A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Targeted deletion of the ATP binding domain of left-right dynein confirms its role in specifying development of left-right asymmetries. (1/54)

Vertebrates develop distinct asymmetries along the left-right axis, which are consistently aligned with the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. The mechanisms that direct this handed development of left-right asymmetries have been elusive, but recent studies of mutations that affect left-right development have shed light on the molecules involved. One molecule implicated in left-right specification is left-right dynein (LRD), a microtubule-based motor protein. In the LRD protein of the inversus viscerum (iv) mouse, there is a single amino acid difference at a conserved position, and the lrd gene is one of many genes deleted in the legless (lgl) mutation. Both iv and lgl mice display randomized left-right development. Here we extend the analysis of the lrd gene at the levels of sequence, expression and function. The complete coding sequence of the lrd gene confirms its classification as an axonemal, or ciliary, dynein. Expression of lrd in the node at embryonic day 7.5 is shown to be symmetric. At embryonic day 8.0, however, a striking asymmetric expression pattern is observed in all three germ layers of the developing headfold, suggesting roles in both the establishment and maintenance of left-right asymmetries. At later times, expression of lrd is also observed in the developing floorplate, gut and limbs. These results suggest function for LRD protein in both ciliated and non-ciliated cells, despite its sequence classification as axonemal. In addition, a targeted mutation of lrd was generated that deletes the part of the protein required for ATP binding, and hence motor function. The resulting left-right phenotype, randomization of laterality, is identical to that of iv and lgl mutants. Gross defects in ciliary structure were not observed in lrd/lrd mutants. Strikingly, however, the monocilia on mutant embryonic node cells were immotile. These results prove the identity of the iv and lrd genes. Further, they argue that LRD motor function, and resulting nodal monocilia movement, are required for normal left-right development.  (+info)

Chromosomal effects of rapid gene evolution in Drosophila melanogaster. (2/54)

Rapid adaptive fixation of a new favorable mutation is expected to affect neighboring genes along the chromosome. Evolutionary theory predicts that the chromosomal region would show a reduced level of genetic variation and an excess of rare alleles. We have confirmed these predictions in a region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster that contains a newly evolved gene for a component of the sperm axoneme. In D. simulans, where the novel gene does not exist, the pattern of genetic variation is consistent with selection against recurrent deleterious mutations. These findings imply that the pattern of genetic variation along a chromosome may be useful for inferring its evolutionary history and for revealing regions in which recent adaptive fixations have taken place.  (+info)

Axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene (DNAI1) mutations result in situs inversus and primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome). (3/54)

Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a trilogy of symptoms (nasal polyps, bronchiectasis, and situs inversus totalis) that is associated with ultrastructural anomalies of cilia of epithelial cells covering the upper and lower respiratory tracts and spermatozoa flagellae. The axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene 1 (DNAI1), which has been demonstrated to be responsible for a case of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) without situs inversus, was screened for mutation in a series of 34 patients with KS. We identified compound heterozygous DNAI1 gene defects in three independent patients and in two of their siblings who presented with PCD and situs solitus (i.e., normal position of inner organs). Strikingly, these five patients share one mutant allele (splice defect), which is identical to one of the mutant DNAI1 alleles found in the patient with PCD, reported elsewhere. Finally, this study demonstrates a link between ciliary function and situs determination, since compound mutation heterozygosity in DNAI1 results in PCD with situs solitus or situs inversus (KS).  (+info)

Axonemal dynein expression in human fetal tracheal epithelium. (4/54)

Ciliogenesis in human fetal airway epithelium occurs from 11 to 24 gestational weeks. Using genetic and antigenic markers specific for human axonemal dynein heavy chain 9, we characterized temporal aspects of axonemal dynein expression associated with large airway epithelial ciliogenesis during human fetal development. Late in the first trimester, an undifferentiated columnar epithelium is characteristic of the large airways, and immunocytochemical studies exhibited focal localization of axonemal dynein antigen on luminal epithelial cell borders at sites consistent with emergent ciliary beds. From 12 to 22 wk, immunocytochemical labeling of new ciliary beds was prominent, and localization within the cytoplasm of epithelial cells suggested avid synthesis of axonemal dynein in advance of ciliogenic events. Quantitative RT-PCR of tracheal RNA and in situ hybridization studies compared favorably with immunocytochemical findings with the earliest expression of axonemal dynein at 9-10 wk gestation. These studies have documented that axonemal dynein is expressed early in human fetal life during airway epithelial maturation and well before histological or ultrastructural evidence of ciliogenesis is apparent.  (+info)

Mutations in the DNAH11 (axonemal heavy chain dynein type 11) gene cause one form of situs inversus totalis and most likely primary ciliary dyskinesia. (5/54)

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; MIM 242650) is an autosomal recessive disorder of ciliary dysfunction with extensive genetic heterogeneity. PCD is characterized by bronchiectasis and upper respiratory tract infections, and half of the patients with PCD have situs inversus (Kartagener syndrome). We characterized the transcript and the genomic organization of the axonemal heavy chain dynein type 11 (DNAH11) gene, the human homologue of murine Dnah11 or lrd, which is mutated in the iv/iv mouse model with situs inversus. To assess the role of DNAH11, which maps on chromosome 7p21, we searched for mutations in the 82 exons of this gene in a patient with situs inversus totalis, and probable Kartagener syndrome associated with paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (patUPD7). We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (R2852X) in the DNAH11 gene. This patient is remarkable because he is also homozygous for the F508del allele of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Sequence analysis of the DNAH11 gene in an additional 6 selected PCD sibships that shared DNAH11 alleles revealed polymorphic variants and an R3004Q substitution in a conserved position that might be pathogenic. We conclude that mutations in the coding region of DNAH11 account for situs inversus totalis and probably a minority of cases of PCD.  (+info)

The T complex distorter 2 candidate gene, Dnahc8, encodes at least two testis-specific axonemal dynein heavy chains that differ extensively at their amino and carboxyl termini. (6/54)

Homozygosity for the t haplotype allele of the testis-specifically expressed axonemal dynein heavy chain (axDHC) gene, Dnahc8, has been linked to male sterility resulting from aberrant sperm motility. However, the near absence of Dnahc8 expression has been associated with male sterility resulting from an early breakdown in sperm flagellar development. Although axDHCs are integral participants in flagellar motility, a role in flagellar morphogenesis has never been attributed to a member of this highly conserved gene family. To gain a better understanding of this presumed novel role for Dnahc8, we have studied the organization and expression of full-length Dnahc8(+) and Dnahc8(t) transcripts. Our results demonstrate the existence of at least two alternatively spliced, testis-specific Dnahc8 mRNAs transcribed from both the + and t alleles. A highly expressed isoform encodes a protein with significant homology nearly throughout to the gamma heavy chain of the Chlamydomonas axonemal outer arm dynein, while a more poorly expressed isoform codes for a protein whose sequence diverges significantly from that of other axDHCs at both its N and C termini. While in situ hybridization studies demonstrate that both mRNA species accumulate exclusively in mid to late spermatocytes, each isoform shows spatial independence. Additional experiments demonstrate the existence of a testis-expressed mRNA with no significant open reading frame, a portion of which is antisense to the 5'-untranslated region of the highly divergent Dnahc8 isoform. The cumulative data imply that Dnahc8 may have acquired functional plasticity in the testis through the tightly controlled expression of both typical and unusual isoforms.  (+info)

Parametric and non-parametric linkage analysis of several candidate regions for genes for human handedness. (7/54)

The frequency of left-handedness in the general population is around 11%. Both environmental and genetic models have been proposed to explain the aetiology of human handedness. The majority of genetic models, such as those of Annett, McManus and Klar, propose a single gene determinant with a non-Mendelian inheritance pattern. As left-handedness is correlated with cerebral asymmetry and is a feature of left-right asymmetry, genes involved in the development of left-right asymmetry can be considered as candidate genes. Candidate gene analysis was performed using an informative extended pedigree, and also using nuclear families of right-handed parents with left-handed children. Segregation analysis in the extended pedigree identified allele sharing in the NODAL and DNAHC13 candidate regions on chromosome 10 and 1. Linkage analysis using the models of Klar and McManus, and non-parametric analysis on nuclear families, subsequently excluded all candidate regions tested. This demonstrates the power to identify the genes specifying handedness by the conduct of extended genetic studies on these and similar cohorts.  (+info)

Two populations of node monocilia initiate left-right asymmetry in the mouse. (8/54)

The vertebrate body plan has conserved handed left-right (LR) asymmetry that is manifested in the heart, lungs, and gut. Leftward flow of extracellular fluid at the node (nodal flow) is critical for normal LR axis determination in the mouse. Nodal flow is generated by motile node cell monocilia and requires the axonemal dynein, left-right dynein (lrd). In the absence of lrd, LR determination becomes random. The cation channel polycystin-2 is also required to establish LR asymmetry. We show that lrd localizes to a centrally located subset of node monocilia, while polycystin-2 is found in all node monocilia. Asymmetric calcium signaling appears at the left margin of the node coincident with nodal flow. These observations suggest that LR asymmetry is established by an entirely ciliary mechanism: motile, lrd-containing monocilia generate nodal flow, and nonmotile polycystin-2 containing cilia sense nodal flow initiating an asymmetric calcium signal at the left border of the node.  (+info)

Force generating protein of respiratory cilia. Produces force towards the minus ends of microtubules. Dynein has ATPase activity; the force-producing power stroke is thought to occur on release of ADP. This gene encodes the heavy chain subunit of axonemal dynein, a large multi-subunit molecular motor. Axonemal dynein attaches to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP to mediate the movement of cilia and flagella. The gene expresses at least two transcript variants; additional variants have been described, but their full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
After publishing the MS in JCB we received nice positive feedback (please see the attached pdf Happy_ending for details). Maybe the message here is: good work gets recognized no matter what journal it is published in :o).. ...
This sequence change affects donor splice site in intron 77 of the DNAH8 gene. It is expected to disrupt RNA splicing and likely results in an absent or disrupted protein product. This variant is present in population databases (rs776791493, ExAC 0.005%). This variant has not been reported in the literature in individuals with DNAH8-related conditions. Algorithms developed to predict the effect of sequence changes on RNA splicing suggest that this variant may disrupt the consensus splice site, but this prediction has not been confirmed by published transcriptional studies. Donor and acceptor splice site variants typically lead to a loss of protein function (PMID: 16199547), and loss-of-function variants in DNAH8 are known to be pathogenic (PMID: 24307375). In summary, the currently available evidence indicates that the variant is pathogenic, but additional data are needed to prove that conclusively. Therefore, this variant has been classified as Likely Pathogenic ...
May be an accessory component of axonemal dynein and cytoplasmic dynein 1. Candidate for involvement in male sterility (By similarity).
Kit Component:- KN304658G1, Dnaic1 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN304658G2, Dnaic1 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN304658D, donor vector…
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:4:41569775:41638158:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000006654 transcript:OTTMUST00000015206 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Dnaic1 description:dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - ARMC4 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia with randomization of left/right body asymmetry. AU - Hjeij, Rim. AU - Lindstrand, Anna. AU - Francis, Richard. AU - Zariwala, Maimoona A.. AU - Liu, Xiaoqin. AU - Li, You. AU - Damerla, Rama. AU - Dougherty, Gerard W.. AU - Abouhamed, Marouan. AU - Olbrich, Heike. AU - Loges, Niki T.. AU - Pennekamp, Petra. AU - Davis, Erica E.. AU - Carvalho, Claudia M B. AU - Pehlivan, Davut. AU - Werner, Claudius. AU - Raidt, Johanna. AU - Köhler, Gabriele. AU - Häffner, Karsten. AU - Reyes-Mugica, Miguel. AU - Lupski, James R.. AU - Leigh, Margaret W.. AU - Rosenfeld, Margaret. AU - Morgan, Lucy C.. AU - Knowles, Michael R.. AU - Lo, Cecilia W.. AU - Katsanis, Nicholas. AU - Omran, Heymut. PY - 2013/8/8. Y1 - 2013/8/8. N2 - The motive forces for ciliary movement are generated by large multiprotein complexes referred to as outer dynein arms (ODAs), which are preassembled in the cytoplasm prior to transport to the ciliary axonemal compartment. ...
The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of streptavidin-dependent inhibition of flagellar motility was 0.15 µg/ml and the Hill coefficient was 2.37 (Fig. 3 D). At the IC50 concentration, the amount of streptavidin bound to BCCP tags was ∼5% of the saturating levels (Fig. S2 A), suggesting that the inhibitory effect of a streptavidin molecule bound to RS propagates along the axoneme. It is also noteworthy that the speed of the swimming cells did not show steep drop even when the concentration of streptavidin was high enough to inhibit the motility in 98% of the cells (Fig. 3 D, red). This all-or-none behavior suggests that inhibition of motility occurs when the amount of streptavidin bound to one axoneme is above a certain threshold.. To identify the axonemal dynein that is the downstream effector of the streptavidin-dependent inhibition of motility in rsp4C mutant, we created the strains oda1 rsp4C (lacking ODAs), ida3 rsp4C (lacking IDA subspecies f), and ida5 rsp4C (lacking IDA ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Dyneins are microtubule-associated motor protein complexes composed of several heavy, light, and intermediate chains. Two major classes of dyneins, axonemal and cytoplasmic, have been identified. DNAH14 is an axonemal dynein heavy chain (DHC) (Vaughan et al., 1996 [PubMed 8812413]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
Recent studies in several species have revealed that, rather than being the default condition, the symmetrical and synchronized development of somites on both sides of the vertebrate embryo depends on overcoming signals that promote asymmetry. Some vertebrate structures, like the skeleton, develop with bilateral symmetry, whereas others, like the heart or the stomach, develop asymmetrically. Somites, which give rise to symmetric structures, such as the vertebrae, ribs, and skeletal musculature of the trunk, arise in bilaterally symmetric pairs in an anterior to posterior sequence (see Hornstein and Tabin). Kawakami et al. found that blocking retinoic acid (RA) production in zebrafish resulted in biased asymmetry of somite development, unless H+/K+ ATPase activity or lrd (left-right dynein) translation (both critical to development of bilateral asymmetry) was inhibited. Inhibition of H+/K+ ATPase or Notch activity, or down-regulation of lrd translation, led to random asymmetry in somitogenesis, ...
Expression of DNAH9 (DNAH17L, Dnahc9, DNAL1, DYH9, HL-20, HL20, KIAA0357) in human tissue. Overview of the antibody staining with HPA052641 in immunohistochemistry
Expression of DNAH9 (DNAH17L, Dnahc9, DNAL1, DYH9, HL-20, HL20, KIAA0357) in rectum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA052641 in immunohistochemistry.
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Kimdir: Hürriyet Daily News Genel Yayın Yönetmeni ve Radikal köşe yazarı.. 1981de başladığı gazetecilik kariyerinde BBC Ankara Bürosu, DW Türkiye, AFP Ankara Bürosunda gazeteci olarak çalışmış; mevcut görevleri öncesinde, Kanal Dde Diplomasi Muhabirliği, Show TVde, NTVde, Sabahta ve Radikalde Ankara Temsilciği yapmıştır.. Ateş Hattında Aktif Politika-Ortadoğu, Balkanlar, Kafkaslar Üçgeninde Türkiye (1992); Avrupa Birliği Bekleme Odasında Türkiye (2002), Tezkere-Irak Krizinin Gerçek Öyküsü (2004) ve Kürt Kapanı-Şamdan İmralıya Öcalan (2004) isimli kitapların yazarıdır.. ...
Kartagener syndrome is essentially a subtype of an inherited disorder called primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a heterogeneous disease characterized by functionally abnormal cilia that are dysmotile or, rarely, absent. Defects of all of the axonemal structures, alone or in combination, have been identified in association with PCD. Overly long, overly short, and normally appearing but randomly oriented cilia have been associated with PCD and Kartagener syndrome. Finally, normal ciliary ultrastructure has been described in patients with the clinical picture of Kartagener syndrome. Lack of dynein arms, which are structures that form temporary cross-bridges between adjacent ciliary filaments and are believed to be responsible for generating movement in cilia and sperm tails, remains the most common defect identified (type 1) and the one classically associated with Kartagener syndrome. Cilia of the respiratory tract and sperms are dysmotile or nonfunctional. It has also been postulated that normal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutations in PIH1D3 Cause X-Linked Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Outer and Inner Dynein Arm Defects. AU - Paff, Tamara. AU - Loges, Niki T.. AU - Aprea, Isabella. AU - Wu, Kaman. AU - Bakey, Zeineb. AU - Haarman, Eric G.. AU - Daniels, Johannes M.A.. AU - Sistermans, Erik A.. AU - Bogunovic, Natalija. AU - Dougherty, Gerard W.. AU - Höben, Inga M.. AU - Große-Onnebrink, Jörg. AU - Matter, Anja. AU - Olbrich, Heike. AU - Werner, Claudius. AU - Pals, Gerard. AU - Schmidts, Miriam. AU - Omran, Heymut. AU - Micha, Dimitra. PY - 2017/1/5. Y1 - 2017/1/5. N2 - Defects in motile cilia and sperm flagella cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by chronic airway disease, infertility, and left-right body axis disturbance. Here we report maternally inherited and de novo mutations in PIH1D3 in four men affected with PCD. PIH1D3 is located on the X chromosome and is involved in the preassembly of both outer (ODA) and inner (IDA) dynein arms of cilia and sperm flagella. ...
The veterinarian performs a simple cheek swab and sends it to the laboratory. The result, delivered within few days, indicates if the tested dog is clear, carrier or affected for Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. A genetic certificate displaying the result must be used as a guarantee for a mating or to justify the sale of puppies clear of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.. The veterinarian who notices early respiratory issues in a young Old English Sheepdog puppy can process a DNA test to confirm or refute the diagnosis of Ciliary Dyskinesia. If the dog is affected, parents have to be screened as well.. A breeder who knows the genetic status of the dog can select its breeding dogs, adapt matings, avoid the birth of affected puppies and limit the spread of this severe respiratory disease in the breed.. For more information on the PCD DNA test. Reproduction of the article is permitted if the source « ANTAGENE laboratory » is acknowledged ...
Sliding between adjacent microtubules within the axonema gives rise to the motility of cilia and flagella. The driving force is produced by dynein complexes which are mainly composed of the axonemal dynein heavy chains. We used cells of human respiratory epithelium after in vitro ciliogenesis to clone cDNA fragments of nine dynein heavy chain genes, one of which had never been identified before. Dynein heavy chains are highly conserved from protozoa to human and the evolutionary ancestry of these dynein heavy chain cDNA fragments was deduced by phylogenetic analysis. These dynein heavy chain cDNAs are highly transcribed in human tissues containing axonema such as trachea, testis and brain, but not in adult heart or placenta. PAC clones containing dynein heavy chains were obtained and used to determine by FISH their chromosomal position in the human genome. They were mapped to 2p12-p11, 2q33, 3p21.2-p21.1, 13q14, 16p12 and 17p12. The chromosomal assignment of these dynein heavy chain genes which ...
DNAH5: dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 5 gene; DNAI1: dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1 gene; DNAH11: dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11 gene; TXNDC3: thioredoxin domain containing 3 (spermatozoa) gene; DNAI2: dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 2 gene; KTU: chromosome 14 open reading frame 104 gene; RPGR: retinitis pigmentosa guanosine triphosphatase regulator gene; OFD1: oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 gene; RSPH9: radial spoke head 9 homologue (Chlamydomonas) gene; RSPH4A: radial spoke head 4 homologue A (Chlamydomonas) gene; ODA: outer dynein arm; IDA: inner dynein arm; CP: central pair; c.: cDNA sequence; del: deletion; T: thymidine; IVS: intervening sequence; ins: insertion; G: guanine; A: adenine; KS: Kartageners syndrome. ...
Dynein intermediate chain 1, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAI1 gene. The inner- and outer-arm dyneins, which bridge between the doublet microtubules in axonemes, are the force-generating proteins responsible for the sliding movement in axonemes. The intermediate and light chains, thought to form the base of the dynein arm, help mediate attachment and may also participate in regulating dynein activity. This gene encodes an intermediate chain dynein, belonging to the large family of motor proteins. Mutations in this gene result in abnormal ciliary ultrastructure and function associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and Kartagener syndrome. The DNAi1 gene (axonemal dynein intermediate chain 1 gene 1) is a gene involved in the development of proper respiratory function, motility of spermatozoa, and asymmetrical organization of the viscera during embryogenesis. This gene affects these three very different aspects of development because all three are dependent on ...
Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) suffer from recurrent upper and lower airway infections due to defects in the cilia present on the respiratory epithelium. Since chronic inflammatory conditions can cause changes in innate immune responses, we investigated whether monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of pediatric PCD patients respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, compared to monocytes from healthy children and adults. The receptor for C5a (C5aR) was upregulated in PCD, whereas expression levels of the leukocyte chemoattractant receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, BLT1 and FPR1 on PCD monocytes were similar to those on monocytes from healthy individuals. Also in vitro migration of PCD monocytes towards the ligands of those receptors (CCL2, fMLP, C5a and LTB4) was normal. Compared to healthy children, PCD patients had a higher percentage of the non-classic monocyte subset (CD14+CD16++) in circulation. Finally, PCD monocytes produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines ...
Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disease characterised by recurrent respiratory infections and subfertility due to dysfunction of cilia (brushes) of the lining cells. Undiagnosed and untreated it can result in an irreversible crippling chronic lung disease. The diagnosis of PCD is a difficult one and involves the complex assessment of ciliary structure and function. Thus, PCD is under diagnosed and appropriate preventative and symptomatic treatment may be denied in many patients. In addition, the gene responsible for PCD is at present unknown, thus preventing pre-natal diagnosis and genetic counseling.. Working hypothesis and aims: Recently, it has become apparent that the evaluation of nasally expired nitric oxide (NO) constitutes a simple and non-invasive diagnostic method, which discriminates between PCD patients, PCD carriers and healthy controls at high rate of specificity and sensitivity. Testing is simple and last approximately one minute. We have recently ...
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically inherited condition. It is due to structural abnormalities of cilia, which are microscopic hairs found in organs and cells throughout the body. Patients with this condition typically develop upper respiratory tract symptoms such as sinusitis and glue ear, lower respiratory tract problems such as recurrent chest infections, and fertility problems. There is currently no evidence that patients with PCD have a higher incidence of balance problems. However, recent animal studies have shown that cilia may also be important in the development of part of the inner ear balance (vestibular) system, specifically the part that detects linear movement known as the otolith system.. The investigators hope to determine whether patients with PCD have absent or reduced otolith function compared to the normal population. Balance problems are not currently screened for in PCD patients, and could be unrecognized and therefore untreated. It is also possible that PCD ...
Reduced mucociliary clearance in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) causes recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. The disease is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. To identify a gene locus for PCD, we studied a l
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder often associated with chronic ear, sinus, and respiratory infections.
At this time it also emerged that cilia function played a role during LR-axis development, and both the iv and the inv mouse mutants were important in this respect. First described in 1956 [39], iv was mapped to mouse chromosome 12 in 1989 [47] and identified by a positional cloning approach in 1997 as an axonemal dynein heavy-chain gene named left/right-dynein (Lrd, currently known as dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11; Dnah11) [48]. Lrd was shown to be expressed in the node of the embryo at E7.5, consistent with having a role in LR-development [48]. Based on the observation that the asymmetric expression patterns of Nodal and Lefty were randomized in iv/iv embryos, it was suggested that iv functions early in the genetic hierarchy of LR-specification. Nevertheless, the connection between Lrd and cilia at the node was considered unlikely; at that time, it had been supposed that cilia at the node were immotile monocilia lacking dynein arms [49] even though ciliary motility at the node, despite no ...
We have previously described the de novo evolution of a gene in the lineage of D. melanogaster (1). This gene, denoted Sdic, encodes a novel intermediate chain in a sperm-specific axonemal dynein. Changes that led to the creation of Sdic during the short evolutionary history of D. melanogaster [about 3 million years (2)] exhibit evidence for adaptive evolution. The gene was created from duplicated-and hence dispensable-copies of the genes for annexin X (AnnX) and the cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain (Cdic). Three large deletions led to the fusion of the duplicated genes, whereupon a series of smaller deletions and nucleotide substitutions fashioned a new amino end of the Sdic polypeptide and created motifs characteristic of known axonemal dynein intermediate chains. The regulatory region of Sdic, including a spermatocyte-specific promoter element, also evolved fromAnnX and Cdic sequences (1).. In principle, the evolutionary changes in Sdic could have taken place relatively rapidly during ...
As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.. In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 ...
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Despite living with four lung conditions, including Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH), Bridget is a bubbly and positive young woman who tries to always look on the bright side of life. Its the life-long friendships made with others living with PAH, the love and support of her family and the motivation of her role models that encourage and inspire Bridget to live her best life. This is her story. My name is Bridget, I am 25 years old and I live in Narangba, Queensland with a friend. We both recently moved into Specialised Disability Accommodation. My Assistance Dog Lily also moved with me. I have four lung conditions: Kartagener Syndrome, Bronchiectasis, Reactive Small Airways Disease and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH). I was diagnosed with Kartagener Syndrome at 3 months old. It is a genetic disorder which I had to deal with a lot growing up, as I got bullied in school for having a runny nose. The journey to my diagnosis of PAH was six months after I first started getting severe ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Kartagener-syndromás no kiviselt ikerterhessége. AU - Gávai, Márta. AU - Beke, A.. AU - Urbancsek, J.. AU - Murber, Ákos. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - In females, the immobility of the cilia in the fallopian tube may cause barrenness. Pregnancy does not affect the frequency and severity of existing bronchitis, bronchiectasia and bronchial asthma caused by primary ciliary dyskinesia. There is an increased risk of premature delivery in patients with Kartagener syndrome. Since assisted reproduction is often used, the risk of multiple gestations is higher. Along with multiple gestation comes the increased risk of premature delivery, not only because of the presence of multiple fetuses and uterine stretching, but also because the increased size of the uterus presses against the already poorly functioning maternal lungs and can lead to infection and early rupture of the membranes. In cases where a cesarean section becomes necessary, it is very important to use the appropriate ...
Year 2018. Grant recipient: Claudia E. Kuhni. Lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia: an iPCD Cohort study.. Halbeisen FS1, Goutaki M1,2, Spycher BD1,2, Amirav I3,4,5, Behan L6,7, Boon M8, Hogg C9, Casaulta C2,10, Crowley S11, Haarman EG12, Karadag B13, Koerner-Rettberg C14, Loebinger MR15, Mazurek H16, Morgan L17, Nielsen KG18, Omran H19, Santamaria F20, Schwerk N21, Thouvenin G22,23,24, Yiallouros P25, Lucas JS6, Latzin P2, Kuehni CE1,. Eur Respir J. 2018 Aug 23;52(2). Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been considered a relatively mild disease, especially compared to cystic fibrosis (CF), but studies on lung function in PCD patients have been few and small.This study compared lung function from spirometry of PCD patients to normal reference values and to published data from CF patients. We calculated z-scores and % predicted values for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) using the Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 values for 991 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Congratulations to Dr. Cecilia Lo and Dr. Michael Tsang on their recently funded NIH administrative supplement, Assaying Heterotaxy Patient Genes in a Cilia Motility and Left-Right Patterning. This project will examine whether expression of the RCV can rescue the HTX phenotype elicited by MO gene knockdown in the zebrafish embryo.
Determination of the vertebrate left-right body axis during embryogenesis results in asymmetric development and placement of most inner organs. Although the asymmetric Nodal cascade is conserved in all vertebrates, the mechanism of symmetry breakage has remained controversial. In mammalian and fish …
Zariwala MA, Gee HY, Kurkowiak M, Al-Mutairi DA, Leigh MW, Hurd TW, Hjeij R, Dell SD, Chaki M, Dougherty GW, Adan M, Spear PC, Esteve-Rudd J, Loges NT, Rosenfeld M, Diaz KA, Olbrich H, Wolf WE, Sheridan E, Batten TF, Halbritter J, Porath JD, Kohl S, Lovric S, Hwang DY, Pittman JE, Burns KA, Ferkol TW, Sagel SD, Olivier KN, Morgan LC, Werner C, Raidt J, Pennekamp P, Sun Z, Zhou W, Airik R, Natarajan S, Allen SJ, Amirav I, Wieczorek D, Landwehr K, Nielsen K, Schwerk N, Sertic J, Köhler G, Washburn J, Levy S, Fan S, Koerner-Rettberg C, Amselem S, Williams DS, Mitchell BJ, Drummond IA, Otto EA, Omran H, Knowles MR, Hildebrandt F. ZMYND10 is mutated in primary ciliary dyskinesia and interacts with LRRC6. Am J Hum Genet. 93: 336-3345, 2013 [PDF ...
Dyneins: Structure, Biology and Disease, Second Edition, offers a broad view of dyneins mechanics, dysfunction, and disease, providing an overview of dyn...
DISQUINESIA CILIAR PRIMARIA PDF - Disease definition. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous, primarily respiratory disorder characterized by chronic upper
Horani A, Druley TE, Zariwala MA, Patel AC, Levinson BT, Van Arendonk LG, Thornton KC, Giacalone JC, Albee AJ, Wilson KS, Turner EH, Nickerson DA, Shendure J, Bayly PV, Leigh MW, Knowles MR, Brody SL, Dutcher SK, Ferkol TW. Whole-exome capture and sequencing identifies HEATR2 mutation as a cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Oct 5;91(4):685-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.08.022. PMID: ...
Specimen of longsnout seahorse also known as slender seahorse pictured in its enclosure at the Madrid Zoo Aquarium. The Madrid Zoo has today registered a large influx of public as people can not... Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images
Dear Leah:. You are right and the guys from the store are wrong. The type of scratching you describe is a clear indication that your dwarf seahorses have some sort of external parasites (ectoparasites).. You can provide them with some immediate relief by giving the seahorses a quick freshwater dip, Leah, as explained below in more detail:. Freshwater Dips. A freshwater dip is simply immersing your seahorse in pure, detoxified freshwater thats been preadjusted to the same temp and pH as the water the seahorse is accustomed to, for a period of at least 10 minutes (Giwojna, Dec. 2003). It doesnt harm them - seahorses typically tolerate freshwater dips exceptionally well and a 10-minute dip should be perfectly safe. Freshwater dips are effective because marine fish tolerate the immersion in freshwater far better than the external parasites they play host to; the change in osmotic pressure kills or incapacitates such microorganisms within 7-8 minutes (Giwojna, Dec. 2003). A minimum dip, if the fish ...
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Learn how to measure T Cell activation in minutes using the Agilent Seahorse XF Hu T Cell Activation Assay Kitt. It measures human (Hu) T cell activation response within several minutes of stimulation using Seahorse XF Analyzers.
Goat polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of ZMYND11. A synthetic peptide corresponding to N-terminus of human ZMYND11. (PAB6315) - Products - Abnova
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View mouse Zmynd8 Chr2:165784155-165899016 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
This paper points out that the predictability analysis of conventional time series may in general be invalid for long-range dependent (LRD) series since the conventional mean-square error (MSE) may generally not exist for predicting LRD series. To make the MSE of LRD series prediction exist, we introduce a generalized MSE. With that, the proof of the predictability of LRD series is presented in Hilbert space.
Camera: NIKON D80 , Date: 19/04/07 20:56 , Resolution: 470 x 623 , ISO: 100 , Exp. Time: 1/160s , Aperture: 25.0 , Focal Length: 90.0 ...
A new study shows male seahorses, in addition to nurturing their growing embryos, continue to feed and protect their offspring post-pregnancy.
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Kit Component:- KN309450G1, Lrrc23 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN309450G2, Lrrc23 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN309450D, donor vector…
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Dyneins. *axonemal: DNAH1. *DNAH2. *DNAH3. *DNAH5. *DNAH6. *DNAH7. *DNAH8. *DNAH9. *DNAH10. *DNAH11 ...
Dyneins. *axonemal: DNAH1. *DNAH2. *DNAH3. *DNAH5. *DNAH6. *DNAH7. *DNAH8. *DNAH9. *DNAH10. *DNAH11 ...
Dyneins. *axonemal: DNAH1. *DNAH2. *DNAH3. *DNAH5. *DNAH6. *DNAH7. *DNAH8. *DNAH9. *DNAH10. *DNAH11 ...
Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 7 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the DNAH7 gene. DNAH7 is a component of the inner ... "Entrez Gene: Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 7". Retrieved 2013-02-12. v t e. ... dynein arm of ciliary axonemes (Zhang et al., 2002 [PubMed 11877439]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]. ##RefSeq-Attributes-START# ...
Dynein axonemal heavy chain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH1 gene. This gene encodes an inner dynein arm ... "Entrez Gene: Dynein axonemal heavy chain 1". Retrieved 2017-11-06. Zuccarello D, Ferlin A, Cazzadore C, Pepe A, Garolla A, ... Skånland SS, Wälchli S, Brech A, Sandvig K (2009). "SNX4 in complex with clathrin and dynein: implications for endosome ... which encodes an inner arm heavy chain dynein, lead to male infertility from multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm ...
"Ktu/PF13 is required for cytoplasmic pre-assembly of axonemal dyneins". Nature. 456 (7222): 611-6. doi:10.1038/nature07471. PMC ... Kintoun is a highly conserved protein involved in the preassembly of dynein arm complexes which power cilia. These complexes ...
Dynein heavy chain 11, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH11 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: DNAH11 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11". Blyth M, Wellesley D (April 2008). "Ectopic pregnancy in primary ciliary ... 2002). "Mutations in the DNAH11 (axonemal heavy chain dynein type 11) gene cause one form of situs inversus totalis and most ... Chapelin C, Duriez B, Magnino F, Goossens M, Escudier E, Amselem S (Sep 1997). "Isolation of several human axonemal dynein ...
"Entrez Gene: DNAL4 dynein, axonemal, light chain 4". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz ... Dynein light chain 4, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAL4 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH5 gene. The DNAH5 gene is a protein-coding ... "Entrez Gene: DNAH5 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 5". GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Jouannet P, ... 1997). "Identification of dynein heavy chain genes expressed in human and mouse testis: chromosomal localization of an axonemal ... 2006). "Axonemal localization of the dynein component DNAH5 is not altered in secondary ciliary dyskinesia". Pediatr. Res. 59 ( ...
This gene encodes the heavy chain subunit of axonemal dynein, a large multi-subunit molecular motor. Axonemal dynein attaches ... "Entrez Gene: DNAH9 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 9". Milisav I, Jones MH, Affara NA (1996). "Characterization of a novel human ... 2002). "Axonemal dynein expression in human fetal tracheal epithelium". Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 282 (3): L421- ... Dynein heavy chain 9, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH9 gene. ...
The dynein family has two major branches. Axonemal dyneins facilitate the beating of cilia and flagella by rapid and efficient ... Compared to 15 types of axonemal dynein, only two cytoplasmic forms are known. Genomic representation of dynein motors: Fungi ( ... Axonemal dynein, found in cilia and flagella, is crucial to cell motility, for example in spermatozoa, and fluid transport, for ... Dynein complexes are much larger and more complex than kinesin and myosin motors. Dyneins are composed of two or three heavy ...
"ZMYND10 functions in a chaperone relay during axonemal dynein assembly". eLife. 7. doi:10.7554/elife.34389. PMC 6044906. PMID ... She proposed that drugs which make dynein motor proteins functional could improve the quality of life of patients suffering ...
Dynein light chain 1, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAL1 gene. DNAL1 is a component of outer dynein ... "Identification and analysis of axonemal dynein light chain 1 in primary ciliary dyskinesia patients". Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. ... "Entrez Gene: dynein". Horváth J, Fliegauf M, Olbrich H, Kispert A, King SM, Mitchison H, Zariwala MA, Knowles MR, Sudbrak R, ...
1994). "Phylogeny and expression of axonemal and cytoplasmic dynein genes in sea urchins". Mol. Biol. Cell. 5 (1): 57-70. doi: ... chromosomal localization of an axonemal dynein gene". Gene. 200 (1-2): 193-202. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00417-4. PMID 9373155 ... Cytoplasmic dynein 2 heavy chain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYNC2H1 gene. It is associated with Short rib- ... "Entrez Gene: DYNC2H1 dynein, cytoplasmic 2, heavy chain 1". Merrill AE, Merriman B, Farrington-Rock C, et al. (April 2009). " ...
DNAH14 encoding protein Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14. *ECM1 (1q21). *EDEM3: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like ...
Dynein intermediate chain 1, axonemal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAI1 gene. The inner- and outer-arm ... The DNAi1 gene (axonemal dynein intermediate chain 1 gene 1) is a gene involved in the development of proper respiratory ... "Entrez Gene: DNAI1 dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1". GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia ... 2001). "Axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene (DNAI1) mutations result in situs inversus and primary ciliary dyskinesia ( ...
1997). "Identification of dynein heavy chain genes expressed in human and mouse testis: chromosomal localization of an axonemal ... Cytoplasmic dynein 1 heavy chain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYNC1H1 gene. DYNC1H1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: DYNC1H1 dynein, cytoplasmic 1, heavy chain 1". Tai, Chin-Yin; Dujardin Denis L; Faulkner Nicole E; Vallee Richard ... 2004). "Preferentially localized dynein and perinuclear dynactin associate with nuclear pore complex proteins to mediate ...
Her doctoral research at the University of Pennsylvania involved studies of the ATPase pathway of axonemal dynein. She worked ... She found that targeted disruption of the dynein-dynctin interaction can result in the degeneration of motor neurons. Holzbaur ... During her postdoctoral research, Holzbaur studied cytoplasmic dynein. She was the first person to clone the p150Glued, the ... Holzbaur studies various motor proteins, including dyneins, myosins and kinesins. In the axons of neurons, these motor proteins ...
Dynein produces the axonemal beating of cilia and flagella and also transports cargo along microtubules towards the cell ... The structure of Dynein consists of A Stem Containing A region that binds to dynactin Intermediate/light chains that will ... These families include the dynein family and the kinesin family. Both have very different structures from one another and ... the dynein is structured in a different way which requires it to have different movement methods. One of these methods includes ...
Axonemal dynein, found in cilia and flagella, is crucial to cell motility, for example in spermatozoa, and fluid transport, for ... and dynein, which moves cargo inside cells towards the nucleus and produces the axonemal beating of motile cilia and flagella ... Kinesins and cytoplasmic dyneins play essential roles in intracellular transport such as axonal transport and in the formation ...
... motor is cytoplasmic dynein 1b. IFT particles carry axonemal subunits to the site of assembly at the tip of the axoneme; thus, ... Intraflagellar transport or IFT is a bidirectional motility along axonemal microtubules that is essential for the formation ( ... IFT is necessary for axonemal growth. Therefore, since the axoneme needs a continually fresh supply of proteins, an axoneme ... or anterograde movement is powered by kinesin-2 while the inward or retrograde movement is powered by cytoplasmic dynein 2/1b. ...
Dynein intermediate chain 2, axonemal, also known as axonemal dynein intermediate chain 2, is a protein that in humans is ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the dynein intermediate chain family, and is part of the dynein complex of ... "Entrez Gene: dynein". Pennarun G, Chapelin C, Escudier E, Bridoux AM, Dastot F, Cacheux V, Goossens M, Amselem S, Duriez B ( ... "DNAI2 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia with defects in the outer dynein arm". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 83 (5): 547-58. doi: ...
... dynein axonemal light chain 4), and RAD51 (recombination protein A). DCC encodes a receptor for NTN1 (netrin-1), a protein ... "Identification of a homozygous splice site mutation in the dynein axonemal light chain 4 gene on 22q13.1 in a large ... DNAL4 encodes a component of dynein motor complex in commissural neurons of the corpus callosum. In contrast to DCC, DNAL4 is ...
The axoneal bend movement is based on the active sliding of axonemal doublet microtubules by the molecular motor dynein, which ... Dyneins on the two sides of the central pair apparatus are regulated in an opposite way by an activation/disactivation game ... The bending of the flagellum is due to subsequent cycles of dynein arm attachment, generation of force and detachment on the B ... The binding of the axoneme is the result of the presence of a resistance to the microtubule sliding generated by dynein. ...
... and dynein, which moves cargo inside cells towards the nucleus and produces the axonemal beating of motile cilia and flagella ...
The axoneme acts as a scaffold for axonemal inner and outer dynein arms that move motile cilia, and provides tracks for ... The dynein in the axoneme forms bridges between neighbouring microtubule doublets. When ATP activates the motor domain of ... It is of similar structure to the primitive cilium in having no central apparatus, but it does possess dynein arms that enable ... The beating motion is created by dynein arm structures the sliding of outer doublets, and originates in the axoneme, not at the ...
... cell-cell junctions and axonemal dynein assembly. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187535 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
... cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins, which are also called ciliary or flagellar dyneins. axonemal heavy chain: DNAH1, ... The regulation of axonemal dynein activity is critical for flagellar beat frequency and cilia waveform. Modes of axonemal ... Mechanical forces on the axoneme also affect axonemal dynein function. The heavy chains of inner and outer arms of axonemal ... Thioredoxins associated with the other axonemal dynein arms are oxidized/reduced to regulate where dynein binds in the axoneme ...
The dynein arms, for example, are motor complexes that produce the force needed for bending. Each dynein arm is anchored to a ... Axonemal doublet microtubules assemble from the ends of nine centriolar/basal body triplet microtubules, whose ninefold ... No dynein arms are found on the outer doublet microtubules, and there is no pair of central microtubule singlets. This ... The axonemal cytoskeleton acts as a scaffolding for various protein complexes and provides binding sites for molecular motor ...
... and dynein, which moves cargo inside cells towards the nucleus and produces the axonemal beating of motile cilia and flagella ...
Two major classes of dyneins, axonemal and cytoplasmic, have been identified. DNAH14 is an axonemal dynein heavy chain (DHC) ( ... Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH14 gene. Dyneins are microtubule-associated ... "Entrez Gene: Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14". Vaughan KT, Mikami A, Paschal BM, Holzbaur EL, Hughes SM, Echeverri CJ, Moore ... KJ, Gilbert DJ, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Vallee RB (August 1996). "Multiple mouse chromosomal loci for dynein-based motility". ...
Each of the outer 9 doublet microtubules extends a pair of dynein arms (an "inner" and an "outer" arm) to the adjacent ... Intraflagellar transport, the process by which axonemal subunits, transmembrane receptors, and other proteins are moved up and ... and eukaryotic flagella is that the bacteria and archaea do not have microtubules or dynein in their flagella, and eukaryotes ... do have microtubules and dynein in the structure of their flagella. Other differences among these three types are: Bacterial ...
"Rhodopsin's carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail acts as a membrane receptor for cytoplasmic dynein by binding to the dynein light ... However, the Cornell researchers suggest that some of the axonemal vesicles were directly shipped from the IS through the ...
These complexs are involved in the coordinated movement of macromolecular cargo from the basal body along axonemal microtubules ... is driven by kinesin-2 while the retrograde movement of particles back to the cell body is driven by cytoplasmic dynein 1b/2[ ...
dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal isoform X7 [Homo sapiens] dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal isoform X7 [Homo sapiens]. gi, ... dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal isoform X7 [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: XP_016864671.1 ... This gene encodes a dynein protein, which is part of a microtubule-associated motor protein complex consisting of heavy, light ...
Two major classes of dyneins, axonemal and cytoplasmic, have been identified. DNAH14 is an axonemal dynein heavy chain (DHC) ( ... Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH14 gene. Dyneins are microtubule-associated ... "Entrez Gene: Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14". Vaughan KT, Mikami A, Paschal BM, Holzbaur EL, Hughes SM, Echeverri CJ, Moore ... KJ, Gilbert DJ, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Vallee RB (August 1996). "Multiple mouse chromosomal loci for dynein-based motility". ...
Component of the outer arm dynein (ODA) (PubMed:19620633). May be involved in a mechanosensory feedback mechanism controlling ... ODA activity based on external conformational cues by tethering the outer arm dynein heavy chain (ODA2) to the A-tubule of the ... Part of the multisubunit axonemal ATPase complexes that generate the force for flagellar motility and govern beat frequency ( ... "Identification and analysis of axonemal dynein light chain 1 in primary ciliary dyskinesia patients.". Horvath J., Fliegauf M. ...
"Identification of a homozygous splice site mutation in the dynein axonemal light chain 4 gene on 22q13.1 in a large ... sp,O96015,DNAL4_HUMAN Dynein light chain 4, axonemal OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=DNAL4 PE=1 SV=1 ... dynein intermediate chain binding Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of ... dynein light intermediate chain binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*21873635 ...
Synonyms: Axonemal dynein light intermediate polypeptide 1, Inner dynein arm light chain, axonemal, P28, dJ423B22.5, hp28 ... Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning and characterization of a putative human axonemal dynein light chain gene. Kastury ... The murine Dnali1 gene encodes a flagellar protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain 1. Rashid, S., ... was localized in cilia of the trachea as well as in flagella of mature sperm supporting its function as an axonemal dynein [8]. ...
Gene Set: GO_AXONEMAL_DYNEIN_COMPLEX_ASSEMBLY. Standard name. GO_AXONEMAL_DYNEIN_COMPLEX_ASSEMBLY. ... The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an axonemal dynein complex, a dynein complex ... dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 1. 27019. 27019. DNAI1. dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1. ... dynein, axonemal, assembly factor 2. 56171. 56171. DNAH7. dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 7. ...
Identification of the outer-inner dynein linker as a hub controller for axonemal dynein activities. Curr. Biol. 23:656-664. doi ... Regulation of Chlamydomonas flagellar dynein by an axonemal protein kinase. J. Cell Biol. 127:1683-1692. doi:10.1083/jcb.127.6. ... Regulation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding by the axonemal protein kinase CK1 in Chlamydomonas flagella. J. Cell Biol. 186 ... To identify the axonemal dyneins that is the downstream effector of the rsp4C-dependent motility restoration in pf6, we ...
... dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 explanation free. What is dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11? Meaning of dynein, ... axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 medical term. What does dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 mean? ... Looking for online definition of dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 in the Medical Dictionary? ... redirected from dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11) DNAH.bb.11. A gene on chromosome 7p21 that encodes a dynein heavy chain ...
... July 14, ... Axonemal dyneins function in cellular motility, but the function of DNAH8 in prostate cancer or other cell types has not been ... From this analysis, we identified Dynein Axonemal Heavy Chain 8 (DNAH8) as an AR regulator that displayed higher mRNA ...
dynein axonemal heavy chain 5) gene expression in Xenopus laevis embryo. , assayed via in situ hybridization, NF stage 18, in ...
What is dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal? Meaning of dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal medical term. What does dynein heavy chain 3 ... axonemal in the Medical Dictionary? dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of dynein heavy chain 3, ... dynein heavy chain 2, axonemal. *dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal ... Dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal , definition of dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
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Dynein axonemal assembly factor 1 (DNAAF1) primarily affects the preassembly of the inner (IDA) and outer (ODA) dynein arms, ... ODA intermediate chain dynein intermediate chain 2 and IDA light chain dynein axonemal light intermediate chain 1 in cilia (6, ... Dynein axonemal assembly factor 1 mutations of the two patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia. ... Dynein axonemal assembly factor 1 mutations of the two patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia. ...
... assigning specific dynein subtypes to each PIH protein. ... roles of all vertebrate PIH family proteins in axonemal dynein ... dynein axonemal heavy chain) genes, we also discuss the organ-specific compositions of axonemal dyneins assembled by PIH ... The ciliary inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, is assembled in the cytoplasm and transported by IFT before axonemal docking * R ... This cytoplasmic preassembly of axonemal dyneins requires various proteins collectively called dynein axonemal assembly factors ...
... assigning specific dynein subtypes to each PIH protein. ... roles of all vertebrate PIH family proteins in axonemal dynein ... A) Summary of the sperm motilities and the axonemal structures of WT and each PIH gene mutant. Abnormal axonemal dyneins are ... Cryo-ET revealed structural defects of axonemal dyneins in mutant spermatozoa.. (A) DMT structure of native zebrafish sperm. ... Red circles indicate the defects of axonemal dyneins. Green, OADs; red, IAD f; orange, IAD a; yellow, IAD b; light-green, IAD c ...
Get highlights of the most important data releases, news and events, delivered straight to your email inbox. Subscribe to newsletter ...
Dyneins can be divided into two groups: cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins, which are also called ciliary or flagellar ... The regulation of axonemal dynein activity is critical for flagellar beat frequency and cilia waveform. Modes of axonemal ... Thioredoxins associated with the other axonemal dynein arms are oxidized/reduced to regulate where dynein binds in the axoneme ... Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those ...
Two major classes of dyneins, axonemal and cytoplasmic, have been identified. DNAH14 is an axonemal dynein heavy chain (DHC) ( ... Dynein has ATPase activity; the force-producing power stroke is thought to occur on release of ADP. Involved in sperm motility ... Dyneins are microtubule-associated motor protein complexes composed of several heavy, light, and intermediate chains. ...
Axonemal dynein assembly factor required for ciliary motility. Involved in neuronal migration during development of the ... Compartment GO Terms for Dynein assembly factor 4, axonemal. Axonemal dynein complex 54 ...
This gene encodes a highly conserved protein involved in the preassembly of dynein arm complexes which power cilia. These ... dynein axonemal assembly factor 2) Heterocephalus glaber (naked mole-rat) : Dnaaf2 (dynein axonemal assembly factor 2) more ... dynein axonemal assembly factor 2) HGNC Alliance Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) : Dnaaf2 (dynein, axonemal, assembly factor 2) ... dynein axonemal assembly factor 2) Pan paniscus (bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee) : DNAAF2 (dynein axonemal assembly factor 2) Canis ...
... depends on the sliding movements between microtubules powered by dynein. In cilia/flagella of most organisms, microtubule ... Eukaryotic flagella have two types of axonemal dyneins, inner-arm and outer-arm dyneins (IAD and OAD) (Fig. 1a). Previous ... Force-Generating Mechanism of Axonemal Dynein in Solo and Ensemble *Kenta Ishibashi ... Motility of (a) dynein deficient mutants and (b) double mutants lacking central pair and dyneins at high pressure. The mutant ...
Dyneins. *axonemal: DNAH1. *DNAH2. *DNAH3. *DNAH5. *DNAH6. *DNAH7. *DNAH8. *DNAH9. *DNAH10. *DNAH11 ...
dynein axonemal heavy chain 5. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All Close All ... OMIM: DYNEIN, AXONEMAL, HEAVY CHAIN 5. *. Djakow J, Svobodová T, Hrach K, Uhlík J, Cinek O, Pohunek P. Effectiveness of ... dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their ... The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of a group (complex) of proteins called dynein. This ...
Dynein Axonemal Heavy Chain 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... DNAH5 (Dynein Axonemal Heavy Chain 5) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DNAH5 include Ciliary Dyskinesia, ... This protein is an axonemal heavy chain dynein. It functions as a force-generating protein with ATPase activity, whereby the ... Dynein heavy chains probably consist of an N-terminal stem (which binds cargo and interacts with other dynein components), and ...
Dynein Axonemal Assembly Factor 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... DYX1C1 is required for axonemal dynein assembly and ciliary motility. (PMID: 23872636) Tarkar A … Omran H (Nature genetics 2013 ... DNAAF4 (Dynein Axonemal Assembly Factor 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DNAAF4 include Ciliary Dyskinesia ... Axonemal dynein assembly factor required for ciliary motility. Involved in neuronal migration during development of the ...
dynein axonemal heavy chain 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... Dynein has ATPase activity; the force-producing power stroke is thought to occur on release of ADP. Required in spermatozoa for ... This gene encodes an inner dynein arm heavy chain that provides structural support between the radial spokes and the outer ... the formation of the inner dynein arms and biogenesis of the axoneme (PubMed:24360805). ...
Dynein-isoform-specific intermediate chains are found in some axonemal dyneins as well as in cytoplasmic dynein 1. Some light ... The LICs, however, are associated with cytoplasmic dynein 1 and dynein 2, but, so far, with no known axonemal dyneins. These ... Cytoplasmic dyneins. Two forms of cytoplasmic dynein have been identified: cytoplasmic dynein 1 and cytoplasmic dynein 2. Both ... are found in cytoplasmic dynein 1 and some, but not all, axonemal dyneins, as well as non-dynein proteins. The LCs, therefore, ...
In contrast with cytoplasmic dynein, we find that axonemal dynein is not processive, and the duration of individual force- ... Non-Processive Force Generation by Mammalian Axonemal Dynein In Situ on Doublet Microtubules ... suggest that tension is required for rapid release of dynein following a power stroke and may explain how axonemal dynein is ... We utilize optical tweezers to examine displacements produced by small numbers of dynein motors located in situ on doublet ...
In contrast, at pCa4, dynein activity in pf18 and pf15axonemes was restored to wild-type level. The calcium-induced increase in ... We tested the hypothesis that calcium regulates motility by controlling dynein-driven microtubule sliding and that the central ... We conclude that calcium regulation of flagellar motility involves regulation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding, that ... do not exhibit calcium-induced increase in dynein activity in pCa4 buffer. ...
Cat Dynein Light Chain 1, Axonemal (DNAL1) ELISA Kit MyBioSource.com *. Detection Target: Dynein Light Chain 1, Axonemal (DNAL1 ...
  • Dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAH14 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a dynein protein, which is part of a microtubule-associated motor protein complex consisting of heavy, light, and intermed. (nih.gov)
  • A gene on chromosome 7p21 that encodes a dynein heavy chain protein, which attaches to microtubules and hydrolyses ATP to ADP, mediating the movement of respiratory cilia and producing force towards the minus ends of microtubules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • dnah5 (dynein axonemal heavy chain 5) gene expr. (xenbase.org)
  • At least five biochemically defined forms of dynein (and even more gene products) can be found in a given type of cilium or flagellum, but correlating dynein genes with specific dynein structures in the axoneme has been a long and challenging process. (biologists.org)
  • DNAH5 (Dynein Axonemal Heavy Chain 5) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of a group (complex) of proteins called dynein. (nih.gov)
  • DNAAF4 (Dynein Axonemal Assembly Factor 4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes an inner dynein arm heavy chain that provides structural support between the radial spokes and the outer doublet of the sperm tail. (nih.gov)
  • Pennarun G, Escudier E, Chapelin C, Bridoux AM, Cacheux V, Roger G, Clément A, Goossens M, Amselem S, Duriez B. Loss-of-function mutations in a human gene related to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dynein IC78 result in primary ciliary dyskinesia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cytoplasmic dynein 2 heavy chain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYNC2H1 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Using mutations in the Drosophila cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain gene, Dhc64C, we show that cytoplasmic dynein is required at two stages of oogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • This gene is the human homolog of the Chlamydomonas inner dynein arm gene, p28. (abnova.com)
  • Kartagener Syndrome, also known as dextrocardia-bronchiectasis-sinusitis syndrome , is related to ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 1 and primary ciliary dyskinesia , and has symptoms including headache An important gene associated with Kartagener Syndrome is DNAI1 (Dynein Axonemal Intermediate Chain 1). (malacards.org)
  • ARMC4 gene expression is upregulated during ciliogenesis, and we found a predicted interaction with the outer dynein arm protein DNAI2, mutations in which also cause PCD. (bmj.com)
  • This gene, denoted Sdic , encodes a novel intermediate chain in a sperm-specific axonemal dynein. (sciencemag.org)
  • The gene was created from duplicated-and hence dispensable-copies of the genes for annexin X ( AnnX ) and the cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain ( Cdic ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an axonemal dynein complex, a dynein complex found in eukaryotic cilia and flagella, in which the motor domain heads interact with adjacent microtubules to generate a sliding force which is converted to a bending motion. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Positions of outer and inner dynein arms (ODA and IDA), outer doublet microtubules (DMT), radial spokes (RS), central pair microtubules (C1 and C2), and C1a and C1b projections are indicated. (rupress.org)
  • Dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move along microtubules in cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic dynein positions the spindle at the site of cytokinesis by anchoring to the cell cortex and pulling on astral microtubules emanating from centrosome . (wikipedia.org)
  • The beating of eukaryotic flagella (also called cilia) depends on the sliding movements between microtubules powered by dynein. (nature.com)
  • We utilize optical tweezers to examine displacements produced by small numbers of dynein motors located in situ on doublet microtubules from disintegrated mammalian sperm axonemes. (blogspot.com)
  • [7] Studies of network assembly in spreading fibroblasts and differentiating nerve cells show that particles move along microtubules in a kinesin and dynein -dependent manner, and as spreading continues, the particles polymerize into intermediate filaments. (wikidoc.org)
  • Dynein pulls the microtubules and chromosomes to one end of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the end of the microtubules become to close to the cell membrane, they release a chemical signal that punts the dynein to the other side of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanochemical force for motility is provided by dynein arms (large multisubunit ATPase enzymes) that cause the doublet microtubules to slide past each other. (els.net)
  • Axonemal anomalies (absence of external and/or internal dynein arms, central pair of microtubules absence) may be the cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). (deepdyve.com)
  • Dynein transports various cellular cargo by "walking" along cytoskeletal microtubules towards the minus-end of the microtubule, which is usually oriented towards the cell center. (chemeurope.com)
  • Each dynein molecule thus forms a cross-bridge between two adjacent microtubules of the ciliary axoneme. (chemeurope.com)
  • Most ultrastructural and genetic evidence for subspecialization of the axonemal dyneins has been obtained in studies of the biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis . (biologists.org)
  • The diagram depicts the axonemal structures and densities that form the 96 nm repeat seen in longitudinal sections of the Chlamydomonas axoneme. (els.net)
  • Regulation of flagellar dynein by an axonemal type-1 phosphatase in Chlamydomonas. (bio.net)
  • Rescue of a Chlamydomonas inner-arm-dynein-deficient mutant by electroporation-mediated delivery of recombinant p28 light chain. (bio.net)
  • Although it has been reported that the central pair apparatus (CP) and radial spokes (RSs) are important for flagellar motility, the molecular mechanism underlying CP- and RS-mediated dynein regulation has not been identified. (rupress.org)
  • Genetic experiments demonstrated that outer dynein arms are the major downstream effectors of CP- and RS-mediated regulation of flagellar motility. (rupress.org)
  • Axonemal dyneins function in cellular motility, but the function of DNAH8 in prostate cancer or other cell types has not been reported. (urotoday.com)
  • Mutations caused the loss of specific dynein subtypes, which was correlated with abnormal sperm motility. (elifesciences.org)
  • We also found organ-specific compositions of dynein subtypes, which could explain the severe motility defects of mutant Kupffer's vesicle cilia. (elifesciences.org)
  • Axonemal dynein assembly factor required for ciliary motility. (nih.gov)
  • We tested the hypothesis that calcium regulates motility by controlling dynein-driven microtubule sliding and that the central pair and radial spokes are involved in this regulation. (dartmouth.edu)
  • We conclude that calcium regulation of flagellar motility involves regulation of dynein-driven microtubule sliding, that calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent kinase II may mediate the calcium signal, and that the central apparatus and radial spokes are key components of the calcium signaling pathway. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The results confirm the switching aspect of the prevailing "switch-point" hypothesis but change the view with respect to how dynein activities are coordinated to drive flagellar motility. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the prevailing "switch-point" hypothesis posits that flagellar motility results from periodic switching of spatially restricted, asymmetrical activation of dyneins, no direct evidence has been reported, and how the thousands of dyneins inside a flagellum work together to generate flagellar motility remains elusive. (sciencemag.org)
  • The results allowed us to elucidate the distinct roles played by various dyneins and to propose a model for the mechanism that underlies ciliary and flagellar motility. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our results revealed three key tenets that are important for generating flagellar motility: (i) The asymmetric distribution of dynein activity on opposite sides of the flagellum results in unidirectional bending, and (ii) the switching of dynein conformations between opposite sides causes the undulating waveform of beating flagella, both of which directly confirmed the switching aspect of the previously proposed switch-point hypothesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Outer (ODAs) and inner (IDAs) dynein arms contain the molecular motors that generate the force to move cilia by ATP-dependent reactions. (uniprot.org)
  • Construction of motile cilia/flagella requires cytoplasmic preassembly of axonemal dyneins before transport into cilia. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that all vertebrate PIH proteins are differently required for cilia/flagella motions and the assembly of axonemal dyneins, assigning specific dynein subtypes to each PIH protein. (elifesciences.org)
  • A structure called the axonemal dynein complex at the core of the cilia generates the beating motion. (elifesciences.org)
  • Further work on how PIH proteins interact with the axonemal dynein complexes will help us to understand how cells make cilia, and what happens when this process goes wrong. (elifesciences.org)
  • Dynein transports various cellular cargos , provides forces and displacements important in mitosis , and drives the beat of eukaryotic cilia and flagella . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynein produces the force needed for cilia to move. (nih.gov)
  • Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their location. (nih.gov)
  • The beating of cilia and flagella depends on many biochemical factors including the different effects of outer versus inner dynein arm motors, the DRC (dynein regulatory complex) and DRC-radial spoke interactions mediated by kinases. (els.net)
  • It has been suggested that DNAL1 serves a regulatory function for DNAH5 activity in outer dynein arms of sperm flagella, respiratory cilia, and ependymal cilia. (thermofisher.com)
  • C14orf104 encodes a highly conserved protein involved in the preassembly of dynein arm complexes which power cilia. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • A deficiency of ARMC4 protein was seen in patient's respiratory cilia accompanied by loss of the distal outer dynein arm motors responsible for generating ciliary beating, giving rise to cilia immotility. (bmj.com)
  • Loss-of-function mutations in ARMC4 cause PCD with situs inversus and cilia immotility, associated with a loss of the distal outer (but not inner) dynein arms. (bmj.com)
  • A T-to-A point mutation in a splice junction of Dnah5 (dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 5) was identified in an ENU screen for recessive cardiovascular development phenotypes in Dr. Cecilia Lo's laboratory, NHLBI Cardiovascular Development Consortium (CvDC). (jax.org)
  • Each molecule of the dynein motor is a complex protein assembly composed of many smaller polypeptide subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three large deletions led to the fusion of the duplicated genes, whereupon a series of smaller deletions and nucleotide substitutions fashioned a new amino end of the Sdic polypeptide and created motifs characteristic of known axonemal dynein intermediate chains. (sciencemag.org)
  • Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. (nih.gov)
  • Required in spermatozoa for the formation of the inner dynein arms and biogenesis of the axoneme (PubMed:24360805). (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that tension is required for rapid release of dynein following a power stroke and may explain how axonemal dynein is adapted to work in arrays within an axoneme, where cyclical bending patterns require motors to function over a range of sliding velocities. (blogspot.com)
  • It has been proposed that the outer arm dyneins of the ciliary axoneme control beat frequency changes, while the many different inner arm dyneins contribute to the waveform. (buffalo.edu)
  • The assembly of the axoneme is tightly regulated by the expression of specific genes, by the limited amount of axonemal precursor proteins and by kinase enzymes. (els.net)
  • Intraflagellar transport (IFT) involves anterograde and retrograde transport of specific molecules along the axoneme (via kinesin and dynein motors respectively), and it is an essential process for ciliary/flagellar assembly and their signalling functions. (els.net)
  • This tension develops as a transverse t ‐force that acts to pull the dynein arms on doublets 1-4 away from their interacting B‐tubules (as in (a) and (b)), locally inhibiting dynein‐driven sliding on one side of the axoneme only and allowing the bend to propagate. (els.net)
  • c) Eventually, as the axoneme bends, the t ‐force acts across the axoneme to deform it, pulling apart and inactivating the dyneins on doublets 6-9, and allowing the dynein arms on doublets 1-4 to engage and generate a reverse bend (not shown). (els.net)
  • Dynein has ATPase activity (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Dynein axonemal assembly factor 1 (DNAAF1) primarily affects the preassembly of the inner (IDA) and outer (ODA) dynein arms, which are multisubunit ATPase complexes ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The force-generating ATPase activity of each dynein heavy chain is located in its large doughnut-shaped "head", which is related to other AAA proteins , while two projections from the head connect it to other cytoplasmic structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axonemal proteins from wild-type (wt) and RSP mutant strains were separated by SDS-PAGE and probed with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin, anti-HA, or anti-GFP antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • These genes encode proteins that contribute to the synthesis or assembly of axonemes, dyneins, radial spokes or other similar structures. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, the identities of all of these proteins, and their roles in constructing specific axonemal dynein complexes, is not fully known. (elifesciences.org)
  • Studies in algae have suggested that a family of proteins known as PIH (short for protein interacting with Hsp90) helps to construct axonemal dynein complexes. (elifesciences.org)
  • All dynein forms that have been identified biochemically are multisubunit proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Some light chains are shared between axonemal dyneins, cytoplasmic dynein 1 and other proteins. (biologists.org)
  • We propose that the axonemal inner arm dynein heavy chain 7 proteins contribute to the formation of normal ciliary waveform which in turn governs the forward swimming velocity of these cells. (buffalo.edu)
  • Some dynein heavy chains either show an abnormal conformation or were replaced by other proteins, possibly minor dyneins. (rupress.org)
  • Dyneins are microtubule-associated motor protein complexes composed of several heavy, light, and intermediate chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diversity of accessory subunits, referred to as intermediate, light intermediate and light chains are also found associated with the dyneins. (biologists.org)
  • Dynein-isoform-specific intermediate chains are found in some axonemal dyneins as well as in cytoplasmic dynein 1. (biologists.org)
  • Isoform-specific light intermediate chains are associated with both cytoplasmic dyneins but not with axonemal dyneins. (biologists.org)
  • To test the role of one of these inner arm dynein heavy chains, Dyh7p, a knockout mutant was generated by targeted biolistic transformation of the vegetative macronucleus. (buffalo.edu)
  • Dynein heavy chains probably consist of an N-terminal stem (which binds cargo and interacts with other dynein components), and the head or motor domain. (abcam.com)
  • The alternating activity of the paired heavy chains in the complete cytoplasmic dynein motor enables a single dynein molecule to transport its cargo by "walking" a considerable distance along a microtubule without becoming completely detached. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eight inner arm dynein heavy chains regulate and determine flagellar waveform. (rupress.org)
  • the six single-headed dynein heavy chains (dyneins a-e and g) are roughly collinear, whereas the heterodimer dynein f, also called I1, is at a closer distance to the A-tubule. (rupress.org)
  • Axonemal dynein come in multiple forms that contain either one, two or three non-identical heavy chains (depending upon the organism and location in the cilium). (chemeurope.com)
  • In contrast, at pCa4, dynein activity in pf18 and pf15 axonemes was restored to wild-type level. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The calcium-induced increase in dynein activity in pf18 axonemes was inhibited by antagonists of calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent kinase II. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Axonemes lacking the C1 central tubule ( pf16 ) or lacking radial spoke components ( pf14 and pf17 ) do not exhibit calcium-induced increase in dynein activity in pCa4 buffer. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In-depth ultrastructural analyses confirmed a subtle outer dynein arm (ODA) defect in the axonemes of respiratory epithelial cells resembling findings reported in Mns1-deficient mice. (nih.gov)
  • In 10- or 11-doublet axonemes, only 3-5 RSs are attached to the CP and the doublet arrangement is distorted most likely because the RSs attached to the CP pull the outer doublets toward the axonemal center. (jove.com)
  • One system involves the central pair microtubule complex and radial spokes and the second system involves the outer dynein arms. (uniprot.org)
  • Nevertheless, there was a hint of heterogeneity or flexibility in our structure in that the density of dynein b/g adjacent to radial spoke S1 was weaker compared with that of other inner arm dyneins. (rupress.org)
  • Methods 82 exons and intron/exon junctions in DNAH11 were sequenced in 163 unrelated patients with a clinical phenotype of PCD, including those with normal ciliary ultrastructure (n=58), defects in outer and/or inner dynein arms (n=76), radial spoke/central pair defects (n=6), and 23 without definitive ultrastructural results, but who had situs inversus (n=17), or bronchiectasis and/or low nasal nitric oxide (n=6). (bmj.com)
  • None of the patients with dynein arm or radial spoke/central pair defects, or isolated situs abnormalities, had mutations in DNAH11 . (bmj.com)
  • Attached to the A‐tubules are the outer dynein arms (ODA), the inner dynein arms (IDA), the radial spokes (RS) and the nexin‐dynein regulatory complex (N‐DRC), which extends to the neighbouring outer doublet. (els.net)
  • The two radial spokes, S1 and S2, are positioned just below I1 dynein and the N‐DRC (green), respectively. (els.net)
  • The CP is thought to regulate axonemal dyneins through interaction with radial spokes (RSs). (jove.com)
  • In two of the seven patients with PCD, four novel dynein axonemal assembly factor 1 (DNAAF1) mutations were identified (NM_178452.6:c.3G>A, c.124+1G>C, c.509delG and c.943A>T) in three alleles. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Early in oogenesis, dynein mutations disrupt spindle orientation in dividing cysts and block oocyte determination. (biologists.org)
  • however, some patients have clinical manifestations of PCD and low levels of nasal nitric oxide, but normal ultrastructure, including a few patients with biallelic mutations in dynein axonemal heavy chain 11 ( DNAH11 ). (bmj.com)
  • A technique called cryo-electron microscopy enabled the axonemal dynein complexes in the tails of the sperm produced by the zebrafish to be visualized. (elifesciences.org)
  • The sperm from each mutant lacked specific axonemal dynein complexes, revealing that each PIH protein assembles different complexes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Sea urchin sperm flagella have also been used for biochemical analysis of axonemal dyneins, but limited work has been performed in vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • There are no publications for Dynein intermediate chain 2 Antibody (H00064446-M01UV). (novusbio.com)
  • The other projection, the extended tail, binds to the light intermediate, intermediate and light chain subunits which attach dynein to its cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belongs to the dynein light chain Tctex-type family. (abcam.com)
  • Whereas myosin uses actin polymers to carry out its tasks, kinesin and dynein are microtubule-associated motors. (biologists.org)
  • The outer doublet also attaches inner-arm dynein (IAD) and outer-arm dynein (OAD) projecting toward the adjacent doublet, which drive sliding between outer doublets to produce axonemal beating 2 . (nature.com)
  • All axonemal dyneins are stably associated with the complete microtubule (the A microtubule) of the outer doublet and aligned as rows along the outer or inner side of the A microtubule. (biologists.org)
  • Each of the flagellar dyneins interacts with the B microtubule of the adjacent outer doublet. (biologists.org)
  • Among these, one heavy chain (dynein c) is missing on one microtubule doublet (this doublet also lacks the outer dynein arm), and another dynein heavy chain (dynein b or g) is missing on the adjacent doublet. (rupress.org)
  • These flagellar complexes then attach to the IFT machinery, which includes the IFT motors (kinesin in orange and dynein in red) and IFT particles (blue), for transport into the flagellum and subsequent assembly into the flagellar structure. (els.net)
  • In eukaryotes, cytoplasmic dynein must be activated by binding of dynactin , another multisubunit protein that is essential for mitosis. (chemeurope.com)
  • This addition of ARMC4 to the list of genes associated with ciliary outer dynein arm defects expands our understanding of the complexities of PCD genetics. (bmj.com)
  • Human Cytoplasmic Dynein 2 Domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shown is the order of regions of interest for human cytoplasmic dynein 2 motor domains as they occur from the Linker to C-terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results provide evidence for a novel developmental role for the cytoplasmic dynein motor in cellular determination and differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • 1994). "Phylogeny and expression of axonemal and cytoplasmic dynein genes in sea urchins" . (wikidoc.org)
  • Most, but not all, of these subunits are associated with the cargo-binding base of the dynein molecule. (biologists.org)
  • Dynein is a motor protein (also called molecular motor or motor molecule) in cells which converts the chemical energy contained in ATP into the mechanical energy of movement. (chemeurope.com)
  • Cytoplasmic and axonemal dynein contain some of the same components, but they also contain some unique subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • pih1d1 , pih1d2 , ktu , and twister , and analyzed the structures of axonemal dyneins in mutant spermatozoa by cryo-electron tomography. (elifesciences.org)
  • Three families of cytoskeletal motor protein - the myosins, kinesins and dyneins - have evolved to mediate transport of cells and of structures and materials within cells in eukaryotes. (biologists.org)
  • The molecular motors dynein and kinesin drive IFT‐mediated flagellar assembly. (els.net)
  • The bending motion of flagella requires concerted activity of dynein motors. (rupress.org)
  • Dynactin may regulate the activity of dynein, and possibly facilitates the attachment of dynein to its cargo. (chemeurope.com)