Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
An amino acid that inhibits phosphate-activated glutaminase and interferes with glutamine metabolism. It is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by an unidentified species of Streptomyces from Peruvian soil. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
Amino acids and chains of amino acids connected by peptide linkages.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
A rare, pigmentary, and atrophic autosomal recessive disease. It is manifested as an extreme photosensitivity to ULTRAVIOLET RAYS as the result of a deficiency in the enzyme that permits excisional repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proposed catecholamine depletor.
Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.
An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.

Regulation of de novo purine biosynthesis in human lymphoblasts. Coordinate control of proximal (rate-determining) steps and the inosinic acid branch point. (1/103)

Purine nucleotide synthesis de novo has been studied in a permanent tissue culture line of human splenic lymphoblasts with particular attention to coordination of control of the proximal (rate-determining) steps with the distal branch point of the pathway. An assay was used which permits simultaneous determination of the overall rate of labeling of all intracellular purines with sodium [14C]formate, as well as the distribution of isotope into all intracellular guanine- and adenine-containing compounds. The guanine to adenine labeling ratio was used as an index of IMP branch point regulation. It was found that exogenous adenine and guanine produce feedback-controlling effects not only on the first step in the de novo pathway, but also on the IMP branch point. Concentrations of adenine which produce less than 40% inhibition of the overall rate of de novo purine synthesis do so by selectively inhibiting adenine nucleotide synthesis de novo by 50 to 70% while stimulating guanine nucleotide synthesis de novo by up to 20%. A reciprocal effect is seen with exogenous guanine. The adenosine analog 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside selectivity inhibits adenine nucleotide synthesis via the de novo pathway but not from exogenous hypoxanthine. Thus, the reactions of purine nucleotide interconversion, in particular adenylosuccinate synthetase, may be regulated differently in cells deriving their purine nucleotides solely from de novo synthesis than when deriving them via "salvage" of preformed hypoxanthine.  (+info)

The cytotoxicity of DNA carboxymethylation and methylation by the model carboxymethylating agent azaserine in human cells. (2/103)

Carboxymethylating agents are potential sources of endogenous DNA damage that have been proposed as possible contributors to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. The cytotoxicity of the model DNA carboxymethylating agent azaserine was investigated in human cells. Expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) did not affect sensitivity to the drug in two related Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. DNA mismatch repair-defective variants of Raji cells which display increased tolerance to DNA methylation damage were not selectively resistant to azaserine. Complementary results were obtained with a second carboxymethylating agent, potassium diazoacetate. In contrast, lymphoblastoid cell lines representative of each of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups, including the variant, were all significantly more sensitive to azaserine than nucleotide excision repair-proficient cells. The hypersensitivity of XP cells was not due to systematic differences in the concentrations of intracellular thiol compounds or related thiol metabolizing enzymes. The data indicate that of the two types of potentially lethal DNA damage which azaserine introduces, carboxymethylated bases and O(6)-methylguanine, the former are repaired by nucleotide excision repair and are a more significant contributor to azaserine lethality in human cells.  (+info)

Regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport by chronic glucose exposure in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (3/103)

Chronic hyperglycemia causes insulin resistance, termed glucose toxicity. Herein we studied chronic glucose-dependent regulation of the glucose transport system in adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated for up to 24 h with low (1 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose, and glucose transport was subsequently analyzed. 100 nM insulin was present throughout the experiments. 24 h incubation with 1 mM glucose caused a 2.3+/-0.4 fold increase in glucose transport activity, compared to the values obtained with 25 mM glucose. This difference was not observed when 24 h incubation was carried out without insulin. Glucose transport activity was not increased at 3 or 6 h incubation with 1 mM glucose, but was increased at 12 h, which closely paralleled increased expression of GLUT1. In addition to increased GLUT1 expression, more efficient translocation of GLUT1 to the plasma membrane was observed when incubated with 1 mM glucose compared to 25 mM glucose. The addition of azaserin or deprivation of glutamine at 25 mM glucose did not increase the glucose transport activity to the level obtained with 1 mM glucose. PD98059 did not affect glucose transport activity when incubated with 1 mM or 25 mM glucose. In conclusion, the present study is the first to show that, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, chronic exposure to low (1 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose leads to different insulin-stimulated glucose transport activities. These differences result from the difference in the expression and plasma membrane distribution of GLUT1, but not of GLUT4, and the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase is not involved.  (+info)

Cellular autophagic capacity is highly increased in azaserine-induced premalignant atypical acinar nodule cells. (4/103)

Although cellular autophagy is recognized as a major pathway of macromolecular catabolism, little data are available regarding its activity or regulation in tumor cells. We approach this problem by morphometrical investigation into the possible changes in autophagic activity during progression of rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced by azaserine and promoted by a raw soya flour-containing pancreatotrophic diet. In the present study, the autophagic capacity of the carcinogen-induced premalignant atypical acinar nodule cells was characterized and compared with controls (normal tissue of rats kept on standard laboratory or pancreatotrophic diet and host tissue of the premalignant nodules of the azaserine-treated rats). Given for 90 min, vinblastine, an enhancer of autophagic segregation (i.e. formation of autophagic vacuoles), caused a one to two orders of magnitude larger expansion of the autophagic compartment in atypical nodule cells than in the controls. Then a 20 min blockade of segregation by cycloheximide led to regression of the autophagic compartment, which was barely measurable or moderate in the controls but exceeded 50% in the premalignant cells. At the same time, the cytoplasmic volume fraction of early autophagic vacuoles regressed to a near zero value in each cell type. Expansion and regression rates of these nascent vacuoles showed that both segregation and degradation were 6-20 times faster in the nodule than in normal tissue cells. These results show that the autophagic capacity of the premalignant cells in our system is greatly increased, possibly making these cells unusually sensitive to up-regulation of their self-digesting activity in response to different extracellular signals or drugs.  (+info)

Role of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor p48 in the differentiation phenotype of exocrine pancreas cancer cells. (5/103)

The majority of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas display a ductal phenotype; experimental studies indicate that tumors with this phenotype can arise from both acinar and ductal cells. In normal pancreas acinar cells, the pancreas transcription factor 1 transcriptional complex is required for gene expression. Pancreas transcription factor 1 is a heterooligomer of pancreas-specific (p48) and ubiquitous (p75/E2A and p64/HEB) basic helix-loop-helix proteins. We have examined the role of p48 in the phenotype of azaserine-induced rat DSL6 tumors and cancers of the human exocrine pancreas. Serially transplanted acinar DSL6 tumors express p48 whereas DSL6-derived cell lines, and the tumors induced by them, display a ductal phenotype and lack p48. In human pancreas cancer cell lines and tissues, p48 is present in acinar tumors but not in ductal tumors. Transfection of ductal pancreas cancers with p48 cDNA did not activate the expression of amylase nor a reporter gene under the control of the rat elastase promoter. In some cell lines, p48 was detected in the nucleus whereas in others it was cytoplasmic, as in one human acinar tumor. Together with prior work, our findings indicate that p48 is associated with the acinar phenotype of exocrine pancreas cancers and it is necessary, but not sufficient, for the expression of the acinar phenotype.  (+info)

Biallelic methylation and silencing of mouse Aprt in normal kidney cells. (6/103)

Heritable gene silencing is an important mechanism of tumor suppressor gene inactivation in a variety of human cancers. In the present study, we show that methylation-associated silencing of the autosomal adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (Aprt) locus occurs in primary mouse kidney cells. Aprt-deficient cells were isolated from mice that were heterozygous for Aprt, i.e., they contained one wild-type Aprt allele and one targeted allele bearing an insertion of the bacterial neo gene. Although silencing of the wild-type allele alone was sufficient for the cells to become completely Aprt-deficient, biallelic methylation of the promoter region was found to occur. Moreover, despite the absence of selective pressure against the targeted allele, phenotypic silencing of the inserted neo gene accompanied silencing of the wild-type Aprt allele. A potential role for allelic homology in these events is discussed.  (+info)

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 is regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level. (7/103)

In vivo studies suggest that sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 plays a key role in the up-regulation of lipogenic genes in the livers of animals that have consumed excess amounts of carbohydrates. In light of this, we sought to use an established mouse hepatocyte cell line, H2-35, to further define the mechanism by which glucose regulates nuclear SREBP-1 levels. First, we show that these cells transcribe high levels of SREBP-1c that are increased 4-fold upon differentiation from a prehepatocyte to a hepatocyte phenotype, making them an ideal cell culture model for the study of SREBP-1c induction. Second, we demonstrate that the presence of precursor and mature forms of SREBP-1 protein are positively regulated by medium glucose concentrations ranging from 5. 5 to 25 mm and are also regulated by insulin, with the amount of insulin in the fetal bovine serum being sufficient for maximal stimulation of SREBP-1 expression. Third, we show that the increase in SREBP-1 protein is due to an increase in SREBP-1 mRNA. Reporter gene analysis of the SREBP-1c promoter demonstrated a glucose-dependent induction of transcription. In contrast, expression of a fixed amount of the precursor form of SREBP-1c protein showed that glucose does not influence its cleavage. Fourth, we demonstrate that the glucose induction of SREBP could not be reproduced by fructose, xylose, or galactose nor by glucose analogs 2-deoxy glucose and 3-O-methyl glucopyranose. These data provide strong evidence for the induction of SREBP-1c mRNA by glucose leading to increased mature protein in the nucleus, thus providing a potential mechanism for the up-regulation of lipogenic genes by glucose in vivo.  (+info)

Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in azaserine-treated rats. (8/103)

Development of a model of carcinoma of the pancreas in rats was approached by attempting to identify chemicals that (a) behave as mutagens and (b) localize in the pancreas following systemic administration; and then to study the effects of long-term administration. Azaserine was selected because it behaves as a direct-acting mutagen in two bacterial test systems and because tissue distribution studies showed concentration especially in kidney and pancreas. Groups of rats have been given i.p. injections once or twice weekly for 6 months, and rats have been autopsied after 6 to 18 months. During the first year pancreases developed (a) nodules of atypical exocrine cells which seem to represent hyperplastic foci and (b) encapsulated adenomas. After 1 year most pancreases from treated rats are diffusely abnormal and contain many hyperplastic nodules and adenomas, while more than one-quarter have had pancreatic adenocarcimona. Metastases have been observed in lymph nodes, liver, and lung. No carcinomas or adenomas have been observed in control rats. No other organ shows as high an incidence of involvement as pancreas, but renal neoplasms were frequent. Studies with another chemical O-(N-methyl-N-nitroso-beta-alanyl)-L-serine, are at an earlier stage. The tissue distribution of radioactivity following injection of a 14C-labeled sample is similar to that of azaserine; however, this compound is not a direct-acting bacterial mutagen. Rats treated for 6 months twice weekly i.p. have a higher incidence of nodules of atypical acinar cells than did controls, although the number of nodules per rat is few. No adenomas or carcinomas have been found during 13 months of the study. We conclude that azaserine is a carcinogen in rats and causes major abnormalities of growth and differentiation of the exocrine pancreas, including adenocarcinoma in some rats. O-(N-Methyl-N-mitroso-beta-alanyl)-L-serine had less effect than azaserine on pancreatic growth and differentiation.  (+info)

Looking for azaserine? Find out information about azaserine. C4H7O4N3 An antibiotic produced by a species of Streptomyces or by synthesis; used in treatment of acute leukemia Explanation of azaserine
Carboxymethylating agents are potential sources of endogenous DNA damage that have been proposed as possible contributors to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. The cytotoxicity of the model DNA carboxymethylating agent azaserine was investigated in human cells. Expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) did not affect sensitivity to the drug in two related Raji Burkitts lymphoma cell lines. DNA mismatch repair-defective variants of Raji cells which display increased tolerance to DNA methylation damage were not selectively resistant to azaserine. Complementary results were obtained with a second carboxymethylating agent, potassium diazoacetate. In contrast, lymphoblastoid cell lines representative of each of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups, including the variant, were all significantly more sensitive to azaserine than nucleotide excision repair-proficient cells. The hypersensitivity of XP cells was not due to systematic differences in the ...
Chemoprevention by retinoids of the progression of carcinomas induced in rats by azaserine was evaluated. Wistar/Lewis rats were given 15 weekly injections of azaserine, 10 mg/kg, while fed a chow diet; after the completion of carcinogen treatment, they were fed a chow diet supplemented with four different retinoids at the level of 0.5 to 2 mmol/kg diet for 1 year. The incidence of neoplasms was determined by autopsy and histological study. The incidence of pancreatic carcinoma among a male positive control group (azaserine treated, but not retinoid treated) was 42%. The incidence of pancreatic carcinoma among male rats treated with retinoids was: N-2-hydroxyethylretinamide, 6%; N-4-propionyloxyphenylretinamide, 17%; and retinylidene dimedone, 12%. The incidence in rats fed these three retinoids was significantly (p , 0.05) below the control group incidence. Thus, these three retinoids appeared to be effective in inhibiting the progression of pancreatic carcinomas in the azaserine-induced model. ...
The cardioprotective capacity and the influence on myocardial O-GlcNAc levels of plasma dialysate from eight healthy volunteers and eight type 2 diabetic patients drawn before and after subjection to an rIPC stimulus were tested on human isolated atrial trabeculae subjected to ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Dialysate from healthy volunteers exposed to rIPC improved post-ischaemic haemodynamic recovery (40 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 2%; P , 0.01) and increased myocardial O-GlcNAc levels. Similar observations were made with dialysate from diabetic patients before exposure to rIPC (43 ± 3 vs. 16 ± 2%; P , 0.001) but no additional cardioprotection or further increase in O-GlcNAc levels was achieved by perfusion with dialysate after exposure to rIPC (44 ± 4 and 42 ± 5 vs. 43 ± 3%; P = 0.7). The glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) inhibitor azaserine abolished the cardioprotective effects and the increment in myocardial O-GlcNAc levels afforded by plasma from diabetic patients and healthy ...
Despite recent advances in outlining the mechanisms involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis, precise molecular pathways and cellular lineage specification remains incompletely understood. We show here that Cyr61/CCN1 play a critical role in pancreatic carcinogenesis through the induction of EMT and stemness. Cyr61 mRNA and protein were detected in the early precursor lesions and their expression intensified with disease progression. Cyr61/CCN1 expression was also detected in different pancreatic cancer cell lines. The aggressive cell lines, in which the expressions of mesenchymal/stem cell molecular markers are predominant; exhibit more Cyr61/CCN1 expression. Cyr61 expression is exorbitantly higher in cancer stem/tumor initiating Panc-1-side-population (SP) cells. Upon Cyr61/CCN1 silencing, the aggressive behaviors are reduced by obliterating interlinking pathobiological events such as reversing the EMT, blocking the expression of stem-cell-like traits and inhibiting migration. In contrast, addition of
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed and tested a vaccine that triggered the growth of immune cell nodules within pancreatic tumors, essentially reprogramming these intractable cancers and potentially making them vulnerable to immune-based therapies.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed and tested a vaccine that triggered the growth of immune cell nodules within pancreatic tumors, essentially reprogramming these intractable cancers and potentially making them vulnerable to immune-based therapies.
So now there are 21 proteogenic amino acids…right?. Actually, there are 22 of them discovered till now. The last one is named Pyrrolysine, but it makes proteins only in prokaryotes (methanogenic archaea and bacteria).. So is there any other amino acids that are not PROTEOGENIC?. The proteogenic pool of amino acid is only a small part of the whole amino acid pool. There are many times more amino acids that dont produce proteins. Usually, the amino acids that dont have any associated genetic code wont produce proteins (they cant take part in translation), and so are non-proteogenic.. This is quite logical. Any organic molecule having at least one of each amine and carboxyl group can be called an amino acid and we have only limited number of genetic codes.. Examples of non-proteogenic amino acids are - ornithine, citrulline etc. in hepatic metabolism. The argininosuccinic acid in the urea cycle, S-adenosylmethionine, azaserine in streptomycin, synthetically produced (at least commercially) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computer-aided assessment of the extra-cellular matrix during pancreatic carcinogenesis. T2 - Journal of Translational Medicine. AU - Grizzi, Fabio. AU - Fiorino, Sirio. AU - Qehajaj, Dorina. AU - Fornelli, Adele. AU - Russo, Carlo. AU - De Biase, Dario. AU - Masetti, Michele. AU - Mastrangelo, Laura. AU - Zanello, Matteo. AU - Lombardi, Raffaele. AU - Domanico, Andrea. AU - Accogli, Esterita. AU - Tura, Andrea. AU - Mirandola, Leonardo. AU - Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio. AU - Bresalier, Robert S.. AU - Jovine, Elio. AU - Leandri, Paolo. AU - Di Tommaso, Luca. N1 - Copyright the Author(s) 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.. PY - 2019/2/28. Y1 - 2019/2/28. N2 - Background: A hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the desmoplastic reaction, but its impact on the tumor behavior remains controversial. Our aim was to introduce a ...
Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFAT1) catalyzes the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate. It is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway, in which fructose-6-phosphate is converted to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate. The end-products of the hexosamine pathway are UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and other nucleotide hexosamines. Activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to insulin resistance, largely from deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function through the induction of oxidative stress. GFAT1 is also known as glutamine:fructose 6 phosphate amidotransferase 1, hexosephosphate aminotransferase 1, D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1, GFA, GFAT, GFPT, MSLG, CMSTA1, GFAT1m, and GFPT1L.. ...
Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFAT1) catalyzes the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate. It is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway, in which fructose-6-phosphate is converted to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate. The end-products of the hexosamine pathway are UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and other nucleotide hexosamines. Activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to insulin resistance, largely from deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function through the induction of oxidative stress. GFAT1 is also known as glutamine:fructose 6 phosphate amidotransferase 1, hexosephosphate aminotransferase 1, D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1, GFA, GFAT, GFPT, MSLG, CMSTA1, GFAT1m, and GFPT1L.. ...
Using immunohistochemistry, Northern blotting and a semi-quantitative PCR technique, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression were studied in the pancreas of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)-amine (BOP)-treated hamsters. After initiation pancreatic carcinogenesis was modulated by a high fat diet or by injections with the cholecystokinin analogue caerulein. Autopsies were performed 6 and 12 months after the last injection with BOP. Immunohistochemistry revealed a weak expression of TGF-α innormal acinar cells and a stronger expression in ductular and centro-acinar cells. Over-expression of TGFα was observed in advanced putative preneoplastic lesions (classified as borderline lesions) and in ductular adenocarcinomas. EGFR immunoreactivity was present only in ductular adenocarcinomas. EGF peptide expression was observed both in acinar and ductular normal and tumorous cells and the level of expression did not change ...
From claims to limit its intake or cut it out altogether, its not uncommon for fat to be misrepresented. So when it comes to types whats the difference?
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered to be a highly immunosuppressive and heterogenous neoplasm. Despite improved knowledge regarding the genetic background of the tumor and better understanding of the tumor microenvironment, immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (targeting CTLA4, PD1, PDL1) has not been very successful against PDAC. The robust desmoplastic stroma, along with an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) that is rich in hyaluronan, plays an integral role in this immune evasion. Hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), a shunt pathway of glycolysis, is a metabolic node in cancer cells that can promote survival pathways on one hand and influence the hyaluronan synthesis in the ECM on the other. The rate-limiting enzyme of the pathway, glutamine-fructose amidotransferase (GFAT1), uses glutamine and fructose 6-phosphate to eventually synthesize UDP-GlcNAc. In the current manuscript, we targeted this glutamine-utilizing enzyme by a small molecule glutamine analog ...
Double bonds may be in either a cis or a trans isomer, depending on the geometry of the double bond. In the cis isomer, hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond; whereas in the trans isomer, they are on opposite sides of the double bond (see trans fat). Saturated fats are useful in processed foods because saturated fats are less vulnerable to rancidity and usually more solid at room temperature than unsaturated fats. Unsaturated chains have a lower melting point, hence these molecules increase the fluidity of cell membranes. Although both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can replace saturated fat in the diet, trans unsaturated fats should not. Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats helps lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood.[1] Trans unsaturated fats are an exception because the double bond stereochemistry predisposes the carbon chains to assume a linear conformation, which conforms to rigid packing as in plaque formation. The geometry ...
Glukosamin pertama kali diidentifikasi oleh Dr. Georg Ledderhose pada tahun 1876, tetapi struktur stereokimia tidak sepenuhnya diketahui sampai ditemukan oleh Walter Haworth pada tahun 1939.[1] D-Glukosamin dibuat secara alami dalam bentuk glukosamin-6-fosfat, dan merupakan prekursor biokimia dari semua gula yang mengandung nitrogen.[2] Specifically, glucosamine-6-phosphate is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate and glutamine[3] as the first step of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway.[4] Produk akhir dari lintasan ini adalah UDP-N-asetilglukosamin (UDP-GlcNAc), yang kemudian digunakan untuk membentuk glikosaminoglikan, proteoglikan, dan glikolipid. Pembentukan glukosamin-6-fosfat merupakan tahap awal untuk menyintesis produk ini. Glukosamin merupakan komponen penting dalam meregulasi produksi senyawa tersebut. Walaupun demikian, bagaimana lintasan biosintesis heksoamin diregulasi dan bagaimana hal ini dapat berpengaruh terhadap penyakit manusia masih belum terlalu jelas [5] ...
Last time I wrote about saturated fat, typically considered a bad egg in the fats family. In that respect, unsaturated fat is treated as the golden child. The American Heart Association recommends getting most dietary fat from sources of unsaturated fats, rather than saturated or trans-fats. The Mayo Clinic more or less recommends the same. So,…
The location of a grids current (focused) cell (or row) can be changed using keyboard, mouse or through code. In order to change cell focus successfully to another position, we must test the target position to see if it is allowed to receive cell focus. When using keyboard, the property AutoAdvance performs part of the process by finding what should be the next focused cell. When using mouse clicks or moving by code, focus will not move from the current cell unless the target cell is permitted to receive focus. The grid calls function SelectCell to see if a cell is focusable: if this function returns true, then the target cell identified with arguments aCol and aRow is focusable (the current implementation of TCustomGrid simply returns true). TCustomDrawGrid and hence TDrawGrid and TStringGrid override this method to check first if cell is any wider than 0; normally you dont want a 0 width cell selected so a cell with these characteristics is skipped automatically in the process of finding a ...
Fuzions MD-Series weighs up to 100g with 0.01g accuracy. This scale features auto switch-off and 6 weighing modes, auto calibration and protection from over- and under-loading. Runs on 2x 3V CR2032 (included). Looks like a mini disc collection and comes with leatherette carry pouch.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hexosamine Biosynthesis Is a Possible Mechanism Underlying Hypoxias Effects on Lipid Metabolism in Human Adipocytes. AU - ORourke, Robert W.. AU - Meyer, Kevin A.. AU - Gaston, Garen. AU - White, Ashley E.. AU - Lumeng, Carey N.. AU - Marks, Daniel L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/8/14. Y1 - 2013/8/14. N2 - Introduction:Hypoxia regulates adipocyte metabolism. Hexosamine biosynthesis is implicated in murine 3T3L1 adipocyte differentiation and is a possible underlying mechanism for hypoxias effects on adipocyte metabolism.Methods:Lipid metabolism was studied in human visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes in in vitro hypoxic culture with adipophilic staining, glycerol release, and palmitate oxidation assays. Gene expression and hexosamine biosynthesis activation was studied with QRTPCR, immunofluorescence microscopy, and Western blotting.Results:Hypoxia inhibits lipogenesis and induces basal lipolysis in visceral and subcutaneous ...
We examined the effect of voluntary physical exercise (running wheels) on pancreatic carcinogenicity of N-nitrosobis-(2-oxopropyl) amine (BOP) in groups of female Syrian hamsters fed a high-fat (HF) diet in which corn oil was 24.6% of the diet or a low-fat (LF) diet in which corn oil was 4.5% of the …
We report that the relative β-cell volume in humans with both IFG and type 2 diabetes is decreased.. A limitation of the present studies is use of the relative β-cell volume as a surrogate of β-cell mass. This approach will be in error to the extent that there were differences in the overall mean pancreatic weight among groups. However, available data suggest that the pancreatic weight is similar (21,22) or decreased in patients with diabetes (9,27). If pancreatic weight is decreased in type 2 diabetes, then use of the insulin-positive area as a percentage of total exocrine area should introduce, if anything, a conservative error and underestimate any decrease in β-cell mass in type 2 diabetes. Earlier reports that the β-cell mass is decreased in type 2 diabetes may have included cases of type 1 diabetes (17,18). However, more recent reports in which clinical information was better characterized conclude that β-cell mass is decreased in type 2 diabetes (9,22,24), whereas others report no ...
Answers from doctors on biological compounds saturated vs unsaturated fats. First: Both these types of fat have been shown to reduce bad LDL cholesterol and increase good HDL cholesterol. Like any fat, they contain calories, so any extra fat should replace existing calories from saturated fat or carbohydrates.
Fats come in many forms and affect your health in different ways. Learn about fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated fats and the chemistry of fats.
The alteration of glucose metabolism, through increased uptake of glucose and glutamine addiction, is essential to cancer cell growth and invasion. Increased flux of glucose through the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) drives increased cellular O-GlcNAcylation (hyper-O-GlcNAcylation) and contributes to cancer progression by regulating key oncogenes. However, the association between hyper-O-GlcNAcylation and activation of these oncogenes remains poorly characterized. Here, we implement a qualitative modeling framework to analyze the role of the Biological Regulatory Network in HBP activation and its potential effects on key oncogenes. Experimental observations are encoded in a temporal language format and model checking is applied to infer the model parameters and qualitative model construction. Using this model, we discover step-wise genetic alterations that promote cancer development and invasion due to an increase in glycolytic flux, and reveal critical trajectories involved in cancer progression
The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, whose end product is UDP-N acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), lies at the base of cellular glycosylation pathways, including glycosylation of lipids, formation of heparin sulfated proteoglycans, and N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins. Forward genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed that mutations in genes encoding different enzymes of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway result in reduction of UDP-GlcNAc to different extents, with a consequent disruption of distinct glycosylation pathways and developmental processes. A maternal and zygotic loss-of-function screen has identified mutations in nesthocker (nst), which encodes an enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Embryos lacking maternal and zygotic nst gene products show defective O-GlcNAcylation of a fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-specific adaptor protein, which impairs FGFR-dependent migration of mesodermal and tracheal cells.. ...
Unsaturated fats have been shown to improve health when used in place of other fats. There are two types of unsaturated fats, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated, both of which are liquid at room temperature. Two types of polyunsaturated fat, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, cannot be produced by the human body, but play an essential role in brain development, skin and hair growth, bone health, maintaining a healthy reproductive system and even in regulating our metabolism. Plus, both types promote coronary health by lowering bad LDL cholesterol and raising good HDL cholesterol.. Dietary fats are an essential part of the human diet. Not only do they help us feel satisfied, they help the body use proteins and carbohydrates more efficiently. Fat also aids in the digestion of vitamins A, D, E and K. But as we know, not all fats are created equal. To increase your intake of unsaturated fats, try replacing other fatty foods with these 5 items:. 1. Olive Oil ...
Depending on the cellular context, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) has been observed to exert protumorigenic functions, such as inducing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), or inhibit tumorigenesis by activating apoptosis. The proapoptotic functions of TGFβ have been linked with the transcription factor SMAD4, which acts downstream of TGFβ and is frequently deleted in pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC). To elucidate the mechanism by which TGFβ promotes apoptosis, David and colleagues used a Kras-mutant/Smad4-deleted PDAC murine model and found that reintroduction of SMAD4 sensitized cells to TGFβ treatment and promoted changes in cell morphology and loss of E-cadherin consistent with EMT. Moreover, SNAIL was shown to be upregulated following TGFβ treatment, and genetic depletion of SNAIL inhibited TGFβ-induced EMT, apoptosis, and accelerated pancreatic carcinogenesis in SMAD4-wild-type cells, raising the unexpected possibility that EMT precedes apoptosis and is required for ...
Proceddings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 1989 May;191(1):47-54 The effects of additional but nontoxic amounts of vitamin A on susceptibility to salmonella infection was studied by comparing rates of bacterial clearance and phagocytosis. Forty-eight male Lewis rats were divided into a treatment group receiving a total of 6000 units of vitamin A palmitate weekly for 5 weeks and a control group was given an equal volume of saline. After completion of the treatment regimen, one-half from each group were infected intraperitoneally with 10(5) Salmonella typhimurium; the other half received intraperitoneal injection of saline. At this time no differences in weight gain were noted and all animals were sacrificed within 2 weeks. At 72 hr after bacterial challenge, all saline-treated control animals displayed bacteremia. Cultures of liver and splenic homogenates were positive in 89 and 100% of infected control animals vs 0 and 44% for treated animals during the first week of ...
RESULTS: We defined three distinctive phases-termed inflammation, regeneration and refinement-following induction of moderate acute pancreatitis in wild-type mice. These corresponded to different waves of proliferation of mesenchymal, progenitor-like and acinar cells. Pancreas regeneration required a coordinated transition of proliferation between progenitor-like and acinar cells. In mice harbouring an oncogenic Kras mutation and challenged with pancreatitis, there was an extended inflammatory phase and a parallel, continuous proliferation of mesenchymal, progenitor-like and acinar cells. Analysis of high-resolution transcriptional data from wild-type animals revealed that organ regeneration relied on a complex interaction of a gene network that normally governs acinar cell homeostasis, exocrine specification and intercellular signalling. In mice with oncogenic Kras, a specific carcinogenic signature was found, which was preserved in full-blown mouse pancreas cancer ...
Molecular association of cancer cell metastasis with signaling pathways has been explicated so as to aid in the development of new prognostic models for better cancer therapies. However, those metastatic signaling pathways are barely explored to take account of the functions of enzymes involved in cellular metabolism. Particularly, the metabolic enzymes in de novo purine biosynthesis have been overlooked for their potential roles in cancer cell metastasis even though they have been successfully validated anti-cancer drug targets. Meanwhile, several lines of recent discoveries on de novo purine biosynthesis suggest that the spatiotemporal assembly of purine biosynthetic enzymes, the purinosome, is under controls of signaling pathways in cancer cells. The results of the inquiry reveal an unanticipated mechanism of action of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) signaling pathways in regulation of purine biosynthesis in an Akt-independent manner. Considering the biological action of ...
Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), which plays a pivotal role in the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Therefore, we investigated the prognostic significance of GFPT1 expression in patients with resectable PDAC. We analyzed public datasets to compare GFPT1 expression in tumor tissues and normal/adjacent pancreatic tissues. We measured the relative GFPT1 expression of 134 resected PDAC specimens in our institution, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Survival was compared between high and low GFPT1 expression groups using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses were estimated using Cox regression and logistic regression models. GFPT1 is generally upregulated in PDAC tissues, according to the analysis of public datasets. The data from our institution shows that high GFPT1 expression was correlated with a high rate of lymph node (LN) metastasis (p = 0
Animals. Lewis rats were obtained from Charles River and were maintained in isolation cages in the Department of Laboratory and Animal Resources at the University of Pittsburgh. Animals were housed in temperature- and light/dark cycle-controlled rooms.. Induction of liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was induced as described previously by using phenobarbital and CCl4 (both Sigma-Aldrich) when inbred male Lewis rats, weighing 100-130 g, were 4 weeks old (16). Rats were given phenobarbital (0.5 g/l) added to the drinking water. Starting 2 weeks later, CCl4 (diluted 1:9 in olive oil) was administered by gavage twice a week. Following an initial dose of 0.2 ml/kg, each subsequent dose was adjusted weekly on the basis of changes in body weight. If body weight increased or remained unchanged, CCl4 was continued at 0.2 ml/kg twice weekly. When body weight decreased by 1-5 g, the dose of CCl4 was reduced to 0.15 ml/kg, and if body weight decreased by 6-10 g, the CCl4 was reduced to 0.1 ml/kg. In rats that ...
Fat is a small world with a huge reputation. We are taught from a young age that fats are bad and we should stay away from them, but most people do not truly understand what a fat really is. Fat is the common name for the molecule triglyceride, which is an ester that comes from glycerol, a carbon chain with 3 hydroxyl substituents, and three fatty acids. The main two types of triglycerides are saturated and unsaturated fats, which differ in the bonding of the carbon chain in the molecule. The linear, saturated fats have all single carbon bonds and the maximum number of hydrogen bonds. This is unlike unsaturated fats, which have double bonds between some carbon atoms, creating a kink in the carbon chain. Although a double bond may not seem like a huge difference, on a molecular level it radically changes the properties of the molecule and the ways in which our bodies react to it. Within the realm of unsaturated fats, there are two geometric isomers that can exist. These are cis-fats and ...
Vitamin E Needs Increases with PUFA Consumption and Greater Unsaturation February 20, 2016 Posted in General.. Comments Off on Vitamin E Needs Increases with PUFA Consumption and Greater Unsaturation ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
When is A Thyroid nodule with Hurthle cells not a neoplasm but part of a chronic thyroidits? Answer: When there are lymphocytes seen in the Hurthle cell nodule.. ...
les effet de viagra Cyclic amp camp mediates many actions of transmitters and nd trimesters radical hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophrectomy bso for severe persistent impairment in functioning necessary for behavioural and emotional disturbance. Quantitative cardiolipin non-treponemal tests, i. E. Parts and than they are going to give the biggest rise in serum creatinine of micromol l cockcroft dw, gault mh. At high doses, can cause tenosynovitis of apl and epb. N engl j med. Itching and rashes skin changes are seen next to skin: Avoid synthetics especially nylon and wool intrinsically itchy. Equally, it is useful to d the risk from contracting the muscle bundles between clear cell nodules, or thickened soft tissue decompression: Conditions that could be readily categorized into two groups, either to test the null hypothesis is true. Wertheimer j psychiatry of substance misuse giving drinking advice there are generally second-choice formulations, but they work across the upper arms, and ...
Pancreatic cancer is almost invariably associated with mutations in the KRAS gene, most commonly KRASG12D, that result in a dominant-active form of the KRAS GTPase. However, how KRAS mutations promote pancreatic carcinogenesis is not fully understood, and whether oncogenic KRAS is required for the maintenance of pancreatic cancer has not been established. To address these questions, we generated two mouse models of pancreatic tumorigenesis: mice transgenic for inducible KrasG12D, which allows for inducible, pancreas-specific, and reversible expression of the oncogenic KrasG12D, with or without inactivation of one allele of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Here, we report that, early in tumorigenesis, induction of oncogenic KrasG12D reversibly altered normal epithelial differentiation following tissue damage, leading to precancerous lesions. Inactivation of KrasG12D in established precursor lesions and during progression to cancer led to regression of the lesions, indicating that KrasG12D was ...
Majid Ali, M.D. OUTLINE I. Introduction II. Glycomics III. Complexities of Structure IV. Complexities of Function V. Cellular Glucose Oxidation VI. Carbohydrates and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species VII. The Too-Much/Too-Little Sugar Dilemma VIII. Rapid Hyperglycemic-Hypoglycemic Shifts IX. Glucose Toxicity and Hexosamine Pathways X. Sugars and Prions XI. Sugars and the Inflammatory Response XII. Sugars,…
APRT - APRT (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Many plant foods are perfectly safe to eat raw, but soybeans arent among them. Some of the components found in raw soybeans can cause short term digestive problems, as well as possible long-term ...
Covering: up to the end of 2009 Detecting deficiency and excess of different metal ions is fundamental for every organism. Our understanding of how metals are detected by bacteria is exceptionally well advanced, and multiple families of cytoplasmic DNA-binding, metal-sensing transcriptional regul Metals in cells Focus on speakers from Biometals 2012
Doctors and nutritionists have long warned of the dangers of saturated and trans fats. But unsaturated fats are beneficial, particularly if eaten in place…
... produces the antibiotic azaserine. List of Streptomyces species LPSN bacterio.net Straininfo of ...
1993). "Effects of the purine biosynthesis pathway inhibitors azaserine, hadacidin, and mycophenolic acid on the developing ...
For instance, glutamine analogues azaserine and 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) can inhibit GFAT, though these molecules may ...
... azaserine MeSH D12.125.837.150 - cycloserine MeSH D12.125.837.225 - droxidopa MeSH D12.125.837.300 - enterobactin MeSH D12.125. ...
Azasan azaserine (INN) azasetron (INN) azaspirium chloride (INN) azastene (INN) azatadine (INN) azatepa (INN) azathioprine (INN ...
... has a solubility of 50 mg/mL in water, a melting point of 146-162 °C, a vapor pressure of 1.53x10−10mmHg at 25 °C, ... Azaserine also downregulates the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in response to TNF-α, and research indicates that it may have ... Azaserine inhibits the rate limiting step of the metabolic hexosamine pathway and irreversibly inhibits γ-glutamyltransferase ... Azaserine is a naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic and antibiotic properties deriving from ...
Azaserine has a solubility of 50 mg/mL in water, a melting point of 146-162 °C, a vapor pressure of 1.53x10−10mmHg at 25 °C, ... Azaserine also downregulates the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in response to TNF-α, and research indicates that it may have ... Azaserine inhibits the rate limiting step of the metabolic hexosamine pathway and irreversibly inhibits γ-glutamyltransferase ... Azaserine is a naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic and antibiotic properties deriving from ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance, instead of having the information ...
Inhibition of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis by Retinoids in Azaserine-treated Rats. Daniel S. Longnecker, Thomas J. Curphey, Elna T ... Inhibition of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis by Retinoids in Azaserine-treated Rats. Daniel S. Longnecker, Thomas J. Curphey, Elna T ... Inhibition of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis by Retinoids in Azaserine-treated Rats. Daniel S. Longnecker, Thomas J. Curphey, Elna T ... Inhibition of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis by Retinoids in Azaserine-treated Rats Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Azaserine Illinois EPA list. Keith list. Colborn list. Benbrook list. Danish Inert list. EU list. Not Listed. Not Listed. Not ... Azaserine WHO Acute Hazard. TRI Acute Hazard. Material Safety Data Sheets. Acute rating from U.S. EPA product label. U.S. NTP ... Azaserine IARC Carcinogens. U.S. NTP Carcinogens. California Prop 65 Known Carcinogens. U.S. EPA Carcinogens. TRI Carcinogen. ... Azaserine CA Prop 65 Developmental Toxin. U.S. TRI Developmental Toxin. CA Prop 65 Female Reproductive Toxin. CA Prop 65 Male ...
The Influence of Azaserine and 6-Mercaptopurine on the in Vivo Metabolism of Ascites Tumor Cells. J. F. Fernandes, G. A. LePage ... The Influence of Azaserine and 6-Mercaptopurine on the in Vivo Metabolism of Ascites Tumor Cells ... The Influence of Azaserine and 6-Mercaptopurine on the in Vivo Metabolism of Ascites Tumor Cells ... The Influence of Azaserine and 6-Mercaptopurine on the in Vivo Metabolism of Ascites Tumor Cells ...
Azaserine is a naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic and antibiotic properties deriving from ... Azaserine. Azaserine is a naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic and antibiotic properties ... Azaserine is an antibiotic and antifungal; it may also act as a tumor inducer. It is a structural analog of glutamine and ... Send us your enquiry for Azaserine. We offer custom pack sizes at special prices. We aim to respond to your enquiry within 24 ...
Find out information about azaserine. C4H7O4N3 An antibiotic produced by a species of Streptomyces or by synthesis; used in ... azaserine. Also found in: Wikipedia. azaserine. [ə′zas·ə‚rēn] (pharmacology) C4H7O4N3 An antibiotic produced by a species of ... Azaserine , Article about azaserine by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/azaserine ... The cells were finally suspended in culture medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine and dispensed into 10 48-well plates. ...
Sites of Azaserine Inhibition During Photosynthesis byScenedesmus Description: The success attending the use of azaserine as a ... investigation of the products produced during photosynthesis by suspensions of these algae in the presence of azaserine showed ... nature of these effects and to attempt to assess their importance in a general picture of the metabolic effects of azaserine. ...
1993). "Effects of the purine biosynthesis pathway inhibitors azaserine, hadacidin, and mycophenolic acid on the developing ...
azaserine Mass :173.12680 Formula : C5H7N3O4 epichlicin Mass :1043.17320 Formula : C48H74N12O14 protobassic acid Mass : ...
AZASERINE. ACROLEIN AZATHIOPRINE. ACRYLAMIDE AZINPHOS-METHYL. ACRYLIC ACID B-PROPIOLACTONE. ACRYLONITRILE BARIUM, SOLUBLE ...
The cytotoxicity of the model DNA carboxymethylating agent azaserine was investigated in human cells. Expression of the DNA ... The data indicate that of the two types of potentially lethal DNA damage which azaserine introduces, carboxymethylated bases ... The cytotoxicity of DNA carboxymethylation and methylation by the model carboxymethylating agent azaserine in human cells ... the former are repaired by nucleotide excision repair and are a more significant contributor to azaserine lethality in human ...
Azaserine. U010. Azirino[2,3:3,4]pyrrolo [1,2-a]indole-4,7-dione,6-amino-8-[[(aminocarbonyl)oxy]methyl]-1,1a,2,8,8a,8b- ...
Cell Type: Azaserine Induced .plsearchwithin .searchinresults input.text { padding: 7px 4px; font-size: 12px; width: 165px; ...
Inhibition of GFAT by the substrate analogue azaserine or by inhibition of GFAT protein synthesis with antisense ...
Lehman College is a senior liberal arts college in The City University of New York, founded in 1968 and offering more than 50 undergraduate majors and programs; over 40 graduate degree programs; 17 advanced certificates; and 11 doctoral programs in conjunction with the CUNY Graduate Center.
... azaserine or alloxan, or control + azaserine or alloxan. The effects on infarct size, hemodynamic recovery, myocardial O-GlcNAc ... Azaserine, 30 mg/kg/body weight, was injected into rats of Groups 3 and 4 to investigate the effects of 2,4-D acid iso- ... Azaserine and alloxan are unspecific blockers of the HBP and have been used to block the cardioprotective effects of O-GlcNAc. ... Azaserine and alloxan did not block the effect of IPC on O-GlcNAc levels and O-GlcNAc-transferase activity. CONCLUSIONS: IPC ...
U015 115-02-6 Azaserine. U010 50-07-7 Azirino[2,3,ls-thn-eq,3,4]pyrrolo[1,2- a]indole-4,7-dione, 6-amino-8- ...
azaserine. 47. D11. salicylanilide. 95. H11. acrisorcin. 48. D12. CBX. 96. H12. CBX. ...
Antitumor effects of azaserine and DON. Cancer Treat Rep 1979;63:1031-2. ...
azaserine induced lesions of rat pancreas 1-2 months of hyperplasia/dysplasia. ~>1 year--premalignant neoplasm. after 1 year- ...
... azaserine, griseofulvin, oligomycins, neomycin undecylenate, pyrrolnitrin, siccanin, tubercidin, and viridin. Additional ... examples of antifungal compounds include but are not limited to Acrisorcin; Ambruticin; Amphotericin B; Azaconazole; Azaserine ...
Azaserine. Azathioprine. Azacitidine. Azobenzene. Azathioprine B. Benz[a]anthracene. Benzene. Benzidine [and its salts]. ...
Dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) enhances pancreatic carcinogenesis in azaserine-treated rats article. 1996 ... Nutrition · Animals · Anticarcinogenic Agents · Azaserine · Body Weight · Carcinogens · Cell Division · Cocarcinogenesis · ... In the present study the putative chemopreventive effect of dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) on azaserine-induced pancreatic ... Chemicals/CAS: Anticarcinogenic Agents; Azaserine, 115-02-6; Carcinogens; Dietary Fats, Unsaturated; Docosahexaenoic Acids, ...
Zoology · Medicine · Geneeskunde · Pathology · Animal · Azaserine · Body Weight · Cholecystokinin · Dietary Fats · Liver · Male ... Role of cholecystokinin in dietary fat-promoted azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats article. 1992 ... The role of cholecystokinin in dietary fat-promoted pancreatic carcinogenesis was investigated in azaserine-treated rats, using ... Azaserine, 115-02-6; Cholecystokinin, 9011-97-6; Dietary Fats; lorglumide, 97964-56-2; Proglumide, 6620-60-6; Receptors, ...
Roebuck, B.D., MacMillan, D.L., Bush, D.M. & Kensler, T.W. (1984). Modulation of azaserine-induced pancreatic foci by phenolic ... Male LEW inbred rats were given an injection of 30 mg azaserine once a week for 3 weeks, and then maintained on diets ...
Roebuck, B.D., MacMillan, D.L., Bush, D.M., & Kensler, T.W. (1984). Modulation of azaserine-induced pancreatic foci by phenolic ... injection of 30 mg azaserine once a week for 3 weeks. Evaluation of the pancreas 4 months after treatment showed dietary BHA ...
  • In the present study the putative chemopreventive effect of dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) on azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats was investigated. (tudelft.nl)
  • Several HCAs and at least one PAH have carcinogenic effects on the pancreas in experimental rodent models-although the most well-characterized models of experimental pancreatic carcinogenesis employ various nitrosamines or azaserine ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1991, Inhibition by neurotensin of azaserine-induced carcinogenesis in rat pancreas. (dgidb.org)
  • However, investigation of the products produced during photosynthesis by suspensions of these algae in the presence of azaserine showed that a more widespread interference with metabolism had occurred. (unt.edu)
  • The apoM mRNA levels were significantly increased when the cells cultured with glucosamine alone, whereas when the cells cultured with glucosamine in the presence of azaserine the apoM mRNA levels were much lower compared to the cells cultured with glucosamine alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Independent of hexosamine pathway inhibition, azaserine has been demonstrated to protect against hyperglycemic endothelial damage by elevating serum concentrations of manganese-superoxide dismutase, directly reducing the concentration of reactive oxygen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of GFAT by the substrate analogue azaserine or by inhibition of GFAT protein synthesis with antisense oligonucleotide prevented the high glucose-induced increase in cellular glucosamine metabolites and TGF-beta1 expression and bioactivity and subsequent effects on mesangial cell proliferation and matrix production. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of TXNIP by azaserine enhanced glucose uptake and imparted a specific metabolic effect on glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Using an in vitro assay screen, several glutamine antagonists [i.e., 6-diazo-5-oxo-norleucine (DON), acivicin, and azaserine] were identified as human GGH inhibitors, with DON being the most potent and displaying time-dependent inhibition. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chemoprevention by retinoids of the progression of carcinomas induced in rats by azaserine was evaluated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5-2 mmol/kg, have chemopreventive potential, reducing the progression of pancreatic carcinomas induced in rats by five weekly injections of azaserine (Longnecker et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Azaserine inhibits the rate limiting step of the metabolic hexosamine pathway and irreversibly inhibits γ-glutamyltransferase by acting directly at the substrate-binding pocket. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucosamine induced upregulation of apoM expression could be blocked by addition of azaserine, an inhibitor of hexosamine pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hexosamine biosynthesis inhibitor azaserine prevents endothelial inflammation and dysfunction under hyperglycemic condition through antioxidant effects" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The success attending the use of azaserine as a specific inhibitor of one atage in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of inosinic acid in pigeon liver prompted us to use this antibiotic in a similar attack on purine synthesis in Scenedesmus. (unt.edu)
  • 2. Purine synthesis de novo was measured as the rate of incorporation of [ 14 C]formate into α- N -formylglycinamide ribonucleotide when further steps in the biosynthetic pathway had been blocked by azaserine. (clinsci.org)
  • Azaserine inhibits purine biosynthesis by covalently reacting with cysteine residues in the enzyme active sites, such as in formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase and PRPP amidotransferase. (discofinechem.com)
  • The cells were finally suspended in culture medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine and dispensed into 10 48-well plates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Azaserine is a naturally occurring serine derivative diazo compound with antineoplastic and antibiotic properties deriving from its action as a purinergic antagonist and structural similarity to glutamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptomyces fragilis produces the antibiotic azaserine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azaserine effectively increased the expression of GS via attenuating the expression of TXNIP. (bireme.br)
  • The purpose of this communication is to describe the nature of these effects and to attempt to assess their importance in a general picture of the metabolic effects of azaserine. (unt.edu)
  • Azaserine and 6-diaza-5- oxo-L-norleucine antagonized the metabolic process involving L-glutamine and exhibited antitumor activity in animal models [ 3 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • DNA mismatch repair-defective variants of Raji cells which display increased tolerance to DNA methylation damage were not selectively resistant to azaserine. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Experiments directed toward this goal have been conducted with azaserine by Zuckerman, Drell and Levin,l and with diazo-oxonorleucine by Grayzel, Seegmiller and Love.2 Both agents are glutamine antagonists and block an early reaction of purine synthesis. (docme.ru)
  • Azaserine also downregulates the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in response to TNF-α, and research indicates that it may have potential in identifying the L-leucine-favoring system transporter in human T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.01), which indicates that azaserine itself could inhibit apoM expression in HepG2 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cytotoxicity of the model DNA carboxymethylating agent azaserine was investigated in human cells. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • The data indicate that of the two types of potentially lethal DNA damage which azaserine introduces, carboxymethylated bases and O(6)-methylguanine, the former are repaired by nucleotide excision repair and are a more significant contributor to azaserine lethality in human cells. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Effects of glucosamine on mRNA levels of apoM and ApoA1in HepG2 cells HepG2 cells were cultured with different concentrations of glucosamine (panel a ) with or without azaserine (Panel b ) for 24 h. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This step is inhibited by azaserine , the anticancer drug. (biochemden.com)
  • Thus, these three retinoids appeared to be effective in inhibiting the progression of pancreatic carcinomas in the azaserine-induced model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In comparative tests, furthermore, the anti-lymphoma serums acted more powerfully upon the lymphoma cells in vivo than did such chemotherapeutic agents as amethopterin, azaguanine, ethionine, azaserine, and 6-mercaptopurine, given singly or in various combinations in maximal tolerated amounts, though their effects were not so powerful as those exerted by normal guinea pig serum on lymphoma cells of two types that are susceptible to its action in vivo . (rupress.org)
  • Azaserine has a solubility of 50 mg/mL in water, a melting point of 146-162 °C, a vapor pressure of 1.53x10−10mmHg at 25 °C, and decomposes before melting. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, lymphoblastoid cell lines representative of each of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups, including the variant, were all significantly more sensitive to azaserine than nucleotide excision repair-proficient cells. (sussex.ac.uk)