Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Kymography: The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOrganelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Aotus trivirgatus: A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Nerve Expansion: Procedures that stimulate nerve elongation over a period of time. They are used in repairing nerve tissue.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Neurofibrils: The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tauopathies: Neurodegenerative disorders involving deposition of abnormal tau protein isoforms (TAU PROTEINS) in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Pathological aggregations of tau proteins are associated with mutation of the tau gene on chromosome 17 in patients with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DEMENTIA; PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS; progressive supranuclear palsy (SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE); and corticobasal degeneration.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Hypogastric Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cytoplasmic Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Synapsins: A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Mice, Inbred C57BLNerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Localization of sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons innervating the heart of the Beijing duck by means of the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. (1/1188)

Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons were labeled by injections of horseradish peroxidase into various regions of the heart in 33 Beijing ducks. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the heart were located in the paravertebral ganglia C15 (C16 is the last cervical segment in the duck) to T3, especially in the ganglion T1. The coronary sulcus and ventricle were more abundantly innervated by sympathetic neurons than the atrium. The left side of the heart was preferentially innervated by sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the left side of paravertebral ganglia but the right side of the heart were equally supplied from the right and left ganglia. Within the medulla oblongata, the number of labeled vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus was much greater than that in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. Labeled neurons of the nucleus ambiguus were found in many ducks injected into the coronary sulcus. Cardiac sensory neurons were observed in the dorsal root ganglia C15 to T2 (highest in the ganglion T1) and in the nodose and jugular ganglia of the vagus nerve. These labeled neurons probably form the afferent and efferent limbs of cardiac reflexes and control circulation in the Beijing duck.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (2/1188)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

A genetic approach to trace neural circuits. (3/1188)

Mammalian nervous system function involves billions of neurons which are interconnected in a multitude of neural circuits. Here we describe a genetic approach to chart neural circuits. By using an olfactory-specific promoter, we selectively expressed barley lectin in sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ of transgenic mice. The lectin was transported through the axons of those neurons to the olfactory bulb, transferred to the bulb neurons with which they synapse, and transported through the axons of bulb neurons to the olfactory cortex. The lectin also was retrogradely transported from the bulb to neuromodulatory brain areas. No evidence could be obtained for adverse effects of the lectin on odorant receptor gene expression, sensory axon targeting in the bulb, or the generation or transmission of signals by olfactory sensory neurons. Transneuronal transfer was detected prenatally in the odor-sensing pathway, but only postnatally in the pheromone-sensing pathway, suggesting that odors, but not pheromones, may be sensed in utero. Our studies demonstrate that a plant lectin can serve as a transneuronal tracer when its expression is genetically targeted to a subset of neurons. This technology can potentially be applied to a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate neural systems and may be particularly valuable for mapping connections formed by small subsets of neurons and for studying the development of connectivity as it occurs in utero.  (+info)

NK-1 receptor immunoreactivity in distinct morphological types of lamina I neurons of the primate spinal cord. (4/1188)

In cat and monkey, lamina I cells can be classified into three basic morphological types (fusiform, pyramidal, and multipolar), and recent intracellular labeling evidence in the cat indicates that fusiform and multipolar lamina I cells are two different types of nociceptive cells, whereas pyramidal cells are innocuous thermoreceptive-specific. Because earlier observations indicated that only nociceptive dorsal horn neurons respond to substance P (SP), we examined which morphological types of lamina I neurons express receptors for SP (NK-1r). We categorized NK-1r-immunoreactive (IR) lamina I neurons in serial horizontal sections from the cervical and lumbar enlargements of four monkeys. Consistent results were obtained by two independent teams of observers. Nearly all NK-1r-IR cells were fusiform (42%) or multipolar (43%), but only 6% were pyramidal (with 9% unclassified). We obtained similar findings in three monkeys in which we used double-labeling immunocytochemistry to identify NK-1r-IR and spinothalamic lamina I neurons retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit b from the thalamus; most NK-1r-IR lamina I spinothalamic neurons were fusiform (48%) or multipolar (33%), and only 10% were pyramidal. In contrast, most (approximately 75%) pyramidal and some (approximately 25%) fusiform and multipolar lamina I spinothalamic neurons did not display NK-1r immunoreactivity. These data indicate that most fusiform and multipolar lamina I neurons in the monkey can express NK-1r, consistent with the idea that both types are nociceptive, whereas only a small proportion of lamina I pyramidal cells express this receptor, consistent with the previous finding that they are non-nociceptive. However, these findings also indicate that not all nociceptive lamina I neurons express receptors for SP.  (+info)

Leukemia inhibitory factor augments neurotrophin expression and corticospinal axon growth after adult CNS injury. (5/1188)

The cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) modulates glial and neuronal function in development and after peripheral nerve injury, but little is known regarding its role in the injured adult CNS. To further understand the biological role of LIF and its potential mechanisms of action after CNS injury, effects of cellularly delivered LIF on axonal growth, glial activation, and expression of trophic factors were examined after adult mammalian spinal cord injury. Fibroblasts genetically modified to produce high amounts of LIF were grafted to the injured spinal cords of adult Fischer 344 rats. Two weeks after injury, animals with LIF-secreting cells showed a specific and significant increase in corticospinal axon growth compared with control animals. Furthermore, expression of neurotrophin-3, but not nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, or ciliary neurotrophic factor, was increased at the lesion site in LIF-grafted but not in control subjects. No differences in astroglial and microglial/macrophage activation were observed. Thus, LIF can directly or indirectly modulate molecular and cellular responses of the adult CNS to injury. These findings also demonstrate that neurotrophic molecules can augment expression of other trophic factors in vivo after traumatic injury in the adult CNS.  (+info)

Development and organization of ocular dominance bands in primary visual cortex of the sable ferret. (6/1188)

Thalamocortical afferents in the visual cortex of the adult sable ferret are segregated into eye-specific ocular dominance bands. The development of ocular dominance bands was studied by transneuronal labeling of the visual cortices of ferret kits between the ages of postnatal day 28 (P28) and P81 after intravitreous injections of either tritiated proline or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase. Laminar specificity was evident in the youngest animals studied and was similar to that in the adult by P50. In P28 and P30 ferret kits, no modulation reminiscent of ocular dominance bands was detectable in the pattern of labeling along layer IV. By P37 a slight fluctuation in the density of labeling in layer IV was evident in serial reconstructions. By P50, the amplitude of modulation had increased considerably but the pattern of ocular dominance bands did not yet appear mature. The pattern and degree of modulation of the ocular dominance bands resembled that in adult animals by P63. Flat mounts of cortex and serial reconstructions of layer IV revealed an unusual arrangement of inputs serving the two eyes in the region rostral to the periodic ocular dominance bands. In this region, inputs serving the contralateral eye were commonly fused along a mediolateral axis, rostral to which were large and sometimes fused patches of ipsilateral input.  (+info)

Neutralizing antibodies inhibit axonal spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 to epidermal cells in vitro. (7/1188)

The ability of antibodies to interfere with anterograde transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from neuronal axons to the epidermis was investigated in an in vitro model consisting of human fetal dorsal root ganglia innervating autologous skin explants in a dual-chamber tissue culture system. The number and size of viral cytopathic plaques in epidermal cells after axonal transmission from HSV type 1 (HSV-1)-infected dorsal root ganglionic neurons were significantly reduced by addition to the outer chamber of neutralizing polyclonal human sera to HSV-1, of a human recombinant monoclonal group Ib antibody to glycoprotein D (gD), and of rabbit sera to HSV-1 gB and gD but not by rabbit anti-gE or anti-gG. A similar pattern of inhibition of direct infection of epidermal cells by these antibodies was observed. High concentrations of the monoclonal anti-gD reduced transmission by 90%. Rabbit anti-gB was not taken up into neurons, and human anti-gD did not influence spread of HSV in the dorsal root ganglia or axonal transport of HSV antigens when applied to individual dissociated neurons. These results suggest that anti-gD and -gB antibodies interfere with axonal spread of HSV-1, possibly by neutralizing HSV during transmission across an intercellular gap between axonal termini and epidermal cells, and thus contribute to control of HSV spread and shedding. Therefore, selected human monoclonal antibodies to protective epitopes might even be effective in preventing epidermis-to-neuron transmission during primary HSV infection, especially neonatal infection.  (+info)

The GDVII strain of Theiler's virus spreads via axonal transport. (8/1188)

Following intracerebral inoculation, the DA strain of Theiler's virus sequentially infects neurons in the gray matter and glial cells in the white matter of the spinal cord. It persists in the latter throughout the life of the animal. Several observations suggest that the virus spreads from the gray to the white matter by axonal transport. In contrast, the neurovirulent GDVII strain causes a fatal encephalitis with lytic infection of neurons. It does not infect the white matter of the spinal cord efficiently and does not persist in survivors. The inability of this virus to infect the white matter could be due to a defect in axonal transport. Using footpad inoculations, we showed that the GDVII strain is, in fact, transported in axons. Transport was prevented by sectioning the sciatic nerve. The kinetics of transport and experiments using colchicine suggested that the virus uses microtubule-associated fast axonal transport. Our results show that a cardiovirus can spread by fast axonal transport and suggest that the inability of the GDVII strain to infect the white matter is not due to a defect in axonal transport.  (+info)

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) inhibits neurofilament (NF) anterograde axonal transport while p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPk) promotes it. Since cdk5 is known to inhibit MAP kinase activity, we examined whether or not cdk5 inhibits anterograde NF transport via inhibition of MAPk activity. To accomplish this, we manipulated the activity of these kinases in differentiated NB2a/d1 cells, and monitored anterograde axonal transport of green fluorescent protein-conjugated-NF-M (GFP-M) and cyan fluorescent protein-conjugated (CFP)-tau. The cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine increased anterograde axonal transport of GFP-M and CFP-tau; transfection with cdk5/p25 inhibited transport of both. Inhibition of MAPk activity by PD98059 or expression of dominant-negative MAPk inhibited anterograde GFP-M transport, while expression of constitutively active MAPk enhanced it; these treatments did not affect CFP-tau transport. PD98059 prevented roscovitine-mediated enhancement of GFP-M transport, but did ...
However, new insights into the basic properties of fast axonal transport are beginning to illuminate the roles that it may play during axonal growth. Although fast axonal transport is often used to refer solely to the movement of materials at the fastest orthograde rate, there is good reason for including in fast axonal transport the translocation of membranous organelles of all types in both directions (Lasek and Brady, 1982). The original descriptions of fast axonal transport (for example, see Lasek, 1967; Dahlstrom and Haggendahl, 1967; Grafstein, 1967) focused on the fastest moving elements leaving the cell bodies and defined this as fast axonal transport. I I FIGURE 3. Various responses of the facial nerve cell bodies following different types of axonal injuries in different animal species. , 1982). Biochemical changes in the nerve cell body occur after the injection of botulinum toxin into the area of neuromuscular junction. Watson (1974) suggested that since botulinum toxin causes a block ...
Mutations in the microtubule-binding protein tau cause the protein to aggregate in neurodegenerative diseases such as some forms of frontotemporal dementia-but many conditions evince tau tangles in the absence of tau mutations. Scientists know that mutant tau interferes with axonal transport. The explanation for wild-type tau tangles may be that transport deficiencies, in turn, cause tauopathy. In the May 6 Journal of Neuroscience, scientists from the University of California, San Diego, report that when they interfered with transport in mice, tau became hyperphosphorylated. The authors suggest that impaired axonal transport could be a common mechanism leading to tau tangles in the handful of diseases so far defined as tauopathies.. Tangled tau features in nine known tauopathies (reviewed in Hernández and Avila, 2007), and axonal transport defects are common in neurodegenerative disease (reviewed in De Vos et al., 2008). "In all these neurodegenerative diseases, axonal transport is abnormal at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct evidence for coherent low velocity axonal transport of mitochondria. AU - Miller, Kyle E.. AU - Sheetz, Michael. PY - 2006/5/8. Y1 - 2006/5/8. N2 - Axonal growth depends on axonal transport. We report the first global analysis of mitochondrial transport during axonal growth and pauses. In the proximal axon, we found that docked mitochondria attached to the cytoskeletal framework that were stationary relative to the substrate and fast axonal transport fully accounted for mitochondrial transport. In the distal axon, we found both fast mitochondrial transport and a coherent slow transport of the mitochondria docked to the axonal framework (low velocity transport [LVT]). LVT was distinct from previously described transport processes; it was coupled with stretching of the axonal framework and, surprisingly, was independent of growth cone advance. Fast mitochondrial transport decreased and LVT increased in a proximodistal gradient along the axon, but together they generated a ...
Neurons are unique in that they are highly polarized cells with long projections. Motor neurons have axons that extend from the spinal cord out to the periphery to synapse with muscles; in the case of humans, these axons may extend for over a meter away from the cell body. Active transportation of proteins and organelles along the axon, in both directions between the cell body and the neuron synapse is essential for neuronal survival and communication. Anterograde axonal transport, from cell body to synapse, is undertaken by kinesins and other motor proteins. Retrograde axonal transport, from synapse to the cell body, is driven by the dynein motor within the dynein-dynactin complex. Defects in axonal transport have been shown to be present in mouse models of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease, Alzheimer disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and pathological findings such as axonal swellings that may be indicative of axonal transport defects have been ...
Defects in axonal transport are implicated in a range of neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS, Huntingtons disease, and Alzheimers disease. Here, we describe for the first time a complete mechanism for how axonal transport defects may lead to severe neurodegeneration. This mechanism shows how extracellular signaling from mSOD1-expressing glia acts via neuronal receptors to activate intracellular stress signals, causing downstream activation of stress responses in the neuronal nucleus.. We used in vivo, in vitro, and live-cell imaging assays to fully characterize the axonal transport defects in the SOD1G93A model of familial ALS. We also found that mouse models with impaired dynein function, Loa and Tgdynamitin, show similarly decreased efficiencies of retrograde transport but, unlike the mSOD1 model, develop only mild neurodegeneration. Therefore, the slowing of neurotrophic factor signaling is not sufficient to induce pronounced neuronal loss. Instead, in the mSOD1 model in the early ...
Defects in axonal transport are implicated in a range of neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS, Huntingtons disease, and Alzheimers disease. Here, we describe for the first time a complete mechanism for how axonal transport defects may lead to severe neurodegeneration. This mechanism shows how extracellular signaling from mSOD1-expressing glia acts via neuronal receptors to activate intracellular stress signals, causing downstream activation of stress responses in the neuronal nucleus.. We used in vivo, in vitro, and live-cell imaging assays to fully characterize the axonal transport defects in the SOD1G93A model of familial ALS. We also found that mouse models with impaired dynein function, Loa and Tgdynamitin, show similarly decreased efficiencies of retrograde transport but, unlike the mSOD1 model, develop only mild neurodegeneration. Therefore, the slowing of neurotrophic factor signaling is not sufficient to induce pronounced neuronal loss. Instead, in the mSOD1 model in the early ...
Neurons rely on microtubule (MT) motor proteins such as kinesin-1 and dynein to transport essential cargos between the cell body and axon terminus. Defective axonal transport causes abnormal axonal cargo accumulations and is connected to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimers disease (AD). Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) has been proposed to be a central player in AD and to regulate axonal transport by the MT motor protein kinesin-1. Using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, we ?nd that endogenous GSK-3 is a required negative regulator of both kinesin-1-mediated and dynein-mediated axonal transport of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key contributor to AD pathology. GSK-3 also regulates transport of an unrelated cargo, embryonic lipid droplets. By measuring the forces motors generate in vivo, we ?nd that GSK-3 regulates transport by altering the activity of kinesin-1 motors but not their binding to the cargo. These ?ndings reveal a new ...
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Purchasing goods from distant locations introduces a significant lag between when a product is shipped and when it arrives. This is problematic for firms facing volatile demand, who must place orders before knowing the resolution of demand uncertainty. We provide a model in which airplanes bring producers and consumers together in time. Fast transport allows firms to respond quickly to favorable demand realizations and to limit the risk of unprofitably large quantities during low demand periods. Fast transport thus provides firms with a real option to smooth demand volatility. The model predicts that the likelihood and extent to which firms employ air shipments is increasing in the volatility of demand they face, decreasing in the air premium they must pay, and increasing in the contemporaneous realization of demand. We confirm all three conjectures using detailed US import data. We provide simple calculations of the option value associated with fast transport and relate it to variation in goods ...
Axonal transport plays a crucial role in neuronal morphogenesis, survival and function. Despite its importance, however, the molecular mechanisms of axonal transport remain mostly unknown because a simple and quantitative assay system for monitoring this cellular process has been lacking. In order to better characterize the mechanisms involved in axonal transport, we formulate a novel computer-assisted monitoring system of axonal transport. Potential uses of this system and implications for future studies will be discussed.
Hydrogen peroxide, like other ROS, disrupts many cellular processes, including mitochondrial ATP production and regulation of calcium homeostasis [29], ion channel permeability [30], and redox signaling [31]. At present, we do not know the pathways that lead to inhibition of axonal transport. Some of the effects of hydrogen peroxide on axonal transport were quite similar to those produced by sodium azide, an inhibitor of ATP production [27]. Following both treatments, mitochondrial transport was inhibited first, then anterograde vesicle transport, and then retrograde vesicle transport. Thus it is reasonable to attribute some of the effects of hydrogen peroxide exposure to ATP depletion. Several of our findings, however, suggest that there is more involved than simply a reduction in the ATP levels available to molecular motors. Since kinesins and dyneins both have similar requirements for ATP, the differential effects on anterograde versus retrograde transport are more likely to involve the many ...
Classic pulse-chase studies have shown that actin is conveyed in slow axonal transport, but the mechanistic basis for this movement is unknown. Recently, we reported that axonal actin was surprisingly dynamic, with focal assembly/disassembly events ("actin hotspots") and elongating polymers along the axon shaft ("actin trails"). Using a combination of live imaging, superresolution microscopy, and modeling, in this study, we explore how these dynamic structures can lead to processive transport of actin. We found relatively more actin trails elongated anterogradely as well as an overall slow, anterogradely biased flow of actin in axon shafts. Starting with first principles of monomer/filament assembly and incorporating imaging data, we generated a quantitative model simulating axonal hotspots and trails. Our simulations predict that the axonal actin dynamics indeed lead to a slow anterogradely biased flow of the population. Collectively, the data point to a surprising scenario where local assembly ...
We identified axonal defects in mouse models of Alzheimers disease that preceded known disease-related pathology by more than a year; we observed similar axonal defects in the early stages of Alzheimers disease in humans. Axonal defects consisted of swellings that accumulated abnormal amounts of microtubule-associated and molecular motor proteins, organelles, and vesicles. Impairing axonal transport by reducing the dosage of a kinesin molecular motor protein enhanced the frequency of axonal defects and increased amyloid-β peptide levels and amyloid deposition. Reductions in microtubule-dependent transport may stimulate proteolytic processing of β-amyloid precursor protein, resulting in the development of senile plaques and Alzheimers disease. ...
The long length of axons makes them critically dependent on intracellular transport for their growth and survival. This movement is called axonal transport. Cargoes originating from the cell body move out towards the axon tip and cargoes originating in the axon or at the axon tip move back towards the cell body. The outbound movement is known as anterograde transport and it includes cargoes required for the growth, maintenance and plasticity of axons and presynaptic terminals. The inbound movement is called retrograde transport and it includes cargoes returning to the cell body for recycling or degradation, as well as cargoes that relay signals back to the cell body to modulate gene expression in response to the local environment.. Though axonal transport has a special name, it is not fundamentally different from the pathways of intracellular traffic found in other parts of nerve cells or in other cells. However, it is remarkable for its scale. For example, there are axons in our bodies that ...
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have identifiedthe mechanism by which axonal transport is impaired in neurons in Huntingtons disease. Using mouse, squid, and cell models of HD, Dr. Scott Brady and Dr. Gerardo Morfini and colleagues found that the HD protein activates an enzyme called JNK (for cJun Nterminal kinease) which causes the impairment.. Axons are nerve fibers which project from the neuron and carry electric impulses. The, longest axons in the human body are those of the sciatic nerve which run from the base of the spine to the big toes of each foot. Axons in the brain are much smaller of course but are still many times longer than the body of the neuron.. Axonal transport is critical for the survival of neurons. Proteins are synthesized in the cell body and then are transported in microtubulins or tracks which run along axons to the synapses, the junctions through which neurons signal to each other. Vesicles containing neurotransmitters are ...
From the abstract: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons resulting in a catastrophic loss of motor function. Current therapies are severely limited owing to a poor mechanistic understanding of the pathobiology. Mutations in a large number of genes have now been linked to ALS, including SOD1, TARDBP (TDP-43), FUS and C9orf72. Functional analyses of these genes and their pathogenic mutations have provided great insights into the underlying disease mechanisms. Defective axonal transport is hypothesized to be a key factor in the selective vulnerability of motor nerves ... Here, we assessed the axonal transport of different cargos in multiple Drosophila models of ALS. ... These results further support defects in axonal transport as a common factor in models of ALS that may contribute to the pathogenic process ...
article{324d7541-eb68-49c3-b378-0108db0afb43, abstract = {,p,Abstract: The release of radiolabeled material from regenerating frog sciatic nerves was studied using a multicom‐ partment chamber, in which the ganglia and the outgrowth region, respectively, were separated from the rest of the nerve. The nerves were incubated with radioactive amino acids in the ganglionic compartment, and the material transported to and released at the outgrowth region was collected and analyzed. Approximately 10% of the transported radioactivity was released over a 24‐h incubation period. Of the released materials, 84% had a molecular mass of < 1,000 daltons [the low‐molecular‐mass (LM) fraction] as determined by exclusion chromatography. The presence of LM material could not be explained by leakage, nor was it due to intracellular or extracellular degradation of radiolabeled, transported proteins. It was reduced by cold and was shown by the use of vinblastine to be dependent on axonal transport. ...
Neurons consist of four elements, the soma, dendrite, axon and terminal. They work in concert as the input (soma and dendrite) and output (axon and terminal) parts of neuronal transmission. To function and maintain neuronal activity and metabolisms, proteins and organelles should be transported from soma to terminal via anterograde axonal transport, and also from terminal to soma via retrograde transport. By utilizing these transport systems, neural projection is traced by injecting tracers into local sites of interest. Furthermore, neurochemical properties, such as glutamatergic and GABAergic, can be determined by combining retrograde and anterograde tracing with fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
The objective is to identify compounds that will improve axonal transport in neurons carrying the mutation. The compounds we will survey are ones with a known mechanism of action and thus will identify cellular signaling pathways with the potential to overcome the transport deficits. These pathways are likely to include drug‐able targets that could ultimately serve as a point of therapeutic intervention. Strategy: Cultured neurons from the sacsin knockout mouse will be employed in this project. Identifying compounds that improve mitochondrial transport in these cells will have four component aims. The first will be to examine transport in detail in multiple neuronal cell types and developmental stages in order to find a suitable system for characterization and screening. The second stage will involve a detailed characterization of the transport defect to determine if it is indeed mitochondrion‐specific or influences multiple cargoes and whether it alters both anterograde and retrograde ...
2015, 6,130-137. [Link][PDF]. 17. K. Zhang and B. Cui "Lighting up FGFR signaling", Chemistry & Biology, 2014, 21, 806-808. [Link][PDF]. 16. K. Zhang, L. Duan, Q. Ong, Z. Lin, P. Varman, K. Sung, and B. Cui "Light-mediated kinetic control reveals the temporal effect of the Raf/Mek/ERK pathway in PC12 cell neurite outgrowth", PLOS ONE, 2014, 9, e92917. [Link][PDF]. 15. K. Zhang, R. F. B. Kenan, Y. Osakada, W. Xu, R. S. Sinit, , L. Chen, X. Zhao, J-Y. Chen, B. Cui, and C. Wu "Defective Axonal Transport of Rab7 GTPase Results in Dysregulated Trophic Signaling", J. Neuroscience 2013, 33, 7451-7462. [Link][PDF]. 14. W. J. Xie, K. Zhang, B. Cui "Functional characterization and axonal transport of quantum dot labeled BDNF", Integrative Biology, 2012, 4, 953-960. [Link][PDF]. 13. K. Zhang, Y. Osakada, W. J. Xie, and B. Cui "Automated image analysis for tracking cargo transport in axons", Microscopy Research and Technique 2011, 74, 605-613. [Link][PDF]. 12. K. A. Vossel, K. Zhang, X. Wang, G. Q. Yu, K. ...
An axon is a long thin projection of a neuron that allows for rapid electrochemical communications with other cells over long distances. Axonal transport refers to the stochastic, bidirectional...
Alpha herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus and pseudorabies virus (PRV), are neuroinvasive dsDNA viruses that establish life-long latency in peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons of their native hosts. Following reactivation, the infection can spread back to the initial mucosal site of infection or, in rare cases, to the central nervous system with usually serious outcomes. During entry and egress, viral capsids depend on microtubule-based molecular motors for efficient and fast transport. In axons of PNS neurons, cytoplasmic dynein provides force for retrograde movements towards the soma, and kinesins move cargo in the opposite, anterograde direction. The dynamic properties of virus particles in cells can be imaged by fluorescent protein fusions to the small capsid protein VP26, which are incorporated into capsids. However, single-color fluorescent protein tags fail to distinguish virus inoculum from progeny. Therefore, we established a dual-color system by growing a recombinant PRV ...
Transmembrane protein required for proper cognitive functions. Involved in the development of dentate gyrus (DG) neuron circuitry, is necessary for AMPA receptors surface expression and proper excitatory postsynaptic currents of DG granule neurons (PubMed:28096412). Regulates the organization and stability of the microtubule network of sensory neurons to allow axonal transport. Through the interaction with DST, mediates the docking of the dynein/dynactin motor complex to vesicle cargos for retrograde axonal transport (PubMed:17287360). In hippocampal neurons, required for BDNF-dependent dendrite outgrowth (PubMed:21849472). Cooperates with SH3GL2 and recruits the WAVE1 complex to facilitate actin-dependent BDNF:NTRK2 early endocytic trafficking and mediate signaling from early endosomes (PubMed:21849472, PubMed:27605705).
The Joint High Speed Vessel program was managed by PMS 325. It was a Navy led acquisition of a platform intended to support users in the Department of the Navy and Department of the Army. The Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV) program was a cooperative effort for a high-speed, shallow draft vessel intended for rapid intra-theatre transport of medium sized cargo payloads. JHSV was intended to reach speeds of 35-45 knots and allow for the rapid transit and deployment of conventional or Special Forces as well as equipment and supplies.
This other day, I had been studying Microbiology in the library in the fear of upcoming finals and had gotten really weary of spending a full lovely Sunday with pleasant weather sulking inside the library and as it always happens I started introspecting on my decision to take medicine as my career choice. In concern…
These animations and presentations could be useful to the science or health teacher to supplement curriculum and to enhance the learning experience in the classroom. The content is divided into eight chapters including Anatomy of a Neuron, Axonal Transport, Ions and Ion Channels, Resting Membrane Potential, Action Potential, Neurotransmitter Release, Postsynaptic Mechanisms, and Removal of Neurotransmitter. Each of the sections includes explanations with hyperlinks for viewing the images or animations. Users can also review the pages in a chapter by clicking the page numbers in the bottom left corner of the pages. Included is a How to Use the Program with helpful hints for navigating the site and a list of all the available animations that can be downloaded for non-commercial purposes. ...
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Previous work has shown that mutation of the gene that encodes the microtubule motor subunit kinesin heavy chain (Khc) in Drosophila inhibits neuronal sodium channel activity, action potentials and neurotransmitter secretion. These physiological defects cause progressive distal paralysis in larvae. To identify the cellular defects that cause these phenotypes, larval nerves were studied by light and electron microscopy. The axons of Khc mutants develop dramatic focal swellings along their lengths. The swellings are packed with fast axonal transport cargoes including vesicles, synaptic membrane proteins, mitochondria and prelysosomal organelles, but not with slow axonal transport cargoes such as cytoskeletal elements. Khc mutations also impair the development of larval motor axon terminals, causing dystrophic morphology and marked reductions in synaptic bouton numbers. These observations suggest that as the concentration of maternally provided wild-type KHC decreases, axonal organelles transported ...
Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of several antineoplastic drugs which significantly reduces patients quality of life. Although different molecular mechanisms have been investigated, CIPN pathobiology has not been clarified yet. It has largely been recognized that Dorsal Root Ganglia are the main targets of chemotherapy and that the longest nerves are the most damaged, together with fast axonal transport. Indeed, this bidirectional cargo-specific transport has a pivotal role in neuronal function and its impairment is involved in several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases. Literature data demonstrate that, despite different mechanisms of action, all antineoplastic agents impair the axonal trafficking to some extent and the severity of the neuropathy correlates with the degree of damage on this bidirectional transport. In this paper, we will examine the effect of the main old and new chemotherapeutic drug categories on axonal transport, with
Purpose: : To investigate whether the sectorial loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) observed in previous studies of our laboratory in the dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat strain (Villegas-Pérez et al., J Comp Neurol 1998;392: 58-77) is due to an axonal transport deficit problem or to retinal ganglion cell death. Methods: : Dystrophic (rdy-/p+) and non-dystrophic (rdy+/p+) pigmented RCS rats with ages ranging from 12 to 20 months were used for this study. RGCs were identified using Fluoro-Gold (FG) tracing from the Superior Collicullus (SC), to label RGCs with a competent axonal transport and Brn3a immnunodetection, to detect all RGCs. Retinas were processed as whole mounts and examined by fluorescence microscopy. Reconstructions of the whole mounts were made using Image-Pro Plus 5.0 for Windows®. FG-labelled and Brn3a positive RGCs were automatically identified and counted in each retina using previously described methods (Salinas-Navarro et al., Vision Res. 2009;49: 115-126, ...
Neurofilaments form structural networks in neurons and are transported from the neuronal cell body (the site of synthesis) into the axons via a process known as slow axonal transport. Using neurofilament subunits tagged with a fluorophore, Ackerley et al. show that glutamate, a neurotransmitter which at high concentrations leads to excitotoxicity, can alter neurofilament transport. Glutamate slowed neurofilament transport, most probably due to stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are capable of phosphorylating neurofilament subunits. This observation provides a mechanistic link between excitotoxicity and neurofilament accumulation associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. - SMH. J. Cell Biol. 150, 165 (2000).. ...
In vivo single-molecule imaging of syntaxin1A reveals polyphosphoinositide- and activity-dependent trapping in presynaptic nanoclusters. Bademosi, Adekunle T., Lauwers, Elsa, Padmanabhan, Pranesh, Odierna, Lorenzo, Chai, Ye Jin, Papadopulos, Andreas, Goodhill, Geoffrey J., Verstreken, Patrik, Van Swinderen, Bruno and Meunier, Frederic A. (2017) In vivo single-molecule imaging of syntaxin1A reveals polyphosphoinositide- and activity-dependent trapping in presynaptic nanoclusters. Nature Communications, 8 . doi:10.1038/ncomms13660. Flux of signalling endosomes undergoing axonal retrograde transport is encoded by presynaptic activity and TrkB. Wang, Tong, Martin, Sally, Nguyen, Tam H., Harper, Callista B., Gormal, Rachel S., Martinez-Marmol, Ramon, Karunanithi, Shanker, Coulson, Elizabeth J., Glass, Nick R., Cooper-White, Justin J., Van Swinderen, Bruno and Meunier, Frederic A. (2016) Flux of signalling endosomes undergoing axonal retrograde transport is encoded by presynaptic activity and TrkB. ...
These results demonstrate that cytoplasmic dynein is a major participant in the anterograde transport of MTs, therefore supporting the sliding filament model for axonal MT transport. We cannot conclude whether or not cytoplasmic dynein is the only motor that fuels the anterograde movements because the neurons are not completely depleted of the protein. Another possibility is that a minus-end directed kinesin such as CHO2/HSET contributes to the anterograde transport of MTs, and this would presumably be the result of MTs pushing against one another rather than actin filaments (Sharp et al., 1997). In terms of the retrograde movements, the present data provide almost no evidence that cytoplasmic dynein plays a role. It seems reasonable to surmise that a kinesin-related protein fuels the retrograde transport of MTs. A good candidate may be Eg5, whose inhibition causes rapid bursts in axonal growth, which would be consistent with a diminution in retrograde MT transport (Haque et al., 2004).. Ma et ...
Although TUBB3 is a neuron‐specific isoform of β‐tubulin, only about 20% of total β‐tubulin in neuronal cells is TUBB3 (Joshi and Cleveland, 1989). TUBB3(E410K) and TUBB3(D417H) mutants induce neuronal diseases in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that only 10% of mutant tubulin can significantly induce neuronal phenotypes. How is this small amount of mutated TUBB3 able to strongly affect neurons? Because our assay used CMV and CAG promoters and unknown copy numbers of transfected vectors, we could not quantify the amount of tubulin incorporated into microtubules in our system. Nevertheless, we think our results give insights to this question. Microtubules are composed of α‐ and β‐tubulin dimers. The size of each tubulin dimer is 8 nm (Nogales et al, 1999). Our analysis showed that TUBB3(E410K) and TUBB3(D417H) were incorporated into microtubules in cells and could inhibit axonal transport (Supplementary Figure S1; Figure 8A). The inhibition of motor domain accumulation, axonal ...
Akifumi Kanai, Hiromi Hiruma, Tadashi Kawakami, Sumio Hoka; Room D, 10/17/2000 9: 00 AM - 11: 00 AM (PS) Low Dose Lidocaine Rapidly Inhibits Axonal Transport in Cultured Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons : A-761. Anesthesiology 2000;93(3A):A-761. doi: https://doi.org/.. Download citation file:. ...
Our quantitative immunoblot data showed a significant increase of NF-H, NF-M, and NF-L by 3 wk of age in the mutant DRGs, and thus in sensory neuron cell bodies. The simplest explanation is that these NF subunits were synthesized at normal rates but were moved out of the cell bodies at reduced rates. Overall, the levels of these proteins were not significantly changed in the brain, suggesting that the cell body accumulation is not caused by up-regulation of these proteins. Elevation of NF subunit levels in the DRG was not accompanied by obvious reductions in the sciatic nerve. This behavior is as expected based on two independent lines of evidence. First, the onset of the apparent deficit in transport is observed at 3 wk of age, the age at which substantial NF deposition and radial growth in axonal caliber normally begin. Only a subset of axons in mutants examined at this time have detectable caliber deficits (∼250/3,500 total axons in the sciatic nerve). Second, although Cre-mediated excision ...
Correction: Berberine Attenuates Axonal Transport Impairment and Axonopathy Induced by Calyculin A in N2a Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Neurons communicate with each other through dendrites and axons. Typically, dendrites are responsible for receiving signals from other neurons, while axons are the pathways to send out signals. Signal propagation through axons is closely correlated with their morphology. It is well known that the rate of signal propagation is proportional to the caliber of axons[2]. The intrinsic determinant of axonal caliber is the abundance of cytoskeletal protein, neurofilament (NF)[6]. NFs are not static but undergo slow axonal transport, which is characterized by rapidly intermittent, asynchronous and bidirectional motion[21-23]. Many neurodegenerative diseases are related to the malfunction of neurofilament transport, either by accumulation of neurofilaments leading to swelling of the axon or by deficiency in neurofilaments resulting in axonal atrophy[9-12]. The mechanism of neurofilament transport can be explained by the stop-and-go; hypothesis[21, 24, 28], according to which neurofilaments spend long ...
HOUSTON, TX (December, 2017) - The National Institute of Aging has awarded Acelerox, LLC, a Fannin Innovation Studio® company, a $224,813 grant to develop poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG-HCC) antioxidant nanoparticles as a novel therapeutic to minimize neural degeneration by targeting brain cells.. Acelerox is a preclinical biotechnology company developing novel antioxidant nanoparticles for therapeutic use in cancer, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In partnership with Baylor College of Medicine, this award will be used to optimize the therapeutic approach. Proper axonal transport is essential for maintenance of neuronal homeostasis and optimum function. Deficiencies of axonal transport have been linked to Alzheimers disease (AD) and can be modeled in cultured cells and animal models. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a key contributor to the pathogenesis of AD, including deficient axonal transport. Reduction of oxidative stress through ectopic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinesthetic reference for human orthograde posture. AU - Gurfinkel, V. S.. AU - Ivanenko, Yu P.. AU - Levik, Yu S.. AU - Babakova, I. A.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Humans with occluded vision were subjected to superslow tilts of the supporting platform, producing the inclination of the subjects body in the sagittal plane, but subthreshold for the most vestibular and proprioceptive phasic reactions. Two types of perturbation were used: sinusoidal tilts (frequency 0.007 Hz, amplitude 1.5°) and ramps (amplitude 1.0 and 0.25°, angular velocity 0.04°/s). During slow sinusoidal tilts of the platform, the ankle angle and body position undergo periodical changes, but these changes have significant phase lead relative to the platform movement: 119±26° for ankle angle and 55±19° for body sway. Gains were about 0.9 for both parameters. Large phase shift (tens of seconds) indicated a long delay in compensation of body inclination by ankle joint. The ramp tilt produced an initial ...
Much of our work on membrane trafficking has concentrated on the MT motor protein, kinesin. Over the course of several years, we demonstrated that kinesin is a MT stimulated ATPase which moves organelles along MTs, and is a motor for anterograde fast axonal transport in neurons, and for movement of membranes from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Now we are concentrating on how organelle motility along MTs is regulated. We have obtained evidence that kinesin-mediated membrane motility away from the Golgi is regulated by multiple GTPases, including Cdc42 and Rac1. We are now attempting to determine how those two proteins, and whatever additional GTPases may prove to be relevant, control membrane movement along MTs.. ...
Chlorpromazine at concentrations which approximate apparent physiological concentrations interacts reversibly with brain microtubule subunit protein in vitro and, in so doing, inhibits the rate of reassembly of microtubules and the binding of colchicine by the protein. It also causes dissassembly of microtubules formed in the absence of the drug. These results appear to provide a molecular explanation for inhibition by chlorpromazine of fast axonal transport of proteins in vitro in frog sciatic nerve, and provide a fresh clue as to the primary mechanism for the psychotropic effect of this drug.. ...
Components of the synapse are delivered to, and removed from, synaptic sites by motor-dependent transport along microtubule tracks. In particular, axonal transport by molecular motors delivers proteins and membranes to presynaptic nerve terminals and is essential for synapse formation and maintenance. Interactions between motors and their respective cargoes are regulated at multiple stages during the transport process but details of these regulatory mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Noteworthy, impaired intracellular transport arising from mutations of proteins or perturbations of regulatory pathways involved in axonal transport has been linked to the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. The major focus of our research is the elucidation of mechanisms involved in the transport and incorporation of proteins into presynaptic sites and how these processes are coordinated. We are also interested in understanding the molecular organization of presynaptic macromolecular ...
Axons are long, armlike structures on nerve cells that help transport nutrients and other components around the cell. In Alzheimers disease, however, these axons become damaged and lose their ability to transport components effectively. Reduced axonal transport inhibits the activities of nerve cells and can lead to their death.. To better understand this pathological process, research teams have tried to measure the extent to which Alzheimers disease restricts axonal transportation. One such team, led by Donna Cross, Ph.D., has been quantifying axonal transport declines in mice engineered to develop Alzheimer-like symptoms. Their work has involved the use of a sophisticated imaging method called manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For the proposed grant, Dr. Cross and colleagues plan to expand their earlier work by focusing on an enzyme called glycogen synthase-kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 has been associated with the production of two Alzheimer-related molecules-beta-amyloid and ...
Mitochondrial transport and energy homeostasis in synaptic transmission, neuronal degeneration and regeneration Zuhang Sheng, PhD NIH/NINDS Senior Investigator Chief of the Synaptic Function Section AAAS and ASCB Fellow Editor for JCB, Autophagy, and JBC
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is widely spread among adults in the United States with a seroprevalence of about 60%. HSV-1 infects epithelial cells and then spreads to axonsinnervating those tissues causing potentially neuroinvasive reactivable episodes that may result in either mild lesions of the epithelia or fatal encephalitis in a partially understood process. We are interested in the HSV-1 clinical strain H129 because it is the only virus of any type known to egress exclusively in the anterograde direction. The retrograde spread from post-synaptic neuron to pre-synaptic neuron is impaired in this strain. There is no clear explanation for this unique phenotype and we are attempting to demonstrate the relationship between the phenotype of H129 strain and specific mutations in viral genes UL36 and UL1. Our hope is to establish a clear association between phenotype and genotype in the H129 strain. This research will improve the knowledge of both HSV-1 biology and host neural circuit ...
A name facts message board post on the subject A small membranous organelle characteristic of certain flagellate protozoa, located near the pelta and seen in the living organism as an independently moving structure..
2007 12 06.392177 08 17 24.39 -05 44 03.6 23.4V 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2007 12 06.393006 08 17 24.40 -05 44 03.5 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2007 12 06.395494 08 17 24.39 -05 44 03.7 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2008 01 01.313332 08 15 42.86 -05 47 43.1 22.6V 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2008 01 01.314161 08 15 42.87 -05 47 43.1 15BY518 645 C~2scb 2008 01 01.316649 08 15 42.85 -05 47 43.2 15BY518 645 C~2scc 2014 01 04.54955 08 54 52.487 -06 24 34.13 21.8G 15BY518 F51 C~2qbh 2014 04 05.25388 08 48 39.785 -05 39 14.33 22.2G 15BY518 F51 C~2qbh 2014 12 16.59004 09 02 47.110 -06 28 17.89 22.0G 15BY518 F51 C~2qbh 2014 12 30.50769 09 01 58.726 -06 29 59.22 21.7G 15BY518 F51 C~2qbh 2015 01 19.47348 09 00 29.231 -06 27 57.56 22.3w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 19.48481 09 00 29.183 -06 27 57.36 22.5w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 19.49615 09 00 29.119 -06 27 57.43 22.3w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 19.50762 09 00 29.069 -06 27 57.02 22.1w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 21.49804 09 00 19.278 -06 27 27.74 22.0w 15BY518 F51 C~1vYC 2015 01 21.51155 09 ...
purpose. To study the time-dependent effects of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) on axonal transport and cytoskeleton proteins in the porcine optic nerve head.. methods. Fifteen pigs were used for this study. Rhodamine-β-isothiocyanate was injected into the vitreous of each eye to study axonal transport. IOP in the left eye was elevated to 40 to 45 mm Hg, and IOP in the right eye was maintained between 10 and 15 mm Hg. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure was also continually monitored. IOP was elevated for 3 hours (n = 7) or 12 hours (n = 8) before animal euthanatization. Antibodies to phosphorylated neurofilament heavy (NFHp), phosphorylation-independent neurofilament heavy (NFH), neurofilament light, neurofilament medium (NFM), microtubule, and microtubule-associated protein (MAP) were used to study the axonal cytoskeleton. Confocal microscopy was used to compare axonal transport and cytoskeleton change between control and high IOP eyes in different laminar regions and quadrants of the optic ...
Riluzole is the only drug approved for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but its precise mode of action is not properly understood. Damage to axonal transport of neurofilaments is believed to be part of the pathogenic mechanism in ALS and this has been linked to defective glutamate handling and increased phosphorylation of neurofilament side-arm domains. Here, we show that riluzole protects against glutamate-induced slowing of neurofilament transport. Protection is associated with decreased neurofilament side-arm phosphorylation and inhibition of the activities of two neurofilament kinases, ERK and p38 that are activated in ALS. Thus, the anti-glutamatergic properties of riluzole include protection against glutamate-induced changes to neurofilament phosphorylation and transport. ...
Looking for online definition of axoplasmic in the Medical Dictionary? axoplasmic explanation free. What is axoplasmic? Meaning of axoplasmic medical term. What does axoplasmic mean?
Background SLC25A12 a susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that is mutated in a neurodevelopmental syndrome encodes a MS-275 mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC1). reduction in myelin basic protein (MBP)-positive fibers consistent with a previous report. Furthermore the neocortex of knockout mice contained abnormal neurofilamentous accumulations in neurons suggesting defective axonal transport and/or neurodegeneration. Slice cultures prepared from knockout mice also showed a myelination defect and reduction of Slc25a12 in rat primary oligodendrocytes led to a cellautonomous reduction in MBP expression. Myelin deficits in slice cultures from knockout mice could be reversed by administration of pyruvate indicating that reduction in AGC1 activity leads to reduced production of aspartate/(solute carrier family 25 member 12) is a gene on chromosome 2q31 that was identified as an autism susceptibility gene through both linkage and association studies (3). Recently ...
The Marsh-Armstrong lab reports in the July issue of PNAS the suprising discovery that in a location called the optic nerve head, large numbers of mitochondria are shed from neurons to be degraded by the lysosomes of adjoining glial cells. This finding calls into question the assumption that a cell necessarily degrades its own organelles. Davis CH, Kim KY, Bushong EA, Mills EA, Boassa D, Shi T, Kinebuchi M, Phan S, Zhou Y, Bihlmeyer NA, Nguyen JV, Jin Y, Ellisman MH, Marsh-Armstrong. Transcellular degradation of axonal mitochondria PNAS 2014 111 (26) 9633-9638. ...
Axonal swellings in neurons from STZ-diabetic rats exposed to high glucose represent accumulations of mitochondria and phosphorylated NFH, which are eliminated
A previously described digitonin-perfusion technique [Quistorff, Grunnet & Cornell (1985) Biochem. J. 226, 289-297], by which intracellular material of rat liver could be liberated, has been refined, now allowing release of cytosol of high purity from both periportal and perivenous parts of the same liver. The cytosolic fractions are obtained by perfusing the liver for short intervals (10-20 s) with digitonin (4-5 mg/ml), first in the normal perfusion direction and then, after an interval of 1-2 min, in the retrograde direction, the eluate being collected during and after both intervals. The technique is termed dual-digitonin-pulse perfusion. The eluate fractions showed a peak specific activity of the cytosolic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of 3-5-fold higher than obtained in a biopsy from the same liver. For glutamine synthetase (GS) a 10-fold higher specific activity was obtained. Zonation, defined as the ratio of the specific ...
Antiarrhythmic effect is due to the elimination of arrhythmogenic factors (tachycardia, increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, increase of cAMP, arterial hypertension), decrease in the rate of spontaneous excitation of sinus and ectopic pacemakers and slowing AV-holding. Inhibition of the pulses observed mainly in the antegrade and to a lesser extent in the retrograde direction through the AV-node and on additional routes. By reducing myocardial oxygen demand decreases the severity of myocardial ischemia, postinfarction mortality may also decrease due to antiarrhythmic action ...
In this study, we found that levels of pNfH in CSF were significantly higher in patients with sporadic ALS than in controls with non-ALS neurological disorders. Similar results have been reported in other populations [3, 4]. In fact, Ganesalingam et al. reported 10-fold higher mean levels of pNfH in CSF in patients with ALS [5]. A large study of 455 patients reported significantly higher levels of pNfH in patients than in controls [6]. Multivariate regression of our data showed that sporadic ALS was associated with high levels of pNfH in CSF, even after adjusting for potential confounding variables. This suggests a possible role of pNfH in the pathogenesis of ALS, and it is consistent with studies showing that phosphorylation of NfH slows its axonal transport and interaction with other cytoskeletal proteins, affecting the course of ALS [7]. Higher levels of pNfH in the CSF of patients with ALS may reflect higher content of axonal proteins in motor neurons and greater extent of axonal injury, ...
PHILIPSBURG, Sint Maarten (NNS) -- Expeditionary fast transport vessel USNS Spearhead (T-EPF 1) arrived at the island of St. Martin Sept. 16, 2017, to assist in disaster relief efforts for persons affected by Hurricane Irma, during Southern Partnership,
Axonal transport is a critical aspect of neuronal cell biology. While the understanding of the biophysical property of the microtubule motors has been established, the regulation of motor proteins are much less well understood, especially in vivo. In this presentation, I will discuss our past and current effort in characterizing the regulatory mechanisms of KIF1A mediated trafficking of synaptic vesicle precursors and dynein mediated retrograde trafficking ...
A-H Effect of TRAK1 and TRAK2 with and without KIF5C overexpression on mitochondrial redistribution in WT (A, C, D, and E) or MiroDKO (B, F, G and H) cell lines. Reference cells generated by projection of 10 WT (A) or MiroDKO (B) cells with the same transfection combination. An inset in each cell is shown magnified below to better show the occupancy of mitochondria in the tips of the triangular cell. MPM from WT cells (C and D) or MiroDKO cells (F and G) overexpressing TRAK1GFP (C and F) or TRAK2GFP (D and G), respectively. (E and H) Mito95 values calculated from the above experimental conditions in WT (E) and MiroDKO (H) cell lines. Data obtained from three independent experiments (n = number of cells; in WT: control 56; TRAK1GFP: 55; TRAK1 + KIF5C 55; TRAK2GFP 48; TRAK2GFP + KIF5C 46; and in MiroDKO: control 60; TRAK1GFP 61; TRAK1 + KIF5C 56; TRAK2GFP 62; TRAK2GFP + KIF5C 54; ANOVA‐NK). Error bars represent s.e.m. Statistical significance: *P , 0.05 and ***P , 0.001. ...
After consult we made a decision of orthograde revision first then surgery if need. I had no illusions I could negotiate the apical curve but believed that was not the problem. ...
Deacon concludes these are common dynamic features that characterize morphodynamic phenomena, and make them an emergent level removed from subvenient homeodynamic processes whether at the thermodynamic or sub-atomic level. In each case he explains we find a tangled hierarchy of causality, where micro-configurational particularities can be amplified to determine macro-configurational regularities. Where these in turn further constrain and/or amplify subsequent cycles of this process, producing a compounding. The special reflexive regularities and the recurrent causal architecture of the cycles of interaction have come to overshadow the systems lower-order orthograde properties. These systems must be open to the flow of energy and/or components, which is what enables their growth and/or development, but they additionally include a higher order form of closure as well. Such flows propagate constraints inherited from past states of the system, which recurrently compound to further constrain the ...
Axonal swellings and neurodegeneration in brain, hydrocephalus and premature death. Unlike other mutants, myelin ultrastructure, periodicity and physical stability are normal.. ...
4] "The yeast mitochondrial transport proteins: new sequences and consensus residues, lack of direct relation between consensus residues and transmembrane helices, expression patterns of the transport protein genes, and protein-protein interactions with other proteins." Belenkiy R.et.al. 10930523 ...
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For the composite bar indicated (see attachment), determine the radius of curvature caused by the couple of moment 70 Nm. a) 9.16 mm b) 12.73 mm c) 11.87 mm d) 10.41 mm.
If you would like further information on the development of NHS Milton Keynes Clinical Commissioning Group, or details on how you can get involved and help shape the future of Milton Keynes health care, please contact us.. NHS Milton Keynes Clinical Commissioning ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium blocks the axoplasmic transport of acetylcholinesterase in cholinergic nerve fibres of the rat. AU - Kása, P.. AU - Hanin, I.. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - A cholinotoxin, ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion, (AF64A) specifically and ireversibly blocks the intraaxonal transport of acetylcholinesterase in the rat. Impairment of the transport of this enzyme in the septo-hippocampal cholinergic fibres and in the sciatic nerve has been studied, using different doses of AF64A. It is demonstrated that the effect on the axonal transport is dose-dependent, but is not related to the mode of drug application. AF64A thus may exert its neurotoxic effects on cholinergic neurons at several target sites of action. In addition to the localized presynaptic mechanisms, it may also be compromising cholinergic function by inhibiting axonal transport in vivo.. AB - A cholinotoxin, ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion, (AF64A) specifically and ireversibly blocks ...
Summary We have previously described the capacity of neurites extending from cultured rat sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons to transport rabies virus through axoplasm in the retrograde direction. Here we report the infection of cultured neurons derived from the DRG and the subsequent anterograde transport of rabies virus from the infected cell somas through the extending neurites to its release into the culture supernatant. Viral transport was monitored by titration of the virus yield in the external compartment. Both early and late transport mechanisms of rabies virions were identified. The first one occurred a few hours post-infection and was undetectable 6 h later, before the initiation of viral replication. The velocity of this first wave of infective virions was in the range of 100 to 400 mm/day. The early viral transport was probably the result of a direct translocation of infective virions from the somatic site of entry to the neuritic extensions and subsequent release into the culture
Axoplasm is the cytoplasm within the axon of a neuron (nerve cell). Neural processes (axons and dendrites) contain about 99.6% of the cells cytoplasm, and 99.7% of that is in the axons.[1] Axoplasm has a different composition of organelles and other materials than that found in the neurons cell body (soma) or dendrites. In axoplasmic transport, materials are carried through the axoplasm to or from the soma. The electrical resistance of the axoplasm, called axoplasmic resistance, is one aspect of a neurons cable properties, because it affects the rate of travel of an action potential down an axon. If the axoplasm contains many molecules that are not electrically conductive, it will slow the travel of the potential because it will cause more ions to flow across the axolemma (the axons membrane) than through the axoplasm. ...
The projections of the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) to the cerebellar nuclei were studied using the retrograde axonal transport of tetramethyl rhodamine dextran amine (10% solution in 0.01 M neutral phosphate buffer) in 19 adult Wistar strain rats. The cerebellar nuclei receive topographically organized projections from the LRN. The projections are bilateral with an ipsilateral predominance and they are symmetrical. The contralateral component is progressively larger for projections to the nuclei interpositalis, to the nucleus lateralis and to the nucleus medialis. The projections to the various cerebellar nuclei arise from rostrocaudally oriented columns of neurons located in different (partly overlapping) areas of the magnocellular division of the LRN. The nucleus lateralis receives terminals from the dorsomedial area (mainly from the rostral level of the LRN), the nuclei interpositalis from the dorsolateral area (mainly from the central level) and the nucleus medialis from the ...
My research program focuses on the CNS regulation of food intake, body weight, and energy balance by hormones such as insulin and leptin. These hormones, which are present in blood in direct proportion to body fat mass, have a profound anorexic effect when they enter the brain, where they alter the transcription, synthesis, and secretion of peptides (such as neuropeptide Y and melanocortins) in feeding-related neural circuits of the hypothalamus and brainstem. Recent work has focused on the interaction of leptin with the satiety action of peptides such as CCK and GLP-1 produced in the intestines during a meal. These gut peptides signal to the brainstem via the vagus nerve and regulate meal size by causing satiety, thereby resulting in meal termination. In the presence of leptin, these satiety signals to the brain are more effective, resulting in smaller meals. We have used immunocytochemistry, situ hybridization, retrograde axonal transport, confocal microscopy, and laser capture microdissection ...
Our highly innovative research covers a number of areas. Our research in blinding eye disease and retinal energy metabolism, for example, has laid the foundation for further clinical trials. This trial stemmed from our bioenergetics research and in it, we delivered proof-of-principle clinical translation in a first-to-man, double blind randomised trial. In this trial, we demonstrated that ocular glucose delivery temporarily recovered contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in patients with severe primary open-angle glaucoma. Since then, we have established rapid clinical translation of our bioenergetic research using clinical methodology that measures neurorecovery. This is useful for retinal and optic nerve diseases where energy failure is part of the problem. In other significant studies, we have looked at axonal transport and early molecular pathology in glaucoma. We hypothesised that axonal transport from the eye to the brain is disrupted in glaucoma, resulting in death of specific retinal ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We synthesized a coordination polymer, [EtMeIm][Cu(bpy)(Me2PO4)3], containing an anionic 1-D chain and an ethyl methyl imidazolium cation. The organic cations show fast transport behavior, and the observed ion conductivity is 1.4 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 110 °C. The stability and structure of the material were confi
Featured HRP Conjugated Anti-GAPDH Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (2B5) , specially designed for your immunoassay as internal control.,GAPDH; GAPD; CDABP0047; OK/SW-cl.12; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GAPDH; Peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase GAPDH,Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (abbreviated as GAPDH or less commonly as G3PDH) is an enzyme of ~37kDa that catalyzes the sixth step of glycolysis and thus serves to break down glucose for energy and carbon molecules. In addition to this long established metabolic function, GAPDH has recently been implicated in several non-metabolic processes, including transcription activation, initiation of apoptosis ER to Golgi vesicle shuttling, and fast axonal, or axoplasmic transport.
Calcium, Concentration, Membrane, Axonal Transport, Axons, Brain, Brain Injury, Calpain, Cell Death, Cytoskeleton, Death, Diffuse Axonal Injury, Future, Injury, Mitochondria, Neurons, Permeability, Poloxamer, Poloxamer 188, Therapeutic
Kinesin is a microtubule-associated force-producing protein that may play a role in organelle transport. The light chain may function in coupling of cargo to the heavy chain or in the modulation of its ATPase activity.
The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on the ultrastructure, fluorescent histochemistry, electrophysiology and pharmacology of the mouse and rat vas deferens has been examined during the first 24 hours after single intravenous injections. During the first hour there was a marked increase in the granulation of the intra-axonal vesicles, spontaneous contractions occurred, and there was an increase in the frequency of spontaneous junction potentials. These results indicate the displacement, by 6-OHDA, of discrete packets of noradrenaline from intra-axonal stores. By 4 to 6 hours, there was a general decrease in the fluorescent intensity of adrenergic nerves. At 24 hours the fluorescent intensity of the nerves had returned to about normal, but there was a dose-dependent decrease in the number of nerves. The first sign of axon damage was seen at 1 to 2 hours, consisting of a general electron transparency of the axoplasm and a decrease in the number of axonal inclusions. Some of the axons recover ...
... (formally LINk:MK) includes individuals and community groups working together to improve health and social care services. The job of Healthwatch Milton Keynes is to find out what people like and dislike about services. They then feed this information back to health and social care providers, helping them to plan and deliver better services that reflect the wishes of local people.. As a member of the public, you have a right to be involved in decisions about health and social care services in Milton Keynes. By sharing experiences and ideas with your Local Involvement Network you can influence the way services are run. Healthwatch Milton Keynes includes individuals and community groups working together to improve health and social care services. Click here to find out more.. ...
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(PRWEB) October 20, 2006 -- Evolving lifestyles and changes in standards of living are putting increased pressures on our transport system, particularly in
The Land Transport Management Bill is the toolbox, but it needs more tools in it to do the job, United Future transport spokesman Larry Baldock said today.
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ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab113854 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB…68kDa Neurofilament抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
New technologies do not exist in a vacuum. To succeed, new transport technology needs to match the ways we want to move around cities and be accommodated by laws and regulations.
... is a key step of your quality process-the integrity of previous sampling phases and/or later analysis phases depends on it. (...)
Transport authorities will need to audit the data they use in order to understand what it says (and what it does not say) and how it can best be used. ...
The anomalous reactive transport considered here is the migration of contaminants through strongly sorbing permeable media without significant retardation. It has been observed in the case of heavy me
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Axonal transport[edit]. Axonal swelling and spheroids have been observed in many different neurodegenerative diseases. This ... Axonal transport can be disrupted by a variety of mechanisms including damage to: kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein, microtubules ... De Vos KJ, Grierson AJ, Ackerley S, Miller CC (2008). "Role of axonal transport in neurodegenerative diseases". Annual Review ... Recent research suggests that impaired axonal transport of alpha-synuclein leads to its accumulation in the Lewy bodies. ...
"Dynamics of axonal mRNA transport and implications for peripheral nerve regeneration". Experimental Neurology. 1. 223 (1): 19- ... Axon guidance directs the initial wiring of the nervous system and is also important in axonal regeneration following an injury ... In this process, new material is added at the growth cone while the remainder of the axonal cytoskeleton remains stationary. ... Actin filaments are also constantly being transported away from the leading edge by a myosin-motor driven process known as ...
... the complex roles of JIPs in axonal transport". BioEssays. 30 (1): 10-4. doi:10.1002/bies.20695. PMID 18081006.. ... are apparently transport proteins, responsible for enrichment of MAPK signaling components in certain compartments of polarized ... This sophisticated mechanism couples kinesin-dependent transport to local JNK activation, not only in mammals, but also in the ...
Saxton, William M.; Hollenbeck, Peter J. (2012). "The axonal transport of mitochondria". Journal of Cell Science. 125 (9): 2095 ... Once mitophagy is initiated, Atg32 binds to Atg11 and the Atg32-associated mitochondria is transported to the vacuole. Atg32 ... This distribution is maintained largely by motor protein-mediated mitochondrial transport along the axon. While neuronal ... Arduíno, DM; Esteves, AR; Cardoso, SM (2011). "Mitochondrial fusion/fission, transport and autophagy in Parkinson's disease: ...
Axonal transport can be disrupted by a variety of mechanisms including damage to: kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein, microtubules ... When axonal transport is severely disrupted a degenerative pathway known as Wallerian-like degeneration is often triggered. ... De Vos KJ, Grierson AJ, Ackerley S, Miller CC (2008). "Role of axonal transport in neurodegenerative diseases". Annual Review ... Recent research suggests that impaired axonal transport of alpha-synuclein leads to its accumulation in the Lewy bodies. ...
Schindowski K, Belarbi K, Buée L. Neurotrophic factors in Alzheimer's disease: role of axonal transport. „Genes, Brain and ...
... to the spinal cord through nerve pathways via retrograde axonal transport.[41][42][43] A third hypothesis is that the virus is ... "Limited trafficking of a neurotropic virus through inefficient retrograde axonal transport and the type I interferon response" ... "Retrograde transport of intact poliovirus through the axon via the first transport system". Virology. 250 (1): 67-75. doi: ... A second hypothesis suggests that the virions are transported from peripheral tissues that have been bathed in the viremic ...
... role of axonal transport". Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 7 (Suppl 1): 43-56. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2007.00378.x. PMC 2228393. ... destroying the structure of the cell's cytoskeleton which collapses the neuron's transport system.[68] This may result first in ... creating neurofibrillary tangles and disintegrating the neuron's transport system.[104] Pathogenic tau can also cause neuronal ...
"Ordered Recruitment of Dynactin to the Microtubule Plus-End is Required for Efficient Initiation of Retrograde Axonal Transport ... Dynein transports various cellular cargos, provides forces and displacements important in mitosis, and drives the beat of ... Cytoplasmic dynein helps to position the Golgi complex and other organelles in the cell.[1] It also helps transport cargo ... Dynactin is a protein that aids in intracellular transport throughout the cell by linking to cytoplasmic dynein. Dynactin can ...
This axonal transport is provided for in the axoplasm. The axon hillock is the area formed from the cell body of the neuron as ... The numbers of axonal telodendria (the branching structures at the end of the axon) can also differ from one nerve fiber to the ... The studies on transport in the axon led to the naming of kinesin. In the nervous system, axons may be myelinated, or ... The axonal region or compartment, includes the axon hillock, the initial segment, the rest of the axon, and the axon ...
Axonal transport occurs either by fast or slow transport. Fast transport involves vesicular contents (like organelles) being ... In axonal transport (also known as axoplasmic transport) materials are carried through the axoplasm to or from the soma. The ... When an axon is damaged, both axonal translation and retrograde axonal transport are required to propagate a signal to the soma ... Young, Tang (2013). "Fast Vesicle Transport Is Required for the Slow Axonal Transport of Synapsin". Neuroscience. 33.39: 15362- ...
Her main area of interest is regulation of axonal transport within nerve cells. She is a recipient of the International Early ... Following this approach, her group is starting to uncover regulation of each of the various steps of axonal transport, such as ... Koushika studies traffic within nerve cells, called axonal transport. Though not always the case for traffic on the streets, ... Studying this process is challenging, partly because anesthetising model organism also suspends axonal transport. So, watching ...
Schindowski K, Belarbi K, Buée L. Neurotrophic factors in Alzheimer's disease: role of axonal transport. Genes, Brain and ...
Transport. *Specific binding in the periphery neurons. *Retrograde axonal transport to the central nervous system (CNS) ... by retrograde axonal transport by using dyneins.[6][7] Structure[edit]. The tetanus toxin protein has a molecular weight of ... "Myosin Va and microtubule-based motors are required for fast axonal retrograde transport of tetanus toxin in motor neurons". ... Transport to the CNS inhibitory interneurons begins with the B-chain mediating the neurospecific binding of TeNT to the nerve ...
"The interaction between cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin is required for fast axonal transport". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... "BPAG1n4 is essential for retrograde axonal transport in sensory neurons". J. Cell Biol. 163 (2): 223-9. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... It is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes ...
... and fast axonal, or axoplasmic transport. In sperm, a testis-specific isoenzyme GAPDHS is expressed. Under normal cellular ... "Vesicular glycolysis provides on-board energy for fast axonal transport". Cell. 152 (3): 479-91. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.12.029 ... GAPDH also appears to be involved in the vesicle transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus which is ... nuclear tRNA transport, DNA replication, and DNA repair. In addition, nuclear translocation of GAPDH has been reported in ...
"BPAG1n4 is essential for retrograde axonal transport in sensory neurons". J. Cell Biol. United States. 163 (2): 223-9. doi: ...
There is reduced axonal transport (and hence backlog and accumulation of intracellular products) within the nerves because of ...
Choi SI, Vidal R, Frangione B, Levy E (2004). "Axonal transport of British and Danish amyloid peptides via secretory vesicles ...
"Rabies Virus Hijacks and Accelerates the p75NTR Retrograde Axonal Transport Machinery". PLOS Pathogens. doi:10.1371/journal. ... The virus then travels through the nerve cell axon via retrograde transport, as its P protein interacts with dynein, a protein ... and is then transported to the Golgi apparatus, where a sugar group is added to it (glycosylation). Where there are enough ...
2001). "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. 103 (4): 583-94. doi:10.1016/ ... "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. UNITED STATES. 103 (4): 583-94. doi: ... The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling ... 2002). "UNC-16, a JNK-signaling scaffold protein, regulates vesicle transport in C. elegans". Neuron. 32 (5): 787-800. doi: ...
Jones CW, Pickering BT (December 1972). "Intra-axonal transport and turnover of neurohypophysial hormones in the rat" (PDF). J ... They are then transported in neurosecretory granules along axons within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract by axoplasmic ... where they are transported and secreted into the hypophyseal portal system to stimulate the anterior pituitary. Thus they can ...
2001). "Axonal transport of amyloid precursor protein is mediated by direct binding to the kinesin light chain subunit of ... "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. 103 (4): 583-94. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Conventional kinesin is a tetrameric molecule composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, and transports various cargos ...
December 2008). "UNC-51/ATG1 kinase regulates axonal transport by mediating motor-cargo assembly". Genes Dev. 22 (23): 3292-307 ... The corresponding homologue to Atg1 in C. elegans is unc-51 (uncoordinated-51). Unc-51 also functions in proper axonal guidance ... October 1994). "Caenorhabditis elegans unc-51 gene required for axonal elongation encodes a novel serine/threonine kinase". ...
"Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. 103 (4): 583-94. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
... pituitary through the portal blood vessel system of the hypophyseal stalk and vasopressin is transported by axonal transport to ... ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ...
... but did not prevent inhibition of tau transport by cdk5/p25. Finally, the extent of inhibition of GFP-M axonal transport by ... Cdk5 inhibits anterograde axonal transport of neurofilaments but not that of tau by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein ... These findings suggest that axonal transport of tau and NFs is under the control of distinct kinase cascades, and that cdk5 ... The cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine increased anterograde axonal transport of GFP-M and CFP-tau; transfection with cdk5/p25 ...
Axonal transport and Alzheimers disease.. Stokin GB1, Goldstein LS.. Author information. 1. Institute of Clinical ... but considerable experimental evidence suggests that failure of axonal transport may play a role in the development or ... To overcome this challenge axons and dendrites rely upon specialized transport machinery consisting of cytoskeletal motor ... Not only are these transport systems crucial to maintain neuronal viability and differentiation, ...
The basic mechanism of fast axonal transport has been understood for decades but the mechanism of slow axonal transport is only ... and in those cases it is likely that axonal transport is a key player in mediating pathology. Dysfunctional axonal transport is ... Axonal transport, also called axoplasmic transport or axoplasmic flow, is a cellular process responsible for movement of ... Retrograde transport shuttles molecules/organelles away from axon termini toward the cell body. Retrograde axonal transport is ...
Aluminum effect on slow axonal transport: a novel impairment of neurofilament transport. J. Neurosci. 4(3), 722-731 (1984) ... N. Hirokawa, Axonal transport and the cytoskeleton. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 3(5), 724-731 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... J.J. Blum, M.C. Reed, A model for fast axonal transport. Cell Motil. 5(6), 507-527 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... S.I. Rubinow, J.J. Blum, A theoretical approach to the analysis of axonal transport. Biophys. J. 30(1), 137-147 (1980)CrossRef ...
... Eriko Terao terao at bani.ucl.ac.be Mon Jun 2 06:24:41 EST 1997 *Previous message: platinum- ... We are currently trying to block axonal transport in the facial nerve of adult rats. We have tried both vincristine and ...
Axonal mRNA transport and localized translational regulation of kappa-opioid receptor in primary neurons of dorsal root ganglia ... In Campenot chambers, axonal translation of kor mRNA was demonstrated for DRG neurons, which depended on its 5 UTR and was ... In situ hybridization detected axonal distribution of kor mRNA in primary neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The MS2-fused ... This study provided evidence for mRNA transport and regulation of presynaptic protein synthesis of nonstructural proteins like ...
All the peptides were transported by fast axonal transport as judged by the distance transported and/or the sensitivity to ... Interganglionic axonal transport of neuropeptides in Aplysia. PE Lloyd. Journal of Neuroscience 1 September 1989, 9 (9) 3243- ... Interganglionic axonal transport of neuropeptides in Aplysia Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The transport of neuropeptides between central ganglia was studied in Aplysia. Peptide transport was determined by incubating ...
However, it remains controversial whether axonal neurofilaments are dynamic structures in which only subunits are transported ... To investigate the form neurofilament proteins take during transport, neurons of transgenic mice lacking axonal neurofilaments ... which are major routes for slow axonal transport. ... Visualization of Slow Axonal Transport in Vivo. By Sumio Terada ... and electron microscopy revealed that the virally encoded neurofilament M was transported in unpolymerized form along axonal ...
... and also provide railways for the transport of various classes of cytoplasmic constituents ... Brown A (2003) Axonal transport of membranous and non‐membranous cargoes: a unified perspective. Journal of Cell Biology 160: ... Axonal Transport and the Neuronal Cytoskeleton. PW Baas, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA ... Baas, PW, and Karabay, A(Sep 2005) Axonal Transport and the Neuronal Cytoskeleton. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. ...
"We suggest that defects in axonal transport can lead to a chronic axonal JNK-stress pathway in which tau protein may get ... interfering with axonal transport intensifies disease. "It is going to be really important to show that transport defects can ... Axonal transport rates in vivo are unaffected by tau deletion or overexpression in mice. J Neurosci. 2008 Feb 13;28(7):1682-7. ... Sunday Driver links axonal transport to damage signaling. J Cell Biol. 2005 Feb 28;168(5):775-87. PubMed. ...
Retrolinkin, a membrane protein, plays an important role in retrograde axonal transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 13; ... 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium affects fast axonal transport by activation of caspase and protein kinase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... The Skinny on FAT: APPs Role in Fast Axonal Transport 31 Oct 2006. ... The Skinny on FAT: APPs Role in Fast Axonal Transport 31 Oct 2006. ...
Gabrielle, axonal transport helps to establish a steady state for a wide range of neuronal functions. Disruption of transport ... transport may be equally important as dynein-driven retrograde dendritic (and to a lesser degree axonal) transport of both ... Axonal Transport Hypothesis Moves On to Implicate Presenilin 17 Jun 2003. Paper Citations. * Morfini G, Pigino G, Beffert U, ... Given the essential role of axonal transport in neuronal function, a misregulation of transport induced by an imbalance in ...
Alterations in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic and experimental Parkinsons disease.. Chu Y1, Morfini GA, Langhamer ... As terminal field loss seems to precede cell body loss, we tested whether alterations of axonal transport motor proteins would ... There was a decline in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic Parkinsons disease that preceded other well-known nigral ... Alterations in axonal transport motor proteins in sporadic and experimental Parkinsons disease ...
... together with fast axonal transport. Indeed, this bidirectional cargo-specific transport has a pivotal role in neuronal ... In this paper, we will examine the effect of the main old and new chemotherapeutic drug categories on axonal transport, with ... Literature data demonstrate that, despite different mechanisms of action, all antineoplastic agents impair the axonal ... to some extent and the severity of the neuropathy correlates with the degree of damage on this bidirectional transport. ...
To evaluate how broad the alterations in axonal transport induced by conditioning lesion would be, we assessed axonal transport ... 3F). In summary, a conditioning injury leads to broad alterations in axonal transport, affecting the transport of proteins, ... Despite the above evidence suggesting a central role of axonal transport during regeneration, the modulation of transport by ... 1984) Axonal transport of the cytoplasmic matrix. J Cell Biol 99:212s-221s, doi:10.1083/jcb.99.1.212s, pmid:6378920. ...
We further demonstrate that reovirus disassembly and replication occur in the neuronal soma subsequent to axonal transport. ... Following internalization, reovirus spreads in the retrograde direction using dynein-mediated fast axonal transport but ... We used primary neurons cultured in microfluidic devices to study entry and directional transport of reovirus. We discovered ... Remarkably, these entry and transport mechanisms mirror those used by misfolded proteins implicated in neurodegenerative ...
... axonal transport explanation free. What is axonal transport? Meaning of axonal transport medical term. What does axonal ... Looking for online definition of axonal transport in the Medical Dictionary? ... axonal transport. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. axonal transport. The process by which neurones ... Axonal transport , definition of axonal transport by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/axonal ...
Mutation of UNC-76 in C. elegans Impairs Axonal Transport of Stx.. During axonal outgrowth, Stx is not transported together ... restored axonal transport of Stx. We conclude that FEZ1 operates as a kinesin adaptor for the transport of Stx, with cargo ... showing that Kinesin-1 is needed at least during later phases of axonal transport. Transport of the synaptic vesicle protein ... containing transport vesicles transported by Kinesin-1 (36), but it is unlikely that the bulk of Stx is transported by any of ...
If NO inhibits axonal transport of synaptic vesicle precursors, it should inhibit axonal transport of other synaptic proteins ... Intact fast axonal transport is fundamental for normal function of synapses.. The mechanism by which fast axonal transport is ... Disturbance of axonal transport by microglial NO thus may be responsible for axonal injury and synaptic dysfunction in ... makes the axonal long-distance transport system highly vulnerable to dysfunction and toxic stimuli (Neumann, 2003). Axonal ...
The GTPase dMiro is required for axonal transport of mitochondria to Drosophila synapses.. Guo X1, Macleod GT, Wellington A, Hu ... Instead of being transported into axons and dendrites, mitochondria accumulate in parallel rows in neuronal somata. Mutant ... Neuronal, but not muscular, expression of dMiro in dmiro mutants restored viability, transport of mitochondria to NMJs, the ... Together, our findings suggest that dMiro is required for controlling anterograde transport of mitochondria and their proper ...
Kinesin Mutations Cause Motor Neuron Disease Phenotypes by Disrupting Fast Axonal Transport in Drosophila. Daryl D. Hurd and ... Kinesin Mutations Cause Motor Neuron Disease Phenotypes by Disrupting Fast Axonal Transport in Drosophila. Daryl D. Hurd and ... Kinesin Mutations Cause Motor Neuron Disease Phenotypes by Disrupting Fast Axonal Transport in Drosophila. Daryl D. Hurd and ... This causes organelle jams that disrupt retrograde as well as anterograde fast axonal transport, leading to defective action ...
In mid-axonal regions we found predominantly non-enveloped capsids. Interestingly, we observed both genome-containing and empty ... supporting the notion that viral subassemblies are conveyed along the axons to be assembled only after axonal transport. ... There are conflicting reports what type of viral structures are transported: some studies observed non-enveloped capsids ... Viral protein recruitment thus varied between the different cytosolic capsid types, but effective transport occurred despite ...
2006) The genetics of axonal transport and axonal transport disorders. PLoS Genet 2:e124. ... In contrast, mutant huntingtin affects axonal transport of APP and retrograde transport of BDNF in primary striatal neurons ( ... huntingtin affects axonal transport of all or only a subset of cargoes and whether mutant huntingtin affects axonal transport ... enhances axonal transport of cargoes other than BDNF and whether the effect of huntingtin overexpression on axonal transport is ...
A pathway selectively inhibits anterograde axonal transport of vesicles but not mitochondria transport or retrograde transport ... Vallee, R. B. and Bloom, G. S. (1991). Mechanisms of fast and slow axonal transport. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 14, 59-92. ... Miller, K. E. and Sheetz, M. P. (2004). Axonal mitochondrial transport and potential are correlated. J. Cell Sci. 117, 2791- ... Brown, J. R., Stafford, P. and Langford, G. M. (2004). Short-range axonal/dendritic transport by myosin-V: A model for vesicle ...
A microfluidic chamber for analysis of neuron-to-cell spread and axonal transport of an alpha-herpesvirus.. Liu WW1, Goodhouse ... A Microfluidic Chamber for Analysis of Neuron-to-Cell Spread and Axonal Transport of an Alpha-Herpesvirus ... A Microfluidic Chamber for Analysis of Neuron-to-Cell Spread and Axonal Transport of an Alpha-Herpesvirus ... A Microfluidic Chamber for Analysis of Neuron-to-Cell Spread and Axonal Transport of an Alpha-Herpesvirus ...
  • We have studied quantitatively the partitioning between the 2 branches, after one has been transected distally, of 6 fucosyl glycoproteins, including the putative vesicle glycoprotein and a glycoprotein whose transport moderately increases after transection. (jneurosci.org)
  • By selectively co-expressing wild-type human tau (0N3R isoform) and a GFP vesicle marker in motorneurons, we examined the consequences of tau overexpression on axonal transport in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The results show that overexpression of tau disrupts axonal transport causing vesicle aggregation and this is associated with loss of locomotor function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In order for the transport vesicle to accurately undergo a fusion event it must first recognize the correct target membrane then fuse with that membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • While this method of transport is largely intercellular in lieu of uptake of large particles such as bacteria via phagocytosis in which a cell engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle called a phagosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • After endocytosis, the low pH inside the vesicle strips the envelope of the virion after which the virus is ready to be transported to the cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosin V is involved in vesicle and organelle transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accumulating data from other disease models also suggest that inhibition of axonal transport leads to neurodegeneration ( Chevalier-Larsen and Holzbaur, 2006 ), presumably through inhibition of neurotrophic signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • Tau phosphorylation affects its axonal transport and degradation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When expressed in C. elegans , wild-type but not phosphorylation-deficient FEZ1 (S58A) restored axonal transport of Stx. (pnas.org)
  • Tau mutants, with serine/threonine targets of GSK-3 mutated to glutamate to mimic a permanent state of phosphorylation, were transported at a significantly increased rate compared to wild-type tau. (nih.gov)
  • Tau plays a key role in regulating microtubule dynamics, axonal transport and neurite outgrowth, and all these functions of tau are modulated by site-specific phosphorylation. (biologists.org)
  • The present study has employed membrane-binding studies and in vitro autoradiography to demonstrate the presence of adenosine transport sites in human inferior vagal ganglia using [ 3 H]nitrobenzylthioinosine ([ 3 H]NBMPR), a potent inhibitor of adenosine transport. (monash.edu)
  • After injury, the axonal skeleton disintegrates, and the axonal membrane breaks apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMPA receptors are constantly being transported between the cell membrane and intracellular space and it was originally thought that GRIP may be responsible for the clustering of AMPA receptors at the excitatory synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies using electrophysiology and radioactive-labeled dopamine have confirmed that the dopamine transporter is similar to other monoamine transporters in that one molecule of neurotransmitter can be transported across the membrane with one or two sodium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the tight coupling of the membrane potential and the sodium gradient, activity-induced changes in membrane polarity can dramatically influence transport rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the toxin keeps the channels in their open state, the nerves cannot repolarize, leaving the axonal membrane permanently depolarized, thereby paralyzing the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75LANR is retrogradely transported, but this receptor is not sufficient for NGF-dependent cell survival or differentiation. (umassmed.edu)
  • Environmental toxins mimicking PD such as N -methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or its active derivative, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP + ), also disrupt axonal function. (jneurosci.org)
  • The sliding filament model might also account for NF transport, if the NFs simply "piggy back" on MTs through nonmotor cross-links, and move as the MT moves ( Brady, 2000 ). (rupress.org)
  • In spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a disorder linked to a CAG/polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor ( AR ) gene, the disease-causing AR disrupts axonal transport by acting in both a cell-autonomous fashion in the motoneurons themselves, and in a non-cell-autonomous fashion in muscle. (eneuro.org)
  • How AR disrupts axonal transport, however, is not clear. (eneuro.org)