Azacosterol: Diaza derivative of cholesterol which acts as a hypocholesteremic agent by blocking delta-24-reductase, which causes the accumulation of desmosterol.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.PropylaminesGatekeeping: The controlling of access to health services, usually by primary care providers; often used in managed care settings to reduce utilization of expensive services and reduce referrals. (From BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1999)Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Acidobacteria: A physiologically diverse phylum of acidophilic, gram-negative bacteria found in a wide variety of habitats, but particularly abundant in soils and sediments.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.

Alteration of cholesterol biosynthetic pathways in the skin of mice administered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (1/4)

When polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were applied solely or together with a tumor promoter (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) to the skin of mice, a marked decrease in the level of lathosterol was observed, reflecting a significant change in the metabolism of sterols. Yet the total amount of cholesterol was not changed. When diazacholesterol (a metabolic inhibitor) was administered to mice, both desmosterol and 5 alpha-cholesta-7,24-dien-3 beta-ol accumulated in the skin, whereas the level of lathosterol decreased. These results seem to suggest that a significant portion of lathosterol is formed via 5 alpha-cholesta-7,24-dien-3 beta-ol in addition to the pathway through methostenol. When polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon was applied to the skin of the mouse treated with diazacholesterol, a significant increase of desmosterol and a marked drop of the level of 5 alpha-cholesta-7,24-dien-3 beta-ol were observed. These results strongly suggest that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons perturb the metabolism of sterol in the skin of mice while keeping the total amount of cholesterol unchanged. A similar metabolism also seems to be operating in tumor tissue itself.  (+info)

Metabolic interconversion of free sterols and steryl esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/4)

The interconversion of free and esterified sterols was followed radioisotopically with [U-14C]acetate and [methyl-14C]methionine. In pulse-chase experiments, radioactivity first appeared mainly in unesterified sterols in exponential-phase cells. Within one generation time, the label equilibrated between the free and esterified sterol pools and subsequently accumulated in steryl esters in stationary-phase cells. When the sterol pools were prelabeled by growing cells aerobically to the stationary phase and the cells were diluted into unlabeled medium, the prelabeled steryl esters returned to the free sterol form under several conditions. (i) During aerobic growth, the prelabeled sterols decreased from 80% to 45% esters in the early exponential phase and then returned to 80% esters as the culture reached the stationary phase. (ii) Under anaerobic conditions, the percentage of prelabeled steryl esters declined continuously. When growth stopped, only 15% of the sterols remained esterified. (iii) In the presence of an inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis, which causes accumulation of a precursor to ergosterol, prelabeled sterols decreased to 40% steryl esters while the precursor was found preferentially in the esterified form. These results indicate that the bulk of the free sterol and steryl ester pools are freely interconvertible, with the steryl esters serving as a supply of free sterols. Furthermore, there is an active cellular control over what types of sterol are found in the free and esterified sterol pools.  (+info)

Effects of steroid blockers on LH-induced ovulation in the domestic fowl, Gallus domesticus. (3/4)

The spontaneous ovulation of hens was suppressed by daily injection of PMSG. The LH injected to overcome the block was accompanied by one of 4 compounds known to inhibit steroidogenesis at different sites in the biosynthetic pathway. A dose of 300 mg aminoglutethimide phosphate, which inhibits the conversion of cholesterol to 20 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, blocked the LH-induced ovulation and prevented the normal rise in plasma progesterone. Metyrapone, an inhibitor of 11 beta-hydroxylase, and SC 12937 and AY 9944, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, did not prevent ovulation or the progesterone rise induced by exogenous LH. Administration of progesterone overcame the inhibitory effect of aminoglutethimide, and it is suggested that progesterone is involved in the ovulatory process of the fowl.  (+info)

Effect of a chemical carcinogen and phorbol esters on sterol metabolism of mouse skin. (4/4)

The effect of 20-methylcholanthrene and phorbol esters on sterol metabolism of mouse skin was studied. When 4 beta-phorbol esters were administered to mice that were previously painted once with 20-methylcholanthrene, a depression of some sterols in skin occurred, of which that of lathosterol was most marked. This effect was not observed when the order of application was reversed. Using a metabolic inhibitor, diazacholesterol, it was shown that sterols which reduce in mouse skin by administration of carcinogen and promoters were similar to those which reduce by administration of carcinogen only and are the members of one of the two cholesterol-biosynthetic pathways, i.e., a pathway which proceeds through intermediates with a saturated side chain. The intensity of the lathosterol-depressing effect of phorbol esters depends on the order of application of 20-methylcholanthrene and promoters, the amount of promoters, molecular species of alcoholic moiety of esters, and configuration at C-4 of phorbol moiety. Of the phorbol esters tested, 4 beta-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate revealed the highest activity, which was followed by 4 beta-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, 4 beta-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, 4 beta-phorbol-12,13-dibenzoate, 4 beta-phorbol-12,13-diacetate, 4 alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, and 4 alpha-phorbol. 4 alpha-Phorbol was practically inactive. When beta-naphthoflavone was substituted for 20-methylcholanthrene, little effect was observed except in TPA, which revealed a rather marked lathosterol-depressing activity. Phorbol esters themselves did show some activity of lathosterol depression without prior application of 20-methylcholanthrene, but the effects were much weaker. When anthralin was applied to mouse skin after the painting of 20-methylcholanthrene, a low but definite lathosterol-depressing effect was observed.  (+info)