Axin Protein: A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin signaling complex which binds to ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI PROTEIN; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE 3; and CASEIN KINASE I.Axin Signaling Complex: A specific complex of WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY proteins that mediates the phosphorylation-dependent destruction of cytosolic BETA-CATENIN. The complex is disrupted by cell surface binding of WNT PROTEINS, which allows beta-catenin levels to rise to the point where they migrate to the CELL NUCLEUS and activate transcription.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Tankyrases: A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Glycogen Synthase Kinases: A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1: A T-cell factor that plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-6: An LDL-receptor related protein that combines with cell surface FRIZZLED RECEPTORS to form WNT PROTEIN-binding receptors. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in regulation of vascular cell proliferation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Armadillo Domain Proteins: A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Craniosynostoses: Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 4: A 180-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 4 and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5: LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.

Small molecule-based disruption of the Axin/beta-catenin protein complex regulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. (1/6)

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Destruction complex function in the Wnt signaling pathway of Drosophila requires multiple interactions between Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 and Armadillo. (2/6)

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The Adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor is essential for Axin complex assembly and function and opposes Axin's interaction with Dishevelled. (3/6)

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LRRK2 functions as a Wnt signaling scaffold, bridging cytosolic proteins and membrane-localized LRP6. (4/6)

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Role of the beta catenin destruction complex in mediating chemotherapy-induced senescence-associated secretory phenotype. (5/6)

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Stochastic machines as a colocalization mechanism for scaffold protein function. (6/6)

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The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Pathological angiogenesis is the hallmark of diseases such as cancer and retinopathies. Although tissue hypoxia and inflammation are recognized as central drivers of vessel growth, relatively little is known about the process that bridges the two. In a mouse model of ischemic retinopathy, we found that hypoxic regions of the retina showed only modest rates of apoptosis despite severely compromised metabolic supply. Using transcriptomic analysis and inducible loss-of-function genetics, we demonstrated that ischemic retinal cells instead engage the endoplasmic reticulum stress inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) pathway that, through its endoribonuclease activity, induces a state of senescence in which cells adopt a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We also detected SASP-associated cytokines (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor) in the vitreous humor of patients suffering from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. ...
Cellular senescence is a complex phenotype observed in diverse tissues at distinct developmental stages. In adults, senescence likely acts to irreversibly prevent proliferation of damaged cells. Senescent cells appear during chronological aging, aberrant oncogene expression, and exposure to DNA damaging agents. Expression of the tumor suppressor p16INK4a increases with age in numerous mouse and human tissues and, thus, considered a reliable marker. Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) leads to delayed increase in p16INK4a expression in mice tissues and cancer-treated patients Senescent cells accumulate in tissues and secrete a range of cytokines, chemokines, and proteases known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Why senescent cells accumulate in vivo remains unclear. One theory suggests senescence accumulates with a decline in immune functions with age. While senescent cells support wound healing, accumulation of senescent cells also appears to contribute to tumor growth and ...
Communication between cells is quintessential for biological function and cellular homeostasis. Membrane-bound extracellular vesicles known as exosomes play pivotal roles in mediating intercellular communication in tumor microenvironments. These vesicles and exosomes carry and transfer biomolecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Here we focus on exosomes secreted from senescent cells. Cellular senescence can alter the microenvironment and influence neighbouring cells via the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which consists of factors such as cytokines, chemokines, matrix proteases and growth factors. This review focuses on exosomes as emerging SASP components that can confer pro-tumorigenic effects in pre-malignant recipient cells. This is in addition to their role in carrying SASP factors. Transfer of such exosomal components may potentially lead to cell proliferation, inflammation and chromosomal instability, and consequently cancer initiation. Senescent cells are ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
A Comparative Study of Associative Classifiers in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation Analysis: 10.4018/978-1-60960-067-9.ch011: Discovering how Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) can be differentiated is an important topic in stem cell therapy and tissue engineering. In a general context
Advancement of Sustainable Medical Innovations. There is declining productivity in biomedical research and development in terms of new product approvals, in part due to an inherently risk averse regulatory pathway for novel healthcare innovations. This is despite major achievements and opportunities in novel technological platforms. The portfolio of risk:benefit methodologies have been applied inconsistently and often conflated with cost-effective analysis. This yields results that do not effectively inform clinical practice or strategies for biomedical innovation. This investigation aims to assess risk:benefit appraisal methodologies in the analysis of published randomized controlled trials for pre-licensure biomedical.. Targeting the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype, Buck Institute for Research on Aging. Senescent cells also develop resistance to signals for apoptosis (cellular suicide) and secrete inflammatory signaling molecules and protein-degrading enzymes into their local ...
Complete information for AXIN2 gene (Protein Coding), Axin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Although the induction of senescence in cancer cells is a potent mechanism of tumor suppression, senescent cells remain metabolically active and may secrete a broad spectrum of factors that promote tumorigenicity in neighboring malignant cells. Here we show that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a widely used treatment for advanced prostate cancer, induces a senescence-associated secretory phenotype in prostate cancer epithelial cells, indicated by increases in senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, heterochromatin protein 1 beta foci, and expression of cathepsin B and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. Interestingly, ADT also induced high levels of vimentin expression in prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and in human prostate tumors in vivo. The induction of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype by androgen depletion was mediated, at least in part, by down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, whereas the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate ...
mesenchymal stem cell differentiation involved in metanephric nephron morphogenesis - Ontology Report - Chinchilla Research Resource Database
Loss of functionality during aging of cells and organisms is caused and accompanied by altered cell-to-cell communication and signalling. One factor thereby is the chronic accumulation of senescent cells and the concomitant senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that contributes to microenvironment remodelling and a pro-inflammatory status. While protein based SASP factors have been well characterized, little is known about small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and their miRNA cargo. Therefore, we analysed secretion of sEVs from senescent human dermal fibroblasts and catalogued the therein contained miRNAs. We observed a four-fold increase of sEVs, with a concomitant increase of >80% of all cargo miRNAs. The most abundantly secreted miRNAs were predicted to collectively target mRNAs of pro-apoptotic proteins, and indeed, senescent cell derived sEVs exerted anti-apoptotic activity. In addition, we identified senescence-specific differences in miRNA composition of sEVs, with an increase of miR
Micromotion affects the tissue outcome at the peri-implant site. Interstitial fluid flow, induced by micromotion, may play a curtail part in the mesenchymal stem cell differentiation pathway necessary for bone regeneration. The aim of this project is to model the fluid flow at the peri-implant site composed of a soft tissue, for a glenoid implant for different gap sizes at physiological loading. Robberecht, Evert
Cellular senescence (deterioration) is a critical factor of biological aging that occurs in almost all peripheral tissues but little is known about its role in age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinsons disease (PD). Senescence occurs in dividing cell types and halts cell proliferation (growth) in an irreversible manner. This process is caused by stress and puts cells at risk for tumor formation. Once established, these cells express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), the pro-inflammatory secretion of cytokines and other factors that contribute to the age-related loss of peripheral tissue function. We aim to interrogate induction of senescence and SASP in response to alpha-synuclein (protein clumps) within the most prevalent dividing cell type in the brain, the astrocyte (cells that provide support and clean waste in the brain), and how this in turn affects dopaminergic cell health in relation to PD.. Hypothesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidative stress-induced senescence markedly increases disc cell bioenergetics. AU - Patil, Prashanti. AU - Falabella, Micol. AU - Saeed, Amal. AU - Lee, Dayeong. AU - Kaufman, Brett. AU - Shiva, Sruti. AU - Croix, Claudette St. AU - Van Houten, Ben. AU - Niedernhofer, Laura J.. AU - Robbins, Paul D.. AU - Lee, Joon. AU - Gwendolyn, Sowa. AU - Vo, Nam V.. PY - 2019/6. Y1 - 2019/6. N2 - Cellular senescence is a phenotype characterized by irreversible growth arrest, chronic elevated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix proteases, a phenomenon known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Biomarkers of cellular senescence have been shown to increase with age and degeneration of human disc tissue. Senescent disc cells in culture recapitulate features associated with age-related disc degeneration, including increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, matrix proteases, and fragmentation of matrix proteins. However, little is known of the metabolic ...
HMGB2 expression during chondrogenesis of human MSC. Immunohistochemistry shows that HMGB2 is expressed at days 1 and 3, but that expression is reduced at days 7, 14 upon induction of chondrogenesis. SO: safranin O staining. ...
Acts as a ventralizing factor during embryogenesis. Inhibits axin-mediated JNK activation by binding axin and disrupting axin homodimerization. This in turn antagonizes a Wnt/beta-catenin-independent dorsalization pathway activated by AXIN/JNK-signaling (By similarity ...
1. Bastonini E, Kovacs D, Picardo M. Skin pigmentation and pigmentary disorders: Focus on epidermal/dermal cross-talk. Ann Dermatol. 2016;28:279-89 2. Kim M, Han JH, Kim JH, Park TJ, Kang HY. Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) functions as a melanogenic stimulator; The role of sFRP2 in UV-induced hyperpigmentary disorders. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:236-44 3. Coppé JP, Desprez PY, Krtolica A, Campisi J. The senescence-associated secretory phenotype: The dark side of tumor suppression. Annu Rev Pathol. 2010;5:99-118 4. Tchkonia T, Zhu Y, van Deursen J, Campisi J, Kirkland JL. Cellular senescence and the senescent secretory phenotype: Therapeutic opportunities. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:966-72 5. Kim YH, Choi YW, Lee JH, Soh EY, Kim JH, Park TJ. Senescent tumor cells lead the collective invasion in thyroid cancer. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15208 6. Mine S, Fortunel NO, Pageon H, Asselineau D. Aging alters functionally human dermal papillary fibroblasts but not reticular fibroblasts: A new view ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent and devastating condition for which no curative treatment is available. Exaggerated lung cell senescence may be a major pathogenic factor. Here, we investigated the potential role for mTOR signaling in lung cell senescence and alterations in COPD using lung tissue and derived cultured cells from patients with COPD and from age- and sex-matched control smokers. Cell senescence in COPD was linked to mTOR activation, and mTOR inhibition by low-dose rapamycin prevented cell senescence and inhibited the proinflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype. To explore whether mTOR activation was a causal pathogenic factor, we developed transgenic mice exhibiting mTOR overactivity in lung vascular cells or alveolar epithelial cells. In this model, mTOR activation was sufficient to induce lung cell senescence and to mimic COPD lung alterations, with the rapid development of lung emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, and inflammation. ...
Component of the beta-catenin destruction complex required for regulating CTNNB1 levels through phosphorylation and ubiquitination, and modulating Wnt-signaling (By similarity). Controls dorsoventral patterning via two opposing effects; down-regulates CTNNB1 to inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway and ventralize embryos, but also dorsalizes embryos by activating a Wnt-independent JNK signaling pathway. In Wnt signaling, probably facilitates the phosphorylation of CTNNB1 and APC by GSK3B. Likely to function as a tumor suppressor. Facilitates the phosphorylation of TP53 by HIPK2 upon ultraviolet irradiation. Enhances TGF-beta signaling by recruiting the RNF111 E3 ubiquitin ligase and promoting the degradation of inhibitory SMAD7 (By similarity). Also component of the AXIN1-HIPK2-TP53 complex which controls cell growth, apoptosis and development.
Negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in neuroectodermal patterning. Acts by specifically binding phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2), translocating to the cell membrane and interacting with key regulators of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, such as components of the beta-catenin destruction complex ...
Human AXIN2 partial ORF ( NP_004646, 611 a.a. - 710 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00008313-Q02) - Products - Abnova
Background: The role of mesenchymal stem cell in cellular therapy is the subject of interest for many researchers. The differentiation potential of MSCs and abilities in modulations of the recipients immune system makes them important cells in tissue regenerative studies. MSCs by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines play important role in immunomodulatory systems; however the signaling pathways for releasing of these mediators are not well understood. Glutathione has been shown to play a role in modulation of cytokines in hepatogenic differentiation. Objective: In the current study we aimed to investigate the effects of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, inhibitor for glutathione synthesis) and N-acetylecystin (NAC, an inhibitor for ROS generation) on proinflammatory cytokines production in a hepatogenic differentiation model. Results: BSO and NAC significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α levels at 14 days of differentiation, whereas, NAC decreased the levels of IL-8 at days 2 and 14 of differentiation.
BMP-2 plays an essential role not only in embryonic stem cell differentiation, but also in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and bone formation.
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To determine whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) can exert an anti-osteoporosis role through anti-aging mechanisms, we analyzed the bone phenotype of mice with 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency due to deletion of the enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase, while on a rescue diet. 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency accelerated age-related bone loss by activating the p16/p19 senescence signaling pathway, inhibiting osteoblastic bone formation, and stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption, osteocyte senescence, and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Supplementation of exogenous 1,25(OH)2 D3 corrected the osteoporotic phenotype caused by 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency or natural aging by inhibiting the p16/p19 pathway. The proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and ectopic bone formation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from mice with genetically induced deficiency of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were significantly reduced by mechanisms including increased oxidative stress, DNA ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a small population of cells located in bone marrow and most of the connective tissue. hMSC are multipotent and their ability to differentiate into osteoblast makes them suitable for application in regenerative orthopedics. In this research, I investigated the level of osteogenic differentiation of hMSC after the treatmant with osteoinductive molecules under the standard protocol. In vitro differentiation was evaluated by the analysis of bone markers - alkaline phosphatase and bonesialoprotein and by analysis of markers of stemness. Oct4, Sox2 i Nanog are pluripotency markers of embryonic stem cells but their expression was also confirmed in some types of adult stem cells. The aim of this research was to investigate if they were expressed in hMSC and if their expression decreases during differentiation. Results of RT qPCR showed that Oct4, Sox2 i Nanog are expressed in undifferentiated hMSC and that their expression decreases paralel with the apperance and ...
Looking for online definition of Beta catenin in the Medical Dictionary? Beta catenin explanation free. What is Beta catenin? Meaning of Beta catenin medical term. What does Beta catenin mean?
There are two genes that encode apc in Drosophila, apc 1 and 2. They are largely redundant, and only double mutants lead to strong pathway activation in embryos (Ahmed et al. 2002; McCartney et al. 2006). In apc1 apc2 double mutants, I assayed the ability of membrane-tethered apc2 to block signaling activation. As shown in Figure 1H, there was no real effect on the patterning of the cuticle. In contrast, expression of untethered apc2 rescued to a wild-type cuticle pattern (Figure 1G). I further used the apc1 apc2 double mutants to test the activity of both membrane-tethered and -untethered axin. Interestingly, expression of axin abolished signaling brought about by loss of both apc genes leading to a completely denticle-covered cuticle (Figure 1E). The tethered axin, however, was unable to overcome the loss of apc and signaling was not blocked (naked phenotype, Figure 1F).. To further assay the activity of the membrane-tethered and -untethered apc2 and axin, I expressed all four in a triple ...
Aqeilan, R. I., et al. (2005). WW domain-containing proteins, WWOX and YAP, compete for interaction with ErbB-4 and modulate its transcriptional function. Cancer Res. 65(15): 6764-72. 16061658 Alarcon, C., et al.. (2009). Nuclear CDKs drive Smad transcriptional activation and turnover in BMP and TGF-beta pathways. Cell 139(4): 757-69. PubMed Citation: 19914168 Aragón, E., et al. (2011). A Smad action turnover switch operated by WW domain readers of a phosphoserine code. Genes Dev. 25(12): 1275-88. PubMed Citation: 21685363 Azzolin, L., Panciera, T., Soligo, S., Enzo, E., Bicciato, S., Dupont, S., Bresolin, S., Frasson, C., Basso, G., Guzzardo, V., Fassina, A., Cordenonsi, M. and Piccolo, S. (2014). YAP/TAZ incorporation in the beta-Catenin destruction complex orchestrates the Wnt response. Cell 158: 157-170. PubMed ID: 24976009 Badouel, C., et al. (2009). The FERM-domain protein Expanded regulates Hippo pathway activity via direct interactions with the transcriptional activator Yorkie. Dev. ...
View Notes - 2011_Questions_Week_14_Answers from BIO 349 at University of Texas. 1. What happens when you deplete beta catenin in planarians? -The organism is no longer able to form a posterior side
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... (LEF1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LEF1 gene. Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEF1) is a 48-kD nuclear protein that is expressed in pre-B and T cells. It binds to a functionally important site in the T-cell receptor-alpha (TCRA) enhancer and confers maximal enhancer activity. LEF1 belongs to a family of regulatory proteins that share homology with high mobility group protein-1 (HMG1). LEF1 is highly overexpressed and associated with disease progression and poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is also a promising potential drug target. Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 has been shown to interact with: ALX4, AML-1, CTNNB1, EP300, MITF PIAS4, SMAD2, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138795 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027985 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Milatovich A, Travis A, Grosschedl R, Francke U (Mar 1992). "Gene for lymphoid ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two catenins that were identified became known as α-catenin and β-catenin. A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. B-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Additional catenins such as γ-catenin and δ-catenin have been identified. The name "catenin" was originally selected ('catena' means 'chain' in Latin) because it was suspected that catenins might link cadherins to the cytoskeleton. α-catenin β-catenin δ-catenin γ-catenin All but α-catenin contain armadillo repeats. Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an important role in learning and memory (For full article, see Cadherin-catenin complex in learning and memory). Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. These complexes, which help ...
3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 8806074. Sheikh F, Chen Y, Chen Y, Liang X, Hirschy A, Stenbit AE, Gu Y, Dalton ND, Yajima T, Lu Y, Knowlton KU, Peterson KL, Perriard JC, Chen J (Sep 2006). "alpha-E-catenin inactivation disrupts the cardiomyocyte adherens junction, resulting in cardiomyopathy and susceptibility to wall rupture". Circulation. 114 (10): 1046-55. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.634469. PMID 16923756. Su LK, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (December 1993). "Association of the APC tumor suppressor protein with catenins". Science. 262 (5140): 1734-7. doi:10.1126/science.8259519. PMID 8259519. Daniel JM, Reynolds AB (September 1995). "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha-catenin". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 (9): 4819-24. doi:10.1128/mcb.15.9.4819. PMC 230726 . PMID 7651399. Oyama T, Kanai Y, Ochiai A, Akimoto S, Oda T, Yanagihara K, Nagafuchi A, Tsukita S, Shibamoto S, Ito F (December 1994). "A truncated beta-catenin disrupts ...
3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 10580987. McCrea PD, Turck CW, Gumbiner B (November 1991). "A homolog of the armadillo protein in Drosophila (plakoglobin) associated with E-cadherin". Science. 254 (5036): 1359-61. doi:10.1126/science.1962194. PMID 1962194. Kemler R (September 1993). "From cadherins to catenins: cytoplasmic protein interactions and regulation of cell adhesion". Trends in Genetics. 9 (9): 317-21. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90250-l. PMID 8236461. Gottardi CJ, Peifer M (March 2008). "Terminal regions of beta-catenin come into view". Structure. 16 (3): 336-8. doi:10.1016/j.str.2008.02.005. PMC 2329800 . PMID 18334207. Xing Y, Takemaru K, Liu J, Berndt JD, Zheng JJ, Moon RT, Xu W (March 2008). "Crystal structure of a full-length beta-catenin". Structure. 16 (3): 478-87. doi:10.1016/j.str.2007.12.021. PMC 4267759 . PMID 18334222. Vleminckx K, Kemler R, Hecht A (March 1999). "The C-terminal transactivation domain of beta-catenin is necessary and sufficient for signaling by the LEF-1/beta-catenin ...
... (APC) also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 (DP2.5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene. The APC protein is a negative regulator that controls beta-catenin concentrations and interacts with E-cadherin, which are involved in cell adhesion. Mutations in the APC gene may result in colorectal cancer. APC is classified as a tumor suppressor gene. Tumor suppressor genes prevent the uncontrolled growth of cells that may result in cancerous tumors. The protein made by the APC gene plays a critical role in several cellular processes that determine whether a cell may develop into a tumor. The APC protein helps control how often a cell divides, how it attaches to other cells within a tissue, how the cell polarizes and the morphogenesis of the 3D structures, or whether a cell moves within or away from a tissue. This protein also helps ensure that the chromosome number in cells produced through cell division is correct. The APC protein accomplishes these tasks ...
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors. Three Wnt signaling pathways have been characterized: the canonical Wnt pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway. All three pathways are activated by binding a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the Dishevelled protein inside the cell. The canonical Wnt pathway leads to regulation of gene transcription, and is thought to be negatively regulated in part by the SPATS1 gene. The noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cytoskeleton that is responsible for the shape of the cell. The noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the cell. Wnt signaling pathways use either nearby cell-cell communication (paracrine) or same-cell communication (autocrine). They are highly ...
Wnt inhibitory factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WIF1 gene. WIF1 is a lipid-binding protein that binds to Wnt proteins and prevents them from triggering signalling. WNT proteins are extracellular signaling molecules involved in the control of embryonic development. This gene encodes a secreted protein, which binds WNT proteins and inhibits their activities. This protein contains a WNT inhibitory factor (WIF) domain and 5 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. It may be involved in mesoderm segmentation. This protein is found to be present in fish, amphibia and mammals. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000156076 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020218 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: WIF1 WNT inhibitory factor 1". Malinauskas T, Aricescu AR, Lu W, Siebold C, Jones EY (July 2011). "Modular mechanism of Wnt signaling inhibition by Wnt inhibitory factor 1". Nature ...
Proto-oncogene protein Wnt-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT1 gene. The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It is very conserved in evolution, and the protein encoded by this gene is known to be 98% identical to the mouse Wnt1 protein at the amino acid level. The studies in mouse indicate that the Wnt1 protein functions in the induction of the mesencephalon and cerebellum. This gene was originally considered as a candidate gene for Joubert syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder with cerebellar hypoplasia as a leading feature. However, further studies suggested that the gene mutations might not have a significant role in Joubert syndrome. This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT10B, in the ...
... (LEF1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LEF1 gene. Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEF1) is a 48-kD nuclear protein that is expressed in pre-B and T cells. It binds to a functionally important site in the T-cell receptor-alpha (TCRA) enhancer and confers maximal enhancer activity. LEF1 belongs to a family of regulatory proteins that share homology with high mobility group protein-1 (HMG1). LEF1 is highly overexpressed and associated with disease progression and poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is also a promising potential drug target. Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 has been shown to interact with: ALX4, AML-1, CTNNB1, EP300, MITF PIAS4, SMAD2, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138795 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027985 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Milatovich A, Travis A, Grosschedl R, Francke U (Mar 1992). "Gene for lymphoid ...
... is a secreted protein that in humans is encoded by the Wnt4 gene, found on chromosome 1. It promotes female sex development and represses male sex development. Loss of function can have serious consequences, such as female to male sex reversal. The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and embryogenesis. WNT4 is involved in a couple features of pregnancy as a downstream target of BMP2. For example, it regulates endometrial stromal cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. These processes are all necessary for the development of an embryo. Ablation in female mice results in subfertility, with defects in implantation and decidualization. For instance, there is a decrease in responsiveness to progesterone signaling. Furthermore, postnatal uterine differentiation is characterized by a ...
Skrót Wnt powstał z połączenia nazw Wg (wingless) i Int[2]. Gen wingless został opisany u Drosophila melanogaster jako gen regulujący biegunowość segmentów ciała owada, regulującego proces segmentacji w embriogenezie[3], a także proces powstawania odnóży w trakcie przepoczwarzenia[4]. Geny INT zostały zidentyfikowane u kręgowców jako geny sąsiadujące z miejscami integracji genów mysiego wirusa raka sutka (mouse mammary tumor virus, MMTV)[5]. Int-1 i wingless zostały uznane za homologi na podstawie analizy sekwencji aminokwasowej kodowanych białek. Mutacje wingless u muszek powodowały powstanie bezskrzydłych mutantów, natomiast guzy wywołane przez MMTV zawierały liczne sekwencje genetyczne wirusa, powodujące nadekspresję genów rodziny Wnt. Kolejne badania wykazały, że Wnt należą do dużej grupy morfogenów wydzielanych, zawierającej ligandy o głębokim znaczeniu w powstawaniu planu ciała u wszystkich badanych organizmów wielokomórkowych.. ...
Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRP5 gene. Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. SFRPs act as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. SFRP5 and SFRP1 may be involved in determining the polarity of photoreceptor cells in the retina. SFRP5 is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium, and moderately expressed in the pancreas. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000120057 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000018822 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Melkonyan HS, Chang WC, Shapiro JP, Mahadevappa M, Fitzpatrick PA, Kiefer MC, Tomei LD, Umansky SR (Jan 1998). "SARPs: A family of secreted apoptosis-related proteins". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 94 (25): 13636-41. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.25.13636. PMC 28358 . PMID 9391078. "Entrez Gene: SFRP5 secreted ...
3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 10580987. McCrea PD, Turck CW, Gumbiner B (November 1991). "A homolog of the armadillo protein in Drosophila (plakoglobin) associated with E-cadherin". Science. 254 (5036): 1359-61. doi:10.1126/science.1962194. PMID 1962194. Kemler R (September 1993). "From cadherins to catenins: cytoplasmic protein interactions and regulation of cell adhesion". Trends in Genetics. 9 (9): 317-21. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90250-l. PMID 8236461. Gottardi CJ, Peifer M (March 2008). "Terminal regions of beta-catenin come into view". Structure. 16 (3): 336-8. doi:10.1016/j.str.2008.02.005. PMC 2329800 . PMID 18334207. Xing Y, Takemaru K, Liu J, Berndt JD, Zheng JJ, Moon RT, Xu W (March 2008). "Crystal structure of a full-length beta-catenin". Structure. 16 (3): 478-87. doi:10.1016/j.str.2007.12.021. PMC 4267759 . PMID 18334222. Vleminckx K, Kemler R, Hecht A (March 1999). "The C-terminal transactivation domain of beta-catenin is necessary and sufficient for signaling by the LEF-1/beta-catenin ...

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