Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Semaphorin-3A: The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Semaphorins: A family of proteins that mediate axonal guidance. Semaphorins act as repulsive cues for neuronal GROWTH CONES and bind to receptors on their filopodia. At least 20 different molecules have been described and divided into eight classes based on domain organization and species of origin. Classes 1 and 2 are invertebrate, classes 3-7 are vertebrate, and class V are viral. Semaphorins may be secreted (classes 2, 3, and V), transmembrane (classes 1, 4, 5, and 6), or membrane-anchored (class 7). All semaphorins possess a common 500-amino acid extracellular domain which is critical for receptor binding and specificity, and is also found in plexins and scatter factor receptors. Their C termini are class-specific and may contain additional sequence motifs.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Neuropilin-1: Dimeric cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL) and axonal guidance. Neuropilin-1 is a 140-kDa transmembrane protein that binds CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS, and several other growth factors. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with plexins or VEGF RECEPTORS, and binding affinity and specificity are determined by the composition of the neuropilin dimer and the identity of other receptors complexed with it. Neuropilin-1 is expressed in distinct patterns during neural development, complementary to those described for NEUROPILIN-2.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Ephrin-A5: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in developing tectum. It has been shown to mediate the bundling of cortical axons and repel the axonal growth of retinal ganglia axons. It is found in a variety of adult tissues of BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEY.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Receptors, Eph Family: A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Lim Kinases: Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Receptor, EphA1: The founding member of the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. It was first cloned from an erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and is highly conserved among many mammalian species. Overproduction of the EphA1 receptor is associated with tumors and tumor cells of epithelial origin. It is also expressed at high levels in LIVER; LUNG; and KIDNEY; which is in contrast to many other members of the Eph receptor that are found primarily in tissues of the nervous system.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Tectum Mesencephali: The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia: Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Neurotrophin 3: A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Mice, Inbred C57BLElectroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Ephrin-A2: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR-containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR. Early in embryogenesis it is expressed at high levels in the MESENCEPHALON; SOMITES; branchial arches, and LIMB BUDS.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Receptor, trkB: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Ephrins: Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
... leading axon growth cones towards their target area. In 1976, guideposts cells were identified in both grasshopper embryos and ... To test the guidance cell in question, neural axon growth and migration is first examined in the presence of the guidance cell ... Then, the guidance cell is destroyed to further examine neural axon growth and migration in the absence of the guidance cell. ... Guidepost cells are cells which assist in the subcellular organization of both neural axon growth and migration. They act as ...
Growth cones function as structural and chemically sensitive axon directing cellular organelles. Growth cones are highly ... This retrograde force provides a mechanism for the growth cone to respond to direction cue, thereby directing neuronal axons. ... Growth cones are known to respond to various mechanical cues, which may be vital in proper nervous system development as growth ... Growth cones utilize integrin migratory machinery such as integrins, but are not a class of cell migration. Thy-1 (or CD90.2) ...
During axon pathfinding, a growth cone is formed to guide the migrating axon. Growth cone formation is induced by Kinesin Supar ... The Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) induced neurite outgrowth was more obvious in knock down cells than in control cells. In contrary ... The interaction of PIPKα with KIF2A suppresses the elongation of axon branches. In association with Daam2, PIP5 kinase promotes ... Liu, T; Lee, SY (2013). "Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α negatively regulates nerve growth factor-induced neurite ...
They have been shown to be in advance of the growth cones. Schwann cells are essential for the maintenance of healthy axons. ... If Schwann cells are prevented from associating with axons, the axons die. Regenerating axons will not reach any target unless ... The stump of the damaged axon is able to sprout, and those sprouts that grow through the Schwann-cell "tunnel" do so at the ... Successful axons can therefore reconnect with the muscles or organs they previously controlled with the help of Schwann cells, ...
GFP labeled axons have been shown to have complex branching and growth cone formation. Additionally calcium dye imaging has ... Spinning bioreactors have been used increasingly in cell culture and tissue growth applications. The reactor is able to deliver ... The cerebral organoid neurons can, however form axons as shown by GFP staining. ... which supported cell growth without forming by the container. After ten days the organoid developed neurons. After 30 days it ...
In developing neurons, mRNAs are also transported into growing axons and especially growth cones. Many mRNAs are marked with so ... Job, C.; Eberwine, J. (1912), "Localization and translation of mRNA in dendrites and axons", Nat Rev Neurosci, 2 (12): 889-98, ...
"Chondrolectin Mediates Growth Cone Interactions of Motor Axons with an Intermediate Target". Journal of Neuroscience. 32 (13): ... and is involved in motor neuron development and growth in zebrafish (danio rerio). Furthermore, human chondrolectin has been ...
"SPG3A protein atlastin-1 is enriched in growth cones and promotes axon elongation during neuronal development". Human Molecular ... It also regulates membrane dynamics in the neuronal growth cone in rat. Mutations in the ATL1 gene are also a common cause of ... A reasonable number of unmyelinated axons remained, although the presence of stacks of flattened Schwann cell processes ... BMP signaling is involved in axon guidance and synapse formation, as well as axonal transport and the organization of the ...
"Spinal axon regeneration evoked by replacing two growth cone proteins in adult neurons". Nature. Retrieved 28 November 2015. " ...
"Attractive axon guidance involves asymmetric membrane transport and exocytosis in the growth cone". Nat. Neurosci. 10 (1): 58- ... In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), TrkA receptors are trafficked to the stimulated side of the growth cone. ... This extension is guided by the growth cone. However the actual extension of the neurite involves the insertion of membrane ... Additionally, calcium and glutamate stimulate the trafficking of AMPA receptors to the stimulated side of the growth cone. Both ...
An experiment using time-lapse digital imaging of fluorescently labeled tubulin demonstrated that axon growth cones pause, and ... There is breakage of microtubules at the axonal branch points and in the growth cones of the neurons. The distribution of ... Reorganization and Movement of Microtubules in Axonal Growth Cones and Developing Interstitial Branches. Waterman-Storer, C. & ... Karabay, A., Yu, W., Solowska, J., Baird, D. & Baas, P. Axonal Growth is Sensitive to Levels of Katanin, a Protein that Severs ...
These natural efforts include the formation of a growth cone at the proximal end of an injured axon. Newly formed growth cones ... it depolymerizes actin segments and thus inhibits the growth of growth cones and the repair of axons. A study conducted by ... Rho proteins became a clear target in the study of the growth cones that form during axonal generation and regeneration in the ... and often propel cells or growth cones across surfaces. Virtually all eukaryotic cells form such processes upon Rho activation ...
Antar LN, Li C, Zhang H, Carroll RC, Bassell GJ (2006). "Local functions for FMRP in axon growth cone motility and activity- ... This further advocates a role for FMRP in synaptic protein synthesis and the growth of synaptic connections. Interestingly, the ... Nicola NA, Metcalf D (1991). "Subunit promiscuity among hemopoietic growth factor receptors". Cell. 67 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1016/ ...
The movement of the axons (and subsequently the Schwann cells) is guided by the growth cone, a filamentous projection of the ... In motor neurons, Wnt-3 works with Agrin to promote growth cone enlargement, axon branching and synaptic vesicle clustering. ... a path is laid out for the axon and the axon itself is not involved in the decision-making process. Finally, the axons may non- ... Retrograde secretion of Wnt-7a to mossy fiber cells causes growth cone enlargement by spreading microtubules. Furthermore, Wnt- ...
The "growth-and-repulsion" model arose from complex topographic restriction of growth cones between trigeminal and Rohon-Beard ... In 1982, Kramer postulated that isoneuronal axons (axons growing from the same neuron), contrarily to heteroneuronal axons, ... The oblique muscle organizer in Hirudo medicinalis, an identified cell projecting multiple parallel growth cones in an orderly ... Path-finding of neuronal growth cones in grasshopper embryos. Developmental Order: Its Origin and Regulation. 275-316 ...
Similar to growth cone guidance, synapse formation is cued by UNC-5 through a UNC-6 gradient that repels the dorsal axon ... These genes we found to affect the growth of the amphid and phasmid axons in mutants. There are three phases in hermaphrodite ... This causes an increase in sensitivity in growth cones to UNC-6 as they travel up the UNC-129 gradient. UNC-129 mediates ... Ectotopic expression of UNC-129 from the muscle results in disrupted growth cone and cell migrations. This shows that UNC-129 ...
... s are a class of secreted and membrane proteins that were originally identified as axonal growth cone guidance ... Their discovery was in regards to axon guidance in the limb buds of grasshoppers in 1992, but since then, it has been ... They not only guide axons in development, but also have major roles in immune function (classes 4, 6, and 7) and the ... For instance, Sema3a repels axons from the dorsal root ganglia, facial nerves, vagal nerves, olfactory-sensory, cortical nerves ...
... is expressed on developing axons and growth cones". Dev. Biol. 184 (2): 320-332. doi:10.1006/dbio.1997.8532. PMID 9133438. ... Cerebroglycan participates in cell adhesion and is thought to regulate the growth and guidance of axons. Cerebroglycan has ...
This is when microtubules extend into or retract from the axonal growth cone, which guides movement by receiving concentrated ... Another key function of XMAP215 in microtubule dynamics is in the regulation of axon guidance. ... Lowery, Laura Anne; David Van Vector (May 2009). "The trip of the tip: understanding the growth cone machinery". Nature Reviews ... "Growth cone-specific functions of XMAP215 in restricting microtubule dynamics and promoting axonal outgrowth" (PDF). Neural ...
... of motor neuron growth cones and to mediate growth cone migration by initiating repellence in EphA-expressing migrating axons. ... This mechanism of repelling migrating axons through decreased growth cone survival depends on relative levels of Eph and ephrin ... Petros TJ, Bryson JB, Mason C (September 2010). "Ephrin-B2 elicits differential growth cone collapse and axon retraction in ... axons to their target destinations largely by decreasing the survival of axonal growth cones and repelling the migrating axon ...
... which repels the migrating axon away from the site of Eph/ephrin activation. The growth cones of migrating axons do not simply ... Petros TJ, Bryson JB, Mason C (Sep 2010). "Ephrin-B2 elicits differential growth cone collapse and axon retraction in retinal ... Although Eph-ephrin activation is usually associated with decreased growth cone survival and the repellence of migrating axons ... The decreased survival of axonal growth cones discussed above allows for a gradient of high posterior to low anterior ephrin-A ...
Axonal growth cones that are attracted to the midline by netrin/DCC signaling eventually cross the floor plate. When this ... Heparin sulphate is believed to also be present during neural growth as a type of co-factor for axon guidance. Intracellularly ... A variety of receptors are present on the axon surface which either repel or attract axons to the midline. When membrane DCC is ... KEGG pathway for colorectal cancer KEGG pathway for axon guidance Brain Briefings website - article on axon guidance BC Cancer ...
Chicken collapsin contributes to path finding by axons during development by inhibiting extension of growth cones (Luo et al., ... Kolodkin AL, Matthes DJ, Goodman CS (1994). "The semaphorin genes encode a family of transmembrane and secreted growth cone ... "Collapsin-induced growth cone collapse mediated by an intracellular protein related to UNC-33". Nature. 376 (6540): 509-14. doi ... a protein in brain that induces the collapse and paralysis of neuronal growth cones". Cell. 75 (2): 217-27. doi:10.1016/0092- ...
Signal transduction underlying growth cone guidance by diffusible factors. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 9:355-63 (NOT FREE) Bouzioukh ... These molecules would guide the axons as they develop based on markers specific to the axons from each eye. All chemotactic ... The axon terminals don't actually move, but they grow in size and number according to level of activity, the net result being ... Chemotactic models posit the existence of axon guidance molecules that direct the initial formation of the ocular dominance ...
In addition to axon growth cones, the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum has been instrumental in determining the ... SDF-1: Other cancers express high levels of SDF-1, which stimulates tumor growth and disrupts normal immune cell trafficking. ... 2003). "Stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha stimulates human gliblastoma cell growth through the activation of both ... chemokinetic agents influence the localization of neuronal cells by either attracting or repelling the growing axon. This ...
Difference between rods and conesEdit. Comparison of human rod and cone cells, from Eric Kandel et al. in Principles of Neural ... and lastly axonal growth, synapse formation and outer segment growth. ... The axons of ganglion cells form the two optic nerves. Photoreceptor cells are typically arranged in an irregular but ... Ganglion cell (non-rod non-cone) photoreceptorsEdit. A non-rod non-cone photoreceptor in the eyes of mice, which was shown to ...
Abstract: L47.00004 : Variability and Reliabiltiy in Axon Growth Cone Navigation Decision Making. 9:00 AM-9:12 AM ... The nervous systems wiring is a result of axon growth cones navigating through specific molecular environments during ... In order to reach their target, growth cones need to make decisions under uncertainty as they are faced with stochastic sensory ... We aim to characterise growth cone navigation in defined nano-dot guidance cue environments, by using the tools of ...
Little is known about the cues that guide retinal axons across the diencephalon en route to their midbrain target, the optic ... show that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are differentially expressed within the diencephalon at a time when retinal axons ... Chondroitin Sulfate Disrupts Axon Pathfinding in the Optic Tract and Alters Growth Cone Dynamics J Neurobiol. 2002 Nov 15;53(3 ... Time-lapse analysis of retinal growth cone dynamics in vivo shows that addition of exogenous chondroitin sulfate causes ...
Using time-lapse microscopy, we show that encounters between axons from opposite eyes at the chiasm induce axon turning, but do ... The specific routing of retinal ganglion cell axons at the mammalian optic chiasm into the ipsilateral or contralateral optic ... Time-lapse video analysis of retinal ganglion cell axon pathfinding at the mammalian optic chiasm: growth cone guidance using ... we show that encounters between axons from opposite eyes at the chiasm induce axon turning, but do not always aim retinal axons ...
... axons showed collapsed growth cones (n = 169 axons). Another negative guidance factor to the RGC axons, Slit2, caused a similar ... a characteristic of growth cone collapse. In contrast, physiological negative axon guidance factors induce growth cone collapse ... B , Percentages of growth cone collapse in the presence of various inhibitors were scored. Growth cone collapse was defined as ... cause visible growth cone abnormality when added alone but completely abolished high Shh-induced growth cone collapse and axon ...
Semaphorin 3A activates the guanosine triphosphatase Rab5 to promote growth cone collapse and organize callosal axon ... Semaphorin 3A activates the guanosine triphosphatase Rab5 to promote growth cone collapse and organize callosal axon ... Semaphorin 3A activates the guanosine triphosphatase Rab5 to promote growth cone collapse and organize callosal axon ... Semaphorin 3A activates the guanosine triphosphatase Rab5 to promote growth cone collapse and organize callosal axon ...
Actin is predominantly localized in growth cones and plays a major role in growth cone movements and neurite growth. ... 4 A). In axons of Smn−/−; SMN2 motoneurons, β-actin staining was very faint in growth cones and distal parts of the axon (Fig. ... Reduced growth cone area in Smn-deficient motor axons. High power magnification of the distal axons stained with antibodies ... hnRNP R modulates β-actin content in growth cones. Reduced axon growth is observed in a variety of motoneuron disorders, and ...
... it may not reflect the levels of Fzd3 in the growth cone. Is it possible to measure the Fzd3 levels in the axon/growth cone of ... it may not reflect the levels of Fzd3 in the growth cone. Is it possible to measure the Fzd3 levels in the axon/growth cone of ... which may further sensitize commissural axon growth cones to Semaphorin. Therefore, Shh is a switch of growth cone ... which may further sensitize commissural axon growth cones to Semaphorin. Therefore, Shh is a switch of growth cone ...
... inhibits growth cone protrusion. We have also shown that inhibition of growth cone protrusion downstream of the UNC-5:UNC-40 ... and transgenic expression of FMO-5 inhibited growth cone protrusion. Mutations suppressed growth cone inhibition caused by ... Flavin monooxygenases regulate Caenorhabditis elegans axon guidance and growth cone protrusion with UNC-6/Netrin signaling and ... Gujar MR, Stricker AM, Lundquist EA (2017) Flavin monooxygenases regulate Caenorhabditis elegans axon guidance and growth cone ...
Growth Cones and Axon Pathfinding. / Kolodkin, Alex L; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc.. Fundamental Neuroscience: Fourth Edition. ... title = "Growth Cones and Axon Pathfinding",. abstract = "Assembling complex adult neural circuitry begins early in development ... Kolodkin, A. L., & Tessier-Lavigne, M. (2012). Growth Cones and Axon Pathfinding. In Fundamental Neuroscience: Fourth Edition ( ... Kolodkin AL, Tessier-Lavigne M. Growth Cones and Axon Pathfinding. In Fundamental Neuroscience: Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc. ...
Cortical Axon Trajectories and Growth Cone Morphologies in Fetuses of Acallosal Mouse Strains. UNCG Author/Contributor (non- ... Cortical Axon Trajectories and Growth Cone Morphologies in Fetuses of Acallosal Mouse Strains. PDF (Portable Document Format). ... with callosal agenesis resides not in the cells of origin or the axons or growth cones themselves but in the substrates of axon ... Growth cones approaching midplane ipsilaterally and those that had crossed midline and entered contralateral white matter, as ...
2003) Signaling at the growth cone: ligand-receptor complexes and the control of axon growth and guidance. Annu Rev Neurosci 26 ... Psidin regulates lamellipodia size in the growth cones. A, B, Growth cones (asterisks, A) are significantly smaller in psidin1 ... During targeting, growth cones at axon tips provide a dynamic platform for integration of attractive and repulsive guidance ... We next tested whether the role of Psidin in restraining Tm1 activity in growth cones is of relevance for the axon-targeting ...
What is axon guidance and the growth cone?steve2018-02-06T10:32:04+08:30 What is axon guidance and the growth cone?. ... Growth cones facilitate axon growth and guidance by bundling and extending actin filaments into structures known as filopodia ... Growth cones facilitate the growth and guidance of axons by bundling and extending actin filaments into structures known as ... The Growth Cone. Organization of cytoskeletal components (actin filaments and microtubules) in the growth cone. ...
... brings together a diverse set of techniques for the study of the mechanisms underlying central nervous system axon growth, ... to Measure Axon Growth and Guidance-Related Intracellular Signalling in Live Dorsal Root Ganglia Neuronal Growth Cones ... Axon growth Axon repair Axonal responses Central nervous system repair Experimental injury induction Intracellular signalling ... Practical and reliable, Axon Growth and Regeneration: Methods and Protocols aims to serve researchers studying axon ...
... leading axon growth cones towards their target area. In 1976, guideposts cells were identified in both grasshopper embryos and ... To test the guidance cell in question, neural axon growth and migration is first examined in the presence of the guidance cell ... Then, the guidance cell is destroyed to further examine neural axon growth and migration in the absence of the guidance cell. ... Guidepost cells are cells which assist in the subcellular organization of both neural axon growth and migration. They act as ...
Netrin-1 gradient in Xenopus laevis ganglion cell can induce turning of retinal growth cones in vitro to steer axons out of the ... this allows the growth cone of the commissural axon to cross the midline by preventing Robo/Slit repulsive interactions. Comm ... The growth cone is a highly dynamic structure of the developing neuron, changing directionality in response to different ... Ming, GL; Song, HJ; Berninger, B; Holt, CE; Tessier-Lavigne, M; Poo, MM (Dec 1997). "cAMP-dependent growth cone guidance by ...
... where it coordinates import of vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum to support neurite outgrowth and facilitate axon ... Dent, E. W. & Gertler, F. B. Cytoskeletal dynamics and review transport in growth cone motility and axon guidance. Neuron 40, ... growth cone area, and spontaneous growth cone collapse were measured offline in MetaMorph software (Molecular Devices). Live- ... with visible growth cones, whose axons were not growing along processes of other cells, were selected for imaging. Neurons were ...
Section of the worm showing a prolonged growth cone (approximately 15 hours after hatching) which resolves into an axon that ... B) Example images of wild type and Punc-47∷PPK-1 growth cones taken from and respectively. Wild type growth cone forms an anvil ... PPK-1 growth cone is also shown at the muscle boundary as imaging began. Fingers extend to the dorsal cord and the growth cone ... branched axons, 5 hr- 35%, 15 hr- 74%, 24 hr- 96%; prolonged growth cone, 5 hr- 28%, 15 hr- 26%, 24 hr-10%. Many worms at all ...
Representative examples of axons and growth cones stained with anti-pAkt (A) and anti-pS6 (B), and counterstained with ... Growth cone areas are shown in blue, and filopodia number in red, both as percent of control). (C) Example of axons ... they were transient and readily retracted into the growth cone. (B) Example of a growth cone treated with PI3Kpep. The panels ... PI3Kpep restores growth cone morphology on CSPG substrata and promotes axon crossing onto CSPG substrata. (A) Examples of E14 ...
Emergent growth cone responses to combinations of Slit1 and Netrin 1 in thalamocortical axon topography. Current Biology 21 (20 ... Emergent growth cone responses to combinations of Slit1 and Netrin 1 in thalamocortical axon topography ... we show that Slit1 is a rostral repellent that positions intermediate axons. For rostral axons, although Slit1 is also ... Thalamocortical axons (TCAs), which convey sensory and motor information to the neocortex, have a rostrocaudal topographic ...
Axons have always been a favorite site for investigation in neuroscience. Axonology has moved ahead rapidly more recently. ... The role of calcium in axonal function is now better understood and the complex dialogue between axons and glial cells that are ... Molecular biology has provided new tools for studying the molecules that make up the axon and their associated glial cells. ... Such advances have applied not only to normal axons but also to their abnormal counterparts. Thus, the molecular and cellular ...
Mechanism for laminin-induced axon guidance. Kouki Abe, Hiroko Katsuno, Michinori Toriyama, Kentarou Baba, Tomoyuki Mori, ... which occur asymmetrically under the growth cone, direct growth cone migration mediated by laminin. This mechanism is disrupted ... Grip and slip of L1-CAM on adhesive substrates direct growth cone haptotaxis. Kouki Abe, Hiroko Katsuno, Michinori Toriyama, ... Our data suggest that the directional force for laminin-induced growth cone haptotaxis is generated by the grip and slip of L1- ...
The growth cone located at the tip of extending axons senses external chemical cues and plays key roles in axon outgrowth and ... 2 A and B and Movie S2), and the net force produced by the growth cones was oriented toward the rear of the growth cones as ... E) Grip and slip model for laminin-induced growth cone haptotaxis. The force of actin filament flow in the growth cone (yellow ... This asymmetric grip and slip of L1-CAM within a growth cone generates directional force for growth cone haptotaxis toward ...
... exhibit great structural diversity and exert various influences on axons and growth cones as guidance cues or their modulators ... and rendering it more favorable for their growth. The experiments with lipid-derivatized CS demonstrated that growth cones ... The application of CS derivatives is useful in uncovering axon-environment interaction and structure-function relationship of ... The experiments with biotinylated CS suggest that the growing axons act on their environment, modifying CS, ...
... in vitro functional assays showed that the R292H mutation affected the formation of growth cones. This study strengthens the ... Genetic variants of Nogo-66 receptor with possible association to schizophrenia block myelin inhibition of axon growth. J ... Effect of RTN4R mutants on growth cone collapse. (a) Representative images of growth cone in chick retinal cells. The cells ... Growth cone collapse assay. Three-microliter drops of RTN4-Fc or Fc (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) were spotted and dried ...
Here, we demonstrate the critical role of spatially restricted IP3 signals in axon guidance. We found that IP3 and ensuing Ca2+ ... Moreover, photolysis-induced production of IP3 on one side of a growth cone was sufficient to initiate growth cone turning ... Control of Neuronal Growth Cone Navigation by Asymmetric Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Signals ... Measurements of its spatial profile reveal the crucial role of asymmetric IP3 signals in growth cone navigation. ...
Neuronal growthNeuronsCuesRegenerationOutgrowthExtracellularActinMechanisms of axon guidanceProteinsEmbryonicSpinalRegulatesMembraneDynamicsGuide axonsNervousMolecularProteinCollapseSensoryReceptorDistal axonsSubstratesNeuriteInducesGuidance of post-crossing commissuCommissural axons along the anterior-posteriorRegulationFilopodiaNeuralChondroitin sulfateDendritesExtendCytoskeletalPathfindingRetinal growthSynapticProjections
- Neuronal guidance relies upon directed alteration of cytoskeletal dynamics, and extrinsic control of actin and tubulin assembly, disassembly, and translocation in neuronal growth cones determine neuronal trajectories. (elsevier.com)
- Myosin drives retrograde F-actin flow in neuronal growth cones. (thefreelibrary.com)
- S.v. Myosin drives retrograde F-actin flow in neuronal growth cones. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Neuronal growth cones guide axons in the developing nervous system toward distant target sites. (thefreelibrary.com)
- In this study, we examined whether chondroitin sulfate (CS) and keratan sulfate (KS) GAG chains affect motilities of neuronal growth cones and what signaling mechanisms mediate the growth cone behaviors. (nii.ac.jp)
- Thus, Pincher-dependent macroendocytosis leads to the formation of Nogo-A signaling endosomes, which act both within growth cones and after retrograde transport in the cell body to negatively regulate the neuronal growth program. (rupress.org)
- Besides its role in the injured mammalian CNS, Nogo-A acts as a regulator of neuronal growth and plasticity in the intact CNS. (rupress.org)
- Thus, subcellular hnRNP-interacting RNA regulons support neuronal growth and regeneration. (mcponline.org)
- Mediates axon repulsion of neuronal growth cones in the developing nervous system upon ligand binding. (rcsb.org)
- 1986 ) Guidance of neuronal growth cones in the grasshopper embryo. (biologists.org)
- Plays a role in the regulation of neuron morphology, axon growth and formation of neuronal growth cones (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
- During this time he examined the calcium dynamics in neuronal growth cones during axon navigation. (edu.au)
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase facilitates microtubule-dependent membrane transport for neuronal growth cone guidance. (riken.jp)
- it plays a role in axon guidance, neuronal growth cone collapse and cell migration. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Assembling complex adult neural circuitry begins early in development as neurons extend axons and dendrites to their intermediate and final targets. (elsevier.com)
- We have used time-lapse digital imaging of developing cortical neurons microinjected with fluorescently labeled tubulin to follow the movements of individual MTs in two regions of the axon where directed growth occurs: the terminal growth cone and the developing interstitial branch. (jneurosci.org)
- In developing neurons, PPK-1 overexpression leads to growth cones that become stalled, produce ectopic membrane projections, and branched axons. (nih.gov)
- These data suggest that overexpression of the Type I PIP kinase inhibits growth cone collapse, and that regulation of PIP(2) levels in established neurons may be important to maintain structural integrity and prevent neuronal degeneration. (nih.gov)
- Lot cells", the first neurons to appear in the telencephalon, are considered to be guideposts because they have cellular substrates to attract LOX axons. (wikipedia.org)
- Syt-17 is localized to the Golgi complex in hippocampal neurons, where it coordinates import of vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum to support neurite outgrowth and facilitate axon regrowth after injury. (nature.com)
- We found that extracellular gradients of CS-E and high-sulfated KS repelled growth cones of dorsal root ganglion neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
- In compartmentalized chamber cultures, NogoΔ20 is endocytosed into neurites and retrogradely transported to the cell bodies of dorsal root ganglion neurons, triggering RhoA activation en route and decreasing phosphorylated cAMP response element binding levels in cell bodies. (rupress.org)
- Associated with punctate structures in the perinuclear cytoplasm, axons, and growth cones of developing neurons. (abcam.com)
- It also demonstrates that though these neurons are related and they choose the same tract, their growth cones do not elect to extend in the same direction. (els.net)
- Through cell extensions, classified as dendrites and axons, neurons are responsible for the perception of the external world, the former are in charge of receiving electric impulses of other cells, and the last transmit the impulses far from the cell body. (intechopen.com)
- Induces neuron differentiation and stimulates axonal growth and formation of growth cone in spinal cord motor neurons. (genecards.org)
- Central axons of sensory neurons were filled via their peripheral processes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Topographically modified surfaces affect orientation and growth of hippocampal neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
- In developing neurons the frequency of long duration, spontaneous, transient calcium (Ca 2+ ) elevations localized to the growth cone, is inversely related to the rate of axon elongation and increases several fold when axons pause. (mdpi.com)
- Using time-series fluorescence calcium imaging we found that acute treatment of fetal rat hippocampal neurons with 43 or 87 mM ethanol at an early stage of development in culture decreased the percent of axon growth cones showing at least one Ca 2+ wave during 10 min of recording, from 18% in controls to 5% in cultures exposed to ethanol. (mdpi.com)
- Atlastin-1 is also active in compartments called axonal growth cones, which are located at the tip of neurons. (medlineplus.gov)
- At least for 20 min, we could obtain the clear micrographsof the growth cone both in the cortical neurons and in NG108-15 cells using SICM. (nii.ac.jp)
- mRNA translation in axons enables neurons to introduce new proteins at sites distant from their cell body. (mcponline.org)
- The capacity of neurons to develop a long axon and multiple dendrites defines neuron connectivity in the CNS. (semanticscholar.org)
- Silencing SynCAM2 in floorplate cells and silencing SynCAM1 or SynCAM2 in commissural dI1 neurons interferes with the correct navigation of their axons along the rostro-caudal axis. (biologists.org)
- We find these cells give rise to neurons that extend axons toward the islet as they surprisingly migrate away. (elifesciences.org)
- SMN-deficient motor neurons exhibit severe defects in clustering voltage-gated calcium channels in axonal growth cones [ 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Grasshopper neurons accurately project axons across long distances between peripheral structures and the central nervous system. (sciencemag.org)
- Nerve-trunk pathways followed by these axons are established early in embryogenesis by pioneer neurons. (sciencemag.org)
- Dscam1 and Dscam2 act in parallel to regulate via homophilic repulsive interactions the precise arrangement of dendritic postsynaptic elements of L1 and L2 neurons juxtaposing presynaptic active zones of photoreceptor axon terminals. (hhmi.org)
- Now Aguayo is taking advantage of this observation to direct the growth of rat CNS neurons, developing techniques that may be useful for direct repair of CNS injury and for transplanting brain tissue. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Two neurons are connected when one extends its axon to the other. (eurekalert.org)
- Once in their final positions, neurons polarize and extend an axonal growth cone that navigates to reach its synaptic targets. (berkeley.edu)
- The establishment of polarity and the ability of axons to find their targets are essential steps in establishing the connections between neurons that underlies behavior. (berkeley.edu)
- We are studying molecules that orient the polarity and guide the migrations of these neurons and their growth cones along the C. elegans anterior/posterior (A/P) axis. (berkeley.edu)
- VAB-8, a novel kinesin-like protein orients polarity of neurons toward the posterior and promotes directed cell and growth cone migrations toward the posterior of the animal. (berkeley.edu)
- Wnts, secreted glycoproteins that function in several different developmental processes, act antagonistically to VAB-8, orienting the polarity of neurons toward the anterior and guiding the anterior migrations of C. elegans cells and growth cones. (berkeley.edu)
- Split into four convenient sections, this detailed volume covers techniques of culturing neurons and glia as well as their growth and differentiation, methods of gene delivery and down regulation, protocols for analyzing axon growth and guidance plus synapse formation, and, finally, basic methods to analyze brain morphology and axon pathways in developing animals. (springer.com)
- The spinal cord's commissural neurons, which receive sensory signals such as pain from the primary neurons in other regions of the body, have a complex growth process. (uchicago.edu)
- But during nervous system development, neurons often express and release transmitters before their axons establish contacts with their target cells. (springer.com)
- However, more recent work demonstrates that neurotransmitters can also influence the targeting of migrating neurons and growing axons during the formation of neuronal circuits. (springer.com)
- Serotonin selectively inhibits growth cone motility and synaptogenesis of specific identified neurons. (springer.com)
- D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: Evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system. (springer.com)
- Little is known about the cues that guide retinal axons across the diencephalon en route to their midbrain target, the optic tectum. (nih.gov)
- Thus, initial pathfinding at the chiasm does not depend on binocular axon interactions, but on local cues that trigger differential growth cone responses. (nih.gov)
- Growth cones are dynamic membrane structures that migrate to target tissue by rearranging their cytoskeleton in response to environmental cues. (nih.gov)
- There are subpopulations of glial cells that provide guidance cues for axonal growth. (wikipedia.org)
- The "glial wedge" is made up of radial fibers, secreting repellent cues to prevent axons from entering the septum and positioning them towards the corpus callosum. (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, in Netrin-1 deficient mice, trochlear axon projections are normal, suggesting the existence of other redundant guidance cues working in tandem with Netrin-1 to repel trochlear axons. (wikipedia.org)
- this illustrates how multiple tropic cues interact to guide the commissural axons to their targets. (wikipedia.org)
- These results indicate that GAG chains act as bidirectional axon guidance cues in the developing nervous system. (nii.ac.jp)
- The behaviour of growth cones resulting in the establishment of functional connections is governed by receptor signalling in the growth cone in response to the presence of extracellular guidance cues. (els.net)
- It is the complex arrangement of these cues then that directs axon extension through a series of intermediate targets before growth cones finally recognise their final target and form a synapse. (els.net)
- Historical theories of connectivity can be explained by the expression and action of guidance cues and their receptors upon growth cone behaviour. (els.net)
- Guidance cues impart directional information to the growth cone, shown in (1). (els.net)
- Secreted repulsive (4) and attractive (5) cues create gradients in the extracellular environment that direct growth cones away (4) or towards (5) a source of the cue. (els.net)
- In this chapter, we focus on cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as two important signals during axon guidance, and how these interactions impact the response to diffusible guidance cues. (intechopen.com)
- Intracellular second messengers such as calcium are important in mediating the response of growth cones to attractive and repulsive cues. (els.net)
- Continued cycles of retrograde flow (or treadmilling) therefore drive the forward motion of the growth across a substratum of ECM proteins and guidance cues (orange), which are recognised by specific receptors in the growth cone (brown). (els.net)
- Guidance molecules that play essential roles in the D-V guidance of axons have been identified, whereas the nature of the A-P guidance cues has remained an enigma ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Bruchez and colleagues, which include Fred Wouters from the Goettingen Medical School and Christine Holt from the University of Cambridge, believe that the growth cone makes decisions through a combination of integrated molecular cues. (eurekalert.org)
- Axon terminals, under the direction of a variety of extracellular cues, grow towards particular targets. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- This extension is activated by chemical cues that causes the axon to exert a directional force towards the proper direction. (eurekalert.org)
- The cues that steer these brain axons down the spinal cord have not yet been identified. (uchicago.edu)
- Slits mediate multiple axon guidance decisions, but the mechanisms underlying the responses of growth cones to these cues remain poorly defined. (xenbase.org)
- Each extending axon is tipped by a growth cone that can interpret extracellular "guidance cues" and navigate the axon along the correct path. (riken.jp)
- Our aim is to investigate growth cone navigation with particular emphasis on the roles of guidance cues, intracellular signals, cytoskeleton, adhesion machinery and membrane dynamics. (riken.jp)
- Our results also show that Robo3.1 serves as an integrative hub: Its three diverse actions in response to three different cues - mediating NELL2 repulsion from the motor column, potentiating midline Netrin-1 attraction, and antagonizing midline Slit repulsion - act simultaneously, are mutually reinforcing, and serve the common purpose of steering commissural axons toward and across the midline. (freethoughtblogs.com)
- Axon Regeneration: What Needs to Be Overcome? (springer.com)
- Axon Growth and Regeneration: Methods and Protocols brings together a diverse set of techniques for the study of the mechanisms underlying central nervous system axon growth, consequently providing a resource that will aid in the development of repair strategies. (springer.com)
- The next section provides protocols for inducing experimental injury in vivo as well as some highly promising protocols for promoting regeneration, which segues into the final section highlighting a series of protocols that can be used to monitor the extent of axon regeneration in vivo, ranging from tract tracing to in vivo imaging and functional recovery. (springer.com)
- The Reticulon 4 receptor ( RTN4R ) encodes the RTN4 receptor, which is a known receptor subunit for RTN4 that is one of the most potent myelin-associated inhibitor of axon regeneration and structural plasticity in the central nervous system. (nature.com)
- Nogo-A is one of the most potent myelin-associated inhibitors for axonal growth, regeneration, and plasticity in the adult central nervous system. (rupress.org)
- We emphasize the need and the challenge to understand the complex relations among simultaneous signals to guide axons projections, and how this knowledge could influence approaches to deal with neural regeneration issues. (intechopen.com)
- Its binding to kinesin heavy chains (KHC), promotes kinesin-1 motility along microtubules and is essential for axon elongation and regeneration. (genecards.org)
- Axon regeneration in the absence of growth cones: acceleration by cyclic AMP. (semanticscholar.org)
- and spinal cord injury in Xenopus laevis reveals a core set of genes inherent in successful regeneration of vertebrate central nervous system axons. (xenbase.org)
- After axotomy, neuronal survival and growth cone re-formation are required for axon regeneration. (wingsforlife.com)
- Additionally, while DCXs synergize with mTOR to stimulate axon regeneration, alone they can promote neuronal survival possibly by regulating the retrograde propagation of injury signals. (wingsforlife.com)
- Andrew Kaplan, a PhD candidate at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital of McGill University, was looking for a pharmacological approach to axon regeneration, with a focus on 14-3-3, a family of proteins with neuroprotective functions that have been under investigation in the laboratory of Dr. Alyson Fournier, professor of neurology and neurosurgery and senior author on the study. (mcgill.ca)
- We have identified a novel strategy to promote axon regeneration with a family of small molecules that may be excellent candidates for future drug development," says Fournier. (mcgill.ca)
- IMAGE: Treatment with fusicoccin-A induces the regeneration of damaged axons towards the center of the injury. (mcgill.ca)
- A new study reveals that a small molecule produced by a fungus may stimulate the regeneration of axons - the slender, "thread-like projections that carry electrical signals" between nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers found that a small molecule called fusicoccin-A stimulated regeneration of damaged axons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Senior author Alyson Fournier, a professor of neurology and neurosurgery at McGill, heads a laboratory that has been investigating 14-3-3 and looking for ways to stimulate axon regeneration. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- It is well known that growth cones use similar mechanisms for their navigation during development and regeneration. (riken.jp)
- Akt1-Inhibitor of DNA binding2 is essential for growth cone formation and axon growth and promotes central nervous system axon regeneration. (ucsf.edu)
- Moreover, neurite outgrowth is enhanced in PC12 cells overexpressing Smn and/or hnRNP R. We also show that deficiency of Smn protein leads to alterations of β-actin protein and mRNA localization in axons and growth cones. (rupress.org)
- however, little is known about how microtubules (MTs) reorganize during directed axon outgrowth. (jneurosci.org)
- Our findings also provide the first direct evidence that similar reorganization and movement of individual MTs occur in the two regions of the axon where directed outgrowth occurs. (jneurosci.org)
- After an introductory section, this detailed volume continues with sections focusing on axon growth in vitro, providing a range of protocols that can be used to examine intracellular signalling pathways, axonal responses to extracellular factors, and methods for quantifying outgrowth. (springer.com)
- The Nogo-A-specific fragment NogoΔ20 induces growth cone collapse, and inhibits neurite outgrowth and cell spreading by activating RhoA. (rupress.org)
- The growth cones of growing nerves control axon outgrowth and direction. (els.net)
- Floor plate cells at the ventral midline of the spinal cord secrete a diffusible factor or factors that promotes the outgrowth of spinal commissural axons and attracts these axons in vitro . (wikipedia.org)
- This suggests that UNC-5 is only required for the early outgrowth phase to guide axons. (wikipedia.org)
- Shootin1 is a brain-specific protein involved in axon outgrowth. (eurekalert.org)
- Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are extracellular inhibitors of axon extension and plasticity, and cause growth cones to exhibit dystrophic behaviors. (nih.gov)
- We found that IP 3 and ensuing Ca 2+ signals were produced asymmetrically across growth cones exposed to an extracellular gradient of nerve growth factor (NGF) and mediated growth cone turning responses to NGF. (sciencemag.org)
- Axon extension and guidance toward their targets are a complex process involving several signals provided by extracellular milieu where secreted factors, other cells, axons, and extracellular matrix proteins are interacting to establish the wiring of the brain. (intechopen.com)
- Extracellular matrix components present in axons pathway can be signaling by forming soluble chemotropic protein gradients and/or by direct interaction with membrane receptors at the growth cones. (intechopen.com)
- The transport of mRNAs into axons and their translation within axons can be regulated by extracellular stimuli ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
- Receptors in the growth cones detect extracellular signals and grow toward or away from the source. (uchicago.edu)
- In response to growth factor stimulation, membrane ruffles are generated through localized actin filament assembly, which can subsequently close into macropinosomes ( Swanson, 2008 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Reduced axon growth in Smn-deficient motoneurons correlates with reduced β-actin protein and mRNA staining in distal axons and growth cones. (rupress.org)
- Together, these data suggest that a complex of Smn with its binding partner hnRNP R interacts with β-actin mRNA and translocates to axons and growth cones of motoneurons. (rupress.org)
- These data indicate that Smn and hnRNP R are involved in processing and localization of β-actin mRNA to growth cones of developing motoneurons. (rupress.org)
- The multidomain flavoprotein monooxygenase (FMO) MICAL (Molecule Interacting with CasL) also mediates growth cone collapse in response to Semaphorin by directly oxidizing F-actin, resulting in depolymerization. (ku.edu)
- Although many aspects of this mechanism remains unclear, it is well established that a dynamic and highly motile actin-based structure found at the growing end of a developing axon, known as a growth cone , facilitates this process. (mechanobio.info)
- Organization of cytoskeletal components (actin filaments and microtubules) in the growth cone. (mechanobio.info)
- Growth cones facilitate axon growth and guidance by bundling and extending actin filaments into structures known as filopodia and microspikes. (mechanobio.info)
- A number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins are present in growth cones that anchor actin filaments and microtubules to each other, such as myosin II , or to the membrane, for example, talin , and to other cytoskeletal components. (mechanobio.info)
- Representative examples of axons and growth cones stained with anti-pAkt (A) and anti-pS6 (B) , and counterstained with rhodamine phalloidin to reveal actin filaments. (nih.gov)
- 20 This activation initiates a cascade of intracellular molecular events that results in the destabilization of the actin cytoskeleton and leads to the collapse of growth cones, preventing further axonal growth and inhibiting myelination. (nature.com)
- Bray pioneered the investigation of growth cone motility and was the first to observe that inert particles placed on the growth cone surface would move in a retrograde direction, suggestive of an underlying centripetal membrane or actin filament flux (Bray, 1970). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Early studies also demonstrated that growth cone motility depends on actin filament assembly (Yamada and Wessells, 1973), and a critical role for actin assembly in axonal guidance emerged when axons in the developing grasshopper nervous system were shown to lose all path-finding capabilities upon treatment with cytochalasin (Bentley and Toroion-Raymond, 1986). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Later, studies characterizing actin dynamics in Aplysia growth cones in vitro suggested that the retrograde flux mentioned above is actually due to actin filament assembly at nucleation sites along the leading edge, followed by retrograde translocation and filament disassembly or recycling by means of severing at a proximal site. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Assembly of actin filaments, followed by centripetal displacement relative to the leading cell margin, has been observed in a wide variety of motile cells and appears to be a fundamental property of directed growth processes and cell migration (Cramer et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
- In our initial characterization of actin filament dynamics in Aplysia growth cones, we noted that when cones were treated with 2-5 [[micro]molar] cytochalasin, retrograde flow did not appear to be markedly affected. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Continued retrograde flow in the absence of new actin assembly resulted in formation of an F-actin-free gap along the growth cone margin and eventual clearance (typically in about 3 min) of F-actin from lamellipodia and filopodia. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Given the functional implications of our previous work, we designed experiments aimed at global inhibition of myosin activity to test whether any myosin was in fact involved in driving retrograde F-actin flow in growth cones. (thefreelibrary.com)
- a) Schematic illustration of the actin‐based filopodia and lamellipodia in the periphery of the growth cone, which transitions into a central domain of microtubules. (els.net)
- Note that the peripheral region (dark green) has more actin filaments than the axon or central region (light green). (els.net)
- Representation of actin dynamics in the leading edge of a growth cone. (els.net)
- Actin filaments (green) extend into the proximal edge of the advancing growth cone. (els.net)
- Protocadherin-17 mediates collective axon extension by recruiting actin regulator complexes to interaxonal contacts. (semanticscholar.org)
- Short Stop provides an essential link between F-actin and microtubules during axon extension. (semanticscholar.org)
- While the MT-binding domain is known to stabilize MT structures, we show that the S/P-rich region prevents F-actin destabilization in injured axon stumps. (wingsforlife.com)
- Our findings reveal an unexpected link between Slit2 and cofilin in growth cones and suggest that local translation of actin regulatory proteins contributes to repulsion. (xenbase.org)
- Bassell, Sorting of beta-actin mRNA and protein to neurites and growth cones in culture. (xenbase.org)
- Fan, The organization of F-actin and microtubules in growth cones exposed to a brain-derived collapsing factor. (xenbase.org)
- Fournier, Semaphorin3A enhances endocytosis at sites of receptor-F-actin colocalization during growth cone collapse. (xenbase.org)
- Gehler, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulation of retinal growth cone filopodial dynamics is mediated through actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin. (xenbase.org)
- mRNA-protein interactions drive this post-transcriptional regulation, yet knowledge of RNA binding proteins (RBP) in axons is limited. (mcponline.org)
- A systematic assessment of axonal mRNAs interacting with hnRNP H1, hnRNP F, and hnRNP K, proteins that bound with high specificity to Nrn1 and Hmgb1 , revealed that axonal mRNAs segregate into axon growth-associated RNA regulons based on hnRNP interactions. (mcponline.org)
- mRNAs are actively transported into axons where they are used to synthesize new proteins ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
- These locally generated proteins contribute to growth and function of axons as well as retrograde signaling for injury responses and survival in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) 1 ( 2 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
- Netrins are a class of proteins involved in axon guidance . (wikipedia.org)
- EB1 is known to recruit several other proteins to growing MT plus-ends 13,14 , and has recently been established as a MT maturation factor 15 , promoting both MT growth and catastrophe frequency 15,16 . (jove.com)
- The discovery led the team to investigate whether the effect that fusicoccin-A has on the 14-3-3 proteins in plants also occurs in animals, as well as whether it could be used to harness the proteins to repair axons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Growth cone sense information presented to it in the embryonic environment and respond by steering axon growth towards the correct targets. (els.net)
- Contributes to the regulation of axonal growth in the embryonic and adult central nervous system by inhibiting interactions between RTN4R and LINGO1. (uniprot.org)
- Axonal growth cones in the spinal cord of embryonic and larval Xenopus (stages 24-48) were filled with the anatomical tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP). (semanticscholar.org)
- Guidance of commissural growth cones at the floor plate in embryonic rat spinal cord. (semanticscholar.org)
- Netrin-1 has been identified as a critical component of embryonic development with functions in axon guidance, cell migration, morphogenesis and angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Our approach is to quantify global parameters of MT dynamics using the software package, plusTipTracker 4 , following the acquisition of high-resolution, live images of tagged EB1 in cultured embryonic growth cones 5 . (jove.com)
- Thus, we measure global MT dynamics parameters using the software package, plusTipTracker 4 , after the acquisition of high-resolution, live images of tagged EB1 in cultured embryonic growth cones 5 . (jove.com)
- The axon of a commissural axon makes at least two decisions within the depicted cross section of the spinal cord. (els.net)
- Thus, Wnt-Frizzled signaling guides commissural axons along the anterior-posterior axis of the spinal cord. (sciencemag.org)
- A ) Transverse section of E13 rat spinal cord showing the D-V trajectory (solid red line) and A-P trajectory (dashed red line) of commissural axons. (sciencemag.org)
- Axonal growth cones in the developing amphibian spinal cord. (semanticscholar.org)
- In amphibia and fish, some parts of the brain and spinal cord will regenerate the long fibers, which are called axons. (thefreelibrary.com)
- A University research team has discovered a crucial signaling pathway that controls the growth of nascent nerves within the spinal cord, guiding them toward the brain during development. (uchicago.edu)
- This is the first guidance mechanism that regulates growth of nerve cells up and down the spinal cord," said Yimin Zou, Assistant Professor in Neurobiology, Pharmacology & Physiology at the University. (uchicago.edu)
- Commissural axons in Frizzled3-deficient mice lost directionality of growth along the spinal cord. (uchicago.edu)
- Axon damage occurs not only in strokes and brain and spinal cord injuries, but also in many other diseases, including multiple sclerosis and a range of neurodegenerative disorders. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Glycerophospholipid regulation of modality-specific sensory axon guidance in the spinal cord. (riken.jp)
- These results demonstrate that macropinocytosis-mediated membrane trafficking is an important cellular mechanism involved in axon chemorepulsion induced by negative guidance factors. (jneurosci.org)
- It can be seen from this image that if the F actins were depolymerised, the membrane projections would no longer be supported and the filopodia would retract into the main body of the growth cone. (els.net)
- These findings suggest that synaptotagmin-immunoreactive vesicles and vacuoles might be utilized for the supply of membrane components to the surface plasma membrane in the growth cone. (nii.ac.jp)
- dependent manner in synapses may participate in the regulation of the membrane fusion between the vesicles and plasma membranes in growth cones. (nii.ac.jp)
- Effect of the small GTPase, Rab10 on membrane growth and cellularization of the early Drosophila embryo. (genetics-gsa.org)
- Second messengers and membrane trafficking direct and organize growth cone steering. (riken.jp)
- Attractive axon guidance involves asymmetric membrane transport and exocytosis in the growth cone. (riken.jp)
- characterise sensory and internal sources of noise contributing to behavioural variables, by combining knowledge of the underlying stochastic dynamics in cue sensing and the growth of the cytoskeleton. (aps.org)
- Time-lapse analysis of retinal growth cone dynamics in vivo shows that addition of exogenous chondroitin sulfate causes intermittent stalling and increases growth cone complexity. (nih.gov)
- Here we report that these spontaneous Ca 2+ transients with slow kinetics, called Ca 2+ waves, are modulated by conditions of ethanol exposure that alter axonal growth dynamics. (mdpi.com)
- In some experiments, we determined the temporal correlation between Ca 2+ waves and growth and non-growth phases of axonal growth dynamics. (mdpi.com)
- Thus, the relationship between growth cone Ca 2+ waves and axon growth dynamics is disrupted by ethanol. (mdpi.com)
- The goal of this method is to obtain quantitative information regarding microtubule (MT) plus-end-tracking protein (+TIP) dynamics in living growth cones. (jove.com)
- Many studies of MT dynamics within growth cones have utilized hand-tracking methods to measure changes in EB1-GFP dynamics over time 1-3 , as EB1 localization to MT plus-ends can be used as a marker for MT polymerization. (jove.com)
- A key benefit for examining EB1-GFP comets as a proxy for MT growth is that MT dynamics can be measured even in regions of significant MT overlap. (jove.com)
- Additionally, as aberrant growth cone behaviors are likely the result of minute shifts in cytoskeletal dynamics, analyzing only a small subset of MTs (usually necessary when hand-tracking) may miss significant information. (jove.com)
- A long list of specific parameters of MT dynamics are calculated by this software (see Reference 4 for details), but for analysis of MT dynamics in growth cones, the most useful parameters are MT growth track velocity (in microns/minute), growth track lifetime (in seconds), and growth track length (in microns). (jove.com)
- Here, we describe the steps for analyzing images of EB1-GFP dynamics in cultured Xenopus laevis growth cones. (jove.com)
- Nonprimed and DYRK1A-primed GSK3 beta-phosphorylation sites on MAP1B regulate microtubule dynamics in growing axons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Control of axon branch dynamics by correlated activity in vivo. (springer.com)
- The nervous system's wiring is a result of axon growth cones navigating through specific molecular environments during development. (aps.org)
- Overexpression of PPK-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans Type I PIP kinase, inhibits growth cone collapse in the developing nervous system and causes ax. (nih.gov)
- Overexpression of PPK-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans Type I PIP kinase, inhibits growth cone collapse in the developing nervous system and causes axonal degeneration in adults. (nih.gov)
- Axons projections are stereotyped, and the accuracy of reaching their target is fundamental for the correct central nervous system (CNS) functioning. (intechopen.com)
- Ensheathment of axons by glial membranes is a key feature of complex nervous systems ensuring the separation of single axons or axonal fascicles. (biologists.org)
- When I looked under the microscope the following day the axons were growing like weeds, an exciting result that led us to determine that fusicoccin-A can stimulate axon repair in the injured nervous system," says Kaplan. (mcgill.ca)
- This provides the molecular basis for neurite self-avoidance, a mechanism utilized for patterning axon and dendrites in the peripheral and central nervous system. (hhmi.org)
- These roles include early anterior-posterior axis formation and neural growth and development in vertebrates and the regulation of the structure and function of the adult nervous system [ 5 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- He has also developed a collaboration with Dr Lisa Foa at the School of Medicine, examining the calcium signalling mechanisms correlated with axon targeting and synaptogenesis during development of the zebrafish nervous system. (edu.au)
- It's exciting to clinicians because it could help regenerate damaged axons in the central nervous system. (uchicago.edu)
- After neuronal networks have been developed, injury to the adult central nervous system induces the formation of barriers to regenerating axons. (riken.jp)
- Getting axons in the nervous system to their proper destinations actually is a very complex problem: much wires, many connections, wow. (freethoughtblogs.com)
- We aim to characterise growth cone navigation in defined nano-dot guidance cue environments, by using the tools of computational neuroscience to conduct ``molecular psychophysics. (aps.org)
- Professor David Van Vactor discusses how growth cones read molecular 'signposts,' which help axons find the correct path. (dnalc.org)
- Within each growth cone is a tiny molecular navigational system that guides the nerve cell down a winding path while sensing the cellular terrain, allowing the cell to find its synaptic target. (eurekalert.org)
- However, since the growth cone is so small and only contains a small fraction of the nerve cell's content, it has been difficult to study the molecular processes at play in neuronal navigation. (eurekalert.org)
- Through the HFSP-supported project Bruchez and colleagues will attempt to develop a sensitive set of probes that will report on the molecular activities at the growth cone including protein synthesis, protein degradation and protein folding. (eurekalert.org)
- These revelations will help elucidate the fundamental principles of axon tract formation and establish the molecular and cellular biological basis for axon tract repair. (riken.jp)
- The molecular biology of axon guidance. (springer.com)
- We report that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) protein induces macropinocytosis in the axons through activation of a noncanonical signaling pathway, including Rho GTPase and nonmuscle myosin II. (jneurosci.org)
- We found that Wnt4 messenger RNA is expressed in a decreasing anterior-to-posterior gradient in the floor plate, and that a directed source of Wnt4 protein attracted postcrossing commissural axons. (sciencemag.org)
- The initial ventral growth of the commissural axons is directed by a collaboration of two chemoattractants, netrin-1 ( 4 - 6 ) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ( 7 ), and chemorepellents of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
- This lack of functional atlastin-1 protein can also restrict the growth of axons. (medlineplus.gov)
- binding protein associated with synaptic vesicles, in regenerating axons was investigated by immunocytochemistry in the injured rat sciatic nerves. (nii.ac.jp)
- Axotomy increases axonal transport of hnRNPs H1, F, and K, depletion of these hnRNPs decreases axon growth and reduces axonal mRNA levels and axonal protein synthesis. (mcponline.org)
- VAB-8 protein is identified as an upstream regulator for UNC-40 and identifies the mechanism for polarity in axon and cell migration . (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we show that this wrapping of axons depends on the interaction of the neuronal transmembrane protein Neurexin IV with the glial Ig-domain protein Wrapper. (biologists.org)
- We show here that collapse induced by Slit2 -conditioned medium ( Slit2 - CM ) in Xenopus retinal growth cones requires local protein synthesis (PS) and endocytosis. (xenbase.org)
- Alvarez, Protein synthesis in axons and terminals: significance for maintenance, plasticity and regulation of phenotype. (xenbase.org)
- Campbell, Chemotropic responses of retinal growth cones mediated by rapid local protein synthesis and degradation. (xenbase.org)
- Inhibitors of macropinocytosis also abolished the negative effects of Shh on axonal growth, including growth cone collapse and chemorepulsive axon turning but not turning per se. (jneurosci.org)
- When added in bath, negative guidance molecules cause rapid collapse of growth cones characterized by a loss of lamellipodia and filopodia, followed by axon retraction ( Luo and O'Leary, 2005 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Pincher-mediated macroendocytosis results in the formation of NogoΔ20-containing signalosomes that direct RhoA activation and growth cone collapse. (rupress.org)
- Here, we show that NogoΔ20 actions on growth cone collapse require signaling from endosomes that contain activated Rho. (rupress.org)
- Signaling mechanisms underlying Slit2 -induced collapse of Xenopus retinal growth cones. (xenbase.org)
- Aizawa, Phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM-kinase is necessary for semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse. (xenbase.org)
- Campbell, Semaphorin 3A elicits stage-dependent collapse, turning, and branching in Xenopus retinal growth cones. (xenbase.org)
- In order to reach their target, growth cones need to make decisions under uncertainty as they are faced with stochastic sensory information and probabilistic movements. (aps.org)
- Activation of PI3K and R-Ras signaling promotes the extension of sensory axons on inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. (nih.gov)
- Thalamocortical axons (TCAs), which convey sensory and motor information to the neocortex, have a rostrocaudal topographic organization initially established within the ventral telencephalon [1, 2, (cf.ac.uk)
- Growth cones are the sensory apparatus of an axon required for proper target identification and formation of functional connections. (els.net)
- Contact with isolated sclerotome cells steers sensory growth cones by altering distinct elements of extension. (semanticscholar.org)
- In the absence of SynCAMs, selective axon-axon interactions are perturbed resulting in aberrant pathfinding of sensory axons. (biologists.org)
- During the development of the brain growing nerves send out neuronal processes (axons and dendrites) that connect them to other nerve cells, sensory organs, and muscle tissue. (cshlpress.com)
- in these two models the growth cone's response to Slit has been shown to be regulated through receptor trafficking and alternative splicing, respectively (Fig.3). (wikipedia.org)
- Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance. (rcsb.org)
- UNC-5 uses repulsion to direct axons while the other netrin receptor UNC-40 attracts axons to the source of netrin production. (wikipedia.org)
- Expression of UNC-6 netrin and its receptor UNC-5 is required for guiding pioneering axons and migrating cells in C. elegans . (wikipedia.org)
- The function of UNC-5 is to repel axons while the other receptor UNC-40 (or Deleted in Colorectal Cancer ) attracts axons to the source of UNC-6 production. (wikipedia.org)
- C. elegans VAB-8L and UNC-73/Trio regulate the SAX-3/Robo receptor to direct cells and growth cones posteriorly. (berkeley.edu)
- Castellani, Semaphorin3A-induced receptor endocytosis during axon guidance responses is mediated by L1 CAM. (xenbase.org)
- These results demonstrate that the problem with callosal agenesis resides not in the cells of origin or the axons or growth cones themselves but in the substrates of axon guidance at the midsagittal plane. (uncg.edu)
- These studies have defined guidepost cells as non-continuous landmarks located on future paths of growing axons by providing high-affinity substrates to bind to for navigation. (wikipedia.org)
- This study shows that grip and slip between the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1-CAM and the adhesive substrates, which occur asymmetrically under the growth cone, direct growth cone migration mediated by laminin. (pnas.org)
- Both overnight and acute treatment with PI3Kpep promoted axon extension on CSPG-coated substrates. (nih.gov)
- Overexpression of Smn or its binding partner, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) R, promotes neurite growth in differentiating PC12 cells. (rupress.org)
- We measured survival and neurite length in isolated motoneurons from a mouse model of SMA and found a specific reduction in axon growth, but no alterations in survival or dendrite length. (rupress.org)
- Autonomous right-screw rotation of growth cone filopodia drives neurite turning. (riken.jp)
- Here, we show that high concentration of Shh (high Shh) activates Rho GTPase and nonmuscle myosin II and induces macropinocytosis in the growth cones of RGC axons. (jneurosci.org)
- A slight concentration gradient (0.4 percent) in netrin-1 (blue) induces a 71 percent difference in shootin1a phosphorylation (green) within growth cones. (eurekalert.org)
- We found that a slight concentration gradient in netrin-1 of only 0.4% induces a 71% difference in shootin1a phosphorylation within growth cones," says Dr. Kentarou Baba, who first-authored the study. (eurekalert.org)
- Axon guidance is an important step in neural development. (mechanobio.info)
- Guidepost cells are cells which assist in the subcellular organization of both neural axon growth and migration. (wikipedia.org)
- There is a band of epithelial cells, called floor-plate cells, present in the neural tube of Drosophilia available for the binding of growing axons. (wikipedia.org)
- To test the guidance cell in question, neural axon growth and migration is first examined in the presence of the guidance cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Then, the guidance cell is destroyed to further examine neural axon growth and migration in the absence of the guidance cell. (wikipedia.org)
- This in turn affects SynCAM localization on growth cones and axonal interaction patterns, which are the key to the formation of neural circuits. (biologists.org)
- Here we show that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are differentially expressed within the diencephalon at a time when retinal axons are growing within the optic tract. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest that chondroitin sulfate may modulate the guidance of retinal axons as they grow through the diencephalon towards the optic tectum. (nih.gov)
- Retinal axons disperse widely from their normal trajectory within the optic tract and extend aberrantly into inappropriate regions of the forebrain. (nih.gov)
- Then, mitral primary axons will extend and form a bundle of axons, called the LOT, towards higher olfactory centers: anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, piriform cortexr, entorhinal cortex, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. (wikipedia.org)
- In C. elegans , growth cones extend along specific axons to generate highly ordered nerve bundles or fascicles. (berkeley.edu)
- The specific routing of retinal ganglion cell axons at the mammalian optic chiasm into the ipsilateral or contralateral optic tracts results from axon pathfinding. (nih.gov)
- The complex neuronal network is in part assembled through the stepwise events of axon pathfinding. (elifesciences.org)
- Kolodkin, AL & Tessier-Lavigne, M 2012, Growth Cones and Axon Pathfinding . (elsevier.com)
- Segmental pathfinding of mammalian commissural axons. (els.net)
- He developed cutting edge assays such as the growth cone turning assay and calcium imaging to elucidate the signalling mechanisms used in axon pathfinding. (edu.au)
- Cornel, Precocious pathfinding: retinal axons can navigate in an axonless brain. (xenbase.org)