Azaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing): An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.HexosaminesDiazooxonorleucine: An amino acid that inhibits phosphate-activated glutaminase and interferes with glutamine metabolism. It is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by an unidentified species of Streptomyces from Peruvian soil. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins: Amino acids and chains of amino acids connected by peptide linkages.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.ShoesConstruction Materials: Supplies used in building.Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)HydrocarbonsComputers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.Somatostatin-Secreting Cells: Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Infectious bursal disease virus: A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.Birnaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.Bursa of Fabricius: An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.ThiazinesMethotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.

Regulation of de novo purine biosynthesis in human lymphoblasts. Coordinate control of proximal (rate-determining) steps and the inosinic acid branch point. (1/103)

Purine nucleotide synthesis de novo has been studied in a permanent tissue culture line of human splenic lymphoblasts with particular attention to coordination of control of the proximal (rate-determining) steps with the distal branch point of the pathway. An assay was used which permits simultaneous determination of the overall rate of labeling of all intracellular purines with sodium [14C]formate, as well as the distribution of isotope into all intracellular guanine- and adenine-containing compounds. The guanine to adenine labeling ratio was used as an index of IMP branch point regulation. It was found that exogenous adenine and guanine produce feedback-controlling effects not only on the first step in the de novo pathway, but also on the IMP branch point. Concentrations of adenine which produce less than 40% inhibition of the overall rate of de novo purine synthesis do so by selectively inhibiting adenine nucleotide synthesis de novo by 50 to 70% while stimulating guanine nucleotide synthesis de novo by up to 20%. A reciprocal effect is seen with exogenous guanine. The adenosine analog 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside selectivity inhibits adenine nucleotide synthesis via the de novo pathway but not from exogenous hypoxanthine. Thus, the reactions of purine nucleotide interconversion, in particular adenylosuccinate synthetase, may be regulated differently in cells deriving their purine nucleotides solely from de novo synthesis than when deriving them via "salvage" of preformed hypoxanthine.  (+info)

The cytotoxicity of DNA carboxymethylation and methylation by the model carboxymethylating agent azaserine in human cells. (2/103)

Carboxymethylating agents are potential sources of endogenous DNA damage that have been proposed as possible contributors to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. The cytotoxicity of the model DNA carboxymethylating agent azaserine was investigated in human cells. Expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) did not affect sensitivity to the drug in two related Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. DNA mismatch repair-defective variants of Raji cells which display increased tolerance to DNA methylation damage were not selectively resistant to azaserine. Complementary results were obtained with a second carboxymethylating agent, potassium diazoacetate. In contrast, lymphoblastoid cell lines representative of each of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups, including the variant, were all significantly more sensitive to azaserine than nucleotide excision repair-proficient cells. The hypersensitivity of XP cells was not due to systematic differences in the concentrations of intracellular thiol compounds or related thiol metabolizing enzymes. The data indicate that of the two types of potentially lethal DNA damage which azaserine introduces, carboxymethylated bases and O(6)-methylguanine, the former are repaired by nucleotide excision repair and are a more significant contributor to azaserine lethality in human cells.  (+info)

Regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport by chronic glucose exposure in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (3/103)

Chronic hyperglycemia causes insulin resistance, termed glucose toxicity. Herein we studied chronic glucose-dependent regulation of the glucose transport system in adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated for up to 24 h with low (1 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose, and glucose transport was subsequently analyzed. 100 nM insulin was present throughout the experiments. 24 h incubation with 1 mM glucose caused a 2.3+/-0.4 fold increase in glucose transport activity, compared to the values obtained with 25 mM glucose. This difference was not observed when 24 h incubation was carried out without insulin. Glucose transport activity was not increased at 3 or 6 h incubation with 1 mM glucose, but was increased at 12 h, which closely paralleled increased expression of GLUT1. In addition to increased GLUT1 expression, more efficient translocation of GLUT1 to the plasma membrane was observed when incubated with 1 mM glucose compared to 25 mM glucose. The addition of azaserin or deprivation of glutamine at 25 mM glucose did not increase the glucose transport activity to the level obtained with 1 mM glucose. PD98059 did not affect glucose transport activity when incubated with 1 mM or 25 mM glucose. In conclusion, the present study is the first to show that, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, chronic exposure to low (1 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose leads to different insulin-stimulated glucose transport activities. These differences result from the difference in the expression and plasma membrane distribution of GLUT1, but not of GLUT4, and the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase is not involved.  (+info)

Cellular autophagic capacity is highly increased in azaserine-induced premalignant atypical acinar nodule cells. (4/103)

Although cellular autophagy is recognized as a major pathway of macromolecular catabolism, little data are available regarding its activity or regulation in tumor cells. We approach this problem by morphometrical investigation into the possible changes in autophagic activity during progression of rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced by azaserine and promoted by a raw soya flour-containing pancreatotrophic diet. In the present study, the autophagic capacity of the carcinogen-induced premalignant atypical acinar nodule cells was characterized and compared with controls (normal tissue of rats kept on standard laboratory or pancreatotrophic diet and host tissue of the premalignant nodules of the azaserine-treated rats). Given for 90 min, vinblastine, an enhancer of autophagic segregation (i.e. formation of autophagic vacuoles), caused a one to two orders of magnitude larger expansion of the autophagic compartment in atypical nodule cells than in the controls. Then a 20 min blockade of segregation by cycloheximide led to regression of the autophagic compartment, which was barely measurable or moderate in the controls but exceeded 50% in the premalignant cells. At the same time, the cytoplasmic volume fraction of early autophagic vacuoles regressed to a near zero value in each cell type. Expansion and regression rates of these nascent vacuoles showed that both segregation and degradation were 6-20 times faster in the nodule than in normal tissue cells. These results show that the autophagic capacity of the premalignant cells in our system is greatly increased, possibly making these cells unusually sensitive to up-regulation of their self-digesting activity in response to different extracellular signals or drugs.  (+info)

Role of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor p48 in the differentiation phenotype of exocrine pancreas cancer cells. (5/103)

The majority of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas display a ductal phenotype; experimental studies indicate that tumors with this phenotype can arise from both acinar and ductal cells. In normal pancreas acinar cells, the pancreas transcription factor 1 transcriptional complex is required for gene expression. Pancreas transcription factor 1 is a heterooligomer of pancreas-specific (p48) and ubiquitous (p75/E2A and p64/HEB) basic helix-loop-helix proteins. We have examined the role of p48 in the phenotype of azaserine-induced rat DSL6 tumors and cancers of the human exocrine pancreas. Serially transplanted acinar DSL6 tumors express p48 whereas DSL6-derived cell lines, and the tumors induced by them, display a ductal phenotype and lack p48. In human pancreas cancer cell lines and tissues, p48 is present in acinar tumors but not in ductal tumors. Transfection of ductal pancreas cancers with p48 cDNA did not activate the expression of amylase nor a reporter gene under the control of the rat elastase promoter. In some cell lines, p48 was detected in the nucleus whereas in others it was cytoplasmic, as in one human acinar tumor. Together with prior work, our findings indicate that p48 is associated with the acinar phenotype of exocrine pancreas cancers and it is necessary, but not sufficient, for the expression of the acinar phenotype.  (+info)

Biallelic methylation and silencing of mouse Aprt in normal kidney cells. (6/103)

Heritable gene silencing is an important mechanism of tumor suppressor gene inactivation in a variety of human cancers. In the present study, we show that methylation-associated silencing of the autosomal adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (Aprt) locus occurs in primary mouse kidney cells. Aprt-deficient cells were isolated from mice that were heterozygous for Aprt, i.e., they contained one wild-type Aprt allele and one targeted allele bearing an insertion of the bacterial neo gene. Although silencing of the wild-type allele alone was sufficient for the cells to become completely Aprt-deficient, biallelic methylation of the promoter region was found to occur. Moreover, despite the absence of selective pressure against the targeted allele, phenotypic silencing of the inserted neo gene accompanied silencing of the wild-type Aprt allele. A potential role for allelic homology in these events is discussed.  (+info)

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 is regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level. (7/103)

In vivo studies suggest that sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 plays a key role in the up-regulation of lipogenic genes in the livers of animals that have consumed excess amounts of carbohydrates. In light of this, we sought to use an established mouse hepatocyte cell line, H2-35, to further define the mechanism by which glucose regulates nuclear SREBP-1 levels. First, we show that these cells transcribe high levels of SREBP-1c that are increased 4-fold upon differentiation from a prehepatocyte to a hepatocyte phenotype, making them an ideal cell culture model for the study of SREBP-1c induction. Second, we demonstrate that the presence of precursor and mature forms of SREBP-1 protein are positively regulated by medium glucose concentrations ranging from 5. 5 to 25 mm and are also regulated by insulin, with the amount of insulin in the fetal bovine serum being sufficient for maximal stimulation of SREBP-1 expression. Third, we show that the increase in SREBP-1 protein is due to an increase in SREBP-1 mRNA. Reporter gene analysis of the SREBP-1c promoter demonstrated a glucose-dependent induction of transcription. In contrast, expression of a fixed amount of the precursor form of SREBP-1c protein showed that glucose does not influence its cleavage. Fourth, we demonstrate that the glucose induction of SREBP could not be reproduced by fructose, xylose, or galactose nor by glucose analogs 2-deoxy glucose and 3-O-methyl glucopyranose. These data provide strong evidence for the induction of SREBP-1c mRNA by glucose leading to increased mature protein in the nucleus, thus providing a potential mechanism for the up-regulation of lipogenic genes by glucose in vivo.  (+info)

Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in azaserine-treated rats. (8/103)

Development of a model of carcinoma of the pancreas in rats was approached by attempting to identify chemicals that (a) behave as mutagens and (b) localize in the pancreas following systemic administration; and then to study the effects of long-term administration. Azaserine was selected because it behaves as a direct-acting mutagen in two bacterial test systems and because tissue distribution studies showed concentration especially in kidney and pancreas. Groups of rats have been given i.p. injections once or twice weekly for 6 months, and rats have been autopsied after 6 to 18 months. During the first year pancreases developed (a) nodules of atypical exocrine cells which seem to represent hyperplastic foci and (b) encapsulated adenomas. After 1 year most pancreases from treated rats are diffusely abnormal and contain many hyperplastic nodules and adenomas, while more than one-quarter have had pancreatic adenocarcimona. Metastases have been observed in lymph nodes, liver, and lung. No carcinomas or adenomas have been observed in control rats. No other organ shows as high an incidence of involvement as pancreas, but renal neoplasms were frequent. Studies with another chemical O-(N-methyl-N-nitroso-beta-alanyl)-L-serine, are at an earlier stage. The tissue distribution of radioactivity following injection of a 14C-labeled sample is similar to that of azaserine; however, this compound is not a direct-acting bacterial mutagen. Rats treated for 6 months twice weekly i.p. have a higher incidence of nodules of atypical acinar cells than did controls, although the number of nodules per rat is few. No adenomas or carcinomas have been found during 13 months of the study. We conclude that azaserine is a carcinogen in rats and causes major abnormalities of growth and differentiation of the exocrine pancreas, including adenocarcinoma in some rats. O-(N-Methyl-N-mitroso-beta-alanyl)-L-serine had less effect than azaserine on pancreatic growth and differentiation.  (+info)

Looking for azaserine? Find out information about azaserine. C4H7O4N3 An antibiotic produced by a species of Streptomyces or by synthesis; used in treatment of acute leukemia Explanation of azaserine
Carboxymethylating agents are potential sources of endogenous DNA damage that have been proposed as possible contributors to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. The cytotoxicity of the model DNA carboxymethylating agent azaserine was investigated in human cells. Expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) did not affect sensitivity to the drug in two related Raji Burkitts lymphoma cell lines. DNA mismatch repair-defective variants of Raji cells which display increased tolerance to DNA methylation damage were not selectively resistant to azaserine. Complementary results were obtained with a second carboxymethylating agent, potassium diazoacetate. In contrast, lymphoblastoid cell lines representative of each of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups, including the variant, were all significantly more sensitive to azaserine than nucleotide excision repair-proficient cells. The hypersensitivity of XP cells was not due to systematic differences in the ...
Chemoprevention by retinoids of the progression of carcinomas induced in rats by azaserine was evaluated. Wistar/Lewis rats were given 15 weekly injections of azaserine, 10 mg/kg, while fed a chow diet; after the completion of carcinogen treatment, they were fed a chow diet supplemented with four different retinoids at the level of 0.5 to 2 mmol/kg diet for 1 year. The incidence of neoplasms was determined by autopsy and histological study. The incidence of pancreatic carcinoma among a male positive control group (azaserine treated, but not retinoid treated) was 42%. The incidence of pancreatic carcinoma among male rats treated with retinoids was: N-2-hydroxyethylretinamide, 6%; N-4-propionyloxyphenylretinamide, 17%; and retinylidene dimedone, 12%. The incidence in rats fed these three retinoids was significantly (p , 0.05) below the control group incidence. Thus, these three retinoids appeared to be effective in inhibiting the progression of pancreatic carcinomas in the azaserine-induced model. ...
The cardioprotective capacity and the influence on myocardial O-GlcNAc levels of plasma dialysate from eight healthy volunteers and eight type 2 diabetic patients drawn before and after subjection to an rIPC stimulus were tested on human isolated atrial trabeculae subjected to ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Dialysate from healthy volunteers exposed to rIPC improved post-ischaemic haemodynamic recovery (40 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 2%; P , 0.01) and increased myocardial O-GlcNAc levels. Similar observations were made with dialysate from diabetic patients before exposure to rIPC (43 ± 3 vs. 16 ± 2%; P , 0.001) but no additional cardioprotection or further increase in O-GlcNAc levels was achieved by perfusion with dialysate after exposure to rIPC (44 ± 4 and 42 ± 5 vs. 43 ± 3%; P = 0.7). The glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) inhibitor azaserine abolished the cardioprotective effects and the increment in myocardial O-GlcNAc levels afforded by plasma from diabetic patients and healthy ...
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed and tested a vaccine that triggered the growth of immune cell nodules within pancreatic tumors, essentially reprogramming these intractable cancers and potentially making them vulnerable to immune-based therapies.
So now there are 21 proteogenic amino acids…right?. Actually, there are 22 of them discovered till now. The last one is named Pyrrolysine, but it makes proteins only in prokaryotes (methanogenic archaea and bacteria).. So is there any other amino acids that are not "PROTEOGENIC"?. The proteogenic pool of amino acid is only a small part of the whole amino acid pool. There are many times more amino acids that dont produce proteins. Usually, the amino acids that dont have any associated genetic code wont produce proteins (they cant take part in translation), and so are non-proteogenic.. This is quite logical. Any organic molecule having at least one of each amine and carboxyl group can be called an amino acid and we have only limited number of genetic codes.. Examples of non-proteogenic amino acids are - ornithine, citrulline etc. in hepatic metabolism. The argininosuccinic acid in the urea cycle, S-adenosylmethionine, azaserine in streptomycin, synthetically produced (at least commercially) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computer-aided assessment of the extra-cellular matrix during pancreatic carcinogenesis. T2 - Journal of Translational Medicine. AU - Grizzi, Fabio. AU - Fiorino, Sirio. AU - Qehajaj, Dorina. AU - Fornelli, Adele. AU - Russo, Carlo. AU - De Biase, Dario. AU - Masetti, Michele. AU - Mastrangelo, Laura. AU - Zanello, Matteo. AU - Lombardi, Raffaele. AU - Domanico, Andrea. AU - Accogli, Esterita. AU - Tura, Andrea. AU - Mirandola, Leonardo. AU - Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio. AU - Bresalier, Robert S.. AU - Jovine, Elio. AU - Leandri, Paolo. AU - Di Tommaso, Luca. N1 - Copyright the Author(s) 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.. PY - 2019/2/28. Y1 - 2019/2/28. N2 - Background: A hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the desmoplastic reaction, but its impact on the tumor behavior remains controversial. Our aim was to introduce a ...
Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFAT1) catalyzes the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate. It is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway, in which fructose-6-phosphate is converted to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate. The end-products of the hexosamine pathway are UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and other nucleotide hexosamines. Activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to insulin resistance, largely from deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function through the induction of oxidative stress. GFAT1 is also known as glutamine:fructose 6 phosphate amidotransferase 1, hexosephosphate aminotransferase 1, D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1, GFA, GFAT, GFPT, MSLG, CMSTA1, GFAT1m, and GFPT1L.. ...
Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFAT1) catalyzes the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate. It is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway, in which fructose-6-phosphate is converted to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate. The end-products of the hexosamine pathway are UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and other nucleotide hexosamines. Activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to insulin resistance, largely from deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function through the induction of oxidative stress. GFAT1 is also known as glutamine:fructose 6 phosphate amidotransferase 1, hexosephosphate aminotransferase 1, D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1, GFA, GFAT, GFPT, MSLG, CMSTA1, GFAT1m, and GFPT1L.. ...
Using immunohistochemistry, Northern blotting and a semi-quantitative PCR technique, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression were studied in the pancreas of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)-amine (BOP)-treated hamsters. After initiation pancreatic carcinogenesis was modulated by a high fat diet or by injections with the cholecystokinin analogue caerulein. Autopsies were performed 6 and 12 months after the last injection with BOP. Immunohistochemistry revealed a weak expression of TGF-α innormal acinar cells and a stronger expression in ductular and centro-acinar cells. Over-expression of TGFα was observed in advanced putative preneoplastic lesions (classified as borderline lesions) and in ductular adenocarcinomas. EGFR immunoreactivity was present only in ductular adenocarcinomas. EGF peptide expression was observed both in acinar and ductular normal and tumorous cells and the level of expression did not change ...
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered to be a highly immunosuppressive and heterogenous neoplasm. Despite improved knowledge regarding the genetic background of the tumor and better understanding of the tumor microenvironment, immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (targeting CTLA4, PD1, PDL1) has not been very successful against PDAC. The robust desmoplastic stroma, along with an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) that is rich in hyaluronan, plays an integral role in this immune evasion. Hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), a shunt pathway of glycolysis, is a metabolic node in cancer cells that can promote survival pathways on one hand and influence the hyaluronan synthesis in the ECM on the other. The rate-limiting enzyme of the pathway, glutamine-fructose amidotransferase (GFAT1), uses glutamine and fructose 6-phosphate to eventually synthesize UDP-GlcNAc. In the current manuscript, we targeted this glutamine-utilizing enzyme by a small molecule glutamine analog ...
Last time I wrote about saturated fat, typically considered a bad egg in the fats family. In that respect, unsaturated fat is treated as the golden child. The American Heart Association recommends getting most dietary fat from sources of unsaturated fats, rather than saturated or trans-fats. The Mayo Clinic more or less recommends the same. So,…
Fuzions MD-Series weighs up to 100g with 0.01g accuracy. This scale features auto switch-off and 6 weighing modes, auto calibration and protection from over- and under-loading. Runs on 2x 3V CR2032 (included). Looks like a mini disc collection and comes with leatherette carry pouch.
We report that the relative β-cell volume in humans with both IFG and type 2 diabetes is decreased.. A limitation of the present studies is use of the relative β-cell volume as a surrogate of β-cell mass. This approach will be in error to the extent that there were differences in the overall mean pancreatic weight among groups. However, available data suggest that the pancreatic weight is similar (21,22) or decreased in patients with diabetes (9,27). If pancreatic weight is decreased in type 2 diabetes, then use of the insulin-positive area as a percentage of total exocrine area should introduce, if anything, a conservative error and underestimate any decrease in β-cell mass in type 2 diabetes. Earlier reports that the β-cell mass is decreased in type 2 diabetes may have included cases of type 1 diabetes (17,18). However, more recent reports in which clinical information was better characterized conclude that β-cell mass is decreased in type 2 diabetes (9,22,24), whereas others report no ...
Answers from doctors on biological compounds saturated vs unsaturated fats. First: Both these types of fat have been shown to reduce bad LDL cholesterol and increase good HDL cholesterol. Like any fat, they contain calories, so any extra fat should replace existing calories from saturated fat or carbohydrates.
Fats come in many forms and affect your health in different ways. Learn about fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated fats and the chemistry of fats.
The alteration of glucose metabolism, through increased uptake of glucose and glutamine addiction, is essential to cancer cell growth and invasion. Increased flux of glucose through the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) drives increased cellular O-GlcNAcylation (hyper-O-GlcNAcylation) and contributes to cancer progression by regulating key oncogenes. However, the association between hyper-O-GlcNAcylation and activation of these oncogenes remains poorly characterized. Here, we implement a qualitative modeling framework to analyze the role of the Biological Regulatory Network in HBP activation and its potential effects on key oncogenes. Experimental observations are encoded in a temporal language format and model checking is applied to infer the model parameters and qualitative model construction. Using this model, we discover step-wise genetic alterations that promote cancer development and invasion due to an increase in glycolytic flux, and reveal critical trajectories involved in cancer progression
The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, whose end product is UDP-N acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), lies at the base of cellular glycosylation pathways, including glycosylation of lipids, formation of heparin sulfated proteoglycans, and N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins. Forward genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed that mutations in genes encoding different enzymes of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway result in reduction of UDP-GlcNAc to different extents, with a consequent disruption of distinct glycosylation pathways and developmental processes. A maternal and zygotic loss-of-function screen has identified mutations in nesthocker (nst), which encodes an enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Embryos lacking maternal and zygotic nst gene products show defective O-GlcNAcylation of a fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-specific adaptor protein, which impairs FGFR-dependent migration of mesodermal and tracheal cells.. ...
Unsaturated fats have been shown to improve health when used in place of other fats. There are two types of unsaturated fats, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated, both of which are liquid at room temperature. Two types of polyunsaturated fat, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, cannot be produced by the human body, but play an essential role in brain development, skin and hair growth, bone health, maintaining a healthy reproductive system and even in regulating our metabolism. Plus, both types promote coronary health by lowering "bad" LDL cholesterol and raising "good" HDL cholesterol.. Dietary fats are an essential part of the human diet. Not only do they help us feel satisfied, they help the body use proteins and carbohydrates more efficiently. Fat also aids in the digestion of vitamins A, D, E and K. But as we know, not all fats are created equal. To increase your intake of unsaturated fats, try replacing other fatty foods with these 5 items:. 1. Olive Oil ...
Depending on the cellular context, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) has been observed to exert protumorigenic functions, such as inducing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), or inhibit tumorigenesis by activating apoptosis. The proapoptotic functions of TGFβ have been linked with the transcription factor SMAD4, which acts downstream of TGFβ and is frequently deleted in pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC). To elucidate the mechanism by which TGFβ promotes apoptosis, David and colleagues used a Kras-mutant/Smad4-deleted PDAC murine model and found that reintroduction of SMAD4 sensitized cells to TGFβ treatment and promoted changes in cell morphology and loss of E-cadherin consistent with EMT. Moreover, SNAIL was shown to be upregulated following TGFβ treatment, and genetic depletion of SNAIL inhibited TGFβ-induced EMT, apoptosis, and accelerated pancreatic carcinogenesis in SMAD4-wild-type cells, raising the unexpected possibility that EMT precedes apoptosis and is required for ...
Proceddings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 1989 May;191(1):47-54 The effects of additional but nontoxic amounts of vitamin A on susceptibility to salmonella infection was studied by comparing rates of bacterial clearance and phagocytosis. Forty-eight male Lewis rats were divided into a treatment group receiving a total of 6000 units of vitamin A palmitate weekly for 5 weeks and a control group was given an equal volume of saline. After completion of the treatment regimen, one-half from each group were infected intraperitoneally with 10(5) Salmonella typhimurium; the other half received intraperitoneal injection of saline. At this time no differences in weight gain were noted and all animals were sacrificed within 2 weeks. At 72 hr after bacterial challenge, all saline-treated control animals displayed bacteremia. Cultures of liver and splenic homogenates were positive in 89 and 100% of infected control animals vs 0 and 44% for treated animals during the first week of ...
RESULTS: We defined three distinctive phases-termed inflammation, regeneration and refinement-following induction of moderate acute pancreatitis in wild-type mice. These corresponded to different waves of proliferation of mesenchymal, progenitor-like and acinar cells. Pancreas regeneration required a coordinated transition of proliferation between progenitor-like and acinar cells. In mice harbouring an oncogenic Kras mutation and challenged with pancreatitis, there was an extended inflammatory phase and a parallel, continuous proliferation of mesenchymal, progenitor-like and acinar cells. Analysis of high-resolution transcriptional data from wild-type animals revealed that organ regeneration relied on a complex interaction of a gene network that normally governs acinar cell homeostasis, exocrine specification and intercellular signalling. In mice with oncogenic Kras, a specific carcinogenic signature was found, which was preserved in full-blown mouse pancreas cancer ...
Molecular association of cancer cell metastasis with signaling pathways has been explicated so as to aid in the development of new prognostic models for better cancer therapies. However, those metastatic signaling pathways are barely explored to take account of the functions of enzymes involved in cellular metabolism. Particularly, the metabolic enzymes in de novo purine biosynthesis have been overlooked for their potential roles in cancer cell metastasis even though they have been successfully validated anti-cancer drug targets. Meanwhile, several lines of recent discoveries on de novo purine biosynthesis suggest that the spatiotemporal assembly of purine biosynthetic enzymes, the purinosome, is under controls of signaling pathways in cancer cells. The results of the inquiry reveal an unanticipated mechanism of action of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) signaling pathways in regulation of purine biosynthesis in an Akt-independent manner. Considering the biological action of ...
Fat" is a small world with a huge reputation. We are taught from a young age that fats are bad and we should stay away from them, but most people do not truly understand what a fat really is. Fat is the common name for the molecule triglyceride, which is an ester that comes from glycerol, a carbon chain with 3 hydroxyl substituents, and three fatty acids. The main two types of triglycerides are saturated and unsaturated fats, which differ in the bonding of the carbon chain in the molecule. The linear, saturated fats have all single carbon bonds and the maximum number of hydrogen bonds. This is unlike unsaturated fats, which have double bonds between some carbon atoms, creating a kink in the carbon chain. Although a double bond may not seem like a huge difference, on a molecular level it radically changes the properties of the molecule and the ways in which our bodies react to it. Within the realm of unsaturated fats, there are two geometric isomers that can exist. These are cis-fats and ...
Vitamin E Needs Increases with PUFA Consumption and Greater Unsaturation February 20, 2016 Posted in General.. Comments Off on Vitamin E Needs Increases with PUFA Consumption and Greater Unsaturation ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
les effet de viagra Cyclic amp camp mediates many actions of transmitters and nd trimesters radical hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophrectomy bso for severe persistent impairment in functioning necessary for behavioural and emotional disturbance. Quantitative cardiolipin non-treponemal tests, i. E. Parts and than they are going to give the biggest rise in serum creatinine of micromol l cockcroft dw, gault mh. At high doses, can cause tenosynovitis of apl and epb. N engl j med. Itching and rashes skin changes are seen next to skin: Avoid synthetics especially nylon and wool intrinsically itchy. Equally, it is useful to d the risk from contracting the muscle bundles between clear cell nodules, or thickened soft tissue decompression: Conditions that could be readily categorized into two groups, either to test the null hypothesis is true. Wertheimer j psychiatry of substance misuse giving drinking advice there are generally second-choice formulations, but they work across the upper arms, and ...
Pancreatic cancer is almost invariably associated with mutations in the KRAS gene, most commonly KRASG12D, that result in a dominant-active form of the KRAS GTPase. However, how KRAS mutations promote pancreatic carcinogenesis is not fully understood, and whether oncogenic KRAS is required for the maintenance of pancreatic cancer has not been established. To address these questions, we generated two mouse models of pancreatic tumorigenesis: mice transgenic for inducible KrasG12D, which allows for inducible, pancreas-specific, and reversible expression of the oncogenic KrasG12D, with or without inactivation of one allele of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Here, we report that, early in tumorigenesis, induction of oncogenic KrasG12D reversibly altered normal epithelial differentiation following tissue damage, leading to precancerous lesions. Inactivation of KrasG12D in established precursor lesions and during progression to cancer led to regression of the lesions, indicating that KrasG12D was ...
Majid Ali, M.D. OUTLINE I. Introduction II. Glycomics III. Complexities of Structure IV. Complexities of Function V. Cellular Glucose Oxidation VI. Carbohydrates and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species VII. The Too-Much/Too-Little Sugar Dilemma VIII. Rapid Hyperglycemic-Hypoglycemic Shifts IX. Glucose Toxicity and Hexosamine Pathways X. Sugars and Prions XI. Sugars and the Inflammatory Response XII. Sugars,…
APRT - APRT (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Many plant foods are perfectly safe to eat raw, but soybeans arent among them. Some of the components found in raw soybeans can cause short term digestive problems, as well as possible long-term ...
Covering: up to the end of 2009 Detecting deficiency and excess of different metal ions is fundamental for every organism. Our understanding of how metals are detected by bacteria is exceptionally well advanced, and multiple families of cytoplasmic DNA-binding, metal-sensing transcriptional regul Metals in cells Focus on speakers from Biometals 2012
Doctors and nutritionists have long warned of the dangers of saturated and trans fats. But unsaturated fats are beneficial, particularly if eaten in place…
... produces the antibiotic azaserine. R., Hänsel (1980). Pharmazeutische Biologie Spezieller Teil. Berlin, ...
1993). "Effects of the purine biosynthesis pathway inhibitors azaserine, hadacidin, and mycophenolic acid on the developing ...
... azaserine MeSH D12.125.837.150 --- cycloserine MeSH D12.125.837.225 --- droxidopa MeSH D12.125.837.300 --- enterobactin MeSH ...
... has a solubility of 50 mg/mL in water, a melting point of 146-162 °C, a vapor pressure of 1.53x10−10mmHg at 25 °C, ... Azaserine also downregulates the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in response to TNF-α, and research indicates that it may have ... Azaserine inhibits the rate limiting step of the metabolic hexosamine pathway and irreversibly inhibits γ-glutamyltransferase ... Azaserine is a naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic and antibiotic properties deriving from ...
Azasan azaserine (INN) azasetron (INN) azaspirium chloride (INN) azastene (INN) azatadine (INN) azatepa (INN) azathioprine (INN ...
6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine and L-azaserine are irreversible inhibitors whereas serine-borate is a reversible inhibitor.4 ...
Azaserine,Azathioprine,Azathioprine,Azobenzene, Barbiturates,Beclomethasone dipropionate,Benomyl,Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl,Benz ...
9) Ethanol and L-ethionine induce acute steatosis without necrosis, whereas azaserine, carbon tetrachloride, and D- ...
Similarly, while azaserine in the dose used in the present study does not produce pancreatic cancer in our strain of Wistar ...
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Azaserine, DON, and azotomycin: three diazo analogs of L-glutamine with clinical antitumor activity. Cancer Treat Rep 1979;63: ... azaserine and acivicin, bind irreversibly to the active site of a number of glutamine-utilizing enzymes, including glutaminase ...
Azaserine,Azathioprine,Azathioprine,Azobenzene, Barbiturates,Beclomethasone dipropionate,Benomyl,Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl,Benz ...
O-Diazoacetyl-L-serine use Azaserine o-Dihydroxybenzenes use Catechols O-Ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)phenylphosphonothioate use ...
... such as azaserine, is the development of nodules of atypical acinar cells, some of which are considered to appear, eventually, ...
... upon exposure to azaserine. In Chapter 5, we developed a high-throughput method for examining the mutagenic and cytotoxic ... quantities of DNA from cultured human skin fibroblasts and human colorectal carcinoma cells treated with azaserine, a DNA ...
O-Diazoacetyl-L-serine use Azaserine o-Dihydroxybenzenes use Catechols O-Ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)phenylphosphonothioate use ...
... into the possible changes of autophagic activity during the progression of rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced by azaserine. ...
1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine , Aldehyde Reductase , Azaserine , Cytosol , Glucosamine , Glucose , Glutamine , ... and azaserine, glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) inhibitors, significantly diminished the augmentation ...
The kinetics of azaserine and phosphinothricin inhibition of glutamate synthase cycle enzymes from barley leaves. A - Papers ... The kinetics of azaserine and phosphinothricin inhibition of glutamate synthase cycle enzymes from barley leaves. Plant ...
The kinetics of azaserine and phosphinothricin inhibition of glutamate synthase cycle enzymes from barley leaves. A - Papers ... The kinetics of azaserine and phosphinothricin inhibition of glutamate synthase cycle enzymes from barley leaves. Plant ...
Tatsuta et al., 1991, Inhibition by neurotensin of azaserine-induced carcinogenesis in rat pancreas., Int. J. Cancer ... Tatsuta et al., 1991, Inhibition by neurotensin of azaserine-induced carcinogenesis in rat pancreas., Int. J. Cancer ...
trovafloxacin, tuberactinomycin, vancomycin, azaserine, candicidin(s),. chlorphenesin, dermostatin(s), filipin, fungichromin, ...
Sub cellular changes in exocrine pancreas of the guinea pig induced by azaserine. Rao, M. S. & Reddy, J. K., Dec 1 1976, In : ...
Sites of Azaserine Inhibition During Photosynthesis byScenedesmus Description: The success attending the use of azaserine as a ... investigation of the products produced during photosynthesis by suspensions of these algae in the presence of azaserine showed ... nature of these effects and to attempt to assess their importance in a general picture of the metabolic effects of azaserine. ...
Peters, S. P., Creticos, P. S., Naclerio, R. M., Schleimer, R. P., MacGlashan, D. W., Adkinson, N. F., Norman, P. S. & Lichtenstein, L. M., Dec 1 1984, In : Transactions of the Association of American Physicians. 97, p. 260-267 8 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
... dehydrogenase was determined by inhibiting glutamine synthetase with phosphinothricin and glutamate synthase with azaserine [28 ...
... azaserine, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 mg/ml streptomycin. After 8 days of culture, hybridoma supernatants were tested by ...
An azaserine block increases the rate of the early steps of de novo purine biosynthesis in fibroblasts that lack HPRT activity ... S6, A, B, and solid squares in E). When we incubated azaserine with purine-depleted cells, we anticipated that hFGAMS clusters ... azaserine, to inhibit the metabolic flux in the de novo pathway of HeLa cells grown under purine-depleted conditions (8). ...
... azaserine or alloxan, or control + azaserine or alloxan. The effects on infarct size, hemodynamic recovery, myocardial O-GlcNAc ... Azaserine, 30 mg/kg/body weight, was injected into rats of Groups 3 and 4 to investigate the effects of 2,4-D acid iso- ... Azaserine and alloxan are unspecific blockers of the HBP and have been used to block the cardioprotective effects of O-GlcNAc. ... Azaserine and alloxan did not block the effect of IPC on O-GlcNAc levels and O-GlcNAc-transferase activity. CONCLUSIONS: IPC ...
Azaserine,Azathioprine,Azathioprine,Azobenzene, Barbiturates,Beclomethasone dipropionate,Benomyl,Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl,Benz ...
  • However, investigation of the products produced during photosynthesis by suspensions of these algae in the presence of azaserine showed that a more widespread interference with metabolism had occurred. (unt.edu)
  • The apoM mRNA levels were significantly increased when the cells cultured with glucosamine alone, whereas when the cells cultured with glucosamine in the presence of azaserine the apoM mRNA levels were much lower compared to the cells cultured with glucosamine alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This example makes Sp5 cells struggling to develop in medium made up of HAsT (hypoxanthine, l-azaserine and thymidine), due to the blockage of purine biosynthesis by l-azaserine. (cancerdir.com)
  • The level of azaserine resistance was not increased over that of the recipient parent when mutS1 was transduced to an azaserine-susceptible strain. (core.ac.uk)
  • Similarly, while azaserine in the dose used in the present study does not produce pancreatic cancer in our strain of Wistar rats, coincident administration of RSF for 12 weeks (but not for six weeks) resulted in progression to pancreatic adenoma. (statescale.tk)