Axin Signaling Complex
A specific complex of WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY proteins that mediates the phosphorylation-dependent destruction of cytosolic BETA-CATENIN. The complex is disrupted by cell surface binding of WNT PROTEINS, which allows beta-catenin levels to rise to the point where they migrate to the CELL NUCLEUS and activate transcription.
Axin prevents Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta-catenin. (1/400)When Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed in COS cells, it coeluted with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), beta-catenin, and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) in a high molecular weight fraction on gel filtration column chromatography. In this fraction, GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC were co-precipitated with Axin. Although beta-catenin was detected in the high molecular weight fraction in L cells on gel filtration column chromatography, addition of conditioned medium expressing Wnt-3a to the cells increased beta-catenin in the low molecular weight fraction. However, Wnt-3a-dependent accumulation of beta-catenin was greatly inhibited in L cells stably expressing Axin. Axin also suppressed Wnt-3a-dependent activation of Tcf-4 which binds to beta-catenin and acts as a transcription factor. These results suggest that Axin forms a complex with GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC, resulting in the stimulation of the degradation of beta-catenin and that Wnt-3a induces the dissociation of beta-catenin from the Axin complex and accumulates beta-catenin. (+info)
Xenopus axin interacts with glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta and is expressed in the anterior midbrain. (2/400)Axin is encoded by the fused locus in mice and is required for normal vertebrate axis formation. It has recently been shown that axin associates with APC, beta-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in a complex that appears to regulate the level of cytoplasmic beta-catenin. We have identified the Xenopus homologue of axin through its interaction with GSK-3b. Xenopus axin (Xaxin) is expressed maternally and throughout early development with a low level of ubiquitous expression. Xaxin also shows remarkably high expression in the anterior mesencephalon adjacent to the forebrain-midbrain boundary. (+info)
Negative regulation of Wingless signaling by D-axin, a Drosophila homolog of axin. (3/400)Wnt/Wingless directs many cell fates during development. Wnt/Wingless signaling increases the amount of beta-catenin/Armadillo, which in turn activates gene transcription. Here the Drosophila protein D-Axin was shown to interact with Armadillo and D-APC. Mutation of d-axin resulted in the accumulation of cytoplasmic Armadillo and one of the Wingless target gene products, Distal-less. Ectopic expression of d-axin inhibited Wingless signaling. Hence, D-Axin negatively regulates Wingless signaling by down-regulating the level of Armadillo. These results establish the importance of the Axin family of proteins in Wnt/Wingless signaling in Drosophila. (+info)
Phosphorylation of axin, a Wnt signal negative regulator, by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta regulates its stability. (4/400)Axin forms a complex with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and beta-catenin and promotes GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of beta-catenin, thereby stimulating the degradation of beta-catenin. Because GSK-3beta also phosphorylates Axin in the complex, the physiological significance of the phosphorylation of Axin was examined. Treatment of COS cells with LiCl, a GSK-3beta inhibitor, and okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, decreased and increased, respectively, the cellular protein level of Axin. Pulse-chase analyses showed that the phosphorylated form of Axin was more stable than the unphosphorylated form and that an Axin mutant, in which the possible phosphorylation sites for GSK-3beta were mutated, exhibited a shorter half-life than wild type Axin. Dvl-1, which was genetically shown to function upstream of GSK-3beta, inhibited the phosphorylation of Axin by GSK-3beta in vitro. Furthermore, Wnt-3a-containing conditioned medium down-regulated Axin and accumulated beta-catenin in L cells and expression of Dvl-1(DeltaPDZ), in which the PDZ domain was deleted, suppressed this action of Wnt-3a. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of Axin is important for the regulation of its stability and that Wnt down-regulates Axin through Dvl. (+info)
An F-box protein, FWD1, mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of beta-catenin. (5/400)beta-catenin plays an essential role in the Wingless/Wnt signaling cascade and is a component of the cadherin cell adhesion complex. Deregulation of beta-catenin accumulation as a result of mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein is believed to initiate colorectal neoplasia. beta-catenin levels are regulated by the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis system and beta-catenin ubiquitination is preceded by phosphorylation of its N-terminal region by the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta)/Axin kinase complex. Here we show that FWD1 (the mouse homologue of Slimb/betaTrCP), an F-box/WD40-repeat protein, specifically formed a multi-molecular complex with beta-catenin, Axin, GSK-3beta and APC. Mutations at the signal-induced phosphorylation site of beta-catenin inhibited its association with FWD1. FWD1 facilitated ubiquitination and promoted degradation of beta-catenin, resulting in reduced cytoplasmic beta-catenin levels. In contrast, a dominant-negative mutant form of FWD1 inhibited the ubiquitination process and stabilized beta-catenin. These results suggest that the Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein FWD1 (SCFFWD1)-ubiquitin ligase complex is involved in beta-catenin ubiquitination and that FWD1 serves as an intracellular receptor for phosphorylated beta-catenin. FWD1 also links the phosphorylation machinery to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to ensure prompt and efficient proteolysis of beta-catenin in response to external signals. SCFFWD1 may be critical for tumor development and suppression through regulation of beta-catenin protein stability. (+info)
Functional domains of axin. Importance of the C terminus as an oligomerization domain. (6/400)To understand the mechanism of how Axin acts as an inhibitory molecule in the Wnt pathway, we generated a series of mutated forms of Axin. From the binding experiments, we defined the domains of Axin that bind glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and beta-catenin. We also examined the ability of each Axin mutant to inhibit lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (Lef-1) reporter activity in a cell line expressing high levels of beta-catenin. Axin mutants that did not bind GSK-3beta or beta-catenin were ineffective in suppressing Lef-1 reporter activity. Binding GSK-3beta and beta-catenin was not sufficient for this inhibitory effect of Axin. Axin mutants with C-terminal truncations lacked the ability to inhibit Lef-1 reporter activity, even though they bound GSK-3beta and beta-catenin. The C-terminal region was required for binding to Axin itself. Substitution of the C-terminal region with an unrelated dimerizing molecule, the retinoid X receptor restored its inhibitory effect on Lef-1-dependent transcription. The oligomerization of Axin through its C terminus is important for its function in regulation of beta-catenin-mediated response. (+info)
The cyclin D1 gene is a target of the beta-catenin/LEF-1 pathway. (7/400)beta-Catenin plays a dual role in the cell: one in linking the cytoplasmic side of cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts to the actin cytoskeleton and an additional role in signaling that involves transactivation in complex with transcription factors of the lymphoid enhancing factor (LEF-1) family. Elevated beta-catenin levels in colorectal cancer caused by mutations in beta-catenin or by the adenomatous polyposis coli molecule, which regulates beta-catenin degradation, result in the binding of beta-catenin to LEF-1 and increased transcriptional activation of mostly unknown target genes. Here, we show that the cyclin D1 gene is a direct target for transactivation by the beta-catenin/LEF-1 pathway through a LEF-1 binding site in the cyclin D1 promoter. Inhibitors of beta-catenin activation, wild-type adenomatous polyposis coli, axin, and the cytoplasmic tail of cadherin suppressed cyclin D1 promoter activity in colon cancer cells. Cyclin D1 protein levels were induced by beta-catenin overexpression and reduced in cells overexpressing the cadherin cytoplasmic domain. Increased beta-catenin levels may thus promote neoplastic conversion by triggering cyclin D1 gene expression and, consequently, uncontrolled progression into the cell cycle. (+info)
Interaction of axin and Dvl-2 proteins regulates Dvl-2-stimulated TCF-dependent transcription. (8/400)Axin promotes the phosphorylation of beta-catenin by GSK-3beta, leading to beta-catenin degradation. Wnt signals interfere with beta-catenin turnover, resulting in enhanced transcription of target genes through the increased formation of beta-catenin complexes containing TCF transcription factors. Little is known about how GSK-3beta-mediated beta-catenin turnover is regulated in response to Wnt signals. We have explored the relationship between Axin and Dvl-2, a member of the Dishevelled family of proteins that function upstream of GSK-3beta. Expression of Dvl-2 activated TCF-dependent transcription. This was blocked by co-expression of GSK-3beta or Axin. Expression of a 59 amino acid GSK-3beta-binding region from Axin strongly activated transcription in the absence of an upstream signal. Introduction of a point mutation into full-length Axin that prevented GSK-3beta binding also generated a transcriptional activator. When co-expressed, Axin and Dvl-2 co-localized within expressing cells. When Dvl-2 localization was altered using a C-terminal CAAX motif, Axin was also redistributed, suggesting a close association between the two proteins, a conclusion supported by co-immunoprecipitation data. Deletion analysis suggested that Dvl-association determinants within Axin were contained between residues 603 and 810. The association of Axin with Dvl-2 may be important in the transmission of Wnt signals from Dvl-2 to GSK-3beta. (+info)
Schwarz-Romond T, Metcalfe C, Bienz M (July 2007). "Dynamic recruitment of axin by Dishevelled protein assemblies". Journal of ... In addition to protein recruitment, condensates can also be designed which release proteins in response to certain stimuli. In ... Membrane protein, or membrane-associated protein, clustering at neurological synapses, cell-cell tight junctions, or other ... In one approach, which localizes condensates to specific genomic regions, core proteins are fused to proteins such as TRF1 or ...
Schwarz-Romond, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Bienz, M. (2007). "Dynamic recruitment of axin by Dishevelled protein assemblies". Journal of ... v t e (Protein complexes, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... proteins to recruit the Axin complex for inactivation. B-cell ... Cliffe, Adam; Hamada, Fumihiko; Bienz, Mariann (2003). "A Role of Dishevelled in Relocating Axin to the Plasma Membrane during ... COP9 signalosome: Catalyses the hydrolysis of NEDD8 protein from the Cullin subunit of Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRL). ...
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta
Guo X, Ramirez A, Waddell DS, Li Z, Liu X, Wang XF (January 2008). "Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate ... "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein interactions and their ability to regulate beta-catenin stability". ... "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent ... Nakamura T, Hamada F, Ishidate T, Anai K, Kawahara K, Toyoshima K, Akiyama T (June 1998). "Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt ...
Strovel ET, Wu D, Sussman DJ (January 2000). "Protein phosphatase 2Calpha dephosphorylates axin and activates LEF-1-dependent ... Protein phosphatase 1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPM1A gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... "A protein phosphatase 2calpha-Ca2+ channel complex for dephosphorylation of neuronal Ca2+ channels phosphorylated by protein ...
Guo X, Ramirez A, Waddell DS, Li Z, Liu X, Wang XF (January 2008). "Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Polyubiquitin-C is a protein encoded by the UBC gene in humans. Polyubiquitin-C is one of the sources of ubiquitin, along with ... Chen L, Dong W, Zou T, Ouyang L, He G, Liu Y, Qi Y (August 2008). "Protein phosphatase 4 negatively regulates LPS cascade by ...
Strovel ET, Wu D, Sussman DJ (2000). "Protein phosphatase 2Calpha dephosphorylates axin and activates LEF-1-dependent ... Dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYNLT1 gene. Cytoplasmic dynein is the major ... 2004). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid protein VP26 interacts with dynein light chains RP3 and Tctex1 and plays a role in ... 1997). "The mouse t-complex-encoded protein Tctex-1 is a light chain of brain cytoplasmic dynein". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (50): ...
Secreted frizzled-related protein 1
Axin is a scaffolding protein which holds the degradation complex together. The activated Dvl associates with Axin and prevents ... the SFRP1 netrin-related motif is also found in a range of other proteins that is thought to mediate protein-protein ... Secreted frizzled-related protein 1, also known as SFRP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SFRP1 gene. Secreted ... SFRP1 are heparin-binding proteins, with the heparin-binding domain within the C-terminal region of the SFRP1 protein. In vitro ...
2004). "The DIX domain protein coiled-coil-DIX1 inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation by Axin and dishevelled through ... Segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DVL2 gene. This gene encodes a ... Strovel ET, Wu D, Sussman DJ (2000). "Protein phosphatase 2Calpha dephosphorylates axin and activates LEF-1-dependent ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ...
Dishevelled (Dvl) is a protein required for Wnt-dependent inhibition complex. The combination of LRP-axin induces Dvl ... Second group of antagonists contains a class of Wnt inhibitory proteins known as Frizzled Receptor-like Proteins (FRPs). FRPs ... The signals are initiated at the 7 transmembrane domain and transmitted through receptor coupling to G-proteins. This protein ... The serpentine receptors (frzb) couple binds to ligand (Wnt protein) and activates G-proteins. A signal transduction cascade ...
Fagotto F, Jho Eh, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, Costantini F (1999). "Domains of axin involved in protein-protein ... Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Hino S, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (Jun 1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein ... Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Hino S, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein ... Segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DVL1 gene. DVL1, the human ...
Axin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AXIN1 gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein which contains a ... Fagotto F, Jho Eh, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, Costantini F (1999). "Domains of axin involved in protein-protein ... cadherin-associated protein) beta 1, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, protein phosphatase 2, and itself. This protein functions ... The AXIN proteins attract substantial interest in cancer research as AXIN1 and AXIN2 work synergistically to control pro- ...
"Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway". Molecular ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRP5 gene. LRP5 is a key ... LRP5 acts as a co-receptor with LRP6 and the Frizzled protein family members for transducing signals by Wnt proteins through ... "SUMOylation target sites at the C terminus protect Axin from ubiquitination and confer protein stability". FASEB Journal. 22 ( ...
He demonstrated the "CXXC5-Dvl protein-protein interaction (PPI)" as a target for development of agents enhancing wound healing ... 2017) Small molecule binding of the Axin-RGS domain promotes β-catenin and Ras degradation. Nature Chemical Biology. (2016) ... played a key role in unveiling the structure of lactose repressor protein(LacI), which was one of the most interested proteins ... Currently, he is positioned as the Director of the Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), which is ...
Axin-2 also known as axin-like protein (Axil) or axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) or conductin is a protein that in humans is ... The Axin-related protein, Axin2, presumably plays an important role in the regulation of the stability of beta-catenin in the ... The AXIN proteins attract substantial interest in cancer research as AXIN1 and AXIN2 work synergistically to control pro- ... "Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-β signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia". EMBO J. 25 (8): 1646-58. doi: ...
... a novel Axin-binding protein, is involved in downregulation of beta-catenin". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (11): 3803-19. doi:10.1128/ ... SUMO1 (UBL1; MIM 601912) is a small ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently conjugated to other proteins. SENP2 is one of ... which is an axin-binding protein promoting beta-catenin degradation". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (42): 39060-6. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (1): 65-73. doi: ...
... a novel Axin-binding protein, is involved in downregulation of beta-catenin". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (11): 3803-19 ... Small ubiquitin-related modifier 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SUMO3 gene. SUMO proteins, such as SUMO3, and ... Su HL, Li SS (August 2002). "Molecular features of human ubiquitin-like SUMO genes and their encoded proteins". Gene. 296 (1-2 ... Eaton EM, Sealy L (August 2003). "Modification of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta by the small ubiquitin-like modifier ( ...
"Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia". The EMBO Journal. 25 (8): 1646 ... The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger domain, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... "Entrez Gene: RNF111 ring finger protein 111". Koinuma D, Shinozaki M, Komuro A, Goto K, Saitoh M, Hanyu A, Ebina M, Nukiwa T, ...
Gsk3b interacting protein
The encoded protein contains a GSK3-beta interacting domain (GID) in its C-terminus, which is similar to the GID of Axin. The ... GSK3B interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GSKIP gene. This gene encodes a protein that is ... which facilitates binding with protein kinase-A and GSK3-beta, enabling its role as an A-kinase anchoring protein. ... The encoded protein may play a role in the retinoic acid signaling pathway by regulating the functional interactions between ...
Wnt signaling pathway
Phosphorylation by other proteins in the destruction complex subsequently binds Axin to the cytoplasmic tail of LRP5/6. Axin ... This destruction complex includes the following proteins: Axin, adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A ... Dsh proteins are present in all organisms and they all share the following highly conserved protein domains: an amino-terminal ... For example, Wnt proteins are palmitoylated. The protein porcupine mediates this process, which means that it helps regulate ...
2001). "Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway". ... It is very conserved in evolution, and the protein encoded by this gene is known to be 98% identical to the mouse Wnt1 protein ... The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been ... Proto-oncogene Wnt-1, or Proto-oncogene Int-1 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT1 (INT1) gene. ...
The scaffold protein axin (two closely related paralogs, axin 1 and axin 2) contains a similar interaction motif on its long, ... This way, axin acts as a true scaffold protein, bringing an enzyme (GSK3) together with its substrate (β-catenin) into close ... But even axin does not act alone. Through its N-terminal regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain, it recruits the ... Beta-catenin contains no such motifs, but a special protein does: axin. What is more, its GSK3 docking motif is directly ...
... and scaffold proteins adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin targets plakoglobin for degradation.[31-33]. The phosphorylated ... Swope D, Cheng L, Gao E, Li J, Radice GL (Mar 2012). "Loss of cadherin-binding proteins β-catenin and plakoglobin in the heart ... Plakoglobin, also known as junction plakoglobin or gamma-catenin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUP gene. ... Rubinfeld B, Souza B, Albert I, Munemitsu S, Polakis P (Mar 1995). "The APC protein and E-cadherin form similar but independent ...
1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein interactions and their ability to regulate beta-catenin stability ... Segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DVL3 gene. This gene is a ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. Bibcode: ... "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein interactions and their ability to regulate beta-catenin stability". Mol. ...
Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... However, upon Wnt signaling, MACF1 is involved in a translation and binding of the axin complex to LTP6 at the cell membrane. ... MACF1 is also an important protein for cell migration in processes such as wound healing. MACF1 is an enormous protein of 5380 ... MACF1 is a member of a family of proteins that form bridges between different cytoskeletal elements. This protein facilitates ...
Hsu W, Zeng L, Costantini F (Feb 1999). "Identification of a domain of Axin that binds to the serine/threonine protein ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... is one of several novel proteins stably associating with two inactive mutants of protein phosphatase 2A". The Journal of ... "p42 MAP kinase phosphorylation sites in microtubule-associated protein tau are dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A1. ...
"Dimerization choices control the ability of axin and dishevelled to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein ... and scaffold protein regions that mediate protein-protein interactions. MAP3K1 is highly conserved in Euteleostomi. The ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks) are substrates for direct phosphorylation by the MAP3K1 protein kinase. The ... MAP3K1 contains a protein kinase domain, PHD finger (which has a RING finger domain-like structure) that serves as an E3 ...
Zinc finger BED domain-containing protein 3 also known as axin-interacting protein is a protein in humans that is encoded by ... as a novel Axin-interacting protein that activates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (11): ...
"The DIX domain protein coiled-coil-DIX1 inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation by Axin and dishevelled through distinct ... Dixin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DIXDC1 gene. When active it stops cancer metastasis due to extreme ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 7 (6): 347-55. ... Katoh M, Katoh M (July 2003). "KIAA1735 gene on human chromosome 11q23.1 encodes a novel protein with myosine-tail homologous ...
DIX is found in proteins like Axin and coiled-coil protein DIX-domain-containing I (DIXdc1 or Ccd1). The DIX domain of DVL has ... These regions mediate protein-protein interactions and help DVL channel signals into either the β-catenin or the β-catenin ... dishevelled proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Protein families). ... This region mediates many protein-protein interactions and regulates multiple biological processes. DEP, which is in C-terminal ...
2004). "The DIX domain protein coiled-coil-DIX1 inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation by Axin and dishevelled through ... This gene encodes a MAPKKK, the MEKK4 protein, also called MTK1. This protein contains a protein kinase catalytic domain at the ... The central core of each mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved cascade of 3 protein kinases: an ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
They exhibit a high degree of protein dynamics, alone or in complex. Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an ... APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. While less attention is ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ...
... or the expressed protein is inactive. For example, at the gene locus for the ABO blood type carbohydrate antigens in humans, ... "Maternal methyl supplements increase offspring DNA methylation at Axin Fused". Genesis. 44 (9): 401-6. doi:10.1002/dvg.20230. ... and O alleles is actually a class of multiple alleles with different DNA sequences that produce proteins with identical ...
... leads to stabilization of β-catenin through inactivation of a protein complex containing the tumor suppressors APC and Axin. ... De-regulation of the autocrine Wnt signaling pathway via mutations in APC and Axin have been linked to activation of various ... In colorectal cancer, for example, mutations in APC, axin, or β-catenin promote β-catenin stabilization and transcription of ... genes encoding cancer-associated proteins. Furthermore, in human breast cancer, interference with the de-regulated Wnt ...
Casein kinase 1
Slimb is a component of the Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex, which marks proteins for proteosomal ... Amit S, Hatzubai A, Birman Y, Andersen JS, Ben-Shushan E, Mann M, Ben-Neriah Y, Alkalay I (May 2002). "Axin-mediated CKI ... Since then, double-time's protein product DBT has been well characterized for its role in phosphorylating PER, the protein ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ...
Beta-catenin-interacting protein 1 is a protein that is encoded in humans by the CTNNBIP1 gene. The protein encoded by this ... Seo E, Jho EH (2007). "Axin-independent phosphorylation of APC controls beta-catenin signaling via cytoplasmic retention of ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... CTNNBIP1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CTNNBIP1 genome location ...
... of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein phosphatase 2A complexed with Axin". ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell ... Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit beta isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
Casein kinase 1, alpha 1
Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin ... Veis A, Sfeir C, Wu CB (1998). "Phosphorylation of the proteins of the extracellular matrix of mineralized tissues by casein ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ... 5-trisphosphate-binding proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (22): 18757-64. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010005200. PMID ...
Adenomatous polyposis coli
This protein also helps ensure that the chromosome number in cells produced through cell division is correct. The APC protein ... Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Sakamoto I, Koyama S, Kikuchi A (May 1998). "Axin, a negative regulator of the wnt ... The activity of one protein in particular, beta-catenin, is controlled by the APC protein (see: Wnt signaling pathway). ... tumor suppressor protein interacts with the APC protein". Oncogene. 14 (20): 2425-33. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201087. PMID 9188857 ...
... and glycine-rich protein 2 (CRP2) is a novel marker of hepatic stellate cells and binding partner of the protein inhibitor of ... Rui HL, Fan E, Zhou HM, Xu Z, Zhang Y, Lin SC (2003). "SUMO-1 modification of the C-terminal KVEKVD of Axin is required for JNK ... protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins differ in their ability to modulate steroid receptor-dependent transcriptional ... E3 SUMO-protein ligase PIAS1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIAS1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase I protein family, whose ... Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin ... This protein has been shown to phosphorylate proteins of the Period family of circadian rhythm proteins. A homolog of this ... The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm as a monomer and can phosphorylate a variety of proteins, including itself. ...
SMART: RGS domain annotation
Axin [ (PUBMED:10811618) ]. * p115RhoGEF [ (PUBMED:11524686) ]. * Pdz-RhoGEF [ (PUBMED:11470431) ]. * G-protein coupled ... GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins. ... GAIP, a protein that specifically interacts with the trimeric G protein G alpha i3, is a member of a protein family with a ... G protein GAPs include both effector proteins (phospholipase C-?, p115RhoGEF) and a growing family of regulators of G protein ...
Axin and Frat1 interact with dvl and GSK, bridging Dvl to GSK in Wnt-mediated regulation of LEF-1 | Netherlands Cancer Institute
... proteins to inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK), leading to the accumulation of ... ... Wnt proteins transduce their signals through dishevelled (Dvl) ... Axin and GSK can form a ternary complex bridged by Axin, and ... Wnt proteins transduce their signals through dishevelled (Dvl) proteins to inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK), ... Axin and Frat1 interact with dvl and GSK, bridging Dvl to GSK in Wnt-mediated regulation of LEF-1. * Show more authors + 6 ...
Frontiers | Statin Treatment as a Targeted Therapy for APC-Mutated Colorectal Cancer
... a reduction in the level of expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Survivin, upon statin treatment in the APC-mutant cells ... a reduction in the level of expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Survivin, upon statin treatment in the APC-mutant cells ... and proteins upstream of TNKS to selectively kill APC mutant cells. TNKS destabilises Axin which is the rate limiting component ... Protein lysates were run through a column containing a resin with the GST-fusion protein containing the Rho-binding domain of ...
Epigenetic Mechanisms in Autism Spectrum Disorders | IntechOpen
Protein kinase c beta and the temporal lobe. Downregulation of the gene for protein kinase C beta (PRKCB1) in the temporal lobe ... axin and adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor (APC). GSK3β, axin and APC are negative regulators of the Wnt signaling ... 2. Epigenetic protein-DNA interactions: proteins mediating epigenetic signaling. 2.1. Mecp2 and the frontal cortex. Methyl CpG ... SHANK3 is a scaffolding protein in the neurexin-neuroligin pathway that interacts with synaptic proteins. Recent research ...
Axin Protein - Preferred Concept UI. M0554165. Scope note. A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin ... 2012; AXIN PROTEIN was indexed under REPRESSOR PROTEINS 1997-2011 and under ADAPTOR PROTEINS, SIGNAL TRANSDUCING 2011. ... axin proteínas axin Scope note:. Proteína de andamiaje que es un componente crítico del complejo de señalización de axina que ... A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin signaling complex which binds to ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI ...
X-ray irradiation induced Disabled-2 gene promoter de-methylation enhances radiosensitivity of non-small-cell lung carcinoma...
puc18 map - Medical Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) Research
Reconstitution of the destruction complex defines roles of AXIN polymers and APC in β-catenin capture, phosphorylation, and ... Medical Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) Research. anti- Phospoho CDK, MAPK, GSK3, CLK, ERK1/2, JNK ... initiated by the multi-protein β-catenin destruction advanced. The exact mechanisms underlying destruction advanced perform ...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Tumour-specific EV proteins were prioritized using Tandem Mass Tag (TMT)-based shotgun proteomics and phosphoproteomics. The ... Similarly, the knockdown of Axin also decreased the cell death induced by the inhibition of NAMPT. In addition, we showed that ... In addition, doxycycline (DOX), an inducer of mtUPR, up-regulated the expression of HSP60 and CHOP, the key proteins of mtUPR. ... NAMPT inhibition induced ß-catenin degradation by increasing Axin expression levels; this resulted in the inhibition of Wnt/ß- ...
The C. elegans ROR receptor tyrosine kinase, CAM-1,non-autonomously inhibits the Wnt pathway | Development | The Company of...
The Axin-like protein PRY-1 is a negative regulator of a canonical Wnt pathway in C. elegans. Genes Dev. ... Each of the CRD-AP fusion proteins was determined to have similar specific activity of 3 pmol/unit activity. The protein was ... encodes a putative seven-transmembrane protein similar to the Drosophila frizzled protein. Genes Dev. ... ROR proteins, a class of Wnt-binding receptor tyrosine kinases, inhibit Wnt signaling by an unknown mechanism. To clarify how ...
CXXC4 - Glory Bio Science Co. LTD
Dvl binding protein IDAX (inhibition of the Dvl and Axin complex), IDAX, Inhibition of the Dvl and axin complex protein, ... Dvl binding protein IDAX (inhibition of the Dvl and Axin complex); IDAX; Inhibition of the Dvl and axin complex protein; ... Anti-gen synonyms : CXXC finger 4; CXXC finger protein 4; CXXC type zinc finger protein 4; CXXC-type zinc finger protein 4; ... CXXC finger 4, CXXC finger protein 4, CXXC type zinc finger protein 4, Cxxc4, CXXC4_HUMAN, ...
Genetic methylation and lymphoid malignancies: biomarkers of tumor progression and targeted therapy | Biomarker Research | Full...
The excess β-catenin protein is phosphorylated and degraded by destruction complex containing APC, AXIN, CK1α, PPP2R4 and GSK-3 ... The encoded p53 protein, which is ubiquitously expressed in tissue, keeps genome stability under stress, and is involved in ... The ligand receptor of WNT contains transmembrane protein Frizzled and LPR5/6. The main downstream target of WNT pathway is β- ... Upon activation, the WNT ligand binds to its membrane receptors and cytoplasmic protein Dvl is accordingly recruited and ...
The roles of Wnts in neural development cancer and synaptogenesis are - Factor VIII inhibitors in hemophilia A
... tumor suppressor proteins as well as the scaffolding proteins axin. Activation of canonical Wnt signaling primarily leads to ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are people from the TGF-β superfamily of ... shops perhaps via α heterotrimeric G protein resulting in the activation of Ca2+-reliant effector substances including proteins ... Wnt protein may also be implicated in the activation of various other intracellular messengers via non-canonical Wnt signaling ...
Study of the role of the gene ovo/svb in the maintenance and the differentiation of intestinal stem cells in Drosophila
Ubr3 : E3-Ubiquitin protein ligase Upd : Unpaired like protein Usp : Ultraspiracle UTR : Untranslated region VM : ... Axin, Adenomatous polyposis Coli (APC), Glycogen Synthase Knase 3 (GSK3) and Casein Kinase 1α (Ck1α) (Kishida et al., 1998). ... The β-catenin protein known as Armadillo (Arm) in Drosophila is a key effector in the Wnt signaling cascade. In normal ... EEP divide once before starting to accumulate prospero protein. In addition, the newly formed EEP inherits the protein Numb ...
February | 2014 | Microrna Inhibitors
... as these proteins are essen tial for proteasome mediated degradation of SKI and SnoN proteins. As proven in Figure 1C, all ... Our preceding study demonstrated that in excess of expression within the Axin gene is linked with down regulation of B catenin ... Benefits Substantial SKI protein levels in human melanoma cell li. Posted on February 27, 2014. by mirn0190 ... and did not correlate with SKI protein levels, suggesting uncoupling of gene transcription and protein expression. Related ...
Cellzome - kinase inhibitors for therapy
... effects against other proteins than the target protein of interest. An ideal drug needs to have a high reaction and tissue ... Huang, S.-M. A. et al.: Tankyrase inhibition stabilizes axin and antagonizes Wnt signalling. Nature 461, 614-620 (2009). ... With the analysis of all protein complexes in the yeast proteome and their publication in Nature in 2002, Cellzome validated ... A second aspect of the cooperation with Johnson & Johnson focuses on the clarification of the Tau protein metabolism, which ...
Order ATR Proteins from many different species. Find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase ... ATR Protein (AA 25-214) (T7 tag,His tag) (ABIN6239504) ATR Origine: Humain Hôte: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Recombinant , 90 % ... ATR Protein (AA 2545-2644) (GST tag) (ABIN1346182) ATR Origine: Humain Hôte: Wheat germ Recombinant AA, AP, ELISA, WB ...
SMURF2 and TMEM139 - Wiki-MPM
Tumor β‑catenin expression is associated with immune evasion in non‑small cell lung cancer with high tumor mutation burden
A Review of Metabolic Sensors in Glaucoma
The AMPK activation complex is formed at the surface of the lysosome and consists of v-ATPase, AXIN, LKB1, p18/LAMTOR1 and AMPK ... Wallace DM, Murphy Ullrich JE, Downs JC, O Brien CJ (2014) The role of matricellular proteins in glaucoma. Matrix Biol 37: 174- ... It is known that aged tissues display decreased levels of proteins cadherin and catenin, thin basement membranes and apoptotic ... AMPK is also activated by serine threonine 11 (STK1 or LKB1), Calcium/ Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CAMMKβ) ...
Mucin-4 | Profiles RNS
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases. *Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. *Axin Signaling Complex. *Calcineurin. *Calcium-Calmodulin- ... Mucin-4 may play a role in regulating cellular adhesion and in cell surface signaling from the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE ... The alpha and beta chains result from the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein. ...
Stem Cells - Fabgennix International Inc.
Receptor Interacting Proteins * Adenylate Cyclases * G-Protein Coupled Receptors * Guanylate Cyclases & GTPases * Protein ... Axin 2 Antibody Product no.: AXIN2-201AP ... Protein Kinases * Tyrosine Kinases * Serine/Threonine Kinases * ... Protein Transport * Plasma Membrane * Cytoskeleton / ECM * Adapters * ... More * Metabolism & Homeostasis * Obesity * Hypoxia * ... Human Protein * Apoptosis * Oxidative Stress * Cellular Trafficking * ... More * Neuroscience * Cell markers & CAMs * ...
Protein kinase C delta type. PRKCD. Q05655. 2 Reference(s). T65S3S. Tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2. JAK2. O60674. 2 Reference(s) ... Axin-1. AXIN1. O15169. 1 Reference(s). T78EXU. Axin-2. AXIN2. Q9Y2T1. 1 Reference(s). ... Protein kinase C alpha type. PRKCA. P17252. 1 Reference(s). T14JZK. Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3. ERBB3. P21860. 2 ... NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1. SIRT1. Q96EB6. 1 Reference(s). T01CL0. Tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn. LYN. P07948. 1 ...
Antibody Therapeutic Targets-ProbeChem.com
Ernment bond sields that We have used previously in t… - SolvedLib
PKD compound (inhibitors, antagonists, agonists)-ProbeChem.com
ELM - Detail for LIG BIR III 3
Protein Ubiquitination (also annotated in these classes: DEG_SPOP_SBC_1 LIG_BIR_II_1 LIG_BIR_III_1 LIG_BIR_III_2 LIG_BIR_III_4 ... Axin_1 DOC_MAPK_DCC_7 DOC_MAPK_FxFP_2 DOC_MAPK_gen_1 DOC_MAPK_GRA24_9 DOC_MAPK_HePTP_8 DOC_MAPK_JIP1_4 DOC_MAPK_MEF2A_6 DOC_ ... Protein Maturation By Peptide Bond Cleavage (also annotated in these classes: LIG_BIR_II_1 LIG_BIR_III_1 LIG_BIR_III_2 LIG_BIR_ ... Protein Binding (also annotated in these classes: CLV_C14_Caspase3-7 CLV_Separin_Fungi CLV_Separin_Metazoa DEG_APCC_TPR_1 DEG_ ...
KinaseHeterotrimeric G-proteDestruction complexBeta-cateninCanonicalPathwaysComplexEffectorInteractionsReceptorRolesMecp2ActivateRegulateEpigeneticRegulatorInteractGeneEffectsActivityDomainAdenomatous polySignaling pathwayScaffoldBindsDegradationMyogenicRolesSerine1997RECEPTORSInhibitionPrecursorMouseFunctionLevelsFactor
- Wnt proteins transduce their signals through dishevelled (Dvl) proteins to inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK), leading to the accumulation of cytosolic beta-catenin and activation of TCF/LEF-1 transcription factors. (nki.nl)
- GSK-3β retains Doxorubicin a pivotal placement in the canonical Wnt pathway where it phosphorylates β-catenin in colaboration with casein kinase (CK) 1 the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor proteins as well as the scaffolding proteins axin. (healthweeks.com)
- Wnt can induce the discharge of calcium mineral from intracellular shops perhaps via α heterotrimeric G protein resulting in the activation of Ca2+-reliant effector substances including proteins kinase C (PKC) or Ca2+/cal-modulin-dependent proteins kinase (CamKII) [25 27 28 (Body 1b). (healthweeks.com)
- Another although much less well grasped Wnt-activated mechanism requires the tyrosine kinase receptor Ror as well as the linked to tyrosine kinase proteins Ryk which control the. (healthweeks.com)
- The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
- This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
- This review identifies and examines some of the key metabolic processes and cellular sensors involved in the pathogenesis of ECM fibrosis in general but herein specifically in glaucoma, including mitochondrial dysfunction and adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) upregulation. (lupinepublishers.com)
- RGS family members are GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits. (embl.de)
- APC is a tumor suppressor gene and exerts its anti-proliferative effects as an antagonist of the Wnt pathway ( 4 ), whereby APC downregulates β-catenin through its association with the APC/Axin/GSK3-β destruction complex. (frontiersin.org)
- A specific complex of WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY proteins that mediates the phosphorylation-dependent destruction of cytosolic BETA-CATENIN . (nih.gov)
- The complex is disrupted by cell surface binding of WNT PROTEINS , which allows beta-catenin levels to rise to the point where they migrate to the CELL NUCLEUS and activate transcription. (nih.gov)
- RGS (Regulator of G Protein Signalling) proteins are multi-functional, GTPase-accelerating proteins that promote GTP hydrolysis by the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, thereby inactivating the G protein and rapidly switching off G protein-coupled receptor signalling pathways. (embl.de)
- even so an operating Wnt classification can be an oversimplification as you can find contexts where the same Wnt proteins will activate different pathways with regards to the particular cell type as well as the receptor present . (healthweeks.com)
- We also found that Dvl, Axin and GSK can form a ternary complex bridged by Axin, and that Frat1 can be recruited into this complex probably by Dvl. (nki.nl)
- Furthermore, Wnt-1 appeared to promote the disintegration of the Frat1-Dvl-GSK-Axin complex, resulting in the dissociation of GSK from Axin. (nki.nl)
- Thus, formation of the quaternary complex may be an important step in Wnt signaling, by which Dvl recruits Frat1, leading to Frat1-mediated dissociation of GSK from Axin. (nki.nl)
- These results demonstrate how ROR proteins help to refine the spatial pattern of Wnt activity in a complex multicellular environment. (silverchair.com)
- RGS proteins can function as effector antagonists, and recent evidence suggests that RGS proteins can have positive effects on signaling as well. (embl.de)
- The presence of these additional modules within the RGS proteins provides for multiple novel regulatory interactions performed by these molecules. (embl.de)
- The observation that the Dvl-binding domain of either Frat1 or Axin was able to inhibit Wnt-1-induced LEF-1 activation suggests that the interactions between Dvl and Axin and between Dvl and Frat may be important for this signaling pathway. (nki.nl)
- Upon activation by GPCRs, heterotrimeric G proteins exchange GDP for GTP, are released from the receptor, and dissociate into free, active GTP-bound alpha subunit and beta-gamma dimer, both of which activate downstream effectors. (embl.de)
- ROR proteins, a class of Wnt-binding receptor tyrosine kinases, inhibit Wnt signaling by an unknown mechanism. (silverchair.com)
- ROR proteins are conserved receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) characterized by an extracellular Fz domain [also called cysteine-rich-domain (CRD)], an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain, and a kringle domain( Fig. 1A ). (silverchair.com)
- To understand the mechanism by which Dvl acts through GSK to regulate LEF-1, we investigated the roles of Axin and Frat1 in Wnt-mediated activation of LEF-1 in mammalian cells. (nki.nl)
- Real-time PCR and western Blot were performed to investigate the expression of Dab2, Wnt pathway factors, DNMTs and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). (duke.edu)
- A complete of 19 Wnt proteins have already been determined in mammals (discover 'The Wnt homepage' at http://www.stanford.edu/group/nusselab/cgi-bin/wnt/) that are classified into functional groupings according with their capability to induce a second body axis in embryos and activate particular signaling cascades. (healthweeks.com)
- This RGS domain is necessary for conferring upon RGS proteins the capacity to regulate negatively a variety of Galpha protein subunits. (embl.de)
- This technology enables the identification of drug candidates for target proteins that are involved in the epigenetic regulation of inflammatory diseases. (gesundheitsindustrie-bw.de)
- Members of the newly discovered regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) families of proteins have a common RGS domain. (embl.de)
- Those RGS proteins that contain GGL domains can interact with G protein beta subunits to form novel dimers that prevent G protein gamma subunit binding and G protein alpha subunit association, thereby preventing heterotrimer formation. (embl.de)
- We found that Dvl interacts with Axin and with Frat1, both of which interact with GSK. (nki.nl)
- MYOC is a common pathogenic gene for primary open-angle glaucoma and encodes the protein named myocilin. (bvsalud.org)
- Epigenetics refers to genetic alterations of gene expression that are not based on DNA mutations, but which are mediated by specific modifications of DNA and proteins that control the activation and inactivation of gene expression. (gesundheitsindustrie-bw.de)
- This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
- Therefore, low-molecular therapeutics which target this ATP binding site often reveal so-called off-target effects, i.e. effects against other proteins than the target protein of interest. (gesundheitsindustrie-bw.de)
- All RGS proteins contain an 'RGS-box' (or RGS domain), which is required for activity. (embl.de)
- Some small RGS proteins such as RGS1 and RGS4 are comprised of little more than an RGS domain, while others also contain additional domains that confer further functionality. (embl.de)
- Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing RGS domain. (embl.de)
- The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with RGS domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
- Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing RGS domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
- The adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and mutations resulting in loss of APC protein function are associated with carcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
- 5. different Roles for the axin interactions with the SAMP versus the second twenty amino acid repeat of adenomatous polyposis coli. (nih.gov)
- APC protein down-regulates the Wnt signaling pathway through its binding to β-catenin and axin ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
- 19. Structural basis for recruitment of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta to the axin-APC scaffold complex. (nih.gov)
- An insight from our model, which we confirmed experimentally, is that the two scaffold proteins axin and APC promote the formation of degradation complexes in very different ways. (nih.gov)
- SHH signaling is initiated when SHH binds to its receptor, Patched 1 (PTCH1), which is a 12 transmembrane-spanning protein. (medscape.com)
- In the absence of SHH ligand, PTCH1 inhibits the effector protein Smoothened (SMO), but when SHH binds to PTCH1, SMO is released from this inhibition, resulting in the downstream activation of the GLI family of transcription factors (Figure 3). (medscape.com)
- Using a system of differential equations, the model incorporates the kinetics of protein-protein interactions, protein synthesis/degradation, and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. (nih.gov)
- This protein is a transcription factor that negatively regulates other myogenic family proteins. (nih.gov)
- The roles of APC and Axin derived from experimental and theoretical analysis of the Wnt pathway. (nih.gov)
- Microcystin-LR, a cyclic heptapeptide, possesses the ability to inhibit the serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A and, consequently, exhibits acute hepatocytotoxicity. (nih.gov)
- HN - 2017 (1997) MH - ADAM17 Protein UI - D000072198 MN - D8.811.277.656.675.374.102.375 MN - D9.400.430.500.375 MN - D12.776.395.33.375 MN - D23.50.301.264.35.57 MN - D188.8.131.52.57 MS - A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein that cleaves the membrane-bound precursor of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA to its mature form. (nih.gov)
- Heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα, Gβ, and Gγ) relay extracellular signals from membrane-integrated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) to intracellular downstream effectors in eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
- Additionally, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) with either siRNA or dickkopf decreased the response to Wnt3a stimulation, but no change was seen in the increased β-catenin pool associated with Ror2 expression, suggesting that LRP6 cofactor recruitment is necessary for a Wnt3a-induced signal but that it does not participate in the Ror2 effect on β-catenin signaling. (nih.gov)
- It cleaves the membrane-bound precursor of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA between ALANINE 76 and VALINE 77 to its functional form, as well as several other CELL SURFACE PROTEINS to their soluble forms, including AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN PRECURSOR and PRION PROTEIN. (nih.gov)
- All proteins have been indexed to mouse gene symbols. (nih.gov)
- Results: HGG significantly protected OGD/R induced endothelial injury, and decreased HUVECs apoptosis by regulating expressions of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) at both transcriptome and protein levels. (bvsalud.org)
- HN - 2017 MH - ADAM12 Protein UI - D000072199 MN - D8.811.277.656.675.374.102.125 MN - D9.400.430.500.125 MN - D12.776.395.33.125 MS - A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein that is expressed as two alternatively-spliced forms: a long transmembrane form (ADAM12-L) and a short soluble form (ADAM12-S). It modulates the cleavage of INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEINS and may also regulate CELL FUSION during MYOGENESIS. (nih.gov)