Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Axonemal Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

A heterozygous mutation disrupting the SPAG16 gene results in biochemical instability of central apparatus components of the human sperm axoneme. (1/138)

The SPAG16 gene encodes two major transcripts, one for the 71-kDa SPAG16L, which is the orthologue of the Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii central apparatus protein PF20, and a smaller transcript, which codes for the 35-kDa SPAG16S nuclear protein that represents the C-terminus (exons 11-16) of SPAG16L. We have previously reported that a targeted mutation in exon 11 of the Spag16 gene impairs spermatogenesis and prevents transmission of the mutant allele in chimeric mice. In the present report, we describe a heterozygous mutation in exon 13 of the SPAG16 gene, which causes a frame shift and premature stop codon, affording the opportunity to compare mutations with similar impacts on SPAG16L and SPAG16S for male reproductive function in mice and men. We studied two male heterozygotes for the SPAG16 mutation, both of which were fertile. Freezing-boiling of isolated sperm from both affected males resulted in the loss of the SPAG16L protein, SPAG6, another central apparatus protein that interacts with SPAG16L, and the 28-kDa fragment of SPAG17, which associates with SPAG6. These proteins were also lost after freezing-boiling cycles of sperm extracts from mice that were heterozygous for an inactivating mutation (exons 2 and 3) in Spag16. Our findings suggest that a heterozygous mutation that affects both SPAG16L and SPAG16S does not cause male infertility in man, but is associated with reduced stability of the interacting proteins of the central apparatus in response to a thermal challenge, a phenotype shared by the sperm of mice heterozygous for a mutation that affects SPAG16L.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas FAP133 is a dynein intermediate chain associated with the retrograde intraflagellar transport motor. (2/138)

Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is the bi-directional movement of particles along the length of axonemal outer doublet microtubules and is needed for the assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Retrograde IFT requires cytoplasmic dynein 1b, a motor complex whose organization, structural composition and regulation is poorly understood. We have characterized the product of the Chlamydomonas FAP133 gene that encodes a new WD-repeat protein similar to dynein intermediate chains and homologous to the uncharacterized vertebrate protein WD34. FAP133 is located at the peri-basal body region as well as in punctate structures along the flagella. This protein is associated with the IFT machinery because it is specifically depleted from the flagella of cells with defects in anterograde IFT. Fractionation of flagellar matrix proteins indicates that FAP133 associates with both the LC8 dynein light chain and the IFT dynein heavy chain and light intermediate chain (DHC1b-D1bLIC) motor complex. In the absence of DHC1b or D1bLIC, FAP133 fails to localize at the peri-basal body region but, rather, is concentrated in a region of the cytoplasm near the cell center. Furthermore, we found that FAP133, LC8, DHC1b, D1bLIC, the FLA10 kinesin-2 necessary for anterograde IFT and other IFT scaffold components associate to form a large macromolecular assembly.  (+info)

Identification of novel ciliogenesis factors using a new in vivo model for mucociliary epithelial development. (3/138)

Mucociliary epithelia are essential for homeostasis of many organs and consist of mucus-secreting goblet cells and ciliated cells. Here, we present the ciliated epidermis of Xenopus embryos as a facile model system for in vivo molecular studies of mucociliary epithelial development. Using an in situ hybridization-based approach, we identified numerous genes expressed differentially in mucus-secreting cells or in ciliated cells. Focusing on genes expressed in ciliated cells, we have identified new candidate ciliogenesis factors, including several not present in the current ciliome. We find that TTC25-GFP is localized to the base of cilia and to ciliary axonemes, and disruption of TTC25 function disrupts ciliogenesis. Mig12-GFP localizes very strongly to the base of cilia and confocal imaging of this construct allows for simple visualization of the planar polarity of basal bodies that underlies polarized ciliary beating. Knockdown of Mig12 disrupts ciliogenesis. Finally, we show that ciliogenesis factors identified in the Xenopus epidermis are required in the midline to facilitate neural tube closure. These results provide further evidence of a requirement for cilia in neural tube morphogenesis and suggest that genes identified in the Xenopus epidermis play broad roles in ciliogenesis. The suites of genes identified here will provide a foundation for future studies, and may also contribute to our understanding of pathological changes in mucociliary epithelia that accompany diseases such as asthma.  (+info)

Heat shock transcription factor 1 is required for maintenance of ciliary beating in mice. (4/138)

Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) maintain protein homeostasis through regulating expression of heat shock proteins, especially in stressed conditions. In addition, HSFs are involved in cellular differentiation and development by regulating development-related genes, as well as heat shock genes. Here, we showed chronic sinusitis and mild hydrocephalus in postnatal HSF1-null mice, which are associated with impaired mucociliary clearance and cerebrospinal flow, respectively. Analysis of ciliary beating revealed that the amplitude of the beating was significantly reduced, and ciliary beat frequencies were lower in the respiratory epithelium, ependymal cells, oviduct, and trachea of HSF1-null mice than those of wild-type mice. Cilia possess a common axonema structure composed of microtubules of alpha- and beta-tubulin. We found a marked reduction in alpha- and ciliary betaiv-tubulin in the HSF1-null cilia, which is developmentally associated with reduced Hsp90 expression in HSF1-null mice. Treatment of the respiratory epithelium with geldanamycin resulted in rapid reduction of ciliary beating in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Hsp90 was physically associated with ciliary betaiv-tubulin, and Hsp90 stabilizes tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results indicate that HSF1 is required to maintain ciliary beating in postnatal mice, probably by regulating constitutive expression of Hsp90 that is important for tubulin polymerization.  (+info)

A conserved CaM- and radial spoke associated complex mediates regulation of flagellar dynein activity. (5/138)

For virtually all cilia and eukaryotic flagella, the second messengers calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate are implicated in modulating dynein- driven microtubule sliding to regulate beating. Calmodulin (CaM) localizes to the axoneme and is a key calcium sensor involved in regulating motility. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify members of a CaM-containing complex that are involved in regulating dynein activity. This complex includes flagellar-associated protein 91 (FAP91), which shares considerable sequence similarity to AAT-1, a protein originally identified in testis as an A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP)- binding protein. FAP91 directly interacts with radial spoke protein 3 (an AKAP), which is located at the base of the spoke. In a microtubule sliding assay, the addition of antibodies generated against FAP91 to mutant axonemes with reduced dynein activity restores dynein activity to wild-type levels. These combined results indicate that the CaM- and spoke-associated complex mediates regulatory signals between the radial spokes and dynein arms.  (+info)

Novel 44-kilodalton subunit of axonemal Dynein conserved from chlamydomonas to mammals. (6/138)

Cilia and flagella have multiple dyneins in their inner and outer arms. Chlamydomonas inner-arm dynein contains at least seven major subspecies (dynein a to dynein g), of which all but dynein f (also called dynein I1) are the single-headed type that are composed of a single heavy chain, actin, and either centrin or a 28-kDa protein (p28). Dynein d was found to associate with two additional proteins of 38 kDa (p38) and 44 kDa (p44). Following the characterization of the p38 protein (R. Yamamoto, H. A. Yanagisawa, T. Yagi, and R. Kamiya, FEBS Lett. 580:6357-6360, 2006), we have identified p44 as a novel component of dynein d by using an immunoprecipitation approach. p44 is present along the length of the axonemes and is diminished, but not absent, in the ida4 and ida5 mutants, both lacking this dynein. In the ida5 axoneme, p44 and p38 appear to form a complex, suggesting that they constitute the docking site of dynein d on the outer doublet. p44 has potential homologues in other ciliated organisms. For example, the mouse homologue of p44, NYD-SP14, was found to be strongly expressed in tissues with motile cilia and flagella. These results suggest that inner-arm dynein d and its subunit organization are widely conserved.  (+info)

Dimeric heat shock protein 40 binds radial spokes for generating coupled power strokes and recovery strokes of 9 + 2 flagella. (7/138)

 (+info)

Spermatotoxic effect of aflatoxin B1 in rat: extrusion of outer dense fibres and associated axonemal microtubule doublets of sperm flagellum. (8/138)

 (+info)

*Axoneme

The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of ... This organization of axoneme is referred as "9x2 + 0". In addition, "9x2 + 1" axonemes, with only a single central microtubule ... The radial spoke is another protein complex of the axoneme. Thought to be important in regulating the motion of the axoneme, ... The building-block of the axoneme is the microtubule; each axoneme is composed of several microtubules aligned in parallel. To ...

*Spermatogenesis

These microtubules form an axoneme. Later the centriole is modified in the process of centrosome reduction. The anterior part ... of the tail (called midpiece) thickens because mitochondria are arranged around the axoneme to ensure energy supply. Spermatid ...

*Cytoskeleton

... the axoneme of cilia and flagella. the mitotic spindle. synthesis of the cell wall in plants. In addition to the roles ...

*Plant cell

Paolillo, Jr., DJ (1967). "axoneme in flagella of Polytrichum juniperinum". Transactions of the American Microscopical Society ...

*Dynein

Mechanical forces on the axoneme also affect anoxemal dynein function. The heavy chains of inner and outer arms of axonemal ... Each dynein molecule thus forms a cross-bridge between two adjacent microtubules of the ciliary axoneme. During the "power ... Thioredoxins associated with the other axonemal dynein arms are oxidized/reduced to regulate where dynein binds in the axoneme ... Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those ...

*Radial spoke

... s are T-shaped structures present inside the axoneme. Each spoke consists of a "head" and a "stalk," while each of ... The radial spoke is a multi-unit protein structure found in the axonemes of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Although experiments ... and the spoke head faces in towards the center of the axoneme (see illustration at right). The radial spoke is known to play a ...

*Cilium

The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of ... A transition zone between the basal body and the axoneme "serves as a docking station for intraflagellar transport and motor ... The dynein in the axoneme forms bridges between neighbouring microtubule doublets. When ATP activates the motor domain of ... Inside cilia and flagella is a microtubule-based cytoskeleton called the axoneme. ...

*IMOD (software)

"The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography". Science. 313 (5789): 944-948. doi:10.1126/science. ...

*MORM syndrome

When the INPP5E gene is mutated, the protein is damaged and is unable to spread out along the cilia axoneme and is unable to ... This results is MORM syndrome individuals being unable to stabilize their cilia axoneme. It is still not well understood the ... In unaffected individuals the protein is evenly disbursed throughout the ciliia axoneme which allows for the cilia to be stable ...

*Parvilucifera

They also have a heteromorphic pair of central microtubules in the anterior axoneme. The micronemes have bulbous posterior ends ...

*DNAI1

Each dynein arm of the ciliary axoneme has an inner and outer dynein arm. A mutation in DNAi1 can lead to defective ciliary ... The inner- and outer-arm dyneins, which bridge between the doublet microtubules in axonemes, are the force-generating proteins ... responsible for the sliding movement in axonemes. The intermediate and light chains, thought to form the base of the dynein arm ...

*DNAH11

2008). "Primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with normal axoneme ultrastructure is caused by DNAH11 mutations". Hum. Mutat. 29 ...

*FOXJ1

Activation promotes basal body trafficking, docking at the apical membrane and subsequent axoneme growth. The protein p73 a ...

*Cytosolic ciliogenesis

One end of the axoneme is exposed to the cytoplasm as the other end of the axoneme is formed as compartmentalized cilia. This ... Since the axoneme of this flagellum was exposed to the cytoplasm it was named Cytosolic Ciliogenesis.[citation needed] Shared ... Tertiary cytosolic cilia are axonemes that form directly in the cytoplasm. This type of cilia is found in Plasmodium (the ... Cytosolic ciliogenesis, otherwise cytoplasmic ciliogenesis, is a type of ciliogenesis where the cilium axoneme is formed in the ...

*KIF3B

... axonemes, and spindles". The Journal of Cell Biology. 133 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1083/jcb.133.1.1. PMC 2120781 . PMID 8601599. ...

*Primary ciliary dyskinesia

are missing or dysfunctional and thus the axoneme structure lacks the ability to move. Axonemes are the elongated structures ...

*Basal body

The basal body serves as a nucleation site for the growth of the axoneme microtubules. Centrioles, from which basal bodies are ...

*Intraflagellar transport

Therefore, since the axoneme needs a continually fresh supply of proteins, an axoneme with defective IFT machinery will slowly ... IFT particles carry axonemal subunits to the site of assembly at the tip of the axoneme; thus, IFT is necessary for axonemal ... In healthy flagella, IFT particles reverse direction at the tip of the axoneme, and are thought to carry used proteins, or " ... between the axoneme and the plasma membrane. Studies have shown that the movement of IFT particles along the microtubule is ...

*Acetylation

A tubulin acetyltransferase is located in the axoneme, and acetylates the α-tubulin subunit in an assembled microtubule. Once ...

*Flagellum

Primary cilia are immotile, and are not undulipodia; they have a structurally different 9+0 axoneme rather than the 9+2 axoneme ... Besides the axoneme and basal body, relatively constant in morphology, other internal structures of the flagellar apparatus are ... The so-called "9 + 2" structure is characteristic of the core of the eukaryotic flagellum called an axoneme. At the base of a ... The flagellar axoneme also contains radial spokes, polypeptide complexes extending from each of the outer nine microtubule ...

*Actinophryid

These axonemes are rooted in the endoplasm and terminate there, sometimes close to a nucleus. The axonemes are composed ... while rapid axopodial contraction involves the collapse of the axoneme's microtubule structure. This behavior has been ...

*DNAH7

... is a component of the inner dynein arm of ciliary axonemes (Zhang et al., 2002 [PubMed 11877439]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar ...

*SUN domain-containing protein 5

... binds outer dense-fiber protein Odf1 and localizes to microtubules of manchette and axoneme". Dev Biol. 211 (1): 109-23. doi: ...

*ODF1

The outer dense fibers are cytoskeletal structures that surround the axoneme in the middle piece and principal piece of the ... binds outer dense-fiber protein Odf1 and localizes to microtubules of manchette and axoneme". Dev. Biol. 211 (1): 109-123. doi: ...

*Undulipodium

... are an extension of the cell membrane containing both cytoplasm and a regular arrangement of microtubules known as an axoneme. ...
Ciliary defects can lead to a number of human diseases. Genetic mutations compromising the proper functioning of cilia, ciliopathies, can cause chronic disorders such as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), nephronophthisis or Senior-Loken syndrome. In addition, a defect of the primary cilium in the renal tube cells can lead to polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In another genetic disorder called Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), the mutant gene products are the components in the basal body and cilia.[9]. Lack of functional cilia in female Fallopian tubes can cause ectopic pregnancy. A fertilized ovum may not reach the uterus if the cilia are unable to move it there. In such a case, the ovum will implant in the Fallopian tubes, causing a tubal pregnancy, the most common form of ectopic pregnancy.[28]. As noted above, epithelial sodium channels ENaC that are expressed along the length of cilia regulate fluid level surrounding the cilia. Mutations that decrease the activity of ENaC result in multisystem ...
Cilia and flagella have a characteristic 9 + 2 structure in which a ring of nine microtubule doublets surrounds a central pair of two microtubules and numerous associated proteins. The central pair is critical for motility, but we know little about its associated proteins and their functions. On p. 4179, Hui Zhang and David Mitchell reveal that one of these, Cpc1, is responsible for refuelling the organelle. Chlamydomonas cpc1 mutants exhibit reduced flagellar beating. The authors have cloned the Cpc1 gene and use an anti-Cpc1 antibody to show that it encodes a conserved component of a 16S complex associated with the central pair. Sequence analysis indicates that Cpc1 has an unusual adenylate kinase domain. Since adenylate kinases generate ATP from ADP, Zhang and Mitchell examined the effect of increasing the concentration of ATP on flagellar beating in cpc1 mutants: significantly, the increase suppresses the beating defect. The authors conclude that, under normal conditions, Cpc1 is needed to ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The IFT-A complex regulates Shh signaling through cilia structure and membrane protein trafficking. AU - Liem, Karel F.. AU - Ashe, Alyson. AU - He, Mu. AU - Satir, Peter. AU - Moran, Jennifer. AU - Beier, David. AU - Wicking, Carol. AU - Anderson, Kathryn V.. PY - 2012/6/11. Y1 - 2012/6/11. N2 - Two intraflagellar transport (IFT) complexes, IFT-A and IFT-B, build and maintain primary cilia and are required for activity of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. A weak allele of the IFT-A gene, Ift144, caused subtle defects in cilia structure and ectopic activation of the Shh pathway. In contrast, strong loss of IFT-A, caused by either absence of Ift144 or mutations in two IFT-A genes, blocked normal ciliogenesis and decreased Shh signaling. In strong IFT-A mutants, the Shh pathway proteins Gli2, Sufu, and Kif7 localized correctly to cilia tips, suggesting that these pathway components were trafficked by IFT-B. In contrast, the membrane proteins Arl13b, ACIII, and Smo failed to ...
The highly motile, 9 + 0 sperm axoneme of Anguilla has inner dynein arms (IDAs) but not outer dynein arms. The in situ morphology of these IDAs is shown here to be essentially identical to the IDA morphology already seen in the axonemes of Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena and Beroe, and in the sperm tails of echinoderms and several vertebrate species. In addition, this study demonstrates: (1) that the nexin (circumferential) links are present in Anguilla and are typical; (2) that IDA1 incorporates an archway, supported by a pillar-structure; (3) that images from thin sections and whole mounts are consistent with those from replicas of rapidly-frozen specimens; and (4) that the IDA and nexin link morphology is apparently unaffected by whether the axoneme is depleted of ATP, relaxed with ATP and vanadate, or inhibited by high ATP. An attempt has been made to reconcile the emergent morphology of the IDA complex with all earlier descriptions in the literature. From a detailed comparison of the results ...
The ciliary transition zone (TZ) is a complex structure found at the cilia base. Defects in TZ assembly are associated with human ciliopathies. In most eukaryotes, three protein complexes (CEP290, NPHP, and MKS) cooperate to build the TZ. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, mild TZ defects are observed in the absence of MKS components. In contrast, Cby and Azi1 cooperate to build the TZ by acting upstream of Cep290 and MKS components. Without Cby and Azi1, centrioles fail to form the TZ, precluding sensory cilia assembly, and no ciliary membrane cap associated with sperm ciliogenesis is made. This ciliary cap is critical to recruit the tubulin-depolymerizing kinesin Klp59D, required for regulation of axonemal growth. Our results show that Drosophila TZ assembly in sensory neurons and male germ cells involves cooperative actions of Cby and Dila. They further reveal that temporal control of membrane cap assembly by TZ components and microtubule elongation by kinesin-13 is required for axoneme ...
Bridge-like connections between axoneme and mitochondrial derivatives of Triatoma infestans are identical to those of other Heteropterans where they have been identified as a typical characteristic of the spermatozoa of this group of insects. Whole-mount preparations revealed bridge localization in the grooves between mitochondrial cristae. Bridges occur regularly along the axoneme with a spacing of approximately 52 nm and are not in horizontal register on opposite sides of the axoneme. Shearing of flagellar organelles demonstrated strong attachment of bridges directly to the mitochondrial derivatives at one extremity, while at the other, bridges pull out connecting fibers from the axoneme (after sodium citrate treatment). © 1988 ...
Investigator: Grant Turner. Mentor: Joseph Sisson, MD. Cilia are essential components of multiple organ systems. Inherited defects in ciliogenesis, the formation of cilia, are often lethal in utero, indicating a critical role for cilia in growth and development. Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFTs) are a diverse group of proteins that are essential for moving proteins on and off of the axoneme and found to have multiple important functions in the structure and function of cilia. For example, defects in IFT88 cause severe defects in the sensing cilia in the kidneys, resulting in polycystic kidney formation, and in the lung, where bronchiectasis results. While the role of IFTs in ciliogenesis has been established, the specific role IFT88 plays in airway cilia structure and function is unknown. We hypothesized that: 1) IFT88 is required for de novo ciliogenesis in vitro; and 2) IFT88 is required to translocate the methacholine receptor, which is part of a cilia motility regulator complex, from ...
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Cilia, tiny hair-like structures that propel mucus out of airways, have to agree on the direction of the fluid flow to get things moving. Researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies discovered a novel two-step ...
There are several pathogens that can cause primary infection, including viruses, parasites, and fungi. Each has a different effect on the body.
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His real name is Yuri, even way back when I first made him. Thats his only name, as it is eponymous. He is the son of a king who is a lys (please ignore the elf part I have on the profile, when I was developing the lys species, I realized elf is not a…
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The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of streptavidin-dependent inhibition of flagellar motility was 0.15 µg/ml and the Hill coefficient was 2.37 (Fig. 3 D). At the IC50 concentration, the amount of streptavidin bound to BCCP tags was ∼5% of the saturating levels (Fig. S2 A), suggesting that the inhibitory effect of a streptavidin molecule bound to RS propagates along the axoneme. It is also noteworthy that the speed of the swimming cells did not show steep drop even when the concentration of streptavidin was high enough to inhibit the motility in 98% of the cells (Fig. 3 D, red). This all-or-none behavior suggests that inhibition of motility occurs when the amount of streptavidin bound to one axoneme is above a certain threshold.. To identify the axonemal dynein that is the downstream effector of the streptavidin-dependent inhibition of motility in rsp4C mutant, we created the strains oda1 rsp4C (lacking ODAs), ida3 rsp4C (lacking IDA subspecies f), and ida5 rsp4C (lacking IDA ...
Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke protein 3 ...
The radial spoke is known to play a role in the mechanical movement of the flagellum/cilium. For example, mutant organisms lacking properly functioning radial spokes have flagella and cilia that are immotile. Radial spokes also influence the cilium "waveform"; that is, the exact bending pattern the cilium repeats. How the radial spoke carries out this function is poorly understood. Radial spokes are believed to interact with both the central pair microtubules and the dynein arms, perhaps in a way that maintains the rhythmic activation of the dynein motors. For example, one of the radial spoke subunits, RSP3, is an anchor protein predicted to hold another protein called protein kinase A (PKA). PKA would theoretically then be able to activate/inactivate the adjacent dynein arms via its kinase activity. However, the identities and functions of the many radial spoke subunits are just beginning to be elucidated. ...
Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are expressed on the surface of most cells in the mammalian body. Intraflagellar transport (IFT), the process by which cilia are formed and maintained, was first described in Chlamydomonas, and proteins required for IFT concentrate at the base of cilia, where they assemble into large protein complexes called IFT particles (Kozminski et al., 1995; Piperno and Mead, 1997). The IFT particles are trafficked along the axoneme by a heterotrimeric kinesin-II and a cytoplasmic dynein in the anterograde and retrograde directions, respectively. Cilia and flagella have diverse functions ranging from fluid and cell movement to mechanosensation and sensory perception (Davenport and Yoder, 2005; Scholey, 2003).. In mammals, Kif3a is a component of the kinesin-II motor protein complex required for cilia assembly while Ift88 (also known as Tg737 or polaris) is a core component of the IFT particle (Cole et al., 1998; Pazour et al., 2000; Taulman et al., 2001). Mice ...
Pcnt interacts with proteins involved in cilia assembly and function. (a) Pooled IFT fractions from a sucrose gradient from mouse testes were applied to an FPLC
Cilia are microtubule based structures that can be motile or immotile, the latter being referred to as primary cilia. In contrast to motile cilia, such as those found on epithelia of the trachea, the importance of the primary cilium is relatively undefined despite their presence on most mammalian cells. Cilia are extremely complex organelles which are devoid of ribosomes, thus, proteins required for cilia assembly, maintenance, and signaling must be imported into the cilium. This occurs through a microtubule-based transport system called intraflagellar transport (IFT). Proteins involved in IFT concentrate around the basal body at the base of the cilium and assemble into complexes (IFT particles) which are moved up the cilium by a kinesin and returned by a cytoplasmic dynein. The IFT particle is thought to mediate the transport of cargo into the cilium as well as to deliver signals initiated in the cilium to the cytosol. Although the primary cilium was once thought to be a vestigial organelle, ...
In nearly all of the contexts in biology in which groups of cilia or flagella are found they exhibit some form of synchronized behaviour. Since the experimental observations of Lord Rothschild in the late 1940s and G.I. Taylors celebrated waving-sheet model, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony is due in large part to hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. But it is only in the last few years that suitable methods have been developed to test this hypothesis. Those methods have led to the discovery of significant intrinsic biochemical noise in the beating of eukaryotic flagella. This stochasticity occurs at the level of individual beats, with interesting variations within the cycle, and is correlated and even recurrent, with memory extending to hundreds of beats. Possible biological origins of this behaviour will be discussed ...
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Springer AL, Bruhn DF, Kinzel KW, Rosenthal NF, Zukas R, Klingbeil MM. 2011. Silencing of a putative inner arm dynein heavy chain results in flagellar immotility in Trypanosoma brucei.. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 175(1):68-75. ...
Springer AL, Bruhn DF, Kinzel KW, Rosenthal NF, Zukas R, Klingbeil MM. 2011. Silencing of a putative inner arm dynein heavy chain results in flagellar immotility in Trypanosoma brucei.. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 175(1):68-75. ...
Sea urchin aPKC localizes to a disk situated between the basal body and the elongating axoneme of motile cilia. (A-E, G-I) Confocal sections of cells on the
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Flagella are highly conserved organelles comprised of several hundred proteins that are assembled using the equally conserved mechanism called intraflagellar transport (IFT)
Cilia (sing.: cilium) and flagella (sing.: flagellum) are hair-like outgrowths of the cell membrane. Cilia are small structures which work like oars, causi
Cilia and flagella are finger-like projections that extend from some cells. They aid in cell movement and help to move substances around cells.
The basin-mountain transition zone presents complex geologic structures and non-uniformly distributed in-situ stress. Studying the spatial distributi
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I recently switched over my debit and credit card processing to Cilia - here is what my experience was like: I called their office and spoke to
Sueona is a fanfiction author that has written 89 stories for Finder Series, Death Note, Yu-Gi-Oh, Saiyuki, Yuri!!! on Ice, and Yami no Matsuei.
ciliform definition: Having the as a type of cilia; obtaining the form of cilia; extremely fine or slim.; Having the as a type of cilia; obtaining the kind of cilia; extremely good or thin.
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The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of a group (complex) of proteins called dynein. This complex functions within cell structures called cilia. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. Coordinated back and forth movement of cilia can move the cell or the fluid surrounding the cell. Dynein produces the force needed for cilia to move.. Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their location. Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. IDAs and ODAs have different combinations of protein components (subunits) that are classified by weight as heavy, intermediate, or light chains. The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making heavy chain 5, which is found in ODAs. Other subunits are produced from different genes. ...
Central microtubule function in eukaryotic flagella and cilia - posted in Research Idea, Design and Collaboration: Hi! I am an undergrad student at U of C in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. I asked my professor a question about the function of the central pair of microtubules enclosed by the central sheath in eukaryotic cilia and flagella and he replied simply saying that it is not clearly understood. I am wondering if anyone can either direct me to a peer-reviewed journal article that...
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This study represents the first sperm description of a Vespinae species (Vespa crabro). The acrosome consists of an acrosomal vesicle and a perforatorium. The nucleus has compact chromatin and shows lenticular structures on the nuclear envelope. These structures, which have never been observed in a hymenopteran sperm, could be clusters of nuclear pores. The centriolar adjunct has an asymmetric pattern and shows a structured periphery. The centriole consists of 9 accessory microtubules and 9 doublet microtubules devoid of arms and spokes. The axoneme has a 9 + 9 + 2 microtubule pattern and the accessory microtubules have 16 protofilaments. The mitochondrial derivatives differ in length and diameter. The larger one is adjacent to the nuclear base, while the smaller one begins below the centriolar adjunct. They possess three distinct areas and a large paracrystalline region, which occurs only in the large one. The large mitochondrial derivative ends first, followed by the small one. The axoneme ...
ABSTRACT. It is described the sperm ultraestructure differentiation during spermiogenesis of Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786). The spermatozoon is an uniflagellated cell of the primitive type. The head region contains a rounded or conical nucleus surrounded by acrosome. The middle piece contains four mitochondria which are arranged around the axoneme. The flagellum contains the usual microtubular axoneme.. Key words: Mollusca, Bivalvia, Tagelus plebeius, ultrastructure, spermatozoa. ...
Onychophoran sperm share striking apomorphies with sperm of oligochaetes: the elongate, cylindrical, strongly condensed nucleus with (enchytraeid oligochaetes only) spiral keel(s); interpolation of mitochondria, which are spiral as in some microdriles, between nucleus and axoneme (autapomorphy); presence of postmitochondrial annulus; occurrence of a basal cylinder at the anterior end of the two central singlets (autapomorphy). Onychophoran sperm differ notably from oligochaete sperm: in possessing periacrosomal material; in the helical coiling, reduction, or absence of the acrosome vesicle (though acrosomal coiling occurs in leeches); in the conical subacrosomal structure contrasting with the characteristic acrosome tube of euclitellates; in the absence of a perforatorium (though these two features could be consequent on the reduction of the acrosome); in lacking a distinct padlike thickening of the anterior nuclear envelope; in possessing (external to the mutual 9 + 2 axoneme) 9 peripheral ...
Cilia are small, microtubule-based protrusions important for development and homeostasis. We recently demonstrated that the planar cell polarity effector protein Fuz is a critical regulator of axonemal intraflagellar transport dynamics and localization. Here, we report our findings on the role of the small GTPase Rsg1, a known binding partner of Fuz, and its role in the dynamics and cytoplasmic localization of intraflagellar transport proteins. We find that Rsg1 loss of function leads to impaired axonemal IFT dynamics in multiciliated cells. We further show that Rsg1 is required for appropriate cytoplasmic localization of the retrograde IFT-A protein IFT43. Finally, we show that Rsg1 governs the apical localization of basal bodies, the anchoring structures of cilia. Our data suggest that Rsg1 is a regulator of multiple aspects of ciliogenesis, including apical trafficking of basal bodies and the localization and dynamics intraflagellar transport proteins ...
Summary The cilium is an organelle that protrudes from the cell body and is responsible for the motility of unicellular organisms and of vertebrate cell types such as sperm cells. In addition, most vertebrate cells have primary non-motile cilia important for sensory reception and signalling. The assembly and function of cilia rely on intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bi-directional movement of macromolecules between the cell body and the cilium. As cilia do not contain ribosomes, IFT is required to move the approximately 600 different ciliary proteins from their site of synthesis in the cell body to their site of function in the cilium. IFT is powered by kinesin and dynein motors, which move cargoes along the microtubule-based axoneme of the cilium. The interaction between motors and cargoes is mediated by the IFT complex, a 1.6 MDa complex formed by 20 different proteins. Despite the importance of the IFT complex, very little is known about its architecture and how it is regulated. In this ...
We previously reported that the small nuclear RNA processing complex, Integrator, is required for dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope at mitotic onset in cultured human cells. We now report an additional role for INT in ciliogenesis. Depletion of INT subunits from cultured human cells results in loss of primary cilia. We provide evidence that the requirements for INT in dynein localization and ciliogenesis are uncoupled: proteins essential for ciliogenesis are not essential for dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope, while depletion of known regulators of perinuclear dynein has minimal effects on ciliogenesis. Taken together, our data support a model in which INT ensures proper processing of distinct pools of transcripts encoding components that independently promote perinuclear dynein enrichment and ciliogenesis.. ...
Ciliogenesis is defined as the building of the cells antenna (primary cilia) or extracellular fluid mediation mechanism (motile cilium). It includes the assembly and disassembly of the cilia during the cell cycle. Cilia are important organelles of cells and are involved in numerous activities such as cell signaling, processing developmental signals, and directing the flow of fluids such as mucus over and around cells. Due to the importance of these cell processes, defects in ciliogenesis can lead to numerous human diseases related to non-functioning cilia. Ciliogenesis may also play a role in the development of left/right handedness in humans. Ciliogenesis occurs through an ordered set of steps. First, the basal bodies from centrioles must migrate to the surface of the cell and attach to the cortex. Along the way, the basal bodies attach to membrane vesicles and the basal body/membrane vesicle complex fuses with the plasma membrane of the cell. Fusion with the plasma membrane is likely what ...
Definition: A membrane-tethered, short cylindrical array of microtubules and associated proteins found at the base of a cilium that is similar in structure to a centriole and derives from it. The cilium basal body is the site of assembly and remodelling of the cilium and serves as a nucleation site for axoneme growth ...
Dyneins: Structure, Biology and Disease, Second Edition, offers a broad view of dyneins mechanics, dysfunction, and disease, providing an overview of dyn...
Hitochem Stall Biol 138:821В-831 Gluenz E, H??g JL, Smith AE et al (2010) Beyond 9 + 0: noncanonical axoneme structures identify sensory cilia from protists to humans. Between the ages of 10 and 12 years (the pubescent years for girls), vivacity levels remain euphoric but are more controlled and focused. Diet pills are a large manufacture inside the U purchase acticin 30gm with mastercard acne nyc. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21(5):483В-488 Sharma P, Gurumurthy S, Duncan R, Nakhasi HL, Salotra P (2010) Comparative in vivo air of amastigote up regulated leishmania genes in three different forms of leishmaniasis. In physiological terms, interactions between intrinsic networks end result in changes best to another form of equilibrium that assist superior coping with the recent condition. Deplete them every period safe tegretol 100mg zma muscle relaxant. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying AED resistance has been the centre of temperamental efforts, in demand to mature revitalized rationally designed ...
Methods and devices for treating transition zone material are disclosed. Transition zone material in a plurality of source containers (20) passes through the conduits (40) of the pooling assembly (21) through junction (50) and then to receiving container (22). The transition zone material in the receiving container (22) is processed to form a supernatant layer which includes platelets and a sediment layer which includes red blood cells, and the supernatant layer is separated from the sediment layer by passing the supernatant layer through a porous medium such as a red cell barrier medium (70) into a satellite container (80). Gas may be separated by passing it into a gas collection and displacement loop (300) including first and second conduits (160, 170) and a liquid barrier medium (150).
Expression of ROPN1 (CT91, ODF6, ROPN1A, ropporin) in nasopharynx tissue. Antibody staining with HPA052530 in immunohistochemistry.
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Plasmid 2. p167 Dync1i1.D from Dr. Elizabeth Fishers lab contains the insert cytoplasmic dynein 1 intermediate chain 1 isoform D and is published in PLoS One. 2010 . 5(7):e11682. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The primary cilium, a signaling antenna projecting at the surface of the cell, is required for the transduction of Hedgehog and planar cell pola...
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Received 18 May 2012, Published in Solid Earth Discussed 02 July 2012, Revised 15 September 2012, Accepted 02 October 2012, Published 07 November 2012 ...
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Across the animal and plant kingdom, motile cilia and flagella serve many important biological functions, including cellular propulsion, fluid transport, and sensory signaling - to name only a few. Unraveling the physiology of these integral cell organelles is an interdisciplinary endeavor at the interface of physics and biology. This research field involves studies of ciliary structure, self-organized dynamics of the ciliary beat, collective dynamics at the cellular and multicellular level, and the pathophysiology of impaired cilia function in ciliopathies. The aim of this seminar is to bring together scientists from different disciplines to address the physical, biological, and medical aspects of motile cilia.. The main topics of the seminar are:. ...
Primary cilia are critical for Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in vertebrates, and defects in Hh signaling or cilium structure cause pleiotropic diseases known as ciliopathies in humans. Binding of a Hh ligand to the receptor Patched (Ptc) relieves Ptc-mediated inhibition of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). Through a mechanism that is not entirely clear, this leads to accumulation of Smo in the cilium and subsequent recruitment of Suppressor of Fused (SuFu) and the Gli transcription factors into the cilium. The Glis are then processed into active forms that translocate into the nucleus to mediate Hh signaling outputs. Mutations in the gene encoding Ellis-van Crevid syndrome protein 2 (Evc2) cause inherited ciliopathy syndromes in which cilia of various cell types appear normal yet show impaired Hh signaling. Dorn et al. report that the cilium-localized protein Evc2 was required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-induced transcription of GLI1 in cultured human fibroblasts but had no function in ...
Posttranslational modifications of tubulin are thought to fine‐tune MT functions in specific cells and tissues. Modifications that take place on the C‐terminal tails of tubulin are involved in the regulation of interactions between MTs and associated proteins (reviewed in: Janke & Bulinski, 2011). The three principal modifications found in these tail domains are detyrosination, (poly)glutamylation and (poly)glycylation. While first insights into the molecular mechanisms that are controlled by detyrosination (Peris et al, 2006, 2009; Bieling et al, 2008) and polyglutamylation (Kubo et al, 2010; Lacroix et al, 2010) have been obtained, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of glycylation.. In contrast to other tubulin modifications, glycylation has so far only been detected in motile cilia and flagella in different organisms (Bré et al, 1996). In line with this rather restricted occurrence of glycylation, only three modifying enzymes are expressed in mammals (Rogowski et al, 2009), ...
Background: Recent research into ciliary structure and function provides important insights into inherited diseases termed ciliopathies and other cilia-related disorders. This wealth of knowledge needs to be translated into a computational representation to be fully exploitable by the research community. To this end, members of the Gene Ontology (GO) and SYSCILIA Consortia have worked together to improve representation of ciliary substructures and processes in GO. Methods: Members of the SYSCILIA and Gene Ontology Consortia suggested additions and changes to GO, to reflect new knowledge in the field. The project initially aimed to improve coverage of ciliary parts, and was then broadened to cilia-related biological processes. Discussions were documented in a public tracker. We engaged the broader cilia community via direct consultation and by referring to the literature. Ontology updates were implemented via ontology editing tools. Results: So far, we have created or modified 127 GO terms representing
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 21501571. Biol Aujourdhui 2011;205(1):5-28. Cilia and flagella are ubiquitous organelles that protrude from the surfaces of many cells, and whose architecture is highly conserved from protists to humans. These complex organelles, composed of over 500 proteins, can be either immotile or motile. They are involved in a myriad of biological processes, including sensing (non-motile cilia) and/or cell motility or movement of extracellular fluids (motile cilia). The ever-expanding list of human diseases linked to defective cilia illustrates the functional importance of cilia and flagella. These ciliopathies are characterised by an impressive diversity of symptoms and an often complex genetic etiology. A precise knowledge of cilia and flagella biology is thus critical to better understand these pathologies. However, multi-ciliated cells are terminally differentiated and difficult to manipulate, and a primary cilium is assembled only when the cell exits from the cell cycle. In ...
Involved in multiple aspects of sperm assembly including acrosome attachment, shaping of the sperm head and in the early aspects of axoneme development. Not essential for primary cilium biogenesis.
ATTENTION ALL CELL BIOLOGISTS !!!!! NOW HEAR THIS !! I AM A MEDICAL RESEARCHER IN NEW ZEALAND. I AM INVESTIGATING POSSIBLE ROLES OF PRIMARY CILIA USING CONFOCAL LASER MICROSCOPY WITH ANTIBODY LABELLING. IF YOU HAVE ANY HYPOTHESES REGARDING PRIMARY CILIA FUNCTION I WOULD LOVE TO HEAR THEM. REGARDS, GEORGE ...
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Looking for Cilia and flagella? Find out information about Cilia and flagella. Centriole-based, motile cell extensions. These organelles are usually indistinguishable in fine structure as seen with the electron microscope, but... Explanation of Cilia and flagella
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The basic point about the flagella stain is that the combination of chemicals produces a thickened coat around the flagella, making them more easily seen with a light microscope. Flagella are extremely thin and of small diameter, so they are below the resolution of the light microscope if unstained. We will not be making our own flagella stains for a variety of reasons:. ...
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View mouse Zmynd8 Chr2:165784155-165899016 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:4:41569775:41638158:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000006654 transcript:OTTMUST00000015206 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Dnaic1 description:dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1 ...
I need to add one more cilium to this model. But, when I add 1 more cilium with the same mechanism, both the cilia show error in graphs of the variables after 0.5 seconds ...
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The individual role of the outer dynein arm light chains in the molecular mechanisms of ciliary movements in response to second messengers, such as Ca(2+) and cyclic nucleotides, is unclear. We examined the role of the gene termed the outer dynein arm light chain 1 (LC1) gene of Paramecium tetraurelia (ODAL1), a homologue of the outer dynein arm LC1 gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in ciliary movements by RNA interference (RNAi) using a feeding method. The ODAL1-silenced (ODAL1-RNAi) cells swam slowly, and their swimming velocity did not increase in response to membrane-hyperpolarizing stimuli. Ciliary movements on the cortical sheets of ODAL1-RNAi cells revealed that the ciliary beat frequency was significantly lower than that of control cells in the presence of ≥ 1 mM Mg(2+)-ATP. In addition, the ciliary orientation of ODAL1-RNAi cells did not change in response to cyclic AMP (cAMP). A 29-kDa protein phosphorylated in a cAMP-dependent manner in the control cells disappeared in the axoneme ...
We report here on the UV-induced vanadate-dependent cleavage of the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. Both polypeptides are cleaved at a single site (termed the V1 site) by UV irradiation in the presence of Mg2+, ATP, and vanadate. The alpha chain yields fragments of Mr 290,000 and 190,000. Fragments of Mr 255,000 and 185,000 are obtained from the beta chain. Ultraviolet irradiation of the alpha and beta chains in the presence of vanadate and Mn2+ (but no nucleotide) induces cleavage of both molecules at sites (termed the V2 sites) distinct from the V1 sites. The single V2 site within the beta chain is located 75,000 daltons from the site of V1 cleavage within the Mr 255,000 V1 fragment. The alpha chain contains three distinct sites of V2 cleavage; all are located within the Mr 290,000 V1 fragment, 60,000, 90,000, and 100,000 daltons from the site of V1 cleavage. From these studies, we estimate the masses of the alpha and beta heavy chains to be 480,000 and
We present a new Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagellar mutant in which central pair projections are missing and the central pair microtubules are twisted along the length of the flagellum. We have named this mutant tcp1 for twisted central pair. Immunoblots using an antibody that recognizes the heavy chain of sea urchin kinesin reveal that a 70 kDa protein present in wild-type and pf18 (central pairless) axonemes is absent in tcp1, suggesting the presence of an uncharacterized kinesin associated with the central pair apparatus. We demonstrate that the kinesin-like protein Klp1 is not attached to central pair microtubules in tcp1, but rather is located in, or is part of, a region we have termed the internal axonemal matrix. It is proposed that this matrix acts as a scaffold for axonemal proteins that may also be associated with the central pair apparatus.. ...
article{298647, author = {Criel, Godelieve and Van Oostveldt, Patric and MacRae, TH}, issn = {0362-2525}, journal = {JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY}, keywords = {SPERM AXONEME,ACTIN-FILAMENTS,MUSCLE ATTACHMENT,SENSORY EPITHELIUM,TRYPANOSOMA-BRUCEI,DETYROSINATED TUBULIN,CAENORHABDITIS-ELEGANS,ULTRASTRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS,ALPHA-BETA-TUBULIN,POSTTRANSLATIONALLY MODIFIED TUBULINS,posttranslationally modified tubulin,microtubule,tendon cell,crustacean,Artemia}, language = {eng}, number = {2}, pages = {203--215}, title = {Spatial organization and isotubulin composition of microtubules in epidermal tendon cells of Artemia franciscana}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.10298}, volume = {263}, year = {2005 ...
Most differentiated epithelia contain a specialized organelle called a primary cilium. It consists of a protuberance of the apical plasma membrane that ensheathes a rod-like axoneme, composed of nine MT doublets (34). During the differentiation of epithelial cells, from nonpolarized precursors, major rearrangements occur in the cytoskeleton. First, MT are released from the centrosome and align in a longitudinal manner, with their minus ends captured by proteins such as γ-tubulin and ninein, as part of noncentrosomal MTOC, in the apical compartment of the cell (35,36⇓). Second, the centrosome itself takes up a position between the nucleus and the apical plasma membrane, and the distal end of the mother centriole gives rise to the axoneme of the primary cilium (34). Kidney development constitutes a classic model of mesenchymal-epithelial transformation. In the first-trimester human metanephros, at any single time, there coexists a spectrum of cells from undifferentiated mesenchyme, to ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits dynein complex binding (ortholog); transcription regulatory region DNA binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN motile cilium assembly (ortholog); positive regulation of gene expression (ortholog); positive regulation of non-motile cilium assembly (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH Giant Axonal Neuropathy (ortholog); FOUND IN nuclear body (ortholog); INTERACTS WITH 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; bisphenol A; cobalt dichloride
Cilia and flagella are cell surface organelles with microtubule-based axonemal cores. Although these organelles have been known to biologists for centuries, only in the last five years has it been recognized that cilia are crucial for mammalian embryonic development as well as for the function of multiple adult organs (Pan et al., 2005). Many potential ciliary proteins have been identified in various species in recent years using biochemical, comparative genomic and proteomic methods. Nevertheless, the spectrum of factors required for the formation and/or function of cilia, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cilia biogenesis, have yet to be fully revealed.. Two multiprotein complexes, the intraflagellar transport (IFT, complex A and B) complexes, are present in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Rosenbaum and Witman, 2002). The IFT complexes move within the flagella, suggesting that they are likely to be involved in the transportation of molecules inside the ...
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The maintenance of flagellar length is believed to require both anterograde and retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT). However, it is difficult to uncouple the functions of retrograde transport from anterograde, as null mutants in dynein heavy ch
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for assembly and maintenance of cilia and flagella as well as ciliary motility and signaling. IFT is mediated by multisubunit complexes, including IFT-A, IFT-B, and the BBSome, in concert with kinesin and dynein motors. Under high salt conditions, purified IFT-B complex dissociates into a core subcomplex composed of at least nine subunits and at least five peripherally associated proteins. Using the visible immunoprecipitation assay, which we recently developed as a convenient protein-protein interaction assay, we determined the overall architecture of the IFT-B complex, which can be divided into core and peripheral subcomplexes composed of 10 and 6 subunits, respectively ...
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Because have a Buddhist name called "清巌"; with the opinion called father of "西巌" equal to the great-grandfather of Nobunaga Oda in "a description of Prince Nobunaga" and 祖織田良信 of family "the Oda bullet Masatadas" (Shobata Oda) of the said 3, Kiyosu prefect [7]. In addition, another view includes the opinion called the same person in both. "I chase a life of genealogy Nobuhide of Nobunaga Oda", and によると puts up an opinion to Sumio Yokoyama of the author when "both give it with Yoshinobu at the start at the time of 斯波義良 for the same generation and receive 偏諱 after protection return of Yoshitoshi Shiba and might change my name to Toshinobu". But there is not the fact that returned to a lief-guard, birthright justice good (pine Oumaru, Yoshihiro) 義敏 after (civilization December, 4 - civilization April, 17) at "義良" and the time when I gave it because the succession of the lief-guard is order of "Yoshihiro and changing name) - justice at the time of ...
Cell biologists are becoming increasingly aware that cilia and flagella are important sensory organelles, which detect changes in the extracellular environment and convey these signals to the cell body. The biflagellate green alga, Chlamydomonas, is a model organism for the study of flagella function and has allowed researchers to link ciliary dysfunction to a range of human genetic disorders. We are using molecular, biochemical and cell physiological techniques to study signalling processes in Chlamydomonas flagella. We have developed techniques to image Ca2+ in both the cytosol and the flagella of Chlamydomonas and have recently demonstrated that intraflagellar Ca2+ elevations regulate the important process of intraflagellar transport (IFT) (Collingridge et al, 2013). This project aims to understand the mechanisms that generate Ca2+ signals in flagella and how they act to regulate the transport of flagellar proteins ...
DNAH5: dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 5 gene; DNAI1: dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1 gene; DNAH11: dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11 gene; TXNDC3: thioredoxin domain containing 3 (spermatozoa) gene; DNAI2: dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 2 gene; KTU: chromosome 14 open reading frame 104 gene; RPGR: retinitis pigmentosa guanosine triphosphatase regulator gene; OFD1: oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 gene; RSPH9: radial spoke head 9 homologue (Chlamydomonas) gene; RSPH4A: radial spoke head 4 homologue A (Chlamydomonas) gene; ODA: outer dynein arm; IDA: inner dynein arm; CP: central pair; c.: cDNA sequence; del: deletion; T: thymidine; IVS: intervening sequence; ins: insertion; G: guanine; A: adenine; KS: Kartageners syndrome. ...
Reduced mucociliary clearance in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) causes recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. The disease is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. To identify a gene locus for PCD, we studied a l
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC) differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1), polycystin-2 (PC2) and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88), in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more elongated conformation than those cultured in expansion media, indicating cilia-sensitivity to the chemical environment and a relationship between the

Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke...Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke...

Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke ... Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/123/1/183/tab-article-info

The Origin of the Second Centriole in the Zygote of Drosophila melanogaster | GeneticsThe Origin of the Second Centriole in the Zygote of Drosophila melanogaster | Genetics

1998 Drosophila centrosomin protein is required for male meiosis and assembly of the flagellar axoneme. J. Cell Biol. 141: 455- ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/node/342293.full.print

Mutations of DNAH11 in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia with normal ciliary ultrastructure | ThoraxMutations of DNAH11 in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia with normal ciliary ultrastructure | Thorax

Primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with normal axoneme ultrastructure is caused by DNAH11 mutations. Hum Mutat 2008;29:289- ... and Chlamydomonas mutants of β-DHC can assemble outer arm subunits into the flagellar axoneme, but swimming velocity and/or ...
more infohttp://thorax.bmj.com/content/67/5/433

Axoneme | definition of axoneme by Medical dictionaryAxoneme | definition of axoneme by Medical dictionary

... axoneme explanation free. What is axoneme? Meaning of axoneme medical term. What does axoneme mean? ... Looking for online definition of axoneme in the Medical Dictionary? ... axoneme. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. axoneme. [ak´so-nēm] the central core of a cilium or flagellum, ... axoneme. the complex of MICROTUBULES and associated tubes found in the shaft of a CILIUM or FLAGELLUM.. axoneme. 1. the central ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/axoneme

Axoneme - WikipediaAxoneme - Wikipedia

The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of ... This organization of axoneme is referred as "9x2 + 0". In addition, "9x2 + 1" axonemes, with only a single central microtubule ... The radial spoke is another protein complex of the axoneme. Thought to be important in regulating the motion of the axoneme, ... The building-block of the axoneme is the microtubule; each axoneme is composed of several microtubules aligned in parallel. To ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axoneme

abnormal sperm axoneme morphology Mammalian Phenotype Term (MP:0009838)abnormal sperm axoneme morphology Mammalian Phenotype Term (MP:0009838)

The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/vocab/mp_ontology/MP:0009838

sperm axoneme assembly QuickView - Correlation Enginesperm axoneme assembly QuickView - Correlation Engine

The assembly and organization of the sperm flagellar axoneme, the bundle of microtubules and associated proteins that forms the ...
more infohttp://www.nextbio.com/b/search/ov/sperm%20axoneme%20assembly?id=35268&type=biogroup

Axoneme of Tetrahymena thermophila - Stock Image - C028/3022 - Science Photo LibraryAxoneme of Tetrahymena thermophila - Stock Image - C028/3022 - Science Photo Library

This image is of an isolated axoneme with the membrane removed and stained with tannic acid. ... This image is of an isolated axoneme with the membrane removed and stained with tannic acid. The tannic acid allows the ...
more infohttps://www.sciencephoto.com/media/710771/view/axoneme-of-tetrahymena-thermophila

The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography | ScienceThe Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography | Science

The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography. By Daniela Nicastro, Cindi Schwartz, Jason Pierson ... The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography. By Daniela Nicastro, Cindi Schwartz, Jason Pierson ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/313/5789/944.full

LRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension | Journal of Cell ScienceLRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension | Journal of Cell Science

LRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell ... LRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension. Bahtiyar Kurtulmus, Cheng Yuan, Jakob Schuy, Annett Neuner, Shoji Hata ... LRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension. Bahtiyar Kurtulmus, Cheng Yuan, Jakob Schuy, Annett Neuner, Shoji Hata ... LRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension. Bahtiyar Kurtulmus, Cheng Yuan, Jakob Schuy, Annett Neuner, Shoji Hata ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/early/2018/08/15/jcs.223594

Spag4, a novel sperm protein, binds outer dense-fiber protein Odf1 and localizes to microtubules of manchette and axoneme.  -...Spag4, a novel sperm protein, binds outer dense-fiber protein Odf1 and localizes to microtubules of manchette and axoneme. -...

Spag4, a novel sperm protein, binds outer dense-fiber protein Odf1 and localizes to microtubules of manchette and axoneme.. ... Spag4 is detectable in the transient manchette and it is associated with the axoneme in elongating spermatids and epididymal ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10373309?dopt=Abstract

Cells | Free Full-Text | CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of the Outer Dynein Arm and...Cells | Free Full-Text | CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of the Outer Dynein Arm and...

A stepwise extraction of proteins from swine tracheal cilia showed that CFAP70 bound tightly to the ciliary axoneme. ... Shamoto N, Narita K, Kubo T, Oda T, Takeda S. CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of the Outer ... CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of the Outer Dynein Arm and Regulates Ciliary Motility. ... Shamoto, N.; Narita, K.; Kubo, T.; Oda, T.; Takeda, S. CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/7/9/124

Membrane-cytoskeleton interactions in the flagellum: a 240,000 Mr surface-exposed glycoprotein is tightly associated with the...Membrane-cytoskeleton interactions in the flagellum: a 240,000 Mr surface-exposed glycoprotein is tightly associated with the...

Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy of isolated axonemes demonstrates that both P-19-defined epitopes and surface- ... axoneme). Because of its cell surface orientation and axonemal linkage, it is likely that the 240K glycoprotein plays an ... a 240,000 Mr surface-exposed glycoprotein is tightly associated with the axoneme in Chlamydomonas moewusii ... biotinylated proteins continue to be associated with the axoneme structure after detergent treatment. These observations ...
more infohttps://jcs.biologists.org/content/89/4/521

Read eBooks online | World Heritage Encyclopedia | AxonemeRead eBooks online | World Heritage Encyclopedia | Axoneme

The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule triplets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of ... Axoneme. Eukaryotic flagella. 1-axoneme, 2-cell membrane, 3-IFT (intraflagellar transport), 4-basal body, 5-cross section of ... This organization of axoneme is referred as "9x2 + 0". In addition, "9x2 + 1" axonemes, with only a single central microtubule ... The building-block of the axoneme is the microtubule; each axoneme is composed of several microtubules aligned in parallel. To ...
more infohttp://community.worldheritage.org/articles/eng/Axoneme

Basal body and flagellum mutants reveal a rotational constraint of the central pair microtubules in the axonemes of...Basal body and flagellum mutants reveal a rotational constraint of the central pair microtubules in the axonemes of...

Basal body and flagellum mutants reveal a rotational constraint of the central pair microtubules in the axonemes of ... Basal body and flagellum mutants reveal a rotational constraint of the central pair microtubules in the axonemes of ...
more infohttps://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/9232/

Transition zone assembly and its contribution to axoneme formation in Drosophila male germ cells | Journal of Cell Biology |...Transition zone assembly and its contribution to axoneme formation in Drosophila male germ cells | Journal of Cell Biology |...

Transition zone assembly and its contribution to axoneme formation in Drosophila male germ cells Jennifer Vieillard Jennifer ... Transition zone assembly and its contribution to axoneme formation in Drosophila male germ cells. J Cell Biol 26 September 2016 ... temporal control of membrane cap assembly by TZ components and microtubule elongation by kinesin-13 is required for axoneme ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jcb/article-abstract/214/7/875/38731/Transition-zone-assembly-and-its-contribution-to

Kinesin‐2 motors adapt their stepping behavior for processive transport on axonemes and microtubules | EMBO ReportsKinesin‐2 motors adapt their stepping behavior for processive transport on axonemes and microtubules | EMBO Reports

Kinesin‐2 motors adapt their stepping behavior for processive transport on axonemes and microtubules. View ORCID ProfileWilli L ... In all organisms studied so far, the kinesin‐2 family is essential for long‐range transport on axonemes. Intriguingly, in ... Two structurally distinct filamentous tracks, namely singlet microtubules in the cytoplasm and axonemes in the cilium, serve as ... The heterodimeric kinesin‐2 motor differentiates between microtubules and axonemes to move forward. This study suggests that ...
more infohttp://embor.embopress.org/content/early/2017/09/08/embr.201744097.share

Kinesin‐2 motors adapt their stepping behavior for processive transport on axonemes and microtubules | EMBO ReportsKinesin‐2 motors adapt their stepping behavior for processive transport on axonemes and microtubules | EMBO Reports

Kinesin‐2 motors adapt their stepping behavior for processive transport on axonemes and microtubules. View ORCID ProfileWilli L ... In all organisms studied so far, the kinesin‐2 family is essential for long‐range transport on axonemes. Intriguingly, in ... Two structurally distinct filamentous tracks, namely singlet microtubules in the cytoplasm and axonemes in the cilium, serve as ... The heterodimeric kinesin‐2 motor differentiates between microtubules and axonemes to move forward. This study suggests that ...
more infohttp://embor.embopress.org/content/early/2017/09/08/embr.201744097.print

Mechanism of flagellar oscillation-bending-induced switching of dynein activity in elastase-treated axonemes of sea urchin...Mechanism of flagellar oscillation-bending-induced switching of dynein activity in elastase-treated axonemes of sea urchin...

To test this, we developed an experimental system using elastase-treated axonemes of sperm flagella, which have a large Ca(2+)- ... Oscillatory movement of eukaryotic flagella is caused by dynein-driven microtubule sliding in the axoneme. The mechanical ... To test this, we developed an experimental system using elastase-treated axonemes of sperm flagella, which have a large Ca(2+)- ... Animals, Axoneme, Biomechanical Phenomena, Dyneins, Male, Microtubules, Models, Biological, Pancreatic Elastase, Sea Urchins, ...
more infohttps://www.dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/690042

A novel dynein light intermediate chain colocalizes with the retrograde motor for intraflagellar transport at sites of axoneme...A novel dynein light intermediate chain colocalizes with the retrograde motor for intraflagellar transport at sites of axoneme...

The mammalian DHC2 and D2LIC also colocalize in the apical cytoplasm and axonemes of ciliated epithelia in the lung, brain, and ... A novel dynein light intermediate chain colocalizes with the retrograde motor for intraflagellar transport at sites of axoneme ...
more infohttp://scholars.uab.edu/display/pub804357

Cryo-electron tomography reveals conserved features of doublet microtubules in flagella | PNASCryo-electron tomography reveals conserved features of doublet microtubules in flagella | PNAS

S2 I and J). In WT Chlamydomonas axonemes and sea urchin sperm flagella, one of the IJ-rungs near the nexin-dynein regulatory ... Flagella and Axoneme Preparation.. Strains used in this study and details on the obtained 3D structures are summarized in Table ... Axonemes were obtained from WT and mutant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells as previously described (14, 58, 59). The final ... In most species, axonemes assemble in vivo from a basal body template, whereas basal bodies and centrioles assemble from a ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/108/42/E845?ijkey=ffd2ecb180f12fb0d59062e0161a2a897c39fc0d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

News & Events | Human Frontier Science ProgramNews & Events | Human Frontier Science Program

Dissecting the axoneme structure May 20, 2019 The contribution of axonemal microtubules to the length stability of the cilia ...
more infohttps://www.hfsp.org/hfsp-news-events

MAP65 Coordinate Microtubule Growth during Bundle FormationMAP65 Coordinate Microtubule Growth during Bundle Formation

MT Nucleation from Axonemes. Sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) axonemes spotted on a coverslip were first mixed for 5 ... To validate that MAP65-1 has the ability to bundle parallel MTs as required by the model, we nucleated MTs from axonemes, thus ... In the absence of MAP65-1, nucleated MTs radially organize from the axonemes, whereas in the presence of MAP65-1, they form a ... The authors thank J. Gaillard for technical support, I. Arnal for the gift of axonemes, and L. Blanchoin for critical reading ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0056808
  • In the present report we show that KIF3A, together with the other kinesin II components, KIF3B and KAP3, is present at the basal bodies of the connecting cilium axonemes in mammalian photoreceptor cells, where it could provide a function that is analogous to the one it provides in conventional cilia. (jneurosci.org)
  • A, D , The Rp1 protein colocalizes with the acetylated α-tubulin-labeled axoneme in the outer segment but not in the connecting cilium, as indicated by the green signal that extends above the outer segment into the connecting cilium ( A4, D3 , arrowheads). (jneurosci.org)
  • The region of the connecting cilium and the base of the outer segment are enlarged on the right to show the axoneme in the connecting cilium and outer segment. (jneurosci.org)
  • Electron microscopy led to the discovery of the 9-plus-2 arrangement of internal fibrils in the cilia and the subsidiary components of the axoneme , which lent support to the "sliding fibril" hypothesis of ciliary bending. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A stepwise extraction of proteins from swine tracheal cilia showed that CFAP70 bound tightly to the ciliary axoneme. (mdpi.com)
  • Evaluation of photoreceptor axonemes from mice with targeted disruptions of the Rp1 gene shows that Rp1 proteins that contain the DCX domains also help control axoneme length and stability in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • Shamoto N, Narita K, Kubo T, Oda T, Takeda S. CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of the Outer Dynein Arm and Regulates Ciliary Motility. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we show that the RP1 protein is part of the photoreceptor axoneme. (jneurosci.org)
  • The RP1 protein is located in the outer segment portion of the photoreceptor axoneme. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings, discussed in relation to genetic and biochemical data, provide a critical foundation for future work on the molecular assembly and stability of the axoneme, as well as its function in motility and sensory transduction. (pnas.org)
  • Despite this central role in photoreceptor biology, little is known about the axoneme and the factors that control its length and stability ( Song and Dentler, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • It is not known how the alignment of the outer segment discs is controlled, although it has been suggested that the axoneme may play a role in this process. (jneurosci.org)
  • In all organisms studied so far, the kinesin‐2 family is essential for long‐range transport on axonemes. (embopress.org)
  • The axoneme serves as the "skeleton" of these organelles, both giving support to the structure and, in some cases, causing it to bend. (wikipedia.org)