The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Procedures that stimulate nerve elongation over a period of time. They are used in repairing nerve tissue.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Neurodegenerative disorders involving deposition of abnormal tau protein isoforms (TAU PROTEINS) in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Pathological aggregations of tau proteins are associated with mutation of the tau gene on chromosome 17 in patients with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DEMENTIA; PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS; progressive supranuclear palsy (SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE); and corticobasal degeneration.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Localization of sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons innervating the heart of the Beijing duck by means of the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. (1/1188)

Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons were labeled by injections of horseradish peroxidase into various regions of the heart in 33 Beijing ducks. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the heart were located in the paravertebral ganglia C15 (C16 is the last cervical segment in the duck) to T3, especially in the ganglion T1. The coronary sulcus and ventricle were more abundantly innervated by sympathetic neurons than the atrium. The left side of the heart was preferentially innervated by sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the left side of paravertebral ganglia but the right side of the heart were equally supplied from the right and left ganglia. Within the medulla oblongata, the number of labeled vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus was much greater than that in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. Labeled neurons of the nucleus ambiguus were found in many ducks injected into the coronary sulcus. Cardiac sensory neurons were observed in the dorsal root ganglia C15 to T2 (highest in the ganglion T1) and in the nodose and jugular ganglia of the vagus nerve. These labeled neurons probably form the afferent and efferent limbs of cardiac reflexes and control circulation in the Beijing duck.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (2/1188)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

A genetic approach to trace neural circuits. (3/1188)

Mammalian nervous system function involves billions of neurons which are interconnected in a multitude of neural circuits. Here we describe a genetic approach to chart neural circuits. By using an olfactory-specific promoter, we selectively expressed barley lectin in sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ of transgenic mice. The lectin was transported through the axons of those neurons to the olfactory bulb, transferred to the bulb neurons with which they synapse, and transported through the axons of bulb neurons to the olfactory cortex. The lectin also was retrogradely transported from the bulb to neuromodulatory brain areas. No evidence could be obtained for adverse effects of the lectin on odorant receptor gene expression, sensory axon targeting in the bulb, or the generation or transmission of signals by olfactory sensory neurons. Transneuronal transfer was detected prenatally in the odor-sensing pathway, but only postnatally in the pheromone-sensing pathway, suggesting that odors, but not pheromones, may be sensed in utero. Our studies demonstrate that a plant lectin can serve as a transneuronal tracer when its expression is genetically targeted to a subset of neurons. This technology can potentially be applied to a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate neural systems and may be particularly valuable for mapping connections formed by small subsets of neurons and for studying the development of connectivity as it occurs in utero.  (+info)

NK-1 receptor immunoreactivity in distinct morphological types of lamina I neurons of the primate spinal cord. (4/1188)

In cat and monkey, lamina I cells can be classified into three basic morphological types (fusiform, pyramidal, and multipolar), and recent intracellular labeling evidence in the cat indicates that fusiform and multipolar lamina I cells are two different types of nociceptive cells, whereas pyramidal cells are innocuous thermoreceptive-specific. Because earlier observations indicated that only nociceptive dorsal horn neurons respond to substance P (SP), we examined which morphological types of lamina I neurons express receptors for SP (NK-1r). We categorized NK-1r-immunoreactive (IR) lamina I neurons in serial horizontal sections from the cervical and lumbar enlargements of four monkeys. Consistent results were obtained by two independent teams of observers. Nearly all NK-1r-IR cells were fusiform (42%) or multipolar (43%), but only 6% were pyramidal (with 9% unclassified). We obtained similar findings in three monkeys in which we used double-labeling immunocytochemistry to identify NK-1r-IR and spinothalamic lamina I neurons retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit b from the thalamus; most NK-1r-IR lamina I spinothalamic neurons were fusiform (48%) or multipolar (33%), and only 10% were pyramidal. In contrast, most (approximately 75%) pyramidal and some (approximately 25%) fusiform and multipolar lamina I spinothalamic neurons did not display NK-1r immunoreactivity. These data indicate that most fusiform and multipolar lamina I neurons in the monkey can express NK-1r, consistent with the idea that both types are nociceptive, whereas only a small proportion of lamina I pyramidal cells express this receptor, consistent with the previous finding that they are non-nociceptive. However, these findings also indicate that not all nociceptive lamina I neurons express receptors for SP.  (+info)

Leukemia inhibitory factor augments neurotrophin expression and corticospinal axon growth after adult CNS injury. (5/1188)

The cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) modulates glial and neuronal function in development and after peripheral nerve injury, but little is known regarding its role in the injured adult CNS. To further understand the biological role of LIF and its potential mechanisms of action after CNS injury, effects of cellularly delivered LIF on axonal growth, glial activation, and expression of trophic factors were examined after adult mammalian spinal cord injury. Fibroblasts genetically modified to produce high amounts of LIF were grafted to the injured spinal cords of adult Fischer 344 rats. Two weeks after injury, animals with LIF-secreting cells showed a specific and significant increase in corticospinal axon growth compared with control animals. Furthermore, expression of neurotrophin-3, but not nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, or ciliary neurotrophic factor, was increased at the lesion site in LIF-grafted but not in control subjects. No differences in astroglial and microglial/macrophage activation were observed. Thus, LIF can directly or indirectly modulate molecular and cellular responses of the adult CNS to injury. These findings also demonstrate that neurotrophic molecules can augment expression of other trophic factors in vivo after traumatic injury in the adult CNS.  (+info)

Development and organization of ocular dominance bands in primary visual cortex of the sable ferret. (6/1188)

Thalamocortical afferents in the visual cortex of the adult sable ferret are segregated into eye-specific ocular dominance bands. The development of ocular dominance bands was studied by transneuronal labeling of the visual cortices of ferret kits between the ages of postnatal day 28 (P28) and P81 after intravitreous injections of either tritiated proline or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase. Laminar specificity was evident in the youngest animals studied and was similar to that in the adult by P50. In P28 and P30 ferret kits, no modulation reminiscent of ocular dominance bands was detectable in the pattern of labeling along layer IV. By P37 a slight fluctuation in the density of labeling in layer IV was evident in serial reconstructions. By P50, the amplitude of modulation had increased considerably but the pattern of ocular dominance bands did not yet appear mature. The pattern and degree of modulation of the ocular dominance bands resembled that in adult animals by P63. Flat mounts of cortex and serial reconstructions of layer IV revealed an unusual arrangement of inputs serving the two eyes in the region rostral to the periodic ocular dominance bands. In this region, inputs serving the contralateral eye were commonly fused along a mediolateral axis, rostral to which were large and sometimes fused patches of ipsilateral input.  (+info)

Neutralizing antibodies inhibit axonal spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 to epidermal cells in vitro. (7/1188)

The ability of antibodies to interfere with anterograde transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from neuronal axons to the epidermis was investigated in an in vitro model consisting of human fetal dorsal root ganglia innervating autologous skin explants in a dual-chamber tissue culture system. The number and size of viral cytopathic plaques in epidermal cells after axonal transmission from HSV type 1 (HSV-1)-infected dorsal root ganglionic neurons were significantly reduced by addition to the outer chamber of neutralizing polyclonal human sera to HSV-1, of a human recombinant monoclonal group Ib antibody to glycoprotein D (gD), and of rabbit sera to HSV-1 gB and gD but not by rabbit anti-gE or anti-gG. A similar pattern of inhibition of direct infection of epidermal cells by these antibodies was observed. High concentrations of the monoclonal anti-gD reduced transmission by 90%. Rabbit anti-gB was not taken up into neurons, and human anti-gD did not influence spread of HSV in the dorsal root ganglia or axonal transport of HSV antigens when applied to individual dissociated neurons. These results suggest that anti-gD and -gB antibodies interfere with axonal spread of HSV-1, possibly by neutralizing HSV during transmission across an intercellular gap between axonal termini and epidermal cells, and thus contribute to control of HSV spread and shedding. Therefore, selected human monoclonal antibodies to protective epitopes might even be effective in preventing epidermis-to-neuron transmission during primary HSV infection, especially neonatal infection.  (+info)

The GDVII strain of Theiler's virus spreads via axonal transport. (8/1188)

Following intracerebral inoculation, the DA strain of Theiler's virus sequentially infects neurons in the gray matter and glial cells in the white matter of the spinal cord. It persists in the latter throughout the life of the animal. Several observations suggest that the virus spreads from the gray to the white matter by axonal transport. In contrast, the neurovirulent GDVII strain causes a fatal encephalitis with lytic infection of neurons. It does not infect the white matter of the spinal cord efficiently and does not persist in survivors. The inability of this virus to infect the white matter could be due to a defect in axonal transport. Using footpad inoculations, we showed that the GDVII strain is, in fact, transported in axons. Transport was prevented by sectioning the sciatic nerve. The kinetics of transport and experiments using colchicine suggested that the virus uses microtubule-associated fast axonal transport. Our results show that a cardiovirus can spread by fast axonal transport and suggest that the inability of the GDVII strain to infect the white matter is not due to a defect in axonal transport.  (+info)

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) inhibits neurofilament (NF) anterograde axonal transport while p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPk) promotes it. Since cdk5 is known to inhibit MAP kinase activity, we examined whether or not cdk5 inhibits anterograde NF transport via inhibition of MAPk activity. To accomplish this, we manipulated the activity of these kinases in differentiated NB2a/d1 cells, and monitored anterograde axonal transport of green fluorescent protein-conjugated-NF-M (GFP-M) and cyan fluorescent protein-conjugated (CFP)-tau. The cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine increased anterograde axonal transport of GFP-M and CFP-tau; transfection with cdk5/p25 inhibited transport of both. Inhibition of MAPk activity by PD98059 or expression of dominant-negative MAPk inhibited anterograde GFP-M transport, while expression of constitutively active MAPk enhanced it; these treatments did not affect CFP-tau transport. PD98059 prevented roscovitine-mediated enhancement of GFP-M transport, but did ...
However, new insights into the basic properties of fast axonal transport are beginning to illuminate the roles that it may play during axonal growth. Although fast axonal transport is often used to refer solely to the movement of materials at the fastest orthograde rate, there is good reason for including in fast axonal transport the translocation of membranous organelles of all types in both directions (Lasek and Brady, 1982). The original descriptions of fast axonal transport (for example, see Lasek, 1967; Dahlstrom and Haggendahl, 1967; Grafstein, 1967) focused on the fastest moving elements leaving the cell bodies and defined this as fast axonal transport. I I FIGURE 3. Various responses of the facial nerve cell bodies following different types of axonal injuries in different animal species. , 1982). Biochemical changes in the nerve cell body occur after the injection of botulinum toxin into the area of neuromuscular junction. Watson (1974) suggested that since botulinum toxin causes a block ...
Mutations in the microtubule-binding protein tau cause the protein to aggregate in neurodegenerative diseases such as some forms of frontotemporal dementia-but many conditions evince tau tangles in the absence of tau mutations. Scientists know that mutant tau interferes with axonal transport. The explanation for wild-type tau tangles may be that transport deficiencies, in turn, cause tauopathy. In the May 6 Journal of Neuroscience, scientists from the University of California, San Diego, report that when they interfered with transport in mice, tau became hyperphosphorylated. The authors suggest that impaired axonal transport could be a common mechanism leading to tau tangles in the handful of diseases so far defined as tauopathies.. Tangled tau features in nine known tauopathies (reviewed in Hernández and Avila, 2007), and axonal transport defects are common in neurodegenerative disease (reviewed in De Vos et al., 2008). In all these neurodegenerative diseases, axonal transport is abnormal at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct evidence for coherent low velocity axonal transport of mitochondria. AU - Miller, Kyle E.. AU - Sheetz, Michael. PY - 2006/5/8. Y1 - 2006/5/8. N2 - Axonal growth depends on axonal transport. We report the first global analysis of mitochondrial transport during axonal growth and pauses. In the proximal axon, we found that docked mitochondria attached to the cytoskeletal framework that were stationary relative to the substrate and fast axonal transport fully accounted for mitochondrial transport. In the distal axon, we found both fast mitochondrial transport and a coherent slow transport of the mitochondria docked to the axonal framework (low velocity transport [LVT]). LVT was distinct from previously described transport processes; it was coupled with stretching of the axonal framework and, surprisingly, was independent of growth cone advance. Fast mitochondrial transport decreased and LVT increased in a proximodistal gradient along the axon, but together they generated a ...
Neurons are unique in that they are highly polarized cells with long projections. Motor neurons have axons that extend from the spinal cord out to the periphery to synapse with muscles; in the case of humans, these axons may extend for over a meter away from the cell body. Active transportation of proteins and organelles along the axon, in both directions between the cell body and the neuron synapse is essential for neuronal survival and communication. Anterograde axonal transport, from cell body to synapse, is undertaken by kinesins and other motor proteins. Retrograde axonal transport, from synapse to the cell body, is driven by the dynein motor within the dynein-dynactin complex. Defects in axonal transport have been shown to be present in mouse models of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease, Alzheimer disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and pathological findings such as axonal swellings that may be indicative of axonal transport defects have been ...
Defects in axonal transport are implicated in a range of neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS, Huntingtons disease, and Alzheimers disease. Here, we describe for the first time a complete mechanism for how axonal transport defects may lead to severe neurodegeneration. This mechanism shows how extracellular signaling from mSOD1-expressing glia acts via neuronal receptors to activate intracellular stress signals, causing downstream activation of stress responses in the neuronal nucleus.. We used in vivo, in vitro, and live-cell imaging assays to fully characterize the axonal transport defects in the SOD1G93A model of familial ALS. We also found that mouse models with impaired dynein function, Loa and Tgdynamitin, show similarly decreased efficiencies of retrograde transport but, unlike the mSOD1 model, develop only mild neurodegeneration. Therefore, the slowing of neurotrophic factor signaling is not sufficient to induce pronounced neuronal loss. Instead, in the mSOD1 model in the early ...
Defects in axonal transport are implicated in a range of neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS, Huntingtons disease, and Alzheimers disease. Here, we describe for the first time a complete mechanism for how axonal transport defects may lead to severe neurodegeneration. This mechanism shows how extracellular signaling from mSOD1-expressing glia acts via neuronal receptors to activate intracellular stress signals, causing downstream activation of stress responses in the neuronal nucleus.. We used in vivo, in vitro, and live-cell imaging assays to fully characterize the axonal transport defects in the SOD1G93A model of familial ALS. We also found that mouse models with impaired dynein function, Loa and Tgdynamitin, show similarly decreased efficiencies of retrograde transport but, unlike the mSOD1 model, develop only mild neurodegeneration. Therefore, the slowing of neurotrophic factor signaling is not sufficient to induce pronounced neuronal loss. Instead, in the mSOD1 model in the early ...
Neurons rely on microtubule (MT) motor proteins such as kinesin-1 and dynein to transport essential cargos between the cell body and axon terminus. Defective axonal transport causes abnormal axonal cargo accumulations and is connected to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimers disease (AD). Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) has been proposed to be a central player in AD and to regulate axonal transport by the MT motor protein kinesin-1. Using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, we ?nd that endogenous GSK-3 is a required negative regulator of both kinesin-1-mediated and dynein-mediated axonal transport of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key contributor to AD pathology. GSK-3 also regulates transport of an unrelated cargo, embryonic lipid droplets. By measuring the forces motors generate in vivo, we ?nd that GSK-3 regulates transport by altering the activity of kinesin-1 motors but not their binding to the cargo. These ?ndings reveal a new ...
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Purchasing goods from distant locations introduces a significant lag between when a product is shipped and when it arrives. This is problematic for firms facing volatile demand, who must place orders before knowing the resolution of demand uncertainty. We provide a model in which airplanes bring producers and consumers together in time. Fast transport allows firms to respond quickly to favorable demand realizations and to limit the risk of unprofitably large quantities during low demand periods. Fast transport thus provides firms with a real option to smooth demand volatility. The model predicts that the likelihood and extent to which firms employ air shipments is increasing in the volatility of demand they face, decreasing in the air premium they must pay, and increasing in the contemporaneous realization of demand. We confirm all three conjectures using detailed US import data. We provide simple calculations of the option value associated with fast transport and relate it to variation in goods ...
Axonal transport plays a crucial role in neuronal morphogenesis, survival and function. Despite its importance, however, the molecular mechanisms of axonal transport remain mostly unknown because a simple and quantitative assay system for monitoring this cellular process has been lacking. In order to better characterize the mechanisms involved in axonal transport, we formulate a novel computer-assisted monitoring system of axonal transport. Potential uses of this system and implications for future studies will be discussed.
Hydrogen peroxide, like other ROS, disrupts many cellular processes, including mitochondrial ATP production and regulation of calcium homeostasis [29], ion channel permeability [30], and redox signaling [31]. At present, we do not know the pathways that lead to inhibition of axonal transport. Some of the effects of hydrogen peroxide on axonal transport were quite similar to those produced by sodium azide, an inhibitor of ATP production [27]. Following both treatments, mitochondrial transport was inhibited first, then anterograde vesicle transport, and then retrograde vesicle transport. Thus it is reasonable to attribute some of the effects of hydrogen peroxide exposure to ATP depletion. Several of our findings, however, suggest that there is more involved than simply a reduction in the ATP levels available to molecular motors. Since kinesins and dyneins both have similar requirements for ATP, the differential effects on anterograde versus retrograde transport are more likely to involve the many ...
Mechanism of axonal transport: a proposed role for calcium ions[8] Science A good article as to the introduction of the mechanisms for axonal transport. Macromolecules and organelles are transported in a systems known as axonal or dendritic transport. This study looked at transport of protein in a calcium free medium to conclude that calcium plays a role in the initiation of axonal transport. Relation of somal lipid synthesis to the fast axonal transport of protein and lipid[9] Science Direct This study inhibited phospholipid synthesis in dorsal root ganglia to show a decreased proportional effect on amount of protein undergoing fast axonal transport. Exposing an unmyelinated nerve trunk to a certain cation had no effect on protein translocation. This helps conclude that phospholipid synthesis is not required to maintain ongoing transport in the axon. Inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the ganglia also resulted in depression of protein transport. So both phospholipid and cholesterol are ...
Classic pulse-chase studies have shown that actin is conveyed in slow axonal transport, but the mechanistic basis for this movement is unknown. Recently, we reported that axonal actin was surprisingly dynamic, with focal assembly/disassembly events (actin hotspots) and elongating polymers along the axon shaft (actin trails). Using a combination of live imaging, superresolution microscopy, and modeling, in this study, we explore how these dynamic structures can lead to processive transport of actin. We found relatively more actin trails elongated anterogradely as well as an overall slow, anterogradely biased flow of actin in axon shafts. Starting with first principles of monomer/filament assembly and incorporating imaging data, we generated a quantitative model simulating axonal hotspots and trails. Our simulations predict that the axonal actin dynamics indeed lead to a slow anterogradely biased flow of the population. Collectively, the data point to a surprising scenario where local assembly ...
We identified axonal defects in mouse models of Alzheimers disease that preceded known disease-related pathology by more than a year; we observed similar axonal defects in the early stages of Alzheimers disease in humans. Axonal defects consisted of swellings that accumulated abnormal amounts of microtubule-associated and molecular motor proteins, organelles, and vesicles. Impairing axonal transport by reducing the dosage of a kinesin molecular motor protein enhanced the frequency of axonal defects and increased amyloid-β peptide levels and amyloid deposition. Reductions in microtubule-dependent transport may stimulate proteolytic processing of β-amyloid precursor protein, resulting in the development of senile plaques and Alzheimers disease. ...
The long length of axons makes them critically dependent on intracellular transport for their growth and survival. This movement is called axonal transport. Cargoes originating from the cell body move out towards the axon tip and cargoes originating in the axon or at the axon tip move back towards the cell body. The outbound movement is known as anterograde transport and it includes cargoes required for the growth, maintenance and plasticity of axons and presynaptic terminals. The inbound movement is called retrograde transport and it includes cargoes returning to the cell body for recycling or degradation, as well as cargoes that relay signals back to the cell body to modulate gene expression in response to the local environment.. Though axonal transport has a special name, it is not fundamentally different from the pathways of intracellular traffic found in other parts of nerve cells or in other cells. However, it is remarkable for its scale. For example, there are axons in our bodies that ...
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have identifiedthe mechanism by which axonal transport is impaired in neurons in Huntingtons disease. Using mouse, squid, and cell models of HD, Dr. Scott Brady and Dr. Gerardo Morfini and colleagues found that the HD protein activates an enzyme called JNK (for cJun Nterminal kinease) which causes the impairment.. Axons are nerve fibers which project from the neuron and carry electric impulses. The, longest axons in the human body are those of the sciatic nerve which run from the base of the spine to the big toes of each foot. Axons in the brain are much smaller of course but are still many times longer than the body of the neuron.. Axonal transport is critical for the survival of neurons. Proteins are synthesized in the cell body and then are transported in microtubulins or tracks which run along axons to the synapses, the junctions through which neurons signal to each other. Vesicles containing neurotransmitters are ...
From the abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons resulting in a catastrophic loss of motor function. Current therapies are severely limited owing to a poor mechanistic understanding of the pathobiology. Mutations in a large number of genes have now been linked to ALS, including SOD1, TARDBP (TDP-43), FUS and C9orf72. Functional analyses of these genes and their pathogenic mutations have provided great insights into the underlying disease mechanisms. Defective axonal transport is hypothesized to be a key factor in the selective vulnerability of motor nerves ... Here, we assessed the axonal transport of different cargos in multiple Drosophila models of ALS. ... These results further support defects in axonal transport as a common factor in models of ALS that may contribute to the pathogenic process ...
article{324d7541-eb68-49c3-b378-0108db0afb43, abstract = {,p,Abstract: The release of radiolabeled material from regenerating frog sciatic nerves was studied using a multicom‐ partment chamber, in which the ganglia and the outgrowth region, respectively, were separated from the rest of the nerve. The nerves were incubated with radioactive amino acids in the ganglionic compartment, and the material transported to and released at the outgrowth region was collected and analyzed. Approximately 10% of the transported radioactivity was released over a 24‐h incubation period. Of the released materials, 84% had a molecular mass of < 1,000 daltons [the low‐molecular‐mass (LM) fraction] as determined by exclusion chromatography. The presence of LM material could not be explained by leakage, nor was it due to intracellular or extracellular degradation of radiolabeled, transported proteins. It was reduced by cold and was shown by the use of vinblastine to be dependent on axonal transport. ...
Neurons consist of four elements, the soma, dendrite, axon and terminal. They work in concert as the input (soma and dendrite) and output (axon and terminal) parts of neuronal transmission. To function and maintain neuronal activity and metabolisms, proteins and organelles should be transported from soma to terminal via anterograde axonal transport, and also from terminal to soma via retrograde transport. By utilizing these transport systems, neural projection is traced by injecting tracers into local sites of interest. Furthermore, neurochemical properties, such as glutamatergic and GABAergic, can be determined by combining retrograde and anterograde tracing with fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
The objective is to identify compounds that will improve axonal transport in neurons carrying the mutation. The compounds we will survey are ones with a known mechanism of action and thus will identify cellular signaling pathways with the potential to overcome the transport deficits. These pathways are likely to include drug‐able targets that could ultimately serve as a point of therapeutic intervention. Strategy: Cultured neurons from the sacsin knockout mouse will be employed in this project. Identifying compounds that improve mitochondrial transport in these cells will have four component aims. The first will be to examine transport in detail in multiple neuronal cell types and developmental stages in order to find a suitable system for characterization and screening. The second stage will involve a detailed characterization of the transport defect to determine if it is indeed mitochondrion‐specific or influences multiple cargoes and whether it alters both anterograde and retrograde ...
2015, 6,130-137. [Link][PDF]. 17. K. Zhang and B. Cui Lighting up FGFR signaling, Chemistry & Biology, 2014, 21, 806-808. [Link][PDF]. 16. K. Zhang, L. Duan, Q. Ong, Z. Lin, P. Varman, K. Sung, and B. Cui Light-mediated kinetic control reveals the temporal effect of the Raf/Mek/ERK pathway in PC12 cell neurite outgrowth, PLOS ONE, 2014, 9, e92917. [Link][PDF]. 15. K. Zhang, R. F. B. Kenan, Y. Osakada, W. Xu, R. S. Sinit, , L. Chen, X. Zhao, J-Y. Chen, B. Cui, and C. Wu Defective Axonal Transport of Rab7 GTPase Results in Dysregulated Trophic Signaling, J. Neuroscience 2013, 33, 7451-7462. [Link][PDF]. 14. W. J. Xie, K. Zhang, B. Cui Functional characterization and axonal transport of quantum dot labeled BDNF, Integrative Biology, 2012, 4, 953-960. [Link][PDF]. 13. K. Zhang, Y. Osakada, W. J. Xie, and B. Cui Automated image analysis for tracking cargo transport in axons, Microscopy Research and Technique 2011, 74, 605-613. [Link][PDF]. 12. K. A. Vossel, K. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Q. Yu, K. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Axoplasmic transport of proteins.. AU - Wilson, D. L.. AU - Stone, G. C.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018401969&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018401969&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1146/annurev.bb.08.060179.000331. DO - 10.1146/annurev.bb.08.060179.000331. M3 - Review article. C2 - 89833. AN - SCOPUS:0018401969. VL - 8. SP - 27. EP - 45. JO - Annual Review of Biophysics. JF - Annual Review of Biophysics. SN - 1936-122X. ER - ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Syntabulin/GOLSYN is part of a kinesin motor-adaptor complex that is critical for the anterograde axonal transport of active zone components and contributes to activity-dependent presynaptic assembly during neuronal development (Cai et al., 2007 [PubMed 17611281]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
An axon is a long thin projection of a neuron that allows for rapid electrochemical communications with other cells over long distances. Axonal transport refers to the stochastic, bidirectional...
Axonal transport is responsible for supplying the axonal processes with proteins that are synthesized in the cell body. Among the proteins that are moved by this mechanism are tubulin and actin, two major components of the cytoskeleton. Observation of the movement of metabolically labeled tubulin an …
Alpha herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus and pseudorabies virus (PRV), are neuroinvasive dsDNA viruses that establish life-long latency in peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons of their native hosts. Following reactivation, the infection can spread back to the initial mucosal site of infection or, in rare cases, to the central nervous system with usually serious outcomes. During entry and egress, viral capsids depend on microtubule-based molecular motors for efficient and fast transport. In axons of PNS neurons, cytoplasmic dynein provides force for retrograde movements towards the soma, and kinesins move cargo in the opposite, anterograde direction. The dynamic properties of virus particles in cells can be imaged by fluorescent protein fusions to the small capsid protein VP26, which are incorporated into capsids. However, single-color fluorescent protein tags fail to distinguish virus inoculum from progeny. Therefore, we established a dual-color system by growing a recombinant PRV ...
Transmembrane protein required for proper cognitive functions. Involved in the development of dentate gyrus (DG) neuron circuitry, is necessary for AMPA receptors surface expression and proper excitatory postsynaptic currents of DG granule neurons (PubMed:28096412). Regulates the organization and stability of the microtubule network of sensory neurons to allow axonal transport. Through the interaction with DST, mediates the docking of the dynein/dynactin motor complex to vesicle cargos for retrograde axonal transport (PubMed:17287360). In hippocampal neurons, required for BDNF-dependent dendrite outgrowth (PubMed:21849472). Cooperates with SH3GL2 and recruits the WAVE1 complex to facilitate actin-dependent BDNF:NTRK2 early endocytic trafficking and mediate signaling from early endosomes (PubMed:21849472, PubMed:27605705).
Cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins are transported along axons in the slow components of axonal transport at average rates of about 0.002-0.1 microm/s. This movement is essential for axonal growth and survival, yet the mechanism is poorly understood. Many studies on slow axonal transport have focus …
Synapses were thought to be at the mercy of the cell soma for the delivery of vesicles containing neuropeptides, which are released upon synapse activation. Levitan and others wondered how this set up allows synapses to be dynamic, since the soma can be far from a nerve terminal. It can take days, says Levitan, to get stuff shipped down there, even with fast axonal transport. ...
The Joint High Speed Vessel program was managed by PMS 325. It was a Navy led acquisition of a platform intended to support users in the Department of the Navy and Department of the Army. The Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV) program was a cooperative effort for a high-speed, shallow draft vessel intended for rapid intra-theatre transport of medium sized cargo payloads. JHSV was intended to reach speeds of 35-45 knots and allow for the rapid transit and deployment of conventional or Special Forces as well as equipment and supplies.
This other day, I had been studying Microbiology in the library in the fear of upcoming finals and had gotten really weary of spending a full lovely Sunday with pleasant weather sulking inside the library and as it always happens I started introspecting on my decision to take medicine as my career choice. In concern…
These animations and presentations could be useful to the science or health teacher to supplement curriculum and to enhance the learning experience in the classroom. The content is divided into eight chapters including Anatomy of a Neuron, Axonal Transport, Ions and Ion Channels, Resting Membrane Potential, Action Potential, Neurotransmitter Release, Postsynaptic Mechanisms, and Removal of Neurotransmitter. Each of the sections includes explanations with hyperlinks for viewing the images or animations. Users can also review the pages in a chapter by clicking the page numbers in the bottom left corner of the pages. Included is a How to Use the Program with helpful hints for navigating the site and a list of all the available animations that can be downloaded for non-commercial purposes. ...
This website is run by the accessibility program of the Accessible with a Click company and is run via a designated accessibility server. The program allows the website to follow the guidelines for internet content accessibility WCAG 2.0 to level AA. The program is subject to the conditions of use of the manufacturer. Warrantee of use applies to the website owners and/or their representative, including the content displayed in the website, as subject to the conditions of use ...
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Cylindrical roller bearing SL185012-A INA Structure:Cylindrical Type:Roller Brand Name:INA Model Number:SL185012-A Pls check below detial bearing information d 60 mm D 95 mm B 46 mm C 23 mm D1 81,9 mm d1 71,7 mm E 86,74 mm rmin 1,1 mm s 1,5 mm Axial displacement m 1,24 kg Mass Cr 212000 N Basic... ☴☴. ...
Previous work has shown that mutation of the gene that encodes the microtubule motor subunit kinesin heavy chain (Khc) in Drosophila inhibits neuronal sodium channel activity, action potentials and neurotransmitter secretion. These physiological defects cause progressive distal paralysis in larvae. To identify the cellular defects that cause these phenotypes, larval nerves were studied by light and electron microscopy. The axons of Khc mutants develop dramatic focal swellings along their lengths. The swellings are packed with fast axonal transport cargoes including vesicles, synaptic membrane proteins, mitochondria and prelysosomal organelles, but not with slow axonal transport cargoes such as cytoskeletal elements. Khc mutations also impair the development of larval motor axon terminals, causing dystrophic morphology and marked reductions in synaptic bouton numbers. These observations suggest that as the concentration of maternally provided wild-type KHC decreases, axonal organelles transported ...
Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of several antineoplastic drugs which significantly reduces patients quality of life. Although different molecular mechanisms have been investigated, CIPN pathobiology has not been clarified yet. It has largely been recognized that Dorsal Root Ganglia are the main targets of chemotherapy and that the longest nerves are the most damaged, together with fast axonal transport. Indeed, this bidirectional cargo-specific transport has a pivotal role in neuronal function and its impairment is involved in several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases. Literature data demonstrate that, despite different mechanisms of action, all antineoplastic agents impair the axonal trafficking to some extent and the severity of the neuropathy correlates with the degree of damage on this bidirectional transport. In this paper, we will examine the effect of the main old and new chemotherapeutic drug categories on axonal transport, with
1. HirokawaN. TakemuraR. 2005 Molecular motors and mechanisms of directional transport in neurons. Nat Rev Neurosci 6 201 214. 2. GoldsteinAY. WangX. SchwarzTL. 2008 Axonal transport and the delivery of pre-synaptic components. Curr Opin Neurobiol 18 495 503. 3. HallDH. HedgecockEM. 1991 Kinesin-related gene unc-104 is required for axonal transport of synaptic vesicles in C. elegans. Cell 65 837 847. 4. Pack-ChungE. KurshanPT. DickmanDK. SchwarzTL. 2007 A Drosophila kinesin required for synaptic bouton formation and synaptic vesicle transport. Nat Neurosci 10 980 989. 5. BarkusRV. KlyachkoO. HoriuchiD. DicksonBJ. SaxtonWM. 2008 Identification of an axonal kinesin-3 motor for fast anterograde vesicle transport that facilitates retrograde transport of neuropeptides. Mol Biol Cell 19 274 283. 6. OkadaY. YamazakiH. Sekine-AizawaY. HirokawaN. 1995 The neuron-specific kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A is a unique monomeric motor for anterograde axonal transport of synaptic vesicle precursors. Cell 81 ...
Purpose: : To investigate whether the sectorial loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) observed in previous studies of our laboratory in the dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat strain (Villegas-Pérez et al., J Comp Neurol 1998;392: 58-77) is due to an axonal transport deficit problem or to retinal ganglion cell death. Methods: : Dystrophic (rdy-/p+) and non-dystrophic (rdy+/p+) pigmented RCS rats with ages ranging from 12 to 20 months were used for this study. RGCs were identified using Fluoro-Gold (FG) tracing from the Superior Collicullus (SC), to label RGCs with a competent axonal transport and Brn3a immnunodetection, to detect all RGCs. Retinas were processed as whole mounts and examined by fluorescence microscopy. Reconstructions of the whole mounts were made using Image-Pro Plus 5.0 for Windows®. FG-labelled and Brn3a positive RGCs were automatically identified and counted in each retina using previously described methods (Salinas-Navarro et al., Vision Res. 2009;49: 115-126, ...
Neurofilaments form structural networks in neurons and are transported from the neuronal cell body (the site of synthesis) into the axons via a process known as slow axonal transport. Using neurofilament subunits tagged with a fluorophore, Ackerley et al. show that glutamate, a neurotransmitter which at high concentrations leads to excitotoxicity, can alter neurofilament transport. Glutamate slowed neurofilament transport, most probably due to stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are capable of phosphorylating neurofilament subunits. This observation provides a mechanistic link between excitotoxicity and neurofilament accumulation associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. - SMH. J. Cell Biol. 150, 165 (2000).. ...
In vivo single-molecule imaging of syntaxin1A reveals polyphosphoinositide- and activity-dependent trapping in presynaptic nanoclusters. Bademosi, Adekunle T., Lauwers, Elsa, Padmanabhan, Pranesh, Odierna, Lorenzo, Chai, Ye Jin, Papadopulos, Andreas, Goodhill, Geoffrey J., Verstreken, Patrik, Van Swinderen, Bruno and Meunier, Frederic A. (2017) In vivo single-molecule imaging of syntaxin1A reveals polyphosphoinositide- and activity-dependent trapping in presynaptic nanoclusters. Nature Communications, 8 . doi:10.1038/ncomms13660. Flux of signalling endosomes undergoing axonal retrograde transport is encoded by presynaptic activity and TrkB. Wang, Tong, Martin, Sally, Nguyen, Tam H., Harper, Callista B., Gormal, Rachel S., Martinez-Marmol, Ramon, Karunanithi, Shanker, Coulson, Elizabeth J., Glass, Nick R., Cooper-White, Justin J., Van Swinderen, Bruno and Meunier, Frederic A. (2016) Flux of signalling endosomes undergoing axonal retrograde transport is encoded by presynaptic activity and TrkB. ...
These results demonstrate that cytoplasmic dynein is a major participant in the anterograde transport of MTs, therefore supporting the sliding filament model for axonal MT transport. We cannot conclude whether or not cytoplasmic dynein is the only motor that fuels the anterograde movements because the neurons are not completely depleted of the protein. Another possibility is that a minus-end directed kinesin such as CHO2/HSET contributes to the anterograde transport of MTs, and this would presumably be the result of MTs pushing against one another rather than actin filaments (Sharp et al., 1997). In terms of the retrograde movements, the present data provide almost no evidence that cytoplasmic dynein plays a role. It seems reasonable to surmise that a kinesin-related protein fuels the retrograde transport of MTs. A good candidate may be Eg5, whose inhibition causes rapid bursts in axonal growth, which would be consistent with a diminution in retrograde MT transport (Haque et al., 2004).. Ma et ...
Although TUBB3 is a neuron‐specific isoform of β‐tubulin, only about 20% of total β‐tubulin in neuronal cells is TUBB3 (Joshi and Cleveland, 1989). TUBB3(E410K) and TUBB3(D417H) mutants induce neuronal diseases in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that only 10% of mutant tubulin can significantly induce neuronal phenotypes. How is this small amount of mutated TUBB3 able to strongly affect neurons? Because our assay used CMV and CAG promoters and unknown copy numbers of transfected vectors, we could not quantify the amount of tubulin incorporated into microtubules in our system. Nevertheless, we think our results give insights to this question. Microtubules are composed of α‐ and β‐tubulin dimers. The size of each tubulin dimer is 8 nm (Nogales et al, 1999). Our analysis showed that TUBB3(E410K) and TUBB3(D417H) were incorporated into microtubules in cells and could inhibit axonal transport (Supplementary Figure S1; Figure 8A). The inhibition of motor domain accumulation, axonal ...
Akifumi Kanai, Hiromi Hiruma, Tadashi Kawakami, Sumio Hoka; Room D, 10/17/2000 9: 00 AM - 11: 00 AM (PS) Low Dose Lidocaine Rapidly Inhibits Axonal Transport in Cultured Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons : A-761. Anesthesiology 2000;93(3A):A-761. doi: https://doi.org/.. Download citation file:. ...
Our quantitative immunoblot data showed a significant increase of NF-H, NF-M, and NF-L by 3 wk of age in the mutant DRGs, and thus in sensory neuron cell bodies. The simplest explanation is that these NF subunits were synthesized at normal rates but were moved out of the cell bodies at reduced rates. Overall, the levels of these proteins were not significantly changed in the brain, suggesting that the cell body accumulation is not caused by up-regulation of these proteins. Elevation of NF subunit levels in the DRG was not accompanied by obvious reductions in the sciatic nerve. This behavior is as expected based on two independent lines of evidence. First, the onset of the apparent deficit in transport is observed at 3 wk of age, the age at which substantial NF deposition and radial growth in axonal caliber normally begin. Only a subset of axons in mutants examined at this time have detectable caliber deficits (∼250/3,500 total axons in the sciatic nerve). Second, although Cre-mediated excision ...
Correction: Berberine Attenuates Axonal Transport Impairment and Axonopathy Induced by Calyculin A in N2a Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Neurons communicate with each other through dendrites and axons. Typically, dendrites are responsible for receiving signals from other neurons, while axons are the pathways to send out signals. Signal propagation through axons is closely correlated with their morphology. It is well known that the rate of signal propagation is proportional to the caliber of axons[2]. The intrinsic determinant of axonal caliber is the abundance of cytoskeletal protein, neurofilament (NF)[6]. NFs are not static but undergo slow axonal transport, which is characterized by rapidly intermittent, asynchronous and bidirectional motion[21-23]. Many neurodegenerative diseases are related to the malfunction of neurofilament transport, either by accumulation of neurofilaments leading to swelling of the axon or by deficiency in neurofilaments resulting in axonal atrophy[9-12]. The mechanism of neurofilament transport can be explained by the stop-and-go; hypothesis[21, 24, 28], according to which neurofilaments spend long ...
HOUSTON, TX (December, 2017) - The National Institute of Aging has awarded Acelerox, LLC, a Fannin Innovation Studio® company, a $224,813 grant to develop poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG-HCC) antioxidant nanoparticles as a novel therapeutic to minimize neural degeneration by targeting brain cells.. Acelerox is a preclinical biotechnology company developing novel antioxidant nanoparticles for therapeutic use in cancer, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In partnership with Baylor College of Medicine, this award will be used to optimize the therapeutic approach. Proper axonal transport is essential for maintenance of neuronal homeostasis and optimum function. Deficiencies of axonal transport have been linked to Alzheimers disease (AD) and can be modeled in cultured cells and animal models. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a key contributor to the pathogenesis of AD, including deficient axonal transport. Reduction of oxidative stress through ectopic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinesthetic reference for human orthograde posture. AU - Gurfinkel, V. S.. AU - Ivanenko, Yu P.. AU - Levik, Yu S.. AU - Babakova, I. A.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Humans with occluded vision were subjected to superslow tilts of the supporting platform, producing the inclination of the subjects body in the sagittal plane, but subthreshold for the most vestibular and proprioceptive phasic reactions. Two types of perturbation were used: sinusoidal tilts (frequency 0.007 Hz, amplitude 1.5°) and ramps (amplitude 1.0 and 0.25°, angular velocity 0.04°/s). During slow sinusoidal tilts of the platform, the ankle angle and body position undergo periodical changes, but these changes have significant phase lead relative to the platform movement: 119±26° for ankle angle and 55±19° for body sway. Gains were about 0.9 for both parameters. Large phase shift (tens of seconds) indicated a long delay in compensation of body inclination by ankle joint. The ramp tilt produced an initial ...
Much of our work on membrane trafficking has concentrated on the MT motor protein, kinesin. Over the course of several years, we demonstrated that kinesin is a MT stimulated ATPase which moves organelles along MTs, and is a motor for anterograde fast axonal transport in neurons, and for movement of membranes from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Now we are concentrating on how organelle motility along MTs is regulated. We have obtained evidence that kinesin-mediated membrane motility away from the Golgi is regulated by multiple GTPases, including Cdc42 and Rac1. We are now attempting to determine how those two proteins, and whatever additional GTPases may prove to be relevant, control membrane movement along MTs.. ...
Chlorpromazine at concentrations which approximate apparent physiological concentrations interacts reversibly with brain microtubule subunit protein in vitro and, in so doing, inhibits the rate of reassembly of microtubules and the binding of colchicine by the protein. It also causes dissassembly of microtubules formed in the absence of the drug. These results appear to provide a molecular explanation for inhibition by chlorpromazine of fast axonal transport of proteins in vitro in frog sciatic nerve, and provide a fresh clue as to the primary mechanism for the psychotropic effect of this drug.. ...
Components of the synapse are delivered to, and removed from, synaptic sites by motor-dependent transport along microtubule tracks. In particular, axonal transport by molecular motors delivers proteins and membranes to presynaptic nerve terminals and is essential for synapse formation and maintenance. Interactions between motors and their respective cargoes are regulated at multiple stages during the transport process but details of these regulatory mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Noteworthy, impaired intracellular transport arising from mutations of proteins or perturbations of regulatory pathways involved in axonal transport has been linked to the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. The major focus of our research is the elucidation of mechanisms involved in the transport and incorporation of proteins into presynaptic sites and how these processes are coordinated. We are also interested in understanding the molecular organization of presynaptic macromolecular ...
Axons are long, armlike structures on nerve cells that help transport nutrients and other components around the cell. In Alzheimers disease, however, these axons become damaged and lose their ability to transport components effectively. Reduced axonal transport inhibits the activities of nerve cells and can lead to their death.. To better understand this pathological process, research teams have tried to measure the extent to which Alzheimers disease restricts axonal transportation. One such team, led by Donna Cross, Ph.D., has been quantifying axonal transport declines in mice engineered to develop Alzheimer-like symptoms. Their work has involved the use of a sophisticated imaging method called manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For the proposed grant, Dr. Cross and colleagues plan to expand their earlier work by focusing on an enzyme called glycogen synthase-kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 has been associated with the production of two Alzheimer-related molecules-beta-amyloid and ...
Description: Description of target: Microtubule-dependent motor required for slow axonal transport of neurofilament proteins (NFH, NFM and NFL). Can induce formation of neurite-like membrane protrusions in non-neuronal cells in a ZFYVE27-dependent manner. The ZFYVE27-KIF5A complex contributes to the vesicular transport of VAPA, VAPB, SURF4, RAB11A, RAB11B and RTN3 proteins in neurons.;Species reactivity: Rat;Application: ;Assay info: Assay Methodology: Quantitative Sandwich ELISA;Sensitivity: 0.078 ng/ ...
Mitochondrial transport and energy homeostasis in synaptic transmission, neuronal degeneration and regeneration Zuhang Sheng, PhD NIH/NINDS Senior Investigator Chief of the Synaptic Function Section AAAS and ASCB Fellow Editor for JCB, Autophagy, and JBC
Patients will have mild cognitive difficulties. The test can help doctor to find Alzheimers disease symbols existing eight years before diagnosis of AD. These symbols, such as short memory loss and inability to acquire new information, will cause patients cannot finish complex living activity independently. 2- Early: Defined as first 2~3 years, patients will have difficulties with language, executive functions, perception, or execution of movements. Language problem shows obviously in decreased word fluency and shrinking vocabulary, eventually leads to general oral and written impoverishment in language. Memory losing happens as same time, but less prominent than other symbols. Alzheimers disease doesnt affect all memory, such as implicit memory, episodic memory and semantic memory. 3- Moderate: Disease will eventually hinder independence; patients will lose common living abilities. On language perspective, patients are unable to recall the vocabulary, leading incorrect word substitution. ...
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Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is widely spread among adults in the United States with a seroprevalence of about 60%. HSV-1 infects epithelial cells and then spreads to axonsinnervating those tissues causing potentially neuroinvasive reactivable episodes that may result in either mild lesions of the epithelia or fatal encephalitis in a partially understood process. We are interested in the HSV-1 clinical strain H129 because it is the only virus of any type known to egress exclusively in the anterograde direction. The retrograde spread from post-synaptic neuron to pre-synaptic neuron is impaired in this strain. There is no clear explanation for this unique phenotype and we are attempting to demonstrate the relationship between the phenotype of H129 strain and specific mutations in viral genes UL36 and UL1. Our hope is to establish a clear association between phenotype and genotype in the H129 strain. This research will improve the knowledge of both HSV-1 biology and host neural circuit ...
Current knowledge indicates the possibility of nerve cell virus invasion by several mechanisms. These include the transfer of viruses across synapses of infected cells, entering the brain through the olfactory nerve, infection of endothelial blood vessels, and migration of infected white blood cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).. The corona virus has been shown to spread back along the nerves from the edge of the peripheral nerves, across synapses, and thus into the brain, in several small animal studies. This is facilitated by a pathway for endocytosis or exocytosis between motor cortex neurons, and other secretory vesicular pathways between neurons and satellite cells.. Axonal transport occurs rapidly using axonal microtubules, which allow the virus to reach the body of neuron cells with a retrograde version of this mechanism.. The possibility of spreading the olfactory route is marked by the occurrence of isolated anosmia and age. In such cases, the virus can pass through the latticed ...
A name facts message board post on the subject A small membranous organelle characteristic of certain flagellate protozoa, located near the pelta and seen in the living organism as an independently moving structure..
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2007 12 06.392177 08 17 24.39 -05 44 03.6 23.4V 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2007 12 06.393006 08 17 24.40 -05 44 03.5 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2007 12 06.395494 08 17 24.39 -05 44 03.7 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2008 01 01.313332 08 15 42.86 -05 47 43.1 22.6V 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2008 01 01.314161 08 15 42.87 -05 47 43.1 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2008 01 01.316649 08 15 42.85 -05 47 43.2 15BY518 645 C~2scc 2014 01 04.54955 08 54 52.487 -06 24 34.13 21.8G 15BY518 F51 C~2qbh 2014 04 05.25388 08 48 39.785 -05 39 14.33 22.2G 15BY518 F51 C~2qbh 2014 12 16.59004 09 02 47.110 -06 28 17.89 22.0G 15BY518 F51 C~2qbh 2014 12 30.50769 09 01 58.726 -06 29 59.22 21.7G 15BY518 F51 C~2qbh 2015 01 19.47348 09 00 29.231 -06 27 57.56 22.3w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 19.48481 09 00 29.183 -06 27 57.36 22.5w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 19.49615 09 00 29.119 -06 27 57.43 22.3w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 19.50762 09 00 29.069 -06 27 57.02 22.1w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 21.49804 09 00 19.278 -06 27 27.74 22.0w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 21.51155 09 ...
Axonal transport[edit]. Axonal swelling and spheroids have been observed in many different neurodegenerative diseases. This ... Axonal transport can be disrupted by a variety of mechanisms including damage to: kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein, microtubules ... De Vos KJ, Grierson AJ, Ackerley S, Miller CC (2008). "Role of axonal transport in neurodegenerative diseases". Annual Review ... Recent research suggests that impaired axonal transport of alpha-synuclein leads to its accumulation in the Lewy bodies. ...
"Dynamics of axonal mRNA transport and implications for peripheral nerve regeneration". Experimental Neurology. 1. 223 (1): 19- ... Axon guidance directs the initial wiring of the nervous system and is also important in axonal regeneration following an injury ... In this process, new material is added at the growth cone while the remainder of the axonal cytoskeleton remains stationary. ... Actin filaments are also constantly being transported away from the leading edge by a myosin-motor driven process known as ...
... the complex roles of JIPs in axonal transport". BioEssays. 30 (1): 10-4. doi:10.1002/bies.20695. PMID 18081006.. ... are apparently transport proteins, responsible for enrichment of MAPK signaling components in certain compartments of polarized ... This sophisticated mechanism couples kinesin-dependent transport to local JNK activation, not only in mammals, but also in the ...
The fast axonal transport has a rate of 50-500 mm per day, while the slow axonal transport was found to be 0.4 mm per day in ... The cargoes are transported by motor proteins that uses neurotubules as a 'track'. The axonal transport can be classified ... Transport of insoluble protein contributes to the fast movement while the slow transport is transporting up to 40% - 50% ... As a result, essential processes in the neuron such as axonal transport and neural communication will be disrupted, forming the ...
Saxton, William M.; Hollenbeck, Peter J. (2012). "The axonal transport of mitochondria". Journal of Cell Science. 125 (9): 2095 ... Once mitophagy is initiated, Atg32 binds to Atg11 and the Atg32-associated mitochondria are transported to the vacuole. Atg32 ... This distribution is maintained largely by motor protein-mediated mitochondrial transport along the axon. While neuronal ... Arduíno, DM; Esteves, AR; Cardoso, SM (2011). "Mitochondrial fusion/fission, transport and autophagy in Parkinson's disease: ...
The number of neurofilaments in the axon is thought to be determined by neurofilament gene expression and axonal transport. The ... Brown A (November 2000). "Slow axonal transport: stop and go traffic in the axon". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 1 (2 ... Thus on long time scales neurofilaments move in the slow component of axonal transport. Numerous specific antibodies to ... Hoffman PN, Lasek RJ (August 1975). "The slow component of axonal transport. Identification of major structural polypeptides of ...
... they may damage molecular motors and microtubules to interfere with normal axonal transport, leading to impaired transport of ... Impaired axonal transport of alpha-synuclein may also lead to its accumulation in Lewy bodies. Experiments have revealed ... Axonal transport can be disrupted by a variety of mechanisms including damage to: kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein, microtubules ... When axonal transport is severely disrupted a degenerative pathway known as Wallerian-like degeneration is often triggered. ...
"Altered Axonal Mitochondrial Transport in the Pathogenesis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease from Mitofusin 2 Mutations". Journal ... mutated connexons create non-functional gap junctions that interrupt molecular exchange and signal transport.[13][14][15] ... "Neurological dysfunction and axonal degeneration in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A". Brain. 123 (7): 1516-27. doi:10.1093 ... Neuropathy Type 1Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy X Type 5Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy X Type 1GARS-Associated Axonal ...
Schindowski K, Belarbi K, Buée L. Neurotrophic factors in Alzheimer's disease: role of axonal transport. „Genes, Brain and ...
... to the spinal cord through nerve pathways via retrograde axonal transport.[41][42][43] A third hypothesis is that the virus is ... "Limited trafficking of a neurotropic virus through inefficient retrograde axonal transport and the type I interferon response" ... "Retrograde transport of intact poliovirus through the axon via the first transport system". Virology. 250 (1): 67-75. doi: ... A second hypothesis suggests that the virions are transported from peripheral tissues that have been bathed in the viremic ...
... role of axonal transport". Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 7 (Suppl 1): 43-56. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2007.00378.x. PMC 2228393. ... destroying the structure of the cell's cytoskeleton which collapses the neuron's transport system.[68] This may result first in ... creating neurofibrillary tangles and disintegrating the neuron's transport system.[104] Pathogenic tau can also cause neuronal ...
Axonal transport occurs either by fast or slow transport. Fast transport involves vesicular contents (like organelles) being ... In axonal transport (also known as axoplasmic transport) materials are carried through the axoplasm to or from the soma. The ... When an axon is damaged, both axonal translation and retrograde axonal transport are required to propagate a signal to the soma ... Young, Tang (2013). "Fast Vesicle Transport Is Required for the Slow Axonal Transport of Synapsin". Neuroscience. 33 (39): ...
Her main area of interest is regulation of axonal transport within nerve cells. She is a recipient of the International Early ... Following this approach, her group is starting to uncover regulation of each of the various steps of axonal transport, such as ... Koushika studies traffic within nerve cells, called axonal transport. Though not always the case for traffic on the streets, ... Studying this process is challenging, partly because anesthetising model organism also suspends axonal transport. So, watching ...
Schindowski K, Belarbi K, Buée L (February 2008). "Neurotrophic factors in Alzheimer's disease: role of axonal transport". ... destroying the structure of the cell's cytoskeleton which collapses the neuron's transport system. This may result first in ... creating neurofibrillary tangles and disintegrating the neuron's transport system. Pathogenic tau can also cause neuronal death ...
"Ordered Recruitment of Dynactin to the Microtubule Plus-End is Required for Efficient Initiation of Retrograde Axonal Transport ... Dynein transports various cellular cargos, provides forces and displacements important in mitosis, and drives the beat of ... Cytoplasmic dynein helps to position the Golgi complex and other organelles in the cell.[1] It also helps transport cargo ... Dynactin is a protein that aids in intracellular transport throughout the cell by linking to cytoplasmic dynein. Dynactin can ...
"BPAG1n4 is essential for retrograde axonal transport in sensory neurons". The Journal of Cell Biology. 163 (2): 223-9. doi: ... "The interaction between cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin is required for fast axonal transport". Proceedings of the National ... It is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes ...
... conversion of a putative precursor during axonal transport". Science. 195 (4284): 1354-1356. doi:10.1126/science.65791. ISSN ... It has been known, since the 1940's that the finished vasopressin product is transported from the cell body to the terminals in ...
... and fast axonal, or axoplasmic transport. In sperm, a testis-specific isoenzyme GAPDHS is expressed. Under normal cellular ... "Vesicular glycolysis provides on-board energy for fast axonal transport". Cell. 152 (3): 479-91. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.12.029 ... GAPDH also appears to be involved in the vesicle transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus which is ... nuclear tRNA transport, DNA replication, and DNA repair. In addition, nuclear translocation of GAPDH has been reported in ...
"BPAG1n4 is essential for retrograde axonal transport in sensory neurons". J. Cell Biol. 163 (2): 223-9. doi:10.1083/jcb. ...
Schindowski K, Belarbi K, Buée L. Neurotrophic factors in Alzheimer's disease: role of axonal transport. Genes, Brain and ...
Transport. *Specific binding in the periphery neurons. *Retrograde axonal transport to the central nervous system (CNS) ... by retrograde axonal transport by using dyneins.[6][7] Structure[edit]. The tetanus toxin protein has a molecular weight of ... "Myosin Va and microtubule-based motors are required for fast axonal retrograde transport of tetanus toxin in motor neurons". ... Transport to the CNS inhibitory interneurons begins with the B-chain mediating the neurospecific binding of TeNT to the nerve ...
Jones CW, Pickering BT (December 1972). "Intra-axonal transport and turnover of neurohypophysial hormones in the rat". J. ... They are then transported in neurosecretory granules along axons within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract by axoplasmic ...
Choi SI, Vidal R, Frangione B, Levy E (2004). "Axonal transport of British and Danish amyloid peptides via secretory vesicles ...
A second mechanism of reaching the brain tissue is achieved through intra-axonal transport. In this mechanism, Listeria travels ... Dons L, Jin Y, Kristensson K, Rottenberg ME (2007). "Axonal transport of Listeria monocytogenes and nerve-cell-induced ... Similar to the mechanism seen in HIV, infected leukocytes in the blood cross the blood brain barrier and transport Listeria ... or tunneling nanotubes directed toward neighboring cells in a culture of rat PC12 cells have been shown to facilitate transport ...
"Rabies Virus Hijacks and accelerates the p75NTR retrograde axonal transport machinery". PLOS Pathogens. 10 (8): e1004348. doi: ... The virus then travels through the nerve cell axon via retrograde transport, as its P protein interacts with dynein, a protein ... and is then transported to the Golgi apparatus, where a sugar group is added to it (glycosylation). When there are enough viral ...
There is reduced axonal transport (and hence backlog and accumulation of intracellular products) within the nerves because of ...
... role of axonal transport". Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 7 (Suppl 1): 43-56. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2007.00378.x. PMC 2228393. ...
2001). "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. 103 (4): 583-94. doi:10.1016/ ... "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. UNITED STATES. 103 (4): 583-94. doi: ... The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling ... 2002). "UNC-16, a JNK-signaling scaffold protein, regulates vesicle transport in C. elegans". Neuron. 32 (5): 787-800. doi: ...
The function of huntingtin (Htt) is not well understood but it is involved in axonal transport. Huntingtin is essential for ... new functions of huntingtin and axonal transport in neurological disease". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 63: 122-130. doi: ... These appear to indicate a functional role in cytoskeletal anchoring or transport of mitochondria. The Htt protein is involved ... Within cells, huntingtin may or may not be involved in signaling, transporting materials, binding proteins and other structures ...
... pituitary through the portal blood vessel system of the hypophyseal stalk and vasopressin is transported by axonal transport to ... ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ...
"Immunohistochemical localization of the D1 dopamine receptor in rat brain reveals its axonal transport, pre- and postsynaptic ... dopamine transport. • hippocampus development. • response to drug. • neuronal action potential. • long-term synaptic ... positive regulation of potassium ion transport. • response to amphetamine. • научение. • пищевое поведение. • long term ...
... and sensorimotor axonal neuropathy.[11] In some cases, symptoms of the deficiency can present as dilated cardiomyopathy, ... Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex. *Glycine decarboxylase complex. *Mitochondrial trifunctional protein ... A compound heterozygous mutation of the HADHB gene can causes axonal Charcot-Marie-tooth disease, which is a neurological ... "A compound heterozygous mutation in HADHB gene causes an axonal Charcot-Marie-tooth disease". BMC Medical Genetics. 14: 125. ...
... of these deaths were transport-related injuries.[2] In 2013, 367,000 children under the age of five died from injuries, down ... Diffuse axonal injury. *Frontal lobe injury. *Nerve injury *Spinal cord injury. *Brachial plexus injury ...
Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... "Dock3 induces axonal outgrowth by stimulating membrane recruitment of the WAVE complex". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
Axonal growth is guided by the glial composition and cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulb in addition to the presence of OECs ... to label and track these transport-mediated cells via MRI.[13] The experiment resulted in an OEC labeling efficiency of more ... OECs are capable of phagocytosing axonal debris in vivo, and in vitro they phagocytose bacteria. Olfactory glia that express ... Within the olfactory system they phagocytose axonal debris and dead cells. When cultured in a petri dish (in vitro), they ...
Three genes implicated in ALS that are important for maintaining the cytoskeleton[35] and for axonal transport[10] include ...
Kamal A, Almenar-Queralt A, LeBlanc JF, Roberts EA, Goldstein LS (December 2001). "Kinesin-mediated axonal transport of a ... Zlokovic BV, Frangione B (2003). Transport-clearance hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease and potential therapeutic implications ... Yao ZX, Papadopoulos V (October 2002). "Function of beta-amyloid in cholesterol transport: a lead to neurotoxicity". FASEB J. ... A xeración do Aβ no sistema nerviosos central pode ter lugar nas membranas dos axóns neuronais despois do transporte axonal ...
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 600882 Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Axonal, Type 2B; CMT2B - 600882 ... mRNA axon transport, neurite outgrowth during development, and neuromuscular junction formation. The causal function loss in ... SAHA treatment increased alpha-tubulin lysine 40 acetylation in mouse striatal cells and also increased intracellular transport ... "Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition compensates for the transport deficit in Huntington's disease by increasing tubulin ...
... it has been speculated that it may have a role in axonal transport and influence the expression of the amyloid precursor ...
Intracranial hypertension also induces changes at the cellular or axonal level such as the swelling of the fibers of the optic ... Axoplasmic transport. *Neuroregeneration/Nerve regeneration. *Neuroplasticity/Synaptic plasticity *Long-term potentiation. * ...
axonal growth cone. • synapse. • axon. • dendrite. • endoplasmic reticulum. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm ... vesicle-mediated transport. • signal transduction. • positive regulation of MAPK cascade. • positive regulation of JNK cascade ...
anterograde axonal transport. • axonal transport of mitochondrion. • regulation of axon diameter. • peripheral nervous system ... retrograde axonal transport. • intermediate filament organization. • response to sodium arsenite. • neuron projection ... axonal, synaptic or glial pathology in the brain: notably the tau and neurofilament light chain proteins.. ... light chain is a biomarker that can be measured with immunoassays in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma and reflects axonal damage ...
Chevalier-Larsen E, Holzbaur EL (2006). "Axonal transport and neurodegenerative disease". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Intracellular transport is the movement of vesicles and substances within a cell. Intracellular transport is required for ... Growing evidence supports the concept that deficits in axonal transport contributes to pathogenesis in multiple ... The transport mechanism depends on the material being moved. Intracellular transport that requires quick movement will use an ...
... the superoxide anion is produced as a by-product of several steps in the electron transport chain.[62] Particularly important ... "Motor neurons in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-deficient mice develop normally but exhibit enhanced cell death after axonal injury ... instead of moving through the normal series of well-controlled reactions of the electron transport chain.[63] Peroxide is also ...
positive regulation of sodium ion transport. • cerebellum development. • positive regulation of neuron projection development. ... Walsh FS, Doherty P (Nov 1991). "Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored recognition molecules that function in axonal ... "Mobilization of the cell adhesion glycoprotein F3/contactin to axonal surfaces is activity dependent". The European Journal of ... "The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell recognition ...
"Topographic Organization of Tufted Cell Axonal Projections in the Hamster Main Olfactory Bulb: An Intrabulbar Associational ... amyloidogenesis-related diseases and there may even be a causal link through the disruption of multivalent metal ion transport ...
Gajdusek, Daniel Carleton (1985). "Hypothesis: interference with axonal transport of neurofilament as a common pathogenetic ...
Baloh, R. H.; Schmidt, R. E.; Pestronk, A.; Milbrandt, J. (2007). "Altered Axonal Mitochondrial Transport in the Pathogenesis ... Krajewski, K. M. (2000). "Neurological dysfunction and axonal degeneration in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A". Brain. 123 ... It divided into the primary demyelinating neuropathies (CMT1, CMT3, and CMT4) and the primary axonal neuropathies (CMT2), with ... mutated connexons create non-functional gap junctions that interrupt molecular exchange and signal transport.[11][12][13] ...
Clay JR (May 2005). "Axonal excitability revisited". Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 88 (1): 59-90. doi:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2003.12.004 ... As the sodium channels close, sodium ions can no longer enter the neuron, and they are then actively transported back out of ... 1980). Plant Membrane Transport: Current Conceptual Issues. Developments in Plant Biology. 4. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical ... In 1949, Alan Hodgkin and Bernard Katz refined Bernstein's hypothesis by considering that the axonal membrane might have ...
Schindowski K, Belarbi K, Buée L (Feb 2008). "Neurotrophic factors in Alzheimer's disease: role of axonal transport". Genes, ...
... which suggest that there is a bottleneck of axonal transport in both directions as well as local axonal-glial signaling. ... At CNS nodes, the axonal proteins also include contactin; however, Schwann cell microvilli are replaced by astrocyte perinodal ... In the CNS, oligodendrocytes do not possess microvilli, but appear capable to initiate the clustering of some axonal proteins ... Each node of Ranvier is flanked by paranodal regions where helicoidally wrapped glial loops are attached to the axonal membrane ...
Processes such as electron transport and generating ATP use proton pumps.[3] A G-protein coupled receptor is a single ... "The role of the axolemma in the initiation of traumatically induced axonal injury" (PDF). Journal of Neurology, Neuroscience ... Endocytosis requires energy and is thus a form of active transport. 4. Exocytosis: Just as material can be brought into the ... The cell membrane is selectively permeable and able to regulate what enters and exits the cell, thus facilitating the transport ...
purine ribonucleotide transport. • gap junction assembly. • cell-cell signaling. • cell communication. • protein ... "Demyelinating and axonal features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with mutations of myelin-related proteins (PMP22, MPZ and Cx32 ...
Kaneko S, Wang J, Kaneko M, et al «Protecting axonal degeneration by increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels in ... Esterification of inorganic phosphate coupled to electron transport between dihydrodiphosphopyridine nucleotide and oxygen». J ... Aquests sistemes de llançadora també tenen la mateixa funció de transport als cloroplasts.[43] Com que en aquests conjunts de ...
This axonal transport is disrupted if huntingtin or its interacting partner HAP1, which colocalize with autophagosomes in ... "Autophagosomes initiate distally and mature during transport toward the cell soma in primary neurons". The Journal of Cell ...
... transport, translation, and degradation. The splicing of mRNA can induce its translation and functionally diversify the ... a property particularly exploited in neurons where the dendritic or axonal translation of mRNA in response to synaptic activity ...
However, attacks may lead to permanent axonal loss and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Tumors, infections, and ... Mitochondria are made within the central somata of the retinal ganglion cell, transported down axons, and distributed where ... and use of certain drugs can cause derangements in efficient transport of mitochondria, which can cause a primary or secondary ...
Axonal transport is the process whereby motor proteins navigate microtubules to deliver diverse cargoes from one end of the ... In this Review, Schiavo and colleagues explore the link between perturbations in axonal transport and neurological disease. ... we review the latest evidence emerging from human and in vivo studies on whether perturbations in axonal transport are indeed ... Moreover, disruptions in axonal cargo trafficking have been extensively reported across a wide range of nervous system ...
Axonal transport and Alzheimers disease.. Stokin GB1, Goldstein LS.. Author information. 1. Institute of Clinical ... but considerable experimental evidence suggests that failure of axonal transport may play a role in the development or ... To overcome this challenge axons and dendrites rely upon specialized transport machinery consisting of cytoskeletal motor ... Not only are these transport systems crucial to maintain neuronal viability and differentiation, ...
Aluminum effect on slow axonal transport: a novel impairment of neurofilament transport. J. Neurosci. 4(3), 722-731 (1984) ... N. Hirokawa, Axonal transport and the cytoskeleton. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 3(5), 724-731 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... J.J. Blum, M.C. Reed, A model for fast axonal transport. Cell Motil. 5(6), 507-527 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... S.I. Rubinow, J.J. Blum, A theoretical approach to the analysis of axonal transport. Biophys. J. 30(1), 137-147 (1980)CrossRef ...
... Eriko Terao terao at bani.ucl.ac.be Mon Jun 2 06:24:41 EST 1997 *Previous message: platinum- ... We are currently trying to block axonal transport in the facial nerve of adult rats. We have tried both vincristine and ...
Axonal mRNA transport and localized translational regulation of kappa-opioid receptor in primary neurons of dorsal root ganglia ... In Campenot chambers, axonal translation of kor mRNA was demonstrated for DRG neurons, which depended on its 5 UTR and was ... In situ hybridization detected axonal distribution of kor mRNA in primary neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The MS2-fused ... This study provided evidence for mRNA transport and regulation of presynaptic protein synthesis of nonstructural proteins like ...
All the peptides were transported by fast axonal transport as judged by the distance transported and/or the sensitivity to ... Interganglionic axonal transport of neuropeptides in Aplysia. PE Lloyd. Journal of Neuroscience 1 September 1989, 9 (9) 3243- ... Interganglionic axonal transport of neuropeptides in Aplysia Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The transport of neuropeptides between central ganglia was studied in Aplysia. Peptide transport was determined by incubating ...
However, it remains controversial whether axonal neurofilaments are dynamic structures in which only subunits are transported ... To investigate the form neurofilament proteins take during transport, neurons of transgenic mice lacking axonal neurofilaments ... which are major routes for slow axonal transport. ... Visualization of Slow Axonal Transport in Vivo. By Sumio Terada ... and electron microscopy revealed that the virally encoded neurofilament M was transported in unpolymerized form along axonal ...
Axonal transport is responsible for supplying the axonal processes with proteins that are synthesized in the cell body. Among ... Axonal transport is responsible for supplying the axonal processes with proteins that are synthesized in the cell body. Among ... Axonal transport of tubulin and actin J Neurocytol. Nov-Dec 2000;29(11-12):889-911. doi: 10.1023/a:1010903710160. ... These metabolic studies have also raised questions about the underlying mechanisms of slow axonal transport such as: what is ...
... and also provide railways for the transport of various classes of cytoplasmic constituents ... Brown A (2003) Axonal transport of membranous and non‐membranous cargoes: a unified perspective. Journal of Cell Biology 160: ... Axonal Transport and the Neuronal Cytoskeleton. PW Baas, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA ... Baas, PW, and Karabay, A(Sep 2005) Axonal Transport and the Neuronal Cytoskeleton. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. ...
... called an axonal spheroid, may result. Because axonal transport can be disrupted in a multitude of ways, axonal spheroids can ... The basic mechanism of fast axonal transport has been understood for decades but the mechanism of slow axonal transport is only ... and in those cases it is likely that axonal transport is a key player in mediating pathology. Dysfunctional axonal transport is ... Intraflagellar transport Sabry J, OConnor TP, Kirschner MW (June 1995). "Axonal transport of tubulin in Ti1 pioneer neurons in ...
"We suggest that defects in axonal transport can lead to a chronic axonal JNK-stress pathway in which tau protein may get ... interfering with axonal transport intensifies disease. "It is going to be really important to show that transport defects can ... Axonal transport rates in vivo are unaffected by tau deletion or overexpression in mice. J Neurosci. 2008 Feb 13;28(7):1682-7. ... Sunday Driver links axonal transport to damage signaling. J Cell Biol. 2005 Feb 28;168(5):775-87. PubMed. ...
Retrolinkin, a membrane protein, plays an important role in retrograde axonal transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 13; ... 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium affects fast axonal transport by activation of caspase and protein kinase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... The Skinny on FAT: APPs Role in Fast Axonal Transport 31 Oct 2006. ... The Skinny on FAT: APPs Role in Fast Axonal Transport 31 Oct 2006. ...
Alterations in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic and experimental Parkinsons disease.. Chu Y1, Morfini GA, Langhamer ... As terminal field loss seems to precede cell body loss, we tested whether alterations of axonal transport motor proteins would ... There was a decline in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic Parkinsons disease that preceded other well-known nigral ... Alterations in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic and experimental Parkinsons disease ...
... together with fast axonal transport. Indeed, this bidirectional cargo-specific transport has a pivotal role in neuronal ... In this paper, we will examine the effect of the main old and new chemotherapeutic drug categories on axonal transport, with ... Literature data demonstrate that, despite different mechanisms of action, all antineoplastic agents impair the axonal ... to some extent and the severity of the neuropathy correlates with the degree of damage on this bidirectional transport. ...
To evaluate how broad the alterations in axonal transport induced by conditioning lesion would be, we assessed axonal transport ... 3F). In summary, a conditioning injury leads to broad alterations in axonal transport, affecting the transport of proteins, ... Despite the above evidence suggesting a central role of axonal transport during regeneration, the modulation of transport by ... 1984) Axonal transport of the cytoplasmic matrix. J Cell Biol 99:212s-221s, doi:10.1083/jcb.99.1.212s, pmid:6378920. ...
We further demonstrate that reovirus disassembly and replication occur in the neuronal soma subsequent to axonal transport. ... Following internalization, reovirus spreads in the retrograde direction using dynein-mediated fast axonal transport but ... We used primary neurons cultured in microfluidic devices to study entry and directional transport of reovirus. We discovered ... Remarkably, these entry and transport mechanisms mirror those used by misfolded proteins implicated in neurodegenerative ...
Axonal transport, also called axoplasmic transport, is a cell process not only responsible to the movement of protein and ... Axonal transport is essential to neuron cell growth and survival. Axon of neuron is 1,000 or 10,000 times the length of the ... Structural Biochemistry/Axonal Transport and Disease. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... 1. Gorazd B. Stokin and Lawrence S.B. Goldstein, "Axonal Transport and Alzheimers Disease" ...
... axonal transport explanation free. What is axonal transport? Meaning of axonal transport medical term. What does axonal ... Looking for online definition of axonal transport in the Medical Dictionary? ... axonal transport. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. axonal transport. The process by which neurones ... Axonal transport , definition of axonal transport by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/axonal ...
Mutation of UNC-76 in C. elegans Impairs Axonal Transport of Stx.. During axonal outgrowth, Stx is not transported together ... restored axonal transport of Stx. We conclude that FEZ1 operates as a kinesin adaptor for the transport of Stx, with cargo ... showing that Kinesin-1 is needed at least during later phases of axonal transport. Transport of the synaptic vesicle protein ... containing transport vesicles transported by Kinesin-1 (36), but it is unlikely that the bulk of Stx is transported by any of ...
Kinesin Mutations Cause Motor Neuron Disease Phenotypes by Disrupting Fast Axonal Transport in Drosophila. Daryl D. Hurd and ... Kinesin Mutations Cause Motor Neuron Disease Phenotypes by Disrupting Fast Axonal Transport in Drosophila. Daryl D. Hurd and ... Kinesin Mutations Cause Motor Neuron Disease Phenotypes by Disrupting Fast Axonal Transport in Drosophila. Daryl D. Hurd and ... This causes organelle jams that disrupt retrograde as well as anterograde fast axonal transport, leading to defective action ...
... Neuron. 2002 Dec 19;36(6):1063-77. ... In contrast, synaptic vesicles continue to be transported to and concentrated at synapses. Milton protein is associated with ... We propose that Milton is a mitochondria-associated protein required for kinesin-mediated transport of mitochondria to nerve ...
Accordingly to Cryo-EM shows how dynactin recruits two dyneins for faster movement article, it is not as stated BICD2 and Hook3, to recruit two dynein motors to a single dynactin complex but BICDR1 instead. We conclude that the majority of motile complexes that contain BICD2 have one dynein, whereas both BICDR1 and HOOK3 preferentially recruit two. ...
In mid-axonal regions we found predominantly non-enveloped capsids. Interestingly, we observed both genome-containing and empty ... supporting the notion that viral subassemblies are conveyed along the axons to be assembled only after axonal transport. ... There are conflicting reports what type of viral structures are transported: some studies observed non-enveloped capsids ... Viral protein recruitment thus varied between the different cytosolic capsid types, but effective transport occurred despite ...
A pathway selectively inhibits anterograde axonal transport of vesicles but not mitochondria transport or retrograde transport ... Vallee, R. B. and Bloom, G. S. (1991). Mechanisms of fast and slow axonal transport. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 14, 59-92. ... Miller, K. E. and Sheetz, M. P. (2004). Axonal mitochondrial transport and potential are correlated. J. Cell Sci. 117, 2791- ... Brown, J. R., Stafford, P. and Langford, G. M. (2004). Short-range axonal/dendritic transport by myosin-V: A model for vesicle ...
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Animals, Animals, Genetically Modified, Axonal Transport, Cells, Cultured, Cerebral Cortex, DNA- ... Axonal transport of TDP-43 mRNA granules is impaired by ALS-causing mutations.. ... TDP-43 mutations impair this mRNA transport function in vivo and in vitro, including in stem cell-derived motor neurons from ... Here we show that TDP-43 forms cytoplasmic mRNP granules that undergo bidirectional, microtubule-dependent transport in neurons ...
Abstract: Q39.00006 : Monte-Carlo Study of Axonal Transport in a Neuron. 12:39 PM-12:51 PM ... We will present a Monte Carlo simulation of intracellular transport inside an axon in which motor proteins carry cargos along ... The breakdown of intracellular transport in neurons has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers, ...
Previous work has documented impairment of slow axonal transport in papilledema, but the abnormalities in rapid transport were ... Fast axonal transport in early experimental disc edema. You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, ... Therefore fast axonal transport was studied in 19 primate eyes subjected to ocular hypotony for 6 to 72 hr following surgical ... R L Radius, D R Anderson; Fast axonal transport in early experimental disc edema.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1980;19(2):158 ...
Such accumulation is typical of locations where rapid orthograde axonal transport or retrograde axonal transport is blocked. In ... Membranous organelles accumulate at the boundary of an ischaemic zone when material carried by axonal transport is brought via ... Rapid orthograde transport and retrograde transport seem to be closely related to one another, while slow axoplasmic flow seems ... intraocular pressure first affects the intracellular physiological process of rapid orthograde and retrograde axonal transport ...
Neurofilaments are transported rapidly but intermittently in axons: implications for slow axonal transport. J. Neurosci. 20: ... Tables S1, S2, and S3 show data from the vesicle transport assay, the NF transport assay, and the MT transport assay, ... vesicle transport, and NF transport. In neurons cotransfected with control siRNA, the majority of moving MTs was transported in ... Role of cytoplasmic dynein in the axonal transport of microtubules and neurofilaments. Yan He, Franto Francis, Kenneth A. Myers ...
Axonal transport of mitochondria to synapses depends on milton, a novel Drosophila protein. Neuron. 36:1063-1077. doi:10.1016/ ... Axonal mitochondrial transport and potential are correlated. J. Cell Sci. 117:2791-2804. doi:10.1242/jcs.01130. ... The GTPase dMiro is required for axonal transport of mitochondria to Drosophila synapses. Neuron. 47:379-393. doi:10.1016/j. ... The axonal transport of mitochondria. J. Cell Sci. 118:5411-5419. doi:10.1242/jcs.02745. ...
  • The basic mechanism of fast axonal transport has been understood for decades but the mechanism of slow axonal transport is only recently becoming clear, as a result of advanced imaging techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism is known as the "Stop and Go" model of slow axonal transport, and has been extensively validated for the transport of the cytoskeletal protein neurofilament. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, neurofilament proteins are probably transported as subunits or small oligomers along microtubules, which are major routes for slow axonal transport. (sciencemag.org)
  • These metabolic studies have also raised questions about the underlying mechanisms of slow axonal transport such as: what is the polymerization state of tubulin and actin during transport, what motors and tracks are responsible for their movement down the axon, and how are the transport motors coupled to tubulin and actin during transport? (nih.gov)
  • Baas PW and Buster DW (2004) Slow axonal transport and the genesis of neuronal morphology. (els.net)
  • The swellings are packed with fast axonal transport cargoes including vesicles, synaptic membrane proteins, mitochondria and prelysosomal organelles, but not with slow axonal transport cargoes such as cytoskeletal elements. (genetics.org)
  • Previous work has documented impairment of slow axonal transport in papilledema, but the abnormalities in rapid transport were less certain. (arvojournals.org)
  • Early studies on slow axonal transport suggested that the proteins that comprise microtubules (MTs), actin filaments, and neurofilaments (NFs) are transported in the form of assembled polymers ( Black and Lasek, 1980 ). (rupress.org)
  • These observations suggest that slow axonal transport is a collection of fast but infrequent movements, which appear slow when the population of moving and nonmoving polymers are studied collectively. (rupress.org)
  • In a "cargo" model for slow axonal transport, cytoplasmic dynein would also convey short MTs and NFs retrogradely by moving them along longer MTs. (rupress.org)
  • Understanding the specific roles of cytoplasmic dynein in MT and NF transport is key to distinguishing between the cargo model and the sliding filament model for each cytoskeletal element, and hence for elucidating the mechanisms that orchestrate slow axonal transport. (rupress.org)
  • 3) To determine how loss of ALS2 influences both fast and slow axonal transport by monitoring movement of GFP-tagged cargoes in living neurons derived from wild-type and ALS2 knockout mice. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • We propose that the velocity of slow axonal transport reflects the level of maturation of the neuron, and that the presence of several overlapping peaks of transported radioactivity in the sciatic nerve of younger animals reflects the presence of several populations of motor axons at different stages of development. (elsevier.com)
  • Slow axonal transport rates in shiverer CNS axons were significantly increased, in contrast to the slowing in demyelinated PNS nerves. (jneurosci.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that fast anterograde molecular motor proteins power the slow axonal transport of neurofilaments (NFs), we used homologous recombination to generate mice lacking the neuronal-specific conventional kinesin heavy chain, KIF5A. (nih.gov)
  • These data support the hypothesis that a conventional kinesin plays a role in the microtubule-dependent slow axonal transport of at least one cargo, the NF proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Classic pulse-chase studies have shown that actin is conveyed in slow axonal transport, but the mechanistic basis for this movement is unknown. (univ-amu.fr)
  • Collectively, the data point to a surprising scenario where local assembly and biased polymerization generate the slow axonal transport of actin without involvement of microtubules (MTs) or MT-based motors. (univ-amu.fr)
  • The movement of soluble (cytosolic) cargoes is more complex, but appears to have a similar basis where soluble proteins organize into multi-protein complexes that are then conveyed by transient interactions with more rapidly moving cargoes moving in fast axonal transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the peptides were transported by fast axonal transport as judged by the distance transported and/or the sensitivity to colchicine. (jneurosci.org)
  • It has largely been recognized that Dorsal Root Ganglia are the main targets of chemotherapy and that the longest nerves are the most damaged, together with fast axonal transport. (mdpi.com)
  • This causes organelle jams that disrupt retrograde as well as anterograde fast axonal transport, leading to defective action potentials, dystrophic terminals, reduced transmitter secretion and progressive distal paralysis. (genetics.org)
  • These phenotypes parallel the pathologies of some vertebrate motor neuron diseases, including some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and suggest that impaired fast axonal transport is a key element in those diseases. (genetics.org)
  • This far-flung biomass is supported in part by fast axonal transport, a steady stream of organelles moving from their major sites of biogenesis in the cell body to the distant reaches of the axon at rates of micrometers per second, hundreds of centimeters per day. (biologists.org)
  • Fast axonal transport in early experimental disc edema. (arvojournals.org)
  • Therefore fast axonal transport was studied in 19 primate eyes subjected to ocular hypotony for 6 to 72 hr following surgical fistulization of the anterior chamber. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mild, irregular alterations in fast axonal transport were detected only after nerve head swelling was apparent. (arvojournals.org)
  • Therefore we hypothesize that the swelling results when slow axoplasmic flow is locally slowed down but not totally stopped, with the axon distention producing secondary mild, irregular changes in fast axonal transport. (arvojournals.org)
  • Thus, low-level (intermittent) exposure to CPF has persistent effects on neurotrophin receptors and cholinergic proteins, possibly through inhibition of fast axonal transport. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Supporting this idea, pathogenic Htt (polyQ-Htt) inhibits fast axonal transport (FAT) in various cellular and animal models of Huntington's disease (mouse and squid), but the molecular basis of this effect remains unknown. (hdlf.org)
  • We have compelling preliminary evidence from rat studies suggesting that one mechanism underlying memory dysfunction associated with repeated, subthreshold OP exposure is the impairment of fast axonal transport resulting from interactions with the motor protein, kinesin. (elsevier.com)
  • Since axonal transport plays such a fundamental role in neuronal function, and since the cholinergic system in the brain is so important for cognitive processes, we have developed the hypothesis that the compromise of fast axonal transport by OPs, over time, leads to deficiencies in the expression of cholinergic macromolecules in sensitive regions of the brain that result in the impairment of memory function. (elsevier.com)
  • 2): To identify specific relationships between OP-induced cognitive changes and impairments in fast axonal transport. (elsevier.com)
  • In young mutant animals, fast axonal transport appeared to be intact, but NF-H, as well as NF-M and NF-L, accumulated in the cell bodies of peripheral sensory neurons accompanied by a reduction in sensory axon caliber. (nih.gov)
  • The observed movement was compatible with fast axonal flow mediated by multiple microtubule motors. (princeton.edu)
  • Smith, GA, Gross, SP & Enquist, LW 2001, ' Herpesviruses use bidirectional fast-axonal transport to spread in sensory neurons ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 3466-3470. (princeton.edu)
  • In the proximal axon, we found that docked mitochondria attached to the cytoskeletal framework that were stationary relative to the substrate and fast axonal transport fully accounted for mitochondrial transport. (utmb.edu)
  • These findings suggest that the viscoelastic stretching/creep of axons caused by tension exerted by the growth cone, with or without advance, is seen as LVT that is followed by compensatory intercalated addition of new mitochondria by fast axonal transport. (utmb.edu)
  • Fluorescent labeling techniques (e.g. fluorescence microscopy) have enabled direct visualization of transport in living neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • During reactivation from latency, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) enters its lytic cycle, and uses anterograde transport mechanisms to migrate from dorsal root ganglia neurons to the skin or mucosa that it subsequently affects. (wikipedia.org)
  • N. Hirokawa, R. Takemura, Molecular motors and mechanisms of directional transport in neurons. (springer.com)
  • Axonal mRNA transport and localized translational regulation of kappa-opioid receptor in primary neurons of dorsal root ganglia. (mendeley.com)
  • In situ hybridization detected axonal distribution of kor mRNA in primary neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). (mendeley.com)
  • In Campenot chambers, axonal translation of kor mRNA was demonstrated for DRG neurons, which depended on its 5' UTR and was stimulated by KCl depolarization. (mendeley.com)
  • This study provided evidence for mRNA transport and regulation of presynaptic protein synthesis of nonstructural proteins like KOR in primary sensory neurons and demonstrated a mechanism of KCl depolarization-stimulated axonal mRNA redistribution for localized translational regulation. (mendeley.com)
  • To investigate the form neurofilament proteins take during transport, neurons of transgenic mice lacking axonal neurofilaments were infected with a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding epitope-tagged neurofilament M. Confocal and electron microscopy revealed that the virally encoded neurofilament M was transported in unpolymerized form along axonal microtubules. (sciencemag.org)
  • As neurons are highly polarized, many newly synthesized regeneration-associated genes (RAGs), and cytoskeleton proteins need to be transported anterogradely to the axon tip. (jneurosci.org)
  • 12) evaluation of retrograde axonal transport of toxins to the spinal motor neurons and their response (access and possible uptake of toxic substances at the neuromuscular junction). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we show that TDP-43 forms cytoplasmic mRNP granules that undergo bidirectional, microtubule-dependent transport in neurons in vitro and in vivo and facilitate delivery of target mRNA to distal neuronal compartments. (broadinstitute.org)
  • TDP-43 mutations impair this mRNA transport function in vivo and in vitro, including in stem cell-derived motor neurons from ALS patients bearing any one of three different TDP-43 ALS-causing mutations. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The breakdown of intracellular transport in neurons has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Lou Gehig's disease (ALS), and Huntingdon's disease. (aps.org)
  • To reveal transport of MTs and NFs, we expressed EGFP-tagged tubulin or NF proteins in cultured rat sympathetic neurons and performed live-cell imaging of the fluorescent cytoskeletal elements in photobleached regions of the axon. (rupress.org)
  • Neurons require specialized mechanisms to transport mitochondria to axons and to maintain their retention near synaptic terminals, where energy production and calcium homeostatic capacity are in high demand. (rupress.org)
  • Using snph mouse models and time-lapse imaging analysis in live neurons, we demonstrate that SNPH mediates the activity-dependent immobilization of axonal mitochondria by physical displacement of KIF5 from the Miro-Track (trafficking kinesin-binding protein) complex. (rupress.org)
  • They noted that the transport of mitochondria, the food supply for neurons, was significantly slower and paused more often in the EAE mice, even when the axons in the affected mice appeared normal. (labroots.com)
  • Neurons rely on microtubule (MT) motor proteins such as kinesin-1 and dynein to transport essential cargos between the cell body and axon terminus. (utexas.edu)
  • Identified sites will then be mutated to preclude or to mimic permanent phosphorylation and the transport properties of these mutants analysed by monitoring movement of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged variants in transfected cultured neurons. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • To identify mRNA species that are actively transported to axons and play an important role in axonal physiology, we mapped the axonal transcriptome of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons using permeable inserts to obtain large amounts of enriched axonal material for RNA isolation and sequencing. (ovid.com)
  • Motor neurons from healthy subjects were used to determine differences in gene expression profiles between neuronal somatodendritic and axonal compartments. (ovid.com)
  • Administration of excitatory amino acids may be toxic for retinal cells and block axonal transport in retinal neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A new study reveals that the huntingtin protein (HTT), known to cause Huntington's disease, may interfere with axonal transport, causing neurons to die off due to a lack of proteins essential to their function and health. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Based on what we are seeing, HTT seems to be important for the transport of a particular type of vesicle known as endosomes within neurons. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • The binding of axonal transport KIFs to microtubules is dominant negatively disrupted by these mutations, which alters the localization of KIFs in neurons and inhibits axon elongation in vivo . (embopress.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that these mutant tubulins inhibit the binding of axonal transport KIFs to microtubules in a dominant‐negative fashion, and disrupt the localization of KIFs in hippocampal neurons. (embopress.org)
  • We also show that a KLC1 serine-460 phosphomimetic mutant inhibits axonal transport of APP in both mammalian neurons in culture and in Drosophila neurons in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We find that (1) in the adult rat brain TrkA-like immunoreactivity is similar with all antibodies in striatal and basal forebrain neurons, (2) TrkA is upregulated in neuronal and nonneuronal cells near the sites of injury, and (3) TrkA immunoreactivity builds up within the proximal and distal segments of transected fimbrial axons, which is consistent with its transport in the anterograde and retrograde directions. (umassmed.edu)
  • At 16 h post infection, we observed intra-axonal transport of progeny HSV1 viral particles in dissociated hippocampal neurons by live-cell fluorescence microscopy. (mpg.de)
  • Cryo electron tomography of frozen-hydrated neurons revealed that most egressing capsids were transported independently of the viral envelope. (mpg.de)
  • The velocity of neurofilament transport was calculated on the basis of the location of the 50th percentile of radioactivity in this wave 33 days after motor neurons were labeled by the intraspinal administration of [ 3 H]leucine and [ 3 H]lysine. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that [ 3 H]NBMPR binds with high affinity to a single class of adenosine transport sites, and that these sites are present on vagal afferent neurons in the human and undergo bidirectional axonal transport along the rat vagus nerve. (monash.edu)
  • Sensory neurons and motor neurons are particularly vulnerable to axonal transport defects due to the length of their axons. (ulaval.ca)
  • Researchers have identified the mechanism by which axonal transport is impaired in neurons in HD. (hdlf.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have identifiedthe mechanism by which axonal transport is impaired in neurons in Huntington's disease. (hdlf.org)
  • Axonal transport is critical for the survival of neurons. (hdlf.org)
  • Proteins are synthesized in the cell body and then are transported in microtubulins or 'tracks' which run along axons to the synapses, the junctions through which neurons signal to each other. (hdlf.org)
  • If the mutant protein impairs such a critical function as axonal transport, then why do neurons remain healthy for years? (hdlf.org)
  • Neurons possess extraordinary long axons which may require a more complex system to meet the unusual transport challenges that are far beyond those of nonneuronal cells. (stanford.edu)
  • BPAG1 (Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 1) null mouse is an interesting neurological mutant that features cytoskeletal disorganization and severely disrupted axonal transport with heavily accumulated vesicles and other membranous organelles in sensory neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • Using dominant negative manner with ERM1 domain to disrupt the BPAG1n4-dynactin interaction, the impaired retrograde transport in cultured DRG neurons (dorsal root ganglia) recapitulates the transport phenotype observed in the BPAG1 null neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • Axonal transport is the main process enabling fast delivery of organelles and biological molecules inside neurons. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Previous work has shown that there are deficits in the axonal transport of signalling endosomes in embryonic motor neurons isolated from the SOD1G93A murine model of ALS compared to wild type. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Fusion of BirA to an atoxic fragment of the TeNT (HcT) enables us to tag proteins coming into close contact with HcT during its recognition, internalisation and retrograde axonal transport in neurons. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We used live cell imaging to examine the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the axonal transport of mitochondria and Golgi-derived vesicles in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The newly developed HDAC6 inhibitors, CHEMICAL X4 and CHEMICAL X9, increased acetylation of -tubulin and reversed axonal movement defects of mitochondria in CMT2F-motor neurons and dHMN2B-motor neurons. (hindawi.com)
  • Alpha-synuclein affects neurite morphology, autophagy, vesicle transport and axonal degeneration in CNS neurons. (mpg.de)
  • OBJECTIVE The objectives of the study were to evaluate retrograde axonal transport of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) protein to sensory neurons after intramuscular administration of an engineered zinc finger protein activator of endogenous VEGF-A (VZ+434) in an experimental model of diabetes, and to characterize the VEGF-A target neurons. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons to show that C9orf72 repeat expansions impair microtubule-based transport of mitochondria, a process critical for maintenance of neuronal function. (meta.org)
  • Cargo transport defects are recapitulated by treating healthy neurons with the arginine-rich dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) that are produced by the hexanucleotide repeat expansions. (meta.org)
  • Here we report that KIF5B promotes the forward transport of Nav1.8 to the plasma membrane and axons in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of the rat. (qxmd.com)
  • Motor neurons appear particularly vulnerable to transport defects since mutations in this pathway induce motor neuron death in humans and mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This monograph is an up to date account of the abnormalities in axonal transport of proteins and molecules in neurons in the aging and diseased brain. (springer.com)
  • Evidence of the effects of reactive oxygen species on axonal transport of mitochondria in Gallus gallus peripheral sympathetic neurons. (wheatoncollege.edu)
  • Intravital imaging of transport in axons of live mice provides some of the most compelling evidence that trafficking disturbances contribute to neuronal dysfunction. (nature.com)
  • To overcome this challenge axons and dendrites rely upon specialized transport machinery consisting of cytoskeletal motor proteins generating directed movements along cytoskeletal tracks. (nih.gov)
  • The vast majority of axonal proteins are synthesized in the neuronal cell body and transported along axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The slow component b, which also carries actin, are transported at a rate of 2-3 millimeters per day in retinal cell axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • N. Trivedi, P. Jung, A. Brown, Neurofilaments switch between distinct mobile and stationary states during their transport along axons. (springer.com)
  • The MS2-fused GFP tracked kor mRNA transport from DRG neuronal soma to axons, requiring its 5' and 3' UTRs. (mendeley.com)
  • In axons, cytoskeletal constituents move by slow transport. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is not yet known what motor or motors are responsible for tubulin or actin transport in axons or how such a motor(s) might be coupled to such an abundant soluble cargo. (nih.gov)
  • The neuronal cytoskeleton is a system of highly organized polymers that provide architectural support for axons and dendrites, and also provide railways for the transport of various classes of cytoplasmic constituents. (els.net)
  • Axons can traverse exceeding long distances in the body, and hence require sophisticated mechanisms of axonal transport in both the anterograde and the retrograde direction. (els.net)
  • Current theories on the mechanisms of organelle transport along microtubules and microfilaments within axons. (els.net)
  • Microtubules are nucleated by gamma tubulin and released from the centrosome by katanin within the cell body of the neuron, and are then transported by cytoplasmic dynein into the axons with the plus end of the microtubule leading. (els.net)
  • Their axons and outlying synapses depend on a constant flow of materials to and from the cell body, making efficient transport a survival skill. (alzforum.org)
  • Two papers published this week in PNAS examine the transport problem, one in the context of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a "dying back" of axons, and the other defining a new player in the docking of transport vesicles to motor proteins. (alzforum.org)
  • In summary, our work shows that a peripheral injury induces a global increase in axonal transport that is not restricted to the peripheral branch, and that, by extending to the central branch, allows a rapid and sustained support of regenerating central axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Organelle transport is vital for the development and maintenance of axons, in which the distances between sites of organelle biogenesis, function, and recycling or degradation can be vast. (biologists.org)
  • Movement of mitochondria in axons can serve as a general model for how all organelles move: mitochondria are easy to identify, they move along both microtubule and actin tracks, they pause and change direction, and their transport is modulated in response to physiological signals. (biologists.org)
  • Studies of mitochondrial transport in axons are beginning to illuminate fundamental aspects of the distribution mechanism. (biologists.org)
  • Axons are the transport avenue for the entire nervous system but the delivery of proteins and organelles to the brain is perhaps the most precious cargo. (labroots.com)
  • These ?ndings reveal a new relationship between GSK-3 and APP, and demonstrate that endogenous GSK-3 is an essential in vivo regulator of bidirectional APP transport in axons and lipid droplets in embryos. (utexas.edu)
  • These results suggest that local translation of mRNAs is required to meet the high-energy demand of axons and to support microtubule-based axonal transport. (ovid.com)
  • Interestingly, several transcripts related to human genetic disorders associated with axonal degeneration (inherited axonopathies) were identified among the mRNA species enriched in motor axons. (ovid.com)
  • Although dynein-driven retrograde transport of AVs has been suggested, a fundamental question remains-how do autophagosomes that are generated at distal axons acquire dynein motors for retrograde transport to the soma. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate that late endosome (LE)-loaded dynein-snapin complexes drive AV retrograde transport in axons upon fusion of autophagosomes with LEs into amphisomes. (nih.gov)
  • Inequalities in their rate and amount of transport between two branches of bifurcating axons. (rupress.org)
  • The corresponding values in central axons are 1-2 mm/d, 3-4 mm/d, and approximately 4 mm/d, indicating an obvious asymmetry in the transport rate between the two branches of bifurcating axons. (rupress.org)
  • APP is transported anterogradely through axons on kinesin-1 motors and one route for this transport involves calsyntenin-1, a type-1 membrane spanning protein that acts as a direct ligand for kinesin-1 light chains (KLCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably, the distances over which cargoes have to be trafficked through axons which can be over a metre in length in humans, present unique challenges for neuronal transport systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data support the 'separate model' for HSV1 egress, i.e. progeny herpes viruses being transported along axons as subassemblies and not as complete virions within transport vesicles. (mpg.de)
  • We examined age-dependent changes in neurofilament transport in motor axons of the rat sciatic nerve. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, the transport of kinesin-1 and tyrosine kinase receptors, previously reported to require APP, was unchanged in axons of APP-deficient mice. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings suggest that the hypothesis that APP serves as a kinesin-1 receptor and that the proteolytic processing machinery responsible for generating Aβ is transported in the same vesicular compartment in axons of peripheral nerves requires revision. (elsevier.com)
  • The density of axonal microtubules is increased, reflecting increased expression of tubulin in shiverer, and the stability of microtubules is drastically reduced in shiverer axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • When the transport system becomes impaired, synapases and axons become dysfunctional, signaling is reduced, and the cell begins to die. (hdlf.org)
  • JNK3 phosphorylates kinesin-1, the motor protein of the axonal transport system which moves the cargo toward the ends of the axons. (hdlf.org)
  • The long length of axons makes them critically dependent on intracellular transport for their growth and survival. (osu.edu)
  • The outbound movement is known as anterograde transport and it includes cargoes required for the growth, maintenance and plasticity of axons and presynaptic terminals. (osu.edu)
  • mRNA of κ opioid receptor (KOR) can be transported to nerve fibers, including axons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and can be locally translated. (umn.edu)
  • This study provides evidence for a microtubule-dependent, active axonal kor mRNA-transport process that involves Copb1 and can stimulate localized translation and suggests coupling of transport and translation of mRNAs destined to the remote areas such as axons. (umn.edu)
  • However, when Tfm males carrying the myogenic transgene (Tfm/TG) are treated with testosterone, they develop impaired motor function and defects in retrograde transport, having fewer retrogradely labeled motoneurons and deficits in endosomal flux based on time-lapse video microscopy of living axons. (eneuro.org)
  • Overexpressing TRF2-S and silencing FMRP promotes mRNA entry to axons and enhances axonal outgrowth and neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals. (telomerescience.com)
  • In axons, mitochondria-free regions increase and lengths of transported mitochondria decrease with aging, although totally organized transport patterns are preserved in old (23- to 25-mo-old) mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Axonal transport, also called axoplasmic transport or axoplasmic flow, is a cellular process responsible for movement of mitochondria, lipids, synaptic vesicles, proteins, and other organelles to and from a neuron's cell body, through the cytoplasm of its axon called the axoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor proteins bind and transport several different cargoes including mitochondria, cytoskeletal polymers, autophagosomes, and synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • P.J. Hollenbeck, W.M. Saxton, The axonal transport of mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • Axonal transport of mitochondria was also increased in the central branch of Thy1-MitoCFP mice following a peripheral injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • Axonal transport of mitochondria to synapses depends on Milton, a novel Drosophila protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We propose that Milton is a mitochondria-associated protein required for kinesin-mediated transport of mitochondria to nerve terminals. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondria are thus of special interest in relating defects in axonal transport to neuropathies and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. (biologists.org)
  • Mitochondria are prominent members of the cast of axonally transported organelles. (biologists.org)
  • Like many other neuronal organelles, mitochondria are thought to arise mainly in the neuronal cell body, but their transport is distinctive. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the axonal traffic of mitochondria serves not just to deliver them and then reverse gears and retrieve them but also to continually position and reposition them along the axon. (biologists.org)
  • Axonal mitochondria are recruited to synaptic terminals in response to neuronal activity, but the mechanisms underlying activity-dependent regulation of mitochondrial transport are largely unknown. (rupress.org)
  • In this paper, using genetic mouse model combined with live imaging, we demonstrate that syntaphilin (SNPH) mediates the activity-dependent immobilization of axonal mitochondria through binding to KIF5. (rupress.org)
  • Neuronal activity further recruited SNPH to axonal mitochondria. (rupress.org)
  • This motor-docking interplay was induced by Ca 2+ and synaptic activity and was necessary to establish an appropriate balance between motile and stationary axonal mitochondria. (rupress.org)
  • Deleting snph abolished the activity-dependent immobilization of axonal mitochondria. (rupress.org)
  • Activity-triggered Ca 2+ influx recruits motile mitochondria to the stationary phase adjacent to activated synapses through a Miro-Ca 2+ sensor that inactivates KIF5-driven transport machineries. (rupress.org)
  • SNPH targets to axonal mitochondria and mediates their docking by anchoring them to the microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, identifying SNPH as a docking protein provides a molecular target to investigate how motile axonal mitochondria are recruited to the stationary pool in response to changes in neuronal activity. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we have analysed β‐tubulin mutations that cause neuronal diseases and we have identified mutations that strongly inhibit axonal transport of vesicles and mitochondria. (embopress.org)
  • In the present study, we identified β‐tubulin mutations that significantly inhibit KIF‐mediated axonal transport of vesicles and mitochondria through analysis of β‐tubulin mutations that induce neurological symptoms. (embopress.org)
  • At a given moment, about 10% of the mitochondria were in a state of transport and the remaining 90% were stationary. (apoptosisblog.com)
  • The stability of axonal mitochondria increased from 2 to 3 weeks in culture, was decreased by tetrodotoxin treatment, and was higher near synapses. (apoptosisblog.com)
  • Axonal mitochondria are enriched at presynaptic sites, nodes of Ranvier and the axon initial segments (Hollenbeck & Saxton, 2005). (apoptosisblog.com)
  • We found that hydrogen peroxide rapidly inhibited axonal transport of both mitochondria and Golgi-derived vesicles, providing the first direct evidence for the ability of ROS to inhibit axonal transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitochondria and Golgi-derived vesicles are two principal classes of organelles moved by axonal transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Miller, KE & Sheetz, M 2006, ' Direct evidence for coherent low velocity axonal transport of mitochondria ', Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 173, no. 3, pp. 373-381. (utmb.edu)
  • Here we report minimally invasive intravital multiphoton imaging of anesthetized mouse RGCs through the sclera that provides sequential time-lapse images of mitochondria transported in a single axon with submicrometer resolution. (elsevier.com)
  • Unlike findings from explants, we show that the axonal transport of mitochondria is highly dynamic in the mammalian CNS in vivo under physiological conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, in the early stage of glaucoma modeled in adult (4-mo-old) mice, the number of transported mitochondria decreases before RGC death, although transport does not shorten. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, axonal transport of mitochondria is more vulnerable to glaucomatous insults in old mice than in adult mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Our method is useful for characterizing the dynamics of axonal transport of mitochondria and may be applied to other submicrometer structures in the diseased and aged mammalian CNS in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Axonal transport is the process whereby motor proteins actively navigate microtubules to deliver diverse cargoes, such as organelles, from one end of the axon to the other, and is widely regarded as essential for nerve development, function and survival. (nature.com)
  • Mutations in genes encoding key components of the transport machinery, including motor proteins, motor adaptors and microtubules, have been discovered to cause neurological disease. (nature.com)
  • Brady, S. T. & Morfini, G. A. Regulation of motor proteins, axonal transport deficits and adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. (nature.com)
  • Vesicular cargoes move relatively fast (50-400 mm/day) whereas transport of soluble (cytosolic) and cytoskeletal proteins takes much longer (moving at less than 8 mm/day). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two classes of slow anterograde transport: slow component a (SCa) that carries mainly microtubules and neurofilaments at 0.1-1 millimeters per day, and slow component b (SCb) that carries over 200 diverse proteins and actin at a rate of up to 6 millimeters per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axonal transport refers to the stochastic, bidirectional movement of organelles and proteins along cytoskeletal polymers inside an axon, powered by molecular motor proteins. (springer.com)
  • Axonal transport is responsible for supplying the axonal processes with proteins that are synthesized in the cell body. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular motor proteins use the energy derived from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis for the transport of organelles along the cytoskeletal polymers and for the transport of the polymers themselves. (els.net)
  • The authors interfered with axonal transport in mice by deleting kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1), a subunit of a microtubule motor that is required for normal localization of, among other proteins, APP in mice. (alzforum.org)
  • Because the system has no cell membrane, the investigators can directly apply various proteins or chemicals and assess the effects on transport in both directions. (alzforum.org)
  • Previous work has shown how polyglutamine expanded proteins and Aβ both directly affect transport in this system (see ARF related news story and ARF SfN coverage ). (alzforum.org)
  • In the second paper, Yanmin Yang from Stanford University in California looks at the mechanism of retrograde transport, and specifically at how dynein motor proteins couple with vesicular cargoes. (alzforum.org)
  • Alterations in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic and experimental Parkinson's disease. (nih.gov)
  • As terminal field loss seems to precede cell body loss, we tested whether alterations of axonal transport motor proteins would be early features in Parkinson's disease. (nih.gov)
  • There was a decline in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic Parkinson's disease that preceded other well-known nigral cell-related pathology such as phenotypic downregulation of dopamine. (nih.gov)
  • Together, our data suggest that α-synuclein aggregation is a key feature associated with reductions of axonal transport motor proteins in Parkinson's disease and support the hypothesis that dopaminergic neurodegeneration following a 'dying-back' pattern involving axonal transport disruption. (nih.gov)
  • All proteins and membrane must synthesize proteins in neuronal cell body or neuron cell dendrite, and then transport back to the axon. (wikibooks.org)
  • The results demonstrate that the axonal transport of cargo proteins is impaired in preclinical models of ALS and Parkinson's disease and correlates with disease severity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we report a transport complex linking syntaxin 1a (Stx) and Munc18, two proteins functioning in synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the presynaptic plasma membrane, to the motor protein Kinesin-1 via the kinesin adaptor FEZ1. (pnas.org)
  • We will present a Monte Carlo simulation of intracellular transport inside an axon in which motor proteins carry cargos along microtubules and are able to switch from one microtubule to another. (aps.org)
  • Altogether, our study provides new mechanistic insight into the molecular interplay between motor and docking proteins, which arrests axonal mitochondrial transport in response to changes in neuronal activity. (rupress.org)
  • 1) To identify p38 stress-activated kinase phosphorylation sites in neurofilament proteins and to determine how this influences axonal transport of neurofilaments. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Researchers show that the mutated huntingtin protein associated with Huntington's disrupts the transport of essential proteins within the neuron, potentially highlighting an early cause of the disease. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Axonal transport is the system by which vital materials, such as proteins and nutrients, travel along the axon of the neuron in vesicles. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Recent studies on the distribution of labeled endogenous proteins in the experimental neuropathies induced by streptozotocin diabetes, galactose feeding, zinc pyridinethione, 2,5-hexanedione, acrylamide, and p-bromophenylacetylurea (BPAU) have demonstrated an impaired build up of retrogradely transported material derived from the more distal parts of peripheral nerve. (elsevier.com)
  • Intracellular transport of proteins, organelles and other cargoes is an essential requirement for vertebrate cell function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specific viral proteins may form a recruitment platform for microtubule motors that catalyze such transport. (mpg.de)
  • Therefore, even few tegument proteins on the capsid vertices seemed to suffice for transport. (mpg.de)
  • Price, D. L. / Slowing of the axonal transport of neurofilament proteins during development . (elsevier.com)
  • Droz B, Leblond CP (1963) Axonal migration of proteins in the central nervous system and peripheral nerves as shown by radioautography. (springer.com)
  • If you take a hit when you're very young, you still are making more and transporting more proteins in each neuron than you need,' Dr. Brady said, 'But as you get older and older, the neuron produces and transports less. (hdlf.org)
  • After a pulse administration of heavy water ( 2 H 2 O), distinct, newly synthesized 2 H-labeled neuronal proteins were transported to nerve terminals and secreted, and then appeared in CSF. (newshd.net)
  • In 3 mouse models of neurodegeneration, distinct 2 H-cargo proteins displayed delayed appearance and disappearance kinetics in the CSF, suggestive of aberrant transport kinetics. (newshd.net)
  • Despite considerable evidence that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate mRNA transport and local translation in dendrites, roles for axonal RBPs are poorly understood. (telomerescience.com)
  • Small membrane bound vesicles responsible for transporting proteins from one organelle to another are commonly found in endocytic and secretory pathways . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Outbound proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum will bud off into transport vesicles that travel along the cell cortex to reach their specific destinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rab proteins on the surface of the transport vesicle are responsible for aligning with the complementary tethering proteins found on the respective organelle's cytosolic surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNAREs are small, tail-anchored proteins which are often post-translationally inserted into membranes that are responsible for the fusion event necessary for vesicles to transport between organelles in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axonal transport is also responsible for moving molecules destined for degradation from the axon back to the cell body, where they are broken down by lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axonal transport can be fast or slow, and anterograde (away from the cell body) or retrograde (conveys materials from axon to cell body). (wikipedia.org)
  • A 15-amino acid peptide in the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of APP binds with high affinity to conventional kinesin-1 and mediates transport of exogenous cargo in the giant axon of the squid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The movement from the cell body to the axon terminal is called anterograde transport and the movement in the opposite direction is called retrograde transport. (springer.com)
  • Axonal transport is a vital process for the axon to survive and maintain its regular shape. (springer.com)
  • Mathematical models have been developed to help understand how cargoes are transported inside an axon and how impairment of axonal transport affects cargo distribution. (springer.com)
  • However, it remains controversial whether axonal neurofilaments are dynamic structures in which only subunits are transported or whether filaments assemble in the proximal axon and are transported intact as polymers to the axon terminus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Organelles that engage cytoplasmic dynein are transported towards minus ends of microtubules in retrograde fashion (from the distal end of axon towards the cell body), while organelles that engage most kinesins are transported towards plus ends of microtubules in anterograde fashion (from the cell body towards the distal end of the axon). (els.net)
  • Current theories on the mechanisms of cytoskeletal polymer transport within the axon. (els.net)
  • Microfilaments are transported by myosins, and generate forces by pushing against cortical structures associated with sites where the axon adheres to the extracellular matrix. (els.net)
  • Ahmad FJ, Echeverri CJ, Vallee RB and Baas PW (1998) Cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin are required for microtubule transport into the axon. (els.net)
  • Axonal transport, also called axoplasmic transport, is a cell process not only responsible to the movement of protein and membrane to its axon, but also responsible to the movement of molecules that destined for degradation from the axon back to the cell body. (wikibooks.org)
  • transport to the cell body recycles substances and carries signals by axon terminals and trophic factors to the cell body where they affect cellular processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In Drosophila, deletion of UNC-76/fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 (FEZ1), a specific adaptor for Kinesin-1, left synaptic vesicles stranded in the axon ( 2 , 3 ), showing that Kinesin-1 is needed at least during later phases of axonal transport. (pnas.org)
  • A similar transport system runs in the opposite direction, moving organelles, including those of the endocytic and autophagic pathways, from the distal axon back to the cell body. (biologists.org)
  • Membranous organelles accumulate at the boundary of an ischaemic zone when material carried by axonal transport is brought via the healthy axon segment to the boundary, but they cannot proceed further into the ischaemic zone. (bmj.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that the transport of microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs) within the axon is rapid, infrequent, asynchronous, and bidirectional. (rupress.org)
  • Cytoplasmic dynein moves toward minus ends of MTs, and thereby transports vesicular organelles in the retrograde direction in the axon. (rupress.org)
  • Local axonal translation of specific mRNA species plays an important role in axon maintenance, plasticity during development and recovery from injury. (ovid.com)
  • Co-expression of constitutively active glycogen-synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) enhances and two GSK-3beta inhibitors, lithium and AR-A014418, reverse both the axon transport and locomotor phenotypes, suggesting that the pathological effects of tau are phosphorylation dependent. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The possible significance of peripheral-central inequalities in slow axoplasmic transport is discussed from the viewpoints of axon volume and axonal outgrowth. (rupress.org)
  • We also discuss the relationship between changes in the velocity of neurofilament transport and alterations in the composition of the cytoskeleton that occur as the axon grows in caliber during postnatal development. (elsevier.com)
  • Altered axon-Schwann cell interactions in PNS myelin-deficient Trembler mice result in changed axonal transport rates, neurofilament and microtubule-associated protein phosphorylation, neurofilament density, and microtubule stability. (jneurosci.org)
  • Fast mitochondrial transport decreased and LVT increased in a proximodistal gradient along the axon, but together they generated a constant mitochondrial flux. (utmb.edu)
  • Our findings suggest a pivotal role for TRF2-S in an axonal mRNA localization pathway that enhances axon outgrowth and neurotransmitter release. (telomerescience.com)
  • Not only are these transport systems crucial to maintain neuronal viability and differentiation, but considerable experimental evidence suggests that failure of axonal transport may play a role in the development or progression of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • The starvation of synapses by increased transport out, and decreased transport in, could lead to the type of neuronal death observed in Parkinson disease, the researchers speculate. (alzforum.org)
  • Indeed, this bidirectional cargo-specific transport has a pivotal role in neuronal function and its impairment is involved in several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of the project is to understand how these different genetic insults induce defects in neuronal protein transport. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Thus, our data identified the critical region of β‐tubulin required for axonal transport and suggest a molecular mechanism for human neuronal diseases caused by tubulin mutations. (embopress.org)
  • We tested whether axonal transport is affected by β‐tubulin mutations that cause three different neuronal diseases. (embopress.org)
  • Impaired axonal transport has been long implicated as a mechanism underlying axonal degeneration and neuronal death. (stanford.edu)
  • Furthermore, knocking down adult tau protein variants alters axonal transport velocities in mature iPSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Abnormal neurofilament transport caused by targeted disruption of neuronal kinesin heavy chain KIF5A. (nih.gov)
  • We here identified a class of cerebrospinal fluid-based (CSF-based) kinetic biomarkers that reflect altered neuronal transport of protein cargo, a common feature of neurodegeneration. (newshd.net)
  • After 2 H 2 O labeling, similar neuronal transport deficits were observed in CSF of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared with non-PD control subjects, which indicates that these biomarkers are translatable and relevant to human disease. (newshd.net)
  • Axonal transport is essential for the maintenance of neuronal function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Movement toward the cell body is called retrograde transport and movement toward the synapse is called anterograde transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The squid preparation provides a cell-free soup of extruded axoplasm that maintains both anterograde and retrograde transport capabilities. (alzforum.org)
  • The role of retrolinkin in retrograde transport appears analogous to that discovered for the amyloid precursor protein in anterograde transport, where it was recently shown to link vesicles to the kinesin motor (see ARF related news story ). (alzforum.org)
  • Retrograde transport is also critical for regeneration, as it participates in injury signaling ( Abe and Cavalli, 2008 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Rapid orthograde transport and retrograde transport seem to be closely related to one another, while slow axoplasmic flow seems fundamentally different. (bmj.com)
  • Brunso-Bechtold JK, Hamburger V (1979) Retrograde transport of nerve growth factor in chicken embryo. (springer.com)
  • The inbound movement is called retrograde transport and it includes cargoes returning to the cell body for recycling or degradation, as well as cargoes that relay signals back to the cell body to modulate gene expression in response to the local environment. (osu.edu)
  • Although the axonal retrograde transport of NT is a well-characterised process, molecular machinery controlling the sorting events is still poorly understood. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Anterograde vesicle transport was more susceptible to peroxide inhibition than retrograde transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The non-cell-autonomous mechanism is suggested by data from a unique "myogenic" transgenic (TG) mouse model in which an AR transgene expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle fibers triggers an androgen-dependent SBMA phenotype, including defects in retrograde transport. (eneuro.org)
  • To test whether non-cell-autonomous mechanisms alone can perturb retrograde transport, we generated male TG mice in which the endogenous AR allele has the testicular feminization mutation ( Tfm ) and, consequently, is nonfunctional. (eneuro.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that non-cell-autonomous disease mechanisms originating in muscle are sufficient to induce defects in retrograde transport in motoneurons. (eneuro.org)
  • In this study, we show that AR activated by androgens exclusively in skeletal muscle is sufficient to trigger defects in retrograde transport in the motoneurons. (eneuro.org)
  • After intramuscular injection of fluorescent HC, wild-type and mutant mice were anaesthetized and retrograde transport was visualized by high-resolution multiphoton microscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • E. Chevalier-Larsen, E.L.F. Holzbaur, Axonal transport and neurodegenerative disease. (springer.com)
  • In all these neurodegenerative diseases, axonal transport is abnormal at some point," said Virgil Muresan of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in Newark, who was not involved with the current study. (alzforum.org)
  • In the first study, Scott Brady and colleagues of the University of Illinois at Chicago continue their dissection of the effects of different neurodegenerative perpetrators on the mechanics of axonal transport. (alzforum.org)
  • We propose that PD and other neurodegenerative diseases exhibiting dying-back neuropathology represent a previously undescribed category of neurological diseases characterized by dysfunction of vesicle transport and associated with the loss of synaptic function," they write. (alzforum.org)
  • KineMed's techniques have also been applied to investigate other pathways such as microtubule dynamics, mitochondrial turnover and axonal transport which are involved in HD and other neurodegenerative diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Axonal transport is the process that gets this cargo to the brain and recent studies show that the disruption of this process is a key factor in many neurodegenerative diseases. (labroots.com)
  • Defective axonal transport causes abnormal axonal cargo accumulations and is connected to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). (utexas.edu)
  • Since disruption to axonal transport is seen in other neurodegenerative diseases, these results are likely to be informative about pathogenic processes in a number of these disorders. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Recently, disrupted axonal mRNA transport and translation have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. (ovid.com)
  • Dr. Brady and his colleagues have also found impairment of axonal transport in Alzheimers and other neurodegenerative diseases. (hdlf.org)
  • We've invented a word, dysferopathy, (from the Greek 'fero', to carry or transport) for these adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. (hdlf.org)
  • Axonal transport is critical for proper motoneuronal functioning and is often impaired in neurodegenerative disease, including spinal bulbar muscular atrophy, an androgen-dependent neuromuscular disease linked to a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor. (eneuro.org)
  • The results show that overexpression of tau disrupts axonal transport causing vesicle aggregation and this is associated with loss of locomotor function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, altered APP processing itself disrupts axonal transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a disorder linked to a CAG/polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor ( AR ) gene, the disease-causing AR disrupts axonal transport by acting in both a cell-autonomous fashion in the motoneurons themselves, and in a non-cell-autonomous fashion in muscle. (eneuro.org)
  • How AR disrupts axonal transport, however, is not clear. (eneuro.org)
  • The anterograde movement of individual cargoes (in transport vesicles) of both fast and slow components along the microtubule is mediated by kinesins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect was generalized and included augmented transport of lysosomes and synaptophysin- and APP-carrying vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • Presynaptic nerve terminals are formed from preassembled vesicles that are delivered to the prospective synapse by kinesin-mediated axonal transport. (pnas.org)
  • Less is known about the involvement of Kinesin-1 in the transport of other classes of synaptic precursor vesicles. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, synaptic vesicles continue to be transported to and concentrated at synapses. (nih.gov)
  • The cargoes are very diverse, including membranous organelles and transport vesicles, as well as non-membranous cargoes such as cytoskeletal polymers, cytosolic protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes, an ribosomes. (osu.edu)
  • Mitochondrial transport was affected earlier and was more severely inhibited than the transport of Golgi-derived vesicles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overexpression of all alpha Syn variants significantly decreased the number of motile vesicles and decelerated vesicle transport compared with control. (mpg.de)
  • Intracellular transport is the movement of vesicles and substances within a cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since intracellular transport heavily relies on microtubules for movement, the components of the cytoskeleton play a vital role in trafficking vesicles between organelles and the plasma membrane by providing mechanical support. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is a multifaceted process which utilizes transport vesicles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport vesicles are small structures within the cell consisting of a fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer that hold cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These vesicles will typically execute cargo loading and vesicle budding, vesicle transport, the binding of the vesicle to a target membrane and the fusion of the vesicle membranes to target membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cargo-receptor for anterograde transport motors, the kinesins, has been identified as the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the parent protein that produces the senile plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest that defects in axonal transport can lead to a chronic axonal JNK-stress pathway in which tau protein may get hyperphosphorylated and further impair axonal transport by disrupting the microtubule network and blocking axonal highways, launching an autocatalytic spiral culminating in neurodegeneration," he wrote. (alzforum.org)
  • Using specific enzyme inhibitors, they showed that the axonal effects depended on the activation of caspase 3 by the protein kinase Cδ isoform. (alzforum.org)
  • The central importance of protein synthesis and axonal transport during Aplysia long-term synaptic facilitation is examined by Guan and Clark. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We conclude that FEZ1 operates as a kinesin adaptor for the transport of Stx, with cargo loading and unloading being regulated by protein kinases. (pnas.org)
  • Transport of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin by the UNC-76/Kinesin-1 complex requires phosphorylation of UNC-76 by the UNC-51/ATG1 kinase, a prerequisite for UNC-76 to bind synaptotagmin ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, phosphorylation-regulated interactions between cargo, adaptors, and kinesins have also been observed for other transport complexes such as the kinesin light chain/JIP1 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1) complex ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Transport of syntaxin 1a (Stx), an essential component of the exocytotic release apparatus residing in the presynaptic plasma membrane, is clearly distinct from synaptic vesicle precursors and appears to involve a complex between Kinesin-1 and the Stx-binding protein syntabulin ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Inhibition of protein mono-ADP-ribosylation prevents reduction of substance P axonal transport. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) has been proposed to be a central player in AD and to regulate axonal transport by the MT motor protein kinesin-1. (utexas.edu)
  • Using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches in Drosophila melanogaster , we ?nd that endogenous GSK-3 is a required negative regulator of both kinesin-1-mediated and dynein-mediated axonal transport of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key contributor to AD pathology. (utexas.edu)
  • The hypothesis that underlies this proposal is that defects in axonal transport and protein trafficking are part of the pathogenic process in three familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Gene ontology analysis demonstrated enrichment in the axonal compartment for transcripts associated with mitochondrial electron transport, microtubule-based axonal transport and ER-associated protein catabolism. (ovid.com)
  • The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a key axonal transport cargo since disruption to APP transport promotes amyloidogenic processing of APP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Shiverer transgenic mice with two copies of a wild-type myelin basic protein transgene have an intermediate level of compact myelin, making it possible to determine whether the actual level of compact myelin is an important regulator of axonal microtubules. (jneurosci.org)
  • We used these animals to assess the integrity of several fast anterograde transport pathways (APP, Rab3, synaptophysin, and KIF5C), using a combination of protein accumulation in sensory neuron cell bodies in DRGs and sciatic nerve ligation experiments (Kamal et al. (nih.gov)
  • Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity. (telomerescience.com)
  • We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. (hindawi.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axonal transport occurs throughout the life of a neuron and is essential to its growth and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axonal transport is essential to neuron cell growth and survival. (wikibooks.org)
  • Furthermore, since prolonged complete interruption of axonal transport is theoretically inconsistent with the continued normal neuron function characteristic of papilledema and, moreover, since previous data shows a "slowdown" rather than complete blockade of axonal transport in papilledema, it is likely that in eyes with papilledema there does not exist a complete flock of axonal transport. (arvojournals.org)
  • In a study published in the December issue of the journal Neuron, researchers demonstrated that axonal transport is disrupted in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an animal model of the disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Researchers were also able to demonstrate that this disruption, while pervasive, was reversible. (labroots.com)
  • Dysfunction of axonal transport in neuropathies and motor neuron diseases]. (ulaval.ca)
  • This novel assay therefore provides a method to closely examine and potentially dissect out the mechanisms underlying axonal transport defects in mouse models of motor neuron disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies in kinesin-light chain-1 knocked out mice revealed that Mn2+ travels by kinesin-based transport in the optic nerve and in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinesin‐related motors may contribute to the transport microtubules in one direction or both. (els.net)
  • First author Gerardo Morfini worked with Rodolfo Llinas and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine to demonstrate that MPP+ treatment significantly increased dynein-dependent retrograde vesicle transport (away from synapses) and slightly decreased kinesin-1 mediated anterograde transport (toward synapses). (alzforum.org)
  • By in vivo radiolabeling of rat DRGs, coupled to mass spectrometry and kinesin immunoprecipitation of spinal cord extracts, we determined that the anterograde transport of cytoskeleton components, metabolic enzymes and axonal regeneration enhancers, was increased in the central branch of DRGs following a peripheral conditioning lesion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although Kinesin-3 appears to be the main motor transporting synaptic vesicle precursors, recent evidence suggests that Kinesin-1 (KIF5) is also involved. (pnas.org)
  • This suggests that phosphorylation is a common mechanism for the regulation of kinesin-based transport complexes ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • These defects were attributed to a need for Stx to be stabilized by Munc18 in the inactive conformation during transport to prevent it from being trapped in nonproductive SNARE complexes ( 10 ) but Munc18 could additionally participate in loading Stx onto kinesin. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we identify and characterize a putative transport complex including Stx, Munc18, FEZ1, and the Kinesin-1 family member KIF5C. (pnas.org)
  • These observations suggest that as the concentration of maternally provided wild-type KHC decreases, axonal organelles transported by kinesin periodically stall. (genetics.org)
  • By measuring the forces motors generate in vivo, we ?nd that GSK-3 regulates transport by altering the activity of kinesin-1 motors but not their binding to the cargo. (utexas.edu)
  • Recent studies have been interpreted as consistent with the idea that APP serves as a kinesin-1 cargo receptor and that PS and BACE1 are associated with the APP-resident membranous cargos that undergo rapid axonal transport. (elsevier.com)
  • Phosphorylation reduces the ability of kinesin-1 to bind to the microtubules, thus impairing transport. (hdlf.org)
  • We will use a water maze task to measure spatial learning, an 8-arm radial arm maze task to assess working memory, and a microtubule motility assay and video enhanced-differential interference contrast microscopy to study OP effects on kinesin and axonal transport, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • R. Perrot, P. Lonchampt, A.C. Peterson, J. Eyer, Axonal neurofilaments control multiple fiber properties but do not influence structure or spacing of nodes of Ranvier. (springer.com)
  • Wang L and Brown A (2001) Rapid intermittent movement of axonal neurofilaments observed by fluorescence photobleaching. (els.net)
  • p38 is activated in ALS, phosphorylates neurofilaments which in turn is known to be a regulator of neurofilament transport. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Damage to axonal transport of neurofilaments is believed to be part of the pathogenic mechanism in ALS and this has been linked to defective glutamate handling and increased phosphorylation of neurofilament side-arm domains. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • N. Hirokawa, Axonal transport and the cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
  • Ledesma MD and Dotti CG (2003) Membrane and cytoskeleton dynamics during axonal elongation and stabilization. (els.net)
  • Both increased microtubule density and reduced microtubule stability were still observed in transgenic mouse nerves, indicating that signals beyond synaptogenesis and the mere presence of compact myelin are required for normal regulation of the axonal microtubule cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our previous studies on the dysmyelinating mutant Trembler demonstrated that myelinating glia can affect the axonal cytoskeleton ( Witt and Brady, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The most frequent pathologies observed in CMT2F and dHMN2B are abnormal axonal transport and cytoskeleton organization [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The team suggested that the disruption was likely due to both the inflammatory process and the demyelination process of EAE, and it's human counterpart, MS. The study also showed that the transport problems occurred before any signs of abnormalities in the microtubules could be seen. (labroots.com)
  • Efficient transport of kor mRNA into the side chamber requires Copb1 and can be blocked by a drug that disrupts microtubules. (umn.edu)
  • [2] Eukaryotic cells transport packets of components to particular intracellular locations by attaching them to molecular motors that haul them along microtubules and actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional in vitro and in vivo data indicate that the DPRs impair transport by interacting with both microtubules and the motor complexes. (meta.org)
  • In this context, one of the most studied genes is paraplegin (SPG7), a mitochondrial metalloprotease belonging to the family of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA) [96, 97], whose mutations result in mitochondrial dysfunction of muscle tissue and mitochondrial-dependent impairment of axonal transport [98, 99]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Presymptomatic HD mice were found to have impairment of axonal transport, suggesting that this is an early pathology in the disease. (hdlf.org)
  • Transport defects were detected before the appearance of other pathological signs, demonstrating that the impairment of axonal transport is causal to motoneuron degeneration and an early disease indicator of this pathology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Defects in axonal transport are seen in motoneuronal diseases, but how that impairment comes about is not well understood. (eneuro.org)
  • As the KLC1-negative animals aged, they exhibited axonal degeneration in the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, as well as increased neurofilament phosphorylation in the hippocampus compared to wild-type animals. (alzforum.org)
  • abstract = "The present study has employed membrane-binding studies and in vitro autoradiography to demonstrate the presence of adenosine transport sites in human inferior vagal ganglia using [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine ([3H]NBMPR), a potent inhibitor of adenosine transport. (monash.edu)
  • abstract = "Axonal growth depends on axonal transport. (utmb.edu)
  • In this article, we review the latest evidence emerging from human and in vivo studies on whether perturbations in axonal transport are indeed integral to the pathogenesis of neurological disease. (nature.com)
  • Observation of the movement of metabolically labeled tubulin and actin in-vivo has demonstrated that tubulin and actin transport are reduced in various diseases and with age, but transport is increased during axonal growth and regeneration. (nih.gov)
  • These deficits were accompanied by decreases in anterograde and retrograde axonal transport measured in sciatic nerves ex vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • By selectively co-expressing wild-type human tau (0N3R isoform) and a GFP vesicle marker in motorneurons, we examined the consequences of tau overexpression on axonal transport in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, axonal degeneration after overexpression of alpha Syn-WT and -A30P was analyzed by live imaging in the rat optic nerve in vivo. (mpg.de)
  • In the rat optic nerve, both alpha Syn-WT and -A30P accelerated kinetics of acute axonal degeneration following crush lesion as analyzed by in vivo live imaging. (mpg.de)
  • In this study we established an in vivo assay allowing the visualization and quantitative analysis of axonal transport in the sciatic nerve of living mice during disease progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Programmes of work will look specifically at deficits in axonal transport as a very early step in neurodegeneration and at the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in the maintenance and function of synapses to see whether it is a promising target for future dementia therapies. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • A reduction in axonal transport has also been implicated as a cause of axonal dystrophies and neurodegeneration, but there is a paucity of experimental data concerning the effects of ROS on axonal transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Measurement of transport kinetics may provide a sensitive method to monitor progression of neurodegeneration and treatment effects. (newshd.net)
  • Axonal Transport of Neurotrophic Signals: An Achilles' Heel for Neurodegeneration? (springer.com)
  • Our findings suggest that therapies targeting skeletal muscle could potentially rescue motoneurons from axonal transport dysfunction in neuromuscular disease. (eneuro.org)
  • Understanding where and how AR impairs axonal transport and whether perturbed transport contributes to motor dysfunction in SBMA is critical for developing effective treatments for this disease. (eneuro.org)
  • Moreover, disruptions in axonal cargo trafficking have been extensively reported across a wide range of nervous system disorders. (nature.com)
  • These results support a cargo model for NF transport and a sliding filament model for MT transport. (rupress.org)
  • GSK-3 also regulates transport of an unrelated cargo, embryonic lipid droplets. (utexas.edu)
  • APP represents a key axonal transport cargo in Alzheimer's disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A fundamental principle of axonal transport, which is generalizable to all intracellular traffic, is that all macromolecular components move in association with distinct cargo structures, either as integral molecular components or bound to their surface, or in the case of membranous cargoes, contained within their lumen. (osu.edu)
  • Intracellular transport is unique to eukaryotic cells because they possess organelles enclosed in membranes that need to be mediated for exchange of cargo to take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • E.L. Bearer, T.S. Reese, Association of actin filaments with axonal microtubule tracts. (springer.com)
  • Using a combination of live imaging, superresolution microscopy, and modeling, in this study, we explore how these dynamic structures can lead to processive transport of actin. (univ-amu.fr)
  • Our simulations predict that the axonal actin dynamics indeed lead to a slow anterogradely biased flow of the population. (univ-amu.fr)
  • Targeting of specific mechanisms of axonal transport might be a valid therapeutic strategy to treat neurological disease. (nature.com)
  • My lab is interested in unraveling the fundamental mechanisms of axonal transport. (stanford.edu)
  • Anterograde (also called "orthograde") transport is movement of molecules/organelles outward, from the cell body (also called soma) to the synapse or cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organelles that engage myosins are transported towards plus ends of microfilaments. (els.net)
  • However, they can be distinguished from other axonal organelles by the complexity of their movement and their unique functions in aerobic metabolism, calcium homeostasis and cell death. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, when slow axonal flow is impaired, the swelling is characterised by an excess of cytoplasmic gel without a marked accumulation of organelles. (bmj.com)
  • [3] Conversely, in prokaryotic cells, there is no need for this specialized transport mechanism because there are no membranous organelles and compartments to traffic between. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrograde axonal transport of BDNF in retinal ganglion cells is blocked by acute IOP elevation in rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Previous histological studies revealed that this backbowing results in obstruction of retrograde axonal transport in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (arvojournals.org)
  • Several kinesins have been implicated in slow transport, though the mechanism for generating the "pauses" in the transit of slow component cargoes is still unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown A (2003) Axonal transport of membranous and non‐membranous cargoes: a unified perspective. (els.net)
  • How do axonal transport systems coordinate and exchange cargoes for transport? (stanford.edu)
  • We report the first global analysis of mitochondrial transport during axonal growth and pauses. (utmb.edu)
  • The authors suggest that impaired axonal transport could be a common mechanism leading to tau tangles in the handful of diseases so far defined as tauopathies. (alzforum.org)
  • We found that polyQ-Htt inhibited FAT through a mechanism involving activation of axonal cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK). (hdlf.org)
  • However, the underlying mechanism for maintaining proper axonal mitochondrial distribution is largely unknown. (apoptosisblog.com)
  • Therefore, our results reveal that KIF5B is required for the forward transport and axonal function of Nav1.8, suggesting a mechanism for axonal accumulation of Nav1.8 in inflammatory pain. (qxmd.com)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that axonal transport, which is critical for both proper axonal function and axonal sprouting, is inhibited by stroke and that this is rescued by the stem cell treatment, thus identifying another novel potential mechanism of action of transplanted cells. (nystemcelltherapy.com)
  • These changes in fast transport mechanisms in cases of nerve head edema occur after, and may be secondary to, impaired slow axoplasmic flow and the resultant axonal swelling. (arvojournals.org)
  • Axonal vesicle transport was examined by live imaging of PMN co-transfected with EGFP-labeled synaptophysin. (mpg.de)
  • We conclude that alpha Syn overexpression impairs neurite outgrowth and augments axonal degeneration, whereas axonal vesicle transport and autophagy are severely altered. (mpg.de)
  • From morphological findings we suspect that, in experimental glaucoma, intraocular pressure first affects the intracellular physiological process of rapid orthograde and retrograde axonal transport. (bmj.com)
  • Though axonal transport has a special name, it is not fundamentally different from the pathways of intracellular traffic found in other parts of nerve cells or in other cells. (osu.edu)
  • Intracellular transport is required for maintaining homeostasis within the cell by responding to physiological signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular transport is an overarching category of how cells obtain nutrients and signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • One very well understood form of intracellular transport is known as endocytosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurological diseases that display cytoskeletal abnormalities include Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), parkinson's, infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SPA), giant axonal neuropathy (GAN), and hereditary sensory motor neuropathy (HSMN). (stanford.edu)
  • Despite the above evidence suggesting a central role of axonal transport during regeneration, the modulation of transport by injury is not well understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Sodium azide, an ATP synthesis blocker, had similar effects on axonal transport, suggesting that ATP depletion may contribute to the transport inhibition due to hydrogen peroxide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Males carrying the Tfm allele alone show no deficits in motor function or axonal transport, with or without testosterone treatment. (eneuro.org)
  • We are currently trying to block axonal transport in the facial nerve of adult rats. (bio.net)
  • In the May 6 Journal of Neuroscience, scientists from the University of California, San Diego, report that when they interfered with transport in mice, tau became hyperphosphorylated. (alzforum.org)
  • In mice, elevated levels of motors and of polyglutamylated and tyrosinated tubulin were present following a peripheral lesion and can explain the increase in axonal transport induced by conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Deleting snph in mice robustly increases axonal mitochondrial motility. (rupress.org)
  • In mice with the acute form, the axonal transport problems sometimes resolved spontaneously and in those that didn't were reversed with anti-inflammatory application or redox scavenging. (labroots.com)
  • The disruption of the axonal transport persisted in the mice with chronic EAE, suggesting that in humans with progressive MS, this disruption could be responsible for the rapid degeneration of nerve tissue and the accompanying decline of muscle function. (labroots.com)
  • Sciatic nerve axonal transport of substance P was reduced markedly in diabetic rats, and inhibition of mono-ADP-ribosylation with silybin prevented such a loss in spite of high blood glucose levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • VEGF-A was axonally transported to the DRG via the sciatic nerve. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Axonal transport and Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • Damage to axonal transport is an early pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanisms that regulate axonal transport of APP are therefore directly relevant to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Listen in as Dr Elizabeth Glennon, of King's College London, discusses how the disruption of axonal transports early on within Alzheimer's Disease provides excellent targets for drug discovery. (news-medical.net)
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by microglia and other inflammatory cells can cause axonal degeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Defective axonal trafficking has been linked to many nervous system disorders, but whether it is a cause or consequence of neuropathology remains largely unresolved. (nature.com)
  • The studies will thus provide information on the mechanisms underlying defective axonal transport in ALS and may reveal new therapeutic targets for this disorder. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • and colleagues had reason to suspect that disruption of axonal transport could lead to tau pathology. (alzforum.org)
  • Tau phosphorylation affects its axonal transport and degradation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When expressed in C. elegans , wild-type but not phosphorylation-deficient FEZ1 (S58A) restored axonal transport of Stx. (pnas.org)
  • 4) To gain insight into the mechanisms by which ALS2 may signal to regulate axonal transport and how phosphorylation of ALS2 influences any such signalling. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Phosphorylation of KLC1 on serine-460 has been shown to reduce anterograde axonal transport of calsyntenin-1 by inhibiting the KLC1-calsyntenin-1 interaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Literature data demonstrate that, despite different mechanisms of action, all antineoplastic agents impair the axonal trafficking to some extent and the severity of the neuropathy correlates with the degree of damage on this bidirectional transport. (mdpi.com)
  • This regulation of neurite outgrowth is bidirectional, as overexpression of syt-17 increases axonal length and accelerates axonal regrowth following injury. (nature.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that a non-telomeric isoform of telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2-S) is a novel RBP that regulates axonal plasticity. (telomerescience.com)
  • Through immunodepletion studies, we identified vascular endothelial growth factor, thrombospondins 1 and 2, and slit as mediators partially responsible for stem cell-induced effects on dendritic sprouting, axonal plasticity and axonal transport in vitro . (nystemcelltherapy.com)
  • That could be true, Muresan said, but he is not fully convinced that JNK mediates a specific signal between axonal transport and tau. (alzforum.org)
  • Morphology of axonal transport abnormalities in primate eyes. (bmj.com)
  • Nevertheless, all capsid types underwent active axonal transport. (mpg.de)