A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.

A heterozygous mutation disrupting the SPAG16 gene results in biochemical instability of central apparatus components of the human sperm axoneme. (1/138)

The SPAG16 gene encodes two major transcripts, one for the 71-kDa SPAG16L, which is the orthologue of the Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii central apparatus protein PF20, and a smaller transcript, which codes for the 35-kDa SPAG16S nuclear protein that represents the C-terminus (exons 11-16) of SPAG16L. We have previously reported that a targeted mutation in exon 11 of the Spag16 gene impairs spermatogenesis and prevents transmission of the mutant allele in chimeric mice. In the present report, we describe a heterozygous mutation in exon 13 of the SPAG16 gene, which causes a frame shift and premature stop codon, affording the opportunity to compare mutations with similar impacts on SPAG16L and SPAG16S for male reproductive function in mice and men. We studied two male heterozygotes for the SPAG16 mutation, both of which were fertile. Freezing-boiling of isolated sperm from both affected males resulted in the loss of the SPAG16L protein, SPAG6, another central apparatus protein that interacts with SPAG16L, and the 28-kDa fragment of SPAG17, which associates with SPAG6. These proteins were also lost after freezing-boiling cycles of sperm extracts from mice that were heterozygous for an inactivating mutation (exons 2 and 3) in Spag16. Our findings suggest that a heterozygous mutation that affects both SPAG16L and SPAG16S does not cause male infertility in man, but is associated with reduced stability of the interacting proteins of the central apparatus in response to a thermal challenge, a phenotype shared by the sperm of mice heterozygous for a mutation that affects SPAG16L.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas FAP133 is a dynein intermediate chain associated with the retrograde intraflagellar transport motor. (2/138)

Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is the bi-directional movement of particles along the length of axonemal outer doublet microtubules and is needed for the assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Retrograde IFT requires cytoplasmic dynein 1b, a motor complex whose organization, structural composition and regulation is poorly understood. We have characterized the product of the Chlamydomonas FAP133 gene that encodes a new WD-repeat protein similar to dynein intermediate chains and homologous to the uncharacterized vertebrate protein WD34. FAP133 is located at the peri-basal body region as well as in punctate structures along the flagella. This protein is associated with the IFT machinery because it is specifically depleted from the flagella of cells with defects in anterograde IFT. Fractionation of flagellar matrix proteins indicates that FAP133 associates with both the LC8 dynein light chain and the IFT dynein heavy chain and light intermediate chain (DHC1b-D1bLIC) motor complex. In the absence of DHC1b or D1bLIC, FAP133 fails to localize at the peri-basal body region but, rather, is concentrated in a region of the cytoplasm near the cell center. Furthermore, we found that FAP133, LC8, DHC1b, D1bLIC, the FLA10 kinesin-2 necessary for anterograde IFT and other IFT scaffold components associate to form a large macromolecular assembly.  (+info)

Identification of novel ciliogenesis factors using a new in vivo model for mucociliary epithelial development. (3/138)

Mucociliary epithelia are essential for homeostasis of many organs and consist of mucus-secreting goblet cells and ciliated cells. Here, we present the ciliated epidermis of Xenopus embryos as a facile model system for in vivo molecular studies of mucociliary epithelial development. Using an in situ hybridization-based approach, we identified numerous genes expressed differentially in mucus-secreting cells or in ciliated cells. Focusing on genes expressed in ciliated cells, we have identified new candidate ciliogenesis factors, including several not present in the current ciliome. We find that TTC25-GFP is localized to the base of cilia and to ciliary axonemes, and disruption of TTC25 function disrupts ciliogenesis. Mig12-GFP localizes very strongly to the base of cilia and confocal imaging of this construct allows for simple visualization of the planar polarity of basal bodies that underlies polarized ciliary beating. Knockdown of Mig12 disrupts ciliogenesis. Finally, we show that ciliogenesis factors identified in the Xenopus epidermis are required in the midline to facilitate neural tube closure. These results provide further evidence of a requirement for cilia in neural tube morphogenesis and suggest that genes identified in the Xenopus epidermis play broad roles in ciliogenesis. The suites of genes identified here will provide a foundation for future studies, and may also contribute to our understanding of pathological changes in mucociliary epithelia that accompany diseases such as asthma.  (+info)

Heat shock transcription factor 1 is required for maintenance of ciliary beating in mice. (4/138)

Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) maintain protein homeostasis through regulating expression of heat shock proteins, especially in stressed conditions. In addition, HSFs are involved in cellular differentiation and development by regulating development-related genes, as well as heat shock genes. Here, we showed chronic sinusitis and mild hydrocephalus in postnatal HSF1-null mice, which are associated with impaired mucociliary clearance and cerebrospinal flow, respectively. Analysis of ciliary beating revealed that the amplitude of the beating was significantly reduced, and ciliary beat frequencies were lower in the respiratory epithelium, ependymal cells, oviduct, and trachea of HSF1-null mice than those of wild-type mice. Cilia possess a common axonema structure composed of microtubules of alpha- and beta-tubulin. We found a marked reduction in alpha- and ciliary betaiv-tubulin in the HSF1-null cilia, which is developmentally associated with reduced Hsp90 expression in HSF1-null mice. Treatment of the respiratory epithelium with geldanamycin resulted in rapid reduction of ciliary beating in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Hsp90 was physically associated with ciliary betaiv-tubulin, and Hsp90 stabilizes tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results indicate that HSF1 is required to maintain ciliary beating in postnatal mice, probably by regulating constitutive expression of Hsp90 that is important for tubulin polymerization.  (+info)

A conserved CaM- and radial spoke associated complex mediates regulation of flagellar dynein activity. (5/138)

For virtually all cilia and eukaryotic flagella, the second messengers calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate are implicated in modulating dynein- driven microtubule sliding to regulate beating. Calmodulin (CaM) localizes to the axoneme and is a key calcium sensor involved in regulating motility. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify members of a CaM-containing complex that are involved in regulating dynein activity. This complex includes flagellar-associated protein 91 (FAP91), which shares considerable sequence similarity to AAT-1, a protein originally identified in testis as an A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP)- binding protein. FAP91 directly interacts with radial spoke protein 3 (an AKAP), which is located at the base of the spoke. In a microtubule sliding assay, the addition of antibodies generated against FAP91 to mutant axonemes with reduced dynein activity restores dynein activity to wild-type levels. These combined results indicate that the CaM- and spoke-associated complex mediates regulatory signals between the radial spokes and dynein arms.  (+info)

Novel 44-kilodalton subunit of axonemal Dynein conserved from chlamydomonas to mammals. (6/138)

Cilia and flagella have multiple dyneins in their inner and outer arms. Chlamydomonas inner-arm dynein contains at least seven major subspecies (dynein a to dynein g), of which all but dynein f (also called dynein I1) are the single-headed type that are composed of a single heavy chain, actin, and either centrin or a 28-kDa protein (p28). Dynein d was found to associate with two additional proteins of 38 kDa (p38) and 44 kDa (p44). Following the characterization of the p38 protein (R. Yamamoto, H. A. Yanagisawa, T. Yagi, and R. Kamiya, FEBS Lett. 580:6357-6360, 2006), we have identified p44 as a novel component of dynein d by using an immunoprecipitation approach. p44 is present along the length of the axonemes and is diminished, but not absent, in the ida4 and ida5 mutants, both lacking this dynein. In the ida5 axoneme, p44 and p38 appear to form a complex, suggesting that they constitute the docking site of dynein d on the outer doublet. p44 has potential homologues in other ciliated organisms. For example, the mouse homologue of p44, NYD-SP14, was found to be strongly expressed in tissues with motile cilia and flagella. These results suggest that inner-arm dynein d and its subunit organization are widely conserved.  (+info)

Dimeric heat shock protein 40 binds radial spokes for generating coupled power strokes and recovery strokes of 9 + 2 flagella. (7/138)


Spermatotoxic effect of aflatoxin B1 in rat: extrusion of outer dense fibres and associated axonemal microtubule doublets of sperm flagellum. (8/138)


An axoneme is the microtubular structure that forms the core of a cilium or flagellum in eukaryotic cells. It is composed of nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, known as doublets, surrounding two central single microtubules, forming a "9+2" arrangement. The axoneme is anchored to the cell membrane through a basal body and provides the structural framework for the movement of cilia and flagella. It is composed of tubulin proteins and accessory structures such as dynein arms, which are responsible for generating the force required for ciliary or flagellar movement.

The "sperm tail" is also known as the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure that enables the sperm to move or swim through fluid. The human sperm tail is made up of nine microtubule doublets and a central pair of microtubules, which are surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath that provides energy for its movement. This complex structure allows the sperm to navigate through the female reproductive tract in order to reach and fertilize an egg.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

Cilia are tiny, hair-like structures that protrude from the surface of many types of cells in the body. They are composed of a core bundle of microtubules surrounded by a protein matrix and are covered with a membrane. Cilia are involved in various cellular functions, including movement of fluid or mucus across the cell surface, detection of external stimuli, and regulation of signaling pathways.

There are two types of cilia: motile and non-motile. Motile cilia are able to move in a coordinated manner to propel fluids or particles across a surface, such as those found in the respiratory tract and reproductive organs. Non-motile cilia, also known as primary cilia, are present on most cells in the body and serve as sensory organelles that detect chemical and mechanical signals from the environment.

Defects in cilia structure or function can lead to a variety of diseases, collectively known as ciliopathies. These conditions can affect multiple organs and systems in the body, including the brain, kidneys, liver, and eyes. Examples of ciliopathies include polycystic kidney disease, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

Dyneins are a type of motor protein that play an essential role in the movement of cellular components and structures within eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for generating force and motion along microtubules, which are critical components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Dyneins are involved in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, organelle positioning, and cell division.

There are several types of dyneins, but the two main categories are cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins. Cytoplasmic dyneins are responsible for moving various cargoes, such as vesicles, organelles, and mRNA complexes, toward the minus-end of microtubules, which is usually located near the cell center. Axonemal dyneins, on the other hand, are found in cilia and flagella and are responsible for their movement by sliding adjacent microtubules past each other.

Dyneins consist of multiple subunits, including heavy chains, intermediate chains, light-intermediate chains, and light chains. The heavy chains contain the motor domain that binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force. Dysfunction in dynein proteins has been linked to various human diseases, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, ciliopathies, and cancer.

Chlamydomonas is a genus of single-celled, green algae that are widely found in freshwater and marine environments. These microorganisms are characterized by their oval or spherical shape, and each cell contains a single, large chloroplast used for photosynthesis. They also have two flagella, which are hair-like structures that enable them to move through their aquatic habitats. Chlamydomonas species are often used in scientific research due to their simple cell structure and ease of cultivation in the lab.

Microtubules are hollow, cylindrical structures composed of tubulin proteins in the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as maintaining cell shape, intracellular transport, and cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Microtubules are dynamic, undergoing continuous assembly and disassembly, which allows them to rapidly reorganize in response to cellular needs. They also form part of important cellular structures like centrioles, basal bodies, and cilia/flagella.

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a species of single-celled, freshwater green algae. It is commonly used as a model organism in scientific research due to its simple unicellular structure and the ease with which it can be genetically manipulated. C. reinhardtii has a single, large chloroplast that contains both photosynthetic pigments and a nucleomorph, a remnant of a secondary endosymbiotic event where another alga was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryote. This species is capable of both phototactic and photophobic responses, allowing it to move towards or away from light sources. Additionally, C. reinhardtii has two flagella for locomotion, making it a popular subject for ciliary and flagellar research. It undergoes closed mitosis within its single, diploid nucleus, which is surrounded by a cell wall composed of glycoproteins. The genome of C. reinhardtii has been fully sequenced, providing valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying photosynthesis, flagellar assembly, and other fundamental biological processes.

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move actively and effectively through the female reproductive tract towards the egg for fertilization. It is typically measured as the percentage of moving sperm in a sample, and their progressiveness or velocity. Normal human sperm motility is generally defined as forward progression of at least 25 micrometers per second, with at least 50% of sperm showing progressive motility. Reduced sperm motility, also known as asthenozoospermia, can negatively impact fertility and reproductive outcomes.

Axonemal dyneins are motor proteins that are located in the axoneme of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. The axoneme is the internal structure of these cellular appendages, and it is composed of nine microtubule doublets arranged in a ring around two central single microtubules.

Dyneins are large protein complexes that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, generating force and motion. Axonemal dyneins are responsible for the sliding of the microtubule doublets relative to each other, which leads to the bending and movement of cilia and flagella.

There are several types of axonemal dyneins, classified based on their structure and function. The outer dynein arms are larger complexes that generate the power stroke for ciliary beating, while the inner dynein arms are smaller complexes involved in regulating the beat pattern and frequency.

Defects in axonemal dyneins can lead to a variety of genetic disorders known as ciliopathies, which affect the structure and function of cilia and flagella. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory problems, infertility, and developmental abnormalities.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Tubulin is a type of protein that forms microtubules, which are hollow cylindrical structures involved in the cell's cytoskeleton. These structures play important roles in various cellular processes, including maintaining cell shape, cell division, and intracellular transport. There are two main types of tubulin proteins: alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. They polymerize to form heterodimers, which then assemble into microtubules. The assembly and disassembly of microtubules are dynamic processes that are regulated by various factors, including GTP hydrolysis, motor proteins, and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Tubulin is an essential component of the eukaryotic cell and has been a target for anti-cancer drugs such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. "Sea urchins" is a common name that refers to a type of marine invertebrate animal, typically characterized by their round, spiny shells. They belong to the class Echinoidea within the phylum Echinodermata.

Medically speaking, there isn't a specific definition for "sea urchins." However, if you come into contact with sea urchins while swimming or diving and accidentally step on them, their spines can puncture your skin and potentially cause an infection. In this case, medical attention may be necessary to remove the embedded spines and treat any resulting infection.

If you were referring to a specific medical term related to sea urchins, could you please clarify? I'm here to help!

Spermatids are immature sperm cells that are produced during the process of spermatogenesis in the male testes. They are the product of the final stage of meiosis, where a diploid spermatocyte divides into four haploid spermatids. Each spermatid then undergoes a series of changes, including the development of a tail for motility and the condensation of its nucleus to form a head containing the genetic material. Once this process is complete, the spermatids are considered mature spermatozoa and are capable of fertilizing an egg.

Kartagener Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is characterized by the triad of chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis (damage and widening of the airways in the lungs), and situs inversus totalis - a condition where the major visceral organs are mirrored or reversed from their normal positions.

In Kartagener Syndrome, the cilia (tiny hair-like structures) lining the respiratory tract are abnormal or dysfunctional, which impairs their ability to clear mucus and other particles. This leads to recurrent respiratory infections, bronchiectasis, and ultimately, progressive lung damage.

The condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the defective gene - one from each parent - to develop the syndrome. Kartagener Syndrome is a subtype of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a group of disorders affecting ciliary structure and function.

Microtubule proteins are a class of structural proteins that make up the microtubules, which are key components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. The main microtubule protein is tubulin, which exists in two forms: alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. These tubulins polymerize to form heterodimers, which then assemble into protofilaments, which in turn aggregate to form hollow microtubules. Microtubules are dynamic structures that undergo continuous assembly and disassembly, and they play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and maintenance of cell shape. Other microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) also bind to microtubules and regulate their stability, dynamics, and interactions with other cellular structures.

Centrioles are small, cylindrical structures found in the centrosome of animal cells. They play a crucial role in organizing the microtubules that make up the cell's cytoskeleton and are also involved in the formation of the spindle apparatus during cell division. A typical centriole is made up of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring-like fashion around a central hub or core.

Centrioles have two main functions:

1. Microtubule Organization: Centrioles serve as the primary site for microtubule nucleation and organization within the cell. They help to form the mitotic spindle during cell division, which is responsible for separating replicated chromosomes into two identical sets that are distributed equally between the two daughter cells.

2. Formation of Cilia and Flagella: In specialized cells, centrioles can also function as basal bodies for the formation of cilia and flagella. These hair-like structures protrude from the cell surface and play a role in cell movement and the movement of extracellular fluids over the cell surface.

It is important to note that plants and fungi do not have centrioles, and their cells use alternative mechanisms for microtubule organization and cell division.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Ciliary motility disorders are a group of rare genetic conditions that affect the function of cilia, which are tiny hair-like structures on the surface of cells in the body. Cilia play an important role in moving fluids and particles across the cell surface, including the movement of mucus and other substances in the respiratory system, the movement of eggs and sperm in the reproductive system, and the movement of fluid in the inner ear.

Ciliary motility disorders are caused by mutations in genes that are responsible for the proper functioning of cilia. These mutations can lead to abnormalities in the structure or function of cilia, which can result in a range of symptoms depending on the specific disorder and the parts of the body that are affected.

Some common symptoms of ciliary motility disorders include recurrent respiratory infections, chronic sinusitis, hearing loss, infertility, and situs inversus, a condition in which the major organs are reversed or mirrored from their normal positions. There are several different types of ciliary motility disorders, including primary ciliary dyskinesia, Kartagener syndrome, and immotile cilia syndrome.

Treatment for ciliary motility disorders typically involves addressing the specific symptoms and underlying causes of the disorder. This may include antibiotics to treat respiratory infections, surgery to correct structural abnormalities, or assisted reproductive technologies to help with infertility.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are produced in male organisms. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and involves several stages:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: This is the initial stage where diploid spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce more spermatogonia, some of which will differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis: The primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division to form haploid secondary spermatocytes, which then divide again to form haploid spermatids. This process results in the reduction of chromosome number from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
3. Spermiogenesis: The spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, undergoing morphological changes such as the formation of a head and tail. During this stage, most of the cytoplasm is discarded, resulting in highly compacted and streamlined sperm cells.
4. Spermation: The final stage where mature sperm are released from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis for further maturation and storage.

The entire process takes approximately 72-74 days in humans, with continuous production throughout adulthood.

Algal proteins are a type of protein that are derived from algae, which are simple, plant-like organisms that live in water. These proteins can be extracted and isolated from the algae through various processing methods and can then be used as a source of nutrition for both humans and animals.

Algal proteins are considered to be a complete protein source because they contain all of the essential amino acids that the body cannot produce on its own. They are also rich in other nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Some species of algae, such as spirulina and chlorella, have particularly high protein contents, making them a popular choice for use in dietary supplements and functional foods.

In addition to their nutritional benefits, algal proteins are also being studied for their potential therapeutic uses. For example, some research suggests that they may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-boosting properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential health benefits and to determine the optimal dosages and methods of use.

Interference microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses the interference of light waves to enhance contrast and visualize details in a specimen. It is often used to measure thin transparent samples, such as cells or tissues, with very high precision. One common method of interference microscopy is phase contrast microscopy, which converts differences in the optical path length of light passing through the sample into changes in amplitude and/or phase of the transmitted light. This results in enhanced contrast and visibility of details that may be difficult to see using other forms of microscopy. Other types of interference microscopy include differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, which uses polarized light to enhance contrast, and holographic microscopy, which records and reconstructs the wavefront of light passing through the sample to create a 3D image.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

Medical Definition:
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are a diverse group of proteins that bind to microtubules, which are key components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. MAPs play crucial roles in regulating microtubule dynamics and stability, as well as in mediating interactions between microtubules and other cellular structures. They can be classified into several categories based on their functions, including:

1. Microtubule stabilizers: These MAPs promote the assembly of microtubules and protect them from disassembly by enhancing their stability. Examples include tau proteins and MAP2.
2. Microtubule dynamics regulators: These MAPs modulate the rate of microtubule polymerization and depolymerization, allowing for dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton during cell division and other processes. Examples include stathmin and XMAP215.
3. Microtubule motor proteins: These MAPs use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, transporting various cargoes within the cell. Examples include kinesin and dynein.
4. Adapter proteins: These MAPs facilitate interactions between microtubules and other cellular structures, such as membranes, organelles, or signaling molecules. Examples include MAP4 and CLASPs.

Dysregulation of MAPs has been implicated in several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (where tau proteins form abnormal aggregates called neurofibrillary tangles) and cancer (where altered microtubule dynamics can contribute to uncontrolled cell division).

Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a species of protozoan flagellate parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals. This parasite is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The life cycle of T. b. brucei involves two main stages: the insect-dwelling procyclic trypomastigote stage and the mammalian-dwelling bloodstream trypomastigote stage.

The distinguishing feature of T. b. brucei is its ability to change its surface coat, which helps it evade the host's immune system. This allows the parasite to establish a long-term infection in the mammalian host. However, T. b. brucei is not infectious to humans; instead, two other subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis.

In summary, Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a non-human-infective subspecies of the parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis in animals and serves as an essential model organism for understanding the biology and pathogenesis of related human-infective trypanosomes.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paramecium" is not a medical term. It is a genus of unicellular organisms commonly found in freshwater environments. Paramecia are classified as ciliates due to the presence of hair-like structures called cilia on their surface. They use these cilia for locomotion and feeding. If you have any questions about biology or another topic, I'd be happy to try to help!

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Kinesin is not a medical term per se, but a term from the field of cellular biology. However, understanding how kinesins work is important in the context of medical and cellular research.

Kinesins are a family of motor proteins that play a crucial role in transporting various cargoes within cells, such as vesicles, organelles, and chromosomes. They move along microtubule filaments, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to generate mechanical force and motion. This process is essential for several cellular functions, including intracellular transport, mitosis, and meiosis.

In a medical context, understanding kinesin function can provide insights into various diseases and conditions related to impaired intracellular transport, such as neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease) and certain genetic disorders affecting motor neurons. Research on kinesins can potentially lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting these conditions.

Male infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It is typically defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The causes of male infertility can be varied and include issues with sperm production, such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality, problems with sperm delivery, such as obstructions in the reproductive tract, or hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production. Other factors that may contribute to male infertility include genetic disorders, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions or treatments.

It is important to note that male infertility can often be treated or managed with medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A healthcare provider can help diagnose the underlying cause of male infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) is a specialized type of electron microscopy that combines the principles of immunochemistry and electron microscopy to detect and localize specific antigens within cells or tissues at the ultrastructural level. This technique allows for the visualization and identification of specific proteins, viruses, or other antigenic structures with a high degree of resolution and specificity.

In IEM, samples are first fixed, embedded, and sectioned to prepare them for electron microscopy. The sections are then treated with specific antibodies that have been labeled with electron-dense markers, such as gold particles or ferritin. These labeled antibodies bind to the target antigens in the sample, allowing for their visualization under an electron microscope.

There are several different methods of IEM, including pre-embedding and post-embedding techniques. Pre-embedding involves labeling the antigens before embedding the sample in resin, while post-embedding involves labeling the antigens after embedding. Post-embedding techniques are generally more commonly used because they allow for better preservation of ultrastructure and higher resolution.

IEM is a valuable tool in many areas of research, including virology, bacteriology, immunology, and cell biology. It can be used to study the structure and function of viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms, as well as the distribution and localization of specific proteins and antigens within cells and tissues.

Molecular motor proteins are a type of protein that convert chemical energy into mechanical work at the molecular level. They play a crucial role in various cellular processes, such as cell division, muscle contraction, and intracellular transport. There are several types of molecular motor proteins, including myosin, kinesin, and dynein.

Myosin is responsible for muscle contraction and movement along actin filaments in the cytoplasm. Kinesin and dynein are involved in intracellular transport along microtubules, moving cargo such as vesicles, organelles, and mRNA to various destinations within the cell.

These motor proteins move in a stepwise fashion, with each step driven by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The directionality and speed of movement are determined by the structure and regulation of the motor proteins, as well as the properties of the tracks along which they move.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

The axoneme of a primary cilium typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme ... The radial spoke is another protein complex of the axoneme. Thought to be important in regulating the motion of the axoneme, ... The building-block of the axoneme is the microtubule; each axoneme is composed of several microtubules aligned in a ... An axoneme, also called an axial filament is the microtubule-based cytoskeletal structure that forms the core of a cilium or ...
These microtubules form an axoneme. Later the centriole is modified in the process of centrosome reduction. The anterior part ... of the tail (called midpiece) thickens because mitochondria are arranged around the axoneme to ensure energy supply. Spermatid ...
... the axoneme of cilia and flagella. the mitotic spindle. synthesis of the cell wall in plants. In addition to the roles ...
The proximal centriole is present also in the mature spermatozoon; the distal centriole disappears after axoneme assembly. The ...
The anterior flagellum has a '9+2' axoneme. Simpson and Patterson described that in addition to the '9+2' axoneme, the ... axoneme. Carpediemonas contains a single ovate nucleus, located anteriorly in the cell. The nucleolus can also be found ...
The cell wall is formed after axoneme internalization. Five modes of axoneme internalization occur in S. punctatus: severing, ... The axoneme remains intact during internalization and the axonemal tubulin is degraded at least in part by the proteasome. ... Fifth, vesicular retraction is the creation of an axoneme loop bulge within the ciliary membrane before internalization. After ... During encystment, the cilium is disassembled first via axoneme internalization. The initiation of this process is actin- ...
Like microvilli, they contain actin and lack an axoneme. This distinguishes them from cilia. They do not have a Basal body at ...
Primary cilia are immotile, and have a structurally different 9+0 axoneme rather than the 9+2 axoneme found in both flagella ... Besides the axoneme and basal body, relatively constant in morphology, other internal structures of the flagellar apparatus are ... The flagellar axoneme also contains radial spokes, polypeptide complexes extending from each of the outer nine microtubule ... known as the axoneme is a bundle of nine fused pairs of microtubules known as doublets surrounding two central single ...
Mechanical forces on the axoneme also affect axonemal dynein function. The heavy chains of inner and outer arms of axonemal ... Each dynein molecule thus forms a cross-bridge between two adjacent microtubules of the ciliary axoneme. During the "power ... Thioredoxins associated with the other axonemal dynein arms are oxidized/reduced to regulate where dynein binds in the axoneme ... DNAL4 Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have ...
... s are T-shaped structures present inside the axoneme. Each spoke consists of a "head" and a "stalk," while each of ... The radial spoke is a multi-unit protein structure found in the axonemes of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Although experiments ... and the spoke head faces in towards the center of the axoneme (see illustration at right). The radial spoke is known to play a ...
Specifically in the tip of cilia and the cilia axoneme. Within the testis, protein abundance is highest in elongated or late ...
When the INPP5E gene is mutated, the protein is damaged and is unable to spread out along the cilia axoneme or interact with ... This inability to stabilize one's cilia axoneme results in MORM syndrome. The exact mechanism as to how the mutation in the ... In unaffected individuals the protein is evenly disbursed throughout the cilia axoneme, which stabilizes the cilia, which are ...
Decreased motile cilia-specific expression of DNAH11 within the axoneme of sperm is associated with lower levels of sperm ... 2008). "Primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with normal axoneme ultrastructure is caused by DNAH11 mutations". Hum. Mutat. 29 ... "Primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with normal axoneme ultrastructure is caused byDNAH11mutations". Human Mutation. 29 (2): ...
1967). "On the structure of the axoneme in flagella of Polytrichum juniperinum". Transactions of the American Microscopical ...
Their axonemes end on a large central nucleus. They are also characterized by the siliceous material present in their cysts. ... In particular, Actinophrys species are characterized by axonemes consisting of double interlocking spirals of microtubules. ...
The axoneme is composed of the typical eukaryotic 9 x 2 motif. The lamella raises against the axoneme and connects to at least ... which is supported by a paraxonemal lamella that originates near the axoneme. ... two axonemal doublets after approximately 100 nm apart from the axoneme. Its width gradually broadens to about 700 nm. ...
"The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography". Science. 313 (5789): 944-948. Bibcode:2006Sci... ...
Axonemes are structures in cilia and flagella consisting of a specific pattern of microtubules. McIntosh's team was ... Nicastro D, Schwartz C, Pierson J, Gaudette R, Porter ME, McIntosh JR (August 2006). "The molecular architecture of axonemes ... In 2006, McIntosh's team used cyroelecton tomography to image axonemes in sea urchin sperm and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ...
... "trepaxonematan axoneme" has nine peripheral doublets of microtubules as the usual 9+2 axoneme but the two central microtubules ... The Trepaxonemata are characterised by: biflagellate spermatozoa axoneme of the spermatozoa with a special type of dense core ( ... Trepaxonemata (from trepa-, spiral + axoneme) is a subclass of the Platyhelminthes or flatworms. It includes all parasitic ... "1" pattern). The axoneme in the spermatozoa of species of Trepaxonemata, also called "trepaxoneme" or " ...
The axoneme of a primary cilium typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme ... 2 axoneme. Most non-motile cilia have a 9+0 axoneme that lacks the central pair of microtubules. Also lacking are the ... This is the same axoneme type of the flagellum. The axoneme in a motile cilium acts as a scaffold for the inner and outer ... They possess the 9+2 axoneme of the motile cilia but lack the inner dynein arms that give movement. They do move passively ...
They also have a heteromorphic pair of central microtubules in the anterior axoneme. The micronemes have bulbous posterior ends ... dense area in the axoneme and a residual body inside the sporangium. The species P.prorocentri has had a lot of uncertainty ... refractile body in zoospore with two dissimilar flagella and heteromorphic pair of central microtubules in the anterior axoneme ...
Their anterior flagellum is reduced to a stub without its 9+2 axoneme. The centrosome also generates numerous microtubules in ...
Each dynein arm of the ciliary axoneme has an inner and outer dynein arm. A mutation in DNAI1 can lead to defective ciliary ... The inner- and outer-arm dyneins, which bridge between the doublet microtubules in axonemes, are the force-generating proteins ... responsible for the sliding movement in axonemes. The intermediate and light chains, thought to form the base of the dynein arm ...
Activation promotes basal body trafficking, docking at the apical membrane and subsequent axoneme growth. The protein p73 a ...
One end of the axoneme is exposed to the cytoplasm as the other end of the axoneme is formed as compartmentalized cilia. This ... Since the axoneme of this flagellum was exposed to the cytoplasm it was named Cytosolic Ciliogenesis. Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; ... Tertiary cytosolic cilia are axonemes that form directly in the cytoplasm. This type of cilia is found in Plasmodium (the ... Cytosolic ciliogenesis, otherwise cytoplasmic ciliogenesis, is a type of ciliogenesis where the cilium axoneme is formed in the ...
Scholey JM (April 1996). "Kinesin-II, a membrane traffic motor in axons, axonemes, and spindles". The Journal of Cell Biology. ...
are missing or dysfunctional and thus the axoneme structure lacks the ability to move. Axonemes are the elongated structures ...
5 August 2009). "Essential and Synergistic Roles of RP1 and RP1L1 in Rod Photoreceptor Axoneme and Retinitis Pigmentosa". ...
The basal body serves as a nucleation site for the growth of the axoneme microtubules. Centrioles, from which basal bodies are ...
WDR62 is required for IFT88 localization to the cilia basal body and the cilia axoneme. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
The axoneme of a primary cilium typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme ... The radial spoke is another protein complex of the axoneme. Thought to be important in regulating the motion of the axoneme, ... The building-block of the axoneme is the microtubule; each axoneme is composed of several microtubules aligned in a ... An axoneme, also called an axial filament is the microtubule-based cytoskeletal structure that forms the core of a cilium or ...
Tan C, Meng L, Lv M, He X, Sha Y, Tang D, Tan Y, Hu T, He W, Tu C, et al. Bi-allelic variants in DNHD1 cause flagellar axoneme ... Bi-allelic variants in DNHD1 cause flagellar axoneme defects and asthenoteratozoospermia in humans and mice.. ...
... from Motifolio ... Title: Microtubules and other axoneme proteins. Keywords: Microtubules and other axoneme proteins illustration figure drawing ...
Get editable icons and illustrations of Axoneme. Create professional science figures in minutes with BioRender scientific ... ciila,flagella,centriole,centrosome,microtubule,radial spoke,primary cilium,basal body,axoneme ... ":"https://icons.biorender.com/w550xh620/5c50c54b4da1d51500a896a2/axoneme.png"},{"image":"https://icons.biorender.com/w75xh75/ ... 5c50c54b4da1d51500a896a1/axoneme.png","waterMarkImage":"https://icons.biorender.com/w550xh620/5c50c54b4da1d51500a896a1/axoneme. ...
involved_in sperm axoneme assembly IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype. more info ...
Keywords: axoneme; cilia; cryo-EM; cryo-ET; microtubules. Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ...
is_active_in axoneme IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
To understand mechanisms of regulation of dynein activity along and around the axoneme we further characterized the ... Axonemes from drc mutants lack part of I2 and I3 inner dynein arms as well as subsets of seven drc components (apparent ... To understand mechanisms of regulation of dynein activity along and around the axoneme we further characterized the "dynein ... alter the ATP-insensitive binding sites for inner arm dyneins in Chlamydomonas axonemes. G Piperno, G Piperno ...
β-Tubulin constitutes the microtubule axoneme of primary cilia. Hence, defects in these interactions may impair ciliary ...
Cilia consist of an axoneme built of microtubules, enveloped by a specialized membrane. Ciliary development and maintenance ... Recent work has indicated that axoneme length is controlled by IFT. Preliminary results from my laboratory show that axoneme ... Cilia consist of an axoneme built of microtubules, enveloped by a specialized membrane. Ciliary development and maintenance ...
axoneme Figures 338 (upper) and 339 (lower) from Chapter 14 (Sperm Flagellum) of The Cell, 2nd Ed. by Don W. Fawcett M.D. ...
4: Ciliated proband 1 fibroblasts accumulate IFT88 (green) in ciliary axonemes.. (a) Wild-type (WT) (top) and proband 1 V1/V2 ... Proband 1-derived fibroblasts showed abnormal IFT88 protein accumulation in ciliary axonemes, which supports DYNC2H1 ... mutant (bottom) fibroblasts are stained with acetylated alpha tubulin (cilia axonemes, red), gamma tubulin (basal body, red), ...
cilium axoneme A high resolution micrograph of the proximal ends of the basal bodies of a cirrus of Euplotes. the basal bodies ... cilium axoneme A high resolution image of the cilia of a membranelle of the AZM (adoral zone of membranelles) have well defined ...
Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer ... Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. IDAs and ODAs have different ...
In the middle panel red lines connecting the central pair of axonemes indicate the rotational polarity of each ciliary axoneme ... mir-34/449 TKO ciliary axonemes have moderately un-coordinated directionality compared to WT and DKO controls. d, mir-34/449 ... c, Directionality of basal bodies (top) and axonemes (middle) is moderately affected in mir-34/449 TKO MCCs. In the top panel ... In the bottom panel the angles of the axoneme directionality were statistically analysed as bidirectional circular data. The ...
A cross-section of an axoneme, with axonemal dynein arms. Axonemal dyneins come in multiple forms that contain either one, two ... Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those ... Mechanical forces on the axoneme also affect axonemal dynein function. The heavy chains of inner and outer arms of axonemal ... Each dynein molecule thus forms a cross-bridge between two adjacent microtubules of the ciliary axoneme. During the "power ...
axonema axoneme. bioethics bio tica bio thique bioetica. biof sica cerebral biophysics. ...
They possess a large nucleus, a prominent kinetoplast, and a short axoneme, the last of which is rarely visible by light ...
CEP162 is an axoneme-recognition protein promoting ciliary transition zone assembly at the cilia base.. Authors - Wang Won-Jing ... Microtubule asters anchored by FSD1 control axoneme assembly and ciliogenesis.. Authors - Hai-Qing Tu. View Article ...
The so-called 9+2 structure is characteristic of the core of the eukaryotic flagellum called an axoneme. At the base of a ... The flagellar axoneme also contains radial spokes, polypeptide complexes extending from each of the outer 9 mictrotubule ...
Reflection of structural abnormality in the axoneme of respiratory cilia in the clinical features of immotile cilia syndrome. ...
... scattered or forked axoneme and incomplete plasma membrane. Spermatozoa from Armc12-/- mice showed parallel defects in the ...
... no PAS-positive material was detected in the detergent-extracted axonemes. The major 55,000-dalton protein has proteins quite ...
2). The core, or axoneme, of primary cilia consists of nine doublet MTs and is enclosed in a lipid bilayer that is continuous ... Bottom: ciliated hTERT-RPE1 cell stained with antibodies to ALMS1, the PCM component γ-tubulin and the centriole/axoneme ... Ball-like staining of the ciliary axoneme marker acetylated tubulin was apparent in Alms1-depleted mouse inner medullary ... defined by Y-shaped links extending from the axoneme to the ciliary membrane [35] (Fig. 2). ...
E) Quantification of the number of the ciliary vesicles, elongated ciliary axoneme, and aberrant cilia (left) as well as the ... E) Immunostaining of outer segment (OS) axoneme marker RP1 (magenta, left panel) and ciliary rootlet marker Rootletin (magenta ... Aberrant cilia were defined as docked mother centrioles without ciliary vesicles or elongated ciliary axoneme. The data ...
In order to investigate the dynamics of the flagella during the cell cycle, the axonemes and DNA in nuclei and kinetoplasts ... These extensions were internally reinforced by oblique fibrils running from the peripheral microtubules of the axoneme to the ... Black arrowhead shows vesicles detaching from the flagellar membrane, white arrowheads-oblique fibrils between the axoneme and ... Abbreviations: ac, acidocalcisomes; af, apex of the flagellar tip; ag, Golgi apparatus; ax, axoneme; fl, flagella; fp, ...
Reflection of Structural Abnormality in the Axoneme of Respiratory Cilia in the Clinical Features of Immotile Cilia Syndrome ...
Head length, axoneme length, and total length had high within-male repeatability across multiple spawnings. Only sperm head ...
A strong reduction in ciliary axonemes within multiciliated cells was found to be at the basis of this. Therefore, the ... A strong reduction in ciliary axonemes within multiciliated cells was found to be at the basis of this. Therefore, the ...
... centriole exposing the axoneme to the cytoplasm. This finding opens a new challenge, to understand how the cilium gate, that is ... as in this type of ciliogenesis the cilium axoneme is exposed to the cytoplasm. Recently we have discovered that cytoplasmic ...
  • Though distinctions of function and length may be made between cilia and flagella, the internal structure of the axoneme is common to both. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axoneme structure in non-motile primary cilia is of an outer nine microtubule doublets with no central microtubule singlets, and no dynein arms on the outer doublets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1952, using advancements in fixation, embedding, and ultramicrotomy, Fawcett and Porter proved by EM thin sections that the core of epithelial cilia within the ciliary membrane consisted of nine doublet microtubules surrounding two central, singlet microtubules (i.e., the "central pair microtubule apparatus"), and hence the term, the "9 + 2" axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cilia consist of an axoneme built of microtubules, enveloped by a specialized membrane. (europa.eu)
  • Preliminary results from my laboratory show that axoneme length changes dynamically in response to perturbations of IFT or cilia. (europa.eu)
  • Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their location. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently we have discovered that cytoplasmic cilia are formed due to the migration of the cilium gate (the transition zone) away from the centriole exposing the axoneme to the cytoplasm. (utoledo.edu)
  • The study of RP1L1 −/− mice also showed that the RP1L1 protein is located in the axoneme of the outer segments and connecting cilia exclusively in rod photoreceptors. (molvis.org)
  • Cilia and flagella are comprised of a microtubular backbone, the axoneme, which is organized by the basal body and surrounded by plasma membrane. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The axoneme of a primary cilium typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of a motile cilium has two central microtubules in addition to the nine outer doublets (called a 9+2 axoneme). (wikipedia.org)
  • each axoneme is composed of several microtubules aligned in a characteristic pattern known as the 9+2 axoneme as shown in the image at right. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the microtubules, the axoneme contains many proteins and protein complexes necessary for its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this is carried out in a synchronized fashion, with the microtubules on one side of the axoneme being pulled 'down' and those on the other side pulled 'up,' the axoneme as a whole can bend back and forth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thought to be important in regulating the motion of the axoneme, this "T"-shape complex projects from each set of outer doublets toward the central microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nine doublet microtubules are then connected around the axoneme by nexin links. (wikipedia.org)
  • One conclusion made in this study is that the flagellum of sperm cells are formed in a unique way that we named cytoplasmic ciliogenesis, as in this type of ciliogenesis the cilium axoneme is exposed to the cytoplasm. (utoledo.edu)
  • Centrin can be found in the transitional region of the axoneme, the bridge between the nucleus and the basal body, and both the proximal and distal fibres connecting the two basal bodies. (prospecbio.com)
  • An axoneme, also called an axial filament is the microtubule-based cytoskeletal structure that forms the core of a cilium or flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside a cilium and a flagellum is a microtubule-based cytoskeleton called the axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only do these unique cells lack the microtubule-based axoneme associated with the swimming movement of most sperm, but they also are devoid of actin and myosin, the proteins generally considered to be the key components of amoeboid movement. (fsu.edu)
  • SPAG16 encodes 2 major proteins that associate with the axoneme of sperm tail and the nucleus of postmeiotic germ cells, respectively (Zhang et al. (antibodies-online.com)
  • axonemes of these mutants are missing three high molecular weight proteins which are probably components of the central tubule-central sheath complex. (rupress.org)
  • Mutations in the dynein regulatory complex alter the ATP-insensitive binding sites for inner arm dyneins in Chlamydomonas axonemes. (silverchair.com)
  • To understand mechanisms of regulation of dynein activity along and around the axoneme we further characterized the "dynein regulatory complex" (drc). (silverchair.com)
  • Axonemes from drc mutants lack part of I2 and I3 inner dynein arms as well as subsets of seven drc components (apparent molecular weight from 29,000 to 192,000). (silverchair.com)
  • In the absence of ATP-Mg, dynein-depleted axonemes from the same mutants bind I2 and I3 inner arms at both ATP-sensitive and -insensitive sites. (silverchair.com)
  • Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A strong reduction in ciliary axonemes within multiciliated cells was found to be at the basis of this. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Under conditions where wild-type axonemes reactivated, axonemes of the three mutants remained intact but did not form bends. (rupress.org)
  • They possess a large nucleus, a prominent kinetoplast, and a short axoneme, the last of which is rarely visible by light microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • The radial spoke is another protein complex of the axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron microscope examination of the isolated axoneme of pf-14 showed that it lacks the radial spokes but is otherwise structurally normal. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, the mechanism underlying the assembly of the fibrous sheath surrounding the axoneme was examined. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These data indicate that pro-AKAP82 is synthesized in the cell body, transported down the axoneme to its site of assembly in the fibrous sheath, and then proteolytically clipped to form mature AKAP82. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Bi-allelic variants in DNHD1 cause flagellar axoneme defects and asthenoteratozoospermia in humans and mice. (stembook.org)
  • others were found in axonemes or in both fractions. (rupress.org)
  • The axoneme serves as the "skeleton" of these organelles, both giving support to the structure and, in some cases, the ability to bend. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patients' spermatozoa displayed multiple midpiece defects, including absent MS and central pair, scattered or forked axoneme and incomplete plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , RS mutations paralyze the flagellar movement ( Witman et al , 1978 ) and the axoneme lacking RS system shows reduced velocity of microtubule sliding by dyneins ( Smith & Sale, 1992 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition to AK1 and AK2, which we previously demonstrated are present in outer dense fibers and mitochondrial sheath of the mouse sperm tail, we show that another AK, AK8, is present in a third flagellar compartment, the axoneme. (nih.gov)
  • The 250+ polypeptides that make up the axoneme, therefore, must be transported to the flagellar tip for assembly, not only during flagellar growth, but also for flagellar maintenance in the mature, full-length flagellum. (rupress.org)
  • 3 A diagnosis is made on the basis of a supportive clinical history and an abnormal ciliary beat frequency accompanied, in most cases, by specific abnormalities of the ciliary axoneme on electron microscopy. (bmj.com)
  • The axoneme structure in non-motile primary cilia is of an outer nine microtubule doublets with no central microtubule singlets, and no dynein arms on the outer doublets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Predicted to be located in 9+2 motile cilium and axoneme. (mcw.edu)
  • Though distinctions of function and length may be made between cilia and flagella, the internal structure of the axoneme is common to both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results: Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that eNOS and HSP90 co-localize within basal bodies of the ciliary metabolon and partially translocate to the axoneme upon brief alcohol exposure. (nebraska.edu)
  • The number of normal axonemes is markedly reduced as a result of the failure of some centrioles to form basal bodies. (usu.edu)
  • Pedro started working as an electron microscopist in 2008 at Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (PT) studying the ultrastructure of centrioles, basal bodies, and axonemes. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • An axoneme, also called an axial filament is the microtubule-based cytoskeletal structure that forms the core of a cilium or flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside a cilium and a flagellum is a microtubule-based cytoskeleton called the axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, elastic stresses hinder the swimming speed of both sperm cells and C. reinharditti and lead to significant hypertension in their flagellum, indicating a common trait among the "9+2" axoneme structures in complex fluids. (umass.edu)
  • cysts of G. duodenalis showing multiple nuclei, axonemes, and median bodies ( Figures A and B ). (cdc.gov)
  • a pyriform trophozoite of G. duodenalis showing two nuclei, an axoneme, and median bodies ( Figure C ). The sucking disc is also partially visible on the right side of the trophozoite in the anterior half. (cdc.gov)
  • Iodine stains the cysts brown and accentuates their intracystic structures, especially their curved median bodies, axonemes, and nuclei. (medscape.com)
  • Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their location. (medlineplus.gov)
  • g JL, Smith AE et al (2010) Beyond 9 + 0: noncanonical axoneme structures characterize sensory cilia from protists to humans. (daubnet.com)
  • Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The radial spoke is another protein complex of the axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • By immunogold electron microscopy, SPTRX-2 was first detected scattered throughout the cytoplasm of the axoneme in step 14-15 spermatids, but began to be incorporated by step 16 into the fibrous sheath (FS). (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: On the basis of the HSP90 localization with eNOS, alcohol activation of HSP90 phosphorylation, and geldanamycin's ability to inhibit HSP90-eNOS association, prevent eNOS translocation to the axoneme, and block alcohol-stimulated ciliary motility, we conclude that alcohol-induced cilia stimulation occurs through the increased association of HSP90 with eNOS. (nebraska.edu)
  • The most common abnormalities involve the structure of the sperm tail, with defects in either the axoneme or outer dense fibers. (cambridge.org)
  • Simet, SM , Pavlik, JA & Sisson, JH 2013, ' Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Axonemes Exposed to Acute Alcohol: Role of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Heat Shock Protein 90 in Cilia Stimulation ', Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research , vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 609-615. (nebraska.edu)