A butyrophenone used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.

Effects of azaperone on cardiovascular and respiratory functions in the horse. (1/11)

1 The butyrophenone tranquilizer, azaperone, was administered intramuscularly, at dose levels of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, to ponies and its effects on cardiovascular and respiratory functions assessed. 2 Arterial blood pH, CO2 tension (PaCO2) and O2 tension (PaO2) remained relatively constant throughout the course of action of azaperone. 3 Azaperone did not modify plasma protein concentration but venous blood packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration were reduced by 5 to 10% for at least 4 hours. These changes were probably caused by uptake of erythrocytes into the splenic reservoir. 4 Small increases in heart rate occurred for up to 60 min after administration of the drug, and this was followed by a slight bradycardia in some ponies. 5 Azaperone reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) for at least 4 h, by which time its ataractic action was generally no longer apparent. The hypotension was caused, during the early phase of action at least, by a reduction in peripheral resistance, since cardiac output was increased slightly 20 min after its administration. Possible mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular changes are discussed. 6 In spite of reductions in arterial blood O2 content and MAP produced by azaperone, it is likely that tissue oxygenation was adequate, since arterial blood lactate concentrations were not increased.  (+info)

Responses of the pituitary-adrenal system of the pig to environmental changes and drugs. (2/11)

1 The reactivity of the pituitary-adrenal axis of the young pig was tested for its suitability as a sensitive index for any discomfort that might be experienced under certain conditions of intensive husbandry.2 In a thermoneutral environment, most undisturbed piglets showed only slight variations in the plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids.3 Stimuli such as exposure to ambient temperatures of +40 degrees C or -5 degrees C were required to cause large rises in the plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosteroids.4 Apparently milder stimuli, such as change of environment, slight frustration or changes in ambient temperatures between +5 degrees C and +30 degrees C only rarely caused a significant rise in plasma corticosteroids. Thus changes in plasma corticosteroid concentrations are not a sensitive index for the reaction of a piglet to its environment.5 Increases in plasma ACTH concentrations occurred faster than those of the corticosteroids, were larger when expressed as a percentage of the basal values and occurred following relatively small disturbances such as omission of the reward in an operant behaviour test when corticosteroid changes were often not detectable. Thus rises in plasma ACTH might be a useful indication that a given situation is disturbing to a pig. The reaction of plasma ACTH concentrations to chronic irritations as they might occur in intensive husbandry remains to be investigated.6 Azaperone (2 mg/kg i.m.), a drug which is used as a sedative in pigs, caused a rise of about 50% in plasma corticosteroid concentrations. It did not diminish the large steroid output seen when the animals were exposed to high and low ambient temperatures.  (+info)

Enhanced blood pressure and appetite responses to chronic central melanocortin-3/4 receptor blockade in dietary-induced obesity. (3/11)

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Post-farrowing stress management in sows by administration of azaperone: effects on piglets performance. (4/11)

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Influence of infused beta-adrenergic agonists on porcine blood metabolites and catecholamines. (5/11)

Anesthetized pigs were infused sequentially with increased concentrations of beta-adrenergic agonists. At selected times during infusion, blood pressure, heart rate and plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose, lactate, norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine were measured. Azaperone, a drug used to calm the pigs before anesthesia, caused hypotension and bradycardia but did not affect plasma metabolites. Infusion of norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoproterenol or clenbuterol produced changes in plasma metabolites and plasma catecholamines. These changes during norepinephrine infusion were attributed to the infused agonist, whereas those during epinephrine infusion might have resulted to some extent from release of norepinephrine. Plasma isoproterenol was not quantified because it interfered with the assay of epinephrine and dopamine so that it was not possible to distinguish between infused isoproterenol and release of endogenous epinephrine and dopamine. Infusion of clenbuterol caused a small increase in plasma norepinephrine so that some of the increase in plasma FFA, glycerol and lactate during clenbuterol infusion may result from release of endogenous norepinephrine.  (+info)

A behavioral pharmacological study of mafoprazine, a new phenylpiperazine derivative. (6/11)

Behavioral pharmacological studies on mafoprazine, a new drug for the prevention of aggressive behavior, were performed to compare its effects with those of an existing drug, azaperone (Stresnil). The acute toxicity of mafoprazine in mice was slightly stronger than that of azaperone. Mafoprazine showed the following effects (at 0.2 to 2.0 mg/kg, s.c.): a decrease in spontaneous motor activity, prolongation of the duration of pentobarbital anesthesia, inhibition of long-term isolation-induced aggressive behavior, inhibition of olfactory bulbectomy-induced hyperemotionality and muricide behavior in mice and rats, and a marked taming and tranquilizing effect on aggressive behavior in dogs. These effects of mafoprazine were qualitatively the same as those of azaperone. Mafoprazine showed cataleptogenicity in rats at 5 mg/kg, s.c. or more and motor incoordination in rats at 0.2 mg/kg, s.c. or more. In the experiment on operant behavior in rats, the effect of mafoprazine on differential reinforcement of the low rate (DRL) response was almost the same as those of azaperone and chlorpromazine. These results indicate that mafoprazine has substantially the same psychotropic effect as azaperone, while the former has a weaker action on the extrapyramidal system than the latter, suggesting that mafoprazine could be used as a unique aggression-inhibiting drug.  (+info)

Effects of amperozide and azaperone on aggression and productivity of growing-finishing pigs. (7/11)

Levels of aggression, activity and performance were determined in 270 pigs (initial wt 29.8 kg) injected with amperozide (1.0 mg/kg i.m.), azaperone (2.2 mg/kg i.m.) or saline (.1 ml/kg i.m.) immediately prior to mixing. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed in pens of 15, and six pens were allotted to each treatment. Each pen was video-taped for 48 h after injection. Aggression was determined by continuous observation and summarized for each 2-h period. Injuries on the ears and shoulders of each pig were scored prior to injection and 1, 2, 3 and 7 d after treatment. Eating, drinking and lying were determined by scan sampling at 2-min intervals and summarized for each 2-h period. Weight gain, feed consumption and efficiency were determined for periods ending on d 3, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84. Both drugs reduced total fighting from 309.8 min for saline to 190.7 and 189.6 min for amperozide- and azaperone-treated pens, respectively (P less than .01). Treatment differences in aggression and lying were evident during the initial 6 h only. Amperozide resulted in fewer fights involving two pigs (197.3/pen) than did azaperone (260.2/pen) or saline (298.3/pen) (P less than .05). Injuries to the ears (P less than .01) and total injuries (P less than .05) were less severe in amperozide-treated pigs than in pigs on the other treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

An analysis of some behavioural effects of the vibration and noise components of transport in pigs. (8/11)

The reactions of pigs to the vibration and noise components of transport were examined with the use of an apparatus which simulated these factors. The pigs were trained to switch off the apparatus by pressing a switch panel with their snouts. It was found that vibration was aversive but that noise was not. The pigs switched off the apparatus more frequently when the vibration was fast and when they had been fed a large meal before the test. Although the sedative tranquillizing drug azaperone decreased the number of times the apparatus was switched off, the effect appeared to be non-specific because azaperone also reduced the number of responses that pigs would make in order to receive food.  (+info)

Azaperone is a type of medication known as a "typical antipsychotic" or "major tranquilizer." It is primarily used in veterinary medicine to calm and sedate animals, particularly large animals such as cattle and pigs. Azaperone works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that plays a role in regulating movement, emotion, and behavior.

In humans, azaperone is not commonly used due to its significant side effects, which can include sedation, muscle relaxation, and decreased blood pressure. It may be used off-label in certain cases to treat severe agitation or aggression in individuals with developmental disabilities or dementia, but this should only be done under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

It is important to note that azaperone should only be administered under the direction of a veterinarian or healthcare provider, and it should not be used without proper medical oversight.

Butyrophenones are a group of synthetic antipsychotic drugs that are primarily used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. They act as dopamine receptor antagonists, which means they block the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain associated with mood, motivation, and pleasure.

Some examples of butyrophenones include haloperidol, droperidol, and benperidol. These drugs are known for their potent antipsychotic effects and can also be used to manage agitation, aggression, and other behavioral disturbances in patients with various psychiatric and neurological disorders.

In addition to their antipsychotic properties, butyrophenones have been used off-label for their sedative and analgesic effects. However, they are associated with a range of side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as involuntary muscle spasms and tremors, as well as other neurological and cardiovascular adverse reactions. Therefore, their use is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have been ineffective or contraindicated.

Tranquilizing agents, also known as major tranquilizers or antipsychotic drugs, are a class of medications used primarily to manage psychosis, including schizophrenia, and other mental health disorders. These agents work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.

Tranquilizing agents can be further divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). FGAs, also known as typical antipsychotics, were developed earlier and have a higher risk of side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which include involuntary movements, stiffness, and tremors. SGAs, also known as atypical antipsychotics, were developed more recently and have a lower risk of EPS but may have other side effects such as weight gain and metabolic issues.

It's important to note that tranquilizing agents should only be prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, as they can have significant risks and benefits.

The European Medicines Agency has established a maximum residue limit for azaperone when administered to pigs. Azaperone (under ... Azaperone may cause hypotension and while it has minimal effects on respiration in pigs, high doses in humans can cause ... Azaperone acts primarily as a dopamine antagonist but also has some antihistaminic and anticholinergic properties as seen with ... Azaperone is also used in combination with strong narcotics such as etorphine or carfentanil for tranquilizing large animals ...
Azaperone • Benperidol • Bromperidol • Clopenthixol • Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • Flupentixol • ...
Enciprazine BMY-14802 Azaperone Janssen PA (1967). "Haloperidol and related butyrophenones". In Gordon M (ed.). ...
Acaprazine Batoprazine Eltoprazine Enpiprazole Fluprazine Lidanserin Ensaculin Mafoprazine BMY-14802 Azaperone Fluanisone J. ...
Enciprazine Mafoprazine BMY-14802 Azaperone Fluanisone Lishko PV, Maximyuk OP, Chatterjee SS, Nöldner M, Krishtal OA (December ...
Enciprazine Ensaculin Mafoprazine Azaperone Fluanisone Taylor DP, Eison MS, Moon SL, Schlemmer RF, Shukla UA, VanderMaelen CP, ...
A few pyridinylpiperazine derivatives are drugs, including: Azaperone - antipsychotic Atevirdine - antiretroviral Delavirdine ...
... along with other tranquilizers such as carfentanil and azaperone) remains the drug of choice in this application. Acetorphine ...
... combinations QN01AX91 Azaperone QN01AX92 Benzocaine QN01AX93 Tricaine mesilate QN01AX94 Isoeugenol QN01AX95 Levomenthol ...
... azaperone MeSH D02.522.352.155 - benperidol MeSH D02.522.352.343 - droperidol MeSH D02.522.352.506 - haloperidol MeSH D02.522. ...
... azaperone (INN) azaprocin (INN) azapropazone (INN) azaquinzole (INN) azaribine (INN) Azasan azaserine (INN) azasetron (INN) ...
These include: Azaperone Combelen (Bayer) Domosedan (Farmos) Dormicum (midazolam) (Roche) Detomidine (Farmos) Fentanyl and ...
N05AD06 Bromperidol N05AD07 Benperidol N05AD08 Droperidol N05AD09 Fluanisone N05AD10 Lumateperone QN05AD90 Azaperone N05AE01 ...
The European Medicines Agency has established a maximum residue limit for azaperone when administered to pigs. Azaperone (under ... Azaperone may cause hypotension and while it has minimal effects on respiration in pigs, high doses in humans can cause ... Azaperone acts primarily as a dopamine antagonist but also has some antihistaminic and anticholinergic properties as seen with ... Azaperone is also used in combination with strong narcotics such as etorphine or carfentanil for tranquilizing large animals ...
One case of A3080-low dose medetomidine-azaperone-ketamine anesthesia and one case of A3080-azaperone-ketamine anesthesia ( ... iAzaperone (100 mg/ml, Kyron Laboratories Pty. Ltd., Benrose 2094, South Africa). ...
... and Azaperone. Wolfe et al. (2019), Journal of Wildlife Diseases ...
Effects of general anesthesia with ketamine in combination with the neuroleptic sedatives xylazine or azaperone on plasma ...
EuroProxima Azaperone-Azaperol EuroProxima Azaperone-Azaperol is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for screening and ... quantitative analysis of azaperone/azaperol in various matrices. En savoir plus Microtiter plate with 96 wells (12 strips with ...
Planning Pigs were premedicated with 80 mg azaperone, 350 mg ketamine, and 0. 5 mg atropine intramuscularly and anesthetized ...
Evaluation of butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) immobilization. Semjonov, Aleksandr; ... OBJECTIVE: The butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine fixed-dose combination (BAM, respectively, 30-12-12 mg mL-1) with subsequent ... RESULTS: The mean administered doses of BAM were as follows: butorphanol (0.34 ± 0.08 mg kg-1), azaperone (0.14 ± 0.03 mg kg-1 ... The actual doses were as follows: butorphanol (0.29 ± 0.04 mg kg-1), azaperone (0.12 ± 0.01 mg kg-1) and medetomidine (0.12 ± ...
... climazolam and azaperone Dr. S. M. Axiak, N. Jäggin, S. Wenger, M. G. Doherr, U. Schatzmann ...
The nine pigs in which this mutation was verified were premedicated with intramuscular azaperone, and anesthesia was induced ...
Animals were sedated by intramuscular administration of ketamine (20 mg · kg−1), midazolam (0.25 mg · kg−1) and azaperone (5 mg ...
Azaperone, Medetomidine, Atipamezole, and Naltrexone in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginanus) at 11 and 21 Days Post ...
... a combination of etorphine-medetomidine-midazolam-azaperone (EMMA) - against a new drug protocol that includes butorphanol, ... azaperone and medetomidine (BAM).. Pelchat was responsible for recording sedation scores, collecting blood and determining ...
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Text; Format: print Publication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1993Title translated: Evaluation des résidus de certains médicaments vétérinaires dans les aliments : quarantième rapport du Comité mixte FAO/OMS dexperts des additifs alimentaires [réuni à Genève du 9 au 18 juin 1992]; Evaluación de ciertos residuos de fármacos de uso veterinario en los alimentos : 40 informe del Comité Mixto FAO/OMS de Expertos en Aditivos Alimentarios [se reunió en Ginebra del 9 al 18 de junio de 1992].Online access: Click here to access online , Click here to access online Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ (5)Call number: HQ SERIAL, ... ...
R-1929 use Azaperone R-209 use DEET R-2323 use Gestrinone ...
R-1929 use Azaperone R-209 use DEET R-2323 use Gestrinone ...
Residues of some veterinary drugs in animals and foods : azaperone, carazolol, dexamethasone, dihydrostreptomycin and ...
... is an azaperone. It has the advantage of not being a controlled substance and being non-sedating. Its disadvantage is that it ...
JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it ...
... repeatedly anesthetized with an etorphine-ketamine-azaperone combination. A sterile 5Fr bullet tip catheter (Adept Vet LLC, MI ...
Azaperone,modify,27-JUN-08,(null),(null) C74126,Benrixate,modify,27-JUN-08,(null),(null) C74024,Diclofenac_Sodium_Gel,modify,27 ...
Azaperone (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Azaperone (substance). Concept Status. Published. ...
Azaperone Preferred Term Term UI T004030. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Azaperone Preferred Concept UI. M0002062. Registry Number. 19BV78AK7W. Related Numbers. 1649-18-9. Scope Note. A butyrophenone ... Azaperone. Tree Number(s). D02.522.352.110. Unique ID. D001376. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D001376 Scope ...
Azaperone Preferred Term Term UI T004030. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Azaperone Preferred Concept UI. M0002062. Registry Number. 19BV78AK7W. Related Numbers. 1649-18-9. Scope Note. A butyrophenone ... Azaperone. Tree Number(s). D02.522.352.110. Unique ID. D001376. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D001376 Scope ...
Azaperone is a class of drugs that has anxiolytic action (reduce anxiety) and works as serotonin receptor agonist. Examples of ...
Azaperone - Preferred Concept UI. M0002062. Scope note. A butyrophenone used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. ...
... or using premixed butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (0.06-0.09 mg medetomidine/kg; BAM, Wildlife Pharmaceuticals). All ...
Etorphine-Azaperone Immobilisation for Translocation of Free-Ranging Masai Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis Tippelskirchi): A ...
The glucuronide conjugated azaperone metabolites were partially hydrolysed in the heated nebulizer interface to the ... Urine samples collected from a horse after intramuscular administration of 40 mg of azaperone were extracted at pH 10 before ... Two N-dealkylated metabolites, N-despyridinylazaperol and N-despyridinylazaperone, and a low concentration of azaperone were ... Using XAD-2 resin extraction, three glucuronide conjugated azaperone metabolites (hydroxyazaperol glucuronide, hydroxyazaperone ...
EVALUATION OF A COMBINATION OF TILETAMINE-ZOLAZEPAM, MEDETOMIDINE, AND AZAPERONE WITH NASAL OXYGEN SUPPLEMENTATION FOR THE ...
Residues of some veterinary drugs in animals and foods : azaperone, carazolol, dexamethasone, dihydrostreptomycin and ...
HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES AZAPERONE HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES BARBITAL HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES BROMISOVALUM HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES ... DOPAMINE AGENTS AZAPERONE DOPAMINE AGENTS BENPERIDOL DOPAMINE AGENTS BENSERAZIDE DOPAMINE AGENTS BENZPHETAMINE DOPAMINE AGENTS ... PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AZAPERONE PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS BENACTYZINE PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS BENPERIDOL PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS BROMAZEPAM ... TRANQUILIZING AGENTS AZAPERONE TRANQUILIZING AGENTS BENPERIDOL TRANQUILIZING AGENTS BROMAZEPAM TRANQUILIZING AGENTS BUSPIRONE ...
Typical antipsychotics: Acepromazine • Azaperone • Benperidol • Bromperidol • Clopenthixol • Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene ...
Azaperone [D02.522.352.110] * Benperidol [D02.522.352.155] * Droperidol [D02.522.352.343] * Haloperidol [D02.522.352.506] ...
  • OBJECTIVE: The butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine fixed-dose combination (BAM, respectively, 30-12-12 mg mL-1) with subsequent antagonism by naltrexone-atipamezole was evaluated for reversible immobilization of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). (bvsalud.org)
  • The actual doses were as follows: butorphanol (0.29 ± 0.04 mg kg-1), azaperone (0.12 ± 0.01 mg kg-1) and medetomidine (0.12 ± 0.01 mg kg-1). (bvsalud.org)
  • Working with a small herd of pronghorn that live year-round at the Saskatoon Forestry Farm, the WCVM team tested the current anesthesia protocol - a combination of etorphine-medetomidine-midazolam-azaperone (EMMA) - against a new drug protocol that includes butorphanol, azaperone and medetomidine (BAM). (usask.ca)
  • Effects of general anesthesia with ketamine in combination with the neuroleptic sedatives xylazine or azaperone on plasma metabolites and hormones in pigs. (fbn-dummerstorf.de)
  • The nine pigs in which this mutation was verified were premedicated with intramuscular azaperone, and anesthesia was induced with pentobarbital sodium. (silverchair.com)
  • Azaperone is a pyridinylpiperazine and butyrophenone neuroleptic drug with sedative and antiemetic effects, which is used mainly as a tranquilizer in veterinary medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azaperone may cause hypotension and while it has minimal effects on respiration in pigs, high doses in humans can cause respiratory depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common use for azaperone is in relatively small doses as a "serenic" (to reduce aggression) in farmed pigs, either to stop them fighting or to encourage sows to accept piglets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Medicines Agency has established a maximum residue limit for azaperone when administered to pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azaperone (under the brand name Stresnil) was approved for use in pigs in the USA in 1983, under NADA 115-732. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azaperone is also used in combination with strong narcotics such as etorphine or carfentanil for tranquilizing large animals such as elephants. (wikipedia.org)