A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin signaling complex which binds to ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI PROTEIN; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE 3; and CASEIN KINASE I.
A specific complex of WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY proteins that mediates the phosphorylation-dependent destruction of cytosolic BETA-CATENIN. The complex is disrupted by cell surface binding of WNT PROTEINS, which allows beta-catenin levels to rise to the point where they migrate to the CELL NUCLEUS and activate transcription.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A T-cell factor that plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
An LDL-receptor related protein that combines with cell surface FRIZZLED RECEPTORS to form WNT PROTEIN-binding receptors. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in regulation of vascular cell proliferation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.
A 180-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 4 and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.

Small molecule-based disruption of the Axin/beta-catenin protein complex regulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. (1/6)

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Destruction complex function in the Wnt signaling pathway of Drosophila requires multiple interactions between Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 and Armadillo. (2/6)

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The Adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor is essential for Axin complex assembly and function and opposes Axin's interaction with Dishevelled. (3/6)

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LRRK2 functions as a Wnt signaling scaffold, bridging cytosolic proteins and membrane-localized LRP6. (4/6)

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Role of the beta catenin destruction complex in mediating chemotherapy-induced senescence-associated secretory phenotype. (5/6)

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Stochastic machines as a colocalization mechanism for scaffold protein function. (6/6)

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Axin protein is a type of intracellular protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the Wnt signaling pathway, which is essential for various developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Axin serves as a scaffold protein that facilitates the formation of a complex with other proteins involved in the degradation of β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signalling cascade. By promoting the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of β-catenin, Axin helps to maintain its levels in the cell and ensures proper regulation of gene transcription. Mutations in the AXIN gene can lead to abnormal Wnt signaling and have been associated with various diseases, including cancer.

The Axin signaling complex is a key component of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The complex consists of several proteins including Axin, APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli), GSK-3β (Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta), and CK1 (Casein kinase 1).

In the absence of Wnt ligands, β-catenin is constantly phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CK1 within the Axin complex, leading to its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation in the proteasome. This maintains low levels of cytoplasmic β-catenin and prevents the activation of Wnt target genes.

Upon Wnt ligand binding to Frizzled receptors and LRP coreceptors, Dishevelled is recruited and inhibits GSK-3β activity in the Axin complex. This results in stabilization of β-catenin, allowing it to translocate into the nucleus, bind to TCF/LEF transcription factors, and activate Wnt target gene expression.

Dysregulation of the Axin signaling complex has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and developmental disorders.

Beta-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in gene transcription and cell-cell adhesion. It is a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, which regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults.

In the absence of Wnt signals, beta-catenin forms a complex with other proteins, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin, which targets it for degradation by the proteasome. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, this complex is disrupted, allowing beta-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus. In the nucleus, beta-catenin interacts with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors to activate the transcription of target genes involved in cell fate determination, survival, and proliferation.

Mutations in the genes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including beta-catenin, have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions.

Wnt proteins are a family of secreted signaling molecules that play crucial roles in the regulation of fundamental biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. They were first discovered in 1982 through genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) and have since been found to be highly conserved across various species, from invertebrates to humans.

Wnt proteins exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the target cell surface, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways:

1. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway: In the absence of Wnt ligands, β-catenin is continuously degraded by a destruction complex consisting of Axin, APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli), and GSK3β (Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta). When Wnt proteins bind to their receptors Frizzled and LRP5/6, the formation of a "signalosome" complex leads to the inhibition of the destruction complex, allowing β-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate into the nucleus. Here, it interacts with TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor) transcription factors to regulate the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.
2. Non-canonical Wnt pathways: These include the Wnt/Ca^2+^ pathway and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. In the Wnt/Ca^2+^ pathway, Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled receptors and activate heterotrimeric G proteins, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca^2+^ levels and activation of downstream targets such as protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). These signaling events ultimately regulate cell movement, adhesion, and gene expression. In the PCP pathway, Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled receptors and coreceptor complexes containing Ror2 or Ryk, leading to activation of small GTPases such as RhoA and Rac1, which control cytoskeletal organization and cell polarity.

Dysregulation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions. In cancer, aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway contributes to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis by promoting cell proliferation, survival, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Inhibitors targeting different components of the Wnt signaling pathway are currently being developed as potential therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Tankyrases are a group of proteins that belong to the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family, specifically PARP5a and PARP5b. They play roles in various cellular processes such as telomere maintenance, Wnt signaling pathway regulation, and protein trafficking. Tankyrases add poly(ADP-ribose) chains to their target proteins, leading to changes in their function, localization, or stability. Dysregulation of tankyrases has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer.

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of several cellular processes, including glycogen metabolism, cell signaling, gene transcription, and apoptosis. It was initially discovered as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism due to its ability to phosphorylate and inhibit glycogen synthase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glycogen from glucose.

GSK-3 exists in two isoforms, GSK-3α and GSK-3β, which share a high degree of sequence similarity and are widely expressed in various tissues. Both isoforms are constitutively active under normal conditions and are regulated through inhibitory phosphorylation by several upstream signaling pathways, such as insulin, Wnt, and Hedgehog signaling.

Dysregulation of GSK-3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. In recent years, GSK-3 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel drugs to treat these conditions.

Cytoskeletal proteins are a type of structural proteins that form the cytoskeleton, which is the internal framework of cells. The cytoskeleton provides shape, support, and structure to the cell, and plays important roles in cell division, intracellular transport, and maintenance of cell shape and integrity.

There are three main types of cytoskeletal proteins: actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Actin filaments are thin, rod-like structures that are involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division. Intermediate filaments are thicker than actin filaments and provide structural support to the cell. Microtubules are hollow tubes that are involved in intracellular transport, cell division, and maintenance of cell shape.

Cytoskeletal proteins are composed of different subunits that polymerize to form filamentous structures. These proteins can be dynamically assembled and disassembled, allowing cells to change their shape and move. Mutations in cytoskeletal proteins have been linked to various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and muscular dystrophies.

Glycogen synthase kinases (GSKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of glycogen metabolism. Glycogen is a complex carbohydrate that serves as a primary energy storage form in animals, fungi, and bacteria.

GSKs function as serine/threonine protein kinases, which means they add phosphate groups to specific serine or threonine residues on their target proteins. In the case of glycogen synthase kinases, their primary target is glycogen synthase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing glycogen from glucose-1-phosphate during the process of glycogenesis (glycogen synthesis).

There are several isoforms of GSKs identified in humans, including GSK3α and GSK3β. These kinases are involved in various cellular processes, such as:

1. Regulation of glycogen metabolism: By phosphorylating and inhibiting glycogen synthase, GSKs help control the balance between glycogen storage and glucose utilization.
2. Cell signaling pathways: GSKs participate in several intracellular signaling cascades, including the Wnt signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, and the PI3K/AKT pathway, which regulate various cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and metabolism.
3. Regulation of gene expression: GSKs can modulate transcription factors' activity, thereby influencing gene expression and contributing to various cellular responses.
4. Neuronal function: In the brain, GSKs are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory processes.
5. Disease pathogenesis: Dysregulation of GSKs has been implicated in several diseases, such as diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), and cancer.

In summary, glycogen synthase kinases are a family of protein kinases that regulate glycogen metabolism and participate in various cell signaling pathways, influencing numerous cellular functions and being implicated in several diseases.

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth and division. It is encoded by the APC gene, which is located on chromosome 5. The APC protein helps to prevent excessive cell growth and division by inhibiting the activity of a protein called beta-catenin, which promotes cell growth and division when activated.

In individuals with certain genetic disorders, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), mutations in the APC gene can lead to the production of a defective APC protein or no APC protein at all. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the development of numerous benign tumors called polyps in the colon and rectum. Over time, some of these polyps may become cancerous, leading to colorectal cancer if left untreated.

APC protein also has other functions in the body, including regulating cell migration and adhesion, and playing a role in maintaining the stability of the cytoskeleton. Mutations in the APC gene have been linked to other types of cancer besides colorectal cancer, including breast, lung, and ovarian cancers.

The Wnt signaling pathway is a complex cell communication system that plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and cancer. It is named after the Wingless (Wg) gene in Drosophila melanogaster and the Int-1 gene in mice, both of which were found to be involved in this pathway.

In essence, the Wnt signaling pathway involves the binding of Wnt proteins to Frizzled receptors on the cell surface, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling cascades. There are three main branches of the Wnt signaling pathway: the canonical (or Wnt/β-catenin) pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway.

The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is the most well-studied branch. In the absence of Wnt signaling, cytoplasmic β-catenin is constantly phosphorylated by a destruction complex consisting of Axin, APC, GSK3β, and CK1, leading to its ubiquitination and degradation in the proteasome. When Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled receptors and their coreceptor LRP5/6, Dishevelled is recruited and inhibits the destruction complex, allowing β-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin interacts with TCF/LEF transcription factors to regulate the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Dysregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions. For example, mutations in components of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway can lead to the accumulation of β-catenin and subsequent activation of oncogenic target genes, contributing to tumorigenesis in various types of cancer.

Zebrafish proteins refer to the diverse range of protein molecules that are produced by the organism Danio rerio, commonly known as the zebrafish. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes such as growth, development, reproduction, and response to environmental stimuli. They are involved in cellular functions like enzymatic reactions, signal transduction, structural support, and regulation of gene expression.

Zebrafish is a popular model organism in biomedical research due to its genetic similarity with humans, rapid development, and transparent embryos that allow for easy observation of biological processes. As a result, the study of zebrafish proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of protein function, structure, and interaction in both zebrafish and human systems.

Some examples of zebrafish proteins include:

* Transcription factors that regulate gene expression during development
* Enzymes involved in metabolic pathways
* Structural proteins that provide support to cells and tissues
* Receptors and signaling molecules that mediate communication between cells
* Heat shock proteins that assist in protein folding and protect against stress

The analysis of zebrafish proteins can be performed using various techniques, including biochemical assays, mass spectrometry, protein crystallography, and computational modeling. These methods help researchers to identify, characterize, and understand the functions of individual proteins and their interactions within complex networks.

Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1 (LEF1) is a protein that functions as a transcription factor, playing a crucial role in the Wnt signaling pathway. It is involved in the regulation of gene expression, particularly during embryonic development and immune system function. LEF1 helps control the differentiation and proliferation of certain cells, including B and T lymphocytes, which are essential for adaptive immunity. Mutations in the LEF1 gene have been associated with various human diseases, such as cancer and immunodeficiency disorders.

Wnt1 protein is a member of the Wnt family, which is a group of secreted signaling proteins that play crucial roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults. Specifically, Wnt1 is a highly conserved gene that encodes a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 40 kDa. It is primarily expressed in the developing nervous system, where it functions as a key regulator of neural crest cell migration and differentiation during embryogenesis.

Wnt1 protein mediates its effects by binding to Frizzled receptors on the surface of target cells, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways, including the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. In the canonical pathway, Wnt1 protein stabilizes β-catenin, which then translocates to the nucleus and interacts with TCF/LEF transcription factors to regulate gene expression.

Dysregulation of Wnt1 signaling has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer. For example, aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by Wnt1 protein has been observed in various types of tumors, such as medulloblastomas and breast cancers, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumor growth. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying Wnt1 signaling is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies for treating these diseases.

Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6) is a protein that is encoded by the LRP6 gene in humans. It is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family and plays a crucial role in signal transduction pathways, particularly the Wnt signaling pathway.

In the Wnt signaling pathway, LRP6 acts as a co-receptor for Wnt proteins, which are involved in various developmental processes, including cell fate determination, proliferation, and migration. When Wnt proteins bind to LRP6 and other receptors, they trigger a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the regulation of gene expression.

Mutations in the LRP6 gene have been associated with several human diseases, including familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, a genetic disorder that affects the eyes, and various forms of cancer. Additionally, abnormalities in LRP6 function have been implicated in the development of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and metabolic disorders.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Wnt3 protein is a member of the Wnt family of signaling proteins, which are secreted signaling molecules that play crucial roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults. Specifically, Wnt3 is involved in the regulation of cell fate decisions, proliferation, and differentiation during embryogenesis. It binds to receptors on the target cells and activates a signaling pathway known as the canonical Wnt pathway, leading to the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, which then interacts with transcription factors to regulate gene expression. Defects in Wnt3 have been implicated in various developmental disorders, including some forms of congenital scoliosis and spina bifida.

"Xenopus proteins" refer to the proteins that are expressed or isolated from the Xenopus species, which are primarily used as model organisms in biological and biomedical research. The most commonly used Xenopus species for research are the African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes and functions, and they serve as valuable tools to study different aspects of molecular biology, developmental biology, genetics, and biochemistry.

Some examples of Xenopus proteins that are widely studied include:

1. Xenopus Histones: These are the proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, which are the fundamental units of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. They play a significant role in gene regulation and epigenetic modifications.
2. Xenopus Cyclins and Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): These proteins regulate the cell cycle and control cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis.
3. Xenopus Transcription factors: These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression during development and in response to various stimuli.
4. Xenopus Signaling molecules: These proteins are involved in intracellular signaling pathways that control various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, migration, and survival.
5. Xenopus Cytoskeletal proteins: These proteins provide structural support to the cells and regulate their shape, motility, and organization.
6. Xenopus Enzymes: These proteins catalyze various biochemical reactions in the cell, such as metabolic pathways, DNA replication, transcription, and translation.

Overall, Xenopus proteins are essential tools for understanding fundamental biological processes and have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of molecular biology, genetics, and developmental biology.

Adaptor proteins are a type of protein that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways by serving as a link between different components of the signaling complex. Specifically, "signal transducing adaptor proteins" refer to those adaptor proteins that are involved in signal transduction processes, where they help to transmit signals from the cell surface receptors to various intracellular effectors. These proteins typically contain modular domains that allow them to interact with multiple partners, thereby facilitating the formation of large signaling complexes and enabling the integration of signals from different pathways.

Signal transducing adaptor proteins can be classified into several families based on their structural features, including the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, and the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. These domains enable the adaptor proteins to recognize and bind to specific motifs on other signaling molecules, such as receptor tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, and cytokine receptors.

One well-known example of a signal transducing adaptor protein is the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), which contains an SH2 domain that binds to phosphotyrosine residues on activated receptor tyrosine kinases. Grb2 also contains an SH3 domain that interacts with proline-rich motifs on other signaling proteins, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS. This interaction facilitates the activation of the Ras small GTPase and downstream signaling pathways involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overall, signal transducing adaptor proteins play a critical role in regulating various cellular processes by modulating intracellular signaling pathways in response to extracellular stimuli. Dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Armadillo (ARM) domain proteins are a family of conserved cytoskeletal proteins characterized by the presence of armadillo repeats, which are structural motifs involved in protein-protein interactions. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell adhesion, and intracellular transport.

The ARM domain is composed of multiple tandem repeats (usually 4 to 12) of approximately 40-42 amino acid residues. Each repeat forms a pair of antiparallel alpha-helices that stack together to create a superhelix structure, which provides a binding surface for various partner proteins.

Examples of ARM domain proteins include:

1. β-catenin and plakoglobin (also known as γ-catenin): These proteins are essential components of the Wnt signaling pathway, where they interact with transcription factors to regulate gene expression. They also play a role in cell adhesion by binding to cadherins at the plasma membrane.
2. Paxillin: A focal adhesion protein that interacts with various structural and signaling molecules, including integrins, growth factor receptors, and kinases, to regulate cell migration and adhesion.
3. Importin-α: A nuclear transport receptor that recognizes and binds to cargo proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS), facilitating their import into the nucleus through interaction with importin-β and the nuclear pore complex.
4. DEC1 (also known as STRA13): A transcriptional repressor involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis, and circadian rhythm regulation.
5. HEF1/NEDD9: A scaffolding protein that interacts with various signaling molecules to regulate cell migration, adhesion, and survival.
6. p120-catenin: A member of the catenin family that regulates cadherin stability and function in cell adhesion.

These proteins have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

Wnt3A is a type of Wnt protein, which is a secreted signaling molecule that plays crucial roles in the regulation of cell-to-cell communication during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults. Specifically, Wnt3A is a member of the Wnt family that binds to Frizzled receptors and activates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

In this pathway, Wnt3A binding to its receptor leads to the inhibition of the β-catenin destruction complex, resulting in the stabilization and accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm. β-catenin then translocates to the nucleus, where it interacts with TCF/LEF transcription factors to regulate the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Wnt3A has been extensively studied in various biological contexts, including developmental biology, cancer research, and stem cell biology. In particular, Wnt3A has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of embryonic axis formation, neural crest development, and adult tissue regeneration. Dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, including aberrant activation by Wnt3A, has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, degenerative disorders, and fibrotic diseases.

Craniosynostosis is a medical condition that affects the skull of a developing fetus or infant. It is characterized by the premature closure of one or more of the fibrous sutures between the bones of the skull (cranial sutures). These sutures typically remain open during infancy to allow for the growth and development of the brain.

When a suture closes too early, it can restrict the growth of the surrounding bones and cause an abnormal shape of the head. The severity of craniosynostosis can vary depending on the number of sutures involved and the extent of the premature closure. In some cases, craniosynostosis can also lead to increased pressure on the brain, which can cause a range of neurological symptoms.

There are several types of craniosynostoses, including:

1. Sagittal synostosis: This is the most common type and involves the premature closure of the sagittal suture, which runs from front to back along the top of the head. This can cause the skull to grow long and narrow, a condition known as scaphocephaly.
2. Coronal synostosis: This type involves the premature closure of one or both of the coronal sutures, which run from the temples to the front of the head. When one suture is affected, it can cause the forehead to bulge and the eye socket on that side to sink in (anterior plagiocephaly). When both sutures are affected, it can cause a flattened appearance of the forehead and a prominent back of the head (brachycephaly).
3. Metopic synostosis: This type involves the premature closure of the metopic suture, which runs from the top of the forehead to the bridge of the nose. It can cause a triangular shape of the forehead and a prominent ridge along the midline of the skull (trigonocephaly).
4. Lambdoid synostosis: This is the least common type and involves the premature closure of the lambdoid suture, which runs along the back of the head. It can cause an asymmetrical appearance of the head and face, as well as possible neurological symptoms.

In some cases, multiple sutures may be affected, leading to more complex craniofacial abnormalities. Treatment for craniosynostosis typically involves surgery to release the fused suture(s) and reshape the skull. The timing of the surgery depends on the type and severity of the condition but is usually performed within the first year of life. Early intervention can help prevent further complications, such as increased intracranial pressure and developmental delays.

MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP3K4) is a protein kinase enzyme that participates in intracellular signal transduction pathways, leading to the activation of specific transcription factors and regulation of gene expression. It is also known as MEKK4 or MAPKKK4.

MAP3K4 plays an essential role in various cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). This protein kinase is involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade, which consists of three main components: MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3Ks), MAP kinase kinases (MKKs or MEKs), and MAP kinases (MPAKs or ERKs).

MAP3K4 activates MAP kinase kinases, such as MKK4 and MKK5, by phosphorylating them on specific serine and threonine residues. These activated MAP kinase kinases then go on to activate downstream MAP kinases, which ultimately regulate the activity of various transcription factors and other cellular proteins.

Mutations in the MAP3K4 gene have been associated with several human diseases, including developmental disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

TCF (T-cell factor) transcription factors are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the Wnt signaling pathway, which is involved in various biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. TCF transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of target genes and regulate their transcription.

In the absence of Wnt signaling, TCF proteins form a complex with transcriptional repressors, which inhibits gene transcription. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, they initiate a cascade of intracellular signals that result in the accumulation and nuclear localization of β-catenin, a key player in the Wnt signaling pathway.

In the nucleus, β-catenin interacts with TCF proteins, displacing the transcriptional repressors and converting TCF into an activator of gene transcription. This leads to the expression of target genes that are involved in various cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, stem cell maintenance, and tumorigenesis.

Mutations in TCF transcription factors or components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative diseases.

Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 5 (LRP5) is a gene that encodes a single transmembrane protein, which belongs to the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. This protein plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as bone formation, vascular biology, and cancer progression. It functions as a co-receptor for Wnt signaling pathways that regulate gene expression involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

In the context of lipid metabolism, LRP5 has been shown to modulate lipoprotein particle uptake and cholesterol homeostasis through its interaction with LDL receptors. Mutations in the LRP5 gene have been associated with several diseases, including osteoporosis, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, and adiposity-associated disorders.

In summary, Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 5 is a multifunctional receptor involved in various physiological processes, including bone formation, lipid metabolism, and cell signaling.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

RIP1/RIP3 Necrosome: A signalling complex involved in necrotic cell death. Inflammasomes: The AIM2 and NLRP3 inflammasomes are ... proteins to recruit the Axin complex for inactivation. B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome: The B-cell receptor (BCR) binds ... Prabakaran, Sudhakaran (2015). "B cell receptor signaling dynamics". Science Signaling. 8 (384): ec186-ec186. doi:10.1126/ ... "A Role of Dishevelled in Relocating Axin to the Plasma Membrane during Wingless Signaling". Current Biology. 13 (11): 960-966. ...
The combination of LRP-axin induces Dvl phosphorylation (P) which blocks the APC-axin-GSK3 complex from phosphorylating β-Cat. ... β-Cat is an intracellular signal that is held in check by axin. In this pathway, the activation of Wnt receptors can be ... The signals are initiated at the 7 transmembrane domain and transmitted through receptor coupling to G-proteins. This protein ... A signal transduction cascade results in the secretion of first and second group antagonists. First group antagonists are ...
... through the Wnt signals that destroy the conformation of the complex.[citation needed] In the nucleus it complexes with legless ... and Axin via interactions with the 20 AA and SAMP repeats. This complex is then able to bind β-catenins in the cytoplasm, that ... "Testing models of the APC tumor suppressor/β-catenin interaction reshapes our view of the destruction complex in Wnt signaling ... "Binding of GSK3beta to the APC-beta-catenin complex and regulation of complex assembly". Science. 272 (5264): 1023-1026. ...
β-catenin is a subunit of the cadherin protein complex and acts as an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling ... The scaffold protein axin (two closely related paralogs, axin 1 and axin 2) contains a similar interaction motif on its long, ... Cell-cell adhesion complexes are essential for the formation of complex animal tissues. β-catenin is part of a protein complex ... the β-catenin destruction complex - by Dsh. Once bound to the receptor complex, axin will be rendered incompetent for β-catenin ...
Ikeda S, Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Murai H, Koyama S, Kikuchi A (1998). "Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, ... "The tuberin-hamartin complex negatively regulates beta-catenin signaling activity". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (8): 5947-51. doi: ... Nakamura T, Hamada F, Ishidate T, Anai K, Kawahara K, Toyoshima K, Akiyama T (1998). "Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signalling ... "Axin cancer mutants form nanoaggregates to rewire the Wnt signaling network". Nat Struct Mol Biol. 23 (4): 324-32. doi:10.1038/ ...
However, upon Wnt signaling, MACF1 is involved in a translation and binding of the axin complex to LTP6 at the cell membrane. ... When Wnt signalling is not present, MACF1 associates with a complex containing axin, β-catenin, GSK3β, and APC. ... Extracellular Wnt signalling acts on the Frizzled receptor on the cellular membrane, which then, through a signalling cascade ... In vivo, GSK3β activity is inhibited by Wnt signalling, but in vitro it is typically inhibited by cdc42. ...
Ikeda S, Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Murai H, Koyama S, Kikuchi A (1998). "Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, ... forms a complex with GSK-3beta and beta-catenin and promotes GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of beta-catenin". EMBO J. 17 ( ... Li L, Yuan H, Weaver CD, Mao J, Farr GH, Sussman DJ, Jonkers J, Kimelman D, Wu D (1999). "Axin and Frat1 interact with dvl and ... Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Hino S, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (Jun 1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein ...
... leads to stabilization of β-catenin through inactivation of a protein complex containing the tumor suppressors APC and Axin. ... This can be contrasted with paracrine signaling, intracrine signaling, or classical endocrine signaling. An example of an ... De-regulation of the autocrine Wnt signaling pathway via mutations in APC and Axin have been linked to activation of various ... Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, ...
... the Axin complex) to Wnt receptors at the plasma membrane. The formation of these Dishevelled and Axin containing droplets is ... The Dsh protein functions both in planar polarity and Wnt signalling, where it recruits another supramolecular complex ( ... Gammons M, Bienz M (April 2018). "Multiprotein complexes governing Wnt signal transduction". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. ... "A role of Dishevelled in relocating Axin to the plasma membrane during wingless signaling". Current Biology. 13 (11): 960-6. ...
Phosphorylation of LRP6 by CK1gamma promotes binding of axin to LRP and activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. CK1ε and CK1δ ... However, this CK1ε-mediated constraint to the cytoplasm can be overcome when the PER protein complex is bound to CRY. CK1ε has ... CK1gamma was found to be needed for Wnt signaling through LRP, and is both necessary and sufficient to transduce LRP6 signaling ... Amit S, Hatzubai A, Birman Y, Andersen JS, Ben-Shushan E, Mann M, Ben-Neriah Y, Alkalay I (May 2002). "Axin-mediated CKI ...
Kikuchi A (2000). "Modulation of Wnt signaling by Axin and Axil". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10 (3-4): 255-65. doi:10.1016/ ... Diversin recruits Casein kinase Iε to the β-catenin degradation complex and acts in both canonical Wnt and Wnt/JNK signaling". ... Axin-2, also known as axin-like protein (Axil), axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2), or conductin, is a protein that in humans is ... "Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-β signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia". EMBO J. 25 (8): 1646-58. doi: ...
Conversely, without Wnt signaling, the destruction complex, made of APC, CKI, GSK3β and Axin, degrades β-catenin buildup, ... inhibits Wnt signaling by promoting TCF4 degradation and disrupting the TCF4/beta-catenin complex". Cellular Signalling. 22 (11 ... Wnt signals induce DVL to form a complex with Daam1 (Dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 1). This complex then ... A masterful conductor of complex Wnt signals". Cellular Signalling. 47: 52-64. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2018.03.004. PMC 6317740. ...
"The tuberin-hamartin complex negatively regulates beta-catenin signaling activity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (8 ... Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Hino S, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (June 1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for ... Bhat RV, Budd SL (2003). "GSK3beta signalling: casting a wide net in Alzheimer's disease". Neuro-Signals. 11 (5): 251-61. doi: ... Li Y, Kuwahara H, Ren J, Wen G, Kufe D (March 2001). "The c-Src tyrosine kinase regulates signaling of the human DF3/MUC1 ...
... forms distinct complexes with cadherins and desmosomal cadherins. Plakoglobin is a major cytoplasmic component of ... Hearts also exhibited increases in β-catenin signaling. Further investigations on the role of β-catenin and plakoglobin in the ... Kodama S, Ikeda S, Asahara T, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (Sep 1999). "Axin directly interacts with plakoglobin and regulates its ... Phosphorylation of N-terminal Serines by a "destruction complex" composed of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and scaffold ...
... is also involved in nuclear transcriptional activator kappa B (NFκB) signaling pathway, Hedgehog signaling pathway, Notch ... while the phosphorylation of Beta-catenin by GSK-3 is mediated by the binding of both proteins to Axin, a scaffold protein, ... GSK-3 may be further regulated by cellular localization or the formation of protein complexes. The activity of GSK-3 is far ... GSK-3 is therefore a part of the canonical Beta-catenin/Wnt pathway, which signals the cell to divide and proliferate. GSK-3 ...
"Crystal structure of a beta-catenin/axin complex suggests a mechanism for the beta-catenin destruction complex". Genes & ... Moreover, the Hpo signaling pathway seems to be related with both, Wnt signaling. and p53 regulation In presence of Wnt ligand ... a nuclear localization signal (NLS) as well as a centrosome localization signal (CLS) can be found. However, the first one is ... lipid droplet formation and cell proliferation under hypoxia by reducing HIF-1α/ARNT complex formation". Cellular Signalling. ...
Phosphorylation by other proteins in the destruction complex subsequently binds Axin to the cytoplasmic tail of LRP5/6. Axin ... The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways which begin with proteins that pass signals into a cell ... inhibits Wnt signaling by promoting TCF4 degradation and disrupting the TCF4/beta-catenin complex". Cellular Signalling. 22 (11 ... This is due to Wnt causing the translocation of the negative Wnt regulator, Axin, and the destruction complex to the plasma ...
Axin is a scaffolding protein which holds the degradation complex together. The activated Dvl associates with Axin and prevents ... SFRPs are also able to downregulate Wnt signaling by the formation of an inhibitory complex with the Frizzled receptors. The ... Hedgehog signaling in the intestinal epithelium represses the canonical Wnt signaling to restrict expression of Wnt target ... and Axin. APC promotes the degradation of β-catenin by increasing the affinity of the degradation complex to β-catenin. ...
... of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein phosphatase 2A complexed with Axin". ... Vpr interferes with cell cycle signaling cascades by interacting with the B subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... Vpr interferes with cell cycle signaling cascades by interacting with the B subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A ...
The formation of the primitive streak in the chick, is highly regulated by a complex network of signaling pathways. Activation ... In addition, mutating the intracellular negative regulator of Wnt signaling, Axin, and misexpression of the chick cWnt8C ... All cells in the epiblast can respond to signals from the marginal zone, but once a given region is induced by these signals ... Furthermore, ectopic streak formation induced by Vg1 required FGF signaling. Finally, BMP signaling is also important for ...
If the Ragulator complex receives signals for low amino acid count, it will start the process of catabolizing the cell. If ... serves as an endosomal docking site for LKB1-mediated AMPK activation by forming the v-ATPase-Ragulator-AXIN/LKB1-AMPK complex ... mTOR signaling is sensitive to amino acid concentrations in the cytoplasm of the cell, and the Ragulator complex works to ... The Ragulator-Rag complex is a regulator of lysosomal signalling and trafficking in eukaryotic cells, which plays an important ...
"Wnt/β-catenin Signaling". Cell Signaling Technology. November 2010. Mosimann C, Hausmann G, Basler K (April 2009). "β-catenin ... These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as ... APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. While less attention is ... Guardavaccaro D, Clevers H (2012). "Wnt/β-Catenin and MAPK Signaling: Allies and Enemies in Different Battlefields". Sci Signal ...
Li D, Wang F, Lai M, Chen Y, Zhang JF (February 2005). "A protein phosphatase 2calpha-Ca2+ channel complex for ... Feng found that PPM1A can terminate TGF-beta signaling by inactivating Smad3 via dephosphorylation. Smad3 is an essential ... Strovel ET, Wu D, Sussman DJ (January 2000). "Protein phosphatase 2Calpha dephosphorylates axin and activates LEF-1-dependent ... "Large-scale identification and characterization of human genes that activate NF-kappaB and MAPK signaling pathways". Oncogene. ...
... ubiquitin-conjugated TRAFfic signals control stop-and-go for MAPK signaling complexes". Immunological Reviews. 228 (1): 225-240 ... Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin ... Cytokine signaling through MAP3K1 utilises two-stage cell signaling to recruit the signal transduction mechanism to cytokine ... August 2008). "Essential cytoplasmic translocation of a cytokine receptor-assembled signaling complex". Science. 321 (5889): ...
Presenilin 1 has been shown to form a complex with beta-catenin, an important component in Wnt signaling, and stabilize beta- ... "Presenilin couples the paired phosphorylation of beta-catenin independent of axin: implications for beta-catenin activation in ... These evidences collectively suggest a critical role of presenilin 1 in the Notch signaling pathway. Wnt signaling pathway has ... Presenilin-1 is one of the four core proteins in the gamma secretase complex, which is considered to play an important role in ...
"Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia". The EMBO Journal. 25 (8): 1646 ... "Arkadia represses the expression of myoblast differentiation markers through degradation of Ski and the Ski-bound Smad complex ... Niederländer C, Walsh JJ, Episkopou V, Jones CM (Apr 2001). "Arkadia enhances nodal-related signalling to induce mesendoderm". ... and act as a modulator of the nodal signaling cascade, which is essential for the induction of mesoderm during embryonic ...
2014) Ras Stabilization via Aberrant Activation of Wnt/b-catenin Signaling Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis. Science Signaling ... He served as the Chief of the National Research Laboratory and Molecular Complex Control at Yonsei University. Currently, he is ... 2017) Small molecule binding of the Axin-RGS domain promotes β-catenin and Ras degradation. Nature Chemical Biology. (2016) ... "Ras Stabilization Through Aberrant Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis". Science Signaling ...
Xiong Y, Zhou L, Su Z, Song J, Sun Q, Liu SS, Xia Y, Wang Z, Lu D (2019-02-05). "Longdaysin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling ... Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin ... If CRY binds to PER before it is phosphorylated by CK1ε, these three proteins stabilize into a complex that can enter the ... On the other hand, the protein complex FBXL3 mediates the degradation of CRY proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus. ...
Zolnierowicz S (Oct 2000). "Type 2A protein phosphatase, the complex regulator of numerous signaling pathways". Biochemical ... Hsu W, Zeng L, Costantini F (Feb 1999). "Identification of a domain of Axin that binds to the serine/threonine protein ... "Polyoma small and middle T antigens and SV40 small t antigen form stable complexes with protein phosphatase 2A". Cell. 60 (1): ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ...
Lee YS, Han JM, Son SH, Choi JW, Jeon EJ, Bae SC, Park YI, Kim S (July 2008). "AIMP1/p43 downregulates TGF-beta signaling via ... Guo X, Ramirez A, Waddell DS, Li Z, Liu X, Wang XF (January 2008). "Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate ... "The tumour suppressor RASSF1A promotes MDM2 self-ubiquitination by disrupting the MDM2-DAXX-HAUSP complex". The EMBO Journal. ... Abe Y, Oda-Sato E, Tobiume K, Kawauchi K, Taya Y, Okamoto K, Oren M, Tanaka N (March 2008). "Hedgehog signaling overrides p53- ...
RIP1/RIP3 Necrosome: A signalling complex involved in necrotic cell death. Inflammasomes: The AIM2 and NLRP3 inflammasomes are ... proteins to recruit the Axin complex for inactivation. B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome: The B-cell receptor (BCR) binds ... Prabakaran, Sudhakaran (2015). "B cell receptor signaling dynamics". Science Signaling. 8 (384): ec186-ec186. doi:10.1126/ ... "A Role of Dishevelled in Relocating Axin to the Plasma Membrane during Wingless Signaling". Current Biology. 13 (11): 960-966. ...
Here, we review pivotal regulatory events in the Wnt signaling pathway that drive cancer growth. We then discuss the roles of ... Underscoring this physiological importance, deregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway is associated with many disease states, ... the established negative Wnt regulator, casein kinase 1α (CK1α), in Wnt signaling. Although the study of CK1α has been ongoing ... Wnt signaling regulates numerous cellular processes during embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. ...
We speculate that additional, potentially complex activities of tankyrase beyond WNT signaling may further support ... stabilizing the axin-catenin complex, and increasing cytoplasmic retention of β-catenin (Kim et al., 2013; Schmitz et al., 2013 ... CREB and PI3K signaling, and independence from FGF and MEK/ERK signaling (Fig. 3A,B). Notably, although LIF withdrawal reduced ... in primed rodent mEpiSCs and primed conventional hESCs paradoxically increased WNT signaling by increasing axin expression, ...
Destruction complex dynamics: Wnt/ß-catenin signaling alters Axin-GSK3ß interactions in vivo. Lybrand, Daniel B; Naiman, Misha ...
... receptor signaling complex scaffold activity ubiquitin protein ligase binding protein complex scaffold identical protein ... AXIN1 is a cytoplasmic protein which contains a regulation of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain and a disheveled and axin (DIX) ... positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway beta-catenin destruction complex assembly beta-catenin destruction ... Wnt-activated signaling pathway involved in forebrain neuron fate commitment negative regulation of Wnt signaling pathway ...
Axin Signaling Complex. *Calcifying Nanoparticles. *COP9 Signalosome Complex. *Dynactin Complex. *Dystrophin-Associated Protein ... P-TEFb kinase complex phosphorylates histone H1 to regulate expression of cellular and HIV-1 genes. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 24; ... "Multienzyme Complexes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Multienzyme Complexes" by people in this website by year, and ...
... catenin signaling pathway by stabilizing the beta-catenin destruction complex through a competing association with axin ... May activate non-canonical Wnt signaling. In cell surface growth factor/Ras signaling pathways proposed to inhibit ERK ... Involved in TGF-beta receptor signaling and facilitates phosphorylation of the signal transducer SMAD2. Mediates TFG-beta- ... signaling mediated by SRC activation; seems to compete with AR for interaction with SRC. Plays a role in the CSF-1 signal ...
TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT (Homo sapiens) * Degradation of AXIN (Homo sapiens) * Ub-RibC-AXIN is degraded by ... Downstream TCR signaling (Homo sapiens) * 26S proteasome processes K48PolyUb-K21,22-p-S32,36-IkBA:NF-kB complex to form NF-kB ... Cytokine Signaling in Immune system (Homo sapiens) * Signaling by Interleukins (Homo sapiens) * Interleukin-1 family signaling ... MAPK family signaling cascades (Homo sapiens) * MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling (Homo sapiens) * RAF/MAP kinase cascade (Homo sapiens) * ...
Although the key molecules required for transducing a Wnt signal have been identified, a quantitative understanding of this... ... Recent studies have demonstrated that axin, which coordinates beta-catenin degradation, is itself degraded. ... Wnt signaling plays an important role in both oncogenesis and development. Activation of the Wnt pathway results in ... The roles of APC and Axin derived from experimental and theoretical analysis of the Wnt pathway.. ...
... is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and ... Wnt Signaling Pathway. A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated ... Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is ... Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the ...
Wnt signaling is a prominent pathway at the synapse and is required for synaptic plasticity and maintenance in the adult brain ... Wnt signalling is a prominent pathway at the synapse and is required for synaptic plasticity and maintenance in the adult brain ... In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on deregulation of Wnt signaling in the context of aging and AD. Emerging ... In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on deregulation of Wnt signalling in the context of ageing and AD. Emerging ...
Axin Signaling Complex [D12.776.476.081] Axin Signaling Complex * Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776. ...
Axin Signaling Complex. *Calcineurin. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. *Casein Kinases. *Class I ...
Multiprotein Complexes [D05.500] * Amyloid [D05.500.049] * Apoptosomes [D05.500.099] * Axin Signaling Complex [D05.500.117] ... An enzyme complex that catalyzes the transfer of GALACTOSE from UDP GALACTOSE to GLUCOSE, forming LACTOSE. The enzyme complex ... An enzyme complex that catalyzes the transfer of GALACTOSE from UDP GALACTOSE to GLUCOSE, forming LACTOSE. The enzyme complex ...
Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, forms a complex with GSK-3β and β-catenin and promotes GSK-3β- ... IGF-1R signaling regulates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated whether the IGF-1R/ β- ... Wnt signaling regulates blood pressure by downregulating a GSK-3β-mediated pathway to enhance insulin signaling in the central ... T IGF-1R/β-catenin signaling axis is involved in type 2 diabetic osteoporosis. %A Zhi-Da Zhang. %A Hui Ren. %A Wei-Xi Wang. %A ...
Fifteen complexes of each antagonist were generated. The lowest docked energy complex of each antagonist was then minimized ... Axin 1 antibody. ... complexes to mass chromatin and Wnt focus on loci and that ... Table 3 Distances between pharmacophore features derived using different LPA receptor complexes. screening experiments. Docking ... signaling (Belenkaya et al., 2002; Kramps et al., 2002; Parker et al., 2002; Thompson et al., 2002). Released LY2603618 (IC-83) ...
Normally, GSK3 is definitely portion of a complex with the proteins APC and AXIN, the so-called damage complex. This complex ... WNT signaling in the mesenchymal transition In the canonical WNT/-catenin pathway, WNT 1st binds to Frizzled cell surface ... Cadherins are a large family of transmembrane glycoproteins involved in intercellular adhesions and signaling. ubatubasat , ... Cadherins are a large family of transmembrane glycoproteins involved in intercellular adhesions and signaling. particular. ...
Signaling by WNT (Mus musculus) * Degradation of beta-catenin by the destruction complex (Mus musculus) * AXIN is ... CTNNB1:p-AXIN:GSK3:CK1alpha:ub-APC:PP2A:AMER1 complex [cytosol] (Mus musculus) * p-AXIN:GSK3:CK1alpha:ub-APC:PP2A:AMER1 complex ... CTNNB1:p-AXIN:GSK3:CK1alpha:ub-APC:PP2A:AMER1 complex [cytosol] (Mus musculus) * p-AXIN:GSK3:CK1alpha:ub-APC:PP2A:AMER1 complex ... p-S37,T41,S45 CTNNB1:p-AXIN:GSK3:CK1alpha:ub-APC:PP2A:AMER1 complex [cytosol] (Mus musculus) * p-AXIN:GSK3:CK1alpha:ub-APC:PP2A ...
T cell factor/lymphoid-enhancing factor reporter activity and induced β-catenin/Axin/GSK-3β complex formation, a known ... Lu D, Zhao Y, Tawatao R, Cottam HB, Sen M, Leoni LM, Kipps TJ, Corr M, Carson DA: Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in ... However, the relationship between ω3-PUFAs and β-catenin, one of the key components of the Wnt signaling pathway, in human ... The tumor size, levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling molecules and apoptosis levels were analyzed to examine the influence of ω3- ...
... typically shows an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma as a complex solid/cystic lesion with heterogeneous signal intensity. The ... with activation of downstream targets such as Axin-2. [9, 30] Papillary craniopharyngiomas and other sellar region lesions do ... 12] Complex sellar lesions consisting of pituitary adenoma intimately admixed with Rathke cyst and metaplastic squamous ... This mutation results in nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin protein and dysregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway, ...
This results in a reduction of APC binding to the degradation complex, which activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and ... AXIN, and APC [2][3][4]. In this case, CTNNB1 is the gene that specifically encodes β-catenin. Mutation of β-catenin is ... Figure 1. Regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HCC. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HCC is regulated by (A) DNA methylation, (B ... Apart from gene regulation, aberrant β-catenin signaling also negatively regulates certain signaling cascades: for example, the ...
Roles of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the gastric cancer stem cells proliferation and salinomycin treatment. Cell Death Dis. ... CTNNBIP1 is one of the molecules that inhibit β-catenin from forming a complex with TCF/LEF and then inactivates the ... or Axin. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3322-6 ... Clevers H, Nusse R. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and disease. ... Molecular genetic analysis of malignant melanomas for aberrations of the Wnt signaling pathway genes CTNNB1, APC, ICAT and BTRC ...
The scaffold of this so-called degradation complex is provided by conductin or its homologue axin, both of which are essential ... Diversin is able to potentiate FRAT-1 mediated activation of the b-catenin signal in a conductin-dependent manner. This synergy ... Ternary complex formation is dependent on conductin dimerization, since dimerization- deficient conductin mutants fail to ... Initial experiments focused on the impact of conductin on the signalling activity of b-catenin. Conductin was identified in our ...
AXIN mutants destabilize the destruction complex, activating WNT signaling. *Removal of licensing factors from origins ... deletions in the AXIN genes in hepatocellular carcinoma result in elevated WNT signaling ... DNA Damage Response, Signal Transduction By P53 Class Mediator. *Positive Regulation Of Proteolysis Involved In Cellular ... Anaphase-promoting Complex-dependent Proteasomal Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Catabolic Process. *Mitotic G1 DNA Damage ...
2013 SCI CRIg signals induce anti-intracellular bacterial phagosome activity in a chloride intracellular channel 3-dependent ... 2012 SCI The SWI/SNF-like BAF Complex Is Essential for Early B Cell Development: The Journal of Immunology. 188(8):3791~3803 ( ... 2017 SCI-E Niclosamide is a potential therapeutic for familial adenomatosis polyposis by disrupting Axin-GSK3 interaction: ... 2008 SCI ER71 acts downstream of BMP, Notch, and Wnt signaling in blood and vessel progenitor specification: Cell Stem Cell. 2: ...
Wnt receptors and signaling pathways, beta-catenin/Tcf complexes and gene expression, Wnt signaling in development, cancer, ... Both dsh and Axin localized to branch points, with dsh upstream of Axin. Moreover, tethering Axin to mitochondria was ... signaling. Dsh membrane localization reflects the activation of Fz/PCP signaling, revealing that the initially symmetric signal ... The core planar cell polarity signaling mechanism comprises two protein complexes that segregate to opposite sides of each ...
Indeed, TrPAR2 cannot form the PAR1 -PAR2 complex, obstructing thereby the flow of signals downstream. Elucidation of the ... docking demonstrated the co-association between either PAR1 or PAR2 with LRP5/6 forming an axis of PAR-LRP5/6-Axin. Noticeably ... Indeed, TrPAR2 cannot form the PAR1 -PAR2 complex, obstructing thereby the flow of signals downstream. Elucidation of the ... docking demonstrated the co-association between either PAR1 or PAR2 with LRP5/6 forming an axis of PAR-LRP5/6-Axin. Noticeably ...
... signal_pept_1_Ser-AS 1 XM0045240902 IPR040155 FAMILY:CEBPZ/Mak21-like 1 XM0045257772 IPR001999 CONSERVED_SITE:Osteonectin_CS 1 ... RZZ-complex_KNTC1/ROD_C 1 XM0045197962 IPR016848 FAMILY:RNase_P/MRP_p29-subunit 1 XM0045221621 IPR038175 HOMOLOGOUS_SUPERFAMILY ... Axin_b-cat-bd 1 XM0045291012 IPR039724 FAMILY:WDR91 1 XM0045211052 IPR006876 FAMILY:LMBR1-like_membr_prot 2 XM0045370402; ... Signal_recog_particle_SRP54_M 1 XM0045251512 IPR027084 FAMILY:Prot_kin_Mps1_fam 1 XM0045184352 IPR039787 FAMILY:ENDOU 2 ...
Mouse Importin alpha: non-phosphorylated SV40 CN peptide complex. 1qz7. Beta-catenin binding domain of Axin in complex with ... Its signaling activity is distinct from its role in cadherin-mediated cell adhesion, and it probably acts either in the cytosol ... Crystal structure of p120 catenin in complex with E-cadherin. 3l6y. Crystal structure of p120 catenin in complex with E- ... A minimal NLS from human scramblase 4 complexed with importin alpha. 3qhe. Crystal structure of the complex between the ...
Deactivation of the beta-catenin transactivating complex. *Disassembly of the destruction complex and recruitment of AXIN to ... Protein-containing Complex Assembly. *Bicellular Tight Junction Assembly. *Negative Regulation Of Canonical Wnt Signaling ... Disassembly of the destruction complex and recruitment of AXIN to the membrane ...
  • AXIN1 is a cytoplasmic protein which contains a regulation of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain and a disheveled and axin (DIX) domain and is thought to function as a negative regulator of the WNT signaling pathway that regulates embryonic axis formation. (thermofisher.com)
  • The roles of APC and Axin derived from experimental and theoretical analysis of the Wnt pathway. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Although the key molecules required for transducing a Wnt signal have been identified, a quantitative understanding of this pathway has been lacking. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Wnt signaling is a prominent pathway at the synapse and is required for synaptic plasticity and maintenance in the adult brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Wnt signaling was originally discovered as a tumorigenic pathway in the early 1980s. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we will focus on new studies indicating a deregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the aging brain and Alzheimer's disease (AD). (frontiersin.org)
  • IGF-1R signaling regulates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. (zju.edu.cn)
  • WNT signaling in the mesenchymal transition In the canonical WNT/-catenin pathway, WNT 1st binds to Frizzled cell surface receptors and low-density lipoprotein-related receptor proteins 5 or 6 [75C78]. (ubatubasat.com)
  • However, the relationship between ω3-PUFAs and β-catenin, one of the key components of the Wnt signaling pathway, in human pancreatic cancer remains poorly characterized. (karger.com)
  • Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma" Encyclopedia , https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/40264 (accessed April 21, 2024). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Apart from β-catenin, deregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is also caused by mutations in protein degradation complexes [ 10 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • This results in a reduction of APC binding to the degradation complex, which activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and enhances targeted gene transcription [ 11 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Abstract The evolutionary conserved Wnt/b-catenin signalling pathway regulates a variety of biological processes. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Using a yeast-2-hybrid approach, this study aims to identify novel conductin interacting proteins and to characterize their regulatory impact on the Wnt signalling pathway. (fu-berlin.de)
  • 1998). A synthetic reportergene-assay was established and provides evidence for conductins role as a negative regulator of the Wnt/b-catenin signalling pathway. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Beta-catenin participates in signal transduction and developmental patterning in Xenopus and Drosophila embryos as a component of the Wnt signaling pathway. (embl.de)
  • AXIN1 interacts with adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), beta-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, forming a tetrameric complex resulting in the regulation of the stabilization of beta-catenin. (thermofisher.com)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that axin, which coordinates beta-catenin degradation, is itself degraded. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Predictions based on the analysis of the reference state were used iteratively to develop a more refined model from which we analyzed the effects of prolonged and transient Wnt stimulation on beta-catenin and axin turnover. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • We can also explain the importance of axin degradation in amplifying and sharpening the Wnt signal, and we show that the dependence of axin degradation on APC is an essential part of an unappreciated regulatory loop that prevents the accumulation of beta-catenin at decreased APC concentrations. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Beta-catenin is essential for cadherin-based cell adhesion and Wnt/Wingless growth factor signaling. (embl.de)
  • Signal transduction of beta-catenin. (embl.de)
  • The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein is also implicated in beta-catenin signaling. (embl.de)
  • Wnt signalosome: Transduction of Wnt signals from the plasma membrane depends on clustering of LRP6 receptors with Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins to recruit the Axin complex for inactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An insight from our model, which we confirmed experimentally, is that the two scaffold proteins axin and APC promote the formation of degradation complexes in very different ways. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Wnt proteins are a family of secreted lipoproteins that activate different intracellular signaling pathways by binding to several receptors and co-receptors at the cell surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon binding of Wnt ligands to their receptors Frizzled and co-receptors LRP5/6, the scaffold proteins Disheveled (Dvl) and Axin are recruited to form a signalosome at the cell membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • These proteins are involved in the structural integrity of mesenchymal cells, both through integrin signaling and their capacity to modify the extracellular environment [26, 27]. (ubatubasat.com)
  • Normally, GSK3 is definitely portion of a complex with the proteins APC and AXIN, the so-called damage complex. (ubatubasat.com)
  • B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome: The B-cell receptor (BCR) binds antigen and undergoes clustering to induce signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overarching goal of the research in my lab is to understand how signal transduction pathways regulate morphogenesis - the emergence of spatial organization - during development. (stanford.edu)
  • In multicellular organisms, signal transduction is essential to these processes, yet while our understanding of how signals regulate gene expression is relatively advanced, our understanding of how signals direct the acquisition of specific shapes and forms is less advanced. (stanford.edu)
  • The armadillo (Arm) repeat is an approximately 40 amino acid long tandemly repeated sequence motif first identified in the Drosophila melanogaster segment polarity gene armadillo involved in signal transduction through wingless. (embl.de)
  • The scaffold of this so-called degradation complex is provided by conductin or its homologue axin, both of which are essential for efficient b-catenin degradation. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Three major Wnt signaling pathways have been described: canonical Wnt/ß-catenin, planar cell polarity (PCP), and Wnt/Ca 2+ pathways, which lead to changes in gene expression and/or cytoskeleton reorganization. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2021 SCI-E Ssu72-HNF4α Signaling Axis Classify the Transition From Steatohepatitis To Hepatocellular Carcinoma: CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION. (ncc-gcsp.ac.kr)
  • Although further research is needed to determine the precise contribution of deficient Wnt signaling to AD pathogenesis, targeting Wnt signaling components may provide novel therapeutic avenues for synapse protection or restoration in the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we investigated whether the IGF-1R/ β-catenin signaling axis plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic osteoporosis (DOP). (zju.edu.cn)
  • Our results suggest that the IGF-1R/β-catenin signaling axis plays a role in the pathogenesis of DOP. (zju.edu.cn)
  • Wnt/β-catenin signaling is crucial in contributing to HCC pathogenesis, where genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations are primarily revealed [ 1 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • T-cell receptor (TCR) signalosome: Antigen presentation to T-cells is recognised by the T-cell receptor (TCR), which initiates clustering and activation of downstream signalling to induce T-cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, TrPAR 2 cannot form the PAR 1 -PAR 2 complex, obstructing thereby the flow of signals downstream. (agri.gov.il)
  • Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. (lookformedical.com)
  • 2008). As opposed to function in both most characterized genes and Wnt/-catenin signaling happens to be deficient extensively. (tam-receptor.com)
  • The primary goal of my work on PCP has been to elucidate, at molecular and cell biological levels, the nature of the signals that induce subcellular asymmetry, and how cells then respond to this molecular asymmetry to orient their cytoskeletons. (stanford.edu)
  • Signalosomes are large supramolecular protein complexes that undergo clustering (oligomerisation or polymerisation) and/or colloidal phase separation to form biomolecular condensates that increase the local concentration and signalling activity of the individual components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoprecipitation analyses and protein-protein docking demonstrated the co-association between either PAR 1 or PAR 2 with LRP5/6 forming an axis of PAR-LRP5/6-Axin. (agri.gov.il)
  • IGF-1R/β-catenin signaling axis is involved in type 2 diabetic osteoporosis[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2019, 20(10): 838-848. (zju.edu.cn)
  • 2022 SCI-E The Pellino1?PKCu Signaling Axis Is an Essential Target for Improving Antitumor CD8þ T Lymphocyte Function: CANCER IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH. (ncc-gcsp.ac.kr)
  • The enzyme complex is composed of a B subunit, ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN , which changes the substrate specificity of the A subunit, N-ACETYLLACTOSAMINE SYNTHASE , from N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE to glucose making lactose synthesis the preferred reaction. (nih.gov)
  • There, it serves as a subunit of a high-mobility group (HMG) package transcription element complex. (ubatubasat.com)
  • The N-terminal phosphorylation of b-catenin that initiates its turnover is achieved in a cytoplasmic multiprotein complex. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Destruction complex dynamics: Wnt/ß-catenin signaling alters Axin-GSK3ß interactions in vivo . (bvsalud.org)
  • We within vitro and in vivo data that Pygo2 facilitates the trimethylation of histone H3 K4 by binding to K4-methyl histone H3 and recruiting histone H3 K4 methyltransferase (HMT) complexes to mass chromatin and Wnt focus on loci and that chromatin function of Pygo2 is necessary for ideal expansive self-renewal of mammary progenitor cells. (tam-receptor.com)
  • P-TEFb kinase complex phosphorylates histone H1 to regulate expression of cellular and HIV-1 genes. (umassmed.edu)
  • This complex phosphorylates and therefore degrades -catenin [79, 80]. (ubatubasat.com)
  • Furthermore, SNAIL transcription factors have a serious impact on epigenetic rules of transcription through recruitment of several histone methyltransferases, demethylases, acetyltransferases and deacetylases to the histone-DNA complex, thus resulting in the transcription of genes associated with a mesenchymal phenotype and concurrent repression of epithelial genes, such as occludins, claudins, mucins and cytokeratins [24, 25] ATB 346 (Fig.?1). (ubatubasat.com)
  • 2021 SCI-E Ssu72 phosphatase directly binds to ZAP-70, thereby providing fine-tuning of TCR signaling and preventing spontaneous inflammation: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. (ncc-gcsp.ac.kr)
  • Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to play a significant role in HCC development, progression and clinical impact on tumor behavior. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Wnt signaling plays an important role in both oncogenesis and development. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • In the nervous system, Wnt signaling plays a vital role from early patterning of the nervous system to higher functions including synaptic plasticity and memory in the adult brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Within the past year, Armadillo and beta-catenin's role in transducing the Wingless/Wnt signal has been substantially clarified. (embl.de)
  • Its signaling activity is distinct from its role in cadherin-mediated cell adhesion, and it probably acts either in the cytosol or in the nucleus. (embl.de)
  • These mutations cause dysfunction of the destruction complex and accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus in approximately 40-70% of HCC cases [ 1 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Multienzyme Complexes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This signaling cascade is also linked to a variety of diseases, from cancer to bone and cardiovascular diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • In each case, PCP is critical to the function of these cells and tissues, and errors in the signaling system controlling PCP lead to human diseases and developmental defects, including congenital deafness, neural tube closure defects and cardiac outflow tract anomalies. (stanford.edu)
  • An enzyme complex that catalyzes the transfer of GALACTOSE from UDP GALACTOSE to GLUCOSE , forming LACTOSE . (nih.gov)
  • Initial experiments focused on the impact of conductin on the signalling activity of b-catenin. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Emerging studies suggest that enhancing Wnt signaling could boost synaptic function during aging, and ameliorate synaptic pathology in AD. (frontiersin.org)
  • There, they too form a complex with SMAD4 to function like a transcription element regulating manifestation of genes inducing EMT [74]. (ubatubasat.com)
  • Importantly, flies have proven to be a remarkably well-conserved model for the molecular mechanisms of signaling events that direct vertebrate development. (stanford.edu)
  • Because of the availability of remarkably powerful genetic, molecular and cell biological tools, we use the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, as our primary model for investigating the fundamental mechanisms of PCP signaling. (stanford.edu)
  • Therefore, it is responsible for CRL deneddylation - at the same time, it is able to bind deneddylated cullin-RING complex and retain them in deactivated form. (wikipedia.org)
  • RIP1/RIP3 Necrosome: A signalling complex involved in necrotic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Multienzyme Complexes" by people in this website by year, and whether "Multienzyme Complexes" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Consistent with this view, increasing evidence suggests that Aß triggers deregulation of Wnt signaling, resulting in the dampening of this important cascade at the synapse. (frontiersin.org)
  • MRI of a papillary craniopharyngioma characteristically depicts an enhancing, predominantly solid, circumscribed mass without the calcification or complex cystic architecture of the adamantinomatous variant. (medscape.com)
  • 2021 SCI-E Ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic, suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition of A549 lung cancer cells via blocking of NDP-induced WNT signaling,: BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY. (ncc-gcsp.ac.kr)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically shows an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma as a complex solid/cystic lesion with heterogeneous signal intensity. (medscape.com)