Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Axonemal Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Cytoplasmic Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Neuroaxonal Dystrophies: A nonspecific term referring both to the pathologic finding of swelling of distal portions of axons in the brain and to disorders which feature this finding. Neuroaxonal dystrophy is seen in various genetic diseases, vitamin deficiencies, and aging. Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by arrested psychomotor development at 6 months to 2 years of age, ataxia, brain stem dysfunction, and quadriparesis. Juvenile and adult forms also occur. Pathologic findings include brain atrophy and widespread accumulation of axonal spheroids throughout the neuroaxis, peripheral nerves, and dental pulp. (From Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p927)Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic: Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.

Targeted deletion of the ATP binding domain of left-right dynein confirms its role in specifying development of left-right asymmetries. (1/54)

Vertebrates develop distinct asymmetries along the left-right axis, which are consistently aligned with the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. The mechanisms that direct this handed development of left-right asymmetries have been elusive, but recent studies of mutations that affect left-right development have shed light on the molecules involved. One molecule implicated in left-right specification is left-right dynein (LRD), a microtubule-based motor protein. In the LRD protein of the inversus viscerum (iv) mouse, there is a single amino acid difference at a conserved position, and the lrd gene is one of many genes deleted in the legless (lgl) mutation. Both iv and lgl mice display randomized left-right development. Here we extend the analysis of the lrd gene at the levels of sequence, expression and function. The complete coding sequence of the lrd gene confirms its classification as an axonemal, or ciliary, dynein. Expression of lrd in the node at embryonic day 7.5 is shown to be symmetric. At embryonic day 8.0, however, a striking asymmetric expression pattern is observed in all three germ layers of the developing headfold, suggesting roles in both the establishment and maintenance of left-right asymmetries. At later times, expression of lrd is also observed in the developing floorplate, gut and limbs. These results suggest function for LRD protein in both ciliated and non-ciliated cells, despite its sequence classification as axonemal. In addition, a targeted mutation of lrd was generated that deletes the part of the protein required for ATP binding, and hence motor function. The resulting left-right phenotype, randomization of laterality, is identical to that of iv and lgl mutants. Gross defects in ciliary structure were not observed in lrd/lrd mutants. Strikingly, however, the monocilia on mutant embryonic node cells were immotile. These results prove the identity of the iv and lrd genes. Further, they argue that LRD motor function, and resulting nodal monocilia movement, are required for normal left-right development.  (+info)

Chromosomal effects of rapid gene evolution in Drosophila melanogaster. (2/54)

Rapid adaptive fixation of a new favorable mutation is expected to affect neighboring genes along the chromosome. Evolutionary theory predicts that the chromosomal region would show a reduced level of genetic variation and an excess of rare alleles. We have confirmed these predictions in a region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster that contains a newly evolved gene for a component of the sperm axoneme. In D. simulans, where the novel gene does not exist, the pattern of genetic variation is consistent with selection against recurrent deleterious mutations. These findings imply that the pattern of genetic variation along a chromosome may be useful for inferring its evolutionary history and for revealing regions in which recent adaptive fixations have taken place.  (+info)

Axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene (DNAI1) mutations result in situs inversus and primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome). (3/54)

Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a trilogy of symptoms (nasal polyps, bronchiectasis, and situs inversus totalis) that is associated with ultrastructural anomalies of cilia of epithelial cells covering the upper and lower respiratory tracts and spermatozoa flagellae. The axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene 1 (DNAI1), which has been demonstrated to be responsible for a case of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) without situs inversus, was screened for mutation in a series of 34 patients with KS. We identified compound heterozygous DNAI1 gene defects in three independent patients and in two of their siblings who presented with PCD and situs solitus (i.e., normal position of inner organs). Strikingly, these five patients share one mutant allele (splice defect), which is identical to one of the mutant DNAI1 alleles found in the patient with PCD, reported elsewhere. Finally, this study demonstrates a link between ciliary function and situs determination, since compound mutation heterozygosity in DNAI1 results in PCD with situs solitus or situs inversus (KS).  (+info)

Axonemal dynein expression in human fetal tracheal epithelium. (4/54)

Ciliogenesis in human fetal airway epithelium occurs from 11 to 24 gestational weeks. Using genetic and antigenic markers specific for human axonemal dynein heavy chain 9, we characterized temporal aspects of axonemal dynein expression associated with large airway epithelial ciliogenesis during human fetal development. Late in the first trimester, an undifferentiated columnar epithelium is characteristic of the large airways, and immunocytochemical studies exhibited focal localization of axonemal dynein antigen on luminal epithelial cell borders at sites consistent with emergent ciliary beds. From 12 to 22 wk, immunocytochemical labeling of new ciliary beds was prominent, and localization within the cytoplasm of epithelial cells suggested avid synthesis of axonemal dynein in advance of ciliogenic events. Quantitative RT-PCR of tracheal RNA and in situ hybridization studies compared favorably with immunocytochemical findings with the earliest expression of axonemal dynein at 9-10 wk gestation. These studies have documented that axonemal dynein is expressed early in human fetal life during airway epithelial maturation and well before histological or ultrastructural evidence of ciliogenesis is apparent.  (+info)

Mutations in the DNAH11 (axonemal heavy chain dynein type 11) gene cause one form of situs inversus totalis and most likely primary ciliary dyskinesia. (5/54)

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; MIM 242650) is an autosomal recessive disorder of ciliary dysfunction with extensive genetic heterogeneity. PCD is characterized by bronchiectasis and upper respiratory tract infections, and half of the patients with PCD have situs inversus (Kartagener syndrome). We characterized the transcript and the genomic organization of the axonemal heavy chain dynein type 11 (DNAH11) gene, the human homologue of murine Dnah11 or lrd, which is mutated in the iv/iv mouse model with situs inversus. To assess the role of DNAH11, which maps on chromosome 7p21, we searched for mutations in the 82 exons of this gene in a patient with situs inversus totalis, and probable Kartagener syndrome associated with paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (patUPD7). We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (R2852X) in the DNAH11 gene. This patient is remarkable because he is also homozygous for the F508del allele of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Sequence analysis of the DNAH11 gene in an additional 6 selected PCD sibships that shared DNAH11 alleles revealed polymorphic variants and an R3004Q substitution in a conserved position that might be pathogenic. We conclude that mutations in the coding region of DNAH11 account for situs inversus totalis and probably a minority of cases of PCD.  (+info)

The T complex distorter 2 candidate gene, Dnahc8, encodes at least two testis-specific axonemal dynein heavy chains that differ extensively at their amino and carboxyl termini. (6/54)

Homozygosity for the t haplotype allele of the testis-specifically expressed axonemal dynein heavy chain (axDHC) gene, Dnahc8, has been linked to male sterility resulting from aberrant sperm motility. However, the near absence of Dnahc8 expression has been associated with male sterility resulting from an early breakdown in sperm flagellar development. Although axDHCs are integral participants in flagellar motility, a role in flagellar morphogenesis has never been attributed to a member of this highly conserved gene family. To gain a better understanding of this presumed novel role for Dnahc8, we have studied the organization and expression of full-length Dnahc8(+) and Dnahc8(t) transcripts. Our results demonstrate the existence of at least two alternatively spliced, testis-specific Dnahc8 mRNAs transcribed from both the + and t alleles. A highly expressed isoform encodes a protein with significant homology nearly throughout to the gamma heavy chain of the Chlamydomonas axonemal outer arm dynein, while a more poorly expressed isoform codes for a protein whose sequence diverges significantly from that of other axDHCs at both its N and C termini. While in situ hybridization studies demonstrate that both mRNA species accumulate exclusively in mid to late spermatocytes, each isoform shows spatial independence. Additional experiments demonstrate the existence of a testis-expressed mRNA with no significant open reading frame, a portion of which is antisense to the 5'-untranslated region of the highly divergent Dnahc8 isoform. The cumulative data imply that Dnahc8 may have acquired functional plasticity in the testis through the tightly controlled expression of both typical and unusual isoforms.  (+info)

Parametric and non-parametric linkage analysis of several candidate regions for genes for human handedness. (7/54)

The frequency of left-handedness in the general population is around 11%. Both environmental and genetic models have been proposed to explain the aetiology of human handedness. The majority of genetic models, such as those of Annett, McManus and Klar, propose a single gene determinant with a non-Mendelian inheritance pattern. As left-handedness is correlated with cerebral asymmetry and is a feature of left-right asymmetry, genes involved in the development of left-right asymmetry can be considered as candidate genes. Candidate gene analysis was performed using an informative extended pedigree, and also using nuclear families of right-handed parents with left-handed children. Segregation analysis in the extended pedigree identified allele sharing in the NODAL and DNAHC13 candidate regions on chromosome 10 and 1. Linkage analysis using the models of Klar and McManus, and non-parametric analysis on nuclear families, subsequently excluded all candidate regions tested. This demonstrates the power to identify the genes specifying handedness by the conduct of extended genetic studies on these and similar cohorts.  (+info)

Two populations of node monocilia initiate left-right asymmetry in the mouse. (8/54)

The vertebrate body plan has conserved handed left-right (LR) asymmetry that is manifested in the heart, lungs, and gut. Leftward flow of extracellular fluid at the node (nodal flow) is critical for normal LR axis determination in the mouse. Nodal flow is generated by motile node cell monocilia and requires the axonemal dynein, left-right dynein (lrd). In the absence of lrd, LR determination becomes random. The cation channel polycystin-2 is also required to establish LR asymmetry. We show that lrd localizes to a centrally located subset of node monocilia, while polycystin-2 is found in all node monocilia. Asymmetric calcium signaling appears at the left margin of the node coincident with nodal flow. These observations suggest that LR asymmetry is established by an entirely ciliary mechanism: motile, lrd-containing monocilia generate nodal flow, and nonmotile polycystin-2 containing cilia sense nodal flow initiating an asymmetric calcium signal at the left border of the node.  (+info)

Kit Component:- KN304658G1, Dnaic1 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN304658G2, Dnaic1 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN304658D, donor vector…
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:4:41569775:41638158:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000006654 transcript:OTTMUST00000015206 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Dnaic1 description:dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1 ...
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The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of streptavidin-dependent inhibition of flagellar motility was 0.15 µg/ml and the Hill coefficient was 2.37 (Fig. 3 D). At the IC50 concentration, the amount of streptavidin bound to BCCP tags was ∼5% of the saturating levels (Fig. S2 A), suggesting that the inhibitory effect of a streptavidin molecule bound to RS propagates along the axoneme. It is also noteworthy that the speed of the swimming cells did not show steep drop even when the concentration of streptavidin was high enough to inhibit the motility in 98% of the cells (Fig. 3 D, red). This all-or-none behavior suggests that inhibition of motility occurs when the amount of streptavidin bound to one axoneme is above a certain threshold.. To identify the axonemal dynein that is the downstream effector of the streptavidin-dependent inhibition of motility in rsp4C mutant, we created the strains oda1 rsp4C (lacking ODAs), ida3 rsp4C (lacking IDA subspecies f), and ida5 rsp4C (lacking IDA ...
Recent studies in several species have revealed that, rather than being the default condition, the symmetrical and synchronized development of somites on both sides of the vertebrate embryo depends on overcoming signals that promote asymmetry. Some vertebrate structures, like the skeleton, develop with bilateral symmetry, whereas others, like the heart or the stomach, develop asymmetrically. Somites, which give rise to symmetric structures, such as the vertebrae, ribs, and skeletal musculature of the trunk, arise in bilaterally symmetric pairs in an anterior to posterior sequence (see Hornstein and Tabin). Kawakami et al. found that blocking retinoic acid (RA) production in zebrafish resulted in biased asymmetry of somite development, unless H+/K+ ATPase activity or lrd (left-right dynein) translation (both critical to development of bilateral asymmetry) was inhibited. Inhibition of H+/K+ ATPase or Notch activity, or down-regulation of lrd translation, led to random asymmetry in somitogenesis, ...
Expression of DNAH9 (DNAH17L, Dnahc9, DNAL1, DYH9, HL-20, HL20, KIAA0357) in spleen tissue. Antibody staining with HPA052641 in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of DNAH9 (DNAH17L, Dnahc9, DNAL1, DYH9, HL-20, HL20, KIAA0357) in rectum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA052641 in immunohistochemistry.
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Kimdir: Hürriyet Daily News Genel Yayın Yönetmeni ve Radikal köşe yazarı.. 1981de başladığı gazetecilik kariyerinde BBC Ankara Bürosu, DW Türkiye, AFP Ankara Bürosunda gazeteci olarak çalışmış; mevcut görevleri öncesinde, Kanal Dde Diplomasi Muhabirliği, Show TVde, NTVde, Sabahta ve Radikalde Ankara Temsilciği yapmıştır.. Ateş Hattında Aktif Politika-Ortadoğu, Balkanlar, Kafkaslar Üçgeninde Türkiye (1992); Avrupa Birliği Bekleme Odasında Türkiye (2002), Tezkere-Irak Krizinin Gerçek Öyküsü (2004) ve Kürt Kapanı-Şamdan İmralıya Öcalan (2004) isimli kitapların yazarıdır.. ...
Kartagener syndrome is essentially a subtype of an inherited disorder called primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a heterogeneous disease characterized by functionally abnormal cilia that are "dysmotile" or, rarely, absent. Defects of all of the axonemal structures, alone or in combination, have been identified in association with PCD. Overly long, overly short, and normally appearing but randomly oriented cilia have been associated with PCD and Kartagener syndrome. Finally, normal ciliary ultrastructure has been described in patients with the clinical picture of Kartagener syndrome. Lack of dynein arms, which are structures that form temporary cross-bridges between adjacent ciliary filaments and are believed to be responsible for generating movement in cilia and sperm tails, remains the most common defect identified (type 1) and the one classically associated with Kartagener syndrome. Cilia of the respiratory tract and sperms are dysmotile or nonfunctional. It has also been postulated that normal ...
The veterinarian performs a simple cheek swab and sends it to the laboratory. The result, delivered within few days, indicates if the tested dog is clear, carrier or affected for Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. A genetic certificate displaying the result must be used as a guarantee for a mating or to justify the sale of puppies clear of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.. The veterinarian who notices early respiratory issues in a young Old English Sheepdog puppy can process a DNA test to confirm or refute the diagnosis of Ciliary Dyskinesia. If the dog is affected, parents have to be screened as well.. A breeder who knows the genetic status of the dog can select its breeding dogs, adapt matings, avoid the birth of affected puppies and limit the spread of this severe respiratory disease in the breed.. For more information on the PCD DNA test. Reproduction of the article is permitted if the source « ANTAGENE laboratory » is acknowledged ...
Sliding between adjacent microtubules within the axonema gives rise to the motility of cilia and flagella. The driving force is produced by dynein complexes which are mainly composed of the axonemal dynein heavy chains. We used cells of human respiratory epithelium after in vitro ciliogenesis to clone cDNA fragments of nine dynein heavy chain genes, one of which had never been identified before. Dynein heavy chains are highly conserved from protozoa to human and the evolutionary ancestry of these dynein heavy chain cDNA fragments was deduced by phylogenetic analysis. These dynein heavy chain cDNAs are highly transcribed in human tissues containing axonema such as trachea, testis and brain, but not in adult heart or placenta. PAC clones containing dynein heavy chains were obtained and used to determine by FISH their chromosomal position in the human genome. They were mapped to 2p12-p11, 2q33, 3p21.2-p21.1, 13q14, 16p12 and 17p12. The chromosomal assignment of these dynein heavy chain genes which ...
DNAH5: dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 5 gene; DNAI1: dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1 gene; DNAH11: dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11 gene; TXNDC3: thioredoxin domain containing 3 (spermatozoa) gene; DNAI2: dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 2 gene; KTU: chromosome 14 open reading frame 104 gene; RPGR: retinitis pigmentosa guanosine triphosphatase regulator gene; OFD1: oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 gene; RSPH9: radial spoke head 9 homologue (Chlamydomonas) gene; RSPH4A: radial spoke head 4 homologue A (Chlamydomonas) gene; ODA: outer dynein arm; IDA: inner dynein arm; CP: central pair; c.: cDNA sequence; del: deletion; T: thymidine; IVS: intervening sequence; ins: insertion; G: guanine; A: adenine; KS: Kartageners syndrome. ...
Dynein intermediate chain 1, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAI1 gene. The inner- and outer-arm dyneins, which bridge between the doublet microtubules in axonemes, are the force-generating proteins responsible for the sliding movement in axonemes. The intermediate and light chains, thought to form the base of the dynein arm, help mediate attachment and may also participate in regulating dynein activity. This gene encodes an intermediate chain dynein, belonging to the large family of motor proteins. Mutations in this gene result in abnormal ciliary ultrastructure and function associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and Kartagener syndrome. The DNAi1 gene (axonemal dynein intermediate chain 1 gene 1) is a gene involved in the development of proper respiratory function, motility of spermatozoa, and asymmetrical organization of the viscera during embryogenesis. This gene affects these three very different aspects of development because all three are dependent on ...
Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) suffer from recurrent upper and lower airway infections due to defects in the cilia present on the respiratory epithelium. Since chronic inflammatory conditions can cause changes in innate immune responses, we investigated whether monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of pediatric PCD patients respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, compared to monocytes from healthy children and adults. The receptor for C5a (C5aR) was upregulated in PCD, whereas expression levels of the leukocyte chemoattractant receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, BLT1 and FPR1 on PCD monocytes were similar to those on monocytes from healthy individuals. Also in vitro migration of PCD monocytes towards the ligands of those receptors (CCL2, fMLP, C5a and LTB4) was normal. Compared to healthy children, PCD patients had a higher percentage of the non-classic monocyte subset (CD14+CD16++) in circulation. Finally, PCD monocytes produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines ...
Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disease characterised by recurrent respiratory infections and subfertility due to dysfunction of cilia (brushes) of the lining cells. Undiagnosed and untreated it can result in an irreversible crippling chronic lung disease. The diagnosis of PCD is a difficult one and involves the complex assessment of ciliary structure and function. Thus, PCD is under diagnosed and appropriate preventative and symptomatic treatment may be denied in many patients. In addition, the gene responsible for PCD is at present unknown, thus preventing pre-natal diagnosis and genetic counseling.. Working hypothesis and aims: Recently, it has become apparent that the evaluation of nasally expired nitric oxide (NO) constitutes a simple and non-invasive diagnostic method, which discriminates between PCD patients, PCD carriers and healthy controls at high rate of specificity and sensitivity. Testing is simple and last approximately one minute. We have recently ...
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically inherited condition. It is due to structural abnormalities of cilia, which are microscopic hairs found in organs and cells throughout the body. Patients with this condition typically develop upper respiratory tract symptoms such as sinusitis and glue ear, lower respiratory tract problems such as recurrent chest infections, and fertility problems. There is currently no evidence that patients with PCD have a higher incidence of balance problems. However, recent animal studies have shown that cilia may also be important in the development of part of the inner ear balance (vestibular) system, specifically the part that detects linear movement known as the otolith system.. The investigators hope to determine whether patients with PCD have absent or reduced otolith function compared to the normal population. Balance problems are not currently screened for in PCD patients, and could be unrecognized and therefore untreated. It is also possible that PCD ...
Reduced mucociliary clearance in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) causes recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. The disease is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. To identify a gene locus for PCD, we studied a l
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder often associated with chronic ear, sinus, and respiratory infections.
At this time it also emerged that cilia function played a role during LR-axis development, and both the iv and the inv mouse mutants were important in this respect. First described in 1956 [39], iv was mapped to mouse chromosome 12 in 1989 [47] and identified by a positional cloning approach in 1997 as an axonemal dynein heavy-chain gene named left/right-dynein (Lrd, currently known as dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11; Dnah11) [48]. Lrd was shown to be expressed in the node of the embryo at E7.5, consistent with having a role in LR-development [48]. Based on the observation that the asymmetric expression patterns of Nodal and Lefty were randomized in iv/iv embryos, it was suggested that iv functions early in the genetic hierarchy of LR-specification. Nevertheless, the connection between Lrd and cilia at the node was considered unlikely; at that time, it had been supposed that cilia at the node were immotile monocilia lacking dynein arms [49] even though ciliary motility at the node, despite no ...
We have previously described the de novo evolution of a gene in the lineage of D. melanogaster (1). This gene, denoted Sdic, encodes a novel intermediate chain in a sperm-specific axonemal dynein. Changes that led to the creation of Sdic during the short evolutionary history of D. melanogaster [about 3 million years (2)] exhibit evidence for adaptive evolution. The gene was created from duplicated-and hence dispensable-copies of the genes for annexin X (AnnX) and the cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain (Cdic). Three large deletions led to the fusion of the duplicated genes, whereupon a series of smaller deletions and nucleotide substitutions fashioned a new amino end of the Sdic polypeptide and created motifs characteristic of known axonemal dynein intermediate chains. The regulatory region of Sdic, including a spermatocyte-specific promoter element, also evolved fromAnnX and Cdic sequences (1).. In principle, the evolutionary changes in Sdic could have taken place relatively rapidly during ...
As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.. In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Kartagener-syndromás no kiviselt ikerterhessége. AU - Gávai, Márta. AU - Beke, A.. AU - Urbancsek, J.. AU - Murber, Ákos. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - In females, the immobility of the cilia in the fallopian tube may cause barrenness. Pregnancy does not affect the frequency and severity of existing bronchitis, bronchiectasia and bronchial asthma caused by primary ciliary dyskinesia. There is an increased risk of premature delivery in patients with Kartagener syndrome. Since assisted reproduction is often used, the risk of multiple gestations is higher. Along with multiple gestation comes the increased risk of premature delivery, not only because of the presence of multiple fetuses and uterine stretching, but also because the increased size of the uterus presses against the already poorly functioning maternal lungs and can lead to infection and early rupture of the membranes. In cases where a cesarean section becomes necessary, it is very important to use the appropriate ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Congratulations to Dr. Cecilia Lo and Dr. Michael Tsang on their recently funded NIH administrative supplement, Assaying Heterotaxy Patient Genes in a Cilia Motility and Left-Right Patterning. This project will examine whether expression of the RCV can rescue the HTX phenotype elicited by MO gene knockdown in the zebrafish embryo.
Dyneins: Structure, Biology and Disease, Second Edition, offers a broad view of dyneins mechanics, dysfunction, and disease, providing an overview of dyn...
... - Disease definition. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous, primarily respiratory disorder characterized by chronic upper
Horani A, Druley TE, Zariwala MA, Patel AC, Levinson BT, Van Arendonk LG, Thornton KC, Giacalone JC, Albee AJ, Wilson KS, Turner EH, Nickerson DA, Shendure J, Bayly PV, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Brody SL, Dutcher SK, Ferkol TW. Whole-exome capture and sequencing identifies HEATR2 mutation as a cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Oct 5;91(4):685-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.08.022. PMID: ...
Dear Leah:. You are right and the guys from the store are wrong. The type of scratching you describe is a clear indication that your dwarf seahorses have some sort of external parasites (ectoparasites).. You can provide them with some immediate relief by giving the seahorses a quick freshwater dip, Leah, as explained below in more detail:. Freshwater Dips. A freshwater dip is simply immersing your seahorse in pure, detoxified freshwater thats been preadjusted to the same temp and pH as the water the seahorse is accustomed to, for a period of at least 10 minutes (Giwojna, Dec. 2003). It doesnt harm them - seahorses typically tolerate freshwater dips exceptionally well and a 10-minute dip should be perfectly safe. Freshwater dips are effective because marine fish tolerate the immersion in freshwater far better than the external parasites they play host to; the change in osmotic pressure kills or incapacitates such microorganisms within 7-8 minutes (Giwojna, Dec. 2003). A minimum dip, if the fish ...
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View mouse Zmynd8 Chr2:165784155-165899016 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
This paper points out that the predictability analysis of conventional time series may in general be invalid for long-range dependent (LRD) series since the conventional mean-square error (MSE) may generally not exist for predicting LRD series. To make the MSE of LRD series prediction exist, we introduce a generalized MSE. With that, the proof of the predictability of LRD series is presented in Hilbert space.
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A new study shows male seahorses, in addition to nurturing their growing embryos, continue to feed and protect their offspring post-pregnancy.
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NIH Rare Diseases : 49 Kartagener syndrome is a type of primary ciliary dyskinesia that is also characterized by situs inversus totalis (mirror-image reversal of internal organs). The signs and symptoms vary but may include neonatal respiratory distress; frequent lung, sinus and middle ear infections beginning in early childhood; and infertility. It can be cause by changes (mutations) in many different genes that are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Although scientists have identified many of the genes associated with Kartagener syndrome, the genetic cause of some cases is unknown. There is no cure for Kartagener syndrome. Treatment varies based on the signs and symptoms present in each person but may include airway clearance therapy and antibiotics. Last updated: 2/2/2015 ...
... is a type of primary ciliary dyskinesia that is also characterized by situs inversus totalis (mirror-image reversal of internal organs). The signs and symptoms vary but may include neonatal respiratory distress; frequent lung, sinus and middle ear infections beginning in early childhood; and infertility. It can be cause by changes (mutations) in many different genes that are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Although scientists have identified many of the genes associated with Kartagener syndrome, the genetic cause of some cases is unknown. There is no cure for Kartagener syndrome. Treatment varies based on the signs and symptoms present in each person but may include airway clearance therapy and antibiotics ...
Afzelius BA, Mossberg B, Bergström S. Afzelius B.A., Mossberg B, Bergström S Afzelius, Björn A., et al.Immotile Cilia Syndrome (Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia), Including Kartagener Syndrome. In: Valle D, Beaudet AL, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Antonarakis SE, Ballabio A, Gibson K, Mitchell G. Valle D, Beaudet A.L., Vogelstein B, Kinzler K.W., Antonarakis S.E., Ballabio A, Gibson K, Mitchell G Eds. David Valle, et al.eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014. http://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=971§ionid=62653323. Accessed January 22, 2018 ...
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also called immotile ciliary syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes defects in the action of cilia lining the respiratory tract (lower and upper, sinuses, Eustachian tube, middle ear), fallopian tube, and flagella of sperm cells. The phrase "immotile ciliary syndrome" is no longer favored as the cilia do have movement, but are merely inefficient or unsynchronized. Respiratory epithelial motile cilia, which resemble microscopic "hairs" (although structurally and biologically unrelated to hair), are complex organelles that beat synchronously in the respiratory tract, moving mucus toward the throat. Normally, cilia beat 7 to 22 times per second, and any impairment can result in poor mucociliary clearance, with subsequent upper and lower respiratory infection. Cilia also are involved in other biological processes (such as nitric oxide production), which are currently the subject of dozens of research ...
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive, and in classical form presents with upper and lower respiratory tract infection, and mirror image arrangement in around 50% cases. It is becoming appreciated that dysfunction of cilia is implicated in a wider spectrum of disease, including polycystic liver and kidney disease, central nervous system problems including retinopathy and hydrocephalus, and biliary atresia. Cilia are complex structures, containing more than 250 proteins, but recent studies have begun to locate PCD genes scattered throughout the genome. Screening tests for PCD include nasal nitric oxide and in vivo tests of ciliary motility such as the saccharin test. Specific diagnosis requires examination of cilia by light and electron microscopy, with epithelial culture in doubtful cases. This is only available in supra-regional centres, which have recently been centrally funded by NCG in order to provide a comprehensive, free diagnostic service in ...
It is challenging to confirm a diagnosis of PCD in patients with a compatible clinical phenotype, but who do not have hallmark defects in ciliary ultrastructure. Some specialised centres use nNO measurement as an aid to diagnosis. A few centres use videomicroscopy to evaluate ciliary waveform to confirm the diagnosis, but this assay is difficult and limited in availability.. Mutations in DNAH11 have been reported in four families in which patients with PCD have normal ciliary ultrastructure.19-21 However, the prevalence of DNAH11 mutations, and genotype-ciliary phenotype correlations, are not well defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that mutations in DNAH11 are a relatively common cause of PCD in patients with normal ciliary ultrastructure. We studied a large number of well characterised patients with PCD and different ciliary ultrastructural phenotypes to determine the frequency of DNAH11 mutations in each group.25 In patients with normal ciliary ultrastructure, the clinical ...
Definition of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
PICADAR comprises seven predictive variables including full-term gestational age, admittance to a neonatal unit, neonatal chest symptoms, persistent perennial rhinitis, chronic ear and hearing symptoms, situs abnormalities, and presence of a cardiac defect; such items are easily ascertained and quick to compute in any clinical setting. We did not specify cardiac defects associated with laterality defects within the score because we want PICADAR to be used by nonspecialists. PICADAR was derived in a specialist PCD centre (UHS) and validated externally in another centre (RBH). Although these two diagnostic centres are both situated in Southern England, they have different demographic populations in terms of ethnicity, consanguinity and age at assessment. Good discriminant ability was maintained when used in the validation group with AUC 0.87. The process of developing a clinical prediction rule includes four stages before ever being implemented in routine practice (derivation, internal validation, ...
PCD is an inherited genetic disorder of the structure and / or function of the cilia, which are the tiny microscopic moving structures lining the airways, ears, sinuses and some other areas of the body. The sweeping, wave-like motion of cilia is important for keeping these areas clean and free from infection, acting as an essential primary defence barrier. In patients with PCD, this wave-like motion does not happen in the normal way, and in some, it does not happen at all ...
Being diagnosed with a chronic disease such as PCD can be disheartening. Making notes, as well as taking along a trusted family member or friend, can help you create an open dialogue with your physician.
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All vertebrates have a left-right body axis with invariant asymmetries of the heart and the positions of the abdominal viscera. Major advances have recently been made in defining molecular components of the pathway specifying the vertebrate left-right axis, but our knowledge of the early determinants is extremely limited. In the inv mouse the left-right axis is consistently reversed, unlike other vertebrate mutants where randomisation of situs is apparent. The gene disrupted in this mouse encodes a 1062-amino-acid protein, inversin. We previously reported 16 tandem ankyrin repeats, spanning amino acids 13-557, and two putative nuclear localisation sequences, but otherwise the sequence offered few clues to the possible function. In order to identify regions likely to be functionally important, we have identified and characterised orthologous sequences in several species, including chick, Xenopus and zebrafish. Sequence comparisons show strong conservation of the ankyrin repeat region and also a lysine
The dynein intermediate chain (IC) is central to the structure of the dynein motor.2 It is composed of two domains. The extended N-terminal domain (N-IC), is indicated by grey solid and dotted lines. The C-terminal domain (C-IC), which interacts with the heavy chain, forms a relatively ordered and compact beta propeller structure indicated by the grey globular shapes in the figure.. Two copies of IC are present in every dynein motor, and the dimer is bridged by the three light chains LC8, LC7, and Tctex-1. In addition to the light chains, N-IC contains interaction motifs for several other proteins known to be integral to the function of dynein. These include p150Glued, the largest subunit of the dynein activator dynactin, and other proteins such as LIS1 and the ZW10 subunit of the Rod RZZ complex.. With its many interactions, N-IC appears to be the key modulator of dynein assembly and attachment to cargoes. With its extended structure, many interactions, and pivotal role in the function of a ...
A key component of lung defense is the efficiency of mucociliary clearance (MCC). Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a human genetic disorder with defective MC...
Cilia and flagella are small, hairlike protrusions that are found on the surface of a cell body. They can be sense organs, or they can move, beating in a coordinated motion to either move the cell or to move liquids or small solids across the cell surface. A disease known as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) can cause a number of human disorders. One of these is chronic destructive airway...Read more. ...
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There are several pathogens that can cause primary infection, including viruses, parasites, and fungi. Each has a different effect on the body.
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Primary ciliary dyskinesia (DNAI2-related) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the DNAI2 gene. While it is found in different ethnicities around the world, it is more prevalent in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent due to the presence of a founder mutation. In affected patients, ciliary dysfunction results in chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis, frequent bouts of pneumonia, and hearing loss associated with recurrent ear infections. Most infants require respiratory assistance in the first few weeks of life. Approximately half of all affected adult males are infertile due to sperm immobility. Situs inversus, a benign condition where the internal organs are found on the opposite side of the body, is a random occurrence and therefore is expected to occur in 50% of affected individuals. Some patients have abnormal left-right axis patterning resulting in organ malformations, including the heart. These patients may have a poor prognosis. No genotype-phenotype ...
From UniProt:. Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 26 (CILD26): A disorder characterized by abnormalities of motile cilia. Respiratory infections leading to chronic inflammation and bronchiectasis are recurrent, due to defects in the respiratory cilia. Patients may exhibit randomization of left-right body asymmetry and situs inversus, due to dysfunction of monocilia at the embryonic node. Primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with situs inversus is referred to as Kartagener syndrome. [MIM:615500]. ...
The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of a group (complex) of proteins called dynein. This complex functions within cell structures called cilia. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. Coordinated back and forth movement of cilia can move the cell or the fluid surrounding the cell. Dynein produces the force needed for cilia to move.. Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their location. Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. IDAs and ODAs have different combinations of protein components (subunits) that are classified by weight as heavy, intermediate, or light chains. The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making heavy chain 5, which is found in ODAs. Other subunits are produced from different genes. ...
PCD is a rare heterogeneous disorder characterized by impaired mucociliary clearance due to abnormal ciliary function, which is usually but not always associated with abnormal ciliary ultrastructure [1, 2]. Clinical manifestations are caused by impaired mucociliary clearance and include recurrent lower and upper respiratory tract symptoms which present soon after birth. Neonatal symptoms range in severity from mild transient tachypnoea to significant respiratory failure requiring prolonged respiratory support [3]. Recent data suggests that PCD has a progressive, and potentially severe long-term course of lower airway disease [4] with recurrent infections leading to bronchiectasis and impaired lung function. Male infertility is common since sperm flagella have a similar ultrastructure to cilia, whereas the incidence of female infertility and of ectopic pregnancy is uncertain but might be explained by immotile fallopian tube cilia [5]. Motile embryonic nodal cilia establish left-right asymmetry ...
In medical terminology hives is usually spoken as urticaria as hive is a symptom of urticaria. Most people do not develop one hive when they have urticaria, hence the name hives.Hives are a kind of skin rash notable for dark red, raised, itchy bumps. Hives are most often caused by allergic reactions but there are many other causes too. For example, most cases of hives lasting less than six weeks (acute hives) are the result of an allergic trigger ...
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Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) by identification of dynein arm loss in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images can be confounded by high background noise due to random electron-dense material within the ciliary matrix, leading to diagnostic uncertainty even for experienced morphologists. to generate mechanical torque [5] by forced sliding of adjacent peripheral microtubular pairs [6]. Motile cilia without two-microtubule central complexes (9+0 architecture) move in a rotatory fashion, and are responsible for a fluid current at the embryonic node that determines sidedness in the developing embryo [7]. In contrast, motile cilia with two-microtubule central complexes (9+2 architecture) have an effective stroke in a single plane, such that synchronous (per cell) and metachronous (per surface) beating allows coordinated movement of surface fluid [8, 9]. Main ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) (main here indicates congenital, rather than acquired, and not involvement of main cilia) is a ...
Low circulating adropin concentrations with obesity and aging correlate with risk factors for metabolic disease and increase after gastric bypass surgery in humans ...
The Seahorse XFp Glycolysis Stress Test Kit indicates cells ability to increase glycolytic activity in real time to meet cellular energy demands induced by metabolic stress.
Download animal, hippocampus, horse, ocean, sea, seahorse icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by Stanislav Khodzhaev found in the icon set Baraban Solid Animals & People
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Palmitate-BSA conjugate available? - posted in Cell Biology Products: It seems as if most people prepare the palmitate-BSA solutions themselves with separate sodium palmitate and fatty acid free BSA, but are there any companies that sell the conjugate already made up? The only one Ive seen so far is for the Seahorse flux analyzer (http://www.seahorseb...ate-bsa-fao.php). Thanks.
The seahorse, well known felon. Just an observation, I know Steve Irwins attack was flukish, but he wasnt actually wrong place, wrong time. He was well...
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Books and Chapters:. 1. Primary ciliary dyskinesia. Mary Leigh-Anne Daniels, Sohini Ghosh, and Peadar G Noone (Sr). Current Pulmonology Reports December 2016, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 191-198. 2. Lobo J, Rojas-Balcazar JM, Noone PG (Sr). Recent Advances in Cystic Fibrosis. Clin Chest Medicine 2012 Jun; 33(2): 307-28.. 3. LJ Lobo, M Zariwala and PG Noone (Sr). Ciliary Dyskinesias; Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia in Adults. Monograph, Eur Resp Soc (Bronchiectasis) 2011. Chapter 9, pp 130-149. 4. Bennett WD, Noone PG, Knowles MR, Boucher RC. Regulation of Mucociliary Clearance by Purinergic Receptors. In Cilia and Mucus: From Development to Respiratory Defense, ed. Salathe M, Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY, 2001, pp 347-360.. 5. Noone PG, Knowles MR. Standard Therapy of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease. In: Cystic fibrosis in adults. Yankaskas JR, Knowles MR, eds. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, 1999; pp 145-173.. 6. Noone PG, Bresnihan B. Rheumatologic disease in adults with CF. In: Cystic fibrosis in ...
A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with PD) and 1989 controls across five European centres. Mucin gene mRNA levels in broilers challenged with eimeria and/or Clostridium perfringens. The bootstrapping procedure indicated that the parameter estimates were very stable, thus lending greater credence to the model.. These data provide a reference for the Y-STR database in Jilin Province, and they may be valuable for population genetic analysis. Ten-year experience using a plastic, disposable curette for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Of the eight patients with Stage II-III disease, six patients eventually died of metastatic disease despite additional radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.. These data provide important new insight into augmentin bambini the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis resistance in co-stimulated T cells. In chromaffin cells, ARF6 is specifically associated with the membrane of secretory chromaffin granules. Analysis of the complete ...
The symbolic meaning of seahorse is quite intricate and diverse as this little creature itself is full of surprises. The seahorse is quite a unique creature, and thought to have mystical significance among the Ancient Greeks, European (alchemists) and Asians. Symbolic meaning of Seahorses carry the following significances: Patience, Friendliness, Protection, Inflexibility, Perspective, Generosity/Sharing, High-Perception, Persistence, and Contentment. A relatively calm, and mild-mannered creature, the seahorse is seemingly content to roam the seas. Their bodies are geared for ambling-type motion - not for speed. Thus, they are symbolic of patience and contentment - they are happy with being where they are, and are in no hurry for advancement. Further testimony to these attributes is the lack of evolution of the seahorses body style. They have remained with this body style without change since their inception. Content to be who they are, and not feeling the need to change - these are a few ...
Cytoskeletal linker which binds microtubules and probably functions in axonemal and non-axonemal dynein regulation. May play a role in the spermatozoa motility (By similarity). May play a role in cilia motility (PubMed:26387594).
Hello. 1. We are studding developmental potencies in the quail embryo, using single cell LRD labeling. After the second cell division cycle, the LRD signal is very faint and we were considering to amplify the signal with Anti LRD conjugated to Rhodamine. Can anyone please send me the commercial details of this antibody. 2. Is there a way to overcome the red blood cells auto-fluorescence problem? Thank you. Cinnamon Yuval. cinnamon at agri.huji.ac.il ...
Dyneins. *axonemal: DNAH1. *DNAH2. *DNAH3. *DNAH5. *DNAH6. *DNAH7. *DNAH8. *DNAH9. *DNAH10. *DNAH11 ...
Dyneins. *axonemal: DNAH1. *DNAH2. *DNAH3. *DNAH5. *DNAH6. *DNAH7. *DNAH8. *DNAH9. *DNAH10. *DNAH11 ...
Dyneins. *axonemal: DNAH1. *DNAH2. *DNAH3. *DNAH5. *DNAH6. *DNAH7. *DNAH8. *DNAH9. *DNAH10. *DNAH11 ...
Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 7 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the DNAH7 gene. DNAH7 is a component of the inner ... dynein arm of ciliary axonemes (Zhang et al., 2002 [PubMed 11877439]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]. ##RefSeq-Attributes-START# ...
Dynein axonemal heavy chain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH1 gene. This gene encodes an inner dynein arm ... Dynein axonemal heavy chain 1". Retrieved 2017-11-06. Zuccarello D, Ferlin A, Cazzadore C, Pepe A, Garolla A, Moretti A, ... Skånland SS, Wälchli S, Brech A, Sandvig K (2009). "SNX4 in complex with clathrin and dynein: implications for endosome ... which encodes an inner arm heavy chain dynein, lead to male infertility from multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm ...
"Ktu/PF13 is required for cytoplasmic pre-assembly of axonemal dyneins". Nature. 456 (7222): 611-6. doi:10.1038/nature07471. PMC ... Kintoun is a highly conserved protein involved in the preassembly of dynein arm complexes which power cilia. These complexes ...
Dynein heavy chain 11, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH11 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: DNAH11 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11". Blyth M, Wellesley D (April 2008). "Ectopic pregnancy in primary ciliary ... 2002). "Mutations in the DNAH11 (axonemal heavy chain dynein type 11) gene cause one form of situs inversus totalis and most ... "Isolation of several human axonemal dynein heavy chain genes: genomic structure of the catalytic site, phylogenetic analysis ...
"Entrez Gene: DNAL4 dynein, axonemal, light chain 4". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz ... Dynein light chain 4, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAL4 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH5 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: DNAH5 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 5". GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Jouannet P, ... 1997). "Identification of dynein heavy chain genes expressed in human and mouse testis: chromosomal localization of an axonemal ... 2006). "Axonemal localization of the dynein component DNAH5 is not altered in secondary ciliary dyskinesia". Pediatr. Res. 59 ( ...
This gene encodes the heavy chain subunit of axonemal dynein, a large multi-subunit molecular motor. Axonemal dynein attaches ... "Entrez Gene: DNAH9 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 9". Milisav I, Jones MH, Affara NA (1996). "Characterization of a novel human ... 2002). "Axonemal dynein expression in human fetal tracheal epithelium". Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 282 (3): L421- ... Dynein heavy chain 9, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH9 gene. ...
Dynein light chain 1, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAL1 gene. DNAL1 is a component of outer dynein ... "Identification and analysis of axonemal dynein light chain 1 in primary ciliary dyskinesia patients". Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. ... dynein". Horváth J, Fliegauf M, Olbrich H, Kispert A, King SM, Mitchison H, Zariwala MA, Knowles MR, Sudbrak R, Fekete G, ...
Dynein family has two major branches. One is axonemal dynein facilitates the beating of cilia and flagella by rapid and ... Compared to 15 types of axonemal dynein, only two cytoplasmic forms are known. Genomic representation of dynein motors: Fungi ( ... Axonemal dynein, found in cilia and flagella, is crucial to cell motility, for example in spermatozoa, and fluid transport, for ... Dynein complexes are much larger and more complex than kinesin and myosin motors. Dyneins are composed of two or three heavy ...
DNAH14 encoding protein Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14. *ECM1 (1q21). *EDEM3: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like ...
1994). "Phylogeny and expression of axonemal and cytoplasmic dynein genes in sea urchins". Mol. Biol. Cell. 5 (1): 57-70. doi: ... chromosomal localization of an axonemal dynein gene". Gene. 200 (1-2): 193-202. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00417-4. PMID 9373155 ... Cytoplasmic dynein 2 heavy chain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYNC2H1 gene. It is associated with Short rib- ... "Entrez Gene: DYNC2H1 dynein, cytoplasmic 2, heavy chain 1". Merrill AE, Merriman B, Farrington-Rock C, et al. (April 2009). " ...
Dynein intermediate chain 1, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAI1 gene. The inner- and outer-arm ... The DNAi1 gene (axonemal dynein intermediate chain 1 gene 1) is a gene involved in the development of proper respiratory ... "Entrez Gene: DNAI1 dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1". GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia ... 2001). "Axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene (DNAI1) mutations result in situs inversus and primary ciliary dyskinesia ( ...
Dynein produces the axonemal beating of cilia and flagella and also transports cargo along microtubules towards the cell ...
1997). "Identification of dynein heavy chain genes expressed in human and mouse testis: chromosomal localization of an axonemal ... Cytoplasmic dynein 1 heavy chain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYNC1H1 gene. DYNC1H1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: DYNC1H1 dynein, cytoplasmic 1, heavy chain 1". Tai, Chin-Yin; Dujardin Denis L; Faulkner Nicole E; Vallee Richard ... 2004). "Preferentially localized dynein and perinuclear dynactin associate with nuclear pore complex proteins to mediate ...
... motor is cytoplasmic dynein 1b. IFT particles carry axonemal subunits to the site of assembly at the tip of the axoneme; thus, ... Intraflagellar transport or IFT is a bidirectional motility along axonemal microtubules that is essential for the formation ( ... IFT is necessary for axonemal growth. Therefore, since the axoneme needs a continually fresh supply of proteins, an axoneme ... or anterograde movement is powered by kinesin-2 while the inward or retrograde movement is powered by cytoplasmic dynein 2/1b. ...
Dynein intermediate chain 2, axonemal, also known as axonemal dynein intermediate chain 2, is a protein that in humans is ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the dynein intermediate chain family, and is part of the dynein complex of ... dynein". Pennarun G, Chapelin C, Escudier E, Bridoux AM, Dastot F, Cacheux V, Goossens M, Amselem S, Duriez B (December 2000 ... "The human dynein intermediate chain 2 gene (DNAI2): cloning, mapping, expression pattern, and evaluation as a candidate for ...
... dynein axonemal light chain 4), and RAD51 (recombination protein A). DCC encodes a receptor for NTN1 (netrin-1), a protein ... "Identification of a homozygous splice site mutation in the dynein axonemal light chain 4 gene on 22q13.1 in a large ... DNAL4 encodes a component of dynein motor complex in commissural neurons of the corpus callosum. In contrast to DCC, DNAL4 is ...
... dynein, which produces the axonemal beating of motile cilia and flagella, and transmembrane ATPases such like ATP Synthase. ...
Dyneins can be divided into two groups: cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins, which are also called ciliary or flagellar ... The regulation of axonemal dynein activity is critical for flagellar beat frequency and cilia waveform. Modes of axonemal ... Thioredoxins associated with the other axonemal dynein arms are oxidized/reduced to regulate where dynein binds in the axoneme ... Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those ...
The dynein in the axoneme forms bridges between neighbouring microtubule doublets. When ATP activates the motor domain of ... The building blocks of the cilia such as tubulins and other partially assembled axonemal proteins are added to the ciliary tips ... The axonemal cytoskeleton acts as a scaffolding for various protein complexes and provides binding sites for molecular motor ... dynein, it attempts to walk along the adjoining microtubule doublet. This would force the adjacent doublets to slide over one ...
These complexs are involved in the coordinated movement of macromolecular cargo from the basal body along axonemal microtubules ... is driven by kinesin-2 while the retrograde movement of particles back to the cell body is driven by cytoplasmic dynein 1b/2 ...
Two major classes of dyneins, axonemal and cytoplasmic, have been identified. DNAH14 is an axonemal dynein heavy chain (DHC) ( ... Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH14 gene. Dyneins are microtubule-associated ... Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14". Retrieved 2014-06-17. Vaughan, K. T.; Mikami, A; Paschal, B. M.; Holzbaur, E. L.; Hughes, S ... "Multiple mouse chromosomal loci for dynein-based motility". Genomics. 36 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0422. PMID 8812413. ...
Each of the outer 9 doublet microtubules extends a pair of dynein arms (an "inner" and an "outer" arm) to the adjacent ... the process by which axonemal subunits, transmembrane receptors, and other proteins are moved up and down the length of the ...
dynein axonemal heavy chain 5. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All Close All ... OMIM: DYNEIN, AXONEMAL, HEAVY CHAIN 5. *. Djakow J, Svobodová T, Hrach K, Uhlík J, Cinek O, Pohunek P. Effectiveness of ... dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their ... The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of a group (complex) of proteins called dynein. This ...
Dynein Axonemal Assembly Factor 4. Protein Coding. 18.04. GeneCards inferred via :. Disorders (show sections) ... Dynein Axonemal Assembly Factor 5. Protein Coding. 18.04. GeneCards inferred via :. Disorders (show sections) ... Dynein Axonemal Heavy Chain 11. Protein Coding. 45.27. DISEASES inferred 14 GeneCards inferred via :. Disorders Publications ... axonemal dynein complex assembly. GO:0070286 9.23. CCDC103 CCDC151 CCDC40 DNAAF1 DNAAF2 DNAAF3 ...
Classically, Kartagener syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene encoding axonemal dynein intermediate chain (DNAI1), which ... Lack of dynein arms, which are structures that form temporary cross-bridges between adjacent ciliary filaments and are believed ... Defects of all of the axonemal structures, alone or in combination, have been identified in association with PCD. Overly long, ...
... dynein axonemal heavy chain 5) or intermediate(dynein axonemal intermediate chain 1) chain dynein genes in ciliary outer ... ...
... acts to stabilize the axonemal core structure, and serves as a central hub for the regulation of ciliary motility. Although the ... N2 - The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) in motile cilia and flagella functions as a linker between neighboring doublet ... AB - The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) in motile cilia and flagella functions as a linker between neighboring doublet ... The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) in motile cilia and flagella functions as a linker between neighboring doublet ...
Two major classes of dyneins, axonemal and cytoplasmic, have been identified. DNAH14 is an axonemal dynein heavy chain (DHC) ( ... Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH14 gene. Dyneins are microtubule-associated ... Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14". Retrieved 2014-06-17. Vaughan, K. T.; Mikami, A; Paschal, B. M.; Holzbaur, E. L.; Hughes, S ... "Multiple mouse chromosomal loci for dynein-based motility". Genomics. 36 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0422. PMID 8812413. ...
dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal isoform X7 [Homo sapiens] dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal isoform X7 [Homo sapiens]. gi, ... dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal isoform X7 [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: XP_016864671.1 ... This gene encodes a dynein protein, which is part of a microtubule-associated motor protein complex consisting of heavy, light ...
Component of the outer arm dynein (ODA) (PubMed:19620633). May be involved in a mechanosensory feedback mechanism controlling ... ODA activity based on external conformational cues by tethering the outer arm dynein heavy chain (ODA2) to the A-tubule of the ... Part of the multisubunit axonemal ATPase complexes that generate the force for flagellar motility and govern beat frequency ( ... "Identification and analysis of axonemal dynein light chain 1 in primary ciliary dyskinesia patients.". Horvath J., Fliegauf M. ...
"Identification of a homozygous splice site mutation in the dynein axonemal light chain 4 gene on 22q13.1 in a large ... sp,O96015,DNAL4_HUMAN Dynein light chain 4, axonemal OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=DNAL4 PE=1 SV=1 ... dynein intermediate chain binding Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of ... dynein light intermediate chain binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*21873635 ...
Gene Set: GO_AXONEMAL_DYNEIN_COMPLEX_ASSEMBLY. Standard name. GO_AXONEMAL_DYNEIN_COMPLEX_ASSEMBLY. ... The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an axonemal dynein complex, a dynein complex ... dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 1. 27019. 27019. DNAI1. dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1. ... dynein, axonemal, assembly factor 2. 56171. 56171. DNAH7. dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 7. ...
Component of the outer arm dynein (ODA). May be involved in a mechanosensory feedback mechanism controlling ODA activity based ... on external conformational cues by tethering the outer arm dynein heavy chain (DNAH5) to the microtubule within the axoneme (By ... Part of the multisubunit axonemal ATPase complexes that generate the force for cilia motility and govern beat frequency (By ... Dynein light chain 1, axonemalAdd BLAST. 192. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all ...
... dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 explanation free. What is dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11? Meaning of dynein, ... axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 medical term. What does dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 mean? ... Looking for online definition of dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 in the Medical Dictionary? ... redirected from dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11) DNAH.bb.11. A gene on chromosome 7p21 that encodes a dynein heavy chain ...
Synonyms: Axonemal dynein light intermediate polypeptide 1, Inner dynein arm light chain, axonemal, P28, dJ423B22.5, hp28 ... Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning and characterization of a putative human axonemal dynein light chain gene. Kastury ... The murine Dnali1 gene encodes a flagellar protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain 1. Rashid, S., ... was localized in cilia of the trachea as well as in flagella of mature sperm supporting its function as an axonemal dynein [8]. ...
Identification of the outer-inner dynein linker as a hub controller for axonemal dynein activities. Curr. Biol. 23:656-664. doi ... Regulation of Chlamydomonas flagellar dynein by an axonemal protein kinase. J. Cell Biol. 127:1683-1692. doi:10.1083/jcb.127.6. ... Regulation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding by the axonemal protein kinase CK1 in Chlamydomonas flagella. J. Cell Biol. 186 ... To identify the axonemal dyneins that is the downstream effector of the rsp4C-dependent motility restoration in pf6, we ...
... July 14, ... Axonemal dyneins function in cellular motility, but the function of DNAH8 in prostate cancer or other cell types has not been ... From this analysis, we identified Dynein Axonemal Heavy Chain 8 (DNAH8) as an AR regulator that displayed higher mRNA ...
dynein axonemal heavy chain 5) gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryo. , assayed via in situ hybridization, NF stage 18, in ...
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What is dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal? Meaning of dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal medical term. What does dynein heavy chain 3 ... axonemal in the Medical Dictionary? dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of dynein heavy chain 3, ... dynein heavy chain 2, axonemal. *dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal ... Dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal , definition of dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
... assigning specific dynein subtypes to each PIH protein. ... roles of all vertebrate PIH family proteins in axonemal dynein ... dynein axonemal heavy chain) genes, we also discuss the organ-specific compositions of axonemal dyneins assembled by PIH ... The ciliary inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, is assembled in the cytoplasm and transported by IFT before axonemal docking * R ... This cytoplasmic preassembly of axonemal dyneins requires various proteins collectively called dynein axonemal assembly factors ...
... assigning specific dynein subtypes to each PIH protein. ... roles of all vertebrate PIH family proteins in axonemal dynein ... A) Summary of the sperm motilities and the axonemal structures of WT and each PIH gene mutant. Abnormal axonemal dyneins are ... Cryo-ET revealed structural defects of axonemal dyneins in mutant spermatozoa.. (A) DMT structure of native zebrafish sperm. ... Red circles indicate the defects of axonemal dyneins. Green, OADs; red, IAD f; orange, IAD a; yellow, IAD b; light-green, IAD c ...
Get highlights of the most important data releases, news and events, delivered straight to your email inbox. Subscribe to newsletter ...
Dyneins can be divided into two groups: cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins, which are also called ciliary or flagellar ... The regulation of axonemal dynein activity is critical for flagellar beat frequency and cilia waveform. Modes of axonemal ... Thioredoxins associated with the other axonemal dynein arms are oxidized/reduced to regulate where dynein binds in the axoneme ... Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those ...
Two major classes of dyneins, axonemal and cytoplasmic, have been identified. DNAH14 is an axonemal dynein heavy chain (DHC) ( ... Dynein has ATPase activity; the force-producing power stroke is thought to occur on release of ADP. Involved in sperm motility ... Dyneins are microtubule-associated motor protein complexes composed of several heavy, light, and intermediate chains. ...
Axonemal dynein assembly factor required for ciliary motility. Involved in neuronal migration during development of the ... Compartment GO Terms for Dynein assembly factor 4, axonemal. Axonemal dynein complex 54 ...
Dynein-isoform-specific intermediate chains are found in some axonemal dyneins as well as in cytoplasmic dynein 1. Some light ... The LICs, however, are associated with cytoplasmic dynein 1 and dynein 2, but, so far, with no known axonemal dyneins. These ... Cytoplasmic dyneins. Two forms of cytoplasmic dynein have been identified: cytoplasmic dynein 1 and cytoplasmic dynein 2. Both ... are found in cytoplasmic dynein 1 and some, but not all, axonemal dyneins, as well as non-dynein proteins. The LCs, therefore, ...
  • Most ultrastructural and genetic evidence for subspecialization of the axonemal dyneins has been obtained in studies of the biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis . (biologists.org)