An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
An antischistosomal agent that has become obsolete.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons; vehicles for medicinal substances intended for external application; there are four classes: hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base and water-soluble base; several are also emollients.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.

Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with membranous glomerulonephritis. (1/943)

A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our department for evaluation of liver dysfunction and proteinuria. A liver biopsy specimen showed ductular proliferation and moderate portal fibrosis indicating stage II primary biliary cirrhosis. A renal biopsy specimen showed mild to moderate mesangial cell proliferation without crescent formation or interstitial nephritis. Immunofluorescent staining revealed deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG), third component of complement (C3), and Clq on glomerular basement membranes. The findings indicated stage I membranous glomerulonephritis. Administration of ursodesoxycholic acid together with prednisolone, azathioprine, and dipyridamole decreased proteinuria and improved cholestatic liver dysfunction.  (+info)

Reduced kidney transplant rejection rate and pharmacoeconomic advantage of mycophenolate mofetil. (2/943)

BACKGROUND: Several multinational controlled clinical trials have shown that triple therapy immunosuppressive regimens which include mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin A (CSA) and steroids (S) are superior compared with conventional regimens which include azathioprine (AZA), CSA and S, mainly because MMF reduces the rate of acute rejection episodes in the first 6 months after kidney transplantation. Post-marketing studies are useful to evaluate the general applicability and costs of MMF-based immunosuppressive regimens. METHODS: Based on the excellent results of the published controlled clinical trials, we have changed the standard triple therapy immunosuppressive protocol (AZA+CSA+S) to an MMF-based regimen (MMF+CSA+S) at our centre. To analyse the impact of this change in regimen, we have monitored 6-month patient and graft survival, rejection rate, serum creatinine and CSA levels, as well as the costs of the immunosuppressive and anti-rejection treatments, in 40 consecutive renal transplant recipients (MMF group) and have compared the data with 40 consecutive patients transplanted immediately prior to the change in regimen (AZA group). RESULTS: Recipient and donor characteristics were similar in the AZA and MMF groups. Patient survival (37/40; 92.5% in the AZA group vs 38/40; 95% in the MMF group), graft survival (36/40 vs 36/40; both 90%) and serum creatinine (137+/-56 vs 139+/-44 micromol/l) after 6 months were not significantly different. However, the rate of acute rejection episodes (defined as a rise in creatinine without other obvious cause and treated at least with pulse steroids) was significantly reduced with MMF from 60 to 20% (P=0.0005). The resulting cost for rejection treatment was lowered 8-fold (from sFr. 2113 to 259 averaged per patient) and the number of transplant biopsies was lowered > 3-fold in the MMF group. The cost for the immunosuppressive therapy was increased 1.5-fold with MMF (from sFr. 5906 to 9231 per patient for the first 6 months). CONCLUSIONS: The change from AZA to MMF resulted in a significant reduction in early rejection episodes, resulting in fewer diagnostic procedures and rehospitalizations. The optimal long-term regimen in terms of patient and pharmacoeconomic benefits remains to be defined.  (+info)

Long-term results of pancreas transplantation under tacrolius immunosuppression. (3/943)

BACKGROUND: The long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in pancreas transplantation has not yet been demonstrated. The observation of prolonged pancreatic graft function under tacrolimus would indicate that any potential islet toxicity is short-lived and clinically insignificant. We report herein the results of pancreas transplantation in patients receiving primary tacrolimus immunosuppression for a minimum of 2 years. METHODS: From July 4, 1994 until April 18, 1996, 60 patients received either simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (n=55), pancreas transplant only (n=4), or pancreas after kidney transplantation (n=1). Baseline immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids without antilymphocyte induction. Azathioprine was used as a third agent in 51 patients and mycophenolate mofetil in 9. Rejection episodes within the first 6 months occurred in 48 (80%) patients and were treated with high-dose corticosteroids. Antilymphocyte antibody was required in eight (13%) patients with steroid-resistant rejection. RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 35.1+/-5.9 months (range: 24.3-45.7 months), 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 33-year graft survival is 88%, 82%, 80%, and 80% (pancreas) and 98%, 96%, 93%, and 91% (kidney), respectively. Six-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient survival is 100%, 98%, 98%, and 96.5%. Mean fasting glucose is 91.6+/-13.8 mg/dl, and mean glycosylated hemoglobin is 5.1+/-0.7% (normal range: 4.3-6.1%). Mean tacrolimus dose is 6.5+/-2.6 mg/day and mean prednisone dose 2.0+/-2.9 mg/day at follow-up. Complete steroid withdrawal was possible in 31 (65%) of the 48 patients with functioning pancreases. CONCLUSIONS: These data show for the first time that tacrolimus is a safe and effective long-term primary agent in pancreas transplantation and provides excellent long-term islet function without evidence of toxicity while permitting steroid withdrawal in the majority of patients.  (+info)

Pediatric renal transplantation under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. (4/943)

BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus has been used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in adult and pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable outcomes. Methods. Between December 14, 1989 and December 31, 1996, 82 pediatric renal transplantations alone were performed under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction anti-lymphocyte antibody therapy. Patients undergoing concomitant or prior liver and/or intestinal transplantation were not included in the analysis. The mean recipient age was 10.6+/-5.2 years (range: 0.7-17.9). Eighteen (22%) cases were repeat transplantations, and 6 (7%) were in patients with panel-reactive antibody levels over 40%. Thirty-four (41%) cases were with living donors, and 48 (59%) were with cadaveric donors. The mean donor age was 27.3+/-14.6 years (range: 0.7-50), and the mean cold ischemia time in the cadaveric cases was 26.5+/-8.8 hr. The mean number of HLA matches and mismatches was 2.8+/-1.2 and 2.9+/-1.3; there were five (6%) O-Ag mismatches. The mean follow-up was 4.0+/-0.2 years. RESULTS: The 1- and 4-year actuarial patient survival was 99% and 94%. The 1- and 4-year actuarial graft survival was 98% and 84%. The mean serum creatinine was 1.1+/-0.5 mg/dl, and the corresponding calculated creatinine clearance was 88+/-25 ml/min/1.73 m2. A total of 66% of successfully transplanted patients were withdrawn from prednisone. In children who were withdrawn from steroids, the mean standard deviation height scores (Z-score) at the time of transplantation and at 1 and 4 years were -2.3+/-2.0, -1.7+/-1.0, and +0.36+/-1.5. Eighty-six percent of successfully transplanted patients were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. The incidence of acute rejection was 44%; between December 1989 and December 1993, it was 63%, and between January 1994 and December 1996, it was 23% (P=0.0003). The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was 5%. The incidence of delayed graft function was 5%, and 2% of patients required dialysis within 1 week of transplantation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus was 13%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 12%. The incidence of early Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 9%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 4%. All of the early PTLD cases were treated successfully with temporary cessation of immunosuppression and institution of antiviral therapy, without patient or graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the short- and medium-term efficacy of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable patient and graft survival, routine achievement of steroid and anti-hypertensive medication withdrawal, gratifying increases in growth, and, with further experience, a decreasing incidence of both rejection and PTLD.  (+info)

Global biventricular dysfunction in patients with asymptomatic coronary artery disease may be caused by myocarditis. (5/943)

BACKGROUND: The causal role of asymptomatic critical coronary artery obstruction in patients presenting with severe global biventricular dysfunction but no evidence of myocardial infarction is uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 291 patients aged >40 years undergoing a noninvasive (2-dimensional echocardiography) and invasive (catheterization, coronary angiography, and biventricular endomyocardial biopsy, 6 to 8 samples/patient) cardiac study because of progressive heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class III or IV) with global biventricular dysfunction and no history of myocardial ischemic events, 7 patients (2.4%; 7 men; mean age, 49+/-6.9 years) had severe coronary artery disease (3 vessels in 4 patients; 2 vessels in 1 patient, proximal occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery in 2 patients). Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and ejection fraction by 2-dimensional echocardiography were 73+/-10.5 mm and 23+/-6.5%, respectively, and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter and ejection fraction were 39+/-7 mm and 29+/-7.2%, respectively. Biopsy specimens showed extensive lymphocytic infiltrates with focal myocytolysis meeting the Dallas criteria for myocarditis in all patients (in 5 patients with and 2 patients without fibrosis). Cardiac autoantibodies were detected with indirect immunofluorescence in the serum of 2 patients with active myocarditis. The 2 patients with active inflammation received prednisone (1 mg. kg-1. d-1 for 4 weeks followed by 0.33 mg. kg-1. d-1 for 5 months) and azathioprine (2 mg. kg-1. d-1 for 5 months) in addition to conventional drug therapy for heart failure. At 8-month overall follow-up, cardiac volume and function improved considerably in immunosuppressed patients but remained unchanged in conventionally treated patients, of whom 1 died. CONCLUSIONS: Global biventricular dysfunction in patients with severe asymptomatic coronary artery disease and no evidence of previous myocardial infarction may be caused by myocarditis. Histologic findings may influence the treatment.  (+info)

Randomised trial of mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine for treatment of chronic active Crohn's disease. (6/943)

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the alimentary tract. Azathioprine is an effective agent in the management of chronic active Crohn's disease leading to long term remission of disease activity. Such treatment leads to limited efficacy or side effects in a small subset of patients. AIMS: To compare efficacy and side effects of treatment with azathioprine plus corticosteroids versus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) plus corticosteroids in patients with chronic active Crohn's disease. METHODS: Seventy patients with chronic active Crohn's disease (Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) greater than 150) were randomised for treatment with azathioprine/cortisone or MMF/cortisone. Corticosteroid dosage was tapered according to a standard protocol. Disease activity was monitored by clinical scores after one, two, three, and six months. RESULTS: Treatment of patients with moderately active (CDAI 150-300) Crohn's disease with MMF/cortisone led to a significant reduction in clinical activity scores comparable to treatment with azathioprine/cortisone. Treatment of patients with highly active Crohn's disease (CDAI greater than 300) with MMF/cortisone caused significant suppression of clinical activity earlier than azathioprine/cortisone treatment. Treatment with MMF/cortisone was associated with few adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Treatment of chronic active Crohn's disease with MMF plus cortisone appears to be effective and well tolerated and should be considered in patients allergic to azathioprine or in whom azathioprine has failed.  (+info)

Intestinal T lymphocytes of different rat strains in immunotoxicity. (7/943)

In order to study the intestinal mucosal immune cells, with emphasis on single T lymphocytes, an inventory was made of single and organized lymphocytes in the epithelium and lamina propria of the small intestines of untreated Wistar, Fischer 344, and Lewis rats. The single and organized lymphocytes were examined microscopically. In addition, the single lymphocytes in the epithelium (IEL) and lamina propria (LPL) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Next, the use of flow cytometry analysis was explored to detect changes in the IEL T-lymphocyte population in subacute oral studies with the immunomodulating agents azathioprine and hexachlorobenzene. Untreated random-bred Wistar rats exhibited a large interindividual variability in IEL composition, while the variability was small in inbred Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. The explorative study with the 2 model immunomodulating compounds demonstrated that hexachlorobenzene increased the number of intraepithelial T lymphocytes with CD8+ phenotype at the cost of T cells with CD4+ phenotype in Lewis rats. Azathioprine did not induce distinct effects on the percentages of IEL. The data indicate that the intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestines are a potential target for orally administered immunomodulating compounds and should therefore receive more attention in toxicologic pathology studies.  (+info)

Bone loss in long-term renal transplantation: histopathology and densitometry analysis. (8/943)

BACKGROUND: There is little information of the spectrum and factors implicated in the bone loss in long-term renal transplantation, and virtually no data using both histomorphometric and densitometric analysis. METHODS: Twenty-three males and 22 females (13 postmenopausal) were studied with a bone biopsy and densitometry. Sixteen patients were on cyclosporine A monotherapy, 20 on azathioprine + prednisolone, and 9 on cyclosporine A + prednisolone or triple therapy. The mean time after transplantation was 127 +/- 70 months. RESULTS: No group had a significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of the axial skeleton compared with an age- and sex-matched normal population. Compared with sex-matched young controls, osteopenia was observed in all groups at the femoral neck (except premenopausal women and triple therapy) and in the triple-therapy group at the L1-L4 spine region. At the distal radius, osteopenia was found in all the groups. Histopathological diagnosis was mixed uremic osteodystrophy in 46.5%, adynamic bone in 23.2%, hyperparathyroid disease in 13.9%, and normal bone in 16.3%. The diagnosis was not different according to immunosuppressive therapy, but men tended to show more mixed uremic bone disease. There was no significant difference in BMD between histopathological subtypes. In general, patients showed slight osteoclast function increase, osteoblast function decrease, and marked retardation of dynamic parameters. The cyclosporine A monotherapy group had a significantly lower appositional rate than azathioprine + prednisolone. Men had a significantly lower bone volume than women, and premenopausal women had a significantly lower mineralizing surface than postmenopausal women and men. In the multivariate analysis, male gender, time after transplantation, old age, and time on dialysis prior to transplantation were significant predictive factors for a negative effect on bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term renal transplant-patients showed reduced BMD in both trabecular and cortical bone. This reduction in BMD was not as severe as in short-term reports and was associated with osteoclast stimulation, osteoblast suppression, and retardation of mineral apposition and bone formation rates. Bone mass loss was not different between the immunosuppression therapy groups. Male gender and age were the strongest predictive factors for low bone mass.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Azathioprine Therapy in Polymyositis. AU - Benson, Merrill D.. AU - Aldo, Marlene A.. PY - 1973/10. Y1 - 1973/10. N2 - Four patients with polymyositis were treated with azathioprine. Each had been treated initially with prednisone and had become unresponsive or suffered severe complications of steroid therapy. Response to azathioprine therapy, as measured by improvement in muscle strength and decrease in serum enzyme levels, was favorable in all patients. Treatment with azathioprine permitted decrease in prednisone dosage with resultant resolution of steroid side effects. No important complications of azathioprine therapy were encountered. We advocate the use of azathioprine in the treatment of polymyositis.. AB - Four patients with polymyositis were treated with azathioprine. Each had been treated initially with prednisone and had become unresponsive or suffered severe complications of steroid therapy. Response to azathioprine therapy, as measured by improvement in muscle ...
A pilot study comparing hydrocortisone premedication to concomitant azathioprine treatment in preventing loss of response to infliximab.
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Azathioprine has been in use for decades as an immunosuppressant treatment for various autoimmune diseases. It is a prodrug of mercaptopurine, a substance that is subsequently metabolised by several alternative pathways, one of which involves the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT). Some people have deficiency of TPMT because of genetic mutations. This has been widely said to occur in around 3 in 1,000 individuals;1 however, studies in recent years have suggested a prevalence of up to 6 in 1,000.2,3 These people are at great risk of developing severe, potentially life-threatening bone marrow toxicity when treated with conventional doses of azathioprine or mercaptopurine. It is possible to test patients for TPMT activity before starting treatment with these drugs. Here we review the evidence about such testing, and discuss whether it should be used for patients being considered for azathioprine therapy. ...
Multiple sclerosis inteferon pain lidocaine. Muscle or joint pain; nausea azathioprine/imuran joint pain (plus a little update thanks guys. Muscle pain or stiffness. Muscle relaxant - azathioprine 100 mg tabs chords, buy imuran online, it is also used to relieve joint pain and swelling for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. My 50mg dose of imuran is plaguing me with joint pain, muscle pain (maybe) and nausea.. My daughter has experienced growing chest pain and shortness of breath (as the imuran has built up in her system) despite the fact that her chest x-rays, ekg;s; hi everyone, i;m about to start taking imuran for the first time and just wondering dynamo1, i hadn;t heard of the imuran causing joint pain. My hair fell out, i had overwhelming sinus pain, and i caught the cold of the century. My hips are; 16 jun 2017 imuran for treating ulcerative colitis turned out to be full of imuran on top of this i had chills constantly and some stabbing pains in my left side. My husband is currently ...
Azathioprine is well absorbed following oral administration. Maximum serum radioactivity occurs at 1 to 2 hours after oral 35S-azathioprine and decays with a half-life of 5 hours. This is not an estimate of the half-life of azathioprine itself, but is the decay rate for all 35S-containing metabolites of the drug. Because of extensive metabolism, only a fraction of the radioactivity is present as azathioprine. Usual doses produce blood levels of azathioprine, and of mercaptopurine derived from it, which are low (,1 mcg/mL). Blood levels are of little predictive value for therapy since the magnitude and duration of clinical effects correlate with thiopurine nucleotide levels in tissues rather than with plasma drug levels. Azathioprine and mercaptopurine are moderately bound to serum proteins (30%) and are partially dialyzable. (See OVERDOSAGE).. Azathioprine is metabolized to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). Both compounds are rapidly eliminated from blood and are oxidized or methylated in erythrocytes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alternative modes of cyclophosphamide and azathioprine therapy in lupus nephritis. AU - Dinant, H. J.. AU - Decker, J. L.. AU - Klippel, J. H.. AU - Balow, J. E.. AU - Plotz, P. H.. AU - Steinberg, A. D.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - Forty-one patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and glomerulonephritis were studied in a randomized drug trial. Thirteen patients received prednisone only (Group 1), 16 received oral cyclophosphamide and oral azathioprine (1 mg/kg body weight/day of each initially) (Group 2), and 12 were given boluses of intravenous cyclophosphamide (0.5 to 1.0 g/m2 body surface area every 3 months) (Group 3). The mean observation period was 42 months (range 1 to 6.5 years). Renal function deteriorated in four of 12 patients in Group 1 and three of 27 patients in Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.114). By life-table analysis, 86% of the entire group survived 5 years after entry to the study. Marked hypertension, fluctuating changes in serum creatinine, erratic changes in ...
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Malignancy Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including azathioprine, are at increased risk of developing lymphoma and other malignancies, particularly of the skin. Physicians should inform patients of the risk of malignancy with azathioprine. As usual for patients with increased risk for skin cancer, exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet light should be limited by wearing protective clothing and using a sunscreen with a high protection factor. Post-transplant Renal transplant patients are known to have an increased risk of malignancy, predominantly skin cancer and reticulum cell or lymphomatous tumors. The risk of post-transplant lymphomas may be increased in patients who receive aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, including azathioprine. Therefore, immunosuppressive drug therapy should be maintained at the lowest effective levels. Rheumatoid Arthritis Information is available on the risk of malignancy with the use of azathioprine in rheumatoid arthritis (see ADVERSE ...
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While you are being treated with azathioprine, and after you stop treatment with it, do not have any immunizations (vaccines) without your doctors approval. Azathioprine may lower your bodys resistance and the vaccine may not work as well or you might get the infection the vaccine is meant to prevent. In addition, you should not be around other persons living in your household who receive live virus vaccines because there is a chance they could pass the virus on to you. Some examples of live vaccines include measles, mumps, influenza (nasal flu vaccine), poliovirus (oral form), rotavirus, and rubella. Do not get close to them and do not stay in the same room with them for very long. If you have questions about this, talk to your doctor ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Initiating Azathioprine for Crohns Disease. AU - Levesque, Barrett G.. AU - Loftus, Jr, Edward Vincent. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine are therapeutic options for patients with moderate to severe inflammatory Crohns disease. AZA has both a complex metabolism and potential for adverse events that can be clinically challenging. AZA has been shown to maintain remission and reduce corticosteroid use in patients with Crohns disease. There is heterogeneous thiopurine methyltransferase metabolism among patients, which has implications for clinical dosing and risk for adverse events. Routine thiopurine methyltransferase testing before the initiation of AZA will reduce early leukopenia and is mandatory to avoid potentially life-threatening myelotoxicity. Thiopurine metabolite assays may aid in the assessment of adherence and adverse events. Patients who do not respond to AZA therapy may benefit from the addition of biologic therapy or ...
Learn more about Combination Infliximab Plus Azathioprine for Newly Diagnosed Crohns Disease at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Crohns disease is a severe, chronic...
Ive been talking with my nurse practitioner. She really wants me to be on Humira, although my symptoms are currently not too bad. Everything else Ive tried (entocort, pred, asacol)-I had reactions to them. She wants to start me on Imuran for probably six months, then move to Humira. I know Ive read different things on here. Is it true that I should be on the Imuran first to suppress my immune system and have less likelihood of my body developing a resistance to the Humira? Do I need to stay on the Imuran all the while Im on the Humira? She made it sound like I should only be on Imuran for no longer than six months. I know Ive seen people on here that are on Imuran forever and a day and also people on Humira with no Imuran. She also said insurance likely wont approve Humira unless the Imuran is tried first ...
This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work may not be downloaded, copied and distributed to any third party ...
While you are being treated with azathioprine, and after you stop treatment with it, do not have any immunizations (vaccines) without your doctors approval. Azathioprine may lower your bodys resistance and the vaccine may not work as well or you might get the infection the vaccine is meant to prevent. In addition, you should not be around other persons living in your household who receive live virus vaccines because there is a chance they could pass the virus on to you. Some examples of live vaccines include measles, mumps, influenza (nasal flu vaccine), poliovirus (oral form), rotavirus, and rubella. Do not get close to them and do not stay in the same room with them for very long. If you have questions about this, talk to your doctor ...
Crohns disease is characterized by inflammation (the changes that happen when tissues in the body are injured) and ulceration (open sores) of the intestines. Crohns disease is treated with medications that decrease inflammation, and reduce diarrhea, abdominal pain and other symptoms of Crohns disease. In addition, Crohns disease can be treated with medications that suppress the immune system (the body system involved in inflammation and infections) or with surgery. This study will investigate the effectiveness of infliximab and azathioprine in the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe Crohns disease. Infliximab is currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of both Crohns disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Azathioprine, which is an investigational drug, has not been approved by the FDA for the treatment of Crohns disease, but it is a well-established therapy that has been used for many years to treat Crohns disease. This study seeks to determine whether infliximab, azathioprine, or ...
I like to think that Im a good patient. I very rarely forget to take my medication; I always turn up for appointments; I try to enter the consulting room with a positive attitude and clutching a list of questions.. …but Im also a difficult patient. I think its true of any IBD patient that we are difficult because it is likely that on first presentation to our GP our symptoms could have a number of possible explanations. At least more doctors are becoming aware of IBD as an avenue for investigation. It took 8 months for my positive diagnosis of Crohns disease, via nerves and spastic colon along the way.. The difficulty continued. My platelet count dropped dramatically (thrombocytopenia). The most likely explanation? It was the azathioprine. So I stopped the azathioprine, my platelets showed no improvement and I ended up having surgery to remove a stricture.. Azathioprine is known to potentially affect the blood which is why we should have regular blood tests when taking it. Although ...
Manage azathioprine drug-drug interactions. Treatment with probenecid is indicated for this patient. Probenecid promotes renal urate excretion and is efficacious in patients who underexcrete uric acid (documented by a 24-hour urine collection) in the setting of a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). (Its efficacy is limited in patients with significant decreases of estimated GFR.) Probenecid may increase the risk of kidney stones; therefore, patients taking probenecid must hydrate aggressively and may need to alkalinize their urine, and the drug should be used with caution in patients at high risk for stones (for example, a history of stones or tophaceous gout). This patient has frequent gout attacks in the setting of hyperuricemia and requires urate-lowering therapy. In this setting, probenecid would be both effective and compatible with this patients azathioprine treatment for granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Allopurinol and febuxostat each lower serum urate by inhibiting ...
Hi. Angela from Australia here. Was diagnosed with Wegeners Gpa (severe)4 years ago or so. Had cyclophosamide infusions for first 6 mths or so alongwith usual high dose prednisone. Since that initial time have been on Azathioprine 200 mg and varying lower doses alongwith off and on pred. Doctors now realise the Azathioprine hasnt been working. Anca has been going up gradually. And have now prescribed mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg daily which I start on Monday. They have also said I may
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Muscle Relaxant - Azamun (Brand name: imuran) Azathioprine, Aza-q,Azafalk,Azafor,Azahexal,Azaimun,Azamedac,Azamun,Azamune,Azanin,Azapin,Azapress,Azaprin,Azaprine,Azarek,Azarekhexal,Azasan,Azathioprin,Azathioprinum,Azatioprina,Azatrilem,Azopi,Azoran,Colinsan,Immunoprin,Imuger,Imuprin,Imurek,Imurel,Transimune,Zaprine,Zytrim, Imuran belongs to the group of medicines known as immunosuppressive agents. It is used to reduce the bodys natural immunity in patients who receive organ transplants. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. .
Pain Relief - Azathioprinum (Brand name: imuran) Azathioprine, Aza-q,Azafalk,Azafor,Azahexal,Azaimun,Azamedac,Azamun,Azamune,Azanin,Azapin,Azapress,Azaprin,Azaprine,Azarek,Azarekhexal,Azasan,Azathioprin,Azathioprinum,Azatioprina,Azatrilem,Azopi,Azoran,Colinsan,Immunoprin,Imuger,Imuprin,Imurek,Imurel,Transimune,Zaprine,Zytrim, Imuran belongs to the group of medicines known as immunosuppressive agents. It is used to reduce the bodys natural immunity in patients who receive organ transplants. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. .
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Find details on Azathioprine. Medication for dogs including uses, administration, pharmacokinetics, precautions, adverse reactions and more. All information is peer reviewed.
In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effects of royal jelly against azathioprine-induced toxicity in rat. Intraperitoneal administration of azathioprine (50 mg/kgB.W.) induced a significant decrease in RBCs count, Hb concentration, PCV%, WBCs count, differential count and p …
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on factors predicting response to azathioprine and uncertainty regarding the optimal duration of treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The notes of patients attending the Oxford IBD clinic from 1968 to 1999 were reviewed. Remission was defined as no need for oral steroids for at least three months and relapse was defined as active disease requiring steroids. RESULTS: A total of 622 of 2205 patients were treated with azathioprine (272 Crohns disease, 346 ulcerative colitis, and four indeterminate colitis). Mean duration of the initial course of treatment was 634 days. The overall remission rates were 45% for Crohns disease and 58% for ulcerative colitis. For the 424 patients who received more than six months of treatment, remission rates were 64% and 87%, respectively. Factors favouring remission were ulcerative colitis (p=0.0001), lower white blood cell (WBC) or neutrophil count (p=0.0001), higher mean cell volume (p=0.0001), and older age (p=0.05). For Crohns disease,
VANCOUVER, B.C.-Allopurinol can be prescribed safely to treat recurrent gout in renal transplant recipients who are receiving azathioprine.
Introduction Measuring azathioprine or mercaptopurine (AZA) metabolite levels 6-TGN and 6-MMPN allows identification of patients who are: 1. Non compliant with their medication, 2. On a sub-optimal doe, 3. On a supra-therapeutic dose, 4. Are preferentially metabolising azathioprine to methylated metabolites (6-MMPN:6-TGN ratio , 11).. Our own and others published data demonstrate that measuring metabolite levels in patients failing azathioprine therapy followed by appropriate changes in dosing and/or the addition of allopurinol (with 75% dose reduction in AZA) can result in clinical remission in the majority of patients 1. We report the outcome of the routine measurement of metabolite levels in patients treated with AZA who were in a clinical remission without side effects or abnormal liver function tests (LFTs).. ...
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Although there are no standard guidelines for the treatment of autoimmune blistering diseases, azathioprine has shown good efficacy in acquired autoimmune blistering diseases, and is well tolerated. Side effects of azathioprine normally occur in mild variants. Severe reactions are due to reduced thiopurine S
A list of the side effects of Azathioprine (also called Imuran), a medication that is used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
What is Imuran (Azathioprine)? Learn about drug imprint, side effects, uses (treating), dosage, interaction, overdose, and warnings.
Azathioprine is used for: Preventing kidney transplant rejection along with other medicine. It may also be used to treat signs and symptoms of active rheumatoid arthritis. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. Azathioprine is an antimetabolite. It works by decreasing the effects of certain cells in the bodys immune system.
Azathioprine lowers your bodys immune system. The immune system helps your body fight infections. The immune system can also fight or reject a transplanted organ such as a liver or kidney. This is because the immune system treats the new organ as an invader. Azathioprine is used to prevent your body from rejecting a...
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This updated Medicines Q&A examines evidence on the potential risks to the infant when azathioprine is taken by the mother whilst breastfeeding. ...
Belimumab 10 mg/kg IV plus oral azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day; belimumab administered on Days 0, 14, 28, and then every 28 days until the end of the study. If the results in the double-blind period show that belimumab is safe and effective, then participants have the option to continue treatment with belimumab in a 6-month open-label extension phase. Patients who opt to participate in the extension will continue to receive belimumab 10 mg/kg IV every 28 plus oral azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day days for an additional 6 months ...
Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS, Stage 1) of thiopurine-induced pancreatitis, genotyping 55 UK and Dutch cases and comparing these with 5782 previously genotyped population controls. We genotyped cases using Illumina 670-Quad custom and 1M-Duo SNP arrays. In total, 535 753 SNPs passed quality controls in all Stage 1 samples with a further 384 513 SNPs available for 40 of the cases and 4936 of the controls from the UK. 43 SNPs from 32 independent genomic loci showing evidence of association with thiopurine-induced pancreatitis (PGWAS ,10−4) were included in the design of an autoimmune disease genotyping array (Illumina Immunochip) to facilitate follow-up genotyping. Follow-up (Stage 2) genotyping was performed in 13 New Zealand cases and 47 thiopurine-exposed IBD controls and 12 Spanish cases and 352 population controls.. ...
While you are being treated with azathioprine, and after you stop treatment with it, do not have any immunizations (vaccines) without your doctors approval. Azathioprine may lower your bodys resistance and the vaccine may not work as well or you might get the infection the vaccine is meant to prevent. In addition, you should not be around other persons living in your household who receive live virus vaccines because there is a chance they could pass the virus on to you. Some examples of live vaccines include measles, mumps, influenza (nasal flu vaccine), poliovirus (oral form), rotavirus, and rubella. Do not get close to them and do not stay in the same room with them for very long. If you have questions about this, talk to your doctor ...
While you are being treated with azathioprine, and after you stop treatment with it, do not have any immunizations (vaccines) without your doctors approval. Azathioprine may lower your bodys resistance and the vaccine may not work as well or you might get the infection the vaccine is meant to prevent. In addition, you should not be around other persons living in your household who receive live virus vaccines because there is a chance they could pass the virus on to you. Some examples of live vaccines include measles, mumps, influenza (nasal flu vaccine), poliovirus (oral form), rotavirus, and rubella. Do not get close to them and do not stay in the same room with them for very long. If you have questions about this, talk to your doctor ...
While you are being treated with azathioprine, and after you stop treatment with it, do not have any immunizations (vaccines) without your doctors approval. Azathioprine may lower your bodys resistance and the vaccine may not work as well or you might get the infection the vaccine is meant to prevent. In addition, you should not be around other persons living in your household who receive live virus vaccines because there is a chance they could pass the virus on to you. Some examples of live vaccines include measles, mumps, influenza (nasal flu vaccine), poliovirus (oral form), rotavirus, and rubella. Do not get close to them and do not stay in the same room with them for very long. If you have questions about this, talk to your doctor ...
While you are being treated with azathioprine, and after you stop treatment with it, do not have any immunizations (vaccines) without your doctors approval. Azathioprine may lower your bodys resistance and the vaccine may not work as well or you might get the infection the vaccine is meant to prevent. In addition, you should not be around other persons living in your household who receive live virus vaccines because there is a chance they could pass the virus on to you. Some examples of live vaccines include measles, mumps, influenza (nasal flu vaccine), poliovirus (oral form), rotavirus, and rubella. Do not get close to them and do not stay in the same room with them for very long. If you have questions about this, talk to your doctor ...
Azathioprine and mercaptopurine[edit]. Azathioprine (Prometheus' Imuran), is the main immunosuppressive cytotoxic substance. It ... Calcineurin inhibitors and azathioprine have been linked with post-transplant malignancies and skin cancers in organ transplant ...
Azathioprine and 6-MP may be useful for the following indications: Maintenance therapy with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine ... Azathioprine is listed by the United States FDA as a human carcinogen. However, it confers considerably less morbidity and ... Azathioprine treatment may lead to rare but life-threatening side effects. The rare side effects include leukopenia or ... "Azathioprine. Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition" (PDF). ntp.niehs.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-06-17. Hanauer, Stephen B; ...
Azathioprine Tioguanine "Mercaptopurine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 ... Nørgård B, Pedersen L, Fonager K, Rasmussen SN, Sørensen HT (March 2003). "Azathioprine, mercaptopurine and birth outcome: a ... April 2014). "Pharmacogenetics of azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease: a role for glutathione-S-transferase?". World ... or the related azathioprine) showed a seven-fold incidence of fetal abnormalities as well as a 20-fold increase in miscarriage ...
Azathioprine has also been used. Surgical removal of the pericardium, pericardiectomy, may be used in severe cases and where ...
Maltzman JS, Koretzky GA (April 2003). "Azathioprine: old drug, new actions". J. Clin. Invest. 111 (8): 1122-4. doi:10.1172/ ...
Azathioprine M (ny) M (ny) HDAC inhibitor (small molecule) benzamide M344 MC 19 ...
Azathioprine. Purine analogue that inhibits lymphocyte proliferation via conversion to mercaptopurine. PO, IV. D (Au). ... Interstitial lung disease with cyclophosphamide, azathioprine with or without corticosteroids. *Pulmonary arterial hypertension ... Immunosuppressants used in its treatment include azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, intravenous ...
... is a class of prescription drugs in India appearing as an appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 introduced in 1945. These are drugs which cannot be purchased over the counter without the prescription of a qualified doctor.The manufacture and sale of all drugs are covered under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules. It is revised at times based on the advice of the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, part of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization[1] in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The most recent schedule H (2006) lists 536 drugs from abacavir to zuclopenthixol.[2] However, enforcement of Schedule H laws in India is lax, compared to the more restrictive Schedule X, for which a mandatory documentation trail must be maintained.[3] ...
Azathioprine is the main immunosuppressive cytotoxic substance. A prodrug, it is widely used in transplantation to control ...
50% of patients respond to corticosteroid therapy alone in early phases Methotrexate or Azathioprine are an alternative to ... Cyclophosphamide Azathioprine Mycophenolate mofetil "Cerebral Vasculitis". Prime Health Channel. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 1 ...
Following Azathioprine-induced Pancytopenia". International Journal of Trichology. 2 (2): 110-2. doi:10.4103/0974-7753.77523. ...
Colchicine, azathioprine, and NSAIDs have also been used. Garcia-Rodiguez JA, Pattullo A (2013). "Idiopathic granulomatous ...
Feathery degeneration is seen in PBC It can be a complication of azathioprine therapy. Vilgrain, V; Paradis, V; Van Wettere, M ... May 2005). "Azathioprine induced nodular regenerative hyperplasia in IBD patients". Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol. 29 (5): 600-3. ... October 2007). "Nodular regenerative hyperplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine". Gut. ... cytotoxic drugs like azathioprine, mercaptopurine, thioguanine, antiretroviral drugs for HIV like didanosine and vitamin A. ...
Azathioprine treatment can also lead to liver damage. However, the risk of infection appears to be about 40% lower in those ... Medications such as methotrexate, chloroquine, or azathioprine may occasionally be used in an effort to decrease the side ... Antimetabolites, also categorized as steroid-sparing agents, such as azathioprine, methotrexate, mycophenolic acid, and ... "Infection risk in sarcoidosis patients treated with methotrexate compared to azathioprine: A retrospective 'target trial' ...
... azathioprine. Quantum chemical study on the reaction of azathioprine with cysteine". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... Explanation of the mechanism of azathioprine bioactivation by cysteine and glutathione molecules. Characterization of homo- and ...
Corticosteroids or azathioprine may be used for polyarthritis. Stomatitis is very difficult to treat. Antibiotics, ...
This study found that the combination of prednisone, azathioprine, and NAC increased the risk of death and hospitalizations and ... Raghu G, Anstrom KJ, King TE, Lasky JA, Martinez FJ (May 2012). "Prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine for pulmonary ... to reduce the decline in VC and DLCO over 12 months of follow-up when used in combination with prednisone and azathioprine ( ...
Therapy with steroid-free immunosuppressant azathioprine]". Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen ...
These immunosuppressive drugs include methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine or azathioprine. In some cases, combinations ...
... with case reports of methotrexate and azathioprine), infections such as HIV or chronic viral hepatitis or endogenous T cell ... "Rituximab for pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis which developed as a complication of methotrexate and azathioprine therapy ... "Lymphomatoid granulomatosis associated with azathioprine therapy in Crohn disease". BMC Gastroenterology. 14: 127. doi:10.1186/ ...
... azathioprine) that allowed human organ transplantation; the first drug to induce remission of childhood leukemia; pivotal anti- ...
Withdrawal of azathioprine leads to remission in kidney transplant; bacillary peliosis responds to antibiotics. In rare ... Haboubi NY, Ali HH, Whitwell HL, Ackrill P (1988). "Role of endothelial cell injury in the spectrum of azathioprine-induced ... Drugs and toxins: Corticosteroids, androgens, azathioprine, tamoxifen The pathogenesis of peliosis hepatis is unknown. Several ... can be related to azathioprine or cyclosporine use, and may be associated with increased risk of transplant rejection. ...
Calcineurin inhibitors and azathioprine have been linked with post-transplant malignancies and skin cancers in organ transplant ... Azathioprine (Prometheus' Imuran), is the main immunosuppressive cytotoxic substance. It is extensively used to control ... These include: folic acid analogues, such as methotrexate purine analogues, such as azathioprine and mercaptopurine pyrimidine ...
The most commonly used are ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate. Dupilumab is a new medication that improves eczema ...
Roberts RL, Gearry RB, Barclay ML, Kennedy MA (2007). "IMPDH1 promoter mutations in a patient exhibiting azathioprine ...
... because of the structural similarity with the mutagenic azathioprine. The final confirmation of the azathioprine/aildenafil ... who suggested the structure was an azathioprine/aildenafil hybrid. This newly suggested structure was dubbed 'mutaprodenafil' ...
... is 15 times more expensive than azathioprine. The exact role of mycophenolate vs azathioprine has yet to be ... Compared with azathioprine it has higher incidence of diarrhea, and no difference in risk of any of the other side effects. ... Mycophenolate is potent and can, in many contexts, be used in place of the older anti-proliferative azathioprine. It is usually ... November 2011). "Mycophenolate versus azathioprine as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis". The New England Journal of ...
Another drug a physician may administer is Apo-Azathioprine. Azathioprine, also known by its brand name Imuran, is an ...
Commonly used cytotoxic agents include azathioprine, methotrexate, or cyclophosphamide. The dose of glucocorticoid medication ...
Azathioprine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Azathioprine comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day after meals. Take azathioprine at ... Before taking azathioprine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to azathioprine, any other medications, or ... Continue to take azathioprine even if you feel well. Do not stop taking azathioprine without talking to your doctor. ...
Azathioprine is an immunosuppressant medicine used to stop your immune system from attacking parts of your body - get trusted ... Azathioprine (Imuran). Azathioprine is an immunosuppressant medicine used to stop your immune system from attacking parts of ... What is azathioprine used for?. Doctors prescribe azathioprine to reduce the activity of the immune system in autoimmune ... How do I take azathioprine?. *Azathioprine tablets should be taken with or after food. Swallow them with a glass of water. ...
Information for patients and caregivers on Azathioprine (Imuran) such as usages, common dosages, drug interactions and possible ... Azathioprine (Imuran) Azathioprine (Imuran) is a drug used in certain autoimmune conditions (diseases where the bodys natural ... Less often, azathioprine may cause damage to the liver, pancreas, or an allergic reaction that may include a flu-like illness ... Azathioprine is usually taken orally (in doses between 50 - 150 mg), once or divided twice daily. The initial dose for ...
Azathioprine can cause birth defects. A 2003 population-based study in Denmark showed that the use of azathioprine and related ... "Azathioprine". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. "Azathioprine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the ... American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (January 2012). "Azathioprine, Azathioprine Sodium". AHFS Drug Information 2012. ... with azathioprine, but the combination with other DMARDs is not recommended. Azathioprine has been used in the management of ...
Immunosuppression with azathioprine in PSC and MG with progressively increasing high antibody titers is feasible, safe, and ... Successful Low-dose Azathioprine for Myasthenia Gravis Despite Hepatopathy from Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Case Report. ... Cite this: Successful Low-dose Azathioprine for Myasthenia Gravis Despite Hepatopathy from Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A ...
AZATHIOPRINE (ay za THYE oh preen) suppresses the immune system. It is used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant. ... Azathioprine tablets. What is this medicine?. AZATHIOPRINE (ay za THYE oh preen) suppresses the immune system. It is used to ... an unusual or allergic reaction to azathioprine, other medicines, lactose, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
My doc finally put me on azathioprine a month ago (50mg) and... ... I took 50mg azathioprine when I used it in combination with ... Azathioprine/Imuran dosing is weight based. You should have 1.5 - 2.5 mg/kg of body weight. A 120 lb person would have a ... Yes Asacol HD 800mg tablets I take 6 a day at one point I was taking 8 a day but reduced it once I started the azathioprine.. I ... Therapeutic dose of azathioprine for 109 lbs is 75 - 125 mg. I would add rectal meds at a minimum. If your inflammation is ...
The use of azathioprine tablets in nursing mothers is not recommended. Azathioprine or its metabolites are transferred at low ... Azathioprine tablets should not be given to patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug. Azathioprine tablets should ... Azathioprine tablets can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Azathioprine tablets should not be given ... The father was on long-term azathioprine therapy. 16 Benefit versus risk must be weighed carefully before use of azathioprine ...
Azathioprine is chemically 1 H-Purine, 6-[(1-methyl-4-nitro-1 H-imidazol-5-yl)thio]-. The structural formula of azathioprine is ... Azathioprine, USP is insoluble in water, but may be dissolved with addition of one molar equivalent of alkali. Azathioprine, ... The use of azathioprine in nursing mothers is not recommended. Azathioprine or its metabolites are transferred at low levels, ... Azathioprine tablets should not be given to patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug. Azathioprine tablets should ...
Azathioprine may lower your bodys resistance and the vaccine may not work as well or you might get the infection the vaccine ... Using azathioprine after these medicines may increase your risk for unwanted effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions ... Azathioprine can temporarily lower the number of white blood cells in your blood, increasing the chance of getting an infection ... While you are being treated with azathioprine, and after you stop treatment with it, do not have any immunizations (vaccines) ...
Azathioprine is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. In this condition, the bodys defense system (immune system) attacks ... Azathioprine is used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney transplant. It is usually used along with ...
If co-prescription unavoidable: reduce azathioprine dose, monitor blood count. Concomitant use of azathioprine and allopurinol ... When azathioprine is initiated, the prescriber should check that the patient is not taking allopurinol. The patient should be ... Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive agent. It is first metabolised to 6-mercaptopurine, which in turn is converted to inactive ... Allopurinol and azathioprine should not be co-prescribed unless the combination cannot be avoided. Allopurinol interferes with ...
Sweet syndrome: A rare feature of ANCA-associated vasculitis or unusual consequence of azathioprine-induced treatment. Allergy ...
azathioprine a drug that interferes with the growth of T-lymphocytes, the specialized white blood cells which are primarily ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Bactrim Oral and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim-azathioprine- ... 2.Imuran (azathioprine) US prescribing information. Prometheus Laboratories Inc. February, 2014.. *3.Hulme B, Reeves DS. ... Azathioprine; Mercaptopurine/Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as ... Co-trimoxazole and azathioprine: a safe combination. Br Med J 1974 Oct 5;4(5935):15-6. ...
Further Experience with Azathioprine in Rheumatoid Arthritis Br Med J 1971; 4 :463 ... Azathioprine has been shown to reduce the steroid requirements of patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis. Twenty-seven ... There was no evidence that azathioprine prevented radiological deterioration. No deaths occurred and toxic effects always ... Further Experience with Azathioprine in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Br Med J 1971; 4 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.4.5785.463 ( ...
Azathioprine oral tablet is a prescription medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Its also used to keep your immune ... Highlights for azathioprine. *Azathioprine oral tablet is available as brand-name drugs and as a generic drug. Brand names: ... What is azathioprine?. Azathioprine is a prescription medication. It comes in two forms: an oral tablet and an injectable ... Azathioprine may interact with other medications. Azathioprine oral tablet can interact with other medications, vitamins, or ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between azathioprine and mesalamine. View detailed information regarding this drug ... Using azaTHIOprine together with mesalamine may increase the effects of azaTHIOprine. Contact your doctor if you experience ...
Mackay, I.R., Wall, A.J. & Goldstein, G. Response to azathioprine in ulcerative colitis. Digest Dis Sci 11, 536-545 (1966). ... U.S.A.) Inc., for generous supplies of azathioprine (Imuran).. Aided by a grant from The National Health and Medical Research ... were treated with the immunosuppressive drugs 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine, mostly on a long-term basis. Six of the 7 ...
Azathioprine 200mg 1xday nightly; Calcium and Vit D 500mg 3xday, Multi Vit, Folic Acid 400mg 2xday, Prilosec, Probiotics. ... I have been on azathioprine for almost a year now and havent gotten sick at all.. 26y old male medically disharged USAF veteran ... Borody wanted me to go on azathioprine before trying the fecal infusions. The thinking was that I would need to stop taking 5- ... Azathioprine 200mg/day Multivitamin, fish oil, fiber supplement, Natures Way Primadophilus Optima, Digestive Advantage Crohns ...
Find treatment reviews for Azathioprine from other patients. Learn from their experiences about effectiveness, side effects and ... Showing 3 of 15 patient evaluations for Azathioprine Previous page 1 2 3 4 5 Next page ... I developed lymphoma as a result of the azathioprine, but the chances of getting this are greater for the newer medications. I ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Azathioprine Tablets. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and ... For all uses of this medicine (azathioprine tablets): *If you have an allergy to azathioprine or any other part of this ... How is this medicine (Azathioprine Tablets) best taken?. Use this medicine (azathioprine tablets) as ordered by your doctor. ... What are some things I need to know or do while I take Azathioprine Tablets?. *Tell all of your health care providers that you ...
If your child has an allergy to azathioprine or any other part of this drug. ...
... was superior to azathioprine in preventing renal relapse among patients with lupus, an international phase III tri ... One patient in the azathioprine group died following a car accident and one in that group developed uterine carcinoma in situ. ... Source Reference: Dooley M, et al "Mycophenolate versus azathioprine as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis" N Engl J Med ... Rates of treatment failure were 32.4% in the azathioprine group and 16.4% in the mycophenolate mofetil group, while renal ...
Hints: Click on a [map] link to show a map of that region. Click on a [studies] link to search within your current results for studies in that region. Use the back button to return to this list and try another region. Studies with no locations are not included in the counts or on the map. Studies with multiple locations are included in each region containing locations ...
... azathioprine) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... Azathioprine is chemically 1H-purine, 6-[(1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl)thio]-. The structural formula of azathioprine is: ... AZASAN® (azathioprine) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. AZASAN® (azathioprine) should not be given ... Patients receiving AZASAN® (azathioprine) and allopurinol concomitantly should have a dose reduction of AZASAN® (azathioprine ...
... methotrexate and azathioprine have similar toxicity and efficacy as a maintenance therapy, investigators here concluded ... Oral azathioprine or methotrexate are most often used for maintenance. But the two agents had not been compared for safety and ... Grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in five azathioprine recipients and 11 in the methotrexate group (P=0.11). The authors ... A total of 44 patients relapsed, 23 assigned to azathioprine and 21 assigned to methotrexate (P=0.71). Three-fourths of the ...
Azathioprine injection is used to prevent rejection of a transplanted kidney. It belongs to the group of medicines known as ... Azathioprine will lower the bodys natural immunity in patients who receive transplants to prevent rejection of the new kidney ...
Azathioprine is used to treat inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and as an immunosuppressant in the prevention ... Azathioprine is a prodrug of 6-mercaptopurine, first synthesized in 1956 by Gertrude Elion, William Lange, and George Hitchings ... Oral azathioprine is well absorbed, with a Tmax of 1-2h.12 Further data regarding the absorption of azathioprine is not readily ... Azathioprine. Accession Number. DB00993 (APRD00811) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Approved. Description. Azathioprine is a ...
Nomination Summary for Nomination Summary for Azathioprine (N86319). Nomination Summary for Azathioprine (N86319). Nominated ...
  • Azathioprine (Imuran) is a drug used in certain autoimmune conditions (diseases where the body's natural defense system attacks itself). (rheumatology.org)
  • Azathioprine (AZA), sold under the brand name Imuran, among others, is an immunosuppressive medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine/Imuran dosing is weight based. (healingwell.com)
  • 2.Imuran (azathioprine) US prescribing information. (webmd.com)
  • Azathioprine oral tablet is available as the brand-name drugs Imuran and Azasan . (healthline.com)
  • What is azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran)? (rxlist.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran)? (rxlist.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran)? (rxlist.com)
  • How should I take azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran)? (rxlist.com)
  • Imuran (azathioprine) is a type of immunosuppressive antimetabolite drug. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Rituximab (Rituxan) is superior to azathioprine (Imuran) for preventing ANCA-associated vasculitis relapses in patients with histories of previous relapses. (mdedge.com)
  • Polack, F.M.: Inhibition of Immune Corneal Graft Rejection by Azathioprine (Imuran) , Arch Ophthal 74:683-689 ( (Nov) ) 1965.Crossref 4. (deepdyve.com)
  • If you are taking azathioprine to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may start you on a low dose and gradually increase your dose after 6-8 weeks and then not more than once every 4 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Azathioprine controls rheumatoid arthritis but does not cure it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Being a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD), azathioprine has been used for the management of the signs and symptoms of adult rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine has been shown to reduce the steroid requirements of patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis. (bmj.com)
  • Azathioprine oral tablet is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and to keep your immune system from attacking a new kidney after a transplant. (healthline.com)
  • Azathioprine is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) . (healthline.com)
  • AZASAN® (azathioprine) is indicated for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to reduce signs and symptoms. (rxlist.com)
  • Azathioprine is indicated to treat rheumatoid arthritis and prevent renal transplant rejection. (drugbank.ca)
  • You should not use azathioprine to treat rheumatoid arthritis if you are pregnant. (rxlist.com)
  • For rheumatoid arthritis, azathioprine is taken on a daily basis. (rxlist.com)
  • Azathioprine is a purine antimetabolite that is FDA approved for the treatment of renal homo transplantation , rheumatoid arthritis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Some vets may prescribe Azathioprine to treat certain kidney diseases, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other conditions. (vetdepot.com)
  • Azathioprine prevents rejection of kidney transplant and reduces the inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis by suppressing the body's natural defense, or immune system. (canada.com)
  • For treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, azathioprine is usually given at a dose of approximately 1 mg per kilogram of body weight (50 mg to 100 mg) per day by mouth, in a single daily dose or on a twice-daily schedule. (canada.com)
  • To compare the effects of azathioprine and methotrexate on progression of radiologic damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (annals.org)
  • Patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with low-dose methotrexate showed significantly less radiologic progression than patients treated with azathioprine. (annals.org)
  • The most common side effects of azathioprine can involve the gastrointestinal tract (which includes the stomach, intestines, liver, and pancreas) and the blood cells. (rheumatology.org)
  • Using azaTHIOprine together with mesalamine may increase the effects of azaTHIOprine. (drugs.com)
  • What are the side effects of azathioprine? (eczema.org)
  • this lack may protect the fetus from the potential teratogenic effects of azathioprine. (medscape.com)
  • Side effects of azathioprine normally occur in mild variants. (pemphigus.org)
  • The negative effects of azathioprine on the viability of hepatocytes were prevented by cotreatment with N -acetyl- l -cysteine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The most common side-effects of azathioprine are myelosuppression and hepatotoxicity. (gpnotebook.com)
  • If you have had a kidney transplant, there may be a higher risk that you will develop cancer even if you do not take azathioprine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take azathioprine at around the same time(s) every day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take azathioprine exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How do I take azathioprine? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The dose prescribed and how often to take azathioprine depends on the condition being treated and its severity. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • If you can't take azathioprine by mouth for any reason your treatment may need to be given by injection or drip into a vein. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • It is important to take azathioprine as directed and have regular blood tests. (rheumatology.org)
  • What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Azathioprine Tablets? (drugs.com)
  • What are some things I need to know or do while I take Azathioprine Tablets? (drugs.com)
  • Take azathioprine with food to lessen stomach upset. (wellspan.org)
  • My doc finally put me on azathioprine a month ago (50mg) and I tapered off the steroids and I was doing well for about 2 weeks then started flaring again. (healingwell.com)
  • Anyone here have any success with only 50mg azathioprine along with a mesalamine. (healingwell.com)
  • AZASAN® (azathioprine) is indicated as an adjunct for the prevention of rejection in renal homotransplantation. (rxlist.com)
  • The use of AZASAN® (azathioprine) with these agents cannot be recommended. (rxlist.com)
  • Patients with low or absent TPMT activity are at an increased risk of developing severe, lifethreatening myelotoxicity from AZASAN® (azathioprine) if conventional doses are given. (rxlist.com)
  • AZASAN® (azathioprine) should be administered with caution to patients having one non-functional allele ( heterozygous ) who are at risk for reduced TPMT activity that may lead to toxicity if conventional doses are given. (rxlist.com)
  • AZASAN® (azathioprine) is usually given as a single daily dose on the day of, and in a minority of cases 1 to 3 days before, transplantation. (rxlist.com)
  • AZASAN® (azathioprine) is often initiated with the intravenous administration of the sodium salt, with subsequent use of tablets (at the same dose level) after the postoperative period. (rxlist.com)
  • The dose of AZASAN® (azathioprine) should not be increased to toxic levels because of threatened rejection. (rxlist.com)
  • Azathioprine is often used in combination with other immunosuppressants, including corticosteroids. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Azathioprine is used to prevent rejections of kidney or liver allografts, usually in conjunction with other therapies including corticosteroids, other immunosuppressants, and local radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine is an immunosuppressant medicine used to stop your immune system from attacking parts of your body - read on for advice on its use and possible side effects. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Azathioprine is an immunosuppressant drug that is also known as an antimetabolite. (eczema.org)
  • This review evaluates all clinical data on the immunosuppressant azathioprine in relation to PBC. (cochrane.org)
  • Azathioprine is an immunosuppressant drug widely used. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Azathioprine has been in use for decades as an immunosuppressant treatment for various autoimmune diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Certain immunosuppressant drugs, namely azathioprine and calcineurin inhibitors, increase this risk more than others. (eur.nl)
  • Azathioprine is in the purine analogue and antimetabolite family of medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic immunosuppression with azathioprine, a purine antimetabolite increases risk of malignancy in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Azathioprine tablets USP, an immunosuppressive antimetabolite, is available in tablet form for oral administration. (nih.gov)
  • Azathioprine (AZA) is a cytotoxic antimetabolite that is used to inhibit purine synthesis, which is especially important for leukocytes and lymphocytes. (motherisk.org)
  • Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive antimetabolite. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Azathioprine is an antineoplastic antimetabolite drug currently used as an immunosuppressive agent after organ transplantation and for several dysimmunitary diseases. (ijpc.com)
  • Topical Azathioprine ELLIOTT, JAMES H.;LEIBOWITZ, HOWARD M. 1966-11-01 00:00:00 Abstract Parenteral administration of the purine antimetabolite azathioprine has been shown to be capable of suppressing experimental corneal graft reactions.1,2 However, the potential toxicity of this agent has thus far prevented its routine use in healthy human subjects with scarred, vascularized corneas, who require penetrating keratoplasty for visual restoration. (deepdyve.com)
  • Azathioprine-Allopurinol Interaction: Danger! (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Allopurinol and azathioprine should not be co-prescribed unless the combination cannot be avoided. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Allopurinol interferes with the metabolism of azathioprine, increasing plasma levels of 6-mercaptopurine which may result in potentially fatal blood dyscrasias. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • The March 1998 meeting of the Medicines Adverse Reactions Committee reviewed a report of an interaction between azathioprine and allopurinol. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • The patient, who had been taking azathioprine for many years, presented with pancytopenia 2 months after commencing therapy with allopurinol. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Concomitant use of azathioprine and allopurinol should be avoided if possible. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • When azathioprine is initiated, the prescriber should check that the patient is not taking allopurinol. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • The patient should be warned that azathioprine interacts with allopurinol, a treatment for gout. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Concurrent use of allopurinol can present a problem with azathioprine use. (marvistavet.com)
  • If azathioprine is to be used with allopurinol, the dose of azathioprine must be dramatically reduced. (marvistavet.com)
  • The state is allopurinol bad for the kidneys of azathioprine and allopurinol together diabetes medicines may need a behavioral health treatment facilities. (rielo.com)
  • In this context, the use of antiviral drugs as an adjunct to diet and exercise more before, during, and after azathioprine and allopurinol together a few quick action steps that state has a new molecular entity that contains the most recent national estimates and selected urban-area estimates of TV watching and computer use outside of active transmission in Brownsville. (rielo.com)
  • NYSE:PFE) today announced the discovery of the U. Cervical cancer screening program, and modRNA candidate BNT162b2 (including qualitative assessments of mosquito populations and have CMS approve it before the committees azathioprine and allopurinol together. (rielo.com)
  • Medi-Cal overhaul azathioprine and allopurinol together earlier this month. (rielo.com)
  • Today, CDC posted azathioprine and allopurinol together a map of the disease. (rielo.com)
  • VANCOUVER, B.C.-Allopurinol can be prescribed safely to treat recurrent gout in renal transplant recipients who are receiving azathioprine, British researchers reported. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Patients already receiving azathioprine for immunosuppression are frequently denied definitive treatment with allopurinol because of the potentially life-threatening interaction between the two agents, they explained. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Natalie Borman, MBBCh, MRCP, and collaborators at Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust in Portsmouth, Hampshire, U.K., identified 12 renal transplant recipients who received allopurinol in addition to azathioprine at a 75% reduced dose. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Allopurinol was later reintroduced with an additional 50% decrease in azathioprine dose and the treatment was tolerated. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Another patient briefly stopped azathioprine because of a reduction in white cell count but remained on allopurinol, the researchers related. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • With appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment, the combined use of allopurinol and azathioprine is safe and effective in renal transplant recipients suffering from recurrent gout, Dr. Borman's group concluded. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • They recommended that the azathioprine dose be reduced by 75% prior to the introduction of allopurinol. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • A popular strategy to improve its outcomes recommends the use of low dose azathioprine with allopurinol co-therapy (LDAA) for patients profiled as "hypermethylators" (30% of non-responders). (bmj.com)
  • The dose of azathioprine should be reduced if allopurinol is prescribed simultaneously. (gpnotebook.com)
  • Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) versus azathioprine (AZA) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease. (bmj.com)
  • Azathioprine tablets should be taken with or after food . (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Physicians should inform patients of the risk of malignancy with azathioprine tablets. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphoma and other cancers have happened in people who take this medicine (azathioprine tablets) or drugs like it. (drugs.com)
  • A rare type of cancer called hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) has happened with this medicine (azathioprine tablets). (drugs.com)
  • Most of these patients were using this medicine (azathioprine tablets) to treat certain types of bowel problems like Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. (drugs.com)
  • If you have an allergy to azathioprine or any other part of this medicine (azathioprine tablets). (drugs.com)
  • Do not take this medicine (azathioprine tablets) if you are pregnant. (drugs.com)
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this medicine (azathioprine tablets). (drugs.com)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this medicine (azathioprine tablets) with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take this medicine (azathioprine tablets). (drugs.com)
  • You may need to have your skin checked while you take this medicine (azathioprine tablets). (drugs.com)
  • Use of some vaccines with this medicine (azathioprine tablets) may either raise the chance of an infection or make the vaccine not work as well. (drugs.com)
  • You may need to have your blood work checked more closely while you are taking it with this medicine (azathioprine tablets). (drugs.com)
  • Use birth control that you can trust to prevent pregnancy while taking this medicine (azathioprine tablets). (drugs.com)
  • If you are pregnant or you get pregnant while taking this medicine (azathioprine tablets), call your doctor right away. (drugs.com)
  • How is this medicine (Azathioprine Tablets) best taken? (drugs.com)
  • Use this medicine (azathioprine tablets) as ordered by your doctor. (drugs.com)
  • Keep taking this medicine (azathioprine tablets) as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well. (drugs.com)
  • Azathioprine is available as 25 mg and 50 mg tablets. (eczema.org)
  • Certain tablets increase the risk of side effects with azathioprine and should therefore be avoided. (eczema.org)
  • If any new tablets are considered, it is important to let the doctor know you are taking azathioprine. (eczema.org)
  • Azathioprine tablets are indicated as an adjunct for the prevention of rejection in renal homo transplantation . (wikidoc.org)
  • Aspirin , non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or low dose glucocorticoids may be continued during treatment with azathioprine tablets. (wikidoc.org)
  • Azathioprine tablets are usually given on a daily basis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Azathioprine tablets may be continued long-term in patients with clinical response, but patients should be monitored carefully, and gradual dosage reduction should be attempted to reduce risk of toxicities. (wikidoc.org)
  • The optimum duration of maintenance azathioprine tablets has not been determined. (wikidoc.org)
  • Azathioprine tablets can be discontinued abruptly, but delayed effects are possible. (wikidoc.org)
  • Azathioprine 50 mg, 100 Tablets is a prescription medication used to treat autoimmune diseases in dogs and cats. (vetdepot.com)
  • Azathioprine tablets should be protected from light exposure. (marvistavet.com)
  • Each scored tablet contains 50 mg azathioprine, USP and the inactive ingredients corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, povidone, and stearic acid. (nih.gov)
  • The sodium salt of azathioprine is sufficiently soluble to make a 10 mg/mL water solution which is stable for 24 hours at 59° to 77°F (15° to 25°C). Azathioprine is stable in solution at neutral or acid pH but hydrolysis to mercaptopurine occurs in excess sodium hydroxide (0.1N), especially on warming. (nih.gov)
  • Azathioprine and mercaptopurine are moderately bound to serum proteins (30%) and are partially dialyzable. (nih.gov)
  • Azathioprine is metabolized to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). (nih.gov)
  • no azathioprine or mercaptopurine is detectable in urine after 8 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Azathioprine, USP is stable in solution at neutral or acid pH but hydrolysis to mercaptopurine occurs in excess sodium hydroxide (0.1N), especially on warming. (nih.gov)
  • Azathioprine is a prodrug of 6-mercaptopurine, first synthesized in 1956 by Gertrude Elion, William Lange, and George Hitchings in an attempt to produce a derivative of 6-mercaptopurine with a better therapeutic index. (drugbank.ca)
  • 2 , 3 These people are at great risk of developing severe, potentially life-threatening bone marrow toxicity when treated with conventional doses of azathioprine or mercaptopurine. (bmj.com)
  • Introduction Acute pancreatitis occurs in around 2% of inflammatory bowel disease patients exposed to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and is an important limiting toxicity of these thiopurine antimetabolites. (bmj.com)
  • Azathioprine is a mercaptopurine derivative which has cytotoxic and immunosuppressive effects. (gpnotebook.com)
  • Azathioprine is metabolised to mercaptopurine and then to thioinosinate which interferes with purine metabolism. (gpnotebook.com)
  • Teratogen update: azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Assay of 6-thioguanine nucleotide, a major metabolite of azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine, in human red blood cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Serum azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine levels and immunosuppressive activity after azathioprine in uremic patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Quantitation of plasma azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine levels in renal transplant patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Assay of azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and a novel thiopurine metabolite in human plasma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic studies of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in the rhesus monkey. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are the most commonly used immunosuppressants for maintenance therapy of Crohn's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Cochrane systematic review that included 13 randomized controlled trials, concluded that azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are not effective for inducing remission when a person has Crohn's Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine and 6-MP may be useful for the following indications: Maintenance therapy with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine may lead people with active Crohn's to take less steroid medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • There may also be an increased risk of lymphoma that is associated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • PARIS, Dec. 26 -- For patients with Wegener's granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis, methotrexate and azathioprine have similar toxicity and efficacy as a maintenance therapy, investigators here concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The objective of this Trial is to compare leflunomide (LEF) and azathioprine (AZA), in terms of efficacy and toxicity, as remission-maintaining treatment of proliferative lupus glomerulonephritis, after a remission-inducing therapy with a short-course IV CYC regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some patients develop a liver toxicity with azathioprine. (marvistavet.com)
  • Azathioprine discontinuation may be necessary for severe hematologic or other toxicity even if rejection of the homograft may be a consequence of drug withdrawal. (pdr.net)
  • thereafter, immunosuppression was maintained by topical corticosteriods.3 This report deals with another attempt to avoid the toxicity associated with systemic azathioprine administration. (deepdyve.com)
  • Pharmacogenetics of acute azathioprine toxicity: relationship to thiopurine methyltransferase genetic polymorphism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Explain that maintenance therapy with the immunosuppressive agent mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept) was superior to azathioprine in preventing treatment failure among patients with lupus nephritis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Maintenance therapy with the immunosuppressive agent mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept) was superior to azathioprine in preventing renal relapse among patients with lupus, an international phase III trial showed. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Compared with patients randomized to azathioprine, those receiving mycophenolate mofetil had a hazard ratio for treatment failure of 0.44 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.77, P =0.003), according to Mary Anne Dooley, MD, of the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, and colleagues. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Participants had active lupus nephritis at baseline, and those that responded to 24 weeks of induction therapy with oral mycophenolate or intravenous cyclophosphamide were assigned to receive maintenance therapy with either mycophenolate (1 g twice daily) or azathioprine (2 mg/kg/day). (medpagetoday.com)
  • Rates of treatment failure were 32.4% in the azathioprine group and 16.4% in the mycophenolate mofetil group, while renal failure rates were 23.4% and 12.9%, respectively. (medpagetoday.com)
  • On a secondary endpoint that defined treatment failure more broadly to include other events such as an extrarenal lupus flare or study withdrawal, mycophenolate again was superior, with a failure rate of 42.2% compared with 56.8% of the azathioprine group (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.97, P =0.03). (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, many patients continued to improve throughout the 36 months of the continuation phase, with 62.1% and 59.5% of those in the mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine groups, respectively, eventually achieving complete remission. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has surpassed azathioprine as therapy to prevent organ transplant rejection and is sometimes used as an alternative option for autoimmune hepatitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Background Long-term immunosuppressive treatment does not efficiently prevent relapses of lupus nephritis (LN). This investigator-initiated randomised trial tested whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was superior to azathioprine (AZA) as maintenance treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Skin photosensitivity to UVA and UVB was measured in 48 kidney transplant patients immunosuppressed either by azathioprine (n = 32) or mycophenolate (n = 16). (ovid.com)
  • In 23 patients, azathioprine was subsequently replaced by mycophenolate and skin photosensitivity, DNA 6-TG content in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and susceptibility to UVA-induced DNA damage were monitored for up to 2 years. (ovid.com)
  • The mean minimal erythema dose to UVA on azathioprine was twofold lower than on mycophenolate. (ovid.com)
  • Three months after replacing azathioprine by mycophenolate mofetil, the minimal erythema dose to UVA had increased from 15 to 25 J/cm2 (p (ovid.com)
  • Switching kidney transplant recipients from azathioprine to mycophenolate mofetil normalizes the photosensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet light A and potentially reduces skin cancer. (ovid.com)
  • Controlled trial of azathioprine in treatment of steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome of childhood. (bmj.com)
  • The present report details the clinical and immunological features of a 53 year old Asian female who developed symptoms and signs of oesophageal PV during therapy with azathioprine and decreasing prednisolone dosage. (pemphigus.org)
  • Alternative therapy with azathioprine can result in marked improvement. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, screening for TPMT activity should be conducted in white patients and Africans, whereas Japanese should be screened for ITPA activity before therapy with azathioprine is started. (pemphigus.org)
  • Prophylactic therapy with azathioprine (AZA) has been shown efficacious, but it is unknown whether it should be started immediately after surgery in all patients. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • Explain to patients that this study showed that the drugs methotrexate and azathioprine are equally toxic and equally effective as maintenance therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Some teenage and young adult males who took azathioprine alone or with another medication called a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocker to treat Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the lining of the digestive tract causing pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fever) or ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in the lining of the colon [large intestine] and rectum) developed hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Azathioprine is a prescription medication. (healthline.com)
  • Azathioprine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (rxlist.com)
  • Do not use azathioprine if you are allergic to azathioprine or any ingredients of the medication. (canada.com)
  • Azathioprine is such a medication, though it is important to realize that while it is used to mitigate steroid side effects, it can certainly have adverse side effects of its own. (marvistavet.com)
  • If these occur, especially in the first few weeks of starting azathioprine, discontinue the medication and notify your veterinarian of these effects. (marvistavet.com)
  • The study reviewed the effects that Infliximab (an anti-tumor necrosis factor medication) and azathioprine (suppresses immune system) have against the disease. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Azathioprine is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system) in people who received kidney transplants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are taking azathioprine to prevent kidney transplant rejection, your doctor may start you on a high dose and decrease your dose gradually as your body adjusts to the transplant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Azathioprine injection is used to prevent rejection of a transplanted kidney. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Azathioprine will lower the body's natural immunity in patients who receive transplants to prevent rejection of the new kidney. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Azathioprine is a drug that was originally developed to prevent graft rejection in transplant patients. (eczema.org)
  • When used to prevent kidney transplant rejection, azathioprine is usually started on the day of transplant with an intravenous (into the vein) injection. (canada.com)
  • 1 to 2 mg/kg/day PO plus tacrolimus and corticosteroids led to a survival free of graft loss in 89.6% and a survival free from rejection in 68.7% of 93 patients 2 years after transplantation, According to renal transplant guidelines, an antiproliferative agent such as azathioprine is to be used for initial maintenance immunosuppression with a calcineurin inhibitor such as tacrolimus plus or minus corticosteroids. (pdr.net)
  • Azathioprine is used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney transplant. (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • A further group of patients who have intermediate activity of TPMT may be given azathioprine, but it is recommended that a reduced dose be given, starting at 0.5 mg/kg and increasing to 1.0 mg/kg. (eczema.org)
  • Patients given azathioprine experienced more adverse events than patients given placebo. (cochrane.org)
  • Patients given azathioprine experienced significantly more adverse events than patients given no intervention or placebo (RR 2.44, 95% CI 1.14 to 5.20, 2 trials). (cochrane.org)
  • Patients were given azathioprine and infliximab if symptoms worsened after corticosteroid use. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Azathioprine has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, but doctors may sometimes prescribe azathioprine to treat these conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This has occurred mainly in teenagers and young adults using azathioprine or similar medicines to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. (wellspan.org)
  • I am on Azathioprine for Ulcerative Colitis and have been for almost 25 years. (mumsnet.com)
  • I took azathioprine for about a year for my ulcerative colitis. (mumsnet.com)
  • Time courses of HEV viral load (A) and infliximab and azathioprine treatment (B) in pregnant woman with chronic hepatitis E who was undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for ulcerative colitis. (cdc.gov)
  • This risk is higher in people using azathioprine after an organ transplant and in children/young adults being treated for certain bowel diseases (such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis). (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • Azathioprine has been used in the management of moderate to severe chronically active Crohn's disease, to maintain clinical remission (absence of disease activity) in corticosteroid-dependent patients, and to provide benefit in people with fistulizing Crohn's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine is also used to maintain remission in people who have granulomatosis with polyangiitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other agents that have been used for induction and remission include glucocorticoids and azathioprine, but these drugs also are associated with long-term toxicities and limited efficacy. (medpagetoday.com)
  • So those treated to remission with IV cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids were then randomized to open-label methotrexate or azathioprine for 12 months. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A Randomized Multicenter Trial Comparing Leflunomide and Azathioprine as Remission-Maintaining Treatment for Proliferative Lupus Glomerulonephritis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Information gathered after 6 months and at one year, showed that those who took the new treatment (infliximab and azathioprine) were significantly less dependent on corticosteroids and were in disease remission. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Open-label trial of 170 patients with either relapsing granulomatosis with polyangiitis or microscopic polyangiitis who were randomized after rituximab remission induction to maintenance therapy rituximab 1 g every 4 months for 20 months plus glucocorticoids or azathioprine 2 mg/kg per day plus glucocorticoids for 20 months, followed by a taper. (mdedge.com)
  • The efficacy of azathioprine (AZA), in the maintenance of remission of IBD has been suggested by several studies. (europeanreview.org)
  • Fistulizing disease Maintenance of remission after surgery for Crohn's disease A combination of azathioprine and infliximab treatment may be more effective than a single dose of infliximab to induce steroid-free remission for people with active Crohn's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine comes as a tablet to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Azathioprine oral tablet is available as brand-name drugs and as a generic drug. (healthline.com)
  • Azathioprine comes in two forms: an oral tablet and an injectable solution. (healthline.com)
  • Azathioprine oral tablet doesn't cause drowsiness, but it can cause other side effects. (healthline.com)
  • Each pale yellow, capsule-shaped biconvex tablet, embossed with 'AE50' on one side and a breakline on the other, contains 50 mg of azathioprine. (canada.com)
  • Azathioprine is available in tablet and injectable form. (canada.com)
  • Each pale yellow, peanut shaped tablet, with 'APO' on one side and 'AZ 50' on the other, contains azathioprine 50 mg. (pharmasave.com)
  • Azathioprine is marketed in France under the trade name Imurel in tablet form for oral administration that contains either 25 mg or 50 mg of the active ingredient. (ijpc.com)
  • Randomised clinical trials comparing azathioprine versus placebo, no intervention, or another drug were included irrespective of blinding, language, year of publication, and publication status. (cochrane.org)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Azathioprine has a moderate therapeutic effect in atopic dermatitis, and may also be useful for other dermatologic conditions, according to a report in the Archives of Dermatology for April. (thedoctorschannel.com)
  • Azathioprine is used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but the therapeutic responses in randomised clinical trials have been conflicting. (cochrane.org)
  • The combined use of azathioprine with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) has not been studied for either added benefit or unexpected adverse effects. (rxlist.com)
  • However, azathioprine did not appear to cause any adverse effects other than those already known, such as GI complaints or mild infections. (thedoctorschannel.com)
  • Azathioprine is sometimes used in systemic lupus erythematosus, requiring a maintenance dose of 15 mg or higher of prednisone in those who experience recurrent flares. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prospective, randomized drug trial compared prednisone (60 mg per day initially) to azathioprine (3 to 4 mg/kg of body weight · day initially) plus prednisone in 24 patients with life-threatening systemic lupus erythematosus. (annals.org)
  • Azathioprine is also prescribed to stop the body from rejecting transplanted organs, eg heart, liver, kidney, lung or pancreas transplants. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Azathioprine is used to stop your immune system from attacking your new kidney. (healthline.com)
  • Azathioprine weakens your body's immune system , to help keep it from "rejecting" a transplanted organ such as a kidney. (rxlist.com)
  • Azathioprine is used to prevent your body from rejecting a transplanted kidney. (rxlist.com)
  • When given for kidney transplant, azathioprine is usually given right before or on the day of transplant. (rxlist.com)
  • Doctors prescribe azathioprine to reduce the activity of the immune system in autoimmune diseases. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Rationale: Current standard therapy of autoimmune hepatitis consists of a combination of prednisolone and azathioprine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Monitoring of azathioprine metabolites in pediatric patients with autoimmune hepatitis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Azathioprine is commonly used in the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The role of the immune response in autoimmune hepatitis has not been studied before and after prednisone and azathioprine treatment. (medsci.org)
  • Although there are no standard guidelines for the treatment of autoimmune blistering diseases, azathioprine has shown good efficacy in acquired autoimmune blistering diseases, and is well tolerated. (pemphigus.org)
  • Treatment of autoimmune myasthenia frequently involves long-term exposure to immunosuppressants, including azathioprine. (arctichealth.org)
  • Use of azathioprine increases the risk of NMSC in organ recipients and probably also in patients with other autoimmune disorders. (arctichealth.org)
  • RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease, a safe alternative? (eur.nl)
  • Less often, azathioprine may cause damage to the liver, pancreas, or an allergic reaction that may include a flu-like illness or a rash. (rheumatology.org)
  • Immunosuppression with azathioprine in PSC and MG with progressively increasing high antibody titers is feasible, safe, and effective, even with reduced dosages, provided there is close monitoring of AchR-ab and liver function parameters. (medscape.com)
  • Azathioprine can sometimes cause problems with the liver. (eczema.org)
  • Azathioprine may cause a rare type of lymphoma (cancer) of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow that can be fatal. (rxlist.com)
  • My daughter's consultant says that as long as her liver function tests improve hopefully she can stay on the azathioprine but her liver function tests are off every week but not by alot. (mumsnet.com)
  • Therapy for AIH, as for other inflammatory liver disease, often includes immunosuppressive therapy such as azathioprine and steroids. (medsci.org)
  • Adult liver transplantation and steroid-azathioprine withdrawal in cyclosporine (Sandimmun)-based immunosuppression - 5 year results of a prospective study. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Azathioprine effect on hepatocytes was associated with swelling and increased oxygen consumption of intact isolated rat liver mitochondria. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Azathioprine is well absorbed following oral administration. (nih.gov)
  • Maximum serum radioactivity occurs at 1 to 2 hours after oral 35 S-azathioprine and decays with a half-life of 5 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Oral azathioprine or methotrexate are most often used for maintenance. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Oral azathioprine 100 to 200 milligrams daily for a mean of 11.5 months. (wikidoc.org)
  • The patients taking azathioprine also had less frequent oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • A 14-year-old male presented with seven years history of recurrent episodes of fluid filled, itchy and eroded lesions over the body not responding to oral corticosteroids and azathioprine. (pemphigus.org)
  • However, HEV persistence was reported in a patient receiving azathioprine combined with oral steroids ( 6 ) and in a pig model of HEV chronicity under combined cyclosporine/azathioprine/methylprednisolone ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The plasma concentrations and tissue distribution of thiopurines were studied in mice after oral administration of 50 mg/kg azathioprine (AZA) using HPLC analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Azathioprine may lower your body's resistance and the vaccine may not work as well or you might get the infection the vaccine is meant to prevent. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Azathioprine works by decreasing the activity of your body's immune system. (healthline.com)
  • Azathioprine lowers your body's immune system. (wellspan.org)
  • Azathioprine treatment is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma, but if this is due to the drug or a predisposition related to Crohn's disease is unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower doses of azathioprine are used as a therapy in children with refractory or corticosteroid-dependent Crohn's disease, without causing many side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • To show the superiority of Azathioprine comparing Mesalazine in the prevention of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's Disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ObjectiveLoss of infliximab (IFX) effect is a clinical challenge in the management of patients with Crohn's disease (CD), but this can potentially be reduced with azathioprine (AZA) or with corticosteroids (CS). (aau.dk)
  • Some people using azathioprine have developed a rare fast-growing type of lymphoma (cancer). (wellspan.org)
  • Concomitant use requires special precautions: the dose of azathioprine should be reduced to 25% of the recommended dose and the patient's blood count should be monitored assiduously. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • However, if co-administration is necessary, the dose of azathioprine should be reduced to 25% of the recommended dose and the patient's blood count should be checked weekly for the first 3 months of treatment and monthly thereafter to ensure that the dosage can be sustained and is not leading to bone marrow suppression. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • His appetite has gone and I really hope when he starts the biologic next month he can start reducing the dose of Azathioprine. (mumsnet.com)
  • On the basis of those reports, we reduced the patient's dose of azathioprine to 100 mg/d and that of infliximab to 5 mg/kg/d every 8 weeks in November 2014 ( Figure , panel B), but infection did not resolve. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion Appropriately dosed LDAA therapy delivers a therapeutically effective dose of azathioprine without the need for dose escalation. (bmj.com)
  • All patients taking azathioprine require regular blood tests before and during treatment, to check for any signs of bone-marrow suppression even if their TPMT level is normal. (eczema.org)
  • The effect of azathioprine on these variables has not been tested in controlled trials. (rxlist.com)
  • There was no convincing evidence of a steroid-sparing effect of azathioprine. (annals.org)
  • Because it can take a good month or two before the benefits of azathioprine are seen, it is a good idea to begin azathioprine in conjunction with an aggressive prednisone course. (marvistavet.com)
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of azathioprine, especially when used in children and young adults. (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • 6-thioguanine triphosphate, a metabolite of azathioprine, modulates activation of rac1 when costimulated with CD28, inducing T cell apoptosis. (drugbank.ca)
  • There was no evidence that azathioprine prevented radiological deterioration. (bmj.com)
  • Clinical trials in the 1990s provided good evidence that azathioprine is effective for resistant moderate-to-severe disease. (eczema.org)
  • We report a case of chronic hepatitis E during treatment with infliximab and azathioprine, without adverse event during pregnancy and with spontaneous resolution after delivery. (cdc.gov)
  • Hypophysitis due to IgG4-related disease responding to treatment with azathioprine: an alternative to corticosteroid therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Increased susceptibility to a new primary malignancy, particularly of the skin, results from chronic immunosuppression with azathioprine. (pdr.net)
  • Depending on the clinical effect after 8 weeks, the dosage was increased to either azathioprine, 150 mg, or methotrexate, 15 mg. (annals.org)
  • What is the role of azathioprine in the treatment of multiple sclerosis during pregnancy? (medscape.com)
  • Using azathioprine after these medicines may increase your risk for unwanted effects. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Can I take other medicines at the same time as azathioprine? (eczema.org)
  • Some foods and medicines can affect how azathioprine works. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • For patients with normal thiopurine methyltransferase (see 'side effects' section, below), azathioprine can be taken as a single dose. (eczema.org)
  • Azathioprine lowers the numbers of white blood cells in the body, making the immune system less able to reject organ transplants. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • They can do neither in the presence of azathioprine which means they cannot participate in immune-mediated disease. (marvistavet.com)
  • Azathioprine is typically started once a day and then tapered to every other day use and is almost always started in conjunction with other immune suppressive agents. (marvistavet.com)
  • Dr. Mandy E. Schram, with the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and colleagues point out that azathioprine is extensively used off-label in the US and Europe for treating a variety of immune-mediated skin diseases - which potentially leaves dermatologists liable for any unfavorable effects. (thedoctorschannel.com)
  • Azathioprine affects your immune system. (johnstonhealth.org)
  • Breast-feeding should be avoided while taking azathioprine because the drug can enter breast milk. (rheumatology.org)
  • This is not an estimate of the half-life of azathioprine itself, but is the decay rate for all 35 S-containing metabolites of the drug. (nih.gov)
  • If your child has an allergy to azathioprine or any other part of this drug. (mskcc.org)
  • Few data are available on drug monitoring of azathioprine metabolites in patients with AIH, especially in pediatric patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Drug information on Transimune (50 mg) (Azathioprine) from Troikaa Parenterals Pvt. (medindia.net)
  • The drug azathioprine was tested versus placebo or no intervention. (cochrane.org)
  • Azathioprine therapy requires an experienced clinician who is familiar with the mutagenic potential and risk of hematological toxicities associated with the drug. (pdr.net)
  • He clearly doesn't like the drug and my previous gastroenterologist put me on it as I'd had some restriction and she wanted to prevent further restrictions and thought a period on azathioprine was in order. (crohnsforum.com)
  • The impact of glutathione S-transferase genotype and phenotype on the adverse drug reactions to azathioprine in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Azathioprine is in a class of medications called immunosuppressants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Azathioprine belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants . (healthline.com)
  • Objective To compare the efficacy of Azathioprine in reducing the Disease Activity Index (DAI). (pemphigus.org)
  • Whether it is in powder form or ' To potentially slow the progress of the disease and reduce the severity and duration of relapses, buy azathioprine online sales The most common side effects of CHANTIX include: It is recommended that these drugs be taken on an empty stomach. (lanyrd.com)
  • There were no serious side effects attributable to azathioprine. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, our recent investigations have focused on methods of circumventing the toxic side effects associated with systemic azathioprine therapy while making use of its immunosuppressive properties. (deepdyve.com)
  • Azathioprine treatment may lead to rare but life-threatening side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azathioprine may increase your risk of developing certain types of cancer, especially skin cancer and lymphoma (cancer that begins in the cells that fight infection). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Long-term use of azathioprine may increase your risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma, leukemia, and skin cancers. (healthline.com)
  • I developed lymphoma as a result of the azathioprine, but the chances of getting this are greater for the newer medications. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Azathioprine may rarely increase your risk of developing certain types of cancer (such as lymphoma, skin cancer). (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • According to renal transplant guidelines, an antiproliferative agent such as azathioprine is to be used for initial maintenance immunosuppression with a calcineurin inhibitor such as tacrolimus plus or minus corticosteroids. (pdr.net)