A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Methods for performing three-dimensional measurement and motion analysis using stereoscopic radiographs.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
A regulatory sequence found in the 5' terminal regions of a variety of RNA species. The sequence starts with a CYTIDINE, which is followed by a stretch of 5 to 15 PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES. Messenger RNA that contains the 5' Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract is often referred to as 5' TOP mRNA. The sequence acts as a translational regulator and has been found in mRNAs for PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS and RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Tetrahydroisoquinolinol alkaloids in both dextro and levo forms, originally found in SALSOLA plants.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

A heterozygous mutation disrupting the SPAG16 gene results in biochemical instability of central apparatus components of the human sperm axoneme. (1/138)

The SPAG16 gene encodes two major transcripts, one for the 71-kDa SPAG16L, which is the orthologue of the Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii central apparatus protein PF20, and a smaller transcript, which codes for the 35-kDa SPAG16S nuclear protein that represents the C-terminus (exons 11-16) of SPAG16L. We have previously reported that a targeted mutation in exon 11 of the Spag16 gene impairs spermatogenesis and prevents transmission of the mutant allele in chimeric mice. In the present report, we describe a heterozygous mutation in exon 13 of the SPAG16 gene, which causes a frame shift and premature stop codon, affording the opportunity to compare mutations with similar impacts on SPAG16L and SPAG16S for male reproductive function in mice and men. We studied two male heterozygotes for the SPAG16 mutation, both of which were fertile. Freezing-boiling of isolated sperm from both affected males resulted in the loss of the SPAG16L protein, SPAG6, another central apparatus protein that interacts with SPAG16L, and the 28-kDa fragment of SPAG17, which associates with SPAG6. These proteins were also lost after freezing-boiling cycles of sperm extracts from mice that were heterozygous for an inactivating mutation (exons 2 and 3) in Spag16. Our findings suggest that a heterozygous mutation that affects both SPAG16L and SPAG16S does not cause male infertility in man, but is associated with reduced stability of the interacting proteins of the central apparatus in response to a thermal challenge, a phenotype shared by the sperm of mice heterozygous for a mutation that affects SPAG16L.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas FAP133 is a dynein intermediate chain associated with the retrograde intraflagellar transport motor. (2/138)

Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is the bi-directional movement of particles along the length of axonemal outer doublet microtubules and is needed for the assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Retrograde IFT requires cytoplasmic dynein 1b, a motor complex whose organization, structural composition and regulation is poorly understood. We have characterized the product of the Chlamydomonas FAP133 gene that encodes a new WD-repeat protein similar to dynein intermediate chains and homologous to the uncharacterized vertebrate protein WD34. FAP133 is located at the peri-basal body region as well as in punctate structures along the flagella. This protein is associated with the IFT machinery because it is specifically depleted from the flagella of cells with defects in anterograde IFT. Fractionation of flagellar matrix proteins indicates that FAP133 associates with both the LC8 dynein light chain and the IFT dynein heavy chain and light intermediate chain (DHC1b-D1bLIC) motor complex. In the absence of DHC1b or D1bLIC, FAP133 fails to localize at the peri-basal body region but, rather, is concentrated in a region of the cytoplasm near the cell center. Furthermore, we found that FAP133, LC8, DHC1b, D1bLIC, the FLA10 kinesin-2 necessary for anterograde IFT and other IFT scaffold components associate to form a large macromolecular assembly.  (+info)

Identification of novel ciliogenesis factors using a new in vivo model for mucociliary epithelial development. (3/138)

Mucociliary epithelia are essential for homeostasis of many organs and consist of mucus-secreting goblet cells and ciliated cells. Here, we present the ciliated epidermis of Xenopus embryos as a facile model system for in vivo molecular studies of mucociliary epithelial development. Using an in situ hybridization-based approach, we identified numerous genes expressed differentially in mucus-secreting cells or in ciliated cells. Focusing on genes expressed in ciliated cells, we have identified new candidate ciliogenesis factors, including several not present in the current ciliome. We find that TTC25-GFP is localized to the base of cilia and to ciliary axonemes, and disruption of TTC25 function disrupts ciliogenesis. Mig12-GFP localizes very strongly to the base of cilia and confocal imaging of this construct allows for simple visualization of the planar polarity of basal bodies that underlies polarized ciliary beating. Knockdown of Mig12 disrupts ciliogenesis. Finally, we show that ciliogenesis factors identified in the Xenopus epidermis are required in the midline to facilitate neural tube closure. These results provide further evidence of a requirement for cilia in neural tube morphogenesis and suggest that genes identified in the Xenopus epidermis play broad roles in ciliogenesis. The suites of genes identified here will provide a foundation for future studies, and may also contribute to our understanding of pathological changes in mucociliary epithelia that accompany diseases such as asthma.  (+info)

Heat shock transcription factor 1 is required for maintenance of ciliary beating in mice. (4/138)

Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) maintain protein homeostasis through regulating expression of heat shock proteins, especially in stressed conditions. In addition, HSFs are involved in cellular differentiation and development by regulating development-related genes, as well as heat shock genes. Here, we showed chronic sinusitis and mild hydrocephalus in postnatal HSF1-null mice, which are associated with impaired mucociliary clearance and cerebrospinal flow, respectively. Analysis of ciliary beating revealed that the amplitude of the beating was significantly reduced, and ciliary beat frequencies were lower in the respiratory epithelium, ependymal cells, oviduct, and trachea of HSF1-null mice than those of wild-type mice. Cilia possess a common axonema structure composed of microtubules of alpha- and beta-tubulin. We found a marked reduction in alpha- and ciliary betaiv-tubulin in the HSF1-null cilia, which is developmentally associated with reduced Hsp90 expression in HSF1-null mice. Treatment of the respiratory epithelium with geldanamycin resulted in rapid reduction of ciliary beating in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Hsp90 was physically associated with ciliary betaiv-tubulin, and Hsp90 stabilizes tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results indicate that HSF1 is required to maintain ciliary beating in postnatal mice, probably by regulating constitutive expression of Hsp90 that is important for tubulin polymerization.  (+info)

A conserved CaM- and radial spoke associated complex mediates regulation of flagellar dynein activity. (5/138)

For virtually all cilia and eukaryotic flagella, the second messengers calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate are implicated in modulating dynein- driven microtubule sliding to regulate beating. Calmodulin (CaM) localizes to the axoneme and is a key calcium sensor involved in regulating motility. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify members of a CaM-containing complex that are involved in regulating dynein activity. This complex includes flagellar-associated protein 91 (FAP91), which shares considerable sequence similarity to AAT-1, a protein originally identified in testis as an A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP)- binding protein. FAP91 directly interacts with radial spoke protein 3 (an AKAP), which is located at the base of the spoke. In a microtubule sliding assay, the addition of antibodies generated against FAP91 to mutant axonemes with reduced dynein activity restores dynein activity to wild-type levels. These combined results indicate that the CaM- and spoke-associated complex mediates regulatory signals between the radial spokes and dynein arms.  (+info)

Novel 44-kilodalton subunit of axonemal Dynein conserved from chlamydomonas to mammals. (6/138)

Cilia and flagella have multiple dyneins in their inner and outer arms. Chlamydomonas inner-arm dynein contains at least seven major subspecies (dynein a to dynein g), of which all but dynein f (also called dynein I1) are the single-headed type that are composed of a single heavy chain, actin, and either centrin or a 28-kDa protein (p28). Dynein d was found to associate with two additional proteins of 38 kDa (p38) and 44 kDa (p44). Following the characterization of the p38 protein (R. Yamamoto, H. A. Yanagisawa, T. Yagi, and R. Kamiya, FEBS Lett. 580:6357-6360, 2006), we have identified p44 as a novel component of dynein d by using an immunoprecipitation approach. p44 is present along the length of the axonemes and is diminished, but not absent, in the ida4 and ida5 mutants, both lacking this dynein. In the ida5 axoneme, p44 and p38 appear to form a complex, suggesting that they constitute the docking site of dynein d on the outer doublet. p44 has potential homologues in other ciliated organisms. For example, the mouse homologue of p44, NYD-SP14, was found to be strongly expressed in tissues with motile cilia and flagella. These results suggest that inner-arm dynein d and its subunit organization are widely conserved.  (+info)

Dimeric heat shock protein 40 binds radial spokes for generating coupled power strokes and recovery strokes of 9 + 2 flagella. (7/138)

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Spermatotoxic effect of aflatoxin B1 in rat: extrusion of outer dense fibres and associated axonemal microtubule doublets of sperm flagellum. (8/138)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Scaffold subunits support associated subunit assembly in the Chlamydomonas ciliary nexin-dynein regulatory complex. AU - Gui, Long. AU - Song, Kangkang. AU - Tritschler, Douglas. AU - Bower, Raqual. AU - Yan, Si. AU - Dai, Aguang. AU - Augspurger, Katherine. AU - Sakizadeh, Jason. AU - Grzemska, Magdalena. AU - Ni, Thomas. AU - Porter, Mary E.. AU - Nicastro, Daniela. PY - 2019/11/12. Y1 - 2019/11/12. N2 - The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) in motile cilia and flagella functions as a linker between neighboring doublet microtubules, acts to stabilize the axonemal core structure, and serves as a central hub for the regulation of ciliary motility. Although the N-DRC has been studied extensively using genetic, biochemical, and structural approaches, the precise arrangement of the 11 (or more) N-DRC subunits remains unknown. Here, using cryo-electron tomography, we have compared the structure of Chlamydomonas wild-type flagella to that of strains with specific DRC subunit ...
Ciliary defects can lead to a number of human diseases. Genetic mutations compromising the proper functioning of cilia, ciliopathies, can cause chronic disorders such as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), nephronophthisis or Senior-Loken syndrome. In addition, a defect of the primary cilium in the renal tube cells can lead to polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In another genetic disorder called Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), the mutant gene products are the components in the basal body and cilia.[9]. Lack of functional cilia in female Fallopian tubes can cause ectopic pregnancy. A fertilized ovum may not reach the uterus if the cilia are unable to move it there. In such a case, the ovum will implant in the Fallopian tubes, causing a tubal pregnancy, the most common form of ectopic pregnancy.[28]. As noted above, epithelial sodium channels ENaC that are expressed along the length of cilia regulate fluid level surrounding the cilia. Mutations that decrease the activity of ENaC result in multisystem ...
Our study provides direct visualization of the asymmetric distribution of dynein activity and conformational switching between opposite sides of a beating flagellum. However, the nature of the switching signal(s) is still unknown. Four major models have been proposed for how the regular switching of dynein activity might be regulated, including (i) the distributor model, which proposes that a series of enzymatic and mechanical interactions between regulatory complexes [e.g., CPC, radial spokes, nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC), and I1 dynein] modulate dynein activity (23, 26); (ii) the geometric clutch model, which posits that bending-induced distortions of the axoneme change the spacing between DMTs, acting as a clutch to disengage dyneins from their DMT tracks so that they can no longer generate force (or impede interdoublet sliding) (27); (iii) the sliding-control model, which postulates collective dynein behavior and a positive feedback mechanism in which the activity of dyneins ...
The YRC PDR provides for the searching of millions of protein descriptions from many databases to find proteins and public experimental data describing those proteins produced by the YRC. The experimental data is in the form of mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid, protein structure prediction, light microscopy and protein complex predictions.
Cilia and flagella have a characteristic 9 + 2 structure in which a ring of nine microtubule doublets surrounds a central pair of two microtubules and numerous associated proteins. The central pair is critical for motility, but we know little about its associated proteins and their functions. On p. 4179, Hui Zhang and David Mitchell reveal that one of these, Cpc1, is responsible for refuelling the organelle. Chlamydomonas cpc1 mutants exhibit reduced flagellar beating. The authors have cloned the Cpc1 gene and use an anti-Cpc1 antibody to show that it encodes a conserved component of a 16S complex associated with the central pair. Sequence analysis indicates that Cpc1 has an unusual adenylate kinase domain. Since adenylate kinases generate ATP from ADP, Zhang and Mitchell examined the effect of increasing the concentration of ATP on flagellar beating in cpc1 mutants: significantly, the increase suppresses the beating defect. The authors conclude that, under normal conditions, Cpc1 is needed to ...
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The three were very confiding. Especially Yuri loved our company and liked to be petted. Nami was cheeky while Sora was very calm. Being an albino, Sora had severe eye problems and was almost blind which didnt seem to bother her much. Luckily eyesight is not as important to rats as it is to us humans.. All three had long rat lives. Yuri had cancer but luckily we found a good vet in Gauting, a city near our home (I grew up in Gauting). Not only did she know how to treat rats, she had some herself at a time. Shes also very friendly and committed. Yuri was the first of our rats that was treated by her and since then shes the vet we trust. Unfortunately Yuri grew another cancer a few months later. We didnt want to have Yuri suffer an operation again so we decided to have it untreated as she already was well over two years old. Eventually we had her euthanized as the cancer grew too big.. ...
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Kimdir: Hürriyet Daily News Genel Yayın Yönetmeni ve Radikal köşe yazarı.. 1981de başladığı gazetecilik kariyerinde BBC Ankara Bürosu, DW Türkiye, AFP Ankara Bürosunda gazeteci olarak çalışmış; mevcut görevleri öncesinde, Kanal Dde Diplomasi Muhabirliği, Show TVde, NTVde, Sabahta ve Radikalde Ankara Temsilciği yapmıştır.. Ateş Hattında Aktif Politika-Ortadoğu, Balkanlar, Kafkaslar Üçgeninde Türkiye (1992); Avrupa Birliği Bekleme Odasında Türkiye (2002), Tezkere-Irak Krizinin Gerçek Öyküsü (2004) ve Kürt Kapanı-Şamdan İmralıya Öcalan (2004) isimli kitapların yazarıdır.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The IFT-A complex regulates Shh signaling through cilia structure and membrane protein trafficking. AU - Liem, Karel F.. AU - Ashe, Alyson. AU - He, Mu. AU - Satir, Peter. AU - Moran, Jennifer. AU - Beier, David. AU - Wicking, Carol. AU - Anderson, Kathryn V.. PY - 2012/6/11. Y1 - 2012/6/11. N2 - Two intraflagellar transport (IFT) complexes, IFT-A and IFT-B, build and maintain primary cilia and are required for activity of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. A weak allele of the IFT-A gene, Ift144, caused subtle defects in cilia structure and ectopic activation of the Shh pathway. In contrast, strong loss of IFT-A, caused by either absence of Ift144 or mutations in two IFT-A genes, blocked normal ciliogenesis and decreased Shh signaling. In strong IFT-A mutants, the Shh pathway proteins Gli2, Sufu, and Kif7 localized correctly to cilia tips, suggesting that these pathway components were trafficked by IFT-B. In contrast, the membrane proteins Arl13b, ACIII, and Smo failed to ...
The highly motile, 9 + 0 sperm axoneme of Anguilla has inner dynein arms (IDAs) but not outer dynein arms. The in situ morphology of these IDAs is shown here to be essentially identical to the IDA morphology already seen in the axonemes of Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena and Beroe, and in the sperm tails of echinoderms and several vertebrate species. In addition, this study demonstrates: (1) that the nexin (circumferential) links are present in Anguilla and are typical; (2) that IDA1 incorporates an archway, supported by a pillar-structure; (3) that images from thin sections and whole mounts are consistent with those from replicas of rapidly-frozen specimens; and (4) that the IDA and nexin link morphology is apparently unaffected by whether the axoneme is depleted of ATP, relaxed with ATP and vanadate, or inhibited by high ATP. An attempt has been made to reconcile the emergent morphology of the IDA complex with all earlier descriptions in the literature. From a detailed comparison of the results ...
The ciliary transition zone (TZ) is a complex structure found at the cilia base. Defects in TZ assembly are associated with human ciliopathies. In most eukaryotes, three protein complexes (CEP290, NPHP, and MKS) cooperate to build the TZ. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, mild TZ defects are observed in the absence of MKS components. In contrast, Cby and Azi1 cooperate to build the TZ by acting upstream of Cep290 and MKS components. Without Cby and Azi1, centrioles fail to form the TZ, precluding sensory cilia assembly, and no ciliary membrane cap associated with sperm ciliogenesis is made. This ciliary cap is critical to recruit the tubulin-depolymerizing kinesin Klp59D, required for regulation of axonemal growth. Our results show that Drosophila TZ assembly in sensory neurons and male germ cells involves cooperative actions of Cby and Dila. They further reveal that temporal control of membrane cap assembly by TZ components and microtubule elongation by kinesin-13 is required for axoneme ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three-headed outer arm dynein from Chlamydonwnas that can functionally combine with outer-arm-missing axonemes. AU - Takada, Saeko. AU - Sakakibara, Hitoshi. AU - Kamiya, Ritsu. PY - 1992/6. Y1 - 1992/6. N2 - A procedure was developed for Isolating Chlamydonzonas outer-arm dynein that can functionally combine with the axoneme of an outer-arm-missing mutant, oda1. Previous studies showed that the outer-arm dyneln of this organism, containing three heavy chains (α, β, γ), dissociates upon extraction with a high-salt-concentration buffer solution into an 18-S particle containing the α and β heavy chains and a 12-S particle containing the γ heavy chain. It was found, however, that the three heavy chains did not dissociate if the high-salt extract was centrifuged in the presence of Mg2+ the three chains constituted a single species (23-S dynein) sedimenting at about 23 S and displayed a three-headed bouquet configuration in electron micrographs. Furthermore, the 23-S dyneln had ...
Bridge-like connections between axoneme and mitochondrial derivatives of Triatoma infestans are identical to those of other Heteropterans where they have been identified as a typical characteristic of the spermatozoa of this group of insects. Whole-mount preparations revealed bridge localization in the grooves between mitochondrial cristae. Bridges occur regularly along the axoneme with a spacing of approximately 52 nm and are not in horizontal register on opposite sides of the axoneme. Shearing of flagellar organelles demonstrated strong attachment of bridges directly to the mitochondrial derivatives at one extremity, while at the other, bridges pull out connecting fibers from the axoneme (after sodium citrate treatment). © 1988 ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact miriamh.. Abstract: New cryo-EM technologies enable to investigate protein structures in the native physiological context of the cell. We use these technologies to study the self-organized assembly of cilia, ubiquitous organelles of eukaryotic cells. Assembly of the cilium requires the rapid bidirectional intraflagellar transport (IFT) of building blocks to and from the site of assembly at its tip. This bidirectional transport is driven by the anterograde motor kinesin-2 and the retrograde motor dynein-1b, which are both bound to a large complex of 25 IFT adaptor proteins. We have recently developed a millisecond resolution 3D correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) approach to show that anterograde and retrograde IFT trains use separated microtubule tracks along the microtubule doublets of the cilium (Stepanek & Pigino, 2016). With this method at hand we showed that the spatial segregation of oppositely directed trains ensures a ...
Many eukaryotic cells carry cilia or flagella. These whip-like cell appendages are characterized by highly-conserved cytoskeletal elements consisting of a regular arrangement of microtubule doublets. In many cells, the regular flagellar bending is powered by molecular motors that propel the cell. It is well established that Ca2+ is key for the control of bending in many cell types from sperm to algae. Sperm are bio-machines that steer their swimming path along chemical signposts or chemoattractants, a process termed chemotaxis. The binding of chemoattractant to receptors on the flagellum triggers a signaling cascade that eventually leads to a change in Ca2+. Simultaneously, a corresponding change in the flagellar bending arises resulting in a chemotactic steering response. Previous research identified Ca2+ as a key player for flagellar motility. In particular, the concept was that flagellar bending is directly controlled by the absolute Ca2+ concentration. Studying intact sea urchin sperm ...
Investigator: Grant Turner. Mentor: Joseph Sisson, MD. Cilia are essential components of multiple organ systems. Inherited defects in ciliogenesis, the formation of cilia, are often lethal in utero, indicating a critical role for cilia in growth and development. Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFTs) are a diverse group of proteins that are essential for moving proteins on and off of the axoneme and found to have multiple important functions in the structure and function of cilia. For example, defects in IFT88 cause severe defects in the sensing cilia in the kidneys, resulting in polycystic kidney formation, and in the lung, where bronchiectasis results. While the role of IFTs in ciliogenesis has been established, the specific role IFT88 plays in airway cilia structure and function is unknown. We hypothesized that: 1) IFT88 is required for de novo ciliogenesis in vitro; and 2) IFT88 is required to translocate the methacholine receptor, which is part of a cilia motility regulator complex, from ...
The microtubule axoneme is an iconic structure in eukaryotic cell biology and the defining structure in all eukaryotic flagella (or cilia). Flagella occur in taxa spanning the breadth of eukaryotic evolution, which indicates that the organelles origin predates the radiation of extant eukaryotes from a last common ancestor. During evolution, the flagellar architecture has been subject to both elaboration and moderation. Even conservation of 9+2 architecture-the classic microtubule configuration seen in most axonemes-belies surprising variation in protein content. Classically considered as organelles of motility that support cell swimming or fast movement of material across a cell surface, it is now clear that the functions of flagella are also far broader; for instance, the involvement of flagella in sensory perception and protein secretion has recently been made evident in both protists and animals. Here, we review and discuss, in an evolutionary context, recent advances in our understanding of ...
Cilia are found on nearly every cell type in the mammalian body, and have been historically classified as either motile or immotile. Motile cilia are important for fluid and cellular movement; however, the roles of non-motile or primary cilia in most tissues remain unknown. Several genetic syndromes, called the ciliopathies, are associated with defects in cilia structure or function and have a wide range of clinical presentations. Much of what we know about the formation and maintenance of cilia comes from model systems like C. elegans and Chalmydomonas. Studies of mammalian cilia in live tissues have been hampered by difficulty visualizing them. To facilitate analyses of mammalian cilia function we generated an inducible CiliaGFP mouse by targeting mouse cDNA encoding a cilia-localized protein somatostatin receptor 3 fused to GFP (Sstr3::GFP) into the ROSA26 locus. In this system, Sstr3::GFP is expressed from the ubiquitous ROSA26 promoter after Cre mediated deletion of an upstream Neo cassette flanked
When detergent-extracted, demembranated cell models of Chlamydomonas were resuspended in reactivation solutions containing less than 10(-8) M Ca++, many models initially swam in helical paths similar to those of intact cells; others swam in circles against the surface of the slide or coverslip. With increasing time after reactivation, fewer models swam in helices and more swam in circles. This transition from helical to circular swimming was the result of a progressive inactivation of one of the axonemes; in the extreme case, one axoneme was completely inactive whereas the other beat with a normal waveform. At these low Ca++ concentrations, the inactivated axoneme was the trans-axoneme (the one farthest from the eyespot) in 70-100% of the models. At 10(-7) or 10(-6) M Ca++, cell models also proceeded from helical to circular swimming as a result of inactivation of one of the axonemes; however, under these conditions the cis-axoneme was usually the one that was inactivated. At 10(-8) M Ca++, most ...
The UK Cilia Network brings together researchers working on various aspects of cilia structure and function in a broad range of cell and tissue types. This multidisciplinary group aims to foster collaboration and sharing of expertise in order to further understanding of this fascinating organelle and its role in development, ageing, health and disease.
copyright © 2016T m haklar www.corumeo.org orum Eczac Odas na aittir. Bu sitede yer alan sa l kla ilgili bilgiler hekimlerin tavsiyeleri yerine kullan ...
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Cilia, tiny hair-like structures that propel mucus out of airways, have to agree on the direction of the fluid flow to get things moving. Researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies discovered a novel two-step ...
The cilium is a ubiquitous organelle found across species on a wide range of cell types. It is a highly varied structure able to fulfill a plethora of functions; from motile cilia serving in cell motility and establishing ...
There are several pathogens that can cause primary infection, including viruses, parasites, and fungi. Each has a different effect on the body.
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Way back in November 2011, a little startup called Luluvise raised $1 million to build a platform aimed only at young women networking privately. It was..
His real name is Yuri, even way back when I first made him. Thats his only name, as it is eponymous. He is the son of a king who is a lys (please ignore the elf part I have on the profile, when I was developing the lys species, I realized elf is not a…
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The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of streptavidin-dependent inhibition of flagellar motility was 0.15 µg/ml and the Hill coefficient was 2.37 (Fig. 3 D). At the IC50 concentration, the amount of streptavidin bound to BCCP tags was ∼5% of the saturating levels (Fig. S2 A), suggesting that the inhibitory effect of a streptavidin molecule bound to RS propagates along the axoneme. It is also noteworthy that the speed of the swimming cells did not show steep drop even when the concentration of streptavidin was high enough to inhibit the motility in 98% of the cells (Fig. 3 D, red). This all-or-none behavior suggests that inhibition of motility occurs when the amount of streptavidin bound to one axoneme is above a certain threshold.. To identify the axonemal dynein that is the downstream effector of the streptavidin-dependent inhibition of motility in rsp4C mutant, we created the strains oda1 rsp4C (lacking ODAs), ida3 rsp4C (lacking IDA subspecies f), and ida5 rsp4C (lacking IDA ...
Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke protein 3 ...
The radial spoke is known to play a role in the mechanical movement of the flagellum/cilium. For example, mutant organisms lacking properly functioning radial spokes have flagella and cilia that are immotile. Radial spokes also influence the cilium waveform; that is, the exact bending pattern the cilium repeats. How the radial spoke carries out this function is poorly understood. Radial spokes are believed to interact with both the central pair microtubules and the dynein arms, perhaps in a way that maintains the rhythmic activation of the dynein motors. For example, one of the radial spoke subunits, RSP3, is an anchor protein predicted to hold another protein called protein kinase A (PKA). PKA would theoretically then be able to activate/inactivate the adjacent dynein arms via its kinase activity. However, the identities and functions of the many radial spoke subunits are just beginning to be elucidated. ...
Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are expressed on the surface of most cells in the mammalian body. Intraflagellar transport (IFT), the process by which cilia are formed and maintained, was first described in Chlamydomonas, and proteins required for IFT concentrate at the base of cilia, where they assemble into large protein complexes called IFT particles (Kozminski et al., 1995; Piperno and Mead, 1997). The IFT particles are trafficked along the axoneme by a heterotrimeric kinesin-II and a cytoplasmic dynein in the anterograde and retrograde directions, respectively. Cilia and flagella have diverse functions ranging from fluid and cell movement to mechanosensation and sensory perception (Davenport and Yoder, 2005; Scholey, 2003).. In mammals, Kif3a is a component of the kinesin-II motor protein complex required for cilia assembly while Ift88 (also known as Tg737 or polaris) is a core component of the IFT particle (Cole et al., 1998; Pazour et al., 2000; Taulman et al., 2001). Mice ...
Pcnt interacts with proteins involved in cilia assembly and function. (a) Pooled IFT fractions from a sucrose gradient from mouse testes were applied to an FPLC
Probable component of the axonemal radial spoke head (By similarity). Radial spokes are regularly spaced along cilia, sperm and flagella axonemes. They consist of a thin stalk, which is attached to a subfiber of the outer doublet microtubule, and a bulbous head, which is attached to the stalk and appears to interact with the projections from the central pair of microtubules.
Cilia are microtubule based structures that can be motile or immotile, the latter being referred to as primary cilia. In contrast to motile cilia, such as those found on epithelia of the trachea, the importance of the primary cilium is relatively undefined despite their presence on most mammalian cells. Cilia are extremely complex organelles which are devoid of ribosomes, thus, proteins required for cilia assembly, maintenance, and signaling must be imported into the cilium. This occurs through a microtubule-based transport system called intraflagellar transport (IFT). Proteins involved in IFT concentrate around the basal body at the base of the cilium and assemble into complexes (IFT particles) which are moved up the cilium by a kinesin and returned by a cytoplasmic dynein. The IFT particle is thought to mediate the transport of cargo into the cilium as well as to deliver signals initiated in the cilium to the cytosol. Although the primary cilium was once thought to be a vestigial organelle, ...
In nearly all of the contexts in biology in which groups of cilia or flagella are found they exhibit some form of synchronized behaviour. Since the experimental observations of Lord Rothschild in the late 1940s and G.I. Taylors celebrated waving-sheet model, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony is due in large part to hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. But it is only in the last few years that suitable methods have been developed to test this hypothesis. Those methods have led to the discovery of significant intrinsic biochemical noise in the beating of eukaryotic flagella. This stochasticity occurs at the level of individual beats, with interesting variations within the cycle, and is correlated and even recurrent, with memory extending to hundreds of beats. Possible biological origins of this behaviour will be discussed ...
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Springer AL, Bruhn DF, Kinzel KW, Rosenthal NF, Zukas R, Klingbeil MM. 2011. Silencing of a putative inner arm dynein heavy chain results in flagellar immotility in Trypanosoma brucei.. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 175(1):68-75. ...
Springer AL, Bruhn DF, Kinzel KW, Rosenthal NF, Zukas R, Klingbeil MM. 2011. Silencing of a putative inner arm dynein heavy chain results in flagellar immotility in Trypanosoma brucei.. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 175(1):68-75. ...
Sea urchin aPKC localizes to a disk situated between the basal body and the elongating axoneme of motile cilia. (A-E, G-I) Confocal sections of cells on the
The primary cilium is a small sensory organelle that is required for different aspects of embryonic development, including the formation of the heart. The structure and composition of cilia have been extensively studied, so that several markers of primary cilia have now been identified. However, the role of cilia in specific cell types remains poorly understood. We describe here a series of approaches to image primary cilia in the rodent heart or in primary cultures of cells dissociated from the heart. As the cilium is a marker of cell polarity, we also provide, for quantitative image analysis of cilium orientation, tools which are generally applicable to other types of tissues ...
A power controlling apparatus turns off a power to an apparatus whose connection to a central apparatus has been cut by a connection change, thus selectively turning off a power to an apparatus not required by the central apparatus. A locking/unlocking apparatus determines a value of the locking timer in the interrupt timer routine and, when the value has exceeded a predetermined level, takes a slave apparatus out of the locked state, thereby simplifying programming.
Cilia (sing.: cilium) and flagella (sing.: flagellum) are hair-like outgrowths of the cell membrane. Cilia are small structures which work like oars,
Flagella are highly conserved organelles comprised of several hundred proteins that are assembled using the equally conserved mechanism called intraflagellar transport (IFT)
Kl. 22:25 . Nr.1 ble en rød tispe som veide 215 gr. Hun fikk navnet : Kichiko`s Ureshii Yuri. Det betyr : Lykkelig Lilje. Nick : ...
Cilia and flagella are finger-like projections that extend from some cells. They aid in cell movement and help to move substances around cells.
The basin-mountain transition zone presents complex geologic structures and non-uniformly distributed in-situ stress. Studying the spatial distributi
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I recently switched over my debit and credit card processing to Cilia - here is what my experience was like: I called their office and spoke to
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ciliform definition: Having the as a type of cilia; obtaining the form of cilia; extremely fine or slim.; Having the as a type of cilia; obtaining the kind of cilia; extremely good or thin.
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mitochondria arranged spirally around it the axoneme,. Back and forth movement of the tail results from a rhythmical ... a central skeleton constructed of 11 microtubules collectively termed the axoneme and similar to the equivalent structure found ... longitudinal sliding motion between the anterior and posterior tubules that make up the axoneme. The energy for this process is ... a thin cell membrane covering the axoneme. * ...
The radial spoke is a multi-unit protein structure found in the axonemes of eukaryotic cilia and flagella.[1] Although ... Radial spokes are T-shaped structures present inside the axoneme. Each spoke consists of a "head" and a "stalk," while each of ... and the spoke head faces in towards the center of the axoneme (see illustration at right). ...
These microtubules form an axoneme. Later the centriole is modified in the process of centrosome reduction. The anterior part ... of the tail (called midpiece) thickens because mitochondria are arranged around the axoneme to ensure energy supply. Spermatid ...
Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those ... Mechanical forces on the axoneme also affect anoxemal dynein function. The heavy chains of inner and outer arms of axonemal ... Each dynein molecule thus forms a cross-bridge between two adjacent microtubules of the ciliary axoneme. During the "power ... Thioredoxins associated with the other axonemal dynein arms are oxidized/reduced to regulate where dynein binds in the axoneme ...
... the axoneme of cilia and flagella. the mitotic spindle. synthesis of the cell wall in plants. In addition to the roles ...
The proximal centriole is present also in the mature spermatozoon; the distal centriole disappears after axoneme assembly. The ...
The anterior flagellum has a '9+2' axoneme. Simpson and Patterson described that in addition to the '9+2' axoneme, the ... axoneme. Carpediemonas contains a single ovate nucleus, located anteriorly in the cell. The nucleolus can also be found ...
When the INPP5E gene is mutated, the protein is damaged and is unable to spread out along the cilia axoneme or interact with ... This inability to stabilize one's cilia axoneme results in MORM syndrome. The exact mechanism as to how the mutation in the ... In unaffected individuals the protein is evenly disbursed throughout the cilia axoneme, which stabilizes the cilia, which are ...
The axoneme of a primary cilium typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme ... In primary and other non-motile cilia, the axoneme lacks a central pair, resulting in a 9+0 axoneme structure. Cilia are formed ... The beating motion is created by dynein arm structures the sliding of outer doublets, and originates in the axoneme, not at the ... The building blocks of the ciliary axoneme, such as tubulins, are added at the ciliary tips through a process that depends ...
Paolillo, Jr., DJ (1967). "On the structure of the axoneme in flagella of Polytrichum juniperinum". Transactions of the ...
The axoneme is composed of the typical eukaryotic 9 x 2 motif. The lamella raises against the axoneme and connects to at least ... which is supported by a paraxonemal lamella that originates near the axoneme. ... two axonemal doublets after approximately 100 nm apart from the axoneme. Its width gradually broadens to about 700 nm. ...
"The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography". Science. 313 (5789): 944-948. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Axonemes are structures in cilia and flagella consisting of a specific pattern of microtubules. McIntosh's team was ... Nicastro D, Schwartz C, Pierson J, Gaudette R, Porter ME, McIntosh JR (August 2006). "The molecular architecture of axonemes ... In 2006, McIntosh's team used cyroelecton tomography to image axonemes in sea urchin sperm and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ...
... "trepaxonematan axoneme" has nine peripheral doublets of microtubules as the usual 9+2 axoneme but the two central microtubules ... The Trepaxonemata are characterised by: biflagellate spermatozoa axoneme of the spermatozoa with a special type of dense core ( ... Trepaxonemata (from trepa-, spiral + axoneme) is a subclass of the Platyhelminthes or flatworms. It includes all parasitic ... "1" pattern). The axoneme in the spermatozoa of species of Trepaxonemata, also called "trepaxoneme" or " ...
They also have a heteromorphic pair of central microtubules in the anterior axoneme. The micronemes have bulbous posterior ends ... dense area in the axoneme and a residual body inside the sporangium. The species P.prorocentri has had a lot of uncertainty ... refractile body in zoospore with two dissimilar flagella and heteromorphic pair of central microtubules in the anterior axoneme ...
Each dynein arm of the ciliary axoneme has an inner and outer dynein arm. A mutation in DNAi1 can lead to defective ciliary ... The inner- and outer-arm dyneins, which bridge between the doublet microtubules in axonemes, are the force-generating proteins ... responsible for the sliding movement in axonemes. The intermediate and light chains, thought to form the base of the dynein arm ...
2008). "Primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with normal axoneme ultrastructure is caused by DNAH11 mutations". Hum. Mutat. 29 ...
Activation promotes basal body trafficking, docking at the apical membrane and subsequent axoneme growth. The protein p73 a ...
Like microvilli, they contain actin filaments and lack an axoneme, distinguishing them from cilia. They are found in three ...
One end of the axoneme is exposed to the cytoplasm as the other end of the axoneme is formed as compartmentalized cilia. This ... Since the axoneme of this flagellum was exposed to the cytoplasm it was named Cytosolic Ciliogenesis. Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; ... Tertiary cytosolic cilia are axonemes that form directly in the cytoplasm. This type of cilia is found in Plasmodium (the ... Cytosolic ciliogenesis, otherwise cytoplasmic ciliogenesis, is a type of ciliogenesis where the cilium axoneme is formed in the ...
Scholey JM (April 1996). "Kinesin-II, a membrane traffic motor in axons, axonemes, and spindles". The Journal of Cell Biology. ...
are missing or dysfunctional and thus the axoneme structure lacks the ability to move. Axonemes are the elongated structures ...
5 August 2009). "Essential and Synergistic Roles of RP1 and RP1L1 in Rod Photoreceptor Axoneme and Retinitis Pigmentosa". ...
The basal body serves as a nucleation site for the growth of the axoneme microtubules. Centrioles, from which basal bodies are ...
WDR62 is required for IFT88 localization to the cilia basal body and the cilia axoneme. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Therefore, since the axoneme needs a continually fresh supply of proteins, an axoneme with defective IFT machinery will slowly ... IFT particles carry axonemal subunits to the site of assembly at the tip of the axoneme; thus, IFT is necessary for axonemal ... In healthy flagella, IFT particles reverse direction at the tip of the axoneme, and are thought to carry used proteins, or " ... between the axoneme and the plasma membrane. Studies have shown that the movement of IFT particles along the microtubule is ...
A tubulin acetyltransferase is located in the axoneme, and acetylates the α-tubulin subunit in an assembled microtubule. Once ...
Primary cilia are immotile, and are not undulipodia; they have a structurally different 9+0 axoneme rather than the 9+2 axoneme ... Besides the axoneme and basal body, relatively constant in morphology, other internal structures of the flagellar apparatus are ... The so-called "9 + 2" structure is characteristic of the core of the eukaryotic flagellum called an axoneme. At the base of a ... The flagellar axoneme also contains radial spokes, polypeptide complexes extending from each of the outer nine microtubule ...
In Actinophrys the axonemes end on the surface of the central nucleus, and in the multicellular Actinosphaerium they end at or ... The axonemes are composed microtubules arranged in a double spiral pattern characteristic of the order. Due to their long, ... while rapid axopodial contraction involves the collapse of the axoneme's microtubule structure. This behavior has been ... supported by hundreds of microtubules arranged in interlocking spirals and forming a needle-like internal structure or axoneme ...
... is a component of the inner dynein arm of ciliary axonemes (Zhang et al., 2002 [PubMed 11877439]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar ...
The axoneme of a primary cilium typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme ... This organization of axoneme is referred as "9x2 + 0". In addition, "9x2 + 1" axonemes, with only a single central microtubule ... The radial spoke is another protein complex of the axoneme. Thought to be important in regulating the motion of the axoneme, ... The building-block of the axoneme is the microtubule; each axoneme is composed of several microtubules aligned in parallel. To ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
... axoneme explanation free. What is axoneme? Meaning of axoneme medical term. What does axoneme mean? ... Looking for online definition of axoneme in the Medical Dictionary? ... axoneme. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. axoneme. [ak´so-nēm] the central core of a cilium or flagellum, ... axoneme. the complex of MICROTUBULES and associated tubes found in the shaft of a CILIUM or FLAGELLUM.. axoneme. 1. the central ...
This image is of an isolated axoneme with the membrane removed and stained with tannic acid. ... This image is of an isolated axoneme with the membrane removed and stained with tannic acid. The tannic acid allows the ...
The assembly and organization of the sperm flagellar axoneme, the bundle of microtubules and associated proteins that forms the ...
The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography. By Daniela Nicastro, Cindi Schwartz, Jason Pierson ... The Molecular Architecture of Axonemes Revealed by Cryoelectron Tomography. By Daniela Nicastro, Cindi Schwartz, Jason Pierson ...
Spag4, a novel sperm protein, binds outer dense-fiber protein Odf1 and localizes to microtubules of manchette and axoneme.. ... Spag4 is detectable in the transient manchette and it is associated with the axoneme in elongating spermatids and epididymal ...
LRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell ... LRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension. Bahtiyar Kurtulmus, Cheng Yuan, Jakob Schuy, Annett Neuner, Shoji Hata ... LRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension. Bahtiyar Kurtulmus, Cheng Yuan, Jakob Schuy, Annett Neuner, Shoji Hata ... LRRC45 contributes to early steps of axoneme extension. Bahtiyar Kurtulmus, Cheng Yuan, Jakob Schuy, Annett Neuner, Shoji Hata ...
A stepwise extraction of proteins from swine tracheal cilia showed that CFAP70 bound tightly to the ciliary axoneme. ... Shamoto N, Narita K, Kubo T, Oda T, Takeda S. CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of the Outer ... CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of the Outer Dynein Arm and Regulates Ciliary Motility. ... Shamoto, N.; Narita, K.; Kubo, T.; Oda, T.; Takeda, S. CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of ...
The assembly and organization of the sperm flagellar axoneme, the bundle of microtubules and associated proteins that forms the ...
Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke ... Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke ...
Proteome of the central apparatus of a ciliary axoneme. Zhao L, Hou Y, Picariello T, Craige B, Witman GB. Zhao L, et al. J Cell ... F) Top, a 0.6 M KCl extract from fap70::FAP70-N-BCCP-HA axonemes was separated by MonoQ anion-exchange chromatography column. ... CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of the Outer Dynein Arm and Regulates Ciliary Motility ... A) A cross-sectional view of one out of nine doublet microtubules of the axoneme. The flagella of the fap70 mutant rescued by ...
Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy of isolated axonemes demonstrates that both P-19-defined epitopes and surface- ... axoneme). Because of its cell surface orientation and axonemal linkage, it is likely that the 240K glycoprotein plays an ... a 240,000 Mr surface-exposed glycoprotein is tightly associated with the axoneme in Chlamydomonas moewusii ... biotinylated proteins continue to be associated with the axoneme structure after detergent treatment. These observations ...
Basal body and flagellum mutants reveal a rotational constraint of the central pair microtubules in the axonemes of ... Basal body and flagellum mutants reveal a rotational constraint of the central pair microtubules in the axonemes of ...
Transition zone assembly and its contribution to axoneme formation in Drosophila male germ cells Jennifer Vieillard Jennifer ... Transition zone assembly and its contribution to axoneme formation in Drosophila male germ cells. J Cell Biol 26 September 2016 ... temporal control of membrane cap assembly by TZ components and microtubule elongation by kinesin-13 is required for axoneme ...
... study establishes that neither beating nor waveform conversion of cilia/flagella requires the presence of CP/RS in the axoneme. ... Reactivated motility of axonemes at high pressure. (a) Sequential photographs of a pf14 axoneme beating with an asymmetric ... Assessment of axoneme motility. The movements of live cells and reactivated axonemes were examined at temperatures between 5 °C ... In contrast to the axonemes isolated from wild type (WT), which undergo beating upon addition of ATP, axonemes from pf mutants ...
Kinesin‐2 motors adapt their stepping behavior for processive transport on axonemes and microtubules. View ORCID ProfileWilli L ... In all organisms studied so far, the kinesin‐2 family is essential for long‐range transport on axonemes. Intriguingly, in ... Two structurally distinct filamentous tracks, namely singlet microtubules in the cytoplasm and axonemes in the cilium, serve as ... The heterodimeric kinesin‐2 motor differentiates between microtubules and axonemes to move forward. This study suggests that ...
S2 I and J). In WT Chlamydomonas axonemes and sea urchin sperm flagella, one of the IJ-rungs near the nexin-dynein regulatory ... Flagella and Axoneme Preparation.. Strains used in this study and details on the obtained 3D structures are summarized in Table ... Axonemes were obtained from WT and mutant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells as previously described (14, 58, 59). The final ... In most species, axonemes assemble in vivo from a basal body template, whereas basal bodies and centrioles assemble from a ...
The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule triplets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of ... Axoneme. Eukaryotic flagella. 1-axoneme, 2-cell membrane, 3-IFT (intraflagellar transport), 4-basal body, 5-cross section of ... This organization of axoneme is referred as "9x2 + 0". In addition, "9x2 + 1" axonemes, with only a single central microtubule ... The building-block of the axoneme is the microtubule; each axoneme is composed of several microtubules aligned in parallel. To ...
Protein complex that links the outer microtubule doublet of the ciliary or flagellum axoneme with the sheath that surrounds the ... Radial spoke of axoneme of cilium. Known as: Radial spoke Protein complex that links the outer microtubule doublet of the ... The regulation of microtubule sliding in flagellar axonemes was studied with the use of Chlamydomonas mutants and in vitro ... We have used computer averaging of electron micrographs from longitudinal and cross-sections of wild-type and mutant axonemes ...
Dissecting the axoneme structure May 20, 2019 The contribution of axonemal microtubules to the length stability of the cilia ...
The 18-S and 12-S dyneins, on the other hand, were unable to Increase the motility of oda1 axonemes even when added together. ... The 18-S and 12-S dyneins, on the other hand, were unable to Increase the motility of oda1 axonemes even when added together. ... The 18-S and 12-S dyneins, on the other hand, were unable to Increase the motility of oda1 axonemes even when added together. ... The 18-S and 12-S dyneins, on the other hand, were unable to Increase the motility of oda1 axonemes even when added together. ...
MT Nucleation from Axonemes. Sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) axonemes spotted on a coverslip were first mixed for 5 ... To validate that MAP65-1 has the ability to bundle parallel MTs as required by the model, we nucleated MTs from axonemes, thus ... In the absence of MAP65-1, nucleated MTs radially organize from the axonemes, whereas in the presence of MAP65-1, they form a ... The authors thank J. Gaillard for technical support, I. Arnal for the gift of axonemes, and L. Blanchoin for critical reading ...
axoneme assembly ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info. cilium assembly ISS Inferred from Sequence or ...
Some extracted axonemes are indicated byarrows (B). The location of thelabeled dots in A corresponds to the base of the ... The axoneme fraction was obtained as a detergent-insoluble residue at the interface of the 50 and 60% sucrose layers. Axonemal ... 1997) Heterotrimeric kinesin-II is required for the assembly of motile 9+2 ciliary axonemes on sea urchin embryos. J Cell Biol ... 1997) Evidence for kinesin-related proteins associated with the axoneme of retinal photoreceptors. Exp Eye Res 64:895-903. ...
Second, axonemes isolated from Rp1Δ2-3/Δ2-3 mice were 70% shorter than control axonemes. Because axonemes isolated from wild- ... In contrast, axonemes from the RpΔ2-3/Δ2-3 mice were much shorter, measuring ∼3 μm. The Rp1 signal in the RpΔ2-3/Δ2-3 axonemes ... B, The mean lengths ± SD of the 50 axonemes from each genotype of mouse are indicated. The length of the axonemes in the RpΔ2-3 ... The axonemes were traced (example traces in red), and the cord lengths of 50 axonemes from each type of mouse were then ...
c) Dyenin (d) Axoneme (e) Spoke. 20. The microtubular arrangement in the flagellar ...
Flagellar axoneme structure and motility. The waveform of cilia is conserved, no matter whether the cilia are on green algae ...
Fractionation by chromatography of the high salt extract of ida5 axonemes showed that its axonemes lack four (a, c, d, and e) ... Electrophoresis patterns of wild-type and mutant axonemes. (A) Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE pattern of wild-type axonemes. pH range ... two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the axoneme revealed a striking difference (Fig. 1, A and B); the ida5 axoneme lacked ... although less intensely than with actin in the wild-type axoneme. In two-dimensional electrophoresis patterns of the axoneme, ...
Demembranated axonemes were attached to glass slides and blocked with 1 mg/ml BSA in HMDEK buffer. Axonemes were incubated with ... Preparation of axonemes. C. reinhardtii cells were deflagellated with dibucaine-HCl (Wako Chemicals USA), and axonemes were ... D) Immunofluorescence of axonemes. Left, phase contrast; right, Alexa Fluor 546. The axonemes with BCCP-tagged RSPs were ... The rate of phosphate release by axonemes was measured using Biomol green reagent (Enzo Life Sciences). 0.1 mg/ml axonemes were ...
  • The axoneme of a primary cilium typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of a motile cilium has two central microtubules in addition to the nine outer doublets (called a 9+2 axoneme). (wikipedia.org)
  • each axoneme is composed of several microtubules aligned in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the microtubules, the axoneme contains many proteins and protein complexes necessary for its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this is carried out in a synchronized fashion, with the microtubules on one side of the axoneme being pulled 'down' and those on the other side pulled 'up,' the axoneme as a whole can bend back and forth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thought to be important in regulating the motion of the axoneme, this "T"-shape complex projects from each set of outer doublets toward the central microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mitochondrial abnormalities were mostly accompanied by defects in the structure of axoneme , in the form of missing peripheral microtubules or, more commonly, missing central microtubules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Spag4, a novel sperm protein, binds outer dense-fiber protein Odf1 and localizes to microtubules of manchette and axoneme. (nih.gov)
  • The assembly and organization of the sperm flagellar axoneme, the bundle of microtubules and associated proteins that forms the core of the eukaryotic sperm flagellum, and is responsible for movement. (yeastrc.org)
  • Basal body and flagellum mutants reveal a rotational constraint of the central pair microtubules in the axonemes of trypanosomes. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The internal structure of cilia and flagella, the axoneme, has an evolutionally conserved "9 + 2" structure, composed of nine peripheral doublet microtubules and two central microtubules (central pair: CP) (Fig. 1a ). (nature.com)
  • Two structurally distinct filamentous tracks, namely singlet microtubules in the cytoplasm and axonemes in the cilium, serve as railroads for long‐range transport processes in vivo . (embopress.org)
  • Here, we show that heterodimeric kinesin‐2 motors distinguish between axonemes and microtubules. (embopress.org)
  • Unlike canonical kinesin‐1, kinesin‐2 takes directional, off‐axis steps on microtubules, but it resumes a straight path when walking on the axonemes. (embopress.org)
  • The heterodimeric kinesin‐2 motor differentiates between microtubules and axonemes to move forward. (embopress.org)
  • 1-axoneme, 2-cell membrane, 3-IFT (intraflagellar transport), 4-basal body, 5-cross section of flagella, 6-triplets of microtubules of basal body. (worldheritage.org)
  • One pathway delivers material toward the outer segment along the connecting cilium ( CC ) axoneme, the other carries Golgi-derived vesicles to the synaptic terminal along cytoplasmic microtubules. (jneurosci.org)
  • c ) The orientation of the microtubules in the axoneme is categorized as "9+0" or "9+2" and is anchored to the basal body. (mdpi.com)
  • Motile cilia have a microtubule-based structure called an axoneme, consisting of nine peripheral doublet microtubules (DMTs) with or without central-pair microtubules (so called 9 + 2, 9 + 0, respectively). (elifesciences.org)
  • ATPase associated with axoneme microtubules that converts chemical energy of ATP into mechanical energy of microtubules sliding past each other, providing the propulsive force of flagella. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The axoneme shows the 9+2 arrangement of microtubules that is characteristic of motile flagella. (els.net)
  • Assembly of flagellar radial spoke proteins in Chlamydomonas: identification of the axoneme binding domain of radial spoke protein 3. (rupress.org)
  • In this paper, we use cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging of intact flagella and axonemes from Chlamydomonas and sea urchin sperm to answer several questions and controversies unequivocally, as well as to provide information about the structure of DMTs. (pnas.org)
  • 2005) . To further characterize the role of the projection components in flagellar motility , we generated Chlamydomonas mutants that assemble partial central pair projections onto the axoneme . (dartmouth.edu)
  • A novel dynein light intermediate chain colocalizes with the retrograde motor for intraflagellar transport at sites of axoneme assembly in chlamydomonas and Mammalian cells. (uab.edu)
  • La acetilación y el deacetylation de Tubulin se ha estudiado en Chlamydomonas. (news-medical.net)
  • Cross section of a Chlamydomonas axoneme. (els.net)
  • In addition, the Chlamydomonas axoneme contains a structure called the 5-6 bridge and B‐tubule projections found in the proximal part of the flagellum on outer doublets 1, 5 and 6. (els.net)
  • The diagram depicts the axonemal structures and densities that form the 96 nm repeat seen in longitudinal sections of the Chlamydomonas axoneme. (els.net)
  • Inside a cilium and a flagellum is a microtubule-based cytoskeleton called the axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • ROS increases DNA fragmentations (32), modifies the cytoskeleton (21), affects the sperm axoneme development (13), and inhibits sperm-oocyte fusion (2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These observations demonstrate that the 240K flagellar protein is a glycoprotein that is both exposed at the flagellar surface and tightly coupled to the underlying cytoskeleton (axoneme). (biologists.org)
  • Localizes to axoneme and microtubule cytoskeleton. (jax.org)
  • Though distinctions of function and length may be made between cilia and flagella, the internal structure of the axoneme is common to both. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axoneme forms the essential and conserved core of cilia and flagella. (pnas.org)
  • Axonemes are the core structure of motile cilia and flagella. (rupress.org)
  • The radial spoke is a multi-unit protein structure found in the axonemes of eukaryotic cilia and flagella . (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural axoneme found in both cilia and flagella is critical for proper embryonic development, brain development, functional eyesight, mucosal clearing of the lungs, and fertility. (wisconsin.edu)
  • We find KIF3A at two distinct sites within photoreceptors: at the basal body of the connecting cilium axoneme and at the synaptic ribbon. (jneurosci.org)
  • Brackets show the two sites of KIF3A localization: the basal body ( BB ) of the connecting cilium axoneme, and the synaptic ribbon. (jneurosci.org)
  • cilium axoneme. (abcam.com)
  • Jiang Li will be delivering a seminar, Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) Essential For Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium/Axoneme Formation and Maintenance on Tuesday, August 19th, 2014 in the John A. Moran Eye Center auditorium. (utah.edu)
  • Shamoto N, Narita K, Kubo T, Oda T, Takeda S. CFAP70 Is a Novel Axoneme-Binding Protein That Localizes at the Base of the Outer Dynein Arm and Regulates Ciliary Motility. (mdpi.com)
  • These findings, discussed in relation to genetic and biochemical data, provide a critical foundation for future work on the molecular assembly and stability of the axoneme, as well as its function in motility and sensory transduction. (pnas.org)
  • The 18-S and 12-S dyneins, on the other hand, were unable to Increase the motility of oda1 axonemes even when added together. (umn.edu)
  • The dynein activity is regulated in part by the central pair and radial spoke structures of the axoneme , which are required for wild-type motility . (dartmouth.edu)
  • A stepwise extraction of proteins from swine tracheal cilia showed that CFAP70 bound tightly to the ciliary axoneme. (mdpi.com)
  • As the template of the ciliary axoneme, the centriole transmits its symmetry to the cilium. (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that C2CD3 is localized proximal to the ciliary axoneme and is important for docking the mother centriole to the ciliary vesicle and cell membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy of isolated axonemes demonstrates that both P-19-defined epitopes and surface-biotinylated proteins continue to be associated with the axoneme structure after detergent treatment. (biologists.org)
  • Evaluation of photoreceptor axonemes from mice with targeted disruptions of the Rp1 gene shows that Rp1 proteins that contain the DCX domains also help control axoneme length and stability in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • abstract = "Proteins of the FGR1 oncogene partner (or FOP) family are found at microtubule organizing centres (MTOCs) including, in flagellate eukaryotes, the centriole or flagellar basal body from which the axoneme extends. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • We report conservation of FOP family proteins, TbFOPL and TbOFD1, in the evolutionarily divergent sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei, showing (in contrast with mammalian cells, where FOP is essential for flagellum assembly) depletion of a trypanosome FOP homologue, TbFOPL, affects neither axoneme nor flagellum elongation. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Over 500 distinct proteins comprise the highly conserved axoneme architecture, defined by nine MT doublets surrounding a central MT pair ('9+2') ( Ishikawa, 2017 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • In light of these observations, it appears of particular interest to study the mechanisms and the proteins involved in axoneme assembly. (frontiersin.org)
  • I also added 6M Urea with Betamercaptoethanol (to solubilize the proteins) to the axonemes and then used it for estimation but that too did not work in fact the OD of axoneme was lower than the blank and in some cases I see large deviation in the readings(in the duplicate and triplicate samples). (bio.net)
  • The mammalian DHC2 and D2LIC also colocalize in the apical cytoplasm and axonemes of ciliated epithelia in the lung, brain, and efferent duct. (uab.edu)
  • Germline deletion of KIF17 affected neither axoneme structure nor photoreceptor morphology/function, thereby excluding an essential role of KIF17 in photoreceptor IFT. (utah.edu)
  • An axoneme is the microtubule-based cytoskeletal structure that forms the core of a cilium or flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axoneme structure of the flagellum varies little in bivalve molluscs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While each of the eight axonemes retains the characteristic '9+2' MT architecture, each axoneme also has a cytoplasmic, non-membrane-bound region that extends from a centrally located basal body before exiting the cell body as a membrane-bound flagellum ( McInally and Dawson, 2016 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • flagellum axoneme. (abcam.com)
  • The flagellum contains the usual microtubular axoneme. (scielo.br)
  • In general, flagella and cilia of eukaryotes show an axoneme composed of a 9 + 2 microtubular pattern. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • High resolution image of longitudinal section of somatic cilia showing the axoneme, basal body, and attached fibrous and microtubular elements. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The inherent ability of kinesin‐2 to side‐track on the microtubule lattice restricts the motor to one side of the doublet microtubule in axonemes. (embopress.org)
  • The spoke stalk binds to the A-tubule of each microtubule outer doublet, and the spoke head faces in towards the center of the axoneme (see illustration at right). (wikipedia.org)
  • The axoneme serves as the "skeleton" of these organelles, both giving support to the structure and, in some cases, the ability to bend. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axoneme structure in non-motile primary cilia shows some variation from the canonical "9x2 + 2" anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ishikawa, 2017 ) can lead to hallmark variations in axoneme number and structure in many metazoan cell types, as well as the atypical axoneme structures found in many flagellated protists. (elifesciences.org)
  • Conversely, the canonical '9+2' axoneme structure in metazoan sperm or apicomplexan parasites can be assembled through alternative IFT-independent 'cytosolic ciliogenesis' mechanisms ( Avidor-Reiss and Leroux, 2015 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • During spermatogenesis each primary spermatocyte shows a centriole pair that moves to the cell membrane and organizes an axoneme-based structure, the cilium-like region (CLR). (frontiersin.org)
  • The researchers named the helical structure a 'tail axoneme intra-lumenal spiral,' or TAILS. (livescience.com)
  • The radial spoke is another protein complex of the axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that the RP1 protein is part of the photoreceptor axoneme. (jneurosci.org)
  • The RP1 protein is located in the outer segment portion of the photoreceptor axoneme. (jneurosci.org)
  • A, D , The Rp1 protein colocalizes with the acetylated α-tubulin-labeled axoneme in the outer segment but not in the connecting cilium, as indicated by the green signal that extends above the outer segment into the connecting cilium ( A4, D3 , arrowheads). (jneurosci.org)
  • Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their location. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A tubulin acetyltransferase located in the axoneme. (news-medical.net)
  • Una acetiltransferasa del tubulin situada en el axoneme. (news-medical.net)
  • Acetiliza un residuo específico de la lisina en la subunidad del α-tubulin en microtubule montado. (news-medical.net)
  • Future research will expand upon our hypothesis that ARL2-Q70L mutant interferes with microtubule maintenance and tubulin regulation resulting in impaired growth of the axoneme and elaboration of the photoreceptor outer segment. (nature.com)
  • The centriole (c) lies posterior to the nucleus, and the axoneme (ax) emerges from it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The precursor of the flagellar axoneme is already present in the primary spermatocytes of Drosophila melanogaster . (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanism of flagellar oscillation-bending-induced switching of dynein activity in elastase-treated axonemes of sea urchin sperm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The distal pole, Region IV, is characterized by disintegration of the axoneme. (springer.com)
  • ARL2-Q70L expression results in shortened inner and outer segments, shortened and mislocalized axonemes and cytoplasmic accumulation of rhodopsin. (nature.com)
  • 62,63) Finally, the mitochondria are arranged in a helix of 11-13 gyri, with two mitochondria per gyrus, and deliver ATP to the axoneme for flagellar propulsion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The middle piece contains four mitochondria which are arranged around the axoneme. (scielo.br)
  • The axonemes with BCCP-tagged RSPs were incubated with Alexa Fluor-conjugated streptavidin, and the signals were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. (rupress.org)
  • Oscillatory movement of eukaryotic flagella is caused by dynein-driven microtubule sliding in the axoneme. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This image is of an isolated axoneme with the membrane removed and stained with tannic acid. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptor cells are highly specialized sensory cilia made up of hundreds of membrane discs stacked into an orderly array along the photoreceptor axoneme. (jneurosci.org)
  • b ) A cilium is composed of a membrane domain, a soluble compartment or cilioplasm, an axoneme and a basal body. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present report we show that KIF3A, together with the other kinesin II components, KIF3B and KAP3, is present at the basal bodies of the connecting cilium axonemes in mammalian photoreceptor cells, where it could provide a function that is analogous to the one it provides in conventional cilia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Electron microscopy led to the discovery of the 9-plus-2 arrangement of internal fibrils in the cilia and the subsidiary components of the axoneme , which lent support to the "sliding fibril" hypothesis of ciliary bending. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Back and forth movement of the tail results from a rhythmical longitudinal sliding motion between the anterior and posterior tubules that make up the axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial spokes are T-shaped structures present inside the axoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several sperm dysfunctions cause infertility due to axoneme anomalies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dear Chlamyites, I have a query regarding estimation of axonemes using colorimetric assay (Bradfords assay) I have extracted flagella from the wild type and some pf mutants. (bio.net)
  • A procedure was developed for Isolating Chlamydonzonas outer-arm dynein that can functionally combine with the axoneme of an outer-arm-missing mutant, oda1. (umn.edu)
  • Takada, S , Sakakibara, H & Kamiya, R 1992, ' Three-headed outer arm dynein from Chlamydonwnas that can functionally combine with outer-arm-missing axonemes ', Journal of Biochemistry , vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 758-762. (umn.edu)
  • In contrast, tamoxifen- induced deletion of Kif3a in adult mouse led to slowly progressing photoreceptor degeneration due to the inability of photoreceptors to maintain their mature axonemes. (utah.edu)
  • In addition, "9x2 + 1" axonemes, with only a single central microtubule, have been found to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this central role in photoreceptor biology, little is known about the axoneme and the factors that control its length and stability ( Song and Dentler, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • They are stiffened by a central axis (axoneme). (tolweb.org)