) and oral azathioprine (2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day), plus placebo in each group, in patients who met response criteria during a 6-month induction trial. (suny.edu)
  • A total of 227 patients were randomly assigned to maintenance treatment (116 to mycophenolate mofetil and 111 to azathioprine). (suny.edu)
  • Observed rates of treatment failure were 16.4% (19 of 116 patients) in the mycophenolate mofetil group and 32.4% (36 of 111) in the azathioprine group. (suny.edu)
  • Serious adverse events occurred in 33.3% of patients in the azathioprine group and in 23.5% of those in the mycophenolate mofetil group (P = 0.11), and the rate of withdrawal due to adverse events was higher with azathioprine than with mycophenolate mofetil (39.6% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.02). (suny.edu)
  • Lower doses of azathioprine are used as a therapy in children with refractory or corticosteroid-dependent Crohn's disease, without causing many side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine is usually given in doses ranging from 1 mg to 6 mg per kilogram of body weight daily. (fasterthantheworld.com)
  • Each uncoated azathioprine tablet intended for oral administration contains 50 mg of azathioprine. (nih.gov)
  • Jayempi has been developed to substitute for approved azathioprine oral tablet products. (janusinfo.se)
  • Azathioprine has been used in the management of moderate to severe chronically active Crohn's disease, to maintain clinical remission (absence of disease activity) in corticosteroid-dependent patients, and to provide benefit in people with fistulizing Crohn's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine treatment is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma, but if this is due to the drug or a predisposition related to Crohn's disease is unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: To ascertain whether patients with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine maintained bone mineral mass better than patients treated with steroids alone. (lu.se)
  • A 2007 Cochrane review found that azathioprine reduced the number of relapses in the first year of treatment and disease progression in the first two to three years and did not find an increase in cancer, and noted the need for direct comparison of azathioprine and interferon beta, conflicting conclusions regarding cancer, and the potential for long-term risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • How to take azathioprine The dose has been worked out especially for you. (yourdictionary.com)
  • 3. Increased Risk of Malignancy: There have been reports of an increased risk of developing lymphoma and other malignancies, particularly in patients receiving long-term high-dose Azathioprine Sodium therapy. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • Azathioprine is such a medication, though it is important to realize that while it is used to mitigate side effects of steroids, it can certainly have adverse side effects of its own. (vin.com)
  • If these occur, especially in the first few weeks of starting azathioprine, discontinue the medication and notify your veterinarian of these effects. (vin.com)
  • As with any medication, there are potential side effects that can occur with azathioprine sodium. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • Keep in mind that Azathioprine Sodium is a prescription medication, and it should only be used as directed by your healthcare provider. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • Fass environmental information for Imurel (azathioprine) from Aspen Nordic (downloaded 2024-02-01). (janusinfo.se)
  • The environmental information for azathioprine is from Aspen Nordic for Imurel. (janusinfo.se)
  • Azathioprine sodium is often prescribed in cases where other treatments have not been successful or in situations where long-term immunosuppression is required. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • The sodium salt of azathioprine is sufficiently soluble to make a 10 mg/mL water solution which is stable for 24 hours at 59° to 77°F (15° to 25°C). Azathioprine is stable in solution at neutral or acid pH but hydrolysis to mercaptopurine occurs in excess sodium hydroxide (0.1N), especially on warming. (nih.gov)
  • They will be able to assess your specific condition and determine if azathioprine sodium is an appropriate treatment option for you. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • To use Azathioprine Sodium, follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider or the directions on the prescription label. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • Do not stop taking Azathioprine Sodium abruptly without discussing it with your doctor, as sudden discontinuation can be harmful. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • Here are some important warnings associated with the use of Azathioprine Sodium: 1. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • Bone Marrow Suppression: Azathioprine Sodium can cause bone marrow suppression, leading to a decrease in the production of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. (qwarkhealth.com)
  • azathioprine decreases effects of adenovirus types 4 and 7 live, oral by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • azathioprine decreases effects of anthrax vaccine by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • Because azathioprine can disrupt rapid cell division, it can help treat cancers. (vin.com)
  • Azathioprine can also promote pancreatitis (pancreatic inflammation). (vin.com)
  • Azathioprine can help reduce inflammation, relieve symptoms, and improve the overall quality of life in people with certain disorders, but it may also have some potential adverse effects that should be monitored by a doctor. (harriethealthcare.com)
  • Azathioprine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Azathioprine did not negatively influence the steroid effect on bone mineral density. (lu.se)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Azathioprine does not seem to affect bone mineral density by itself. (lu.se)
  • One of the main issues with azathioprine is a problem with the bone marrow suppression. (vin.com)
  • Cells of the bone marrow are rapidly dividing and thus at risk for suppression from azathioprine. (vin.com)
  • Concurrent use of allopurinol can present a problem with azathioprine use. (vin.com)
  • Assessment report for Jayempi (azathioprine), 22 April 2021, EMA/303143/2021. (janusinfo.se)
  • Azathioprine is also used to maintain remission in people who have granulomatosis with polyangiitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physicians should inform patients of the risk of malignancy with azathioprine. (nih.gov)
  • Thiopurines (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) are likely to be the most effective pharmacotherapy for preventing postoperative relapse: about four patients need to be treated for 2 years to prevent one clinical relapse. (nih.gov)
  • Risk of environmental impact of azathioprine cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. (janusinfo.se)
  • Azathioprine can be used (off-label) for moderate to severe atopic dermatitis patients. (clincosm.com)
  • Multiple studies have demonstrated that azathioprine might be effective for patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. (clincosm.com)
  • This is not an estimate of the half-life of azathioprine itself, but is the decay rate for all 35 S-containing metabolites of the drug. (nih.gov)
  • Such cases are met with taking azathioprine after meals or transient intravenous administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine can be taken with or without meals, but it's better to stick to your doctor's food restrictions. (harriethealthcare.com)
  • Patients who meet eligibility criteria will randomize (1:1) to receive baricitinib 4 mg daily or azathioprine 1.5-2.5 mg/kg for 12 weeks. (clincosm.com)
  • Azathioprine did not negatively influence the steroid. (lu.se)
  • Azathioprine is well absorbed following oral administration. (nih.gov)
  • Maximum serum radioactivity occurs at 1 to 2 hours after oral 35 S-azathioprine and decays with a half-life of 5 hours. (nih.gov)