Azaperone: A butyrophenone used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Russia (Pre-1917)Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Clonixin: Anti-inflammatory analgesic.Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.ReadingInvestigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Halofenate: An antihyperlipoproteinemic agent and uricosuric agent.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins: SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Mental Health Associations: Voluntary organizations which support educational programs and research in psychiatry with the objective of the promotion of mental health. An early association in the United States was founded as the National Committee for Mental Hygiene in 1909, became the Mental Health Association in 1976 and later the National Mental Health Association in 1980. State and local mental health associations in this country are chartered by the national organization and affiliated with it.

Effects of azaperone on cardiovascular and respiratory functions in the horse. (1/11)

1 The butyrophenone tranquilizer, azaperone, was administered intramuscularly, at dose levels of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, to ponies and its effects on cardiovascular and respiratory functions assessed. 2 Arterial blood pH, CO2 tension (PaCO2) and O2 tension (PaO2) remained relatively constant throughout the course of action of azaperone. 3 Azaperone did not modify plasma protein concentration but venous blood packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration were reduced by 5 to 10% for at least 4 hours. These changes were probably caused by uptake of erythrocytes into the splenic reservoir. 4 Small increases in heart rate occurred for up to 60 min after administration of the drug, and this was followed by a slight bradycardia in some ponies. 5 Azaperone reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) for at least 4 h, by which time its ataractic action was generally no longer apparent. The hypotension was caused, during the early phase of action at least, by a reduction in peripheral resistance, since cardiac output was increased slightly 20 min after its administration. Possible mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular changes are discussed. 6 In spite of reductions in arterial blood O2 content and MAP produced by azaperone, it is likely that tissue oxygenation was adequate, since arterial blood lactate concentrations were not increased.  (+info)

Responses of the pituitary-adrenal system of the pig to environmental changes and drugs. (2/11)

1 The reactivity of the pituitary-adrenal axis of the young pig was tested for its suitability as a sensitive index for any discomfort that might be experienced under certain conditions of intensive husbandry.2 In a thermoneutral environment, most undisturbed piglets showed only slight variations in the plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids.3 Stimuli such as exposure to ambient temperatures of +40 degrees C or -5 degrees C were required to cause large rises in the plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosteroids.4 Apparently milder stimuli, such as change of environment, slight frustration or changes in ambient temperatures between +5 degrees C and +30 degrees C only rarely caused a significant rise in plasma corticosteroids. Thus changes in plasma corticosteroid concentrations are not a sensitive index for the reaction of a piglet to its environment.5 Increases in plasma ACTH concentrations occurred faster than those of the corticosteroids, were larger when expressed as a percentage of the basal values and occurred following relatively small disturbances such as omission of the reward in an operant behaviour test when corticosteroid changes were often not detectable. Thus rises in plasma ACTH might be a useful indication that a given situation is disturbing to a pig. The reaction of plasma ACTH concentrations to chronic irritations as they might occur in intensive husbandry remains to be investigated.6 Azaperone (2 mg/kg i.m.), a drug which is used as a sedative in pigs, caused a rise of about 50% in plasma corticosteroid concentrations. It did not diminish the large steroid output seen when the animals were exposed to high and low ambient temperatures.  (+info)

Enhanced blood pressure and appetite responses to chronic central melanocortin-3/4 receptor blockade in dietary-induced obesity. (3/11)

 (+info)

Post-farrowing stress management in sows by administration of azaperone: effects on piglets performance. (4/11)

 (+info)

Influence of infused beta-adrenergic agonists on porcine blood metabolites and catecholamines. (5/11)

Anesthetized pigs were infused sequentially with increased concentrations of beta-adrenergic agonists. At selected times during infusion, blood pressure, heart rate and plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose, lactate, norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine were measured. Azaperone, a drug used to calm the pigs before anesthesia, caused hypotension and bradycardia but did not affect plasma metabolites. Infusion of norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoproterenol or clenbuterol produced changes in plasma metabolites and plasma catecholamines. These changes during norepinephrine infusion were attributed to the infused agonist, whereas those during epinephrine infusion might have resulted to some extent from release of norepinephrine. Plasma isoproterenol was not quantified because it interfered with the assay of epinephrine and dopamine so that it was not possible to distinguish between infused isoproterenol and release of endogenous epinephrine and dopamine. Infusion of clenbuterol caused a small increase in plasma norepinephrine so that some of the increase in plasma FFA, glycerol and lactate during clenbuterol infusion may result from release of endogenous norepinephrine.  (+info)

A behavioral pharmacological study of mafoprazine, a new phenylpiperazine derivative. (6/11)

Behavioral pharmacological studies on mafoprazine, a new drug for the prevention of aggressive behavior, were performed to compare its effects with those of an existing drug, azaperone (Stresnil). The acute toxicity of mafoprazine in mice was slightly stronger than that of azaperone. Mafoprazine showed the following effects (at 0.2 to 2.0 mg/kg, s.c.): a decrease in spontaneous motor activity, prolongation of the duration of pentobarbital anesthesia, inhibition of long-term isolation-induced aggressive behavior, inhibition of olfactory bulbectomy-induced hyperemotionality and muricide behavior in mice and rats, and a marked taming and tranquilizing effect on aggressive behavior in dogs. These effects of mafoprazine were qualitatively the same as those of azaperone. Mafoprazine showed cataleptogenicity in rats at 5 mg/kg, s.c. or more and motor incoordination in rats at 0.2 mg/kg, s.c. or more. In the experiment on operant behavior in rats, the effect of mafoprazine on differential reinforcement of the low rate (DRL) response was almost the same as those of azaperone and chlorpromazine. These results indicate that mafoprazine has substantially the same psychotropic effect as azaperone, while the former has a weaker action on the extrapyramidal system than the latter, suggesting that mafoprazine could be used as a unique aggression-inhibiting drug.  (+info)

Effects of amperozide and azaperone on aggression and productivity of growing-finishing pigs. (7/11)

Levels of aggression, activity and performance were determined in 270 pigs (initial wt 29.8 kg) injected with amperozide (1.0 mg/kg i.m.), azaperone (2.2 mg/kg i.m.) or saline (.1 ml/kg i.m.) immediately prior to mixing. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed in pens of 15, and six pens were allotted to each treatment. Each pen was video-taped for 48 h after injection. Aggression was determined by continuous observation and summarized for each 2-h period. Injuries on the ears and shoulders of each pig were scored prior to injection and 1, 2, 3 and 7 d after treatment. Eating, drinking and lying were determined by scan sampling at 2-min intervals and summarized for each 2-h period. Weight gain, feed consumption and efficiency were determined for periods ending on d 3, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84. Both drugs reduced total fighting from 309.8 min for saline to 190.7 and 189.6 min for amperozide- and azaperone-treated pens, respectively (P less than .01). Treatment differences in aggression and lying were evident during the initial 6 h only. Amperozide resulted in fewer fights involving two pigs (197.3/pen) than did azaperone (260.2/pen) or saline (298.3/pen) (P less than .05). Injuries to the ears (P less than .01) and total injuries (P less than .05) were less severe in amperozide-treated pigs than in pigs on the other treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

An analysis of some behavioural effects of the vibration and noise components of transport in pigs. (8/11)

The reactions of pigs to the vibration and noise components of transport were examined with the use of an apparatus which simulated these factors. The pigs were trained to switch off the apparatus by pressing a switch panel with their snouts. It was found that vibration was aversive but that noise was not. The pigs switched off the apparatus more frequently when the vibration was fast and when they had been fed a large meal before the test. Although the sedative tranquillizing drug azaperone decreased the number of times the apparatus was switched off, the effect appeared to be non-specific because azaperone also reduced the number of responses that pigs would make in order to receive food.  (+info)

*Azaperone

The European Medicines Agency has established a maximum residue limit for azaperone when administered to pigs. Azaperone (under ... Azaperone may cause hypotension and while it has minimal effects on respiration in pigs, high doses in humans can cause ... Azaperone acts primarily as a dopamine antagonist but also has some antihistaminic and anticholinergic properties as seen with ... Azaperone is also used in combination with strong narcotics such as etorphine or carfentanil for tranquilizing large animals ...

*List of dopaminergic drugs

Azaperone • Benperidol • Bromperidol • Clopenthixol • Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • Flupentixol • ...

*Pyridinylpiperazine

A few pyridinylpiperazine derivatives are drugs, including: Azaperone - antipsychotic Atevirdine - antiretroviral Delavirdine ...

*Acetorphine

... along with other tranquilizers such as carfentanil and azaperone) remains the drug of choice in this application. Acetorphine ...

*ATC code N01

... combinations QN01AX91 Azaperone QN01AX92 Benzocaine QN01AX93 Tricaine mesilate QN01AX94 Isoeugenol QN01AX99 Other general ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... azaperone MeSH D02.522.352.155 --- benperidol MeSH D02.522.352.343 --- droperidol MeSH D02.522.352.506 --- haloperidol MeSH ...

*Dopamine antagonist

... acepromazine amisulpride amoxapine asenapine azaperone benperidol bromopride butaclamol clomipramine (mild) chlorpromazine ...

*List of drugs: As-Az

... azaperone (INN) azaprocin (INN) azapropazone (INN) azaquinzole (INN) azaribine (INN) Azasan azaserine (INN) azasetron (INN) ...

*ATC code N05

Moperone N05AD05 Pipamperone N05AD06 Bromperidol N05AD07 Benperidol N05AD08 Droperidol N05AD09 Fluanisone QN05AD90 Azaperone ...

*Tranquillizer gun

These include: Azaperone Combelen (Bayer) Domosedan (Farmos) Dormicum (midazolam) (Roche) Detomidine (Farmos) Fentanyl and ...
Acetorphine is a potent opioid analgesic, up to 8700 times stronger than morphine by weight. It is a derivative of the more well-known opioid etorphine, which is used as a very potent veterinary painkiller and anesthetic medication, primarily for the sedation of large animals such as elephants, giraffes and rhinos. Acetorphine was developed in 1966 by the Reckitt research group that developed etorphine. Acetorphine was developed for the same purpose as etorphine itself, namely as a strong tranquilizer for use in immobilizing large animals in veterinary medicine. Despite showing some advantages over etorphine, for instance producing less toxic side effects in giraffes, acetorphine was never widely adopted for veterinary use, and etorphine (along with other tranquilizers such as carfentanil and azaperone) remains the drug of choice in this application. Acetorphine is a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States. Its DEA Administrative Controlled Substances Control Number is 9319 and the ...
A sampling system includes an input terminal for receiving a data signal having a signal component and possibly a noise component. A sampler samples the data signal at a sample rate set in responsive to a control signal. A noise detector detects the presence of a noise component, and if a noise component is detected, generates the control signal conditioning the sampler to sample the data signal at a first sample rate satisfying the Nyquist criterion for the data signal including the noise component, and otherwise generating the control signal conditioning the sampler to sample the data signal at a second data rate satisfying the Nyquist criterion for the data signal including only the signal component.
A combination of an ultrasonic scanner and an omnidirectional receive transducer for producing a two-dimensional image from received echoes is described. Two-dimensional images with different noise components can be constructed from the echoes received by additional transducers. These can be combined to produce images with better signal to noise ratios and lateral resolution. Also disclosed is a method based on information content to compensate for the different delays for different paths through intervening tissue is described. The disclosed techniques have broad application in medical imaging but are ideally suited to multi-aperture cardiac imaging using two or more intercostal spaces. Since lateral resolution is determined primarily by the aperture defined by the end elements, it is not necessary to fill the entire aperture with equally spaced elements. Multiple slices using these methods can be combined to form three-dimensional images.
Acoustic Analysis and synthesis of hoarseness by sound spectrography suggests that the acoustic properties of hoarseness are mainly determined by the interactions of the following three factors: 1) noise components in the main formant of each vowel, 2) high frequency noise components above 3000 Hz, and 3) the loss of high frequency harmonic components. These three findings are more pronounced in the vowels /α/, /ε/, and /i/ than in /u/ and /ɔ/. With the progression of the severity of hoarseness, these three abnormal patterns become more prominent and exaggerated. On the basis of these findings, a classification of four types of hoarseness was presented using sonagram tracings.. ...
CASE#5 WILDEBEAST RELOCATION. Date: 23rd January 2015. Species: Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus). Sex: Male. Age: Adult. Location: Olkinyei (PCEA Acacia Missionaries Compound). History. This wildebeest was rescued a few years ago after his mother was allegedly killed by locals. He grew up within the missionaries compound enjoying the security and company of the residents. Though other wildebeests are seen nearby and he has been known to join them on occasion, he always returns to the compound due to his habituation. At three years old, this wildebeest had started to become aggressive and dangerous. As a result, KWS management, in consultation with the county administration, decided it should be relocated to the wild, far from the compound to any conservancy with a population of wildebeests.. Capture and release. The wildebeest was immobilized by use of a combination of 5mgs Etorphine and 50mgs Azaperone in a 3ml Dan Inject dart, which was done from foot. The drugs took effect after five ...
Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) enables comprehensive analysis of complex molecular mixtures. Given the broad intensity ranges of components in the mass spectra, it is imperative to accurately determine a noise threshold level above which peak assignments will be made. Conventionally, to find the threshold level, the N sigma approach or an equivalent rule is used. However, the N sigma approach cannot be applied to mass spectra stored with partially removed noise (reduced-profile mode). It is also not directly applicable to mass spectra acquired in the absorption mode with removed negative spectral amplitudes. Moreover, N value selection is normally made based on a rule of thumb, meaning that the calculated threshold level may be biased. Here, we present a noise thresholding method which addresses these limitations for analysis of mass spectra of complex molecular mixtures. The introduced data-dependent thresholding method involves analysis of the distribution of logarithmic ...
The technology used in hybrid vehicle concepts is significantly different from conventional vehicle technology with consequences also for the noise and vibration behavior. In conventional vehicles, certain noise phenomena are masked by the engine noise. In situations where the combustion engine is turned off in hybrid vehicle concepts, these noise components can become dominant and annoying. In hybrid concepts, the driving condition is often decoupled from the operation state of the combustion engine, which leads to unusual and unexpected acoustical behavior. New acoustic phenomena such as magnetic noise due to recuperation occur, caused by new components and driving conditions. The analysis of this recuperation noise by means of interior noise simulation shows, that it is not only induced by the powertrain radiation but also by the noise path via the powertrain mounts. The additional degrees of freedom of the hybrid drive train can also be used to improve the vibrational behavior ...
The technology used in hybrid vehicle concepts is significantly different from conventional vehicle technology with consequences also for the noise and vibration behavior. In conventional vehicles, certain noise phenomena are masked by the engine noise. In situations where the combustion engine is turned off in hybrid vehicle concepts, these noise components can become dominant and annoying. In hybrid concepts, the driving condition is often decoupled from the operation state of the combustion engine, which leads to unusual and unexpected acoustical behavior. New acoustic phenomena such as magnetic noise due to recuperation occur, caused by new components and driving conditions. The analysis of this recuperation noise by means of interior noise simulation shows, that it is not only induced by the powertrain radiation but also by the noise path via the powertrain mounts. The additional degrees of freedom of the hybrid drive train can also be used to improve the vibrational behavior ...
Background Although microarrays are analysis tools in biomedical research, they are known to yield noisy output that usually requires experimental confirmation. To tackle this problem, many studies have developed rules for optimizing probe design and devised complex statistical tools to analyze the output. However, less emphasis has been placed on systematically identifying the noise component as part of the experimental procedure. One source of noise is the variance in probe binding, which can be assessed by replicating array probes. The second source is poor probe performance, which can be assessed by calibrating the array based on a dilution series of target molecules. Using model experiments for copy number variation and gene expression measurements, we investigate here a revised design for microarray experiments that addresses both of these sources of variance. Results Two custom arrays were used to evaluate the revised design: one based on 25 mer probes from an Affymetrix design and the other
Provided is a test apparatus that tests a device under test, comprising a waveform generator that generates a test signal to be supplied to the device under test; a digitizer that measures a response signal output by the device under test; a judging section that judges acceptability of the device under test based on the measurement result of the digitizer; and a loop-back path that connects an output terminal of the waveform generator to an input terminal of the digitizer when calibration is performed for the waveform generator and the digitizer. The loop-back path includes a noise removal filter that eliminates a noise component from a signal passed therethrough; and a path switching section that connects the waveform generator to the digitizer via the noise removal filter when the digitizer is being calibrated, and connects the waveform generator to the digitizer without including the noise removal filter therebetween when the waveform generator is
If youre due to travel to a place where malaria is present, you should delay trying for a baby while youre taking anti-malaria medication.. Women of childbearing age are advised to use contraception to avoid becoming pregnant in countries that have malaria. This is because pregnant women have an increased risk of developing severe malaria and a higher risk of fatality compared with non-pregnant women.. The risk to pregnant women is increased even when taking malaria pills because:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pulmonary dead space in free-ranging immobilized black rhinoceroses (Diceros Bicornis) in Namibia. AU - Radcliffe, Robin W.. AU - Morkel, Peter. AU - Jago, Mark. AU - Taft, Arthur A.. AU - Du Preez, Pierre. AU - Miller, Michele A.. AU - Candra, Dedi. AU - Nydam, Daryl V.. AU - Barry, Jason S.. AU - Gleed, Robin D.. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - It was observed previously that end-expired carbon dioxide (PÉCO2) decreased when immobilized black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) were moved from sternal to lateral recumbency. These experiments were designed to test whether greater alveolar ventilation or greater pulmonary dead space in lateral recumbency explains this postural difference in PÉCO2. Twenty-one (9 male, 12 female; 15 3.5-26 yr old) wild black rhinoceroses were immobilized with etorphine and azaperone and positioned in either sternal or lateral recumbency. All rhinoceroses were hypoxemic and had lactic and respiratory acidemia. The animals in lateral recumbency were ...
Based on some reading Ive been doing, how or when you eat certain foods plays a big role in whether or not its digested properly. The two books that come to mind are "Healing with Whole Foods" by Paul Pitchford and "Never Be Sick Again" by Raymond Francis, where both authors dedicate a section on the importance of "food combinations". They both start by classifying foods by which the environment they require within the stomach for proper digestion, acidic or alkaline, as well what foods can (or should) be combined in order to achieve this. They go on to explain how the stomach can accommodate either environment, be it acidic for the proteins or alkaline for the starches, but not at the same time; fruits being the exception since they are meant to travel quickly through the digestive system. Both authors lay down the same foundation "vegetables with proteins ok, vegetables with starches ok, eat fruits alone", with a few special cases noted, but differ slightly in their approach; Raymond Francis ...
An important image post-processing step for optical coherence tomography (OCT) images is speckle noise reduction. Noise in OCT images is multiplicative in nature and is difficult to suppress due to the fact that in addition the noise component, OCT speckle also carries structural information about the imaged object. To address this issue, a novel speckle noise reduction algorithm was developed. The algorithm projects the imaging data into the logarithmic space and a general Bayesian least squares estimate of the noise-free data is found using a conditional posterior sampling approach. The proposed algorithm was tested on a number of rodent (rat) retina images acquired in-vivo with an ultrahigh resolution OCT system. The performance of the algorithm was compared to that of the state-of-the-art algorithms currently available for speckle denoising, such as the adaptive median, maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation, linear least squares estimation, anisotropic diffusion and wavelet-domain filtering ...
... How day length, temperature and breed impact on piglet numbers in after summer. PROOF Pasture Raised on Open Fields.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the anterior pituitary-adrenal cortical stimulating effect of U.S.P. epinephrine, synthetic L-epinephrine, and nor-epinephrine.. AU - MADISON, L. L.. PY - 1950/6. Y1 - 1950/6. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=38049176743&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=38049176743&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1172/JCI102316. DO - 10.1172/JCI102316. M3 - Article. C2 - 15436670. AN - SCOPUS:38049176743. VL - 29. SP - 789. EP - 791. JO - Journal of Clinical Investigation. JF - Journal of Clinical Investigation. SN - 0021-9738. IS - 6. ER - ...

Azaperone - WikipediaAzaperone - Wikipedia

The European Medicines Agency has established a maximum residue limit for azaperone when administered to pigs. Azaperone (under ... Azaperone may cause hypotension and while it has minimal effects on respiration in pigs, high doses in humans can cause ... Azaperone acts primarily as a dopamine antagonist but also has some antihistaminic and anticholinergic properties as seen with ... Azaperone is also used in combination with strong narcotics such as etorphine or carfentanil for tranquilizing large animals ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azaperone

Azaperone - Drugs.comAzaperone - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Azaperone is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Azaperone is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Fentazin 5 (Azaperone and Fentanyl, + Xylazine (veterinary use)). Bayer New Zealand, New Zealand ... Azaperone. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/azaperone.html

925. Azaperone (WHO Food Additives Series 41)925. Azaperone (WHO Food Additives Series 41)

See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Azaperone (WHO Food Additives Series 29) Azaperone (WHO Food Additives Series 34) ... Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of azaperone on reproduction and fertility in male rats. Azaperone was ... mutagenic potential of azaperone and its metabolites. To support this statement, the biotransformation of azaperone was studied ... Azaperone, however, is a relatively weak prolactin-releasing agent in rats, stimulating the mammary gland at doses , 40 mg/kg ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v041je12.htm

Azaperone Assay Standard- CAS Number 1649-18-9Azaperone Assay Standard- CAS Number 1649-18-9

Buy Azaperone Assay Standard - CAS Number 1649-18-9 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check ... Fluoperidol ; Stresnil ; 1-Butanone, 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-[4-(2-pyridinyl)-1-piperazinyl]- ; R-1929 ;Azaperone ; NSC 170976 ; 4 ... Fluoro-4-[4-(2-pyridyl)-1-piperazinyl]butyrophenone ; Suicalm ; Azaperone ; 1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-4-[4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1- ...
more infohttps://www.lgcstandards.com/IT/en/Azaperone-Assay-Standard/p/BP%20025

Azaperone | World eBook Library | Read eBooks onlineAzaperone | World eBook Library | Read eBooks online

Azaperone , , , ,,, , , , ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and ... Azaperone Benperidol Bromperidol Droperidol Fluanisone Haloperidol # Lenperone Moperone Pipamperone Spiperone Timiperone ... Azaperone (Stresnil, Fluoperidol) is a pyridinylpiperazine and butyrophenone neuroleptic drug with sedative and antiemetic ... Azaperone acts primarily as a dopamine antagonist but also has some antihistaminic and anticholinergic properties as seen with ...
more infohttp://ebook.worldlibrary.net/articles/eng/Azaperone

List of dopaminergic drugs - WikipediaList of dopaminergic drugs - Wikipedia

Azaperone • Benperidol • Bromperidol • Clopenthixol • Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • Flupentixol • ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dopaminergic_drugs

Pharmaceutical PowderPharmaceutical Powder

Pharmaceutical Raw Powder Azaperone CAS 1649-18-9 FOB Price: $1 - $3 / Piece Min. Order: 10 Pieces ...
more infohttp://www.made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Pharmaceutical_Powder.html

Tranquilizers Flashcards by Whitney  Wolfgang | BrainscapeTranquilizers Flashcards by Whitney Wolfgang | Brainscape

1. Azaperone. 2. Haloperidol. Long acting. 1. Zuclopenthixol. 2. Perphenazine. 3. Pipothiazine palmtate ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/tranquilizers-2001722/packs/3680568

Sedation and premedication Flashcards by Emily Stacey | BrainscapeSedation and premedication Flashcards by Emily Stacey | Brainscape

Pharmacodynamics - azaperone Peak sedation in 15-30 mins (IM). Sedation duration 2-3 hours. Decrease HR, CO, ABP. Impaired ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/sedation-and-premedication-3187046/packs/4683578

21 CFR 522.970 - Flunixin. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute21 CFR 522.970 - Flunixin. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute

77 FR 46612 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Change of Sponsor Address; Azaperone; Miconazole, Polymyxin B, and ...
more infohttps://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/21/522.970

21 CFR Part 510, Subpart A - General Provisions | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute21 CFR Part 510, Subpart A - General Provisions | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute

77 FR 46612 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Change of Sponsor Address; Azaperone; Miconazole, Polymyxin B, and ...
more infohttps://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/21/part-510/subpart-A

China Medicines, Medicines Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.comChina Medicines, Medicines Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com

99% Azaperone/Azaperone Supplier/ Veterinary Medicine CAS: 1649-18-9 on Sale FOB Price: US $ 1-2.5 / Kg. Min. Order: 1 Kg ...
more infohttps://www.made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Medicines.html

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

556.68 Azaperone. (a) Acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI for total residue of azaperone is 0.63 [micro]g/kg of body weight ...
more infohttps://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfCFR/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=556&showFR=1

RASFF PortalRASFF Portal

azaperone (6.7; 7.1 µg/kg - ppb) unauthorised in chilled beef from Argentina meat and meat products (other than poultry) food ...
more infohttps://webgate.ec.europa.eu/rasff-window/portal/?event=openRecallList&orderby=notif_reference&orderDir=desc

ATC 코드 N01 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전ATC 코드 N01 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전

QN01AX91 Azaperone. QN01AX92 Benzocaine. QN01AX93 Tricaine mesilate. QN01AX99 Other general anesthetics, combinations. N01B 국소 ...
more infohttps://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATC_%EC%BD%94%EB%93%9C_N01

Plus itPlus it

The Kb values were (nanomolar):spiperone, 0.8; spirilene , 2.1; benperidol , 4.4; azaperone, 16.6; and haloperidol, 96.6. The ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/229/2/346

ATC 코드 N05 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전ATC 코드 N05 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전

QN05AD90 Azaperone. N05AE 인돌 계열[편집]. N05AE01 Oxypertine. N05AE02 Molindone. N05AE03 Sertindole. N05AE04 Ziprasidone. N05AF 치옥산텐 ...
more infohttps://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATC_%EC%BD%94%EB%93%9C_N05

Cinchocaine - DrugBankCinchocaine - DrugBank

Azaperone. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Azaperone.. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00527

Enflurane - DrugBankEnflurane - DrugBank

Azaperone. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Azaperone.. Investigational ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00228

Janssen productsJanssen products

Azaperone. Stugeron. Cinnarizine. Stugeron Forte. Cinnarizine. Stugeron Retard. Cinnarizine. Stugil. Cinnarizine; Domperidone ...
more infohttp://drugs-about.com/firms/janssen.html

STP : main GiPCRsSTP : main GiPCRs

azaperone (Stresnil ). * benperidol (Anquil ). * droperidol (Inapsine ). * fluspirilene (effective for 1 week). * haloperidol ( ...
more infohttp://www.ufrgs.br/imunovet/molecular_immunology/stpgipcrs.html

Ameliorating the adverse cardiorespiratory effects of chemical immobilization by inducing general anaesthesia in sheep and...Ameliorating the adverse cardiorespiratory effects of chemical immobilization by inducing general anaesthesia in sheep and...

Clarke K (1969) Effect of azaperone on the blood pressure and pulmonary ventilation in pigs. Vet Rec 85:649-651CrossRefGoogle ... Under etorphine + azaperone, minute ventilation decreased in the sheep, though this decrease was corrected under propofol, ... Under etorphine + azaperone, both sheep and goats displayed arterial blood hypoxia and hypercapnia (relative to midazolam ... Buss PE, Miller M, Fuller A, Haw A, Wanty R, Olea-Popelka F, Meyer LCR (2016) Cardiovascular effects of etorphine, azaperone, ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00360-018-1184-z

Chapter 246-886 WACChapter 246-886 WAC

Statutory Authority: RCW 18.64.005, 69.50.320, 69.41.080, and 2013 c 19. WSR 15-12-020, § 246-886-020, filed 5/22/15, effective 6/22/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 69.41.080, 69.50.310, and 18.64.005. WSR 12-21-118, § 246-886-020, filed 10/23/12, effective 11/23/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 69.41.080. WSR 92-12-035 (Order 277B), § 246-886-020, filed 5/28/92, effective 6/28/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 18.64.005 and chapter 18.64A RCW. WSR 91-18-057 (Order 191B), recodified as § 246-886-020, filed 8/30/91, effective 9/30/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 18.64.005. WSR 91-04-056 (Order 140B), § 360-35-030, filed 2/4/91, effective 3/7/91 ...
more infohttps://app.leg.wa.gov/WAC/default.aspx?cite=246-886&full=true

Adverse Effects of Opioids on the Central Nervous Systems of Palliative Care Patients - PubMedAdverse Effects of Opioids on the Central Nervous Systems of Palliative Care Patients - PubMed

Tremors in white rhinoceroses (,i,Ceratotherium simum,/i,) during etorphine-azaperone immobilisation. De Lange SS, Fuller A, ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17430825/
  • Biotransformation was assessed by incubating 14 C-azaperone (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 2.0 mmol/plate) with rat liver fractions in buffer containing histidine, biotin, nutrient broth and a NADPH generating system at 37 C for 30 and 120 min. (inchem.org)
  • Azaperone may cause hypotension and while it has minimal effects on respiration in pigs, high doses in humans can cause respiratory depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common use for azaperone is in relatively small doses to reduce aggression in farmed pigs, either to stop them fighting or to encourage sows to accept piglets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Medicines Agency has established a maximum residue limit for azaperone when administered to pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Committee noted that almost all of the primary metabolites previously found in vivo in rats and pigs were produced under the conditions of Ames' test and concluded that the mutagenic potential of azaperone and its metabolites in bacteria had been adequately evaluated in the previously conducted tests and particularly in the second, more throrough study described in the previous evaluation, in which the presence of metabolites was questioned. (inchem.org)
  • We used habituated sheep Ovis aries ( N = 5, 46.9 ± 5.3 kg body mass, mean ± SEM) and goats Capra hircus ( N = 4, 27.7 ± 2.8 kg) as ungulate models for large wild animals, and measured their cardiorespiratory function under three conditions: (1) mild sedation (midazolam), as a proxy for the normal resting state, (2) immobilization (etorphine and azaperone), and (3) general anaesthesia (propofol) followed by etorphine antagonism (naltrexone). (springer.com)
  • For both sheep and goats, systemic and pulmonary mean arterial pressures were significantly altered from initial midazolam levels when administered etorphine + azaperone, but those arterial pressures were restored upon transition to propofol anaesthesia and antagonism of the etorphine. (springer.com)
  • Under etorphine + azaperone, minute ventilation decreased in the sheep, though this decrease was corrected under propofol, while the minute ventilation in the goats remained unchanged throughout. (springer.com)
  • Under etorphine + azaperone, both sheep and goats displayed arterial blood hypoxia and hypercapnia (relative to midazolam levels), which failed to completely recover under propofol, indicating that more time might be needed for the blood gases to be adequately restored. (springer.com)
  • 2. Evidence to support the claim that azaperone or its degradation products are not structurally similar to known carcinogens 3. (inchem.org)