A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Tests that evaluate the adrenal glands controlled by pituitary hormones.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The first cervical vertebra.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
An increase in the rate of speed.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.

Conserved requirement for EGF-CFC genes in vertebrate left-right axis formation. (1/149)

Specification of the left-right (L-R) axis in the vertebrate embryo requires transfer of positional information from the node to the periphery, resulting in asymmetric gene expression in the lateral plate mesoderm. We show that this activation of L-R lateral asymmetry requires the evolutionarily conserved activity of members of the EGF-CFC family of extracellular factors. Targeted disruption of murine Cryptic results in L-R laterality defects including randomization of abdominal situs, hyposplenia, and pulmonary right isomerism, as well as randomized embryo turning and cardiac looping. Similarly, zebrafish one-eyed pinhead (oep) mutants that have been rescued partially by mRNA injection display heterotaxia, including randomization of heart looping and pancreas location. In both Cryptic and oep mutant embryos, L-R asymmetric expression of Nodal/cyclops, Lefty2/antivin, and Pitx2 does not occur in the lateral plate mesoderm, while in Cryptic mutants Lefty1 expression is absent from the prospective floor plate. Notably, L-R asymmetric expression of Nodal at the lateral edges of the node is still observed in Cryptic mutants, indicating that L-R specification has occurred in the node but not the lateral plate. Combined with the previous finding that oep is required for nodal signaling in zebrafish, we propose that a signaling pathway mediated by Nodal and EGF-CFC activities is essential for transfer of L-R positional information from the node.  (+info)

Pattern formation and regulation of gene expressions in chick recombinant limbs. (2/149)

Recombinant limbs were performed by ensembling dissociated-reaggregated wing bud mesoderm inside an ectodermal hull. The zone of polarizing activity was excluded from the mesoderm used to perform the recombinant limbs (non-polarized recombinants), and grafted when desired (polarized recombinants). Reorganization of patterning progressively occurred in the newly formed progress zone under the influence of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), explaining the proximo-distal gradient of morphogenesis observed in developed recombinant limbs. The AER, without the influence of the polarizing region (ZPA), was sufficient to direct outgrowth and appropriate proximo-distal patterning, as observed in the expression of the Hoxa-11 and Hoxa-13 genes. The development of the recombinant limbs coursed with symmetric AER and downregulation of Bmp expression in the mesoderm supporting a negative effect of Bmp signaling upon the apical ridge. The recombinant ectoderm maintained previously established compartments of gene expressions and organized a correct dorso-ventral patterning in the recombinant progress zone. Finally, the ZPA effect was only detected on Bmp expression and pattern formation along the antero-posterior axis.  (+info)

Left-right development: the roles of nodal cilia. (3/149)

Cilia on the ventral side of the mouse node have been implicated in initiating the left-right axis during embryonic development, but how cilia relate to other factors in the left-right pathway and the mechanism by which cilia convey patterning information remain uncertain.  (+info)

Surface ectoderm is necessary for the morphogenesis of somites. (4/149)

The paraxial mesoderm of the neck and trunk of mouse embryos undergoes extensive morphogenesis in forming somites. Paraxial mesoderm is divided into segments, it elongates along its anterior posterior axis, and its cells organize into epithelia. Experiments were performed to determine if these processes are autonomous to the mesoderm that gives rise to the somites. Presomitic mesoderm at the tailbud stage was cultured in the presence and absence of its adjacent tissues. Somite segmentation occurred in the absence of neural tube, notochord, gut and surface ectoderm, and occurred in posterior fragments in the absence of anterior presomitic mesoderm. Mesodermal expression of Dll1 and Notch1, genes with roles in segmentation, was largely independent of other tissues, consistent with autonomous segmentation. However, surface ectoderm was found to be necessary for elongation of the mesoderm along the anterior-posterior axis and for somite epithelialization. To determine if there is specificity in the interaction between ectoderm and mesoderm, ectoderm from different sources was recombined with presomitic mesoderm. Surface ectoderm from only certain parts of the embryo supported somite epithelialization and elongation. Somite epithelialization induced by ectoderm was correlated with expression of the basic-helix-loop-helix gene Paraxis in the mesoderm. This is consistent with the genetically defined requirement for Paraxis in somite epithelialization. However, trunk ectoderm was able to induce somite epithelialization in the absence of strong Paraxis expression. We conclude that somitogenesis consists of autonomous segmentation patterned by Notch signaling and nonautonomous induction of elongation and epithelialization by surface ectoderm.  (+info)

Regulatory gene expression patterns reveal transverse and longitudinal subdivisions of the embryonic zebrafish forebrain. (5/149)

To shed light on the organization of the rostral embryonic brain of a lower vertebrate, we have directly compared the expression patterns of dlx, fgf, hh, hlx, otx, pax, POU, winged helix and wnt gene family members in the fore- and midbrain of the zebrafish. We show that the analyzed genes are expressed in distinct transverse and longitudinal domains and share expression boundaries at stereotypic positions within the fore- and midbrain. Some of these shared expression boundaries coincide with morphological landmarks like the pathways of primary axon tracts. We identified a series of eight transverse diencephalic domains suggestive of neuromeric subdivisions within the rostral brain. In addition, we identified four molecularly distinct longitudinal subdivisions and provide evidence for a strong bending of the longitudinal rostral brain axis at the cephalic flexure. Our data suggest a strong conservation of early forebrain organization between lower and higher vertebrates.  (+info)

BMP-4 affects the differentiation of metanephric mesenchyme and reveals an early anterior-posterior axis of the embryonic kidney. (6/149)

Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family, regulates several developmental processes during animal development. We have now studied the effects of BMP-4 in the metanephric kidney differentiation by using organ culture technique. Human recombinant BMP-4 diminishes the number of ureteric branches and changes the branching pattern. Our data suggest that BMP-4 affects the ureteric branching indirectly via interfering with the differentiation of the nephrogenic mesenchyme. The clear positional preference of the defects to posterior mesenchyme might reflect an early anterior-posterior patterning of the metanephric mesenchyme. The smooth muscle alpha-actin expressing cell population around the ureteric stalk, highly expressing Bmp-4 mRNA, is also expanded in kidneys treated with BMP-4. Thus, BMP-4 may be a physiological regulator of the development of the periureteric smooth muscle layer and ureteric elongation.  (+info)

Anteroposterior patterning is required within segments for somite boundary formation in developing zebrafish. (7/149)

Somite formation involves the establishment of a segmental prepattern in the presomitic mesoderm, anteroposterior patterning of each segmental primordium and formation of boundaries between adjacent segments. How these events are co-ordinated remains uncertain. In this study, analysis of expression of zebrafish mesp-a reveals that each segment acquires anteroposterior regionalisation when located in the anterior presomitic mesoderm. Thus anteroposterior patterning is occurring after the establishment of a segmental prepattern in the paraxial mesoderm and prior to somite boundary formation. Zebrafish fss(-), bea(-), des(-) and aei(-) embryos all fail to form somites, yet we demonstrate that a segmental prepattern is established in the presomitic mesoderm of all these mutants and hox gene expression shows that overall anteroposterior patterning of the mesoderm is also normal. However, analysis of various molecular markers reveals that anteroposterior regionalisation within each segment is disturbed in the mutants. In fss(-), there is a loss of anterior segment markers, such that all segments appear posteriorized, whereas in bea(-), des(-) and aei(-), anterior and posterior markers are expressed throughout each segment. Since somite formation is disrupted in these mutants, correct anteroposterior patterning within segments may be a prerequisite for somite boundary formation. In support of this hypothesis, we show that it is possible to rescue boundary formation in fss(-) through the ectopic expression of EphA4, an anterior segment marker, in the paraxial mesoderm. These observations indicate that a key consequence of the anteroposterior regionalisation of segments may be the induction of Eph and ephrin expression at segment interfaces and that Eph/ephrin signalling subsequently contributes to the formation of somite boundaries.  (+info)

Dorsoventral axis determination in the somite: a re-examination. (8/149)

We have repeated classic dorsoventral somite rotation experiments (Aoyama and Asamoto, 1988, Development 104, 15-28) and included dorsal and ventral gene expression markers for the somitogenic tissue types, myotome and sclerotome, respectively. While the histological results are consistent with those previously published, gene expression analysis indicates that cells previously thought to be 'sclerotome' no longer express Pax1 mRNA, a sclerotome marker. These results, together with recent quail-chick transplantation experiments indicating that even very late sclerotome tissue fragments are multipotential (Dockter and Ordahl, 1998, Development 125, 2113-2124), lead to the conclusion that sclerotome tissue remains phenotypically and morphogenetically plastic during early embryonic somitogenesis. Myotome precursor cells, by contrast, appear to be determined within hours after somite epithelization; a finding consistent with recent reports (Williams and Ordahl, 1997, Development 124, 4983-4997). Therefore, while these findings support a central conclusion of Aoyama and Asamoto, that axis determination begins to occur within hours after somite epithelialization, the identity of the responding tissues, myotome versus sclerotome, differs. A simple model proposed to reconcile these observations supports the general hypothesis that determinative aspects of early paraxial mesoderm growth and morphogenesis occur in early and late phases that are governed principally by the myotome and sclerotome, respectively.  (+info)

Under the titel Occipital Neuralgia Responding to Palmitoylethanolamide Rocco Salvatore Calabrò and Placido Bramanti reported a case in Headache, a female patient affected by occiptal-treatment-refractory-neuralgia that greatly improved after oral intake of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). Occipital neuralgia (ON) is defined as paroxysmal shooting or stabbing pain in the dermatomes of the nervus occipitalis major or nervus…
Neurological symptoms following the use of potent antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants during PCI always raise the frightening possibility of a major intracranial haemorrhage. The purpose of this report is to emphasise that the importance of excluding intracranial haemorrhage as a cause for the neurological symptoms after PCI far exceeds that after angiography, as inappropriate withdrawal or continuation of the antiplatelet agents could both result in serious consequences for the patient. The fact that the appearance of the CT scan raised a suspicion of an intracranial bleed makes the differentiation all the more important as an opinion of a specialist neuroradiologist may not be available out-of-hours. And, radiology is possibly the only investigation available as lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) xanthochromia is contraindicated in these patients. The anatomical location of any bleeding is less important.. In the clinical scenario presented, intracranial bleeding needed to be ...
A major retrospective of late 80s psychedelic garage rockers Hangmans Beautiful Daughters. A mainstay of the indie and C86 scene, the London-based band were signed to Dan Treacys Dreamworld Records. Treacy, the genius behind The Television Personalities, played a major role in the bands birth, contributing a few songs and as producer. They all looked dead cool: Gordon played chiming 12-string guitar licks which sounded like a dirty version of Roger McGuinns sound with the Byrds, with his long blond fringe making him look like a tougher cousin of Brian Jones. Emily [Brown] had a sensuous, husky alto voice, and looked fine with her long wavy auburn locks, suede fringed boots and mini-skirts. Phil [King] was taciturn and nonchalant; impenetrable with his shades and dark bowl-haircut and like a cuter version of Bill Wyman. Ray [Philpott] was an accomplished, energetic and handsome drummer with a ready grin and long parted wavy chestnut hair. Sandy [Fleming] was an exuberant presence, with her ...
Ring of Honor held TV tapings this weekend in Chicago. Those episodes will probably not begin airing until after the Best in the World PPV on June 23rd.. This week, ROH TV was once again from Philadelphia, having been taped the night after the War of the Worlds PPV. The main event for the show was Adam Cole taking on Bullet Clubs Hangman Page. Next week, Kushida defends the TV title against the newest member of Bullet Club, Marty Scurll.. ...
Hopscotch, Hangman, Hot Potato, and Ha, Ha, Ha (Heftet) av forfatter Jack Maguire. Pris kr 159. Se flere bøker fra Jack Maguire.
History: Individuals report pain as well as tingling and numbness (paresthesia) in the neck, shoulder, arm, and hand, or in all four locations. In neurogenic TOS, hand pain can be severe in the fourth and fifth fingers. Individuals may report that the pain is aggravated by use of the arm, and fatigue of the arm is often marked. Pain and paresthesia may be enough to awaken individuals from sleep. Other symptoms may include recurrent headaches, particularly in the back of the head (occipital headaches), and neck pain. Individuals experiencing venous TOS may also report swelling of the arm, a bluish tinge to the skin (cyanosis), and coldness of the affected arm and hand. Arterial TOS often is not detected until migration of a blood clot obstructs an artery (thromboembolic event). Some individuals may report a history of neck trauma preceding symptoms, usually from a motor vehicle accident or repetitive work activity.. Physical exam: True neurogenic and vascular TOS are uncommon, and such a ...
I may think its an occipital headaches but I could be wrong. I am 31 years old female who loves to exercise to the extreme. I am very into fitness and as a matter of fact Im considering joining a fit...
Synonyms for C2 in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for C2. 8 synonyms for axis: pivot, shaft, axle, spindle, centre line, bloc, axis vertebra, axis of rotation. What are synonyms for C2?
Chiu CK, Chan CYW, Saw LB, Kwan MK. 2010. Scarf related Hangmans fracture: a case report. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 36 (2):180-182. (SCOPUS-Cited Publication) Chan CYW, Kwan MK, Saw LB. 2010. Safety of thoracic pedicle screw application using the funnel technique in Asian: a cadaveric evaluation. European Spine Journal 19(1):78-84. (ISI/SCOPUS Cited […]. ...
Hi Nancyapplg8, I have a double curve scoliosis discovered at 13. In 1978, I had Harrington rod surgery to stabilize things. In 1996, because of more pain, I had a single fusion, then single fusions every year for 5 years. Then in 2003, the doctor fused remaining vertibra, so I am totally fused to middle of my neck. Then in 2010, I fell out of bathtub and broke my C2, a hangmans fracture, so now I am really totally fused! All this to say even tho I have chronic pain between my shoulder blades and my entire neck, I am glad I had the surgerys done, because I would be in even worse shape if I had done nothing. My lungs and heart would be involved because of the top curve twisting too. The only advise I can give is to find a doctor with a lots of experience, cause their patients have better outcomes. And expect there to still be pain. Be as active as possible after you heal. I am pretty sedentary and so part of my pain is of my own doing. I am 68 years old, and go regularly to a pain clinic. I am ...
Headsman On this date in 1908, John Boyd managed six fitful hours of sleep, had a breakfast of toast, poached eggs and tea, and then went to the Don Jail gallows for murdering his paramours rival suitor.. Canada had long before ceased public executions. Prior to Boyds execution, Don Jail hangings had occurred in a jail yard - technically behind prison walls, but easily peeped upon by curiosity-seekers willing to obtain higher ground. Boyds execution introduced a new privacy measure: it was the first of 26 hangings to occur in an interior chamber completely away from public eyes, the same place where Canada eventually held its last hangings in 1962.. But apart from this minor milestone, we notice on this date the hurried and disturbed departure of prolific hangman John Radclive. Another poor soul gone, he was overheard to say as he left.. Radclive is the subject of an empathetic Toronto Star profile thats well worth the read.. He was Canadas first professional hangman, with 69 recorded ...
Would that I could be the peacemaker in your soul that I might turn the discord and the rivalry of your elements into oneness and melody ...
Would that I could be the peacemaker in your soul that I might turn the discord and the rivalry of your elements into oneness and melody ...
As a biologist, I firmly believe that when youre dead, youre dead. Except for what you live behind in history. Thats the only afterlife - J. Craig ...
PrzygodoMania - forum poświęcone grom przygodowym. Oprócz recenzji, poradników oraz nowinkek dotyczących przygodówek, znajdziesz tu wspaniałą społeczność pasjonującą się grami przygodowymi, która bardzo chętnie pomoże i podyskutuje na ich temat.. Przejdź do zawartości. ...
Following the assassination of Nazi Heydrich, Masha Novotny, a professors daughter, hides the culprit in her parents apartment. When the Gestapo take 400 p
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Muscles of Respiration and Muscles of the Spine. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Anatomy & Physiology Fall 2016 FINAL EXAM Review: 1/Atlas, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Traumatic injuries of the upper cervical spine are often encountered, and may be associated to severe neurological outcome. This is a retrospective study of 70 patients, admitted over a 14 years period (1996 to 2010), for management of upper cervical spine injuries. Data concerning epidemiology, radiopathology and treatment was reviewed, and clinical and radiological evaluation was conducted. Men are more affected than women, with traffic accidents being the major traumatic cause. A cervical spine syndrome of varied intensity was found in about 90% of patients; neurological deficit was noted in 10 patients (21%). Radiological analysis discovered varied and many combined lesions: C1-C2 dislocation (7 cases), C2-C3 dislocation (9 cases), C1 fracture (10 cases) and C2 fracture (44 cases) including 28 odontoid fractures. Orthopedic treatment was carried out exclusively for 31 patients, and surgical treatment for 38 patients. One patient died before surgery because of a polytraumatisme. Posterior approach
Atlantoaxial instability implies excessive movement between the first cervical vertebra or atlas, and second cervical vertebra or axis.
Read Feasibility and outcome of stand-alone trans-articular screw fixation in atlantoaxial instability in children less than 8years of age, European Spine Journal on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
To identify patients with Down syndrome and asymptomatic atlantoaxial instability who are at increased risk for developing neurologic symptoms, we studied 27 patients with this skeletal disorder and compared them with an age- and sex-matched group of 27 patients with Down syndrome without atlantoaxi …
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Hangman Multiplayer Words Game - TOEFL IELTS GRE. Download Hangman Multiplayer Words Game - TOEFL IELTS GRE and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
The application of laminar screws is an alternative fixation for the first thoracic vertebra (T1). This paper is to determine the anatomical characteristics for adequate laminar screw fixation, and present a modified method of sagittal reconstruction of T1 to provide more accurate measurements. Computed tomography (CT) images of 62 patients (32 males, 30 females) were used for the analysis. The following parameters of the T-1 lamina were measured using Mimics software: lamina length, axis angle, minimal outer cortical width, cancellous width, minimal outer cortical height, cancellous height, and spinous process height. Right or left modified sagittal reconstructions (parallel to right or left screws) were innovatively used for measurement. There were no significant differences between the left and right sides for each measurement performed (P | 0.05), but significant differences were detected between males and females (P | 0.05). The mean length of the T1 lamina was 32.8 mm of the T1 minimal outer
Diagnosis Code S12.100B information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
1]3,415 words. Part 2 of 3. Here Punch does a mean trick, very unworthy of his Satanic character. He tells the hangman that he has never been hanged before; and though he would be only too glad to be hanged he does not know which way to put his head into the loop, and asks the hangman to show him, which he does. And Punch suddenly fools the rope, and the hangman, who is the sole representative of legal vindication, is himself hanged! Hangman hanged, all law and authority defied, and every restraint annulled, Punch bursts out into triumphant song. - Count Eric Stenbock, The Myth of Punch, edited by David Tibet (London: Durtro Press, 1999). American politics used to be fun. Powerful men making decisions. Now its just who has the most money and avoiding decisions. - Comment at Classic Film and TV Café, February 2, 2012. In Part One of this essay (Mad Men [2] Jumps the Gefilte Fish [2]), we suggested that just as long-running pop culture items, especially television series, will eventually ...
Release dates for Cognition: An Erica Reed Thriller - Episode 1: The Hangman (iPad) database containing game description & game shots, cover art, credits, groups, press, forums, reviews and more.
OBQ09.111) An 11-year-old male complains of one year duration of neck pain. He denies any recent trauma. He has noticed intermittent episodes of gait imbalance and difficulty with buttoning his shirt over the past 3 months. Physical exam shows normal strength in all four extremities and hyper-reflexic patellar tendons. Neutral and flexion radiographs are shown in Figures A and B. A sagittal CT scan is shown in Figure C with a coronal reconstruction shown in Figure D. What is the most appropriate treatment? Review Topic , Tested Concept ...
For Cognition: An Erica Reed Thriller Episode 1 - The Hangman on the PC, GameRankings hosts box shots and game information and articles.
OpenAnesthesia™ content is intended for educational purposes only and not intended as medical advice.. Reuse of OpenAnesthesia™ content for commercial purposes of any kind is prohibited. ...
Auto Collision Differential Assessment, Whiplash trauma, post concussion syndrome, headaches, sinus infection, skull fracture, menigeal nerve damage, cervical nerve stimulating spinal nucleus of cranial nerve 5, greater occipital nerve compression, post trauma migraine, temporal mandibular joint dysfunction, sub occipital headaches, facet joint pain as a referring source, brain and brain stem related symptoms, concussive memory loss, lobe of brain disorders, vertebral artery trauma, carotid artery trauma. Daniel P. Dock., D.A.C.A.N., D.A.B.C.O., F.A.C.O., Boise, ID, 2012. Documentation and Triage in Trauma, ICD-9 and CPT requirements in coding for the traumatically injured including integrating electronic health records including informed consent, evaluation and management, testing orders. The utilization of research in medical reports for both the trauma and non-trauma patients. Clinical coordination of care and reporting to healthcare and legal providers. Federation of Chiropractic Licensure ...
Sore throat, rash, bruising or bleeding, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. What is not required non-invasive screening test, premedication fluconazole and itraconazole absorption are not the normal gait cycle. Functional 13 thomas-8143.Qxd 4/25/2004 5:14 pm page 301 disorders of childhood urinary normal reflex voiding is (just about) adequate, whereas for others sex is not involved any obvious deviations from u common adverse effects improved. Resulting over effect, it occurs when crossing several time zones. N observe for mani- or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can prolong the duration of shivering provide frequent tepid sponges to reduce the consequences of her1, the product soluble of the following salient points: 1. Mechanism of action 4 months, of sacral nerve electrodes, it is toddlers through to at least in the soil and drinking at carbonated drinks such as childbirth. The hangman fracture, a pedicle fracture of the cream. Liquid paraf n may be dif cult to understand the non- one cannot ...
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This is one of many cross sections from a CT (computed tomography) scan in a person who sustained a severe fracture of C2 (second cervical vertebrae). Bone in this CT image is the white density in the middle of the image. The fracture of C2 is seen as a disruption of this white density. - Stock Image M330/1254
From this, you can easily duplicate my algorithm by determining which letter to choose based on which word appears in the most candidate words (highest probability of being right) and break ties by using the highest overall density. You should however be able to do so much more. There are a couple of main approaches that I can think of. First, a 1 size fits all algorithm that weighs various different pieces of data to produce an overall score. The advantage here is that you should be able to tune these weights without touching code to produce the best results for a given dictionary. The second approach would be to have multiple algorithms already fine tuned for a given set of conditions and dispatch to that algorithm based on initial conditions. For instance, it may be ok to take a risk of guessing wrong if the remaining wrong guesses is still high or perhaps utilize the simple algorithm already presented unless the probabilities and candidates remaining (if right or wrong) is beyond some ...
BATON ROUGE -- Trying to intimidate someone with a hangmans noose, a symbol of racial lynchings in the Old South, will be a crime in Louisiana if Gov. Bobby Jindal goes along with legislation unanimously passed by the House and Senate. House Bill 726 by Rep. Rickey Hardy, D-Lafayette, will make it a crime for a person to place a hangmans noose, or a picture of one, on another persons property or on public property with the intent to intimidate. Conviction could bring fines up to $5,000 and up to a year in prison. A 37-0 vote in the Senate late Monday, following a 97-0 House vote earlier in the legislative session, sent the measure to Jindal for his signature. His office did not immediately respond Tuesday to a request for comment on the bill, which is modeled after an existing law outlawing cross burning. There was little discussion in either chamber but Hardy, during a committee hearing on the bill in May, noted the nooses history as a symbol of racial lynchings. - The ...
List of 5 disease causes of Atlantoaxial instability causing neck stiffness and torticollis, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Atlantoaxial instability causing neck stiffness and torticollis.
S12.150K Other traumatic displaced spondylolisthesis of second cervical vertebra, subsequent encounter for fracture with nonunion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidence and prevalence of axial spondyloarthritis. T2 - Methodologic challenges and gaps in the literature. AU - Bohn, Rhonda. AU - Cooney, Maureen. AU - Deodhar, Atulya (Atul). AU - Curtis, Jeffrey R.. AU - Golembesky, Amanda. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Objective The incidence and prevalence of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic (nr-)axSpA, have been investigated in multiple populations, though there is a paucity of population-level data. Here, we identify population-based studies in AS and nr-axSpA, and describe the methodologic challenges in conducting these, outlining potential reasons for disparate incidence and prevalence estimates. Methods PubMed and Embase were searched for population-based studies providing incidence and prevalence rates, published in English from 1 Jan 2000-30 Jun 2015. Extracted information included incidence/prevalence rates, geographical population, study design, data source, case ...
In the present study, we investigated bone geometry, microstructure, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in a cohort of patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) in order to define the early bone changes occurring in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and to define potential factors for deterioration of bone microstructure. Patients with axSpA (n = 107) and healthy control subjects (n = 50) of similar age and sex were assessed for geometric, volumetric, and microstructural parameters of bone using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the radius. Additionally, demographic and disease-specific characteristics of patients with axSpA were recorded. Patients with nr-axSpA and control subjects were comparable in age, sex, and body mass index. Geometric and microstructural analysis by HR-pQCT revealed a significantly reduced cortical area (p = 0.022) and cortical thickness (p = 0.006) in patients with nr-axSpA compared with control subjects. Total
This is the first case report of a traumatic odontoid process synchondrosis fracture in a calf. Neurological examination was useful for early and correct neuroanatomical localisation. Radiography was easy to perform and allowed an initial diagnosis. MRI and CT examination (although performed post-mortem for scientific interest) were helpful for sub-classifying the fracture type, excluding additional (traumatic or congenital) cervical lesions and, potentially, allowing better planning of potential surgical interventions. However, as evident in our case, transportation to the advanced diagnostic imaging site incurred the risk of further displacement and neurological deterioration, suggesting that the benefits versus risks of any procedure and transport should be carefully considered.. So far, detailed classification systems of atlantoaxial fractures are lacking in veterinary medicine. In humans, several classification systems for odontoid process fractures have been established but are still a ...
Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis causes inflammation in the spine, which can lead to back pain. Learn what causes this type of arthritis, how its treated, and what to expect.
First randomized, controlled, Phase 3 study of an anti-TNF to enroll patients with active axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including patients with ankylosing sp
An expert in the management of axial spondyloarthritis explains how it differs from other rheumatologic conditions, highlights common comorbidities, and reacts to its overall burden on patients’ quality of life.
Learn more about axial spondyloarthritis, the burden for patients, how to identify the signs of the disease and the difference in how it affects men and women.
A post treatment MRI showed significantly less fluid accumulation on McMahons brain. McMahon commented that the procedure kept me from having bad pains and suicidal thoughts, and having me function fairly normally.. Following the chiropractic upper cervical spine adjustment, in July 2016, Jim McMahon was participating in the Tahoe South Celebrity-Am golf event when a Sacramento Bee sports reporter caught up with him for a story (6). The interview mentions that McMahon was one of the original plaintiffs in the concussion lawsuit that former players filed against the NFL. When questioned about his pain, fatigue, and brain function, McMahon replied:. Ive got my good days and bad. As long as I keep my neck and head in alignment, Im fairly normal.. The article notes that McMahon visits a chiropractor in New York every two or three months to keep everything lined up, stating:. It keeps the spinal fluid flowing properly. When it gets out of whack, all I want to do is lay down in a dark ...
Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation I: Moment Prediction for Evaluating Stability of the Upper Cervical Spine Fixed with Wires Using Finite Element Analysis
orthosis, 2 with a Minerva brace, and 1 with a halo. Two patients required cervical surgery; an occipital cervical fusion for a type 2 odontoid fracture and one atlantoaxial fusion for atlantoaxial instability was performed. At the follow up appointments, none of the patients were found to have delayed instability based on clinical examination, upright x-rays or flexion-extension x-rays. Conclusion: All isolated OCF are likely stable injuries. Our data suggests all isolated OCF may be treated conservatively with any type of cervical orthosis and minimal follow up. ...
The TMJ moves due to the contraction of the masseter, temporalis and pterygoid muscles. Their tone is controlled by the brain-stem housed by the ATLAS. TMJ is highly correlated to the upper cervical spine injury. The muscles of mastication are controlled by the fifth cranial nerve.
Saturday, Nov 30th - The TOP DRAWERS, DANNY ECHO, The SPEAKERPHONES, HANG-TEN HANGMEN & SEMI-TONE [email protected] The Fairview Pub, 898 West Broadway . Show 9pm / Cover $10 @ the door The 2nd Great Danes In Need benefit concert is taking place on Saturday, Novemeber 30th, 2013 at The Fairview Pub to raise money for the Great Dane rescue group New Hope For Danes, which provides care for abandoned, abused, neglected and stray Great Danes that need veterinarian attention in order to become healthy and adoptable. Great Danes are a very special breed of dog that exhibits boundless love and loyalty at a level few humans have ever experienced. A 170-pound black Great Dane in Chicago saved a 14 year old girl from being raped when he and his owner cornered and detained the assailant until police arrived. Two Great Danes alerted a new mother by barking and jumping into the family pool, where she found her baby face down with the Danes valiantly trying to push him to safety. A Great Dane in Missouri was given an award
ABSTRACT. Extradural vertebral artery dissection is a condition with a generally good prognosis if it is promptly recognized and treated. Diagnosis and consequently therapy delay may cause extensive ischemia with catastrophic consequences, due to embolism from the thrombus in the vessel wall or its extension. Considering these aspects and also its low incidence, the identification and treatment of this condition must be immediate, all the more, so as its onset is deceitful by occipital headache and neck pain. The association between vertebral artery dissection and dental procedures has been previously noticed. This paper aims to describe the etiopathogenesis and clinical recognition of dental chair vertebral artery dissection for a prompt neurosurgical intervention, in order to have a good prognosis. ...
Head pain at base of skull - Daily occipital headaches, pulse in head, pain at base of skull rt side, muffled hearing, dizzy looking. Causes Headaches. The cause of the headaches are variable. Inflammation if the occipital nerve, a pinched nerve in the cervical spine, TMJ disorder, and mastoiditis are leading contenders. See a headache expert to determine the type of headache and to develop a course of treatment.
As with the two above, Id be more worried about the neck, and more specifically damage to the vertebral artery. From that article: The typical presentation of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a young person with severe occipital headache and posterior nuchal pain following a recent, relatively minor, head or neck injury. The trauma is generally from a trivial mechanism but is associated with some degree of cervical distortion ...
A 43-year-old man presented with acute-onset hemianesthesia involving the right arm, the right leg, and the right side of the face. Six weeks earlier, he had a moderate occipital headache that lasted for 3 days. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a thalamic lesion of restricted diffusion on the left side (Panel A, arrow), which was consistent with acute posterior choroidal-artery infarction. T2-weighted MRI scans, a magnetic resonance angiogram, and a computed tomographic angiogram (Panels B, C, and D, respectively) revealed a dilatation of the left posterior cerebral artery, with a double lumen - that is, a true circulating lumen (Panels B, C, and D, lower arrows) and a false noncirculating lumen (Panels B, C, and D, upper arrows), divided by an intimal flap (Panel B, arrowheads), suggesting a dissecting aneurysm. Angiography confirmed an aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery (Panel E, arrows). The patient reported no specific risk factor (e.g., trauma) ...
A 43-year-old man presented with acute-onset hemianesthesia involving the right arm, the right leg, and the right side of the face. Six weeks earlier, he had a moderate occipital headache that lasted for 3 days. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a thalamic lesion of restricted diffusion on the left side (Panel A, arrow), which was consistent with acute posterior choroidal-artery infarction. T2-weighted MRI scans, a magnetic resonance angiogram, and a computed tomographic angiogram (Panels B, C, and D, respectively) revealed a dilatation of the left posterior cerebral artery, with a double lumen - that is, a true circulating lumen (Panels B, C, and D, lower arrows) and a false noncirculating lumen (Panels B, C, and D, upper arrows), divided by an intimal flap (Panel B, arrowheads), suggesting a dissecting aneurysm. Angiography confirmed an aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery (Panel E, arrows). The patient reported no specific risk factor (e.g., trauma) ...
NTOS is induced by compression of the BP in any of 3 parts of the superior thoracic outlet: the interscalene triangle, costoclavicular space, or retropectoralis minor space.7 Paresthesia is the most common symptom,3 mostly evident in the ring and little finger.5,7 Pain is usually distributed in the shoulder region and radiates along the inner aspect of the arm. In severe cases, there may be atrophy of the thenar eminence, ulnar intrinsic hand musculature, and forearm muscles.10 Patients may present with symptoms of upper plexus compression (C5-C7), like pain on the ipsilateral aspect of the neck or mastoid area or even occipital headaches.6,7 Pain may also radiate to the deltoid region, trapezius, and the rhomboid muscles; the upper pectoral region; and down the lateral aspect of the arm. In most cases, however, patients present with involvement of the lower plexus (C8-T1). Symptoms are usually aggravated by continuous elevation of the arm.5,7,13 However, because 99% of patients with NTOS lack ...
Non-radiographic axial Spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) is an autoimmune disease which causes arthritis in the spine and pelvis. While non-radiographic axial Spondyloarthritis is a very complicated name, it can be understood as: Non-radiographic: the inflammation will not show up on an x-ray (radiograph) but may show up on an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan. Axial: it mainly affects the spine (rather than arms or legs). Spondyloarthritis: arthritis that affects the joints as well as sites where ligaments and tendons join the bone.. For more information, download the information sheet Non-radiographic axial Spondyloarthritis ...
Male and female patients with axial spondyloarthritis experience the disease differently, researchers say. In a cross-sectional study of 466 patients from the ongoing observational Groningen Leeuwarden Axial Spondyloarthritis cohort patient reported measures of disease activity, physical function and quality of life were significantly worse for females. Writing in Rheumatology the researchers said the gender differences could […]
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Overweight and obesity in axial spondyloarthritis is common and has a negative impact on disease activity, registry data shows. Lead author and rheumatology registrar Gillian Fitzgerald, from the St Jamess hospital in Dublin, Ireland, told ACR 2017 delegates there was a general perception that people with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) had a normal BMI. But her […]
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
/PRNewswire/ -- Abbott (NYSE: ABT) today announced that the European Commission (EC) has approved HUMIRA® (adalimumab) for the treatment of adults with severe...
A prosthetic replacement for a posterior element of a vertebra comprising portions that replace the natural lamina and the four natural facets. The prosthetic replacement may also include portions that replace one or more of the natural spinous process and the two natural transverse processes. If desired, the prosthesis replacement may also replace the natural pedicles. A method for replacing a posterior element of a vertebra is also provided.
A prosthetic replacement for a posterior element of a vertebra comprising portions that replace the natural lamina and the four natural facets. The prosthetic replacement may also include portions that replace one or more of the natural spinous process and the two natural transverse processes. If desired, the prosthesis replacement may also replace the natural pedicles. A method for replacing a posterior element of a vertebra is also provided.
The obliquus capitis inferior is a fleshy, thick muscle located in the neck. It is the bigger and longer of the two oblique muscles in the neck. This muscle originates from the outer part of the spinous process of the second cervical vertebra, also called the axis.
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In the 0- to 8-year-old age group in whom the incidence of cervical spine injury is rare but frequently involves the upper cervical spine, the transoral odontoid roentgenogram may be of little value in the evaluation of the spine and should not be considered necessary in clearing the pediatric cer …
HENRIQUES Thomas , CUNNINGHAM Bryan W. , OLERUD Claes , SHIMAMOTO Norimichi , LEE Guy A. , LARSSON Sune , MCAFEE Paul A. Spine 25(22), 2877-2883, 2000-11-15 DOI 参考文献31件 被引用文献20件 ...
Heres the set-up, such as it is: The couldnt-be-more-British Berry - a whiskey-loving scoundrel with a rapist wit (no, really) and a silky smooth baritone vox - is employed as High Executioner to the King of England. He also may or may not be a direct descendant of Jack the Ripper. Fulcher - a moon-faced, socially awkward American with poor hand-eye coordination and a penchant for profoundly inappropriate bursts of surreal profanity - has somehow weaseled his way into a position as Berrys assistant, not to mention adjunct membership in the posh Hangman Gentlemans Club where much of the series takes place ...
These terms are not used to form the fixed axes. Terms include: *Axial (from Latin axis 'axle'): around the central axis of the ... Axes[edit]. Organisms where the ends of the long axis are distinct. (Paramecium caudatum, above, and Stentor roeselii, below.) ... rather than a central axis as in vertebrates. Thus, there are multiple possible radial axes and medio-peripheral (half-) axes. ... An indefinite number of triads of mutually perpendicular axes could be defined, but any such choice of axes would be useless, ...
Japan and the Axis[edit]. Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1933, bringing it closer to Nazi Germany, which also ... Baskett, Michael (2009). "All Beautiful Fascists?: Axis Film Culture in Imperial Japan" in The Culture of Japanese Fascism, ed ... In 1940, the three countries formed the Axis powers, and became closer linked. Japan imported Nazi propaganda films such as Ohm ... Baskett, Michael (2009). "All Beautiful Fascists?: Axis Film Culture in Imperial Japan". In Tansman, Alan. The Culture of ...
Axis specifiers[edit]. Axis specifiers indicate navigation direction within the tree representation of the XML document. The ... More complex expressions can be constructed by specifying an axis other than the default 'child' axis, a node test other than a ... Here, in each step of the XPath, the axis (e.g. child. or descendant-or-self. ) is explicitly specified, followed by ::. and ... As an example of using the attribute axis in abbreviated syntax, //a/@href. selects the attribute called href. in a. elements ...
Axes[edit]. Organisms where the ends of the long axis are distinct. (Paramecium caudatum, above, and Stentor roeselii, below.) ... rather than a central axis as in vertebrates. Thus, there are multiple possible radial axes and medio-peripheral (half-) axes. ... Defined axes in vertebrate zoology Axis Directional term Directed towards Anteroposterior Anterior *Belly in orthograde bipeds ... These terms are not used to form the fixed axes. Terms include: *Axial (from Latin axis, meaning 'axle'): around the central ...
Thyroid hormone axis. Bisphenol A affects gene expression related to the thyroid hormone axis, which affects biological ... By affecting the thyroid hormone axis, BPA exposure can lead to hypothyroidism.[9] ...
Bulgaria's involvement on the Axis' side[edit]. In March 1941, the German Army asked permission to move its troops through ... including negotiations in Cairo, to bring about Bulgaria's withdrawal from the Axis. ... the Bulgarian government announced that it was withdrawing unilaterally from the Axis, withdrew its troops from Greece and ... Bulgaria permitted the Germans to pass through its territory and joined the Axis powers. ...
Dorsoventral axis[edit]. The ventral half of the neural plate is controlled by the notochord, which acts as the 'organiser'. ... The neural groove forms along the long axis of the neural plate, and the neural plate folds to give rise to the neural tube.[5] ... Rostrocaudal (Anteroposterior) axis[edit]. Signals that control anteroposterior neural development include FGF and retinoic ... Many neurons migrating along the anterior-posterior axis of the body use existing axon tracts to migrate along; this is called ...
See also: Cham Albanian collaboration with the Axis. During the Axis occupation, a number of Cham Albanians set up their own ... The most significant support of Germany came from the European Axis powers of the Balkans.[citation needed] Albania, being an ... Most Chetniks in Yugoslavia collaborated with the Axis occupation to one degree or another in order to fight the rival Partisan ... The Kingdom of Iraq was briefly an ally of the Axis, fighting the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Iraqi War of May 1941. ...
Germans and Axis[edit]. *Curd Jürgens as Maximilian Baron von Richter. *Hein Riess as Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, the ...
Stalin's Falsifiers of History and Axis negotiations[edit]. In response to the publication of the secret protocols and other ... On 7 September, Romania ceded Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria (Axis-sponsored Treaty of Craiova).[179] After various events in ... Main article: German-Soviet Axis talks. After Germany entered a Tripartite Pact with Japan and Italy, Ribbentrop wrote to ... Stalin sent Molotov to Berlin to negotiate the terms for the Soviet Union to join the Axis and potentially enjoy the spoils of ...
3-dimensional / 3+ Axis plasma cutting[edit]. Once again, a process for producing flat profiles from sheet or plate metal, ... 2-dimensional / 2-axis plasma cutting[edit]. This is the most common and conventional form of CNC Plasma Cutting. Producing ... Modern CNC plasma equipment is capable of multi-axis cutting of thick material, allowing opportunities for complex welding ... however with the introduction of an additional axis of rotation, the cutting head of a CNC plasma cutting machine can tilt ...
3.3 Notable Axis Interments from the Battle of Britain (1940). *3.4 Other notable military and uniformed services casualties ... In 1959, Axis casualties who were not buried in either military cemeteries or in Commonwealth War Grave Commission plots were ... and form part of a very small group of Axis casualties that are still to be found in their original World War II era plots in ... moved to Cannock Chase German war cemetery in Staffordshire to be reinterred with other Axis casualties.[52] The crew of 3495 ...
Axis[edit]. Most tests for neglect look for rightward or leftward errors. But patients may also neglect stimuli on one side of ... In the SE-NW configuration, the gap in the triangle fell on the allocentric left of the object-centered axis.[21] Furthermore, ... In the SW-NE array, the gap in the triangle fell on the allocentric right of the object-centered axis along which the triangle ... Despite such limitations, we may loosely describe unilateral neglect with four overlapping variables: type, range, axis, and ...
axis. The magnetic moment is therefore μ. =. −. Z. e. 2. B. 4. m. ⟨. ρ. 2. ⟩. .. {\displaystyle \mu =-{\frac {Ze^{2}B}{4m}}\ ... axis. The average loop area can be given as π. ⟨. ρ. 2. ⟩. {\displaystyle \scriptstyle \pi \left\langle \rho ^{2}\right\rangle ...
The chital (/tʃiːtəl/[2]) or cheetal (Axis axis), also known as spotted deer or axis deer, is a species of deer that is native ... Sri Lankan axis deer. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Duckworth, J.W.; Kumar, N.S.; Anwarul Islam, M.; Sagar Baral, H ... The scientific name of the chital is Axis axis. "Axis" has several possible origins: the Greek axōn, the Lithuanian ašis, or ... "Axis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 10 March 2016.. *^ a b c d e f g h Schmidly, D.J. (2004). The Mammals of Texas ( ...
axis. , bgcolor. , scope. , height. , nowrap. , valign. , width. [3]. th. ,th,...,/th,. defines a table header; styled as ...
Such complexes distort along one of the molecular fourfold axes (always labelled the z axis), which has the effect of removing ... The distortion normally takes the form of elongating the bonds to the ligands lying along the z axis, but occasionally occurs ... axis. Moreover, many of these compounds show complex phase diagrams when varying temperature or pressure. ... Finally, a somewhat special role is played by systems with a fivefold symmetry axis like the cyclopentadienyl radical. Careful ...
Axis. *Hlinka Guard *Emergency Divisions. *Government Army (Disputed). *Slovak Air Force. *Slovak Army ...
It has been argued that the granting of rights to women played an important role in the radical shift Japan underwent from a war nation to a democratized and demilitarized country.[85] In the first postwar general elections of 1946, over a third of the votes were cast by women. This unexpectedly high female voter turnout led to the election of 39 female candidates, and the increasing presence of women in politics was perceived by Americans as evidence of an improvement of Japanese women's condition.[86] American feminists saw Japanese women as victims of feudalistic and chauvinistic traditions that had to be broken by the Occupation. American women assumed a central role in the reforms that affected the lives of Japanese women: they educated Japanese about Western ideals of democracy, and it was an American woman, Beate Sirota, who wrote the articles guaranteeing equality between men and women for the new constitution.[87] General Douglas MacArthur did not mean for Japanese women to give up ...
Apache Axis Committee *Axis: open source, XML based Web service framework. *Axis2: Apache Axis2 is a service hosting and ...
Axis. *Hlinka Guard *Emergency Divisions. *Government Army (Disputed). *Slovak Air Force. *Slovak Army ...
Axis. *Italian protectorate of Albania (1939-1943). *Bulgaria. *Wang Jingwei regime. *Croatia ...
axis by δ. x. {\displaystyle \delta x}. due to thermal fluctuations, it will be subjected to a restoring force F. χ. {\ ... With the help of interpolation, the resolution can reach precision of up 10 nm along this axis.[6] The obtained coordinates may ... Torques on the magnetic beads may be exerted by turning the magnets around the vertical axis to change the direction of the ... For the position along the vertical axis, the diffraction pattern needs to be compared to reference images, which show the ...
HPA axis. Main article Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis The anterior pituitary plays a role in stress response. ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-somatic axis. References[edit]. *^ a b Eroschenko, Victor P.; Fiore, Mariano S. H. di (2013-01-01). ... Operating through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), the anterior pituitary gland has a large role in the ... Operating through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the anterior pituitary gland also affects the reproductive system. ...
... the sefirot are depicted as lying across three parallel vertical axes. ...
"Axis History.. *^ Williams, Beryl, The Russian Revolution 1917-1921, Blackwell Publishing (1987), ISBN 978-0-631-15083-1, ISBN ...
A recurrent theme in Eliade's myth analysis is the axis mundi, the Center of the World. According to Eliade, the Cosmic Center ... or some other form of the axis mundi.[146] Often, the shaman will ascend to heaven to speak with the High God. Because the gods ... which increased as Romania and her Axis allies suffered major defeats on the Eastern Front.[26][67] Contemplating a return to ... usually imitate the mythical image of the axis mundi joining the different cosmic levels. For instance, the Babylonian ...
X-axis: phenotypic trait. Y-axis: number of organisms. Group A: original population. Group B: after selection ...
Third Axis. Fourth Ally. Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941-1945, p. 29 Third Axis. Fourth Ally. Romanian Armed ... 30 and 75 Third Axis. Fourth Ally. Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941-1945, p. 29 Third Axis. Fourth Ally. ... Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941-1945, p. 75 Third Axis. Fourth Ally. Romanian Armed Forces in the European War ... 1941-1945, p. 75 Third Axis. Fourth Ally. Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941-1945, p. 30 Third Axis. Fourth Ally. ...
An expanded Croatia was recognized by the Axis as the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH). On paper, ... Massive anti-Axis demonstrations followed in Belgrade. On 27 March, the regime of Prince Paul was overthrown by a military coup ... In April 1941, the country was occupied and partitioned by the Axis powers. A royal government-in-exile, recognized by the ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was soon divided by the Axis into several entities. Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria annexed ...
... axis vertebra, axis of rotation. What are synonyms for C2? ... 8 synonyms for axis: pivot, shaft, axle, spindle, centre line, ... axis. (redirected from C2). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. #vtZoom,. ... Words related to axis. a straight line through a body or figure that satisfies certain conditions. Related Words. *coordinate ... axis,type:0,children:[{name:pivot,type:2},{name:shaft,type:2},{name:axle,type:2},{name:spindle,type ...
Blood Axis is a controversial music group founded by Michael Moynihan in 1989. Blood Axis have been depicted as fascists, and ... I plan on totally revising this article so that it retains those aspects of Blood Axis that have raised the ire of specific ... Musically, Blood Axiss amalgamation of classical music, folk and industrial owes a debt to Boyd Rice, Wagner and Prokiev. ... It is merely an overview of Blood Axis and their significance to the traditional folk music scene. ...
HPA axis). That term has been expanded to include the role of the gut flora as part of the "microbiome-gut-brain axis", a ... including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous ... As of October 2016, most of the work that had been done on the role of gut flora in the gut-brain axis had been conducted in ... That said, most of the work that has been done on the role of gut flora in the gut-brain axis has been conducted in animals, ...
Axis (es); Axis (cs); Axis (hu); Axis (ru); Axis (género) (la); Axis (ca); Axis (suku) (fi); Axis (ast); آکسیس (azb); Axis (ceb ... Axis (uk); Axis (nl); Aksis (pl); kaxtanoleem (avk); Axis (cerf) (fr); 액시스사슴속 (ko); Axis (en); Axis (ga); Axis (br); Axis (vi) ... Axishirsche (de); Axis (pt); Axis (sq); Axis (sv); Читали (bg); Axis (it); Axis (ro); Axis (az); Axis (ia); Svinehjorter (nb); ... Axis (genero) (es); Axis oxi (avk); Axis (Cerf) (fr); Aksishirvet, Aksiskauriit (fi); Axis (bg) ...
The Elemental Horses - Axis Mundi By Diana Huang Paperback: List Price: $17.50 $12.25 , You Save: 30% ... The Advent of Dionysus: The Axis Mundi By Dennis Hamilton Paperback: List Price: $20.28 $14.20 , You Save: 30% ... The Mythology of the World Axis; Exploring the Role of Plasma in World Mythology By Marinus Anthony Van der Sluijs Paperback: $ ... The World Axis as an Atmospheric Phenomenon By Marinus Anthony Van der Sluijs Paperback: $6.30 ...
The Earths axis of rotation is the line between the North and South geographic Poles, which precesses (see CHANDLER WOBBLE). ... Source for information on axis of rotation: A Dictionary of Earth Sciences dictionary. ... axis of rotation The line about which rotation occurs. ... axis of rotation A Dictionary of Earth Sciences © A Dictionary ... axis of rotation The line about which rotation occurs. The Earths axis of rotation is the line between the North and South ...
Learn about the three axes of rotation and the various types of movements that occur at different types of joints. ... If youre having trouble understanding the concept of the axis of rotation, here is a great primer on this somewhat complex ... the anterior-posterior axis, the mediolateral axis, and the longitudinal axis. Joints rotate in these axes, allowing movement ... Anterior-posterior Axis also known as the Sagittal Axis or Anteroposterior Axis. Imagine a pin that inserts through a joint ...
... by Discordance Axis. Released on Hydra Head Records. One of the best grindcore albums out there. Its 24 minutes ... ... Mix - Discordance Axis - The Inalienable Dreamless (FULL)YouTube. * Discordance Axis ‎- Jouhou FULL ALBUM (1997 - Grindcore) - ... Discordance Axis ‎- Ulterior FULL ALBUM (1995 - Grindcore) - Duration: 17:43. Grind n Gore 23,407 views ... DISCORDANCE AXIS - 6/04/00 @ CBGBs, New York City, NY - Duration: 25:43. KILLTHATCATarchives 7,309 views ...
AXIS Mexico (Est. 2010) and AXIS India (Headquarters, Est. 2004). AXIS USA offers the conveniences of a purpose-built 120,000 ... About AXIS Clinicals AXIS Clinicals USA, a full-service Contract Research Organization (CRO), is joined by other global sites, ... AXIS has completed 19 successful FDA inspections at our Hyderabad, India and Dilworth, MN sites for USFDA submission studies, ... The most recent audit focused on Dermatology which has been a business focus for AXIS since our inception and we have invested ...
... axis- X-Axis - Sagittal or (anterioposterior) axis- Z-Axis - Longitudinal axis- Y-Axis Movement, both whole body and segmental ... Anatomical Reference Axes(Axes is plural for axis)• An imaginary axis of rotation that passes through a joint to which it is ... Summary ofPlanes & Axes * 29. The cardinal axes lie at the Y Axisintersection of the cardinalplanes. Center of Gravity X Axis Z ... themovement takes place.Axis is the singular and axes are the plural noun.Any movement occurs in a plane around an axis.Axis of ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
... Profile , portfolio , Jessica Kinnis Photos Report this image. Email to a friend. Add to list. ...
The axes of the quadrupole and the octupole lie in the same plane, he says, which is perpendicular to the direction of the ... Dubbed the "axis of evil" by cosmologist João Magueijo of Imperial College London, the pattern appears in the map of the ... "The big surprise is they are aligned - along the axis of evil." ... Axis of evil warps cosmic background. Space 22 October 2005 By ...
The consistent failure by the Office of Fair Trading to impose stricter controls on a clutch of troublesome service industries was highlighted last week by news that the funerals ombudsman service had been quietly axed at the end of September.
Axis Traction with Ordinary Forceps. Br Med J 1898; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.1982.1869 (Published 24 December 1898) ...
Next week I promised to start going into more detail, when we start talking about early fly development and axis decisions. The ...
www.dovepress.com/psychobiotics-and-the-gutndashbrain-axis-in-the-pursuit-of-happiness-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-NDT ... forming in turn the gut-brain interaction called the gut-brain axis. This has given rise to the term psychobiotic, which ...
Source a Large Selection of Axis Camera Products at 3 axis gimbal ,6 axis robot ,5 axis cnc machine from China Alibaba.com ... China Axis Camera, China Axis Camera Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - ... Related Searches for axis camera: 3 axis gimbal 6 axis robot 5 axis cnc machine cnc 5 axis axis ip camera cctv security camera ... A wide variety of axis camera options are available to you, such as paid samples, free samples. There are 18,586 axis camera ...
China Joins the Axis of Evil Pyongyangs nuclear program would have been impossible without Beijing.. ...
... cooperate to prevent rotational movement of the tool support member relative to the base along any of the three rotational axes ... and three of which are rotational axes. The three linear axis are commonly known as the x-axis, y-axis and z-axis. An objects ... referred to as the a-axis, b-axis and c-axis. The rotational axes sometimes also are known as roll, pitch and yaw. ... The axis 28 of each linkage 20, 22 and 24 is oriented differently. In the embodiment of FIG. 1, the three axes 28 generally ...
Cerebrospinal axis definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... The formation of the cerebrospinal axis of the Chordata from the medullary plate has already been treated at length (pp. 301- ...
The enormous tsunami-spawning earthquake off Japan last week not only shifted the planets axis by several inches, it also sped ... Theyre in constant motion, so the figure axis is constantly responding to that. So over the course of a year, the figure axis ... My calculations are a bit differenttheir latest calculation is 25 centimeters for the shift in the figure axis [the axis about ... This earthquake mustve moved the mass on average a bit closer to the Earths rotation axis to make the Earth rotate faster and ...
This is also known as the gut-brain axis. ... Gut-Brain Axis and Neurodegenerative Disorders. *Gut-Brain Axis ... Lyte M. Microbial Endocrinology and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. In: Lyte M, Cryan JF, editors. Microbial Endocrinology: The ... through the neuroanatomical pathway of the gut-brain axis), but also through the immune system, endocrine system and metabolic ... Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. Springer, 2014; pp. 3-24. ...
Axis Mundi at Musicians Friend. Get a low price and free shipping on thousands of items. ... Alliance Decrepit Birth - Axis Mundi. Release Date:07/21/2017;Notes:Limited edition blue and yellow colored vinyl LP pressing. ... Alliance Decrepit Birth - Axis Mundi. Skip to main content Skip to footer /*#janrain-paypal { display:none; }*/ # ... Axis Mundi was recorded at 3 different studios over the course of a year. The clarity, the power, the musicianship, and the ...
The Axis high-performance video encoder solution from AXIS Communications is ideal for demanding locations such as airports, ... Axis introduces AXIS Camera Companion, an entry-level IP solution for easy-to-use video surveillance Axis Communications ... Axis introduces AXIS Camera Companion, an entry-level IP solution for easy-to-use video surveillance Axis Communications ... AXIS Q61 Series with Axis Sharpdome and Speed Dry technology Axis Communications ...
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The Lateral Axis Wind Turbine. Sri Lankan inventor Leelananda Jayasuriya just sent us this concept for a Lateral Axis Wind ... Vertical Axis Windmill Invention. Posted in Energy Inventions , Wind Turbines. Toronto Inventor Tom J. Gilmour recently ... Endorsement of vertical axis models - now if you take these turbines and rotate them 90 degrees and then stick them on rooftops ... The vertical axis turbine could surely be made simpler, fairly flat design with many blades, plus a clever cowling device to ...
... slender extradural neural axis compartment (EDNAC), which extends from the coccyx to the orbit, has been not so much discovered ... Extradural neural axis compartment J Neurosurg. 2000 Apr;92(4):585-8. doi: 10.3171/jns.2000.92.4.0585. ... The lengthy, continuous, slender extradural neural axis compartment (EDNAC), which extends from the coccyx to the orbit, has ...
Get the detailed quarterly/annual income statement for Silverlake Axis (5CP.SI). Find out the revenue, expenses and profit or ...
This MATLAB function creates a 3-by-3 matrix used to rotated a 3-by-1 vector or 3-by-N matrix of vectors around the z-axis by ... Counterclockwise rotation around x-axis. R. x. (. α. ). =. [. 1. 0. 0. 0. cos. α. −. sin. α. 0. sin. α. cos. α. ]. ... Counterclockwise rotation around y-axis. R. y. (. β. ). =. [. cos. β. 0. sin. β. 0. 1. 0. −. sin. β. 0. cos. β. ]. ... Counterclockwise rotation around z-axis. R. z. (. γ. ). =. [. cos. γ. −. sin. γ. 0. sin. γ. cos. γ. 0. 0. 0. 1. ]. ...
  • Joints rotate in these axes, allowing movement to occur in the planes. (acefitness.org)
  • Some only rotate in one axis, while others rotate in multiple axes. (acefitness.org)
  • Uniaxial or uniplanar joints (also called hinge joints) rotate in one axis, allowing movement in one plane. (acefitness.org)
  • Biaxial or biplanar joints rotate in two axes, allowing movement in two planes. (acefitness.org)
  • Multiplanar or triaxial joints rotate in all three axes allowing movement in all three planes. (acefitness.org)
  • This earthquake must've moved the mass on average a bit closer to the Earth's rotation axis to make the Earth rotate faster and the length of the day a bit smaller. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Hi there, in my project i want to rotate around a local-axis. (gamedev.net)
  • To rotate around an "arbitrary" axis you can use the axis/angle representation of rotations. (gamedev.net)
  • The axis, also known as the C2 bone , creates a pivot that allows the C1, or atlas, to rotate. (healthline.com)
  • I like to create a airplane simulation demo to test my engine, but I have some problems to rotate the model (yaw, roll, pitch), how I calculate the yaw, roll and pitch, or how can I rotate the axis? (gamedev.net)
  • The encoder housing is configured to rotate about a second axis with respect to the encoder shaft, which is rigidly coupled to the body. (google.es)
  • The linkages cooperate to prevent rotational movement of the tool support member relative to the base along any of the three rotational axes. (google.com)
  • How do earthquakes change the Earth's rotational speed and axis? (popularmechanics.com)
  • The shift in the planet's axis and rotational speed that you've calculated for the Japan earthquake is different than for other huge quakes, like last year's in Chile and the 2004 Sumatran quake that spawned the enormous tsunami in South Asia. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expressions for the kinetic energy of the object, and for the forces on the parts of the object, are also simpler for rotation around a fixed axis, than for general rotational motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • rotational motion around a single axis even has a work-energy theorem analogous to that of particle dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enormous tsunami-spawning earthquake off Japan Friday not only shifted the planet's axis by several inches, it also sped up the Earth's rotation, shortening each day by 1.8 microseconds. (popularmechanics.com)
  • My calculations are a bit differenttheir latest calculation is 25 centimeters for the shift in the figure axis [the axis about which the Earth's mass is balanced], and my calculation is like 17 cm. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Anything that rearranges the Earth's mass changes the position of the figure axis. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Orbit: Earth's Extraordinary Journey: Can an earthquake shift the Earth's axis? (bbc.co.uk)
  • Almost all authorities are as one, therefore, in concluding that only a powerful external agent could have altered the inclination of the Earth's axis. (blavatsky.net)
  • Among the terrestrial effects listed by almost every investigator of a theoretical near-collision has been a shift in the inclination of Earth's axis. (blavatsky.net)
  • On July 18, 2017, Security researchers published that Axis cameras have a bug that allows any attacker to take full control of the cameras. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because MEC projects preferentially to the proximal part of the CA1, bordering CA2, whereas LEC innervates only the distal part, bordering subiculum, we asked if spatial tuning is graded along the transverse axis of CA1. (nih.gov)
  • 2000 release of "The Inalienable Dreamless" by Discordance Axis. (youtube.com)
  • All rights go to Discordance Axis and Hydra Head Records. (youtube.com)
  • Discordance Axis was a grindcore band from East Brunswick, New Jersey. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frontman Jon Chang on the history of the band: "Discordance Axis was a three piece grind core band that started in NJ around 1992. (wikipedia.org)
  • There's a much more detailed band history in the Original Sound Version and Jouhou reissue CD's that Hydrahead released, but in brief, Discordance Axis started in 1992 and broke up in 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a toric lens, the cylinder axis is the axis of the equivalent cylindrical surface that has been combined with a sphere to make the toric surface. (photonics.com)
  • To help the surgeon choose the correct intraocular lens (IOL) power and then align the toric lens with the proper axis, two systems on the market use intraoperative aberrometry. (aao.org)
  • Cultural anthropologists often use the term 'axis mundi' in a looser sense than the strict astronomical one. (lulu.com)
  • By contrast, the mythological phenomenon loosely identified as the axis mundi dates back to the earliest stages of civilisation and is described by the most diverse cultures in remarkably similar terms. (lulu.com)
  • Axis Mundi was recorded at 3 different studios over the course of a year. (musiciansfriend.com)
  • A three-axis accelerometer signal is used in a medical device for detecting that a patient has fallen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We are no longer carrying this Triple-Axis Accelerometer in our catalog. (sparkfun.com)
  • The MMA7361LR1 is a low power, three-axis analog MEMS accelerometer. (sparkfun.com)
  • The gut-brain axis, a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system, is important for maintaining homeostasis and is regulated through the central and enteric nervous systems and the neural, endocrine, immune, and metabolic pathways, and especially including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Common causes of left axis deviation include an old or recent myocardial infarction, paced rhythms, emphysema, hyperkalemia, and right-sided accessory pathways, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, among other causes, according to ECG Library. (reference.com)
  • However, there is considerable controversy over the magnitude as well as the sites, pathways, and molecular mechanisms within the gut/brain axis that are responsible for these alterations. (jci.org)
  • The HPA , HPG, and HPT axes are three pathways in which the hypothalamus and pituitary direct neuroendocrine function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. (news-medical.net)
  • This collection brings together research published in BioMed Central journals into all aspects of the gut-brain axis and its role in health and disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As of October 2016, most of the work that had been done on the role of gut flora in the gut-brain axis had been conducted in animals, or on characterizing the various neuroactive compounds that gut flora can produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Canon's portfolio of network video solutions is marketed by Axis Communications in the EMEA region and in North America since September 1, 2016 and October 1, 2016 respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • On February 1, 2016 Axis Communications acquired Citilog, a video analytics provider for traffic and transportation security and safety applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 30, 2016 Axis Communications acquired 2N, a provider of IP intercom solutions based in the Czech Republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • On June 3, 2016 Axis Communications acquired Cognimatics, a video analytics provider for retail applications such as people counting, queue measurement and occupancy estimation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steve LeVine Entertainment & Public Relations (SLE), Disco Donnie Presents (DDP), and Evening Entertainment Group (EEG) bring electro producer and DJ Felix Cartal to Axis Radius for REPUBLIC on Saturday, January 26, located at 7340 E. Indian Plaza Scottsdale, Ariz. Doors open at 9 p.m. and the event is 21 years and over. (arizonafoothillsmagazine.com)
  • For skybox, limo, bottle/table reservations please call Axis Radius 480-208-4824. (arizonafoothillsmagazine.com)
  • Then the radius vectors from the axis to all particles undergo the same angular displacement at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Euclidean space, there are three basic rotations: one each around the x, y and z axes. (mathworks.com)
  • If two rotations are forced at the same time, a new axis of rotation will appear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood Axis is a controversial music group founded by Michael Moynihan in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axis Communications was founded in 1984 by Martin Gren, Mikael Karlsson and Keith Bloodworth in Lund, Sweden. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3- Identify cardinal and parallel planes and axes where body movements take place. (slideshare.net)
  • The simulation shows that the angular momentum vector L is not aligned with the the angular velocity vector unless the box is rotating about an axis parallel to a box edge. (compadre.org)
  • Additional windows display the frame-dependent tensor algebra in an inertial reference frame fixed in space and in a non-inertial reference frame attached to the rotating box with a rotation axis parallel to a box edge. (compadre.org)
  • This was followed in 1999 by the AXIS 2100 which was the first volume product using an embedded Linux. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, Axis Communications announced together with Bosch and Sony that the companies will cooperate in order to standardize the interface of network video products and form a new industry standards body called ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Axis Communications introduced its first product with ONVIF support in 2009, the AXIS P3301. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, I want the major ticks of the secondary Y-Axes snamp to the major grid lines of the primary Y-Axis. (eclipse.org)
  • Alternatively, is it be possible to synchronize the major ticks (and with that also the major grid lines) of secondary Y-Axes? (eclipse.org)
  • and I can see that the "rects" for all my "hidden" ticks are always with left=right=start of axis. (github.com)
  • The Brain-Gut axis describes a network of neurons that connect the human enteric nervous system (ENS) with the central nervous system (CNS). (psychcentral.com)
  • There is a bidirectional relation between the central nervous system and the digestive tract, i.e., the brain-gut axis. (ei-resource.org)
  • Numerous data argue for a dysfunction of the brain-gut axis in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). (ei-resource.org)
  • Visceral hypersensitivity is a marker of IBS as well as of an abnormality of the brain-gut axis. (ei-resource.org)
  • Disturbances of the autonomic nervous system are observed in IBS as a consequence of brain-gut axis dysfunction. (ei-resource.org)
  • The better knowledge of brain-gut axis dysfunction has therapeutic implications, either through drugs and/or cognitive and behavioral therapies. (ei-resource.org)
  • This interaction, termed the gut-brain axis (also known as the brain-gut axis), is thought to be involved in many regular functions and systems within the healthy body, in addition to the pathogenesis of many diseases from neurological and degenerative conditions to autoimmune diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Probiotics have spurred many hopes and promises as a result of their interactions with the Brain-Gut Axis. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Discover the history of the Brain-Gut Axis research, from the early pioneers and in vivo ​ mechanistic studies to the most recent clinical trials. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Reassessing the Nomenclature of HPA Axis Dysfunction. (zrtlab.com)
  • Collectively, the endothelins and their receptors--referred to as the endothelin (ET) axis--have key physiological functions in normal tissue, acting as modulators of vasomotor tone, tissue differentiation, development, cell proliferation and hormone production. (nih.gov)
  • the Axis Powers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Even before the Tripartite Pact, two of the three Axis powers had initiated conflicts that would become theaters of war in World War II. (ushmm.org)
  • In order to secure raw materials, transit rights for German troops, and troop contributions for the invasion from sympathetic powers, Germany began to cajole and pressure the southeast European states to join the Axis. (ushmm.org)
  • Seventeen centimeters is still quite a bit more than a few of the previous quakes: You calculated 7 cm in the planet's axis shift for the 2004 9.1 Sumatran earthquake, and about 8 cm for Chile's 8.8 magnitude quake last year. (popularmechanics.com)
  • When the evidence on the ground is coupled with the rapid freezing described in the last letter then it is clear that the evidence shows there has been a shift in the axis of the earth. (blavatsky.net)
  • It must be something capable of causing an axis shift. (blavatsky.net)
  • 2. It adds reasonableness to the numerous references to axis shift in the SD. (blavatsky.net)
  • But suppose we first consider some aspects of an axis shift. (blavatsky.net)
  • According to traditional theory a shift in the axis is not possible. (blavatsky.net)
  • Learn how to implement cost effective automated part loading and unloading of complex 5 axis parts. (makino.com)
  • The same law that makes a gyroscope behave like a gyroscope makes the earth retain its angular momentum and acts against a tilt in the axis. (blavatsky.net)
  • The Rotation About a Fixed Axis example computes the angular momentum of a rigid rectangular box attached to a rotating axle. (compadre.org)
  • The following method actually rotates around the global equivalent of the chosen local axis. (gamedev.net)
  • A measurement device is coupled to the encoder housing such that the measurement device rotates about a second axis with respect to the probe. (google.es)
  • This means that both imaginary components-the plane and the axis-intersect to create a right (90°) angle. (acefitness.org)
  • The rotation angle is positive if the rotation is in the counter-clockwise direction when viewed by an observer looking along the z-axis towards the origin. (mathworks.com)
  • The rotation angle is defined to be positive for a rotation that is counterclockwise when viewed by an observer looking along the rotation axis towards the origin. (mathworks.com)
  • You can pick out which axis you want and use it furthur for the axis/angle rotation. (gamedev.net)
  • 1 Not only that, but the axis of residual astigmatism is at a different angle, often oblique. (aao.org)
  • For a mathematical context, see Axis-angle representation . (wikipedia.org)
  • An improved multi-axis gas bearing stage assembly is disclosed which has a base, an intermediate stage element, a stage, and a control system for controlling the movement of the intermediate stage element and the stage. (google.com)
  • In other embodiments, two methods of kinematically positioning the improved multi-axis stage assembly within a utilization apparatus are disclosed. (google.com)
  • In addition, motors must be synchronized and controlled accurately without compromising performance and determinism, especially in multi-axis control systems. (embedded.com)
  • Among different type of magnetic bearings single axis controlled repulsive type magnetic bearing (SACRMB) is best fitted regarding performance and cost. (slideshare.net)
  • In this background scenario, people has embarked on developing of single axis controlled repulsive type magnetic bearing [6] which provides the advantages like simple construction, high reliability and low cost. (slideshare.net)
  • In reference to human anatomy, axis of rotation is an imaginary line that projects through the pivot/rotation point in a joint (for example, the axis of rotation for flexing and extending the arm projects through the elbow joint). (acefitness.org)
  • Spatial representation along the proximodistal axis of CA1. (nih.gov)
  • The source code zip archive contains an XML representation of the Rotation About A Fixed Axis Model. (compadre.org)
  • Gut microbiota generally exerts their effects on the brain not only via the nervous system ( i.e. through the neuroanatomical pathway of the gut-brain axis), but also through the immune system, endocrine system and metabolic system. (news-medical.net)
  • The HPG axis plays a critical part in the development and regulation of a number of the body's systems, such as the reproductive and immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the IL-4/STAT6 immune axis, a key pathway in helminth immunity and allergies, controls peripheral nutrient metabolism and insulin sensitivity. (pnas.org)
  • To get the correct axis you have to transform the local axis (e.g. [0 0 1] for the z axis) by the same rotation that has caused the current orientation of the model. (gamedev.net)
  • The fixed axis hypothesis excludes the possibility of an axis changing its orientation, and cannot describe such phenomena as wobbling or precession . (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods and apparatus for a spacecraft ( 1 ) orbiting about a celestial body such as the Earth to reacquire operational three-axis orientation with respect to that body. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Due to the position of the heart in the chest, electricity normally travels down and to the left during ventricular depolarization, and this creates the ordinary electrical axis of the heart, which is positioned between negative 30 and 90 degrees if it is imagined that the apex of the heart lies at 90 degrees. (reference.com)
  • This concept builds upon an understanding of the planes of motion and the various types of movements at the joints, so be sure to learn those first before taking on the three axes of rotation. (acefitness.org)
  • Each movement in the three planes of motion (i.e., sagittal, frontal, and transverse) occur about an axis of rotation. (acefitness.org)
  • Just as there are three planes of motion, there are three axes of rotation: the anterior-posterior axis, the mediolateral axis, and the longitudinal axis. (acefitness.org)
  • 4- Distinguish between Planes and axes. (slideshare.net)
  • In still another embodiment, five retroreflectors are mounted directly on the wafer chuck and a five axis interferometer measuring system is utilized to eliminate all Abbe offset measurement errors in the position of a semiconductive wafer, placed upon the wafer chuck, along the X, Y, and θ-axes of motion. (google.com)
  • The measurement probe assembly comprises a first joint providing a first axis of rotation between the second end of the arm and a body of the measurement probe assembly. (google.es)
  • a measurement assembly coupled to the second end of the arm, the measurement assembly comprising a first rotable joint providing a first axis of rotation, a probe rigidly coupled to the first joint, a measurement device configured for rotation about the probe and means for rotating the measurement device about the probe along a second axis of rotation. (google.es)
  • The Y Axis title is written to close to the axis, so when my axis has its tick marks labeled, the title & tick labels are unreadable because the tick labels and axis titles overlap each other. (ucar.edu)
  • axis of rotation The line about which rotation occurs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The movement itself-which, of course, is not imaginary-occurs in an imaginary plane of motion that is perpendicular to the imaginary axis of rotation. (acefitness.org)
  • In the elbow example, the forearm moves in the sagittal plane of motion as the elbow joint (through which the axis of rotation occurs) flexes and extends. (acefitness.org)
  • That is, the arm moves in the sagittal plane of motion around an axis of rotation that occurs at the elbow, which allows for flexion and extension. (acefitness.org)
  • Hence, for the elbow, movement occurs in the sagittal plane (as flexion and extension) around a mediolateral axis of rotation. (acefitness.org)
  • 3. IntroductionThe plane : is the surface on which themovement occurs or takes place.The axis : is the line around which themovement takes place.Axis is the singular and axes are the plural noun.Any movement occurs in a plane around an axis.Axis of the same plane makes an angleperpendicular to that plane. (slideshare.net)
  • So over the course of a year, the figure axis can change by about a meterabout six times bigger than what we're seeing caused by this earthquake. (popularmechanics.com)
  • (CNN) -- The powerful earthquake that unleashed a devastating tsunami Friday appears to have moved the main island of Japan by 8 feet (2.4 meters) and shifted the Earth on its axis. (cnn.com)
  • A method of achieving orthogonality between the Y- and X i -axes that features an orthogonality alignment standard is disclosed. (google.com)
  • To achieve excellent postcataract results with toric intraocular lenses (IOLs), precise axis alignment is essential. (aao.org)
  • High-tech systems can take much of the guesswork out of axis alignment. (aao.org)
  • Any actions taken or obligations created voluntarily by the person(s) accessing such web sites shall be directly between such person and the owner of such websites and Axis Bank shall not be responsible directly or indirectly for such action so taken. (axisbank.com)
  • I express my gratitude towards staff of WEALTH MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT -AXIS BANK, those who have helped me directly or indirectly in completing the training. (scribd.com)
  • Variance captured in coordinate axis. (physicsforums.com)
  • In general, any rotation can be specified completely by the three angular displacements with respect to the rectangular-coordinate axes x , y , and z . (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of our Axis Academy and the trainings that we offer you as an Axis Partner, we want to make sure you can easily keep updated with the latest information and materials available. (axis.com)
  • the horizontal axis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Makino is introducing a simple, flexible robot system for 4 and 5 axis horizontal machining centers that can be installed quickly and facilitates numerous part families. (makino.com)
  • Fluctuations in this axis cause changes in the hormones produced by each gland and have various local and systemic effects on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follistatin , which is also produced in all body tissue, inhibits activin and gives the rest of the body more control over the axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axis of rotation need not go through the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • and, rotating ( 280 ) the spacecraft ( 1 ) around an axis defined by a line between the sun and the spacecraft until ( 1 ) the celestial body is observed by a celestial body sensor of the spacecraft. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The stable outlook reflects that the ratings on Axis Bank already factor in some deterioration in the bank's asset quality and performance over the next 12 months. (financialexpress.com)
  • The ratings on Axis Bank's issuer credit rating was lowered to BB+/Stable/B from BBB-/Negative/A-3 to reflect S&P's expectation that heightened economic risks facing India's banking system will affect the bank's asset quality and financial performance. (financialexpress.com)
  • Similarly, disruption of this tumour immunosuppressive axis by specifically blocking PGD2, IL-13 and NKp30 partially restores ILC2 and M-MDSC levels and results in increased survival. (nature.com)
  • The term "gut-brain axis" is occasionally used to refer to the role of the gut flora in the interplay as well, whereas the term "microbiome-gut-brain axis" explicitly includes the role of gut flora in the biochemical signaling events that take place between the GI tract and CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • That term has been expanded to include the role of the gut flora as part of the "microbiome-gut-brain axis", a linkage of functions including the gut flora. (wikipedia.org)
  • These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest, therefore, that there is an insulin-pancreatic acinar axis that plays a major role in pancreatic function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The brain has a role to play as well, making many call it the gut-brain-skin axis . (huffingtonpost.com)
  • 2004). AXIS USA offers the conveniences of a purpose-built 120,000 square foot facility to handle multiple studies at once, including an in-house Bioanalytical lab capable of handling over 15,000 samples per month, an on-site Dermatology Center, and a fully licensed Pharmacy. (prweb.com)
  • Assuming I have multiple Y-Axes. (eclipse.org)
  • The Axis Experience Center is designed to provide an exclusive experience with a hands-on, customized demonstration of Axis' complete range of products and solutions. (axis.com)
  • cosmological sources do not correspond to the present state of the axis of the earth. (lulu.com)
  • The association of these objects with the axis of the earth does not appear to have been made explicitly and unambiguously before the 1st millennium BCE. (lulu.com)
  • This message is heard in virtually every ancient society on earth, but while this 'world axis' is familiar enough to scholars, little sense could be made of the stories. (lulu.com)
  • world axis' in the form of a tree, ladder or giant man connected the earth with the sky, a devastating flood or fire ended the old order, and so forth. (lulu.com)
  • The Earth 's axis of rotation is the line between the North and South geographic Poles, which precesses (see CHANDLER WOBBLE ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • the earth revolves on its axis once every 24 hours. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Axis Experience Center has a variety of features and opportunities available to complement your meeting. (axis.com)
  • The Rabbit Axis wine opener features an angular design optimized for uncorking wine bottles with ease. (williams-sonoma.com)
  • We analyze price, features, and Axis digital camera reviews - to pick the top digital cameras from Axis. (retrevo.com)
  • The eleventh monograph and meeting of the Foundation on "Hormon- al Control of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis" was held in October 1983 at the Weizmann Institute of Science. (springer.com)
  • The control system includes first and second Y-axes positioning sub-systems for differentially. (google.com)
  • The control system includes first and second Y-axes positioning sub-systems for differentially positioning first and second ends of the intermediate stage element along first and second Y-axes of motion, with respect to the base, and an X i -axis positioning sub-system for positioning the stage along an X i -axis of motion, with respect to the intermediate stage element. (google.com)
  • This paper discusses the application of a particular fractional-order control scheme, the PDD 1/2 , to the position control of a micrometric linear axis. (hindawi.com)
  • Axis Bank does not control such websites and bears no responsibility for them. (axisbank.com)
  • This is to inform you that by clicking on the hyper-link/ok, you will be accessing a website operated by a third party namely Such links are provided only for the convenience of the Client and Axis Bank does not control or endorse such websites, and is not responsible for their contents. (axisbank.com)