A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin signaling complex which binds to ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI PROTEIN; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE 3; and CASEIN KINASE I.
A specific complex of WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY proteins that mediates the phosphorylation-dependent destruction of cytosolic BETA-CATENIN. The complex is disrupted by cell surface binding of WNT PROTEINS, which allows beta-catenin levels to rise to the point where they migrate to the CELL NUCLEUS and activate transcription.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)

Axin prevents Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta-catenin. (1/400)

When Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed in COS cells, it coeluted with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), beta-catenin, and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) in a high molecular weight fraction on gel filtration column chromatography. In this fraction, GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC were co-precipitated with Axin. Although beta-catenin was detected in the high molecular weight fraction in L cells on gel filtration column chromatography, addition of conditioned medium expressing Wnt-3a to the cells increased beta-catenin in the low molecular weight fraction. However, Wnt-3a-dependent accumulation of beta-catenin was greatly inhibited in L cells stably expressing Axin. Axin also suppressed Wnt-3a-dependent activation of Tcf-4 which binds to beta-catenin and acts as a transcription factor. These results suggest that Axin forms a complex with GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC, resulting in the stimulation of the degradation of beta-catenin and that Wnt-3a induces the dissociation of beta-catenin from the Axin complex and accumulates beta-catenin.  (+info)

Xenopus axin interacts with glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta and is expressed in the anterior midbrain. (2/400)

Axin is encoded by the fused locus in mice and is required for normal vertebrate axis formation. It has recently been shown that axin associates with APC, beta-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in a complex that appears to regulate the level of cytoplasmic beta-catenin. We have identified the Xenopus homologue of axin through its interaction with GSK-3b. Xenopus axin (Xaxin) is expressed maternally and throughout early development with a low level of ubiquitous expression. Xaxin also shows remarkably high expression in the anterior mesencephalon adjacent to the forebrain-midbrain boundary.  (+info)

Negative regulation of Wingless signaling by D-axin, a Drosophila homolog of axin. (3/400)

Wnt/Wingless directs many cell fates during development. Wnt/Wingless signaling increases the amount of beta-catenin/Armadillo, which in turn activates gene transcription. Here the Drosophila protein D-Axin was shown to interact with Armadillo and D-APC. Mutation of d-axin resulted in the accumulation of cytoplasmic Armadillo and one of the Wingless target gene products, Distal-less. Ectopic expression of d-axin inhibited Wingless signaling. Hence, D-Axin negatively regulates Wingless signaling by down-regulating the level of Armadillo. These results establish the importance of the Axin family of proteins in Wnt/Wingless signaling in Drosophila.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of axin, a Wnt signal negative regulator, by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta regulates its stability. (4/400)

Axin forms a complex with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and beta-catenin and promotes GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of beta-catenin, thereby stimulating the degradation of beta-catenin. Because GSK-3beta also phosphorylates Axin in the complex, the physiological significance of the phosphorylation of Axin was examined. Treatment of COS cells with LiCl, a GSK-3beta inhibitor, and okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, decreased and increased, respectively, the cellular protein level of Axin. Pulse-chase analyses showed that the phosphorylated form of Axin was more stable than the unphosphorylated form and that an Axin mutant, in which the possible phosphorylation sites for GSK-3beta were mutated, exhibited a shorter half-life than wild type Axin. Dvl-1, which was genetically shown to function upstream of GSK-3beta, inhibited the phosphorylation of Axin by GSK-3beta in vitro. Furthermore, Wnt-3a-containing conditioned medium down-regulated Axin and accumulated beta-catenin in L cells and expression of Dvl-1(DeltaPDZ), in which the PDZ domain was deleted, suppressed this action of Wnt-3a. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of Axin is important for the regulation of its stability and that Wnt down-regulates Axin through Dvl.  (+info)

An F-box protein, FWD1, mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of beta-catenin. (5/400)

beta-catenin plays an essential role in the Wingless/Wnt signaling cascade and is a component of the cadherin cell adhesion complex. Deregulation of beta-catenin accumulation as a result of mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein is believed to initiate colorectal neoplasia. beta-catenin levels are regulated by the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis system and beta-catenin ubiquitination is preceded by phosphorylation of its N-terminal region by the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta)/Axin kinase complex. Here we show that FWD1 (the mouse homologue of Slimb/betaTrCP), an F-box/WD40-repeat protein, specifically formed a multi-molecular complex with beta-catenin, Axin, GSK-3beta and APC. Mutations at the signal-induced phosphorylation site of beta-catenin inhibited its association with FWD1. FWD1 facilitated ubiquitination and promoted degradation of beta-catenin, resulting in reduced cytoplasmic beta-catenin levels. In contrast, a dominant-negative mutant form of FWD1 inhibited the ubiquitination process and stabilized beta-catenin. These results suggest that the Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein FWD1 (SCFFWD1)-ubiquitin ligase complex is involved in beta-catenin ubiquitination and that FWD1 serves as an intracellular receptor for phosphorylated beta-catenin. FWD1 also links the phosphorylation machinery to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to ensure prompt and efficient proteolysis of beta-catenin in response to external signals. SCFFWD1 may be critical for tumor development and suppression through regulation of beta-catenin protein stability.  (+info)

Functional domains of axin. Importance of the C terminus as an oligomerization domain. (6/400)

To understand the mechanism of how Axin acts as an inhibitory molecule in the Wnt pathway, we generated a series of mutated forms of Axin. From the binding experiments, we defined the domains of Axin that bind glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and beta-catenin. We also examined the ability of each Axin mutant to inhibit lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (Lef-1) reporter activity in a cell line expressing high levels of beta-catenin. Axin mutants that did not bind GSK-3beta or beta-catenin were ineffective in suppressing Lef-1 reporter activity. Binding GSK-3beta and beta-catenin was not sufficient for this inhibitory effect of Axin. Axin mutants with C-terminal truncations lacked the ability to inhibit Lef-1 reporter activity, even though they bound GSK-3beta and beta-catenin. The C-terminal region was required for binding to Axin itself. Substitution of the C-terminal region with an unrelated dimerizing molecule, the retinoid X receptor restored its inhibitory effect on Lef-1-dependent transcription. The oligomerization of Axin through its C terminus is important for its function in regulation of beta-catenin-mediated response.  (+info)

The cyclin D1 gene is a target of the beta-catenin/LEF-1 pathway. (7/400)

beta-Catenin plays a dual role in the cell: one in linking the cytoplasmic side of cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts to the actin cytoskeleton and an additional role in signaling that involves transactivation in complex with transcription factors of the lymphoid enhancing factor (LEF-1) family. Elevated beta-catenin levels in colorectal cancer caused by mutations in beta-catenin or by the adenomatous polyposis coli molecule, which regulates beta-catenin degradation, result in the binding of beta-catenin to LEF-1 and increased transcriptional activation of mostly unknown target genes. Here, we show that the cyclin D1 gene is a direct target for transactivation by the beta-catenin/LEF-1 pathway through a LEF-1 binding site in the cyclin D1 promoter. Inhibitors of beta-catenin activation, wild-type adenomatous polyposis coli, axin, and the cytoplasmic tail of cadherin suppressed cyclin D1 promoter activity in colon cancer cells. Cyclin D1 protein levels were induced by beta-catenin overexpression and reduced in cells overexpressing the cadherin cytoplasmic domain. Increased beta-catenin levels may thus promote neoplastic conversion by triggering cyclin D1 gene expression and, consequently, uncontrolled progression into the cell cycle.  (+info)

Interaction of axin and Dvl-2 proteins regulates Dvl-2-stimulated TCF-dependent transcription. (8/400)

Axin promotes the phosphorylation of beta-catenin by GSK-3beta, leading to beta-catenin degradation. Wnt signals interfere with beta-catenin turnover, resulting in enhanced transcription of target genes through the increased formation of beta-catenin complexes containing TCF transcription factors. Little is known about how GSK-3beta-mediated beta-catenin turnover is regulated in response to Wnt signals. We have explored the relationship between Axin and Dvl-2, a member of the Dishevelled family of proteins that function upstream of GSK-3beta. Expression of Dvl-2 activated TCF-dependent transcription. This was blocked by co-expression of GSK-3beta or Axin. Expression of a 59 amino acid GSK-3beta-binding region from Axin strongly activated transcription in the absence of an upstream signal. Introduction of a point mutation into full-length Axin that prevented GSK-3beta binding also generated a transcriptional activator. When co-expressed, Axin and Dvl-2 co-localized within expressing cells. When Dvl-2 localization was altered using a C-terminal CAAX motif, Axin was also redistributed, suggesting a close association between the two proteins, a conclusion supported by co-immunoprecipitation data. Deletion analysis suggested that Dvl-association determinants within Axin were contained between residues 603 and 810. The association of Axin with Dvl-2 may be important in the transmission of Wnt signals from Dvl-2 to GSK-3beta.  (+info)

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer incidence and cancer death among adults in Europe. It is estimated for the year 2000 alone that 362,620 people were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and 198,778 patients died owing to this disease (Ferlay et al., 2001). In more than 80% of the sporadic colorectal cancers, both alleles of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene are inactivated (Kinzler and Vogelstein, 1996). The APC protein forms - together with Axin and GSK3β - a degradation complex for β-catenin. In this complex, GSK3β phosphorylates β-catenin, which in turn is ubiquitinated and thereby targeted for destruction. Wnt signalling inhibits the degradation complex and hence leads to the cytoplasmic accumulation and entry of β-catenin into the nucleus, where it forms a complex with members of the Pangolin(Pan)/TCF/Lef family of DNA-binding proteins, the putative adaptor protein Legless/BCL9 (Lgs) and the transcriptional regulator Pygopus (Pygo) (Behrens et al., 1996; ...
This is, to our knowledge, the first report describing active canonical Wnt together with YAP/Taz/TEAD signaling in adult skeletal muscle fibers. Using Axin2-lacZ reporter mice, we identified active canonical Wnt signaling in type II myofibers (Fig. 2) (Lustig et al., 2002). This mouse model is well established for tracing active canonical Wnt signaling since Axin2 is a direct target of β-catenin-mediated gene expression (Barolo, 2006). In fact, heterozygous Axin2-lacZ mice, without any known signs of haploinsufficiency, express muscular β-gal in type II muscle fibers, suggesting that active canonical Wnt signaling is present physiologically in adult muscle fibers (Fig. 2). In homozygous Axin2-lacZ mice, not only is the doubled lacZ gene dosage responsible for elevated Axin2-lacZ reporter expression, but also the derepression of canonical Wnt signaling, since Axin2 itself is a negative regulator and target of canonical Wnt signaling and therefore participates in a negative-feedback loop. In ...
Component of the beta-catenin destruction complex required for regulating CTNNB1 levels through phosphorylation and ubiquitination, and modulating Wnt-signaling (By similarity). Controls dorsoventral patterning via two opposing effects; down-regulates CTNNB1 to inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway and ventralize embryos, but also dorsalizes embryos by activating a Wnt-independent JNK signaling pathway. In Wnt signaling, probably facilitates the phosphorylation of CTNNB1 and APC by GSK3B. Likely to function as a tumor suppressor. Facilitates the phosphorylation of TP53 by HIPK2 upon ultraviolet irradiation. Enhances TGF-beta signaling by recruiting the RNF111 E3 ubiquitin ligase and promoting the degradation of inhibitory SMAD7 (By similarity). Also component of the AXIN1-HIPK2-TP53 complex which controls cell growth, apoptosis and development.
Acts as a ventralizing factor during embryogenesis. Inhibits axin-mediated JNK activation by binding axin and disrupting axin homodimerization. This in turn antagonizes a Wnt/beta-catenin-independent dorsalization pathway activated by AXIN/JNK-signaling (By similarity ...
In cells not exposed to the signal, β-catenin levels are kept low through interactions with the protein kinase zw3/GSK-3, CK1a, APC and Axin (Behrens, 1998 Itoh 1998., Hamada, 1999.) β-catenin is degraded, after phosphorylation by GSK-3 and CK1 alpha (Yanagawa 2002, Liu 2002, Amit 2002), through the ubiquitin pathway (Aberle 1997.), involving interactions with Slimb/bTrCP (Jiang 1998, Marikawa 1998,; reviewed in Maniatis 1999). In a current model, Wnt signaling initially leads to a complex between Dsh, GBP/Frat1, Axin and Zw3/GSK, which may be the regulatory step in the inactivation of Zw3/GSK (Salic, 2000; Farr 2000). The DIX domain in Axin is similar to the NH2 terminus in Dsh, and promotes interactions between Dsh and Axin (Hsu 1999, Smalley, 1999). As a consequence, GSK does not phosphorylate β-catenin anymore, releasing it from the Axin complex and accumulation (Salic, 2000).The stabilized β-catenin then enters the nucleus to interact with TCF. β-catenin can convert TCF into a ...
There are two genes that encode apc in Drosophila, apc 1 and 2. They are largely redundant, and only double mutants lead to strong pathway activation in embryos (Ahmed et al. 2002; McCartney et al. 2006). In apc1 apc2 double mutants, I assayed the ability of membrane-tethered apc2 to block signaling activation. As shown in Figure 1H, there was no real effect on the patterning of the cuticle. In contrast, expression of untethered apc2 rescued to a wild-type cuticle pattern (Figure 1G). I further used the apc1 apc2 double mutants to test the activity of both membrane-tethered and -untethered axin. Interestingly, expression of axin abolished signaling brought about by loss of both apc genes leading to a completely denticle-covered cuticle (Figure 1E). The tethered axin, however, was unable to overcome the loss of apc and signaling was not blocked (naked phenotype, Figure 1F).. To further assay the activity of the membrane-tethered and -untethered apc2 and axin, I expressed all four in a triple ...
Four candidate genes were differentially expressed in PCa recurrence. Of these, low AXIN2 expression was internally validated in the discovery cohort. Validation in external cohorts and in silico demonstrated that low AXIN2 was independently associated with more aggressive PCa, biochemical recurrence, and metastasis-free survival after RP. Functionally, siRNA-mediated depletion of AXIN2 significantly increased invasiveness, proliferation, and tumor growth. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of AXIN2 significantly reduced invasiveness, proliferation, and tumor growth ...
Complete information for AXIN2 gene (Protein Coding), Axin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in neuroectodermal patterning. Acts by specifically binding phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2), translocating to the cell membrane and interacting with key regulators of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, such as components of the beta-catenin destruction complex ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Prospecbio \ Mouse Anti Human Axin-1 AXIN1 \ ant-021 for more molecular products just contact us
APC and AXIN2 are important tumor suppressors that function in the Wnt signaling pathway by regulating the level of β-catenin. APC and AXIN2 are essential interacting components of the β-catenin destruction complex that function to down-regulate β-catenin through feedback inhibition (32, 33). Although germ line and somatic APC mutations are infrequent in human primary breast tumors (34, 35), the predisposition of the ApcMin mouse model provides strong evidence in support of a role for APC in breast cancer (18). Specifically, the Apc-deficient murine mammary glands develop metaplasia and rapidly progress to neoplasia in the presence of p53 mutations (36). Similarly, Axin2 knockout mice are more prone to carcinogen-induced neoplasia. In addition, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in invasive human breast cancers is associated with an AXIN2-dependent pathway that stabilizes β-catenin and GSK3β and regulates SNAIL1 activity (37). These observations led to the hypothesis that genetic ...
Compare & find the top performing anti-Mouse (Murine) AXIN1 antibody for Immunofluorescence (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IF (p)).
Human AXIN2 partial ORF ( NP_004646, 611 a.a. - 710 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00008313-Q02) - Products - Abnova
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Axin 2 antibody (axin 2) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Axin 2 pAb (GTX30080) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The Wnt family of growth factors and components of their signalling pathways have diverse roles in development and disease. Wnt signalling influences many aspects of embryonic patterning, cell proliferation as well as the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells, and is critical in axis formation (figure 1b; reviewed in Moon et al. 2004; Kohn & Moon 2005; Clevers 2006). In the absence of the so-called canonical Wnt signalling (Wnt/β-catenin), β-catenin is rapidly sequestered in a cytoplasmic degradation complex containing axin, the adenomatous polyposis tumour suppressor protein (APC) and the serine threonine kinase GSK-3β. GSK-3 phosphorylation of β-catenin targets the latter for proteasomal degradation (figure 1b). Wnt binding to its co-receptors Frizzled and LRP5/6 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein) activates a cytoplasmic phosphoprotein (Dishevelled, Dsh) which downregulates GSK-3 and inhibits the degradation of β-catenin. Stabilized β-catenin protein interacts ...
Wnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, in many different species and organs. There are at least three different Wnt pathways: the canonical pathway, the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway and the Wnt/Ca2+ pathway. In the canonical Wnt pathway, the major effect of Wnt ligand binding to its receptor is the stabilization of cytoplasmic beta-catenin through inhibition of the bea-catenin degradation complex. Beta-catenin is then free to enter the nucleus and activate Wnt-regulated genes through its interaction with TCF (T-cell factor) family transcription factors and concomitant recruitment of coactivators. Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling leads to the activation of the small GTPases RHOA (RAS homologue gene-family member A) and RAC1, which activate the stress kinase JNK (Jun N-terminal kinase) and ROCK (RHO-associated ...
Wnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, in many different species and organs. There are at least three different Wnt pathways: the canonical pathway, the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway and the Wnt/Ca2+ pathway. In the canonical Wnt pathway, the major effect of Wnt ligand binding to its receptor is the stabilization of cytoplasmic beta-catenin through inhibition of the bea-catenin degradation complex. Beta-catenin is then free to enter the nucleus and activate Wnt-regulated genes through its interaction with TCF (T-cell factor) family transcription factors and concomitant recruitment of coactivators. Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling leads to the activation of the small GTPases RHOA (RAS homologue gene-family member A) and RAC1, which activate the stress kinase JNK (Jun N-terminal kinase) and ROCK (RHO-associated ...
Wnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, in many different species and organs. There are at least three different Wnt pathways: the canonical pathway, the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway and the Wnt/Ca2+ pathway. In the canonical Wnt pathway, the major effect of Wnt ligand binding to its receptor is the stabilization of cytoplasmic beta-catenin through inhibition of the bea-catenin degradation complex. Beta-catenin is then free to enter the nucleus and activate Wnt-regulated genes through its interaction with TCF (T-cell factor) family transcription factors and concomitant recruitment of coactivators. Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling leads to the activation of the small GTPases RHOA (RAS homologue gene-family member A) and RAC1, which activate the stress kinase JNK (Jun N-terminal kinase) and ROCK (RHO-associated ...
Next, α catenin links bound β catenin and γ catenin to the actin filaments of the cell cytoskeleton via interactions with various actin binding proteins or by binding actin itself.24-26 The p120 protein, however, binds at a unique site directly to E-cadherin that is bound to either β catenin or γ catenin without linking it to the actin cytoskeleton.24-26 The p120 protein has been reported to act as an inhibitor of cadherin mediated adhesion, although the actual mechanism of inhibition is unclear.27. The β catenin molecule interacts with the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor protein, glycogen synthase kinase β, and an adaptor protein axin (or a homologue, conductin) in a complex, which is responsible for its degradation.28 This destruction complex is essential to maintain appropriate concentrations of free cytoplasmic β catenin. APC and E-cadherin have been shown to compete for the same binding region on β catenin.29 It has been suggested that APC modulates the ...
Aqeilan, R. I., et al. (2005). WW domain-containing proteins, WWOX and YAP, compete for interaction with ErbB-4 and modulate its transcriptional function. Cancer Res. 65(15): 6764-72. 16061658 Alarcon, C., et al.. (2009). Nuclear CDKs drive Smad transcriptional activation and turnover in BMP and TGF-beta pathways. Cell 139(4): 757-69. PubMed Citation: 19914168 Aragón, E., et al. (2011). A Smad action turnover switch operated by WW domain readers of a phosphoserine code. Genes Dev. 25(12): 1275-88. PubMed Citation: 21685363 Azzolin, L., Panciera, T., Soligo, S., Enzo, E., Bicciato, S., Dupont, S., Bresolin, S., Frasson, C., Basso, G., Guzzardo, V., Fassina, A., Cordenonsi, M. and Piccolo, S. (2014). YAP/TAZ incorporation in the beta-Catenin destruction complex orchestrates the Wnt response. Cell 158: 157-170. PubMed ID: 24976009 Badouel, C., et al. (2009). The FERM-domain protein Expanded regulates Hippo pathway activity via direct interactions with the transcriptional activator Yorkie. Dev. ...
At the base of the glands, however, there are long lived stem cells, which continuously generate new cells, explains Dr. Sigal. He adds: In addition to identifying these cells, we also wanted to discover the processes which control their regeneration. Stem cell characterization revealed that there are two different types of stem cells in the stomach, both of which are positive for the protein AXIN2. We found that the cells directly below the glands produce a specific molecule known as R spondin. This molecule has a major effect on stem cells. It drives cell division in one type of stem cell, thereby increasing the speed of gastric gland regeneration, says the researcher. Infection with H. pylori results in an increased production of R spondin and increased stem cell activity. It is likely that a sustained high rate of stem cell proliferation promotes cancer formation ...
Component of the Wnt-Fzd-LRP5-LRP6 complex that triggers beta-catenin signaling through inducing aggregation of receptor-ligand complexes into ribosome-sized signalsomes. Cell-surface coreceptor of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, which plays a pivotal role in bone formation. The Wnt-induced Fzd/LRP6 coreceptor complex recruits DVL1 polymers to the plasma membrane which, in turn, recruits the AXIN1/GSK3B-complex to the cell surface promoting the formation of signalsomes and inhibiting AXIN1/GSK3-mediated phosphorylation and destruction of beta-catenin. Required for posterior patterning of the epiblast during gastrulation, By similarity. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269,PubMed:11357136, ECO:0000269,PubMed:11448771, ECO:0000269,PubMed:15778503, ECO:0000269,PubMed:16341017, ECO:0000269,PubMed:16513652, ECO:0000269,PubMed:17326769, ECO:0000269,PubMed:17400545, ECO:0000269,PubMed:19107203, ECO:0000269,PubMed:19293931, ECO:0000269,PubMed:19801552 ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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Rabbit polyclonal Axin 2 antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to…
Bonjour, je rcherche la procedure pour flasher un axil ad-600 new usual et les programmes necessaires. En cherchant sur le forum jai eu de bonnes pistes mais souvent les liens sont mort.|-(
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Qtº + pesquiso + dúvidas me surgem. Será q alguém me pode indicar qual o firm correcto para este receptor e como se colocam a k *** no mesmo?
sorry για το moderation στο archlinux event αλλά παρά το χιούμορ ο τίτλος ήταν μαρκετίστικος. keep it in mind για την επόμενη φορά :) (Meneksedia 13:54, 28 January 2014 (EET)) ...
beta-catenin destruction complex, beta-catenin-TCF7L2 complex, catenin complex, cell cortex, cell junction, cell periphery, cell-cell adherens junction, cell-cell junction, centrosome, cytoplasm
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of Lytechinus variegatus AXIN. A synthetic peptide corresponding to C-terminus of Lytechinus variegatus AXIN. (PAB16080) - Products - Abnova
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
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Plasmid pAG228 TNKS2 3UTR mut from Dr. David Bartels lab contains the insert TNKS2 3UTR mut and is published in Science. 2005 Dec 16. 310(5755):1817-21. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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The AXIL Z Flush Mount Power and Data Center is made of an anodized aluminum frame that can be installed on any desk or table top incorporates waterproof outlets engineered for maximum protection against liquid spills preventing electric shocks.
Information about Dix Hills NY public health major. You can enter healthcare with either an associates degree or a bachelors. As a medical professional, you may provide patient care under the supervision of hospital staff.
I use these for everything. Mowing the lawn, shooting, wood work, these things are awesome. I had them waterproofed as well. Shout out to Tai for helping me. Awesome Customer service!. ...
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Activity of the canonical Wnt signal pathway in kidney homogenates of sham and nephrectomized rats. The expression of active Wnt components in kidney homogenate
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Axil Swims high waisted bottom that is comfortable and flattering. Comes in Olive, Honey, Rosé, and Black. It is made of high quality shiny fabric an
Background: The Wnt signal transduction pathway is important in a wide variety of developmental processes as well as in the genesis of human cancer. Vertebrate Wnt pathways can be functionally separated into two classes ...
TNKS1BP1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_203754), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics.
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Ok thanks everyone for there help, also a big cheers to the AZ crew, so awesome to be able to jump on my phone with a problem and or question an have access to all of this info and fellow zookers that have endless knowledge of these machines ...
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Le faible écart de revenu entre le Danemark et les pays les plus avancés de l’OCDE s’est constamment creusé au cours des dix derni&#
Schwarz-Romond, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Bienz, M. (2007). "Dynamic recruitment of axin by Dishevelled protein assemblies". Journal of ... Membrane protein, or membrane-associated protein, clustering at neurological synapses, cell-cell tight junctions, or other ... The Dishevelled (Dsh or Dvl) protein undergoes clustering in the cytoplasm via its DIX domain, which mediates protein ... the Axin complex) to Wnt receptors at the plasma membrane. The formation of these Dishevelled and Axin containing droplets is ...
Schwarz-Romond, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Bienz, M. (2007). "Dynamic recruitment of axin by Dishevelled protein assemblies". Journal of ... proteins to recruit the Axin complex for inactivation. B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome: The B-cell receptor (BCR) binds ... Cliffe, Adam; Hamada, Fumihiko; Bienz, Mariann (2003). "A Role of Dishevelled in Relocating Axin to the Plasma Membrane during ... COP9 signalosome: Catalyses the hydrolysis of NEDD8 protein from the Cullin subunit of Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRL). ...
Guo X, Ramirez A, Waddell DS, Li Z, Liu X, Wang XF (January 2008). "Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate ... "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein interactions and their ability to regulate beta-catenin stability". ... Nakamura T, Hamada F, Ishidate T, Anai K, Kawahara K, Toyoshima K, Akiyama T (June 1998). "Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt ... Pal R, Bondar VV, Adamski CJ, Rodney GG, Sardiello M (June 2017). "Inhibition of ERK1/2 Restores GSK3β Activity and Protein ...
Strovel ET, Wu D, Sussman DJ (January 2000). "Protein phosphatase 2Calpha dephosphorylates axin and activates LEF-1-dependent ... Protein phosphatase 1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPM1A gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... "A protein phosphatase 2calpha-Ca2+ channel complex for dephosphorylation of neuronal Ca2+ channels phosphorylated by protein ...
Guo X, Ramirez A, Waddell DS, Li Z, Liu X, Wang XF (January 2008). "Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Polyubiquitin-C is a protein encoded by the UBC gene in humans. Polyubiquitin-C is one of the sources of ubiquitin, along with ... Chen L, Dong W, Zou T, Ouyang L, He G, Liu Y, Qi Y (August 2008). "Protein phosphatase 4 negatively regulates LPS cascade by ...
Strovel ET, Wu D, Sussman DJ (2000). "Protein phosphatase 2Calpha dephosphorylates axin and activates LEF-1-dependent ... Dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYNLT1 gene. Cytoplasmic dynein is the major ... 2004). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid protein VP26 interacts with dynein light chains RP3 and Tctex1 and plays a role in ... 1997). "The mouse t-complex-encoded protein Tctex-1 is a light chain of brain cytoplasmic dynein". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (50): ...
2004). "The DIX domain protein coiled-coil-DIX1 inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation by Axin and dishevelled through ... Segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DVL2 gene. This gene encodes a ... Strovel ET, Wu D, Sussman DJ (2000). "Protein phosphatase 2Calpha dephosphorylates axin and activates LEF-1-dependent ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ...
Dishevelled (Dvl) is a protein required for Wnt-dependent inhibition complex. The combination of LRP-axin induces Dvl ... Second group of antagonists contains a class of Wnt inhibitory proteins known as Frizzled Receptor-like Proteins (FRPs). FRPs ... The signals are initiated at the 7 transmembrane domain and transmitted through receptor coupling to G-proteins. This protein ... The serpentine receptors (frzb) couple binds to ligand (Wnt protein) and activates G-proteins. A signal transduction cascade ...
Fagotto F, Jho Eh, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, Costantini F (1999). "Domains of axin involved in protein-protein ... Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Hino S, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (Jun 1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein ... Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Hino S, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein ... Segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DVL1 gene. DVL1, the human ...
Axin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AXIN1 gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein which contains a ... Fagotto F, Jho Eh, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, Costantini F (1999). "Domains of axin involved in protein-protein ... cadherin-associated protein) beta 1, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, protein phosphatase 2, and itself. This protein functions ... The AXIN proteins atrract substantial interest in cancer research as AXIN1 and AXIN2 work synergistically to control pro- ...
Axin-2 also known as axin-like protein (Axil) or axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) or conductin is a protein that in humans is ... The Axin-related protein, Axin2, presumably plays an important role in the regulation of the stability of beta-catenin in the ... The AXIN proteins atrract substantial interest in cancer research as AXIN1 and AXIN2 work synergistically to control pro- ... "Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-β signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia". EMBO J. 25 (8): 1646-58. doi: ...
"Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway". Molecular ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRP5 gene. LRP5 is a key ... LRP5 acts as a co-receptor with LRP6 and the Frizzled protein family members for transducing signals by Wnt proteins through ... "SUMOylation target sites at the C terminus protect Axin from ubiquitination and confer protein stability". FASEB Journal. 22 ( ...
... a novel Axin-binding protein, is involved in downregulation of beta-catenin". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (11): 3803-19. doi:10.1128/ ... SUMO1 (UBL1; MIM 601912) is a small ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently conjugated to other proteins. SENP2 is one of ... which is an axin-binding protein promoting beta-catenin degradation". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (42): 39060-6. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (1): 65-73. doi: ...
"Dimerization choices control the ability of axin and dishevelled to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein ... and scaffold protein regions that mediate protein-protein interactions. MAP3K1 is highly conserved in Euteleostomi. The ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks) are substrates for direct phosphorylation by the MAP3K1 protein kinase. The ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K1 gene. MAP3K1 (or ...
... a novel Axin-binding protein, is involved in downregulation of beta-catenin". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (11): 3803-19 ... Small ubiquitin-related modifier 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SUMO3 gene. SUMO proteins, such as SUMO3, and ... Su HL, Li SS (August 2002). "Molecular features of human ubiquitin-like SUMO genes and their encoded proteins". Gene. 296 (1-2 ... Eaton EM, Sealy L (August 2003). "Modification of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta by the small ubiquitin-like modifier ( ...
"Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia". The EMBO Journal. 25 (8): 1646 ... The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger domain, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... "Entrez Gene: RNF111 ring finger protein 111". Koinuma D, Shinozaki M, Komuro A, Goto K, Saitoh M, Hanyu A, Ebina M, Nukiwa T, ...
... and scaffold proteins adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin targets plakoglobin for degradation.[31-33]. The phosphorylated ... Swope D, Cheng L, Gao E, Li J, Radice GL (Mar 2012). "Loss of cadherin-binding proteins β-catenin and plakoglobin in the heart ... Plakoglobin, also known as junction plakoglobin or gamma-catenin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUP gene. ... Rubinfeld B, Souza B, Albert I, Munemitsu S, Polakis P (Mar 1995). "The APC protein and E-cadherin form similar but independent ...
Phosphorylation by other proteins in the destruction complex subsequently binds Axin to the cytoplasmic tail of LRP5/6. Axin ... This destruction complex includes the following proteins: Axin, adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A ... Dsh proteins are present in all organisms and they all share the following highly conserved protein domains: an amino-terminal ... For example, Wnt proteins are palmitoylated. The protein porcupine mediates this process, which means that it helps regulate ...
2001). "Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway". ... It is very conserved in evolution, and the protein encoded by this gene is known to be 98% identical to the mouse Wnt1 protein ... The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been ... The studies in mouse indicate that the Wnt1 protein functions in the induction of the mesencephalon and cerebellum. This gene ...
The scaffold protein axin (two closely related paralogs, axin 1 and axin 2) contains a similar interaction motif on its long, ... This way, axin acts as a true scaffold protein, bringing an enzyme (GSK3) together with its substrate (β-catenin) into close ... But even axin does not act alone. Through its N-terminal regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain, it recruits the ... Beta-catenin contains no such motifs, but a special protein does: axin. What is more, its GSK3 docking motif is directly ...
1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein interactions and their ability to regulate beta-catenin stability ... Segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DVL3 gene. This gene is a ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. Bibcode: ... "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein interactions and their ability to regulate beta-catenin stability". Mol. ...
Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... However, upon Wnt signaling, MACF1 is involved in a translation and binding of the axin complex to LTP6 at the cell membrane. ... MACF1 is also an important protein for cell migration in processes such as wound healing. MACF1 is an enormous protein of 5380 ... MACF1 is a member of a family of proteins that form bridges between different cytoskeletal elements. This protein facilitates ...
Hsu W, Zeng L, Costantini F (Feb 1999). "Identification of a domain of Axin that binds to the serine/threonine protein ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... is one of several novel proteins stably associating with two inactive mutants of protein phosphatase 2A". The Journal of ... "p42 MAP kinase phosphorylation sites in microtubule-associated protein tau are dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A1. ...
Zinc finger BED domain-containing protein 3 also known as axin-interacting protein is a protein in humans that is encoded by ... as a novel Axin-interacting protein that activates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (11): ...
"The DIX domain protein coiled-coil-DIX1 inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation by Axin and dishevelled through distinct ... Dixin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DIXDC1 gene. When active it stops cancer metastasis due to extreme ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 7 (6): 347-55. ... Katoh M, Katoh M (July 2003). "KIAA1735 gene on human chromosome 11q23.1 encodes a novel protein with myosine-tail homologous ...
DIX is found in proteins like Axin and coiled-coil protein DIX-domain-containing I (DIXdc1 or Ccd1). The DIX domain of DVL has ... These regions mediate protein-protein interactions and help DVL channel signals into either the β-catenin or the β-catenin ... This region mediates many protein-protein interactions and regulates multiple biological processes. DEP, which is in C-terminal ... Post synaptic density protein (PSD95), Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor (Dlg1), and Zonula occludens-1 protein (zo-1)), ...
2004). "The DIX domain protein coiled-coil-DIX1 inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation by Axin and dishevelled through ... This gene encodes a MAPKKK, the MEKK4 protein, also called MTK1. This protein contains a protein kinase catalytic domain at the ... The central core of each mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved cascade of 3 protein kinases: an ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
... of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein phosphatase 2A complexed with Axin". ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell ... Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit beta isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
... of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein phosphatase 2A complexed with Axin". ... The product of this gene belongs to the Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit gamma isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
The AD hallmark proteins tau in NFTs or GVBs and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) in GVBs colocalize with CK1δ. In ... Amit S, Hatzubai A, Birman Y, Andersen JS, Ben-Shushan E, Mann M, Ben-Neriah Y, Alkalay I (May 2002). "Axin-mediated CKI ... So far, C-terminal phosphorylation of CK1δ by upstream kinases has been confirmed for protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase B ... Locasale JW, Shaw AS, Chakraborty AK (August 2007). "Scaffold proteins confer diverse regulatory properties to protein kinase ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Proteins matched: Axin beta-catenin binding (IPR014936) This domain is found in the following proteins: Showing 221 to 240 of ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... It inhibits axin-mediated JNK activation by binding axin and disrupting axin homodimerization. This in turn antagonizes a Wnt/ ... Axin interactor, dorsalization-associated protein, N-terminal (IPR023421). Short name: AIDA_N ...
Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF08833, Axin_b-cat_bind, 1 hit. PF00778, DIX, 1 hit. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR043581, Axin-like. IPR014936, Axin_b-cat-bd. IPR001158, DIX. IPR038207, DIX_dom_sf. IPR016137 ... View protein in InterPro. IPR043581, Axin-like. IPR014936, Axin_b-cat-bd. IPR001158, DIX. IPR038207, DIX_dom_sf. IPR016137 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF16646 AXIN1_TNKS_BD, 1 hit. PF08833 Axin_b-cat_bind, 1 ... ubiquitin protein ligase binding Source: BHF-UCLInferred from physical interactioni*. "Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta ... positive regulation of protein ubiquitination Source: MGIInferred from direct assayi*. "Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta ... protein-containing complex Source: MGIInferred from direct assayi*. "Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that ...
One such protein, Axin, represents a major evolutionarily conserved scaffold protein in metazoans that participates in the WNT ... By combining early studies with recent findings, the review is aimed to serve as an updated reference for the roles of Axin in ... This review summarizes the vast amount of literature on the regulation and functions of the Axin family of genes in eukaryotes ... Scaffold proteins serve important roles in cellular signaling by integrating inputs from multiple signaling molecules to ...
Axin is a central component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway that interacts with the adenomatous polyposis coli protein ... Two functionally distinct Axin-like proteins regulate canonical Wnt signaling in C. elegans Dev Biol. 2007 Aug 15;308(2):438-48 ... Axin is a central component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway that interacts with the adenomatous polyposis coli protein ... Here, we report the cloning and functional analysis of a second Axin-like protein, which we named AXL-1. We show that despite ...
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway.. Mao J1, ... Addition of Wnt caused the translocation of Axin to the membrane and enhanced the interaction between Axin and LRP-5. In ... we identified Axin as a protein that interacts with the intracellular domain of LRP-5. LRP-5, when expressed in fibroblast ... Thus, we conclude that the binding of Axin to LRP-5 is an important part of the Wnt signal transduction pathway. ...
GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins. Annu ... One subfamily of RGS proteins, the primary member of which is a protein termed axin, contains multiple domains that facilitate ... Known binding axin partners are indicated above the appropriate domain binding site. A, full-length axin; B, GFP-AxinΔDIX; C, ... A cocrystal structure of the RGS domain of axin with the axin-binding domain of APC has confirmed that the axin RGS domain is ...
Rabbit polyclonal Axin 2 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 2 publication(s). ... Protein - Recombinant Human Axin 2 protein (ab204097) WB, SDS-PAGE Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) IHC-P ... ab107613 antibody is predicted to not cross-react with Axin 1. At least four isoforms of Axin 2 are known to exist; this ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Axin 2 (C terminal). The immunogen is located within amino acids 780 - 830 of Axin 2. ...
Inhibits axin-mediated JNK activation by binding axin and disrupting axin homodimerization. This in turn antagonizes a Wnt/beta ... Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein ... A beta-catenin-independent dorsalization pathway activated by Axin/JNK signaling and antagonized by aida.. ... independent dorsalization pathway activated by AXIN/JNK-signaling (By similarity). ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. axin interactor, dorsalization-associated protein. ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_022831.2 → NP_073742.2 axin interactor, dorsalization-associated protein ... AIDA axin interactor, dorsalization associated [Homo sapiens] AIDA axin interactor, dorsalization associated [Homo sapiens]. ... axin interactor, dorsalization associatedprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:25761 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000186063 ...
1999) Domains of axin involved in protein-protein interactions, Wnt pathway inhibition, and intracellular localization. J Cell ... The indicated LRP5/6-binding region on Axin is based on previous Axin-LRP5 and Axin-Arr yeast two-hybrid studies (6, 7); dotted ... redundancy within Axin regarding sequences required for LRP6ICD-mediated Axin degradation, and/or dimerization of certain Axin ... LRP6 has been proposed to stabilize β-catenin by stimulating degradation of Axin, a scaffold protein required for β-catenin ...
chromosome 1 open reading frame 80 , axin interactor, dorsalization-associated protein , UPF0491 protein C1orf80 homolog , axin ... Protein Überblick Acts as a ventralizing factor during embryogenesis. Inhibits axin-mediated JNK activation by binding axin and ... Aida blocks Axin (zeige AXIN1 Antikörper)-mediated JNK (zeige MAPK8 Antikörper) activation by disrupting Axin (zeige AXIN1 ... Weitere Produktkategorien zu Axin Interactor, Dorsalization Associated Antikörper * 53 anti-Axin Interactor, Dorsalization ...
Compare axin interactor, dorsalization associated ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices ... Watch Webinar: How To Get Speed and Depth in your Host Cell Protein (HCP) Analysis ... axin interactor, dorsalization associated ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Your search returned 19 axin interactor, dorsalization associated ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. ...
Protein Coding), Axin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... Protein details for AXIN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q9Y2T1-AXIN2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Axin-2. Protein ... The Axin-related protein, Axin2, presumably plays an important role in the regulation of the stability of beta-catenin in the ... AXIN2 (Axin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AXIN2 include Oligodontia-Colorectal Cancer Syndrome and ...
Protein Coding), Axin 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... Protein details for AXIN1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. O15169-AXIN1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Axin-1. Protein ... AXIN1 (Axin 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AXIN1 include Caudal Duplication Anomaly and Hepatocellular ... AXIN missense mutants destabilize the destruction complex. *AXIN mutants destabilize the destruction complex, activating WNT ...
Coexpression and protein-protein complexing of DIX domains of human Dvl1 and Axin1 protein. BMB Rep. 2010;43:609-13. doi: ... Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate TGF- signaling. Genes Dev. 2008;22:106-20. doi:10.1101/gad.1590908. ... Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia. EMBO J. 2006;25:1646-58. doi: ... Axin forms a complex with MEKK1 and activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase through domains ...
Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia. ... AXIN1 BOS_22580] Axin 1 (Axin-1-like isoform 2). [AXIN1] Axin 1. [AXIN1] Axin 1. [AXIN1] Axin 1. [Axin1] Axin-1 (Axin1 protein) ... axin1 axin] Axin-1 (Axis inhibition protein 1). [Axn CG7926] Axin (Axis inhibition protein) (d-Axin) (dAxin). [AXIN1 AXIN AXN] ... AXIN1 AXIN] Axin-1 (Axis inhibition protein 1) (hAxin). [Axin1 Axin Fu] Axin-1 (Axis inhibition protein 1) (Protein Fused). [ ...
Protein Mutation Frequency in Cancer. The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA ...
Signaling by the Wnt family of extracellular proteins is critical in a variety of developmental processes in which cell and ... Signaling by the Wnt family of extracellular proteins is critical in a variety of developmental processes in which cell and ... Axin is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling and dorsal axial development in vertebrates [6]. Here, we demonstrate that axin ... We also find that wild-type axin, but not delta RGS, forms a complex with beta-catenin. Thus, axin may act as a docking station ...
A regulatory network based on a complex of p53, the signalling protein axin, the p53 kinase HIPK2, the DNA repair-associated ... However, on lethal treatment, Tip60 interacts with Axin and abrogates Pirh2-Axin binding, forming an Axin-Tip60-HIPK2-p53 ... An axin mutation promotes carcinogenesis in AxinFu/+ (Axin-Fused) mice, consistent with a dominant-negative role for AxinFu in ... Thus, Axin is a critical determinant in p53-dependent tumour suppression in which Pirh2 and Tip60 have different roles in ...
Rabbit polyclonal Axin 2 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 42 ... Anti-Axin 2 antibody (ab32197) at 1 µg/ml + AXIN2 partial recombinant tagged protein at 0.1 µg. Secondary. IRDye 680 Conjugated ... Lysates/proteins at 10 µg per lane.. Secondary. All lanes : Goat polyclonal to Rabbit IgG - H&L - Pre-Adsorbed (HRP) (ab65484) ... ab32197 Axin 2 antibody is covered by our guarantee for IHC-P, IHC-Fr, ICC/IF, WB, Flow Cyt and in use, Rat and Human samples. ...
... and takes place in a protein complex assembled by the scaffolding protein Axin and the tumor suppressor protein Apc, the ... Axin-Lrp6 binding has not been mapped. Known binding sites for various Axin-binding proteins are depicted with square brackets ... Schematic diagram of Axin, showing its binding sites for various interacting proteins, including Arrow/Lrp5. How Axin binds to ... Fz-associated Dishevelled (Dvl) protein may bind Axin and inhibit Axin-Gsk3 phosphorylation ofβ -catenin, either directly or ...
... a large multimeric protein complex that consists minimally of the scaffold protein Axin, APC, GSK3, and β-catenin is formed to ... To this end, we assessed a kinase-dead mutant of GSK3β (K85M) which also lacks the ability to bind to the scaffold protein Axin ... S6 ribosomal protein, and Ras protein expression were examined by immunoblotting in tumors derived from primary GSK3β−/− MEFs ... A) Ras protein expression was verified by immunoblotting. (B) Primary MEFs (10th passage after infection with virus) were ...
... Type of Publication:. Journal ... The trimeric G protein Go inflicts a double impact on axin in the Wnt/frizzled signaling pathway. * Home ... The trimeric G protein Go inflicts a double impact on axin in the Wnt/frizzled signaling pathway. In: Developmental Dynamics. ... Gαo physically binds the RGS domain of Axin and recruits Axin it to the plasma membrane, antagonizing the Axin-based ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Binds axin. Interacts with ARHGEF4 (via N-terminus). Interacts with MAPRE1 (via C-terminus); probably required for APC ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P25054 - Homo sapiens 25 * Q93042 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
Serine/threonine Protein Phosphatase 2A, Catalytic Subunit, Alpha Isoform, Mouse. 1 AXIN missense mutants destabilize the ... Protein Phosphatase 2A Catalytic Subunit Zeta, Mouse. 1 PTN1_HUMAN. P18031. CHEMBL335. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase 1B, Human. ... Serine/threonine Protein Phosphatase 2A, Catalytic Subunit, Beta Isoform, Human. 1 PPM1B_HUMAN. O75688. CHEMBL2845. Protein ... Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulatory Subunit B, Human. 1 Q8AWE3_CHICK. Q8AWE3. CHEMBL2669. Serine-threonine Protein Phosphatase ...
DR Reactome; R-BTA-4608870; Asymmetric localization of PCP proteins. DR Reactome; R-BTA-4641257; Degradation of AXIN. DR ... DR GO; GO:0031625; F:ubiquitin protein ligase binding; IBA:GO_Central. DR GO; GO:0019941; P:modification-dependent protein ... DE RecName: Full=Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40; DE AltName: Full=Ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product ... 60S ribosomal protein L40: Component of the 60S subunit CC of the ribosome. {ECO:0000250}. CC -!- SUBUNIT: Ribosomal protein ...
Axin Axis inhibition protein 1 α (PPM1A) [14] Bad α (PPM1A), β (PPM1B) [15] ... PPM comprises PP2C (protein phosphatase type 2C) and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (for a classification of protein ... The inhibitors of serine/threonine protein phosphatases such as okadaic acid, microcystin, tautomycin or inhibitor proteins I1 ... 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase α (PPM1A) [11] ARC Apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain γ (PPM1F, FIN 13) [12 ...
0 (Axin Protein); EC 2.4.2.30 (Tankyrases); EC 2.4.4.30 (TNKS protein, human); EC 3.1.2.15 (USP25 protein, human); EC 3.4.19.12 ... 0 (AXIN1 protein, human); 0 (AXIN2 protein, human); 0 (Axin Protein); 0 (G007-LK); 0 (Sulfones); 0 (Triazoles); 0 (beta Catenin ... 0 (AMOTL1 protein, human); 0 (AMOTL2 protein, human); 0 (Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 ( ... Wnt signaling is negatively regulated by Axin, a scaffolding protein that controls a rate-limiting step in the destruction of - ...
  • In the absence of a Wnt ligand, β-catenin is marked for degradation through its interaction with a destruction complex consisting of two scaffold proteins, Axin and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC), and two kinases, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that axin is associated with GSK3 in the Xenopus embryo and we localize the GSK3-binding domain to a short region of axin. (nih.gov)
  • Binding of GSK3 correlates with the ability of axin to inhibit axial development and with the axis-inducing activity of its dominant-negative form (delta RGS). (nih.gov)
  • Thus, axin may act as a docking station mediating negative regulation of beta-catenin by GSK3 during dorsoventral axis determination in vertebrate embryos. (nih.gov)
  • A) Without Wnt, the scaffolding protein Axin assembles a protein complex that contains Apc, Gsk3, Ck1 and β-catenin. (biologists.org)
  • Both catalytic activity and Axin-binding of GSK3β are required to optimally suppress Ras transformation. (pnas.org)
  • In the absence of Wnt signals, a large multimeric protein complex that consists minimally of the scaffold protein Axin, APC, GSK3, and β-catenin is formed to sequester β-catenin to the cytosol and to regulate β-catenin levels ( 20 ⇓ - 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the absence of extracellular ligand, a degradation complex consisting of the scaffold proteins Axin and APC and the kinases CKI and Zw3 (Shaggy, GSK3) forms. (genetics.org)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 restores GSK3β activity and protein synthesis levels in a model of tuberous sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conservation of Zw3/Gsk3-β phosphorylation sites in vertebrate homologs of Mad (Smads) suggests that this pathway, the first transforming growth factor β-independent role for any Smad protein, may be widely utilized for regulating mitosis during development. (genetics.org)
  • demonstrated in vertebrates that Wnt stimulated Gsk3-β phosphorylation of Smad1, on serine in a central portion of the protein known as the "linker region", led to its degradation and the termination of TGFβ signaling. (genetics.org)
  • Catenin interacting proteins involved in Wnt signaling such as adenomatous polyposis coli, Axin, and GSK3? (stanford.edu)
  • In the absence of Wnt signals, cytoplasmic β-catenin is low because the protein is targeted for degradation by a multiprotein complex, which includes the APC protein, GSK3β, and conductin or axin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the presence of Wnt, Wnt-Fz-LRP complexes at the cell surface induce stabilization and nuclear localization of β-catenin by compromising its destruction complex (APC complex) in the cytoplasm, which is composed mainly of adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), casein kinase 1 (CK1), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), and scaffold proteins AXIN1 and AXIN2 ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • AXIN2, the homologue of AXIN1, encodes a protein with 60% amino acid identity to AXIN1 and both proteins contain the same putative conserved domains for binding to APC, GSK3β, CK1, and β-catenin ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • [3] The binding of Wnt to Frizzled receptors helps recruit DVL to the membrane, providing a site for Axin and GSK3β to bind and phosphorylate LRP5/6 (transmembrane low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein), preventing constitutive degradation of β-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] [7] Conversely, without Wnt signaling, the destruction complex, made of APC, CKI, GSK3β and Axin, degrades β-catenin buildup, keeping the concentration of β-catenin in the cell low. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Axin scaffold and associated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) have central roles in both assemblies, but the transduction mechanism from the receptor to the destruction complex is contentious. (sciencemag.org)
  • Phosphorylation by GSK3 kept Axin activated ("open") for β-catenin interaction and poised for engagement of LRP6. (sciencemag.org)
  • Without Wnt stimulation, cytosolic β-catenin concentrations are kept low because a "destruction complex" assembled by the Axin scaffold binds to β-catenin, Adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), casein kinase-1α (CK1α), and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), and promotes phosphorylation of β-catenin by CK1α and GSK3, thus ensuring β-catenin ubiquitination and degradation ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Finally, we provide evidence that CK1epsilon stimulates the binding of dishevelled ( dsh ) to GSk3 binding protein ( GBP ) in extracts. (xenbase.org)
  • D) Tcf3 inhibits the phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK3 and axin in a purified system. (xenbase.org)
  • In the same reaction, axin phosphorylation by GSK3 is not affected by Tcf3 . (xenbase.org)
  • Most of b-catenin point mutations alter 1 of the 4 serine or threonine residues which are targets for phosphorylation by GSK3 and are crucial for the down-regulation of the protein. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The secreted protein, wnt, binds to its receptor frizzled to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) by hypophosphorylation 18 - 20 and activation of disheveled through an unknown mechanism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 27 , 28 In the absence of wnt signal, GSK3β, axin, APC, and β-catenin are phosphorylated at specific serine and threonine residues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Conversely, in the absence of Wnt ligand activation, Axin and APC facilitate the sequential phosphorylation of β -catenin by CK1 and GSK3 β [ 6 ] tagging this protein for ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome mediated degradation [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This in turn antagonizes a Wnt/beta-catenin-independent dorsalization pathway activated by axin/JNK-signaling [ PMID: 17681137 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A beta-catenin-independent dorsalization pathway activated by Axin/JNK signaling and antagonized by aida. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Axin is a central component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway that interacts with the adenomatous polyposis coli protein APC and the kinase GSK3beta to downregulate the effector beta-catenin. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, LRP-5 mutants lacking the extracellular domain functioned as constitutively active forms that bind Axin and that induce LEF-1 activation by destabilizing Axin and stabilizing beta-catenin. (nih.gov)
  • Prostaglandin E2 promotes colon cancer cell growth through a Gs-axin-beta-catenin signaling axis. (springer.com)
  • Smurf1-mediated Lys29-linked Non-proteolytic Poly-ubiquitination of Axin Negatively Regulates Wnt/beta-catenin Signaling. (springer.com)
  • Fiedler M, Mendoza-Topaz C, Rutherford TJ, Mieszczanek J, Bienz M. Dishevelled interacts with the DIX domain polymerization interface of Axin to interfere with its function in down-regulating beta-catenin. (springer.com)
  • We also find that wild-type axin, but not delta RGS, forms a complex with beta-catenin. (nih.gov)
  • The Axin-related protein, Axin2, presumably plays an important role in the regulation of the stability of beta-catenin in the Wnt signaling pathway, like its rodent homologs, mouse conductin/rat axil. (genecards.org)
  • The interaction between axin and beta-catenin occurs via the armadillo repeats contained in beta-catenin (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • In certain systems, however, Wnt-mediated Axin turnover is not detected until after beta-catenin has been stabilized. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Inhibition of Wnt/Axin/beta-catenin pathway activity promotes ventral CNS midline tissue to adopt hypothalamic rather than floorplate identity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The signalling pathways responsible for subdivision of midline neural tissue into hypothalamic and floorplate domains are uncertain, and in this study, we have explored the role of the Wnt/Axin/beta-catenin pathway in this process. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein with critical roles in cell-cell adhesion, Wnt-signaling and the centrosome cycle. (stanford.edu)
  • Presenilin 1 negatively regulates beta-catenin/T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor-1 signaling independently of beta-amyloid precursor protein and notch processing. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, PS1 specifically represses LEF-dependent transcription in a dose-dependent manner.The hyperproliferative response can be reversed by reintroducing PS1 expression or overexpressing axin, but not a PS1 mutant that does not bind beta-catenin (PS1Deltacat) or by two different familial Alzheimer's disease mutants.Thus, PS1 adds to the molecules that are known to regulate the rapid turnover of beta-catenin. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to its documented role in the proteolytic processing of Notch-1 and the beta-amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1 (PS1) associates with beta-catenin. (nih.gov)
  • The hyperproliferative response can be reversed by reintroducing PS1 expression or overexpressing axin, but not a PS1 mutant that does not bind beta-catenin (PS1Deltacat) or by two different familial Alzheimer's disease mutants. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, PS1Deltacat restores Notch-1 proteolytic cleavage and Abeta generation in PS1-deficient cells, indicating that PS1 function in modulating beta-catenin levels can be separated from its roles in facilitating gamma-secretase cleavage of beta-amyloid precursor protein and in Notch-1 signaling. (nih.gov)
  • These results provide evidence that modulation of calcium release is critical for early embryonic patterning and acts by influencing the stabilization of beta-catenin protein. (labome.org)
  • The wnt pathway regulates the steady state level of beta-catenin, a transcriptional coactivator for the Tcf3 /Lef1 family of DNA binding proteins. (xenbase.org)
  • We demonstrate that Tcf3 can inhibit beta-catenin turnover via its competition with axin and adenomatous polyposis for beta-catenin binding. (xenbase.org)
  • A mutant of beta-catenin that cannot bind Tcf3 is degraded faster than the wild-type protein in Xenopus embryos and extracts. (xenbase.org)
  • Along with evidence that a significant amount of Tcf protein is nonnuclear, these findings suggest that CK1epsilon can modulate wnt signaling in vivo by regulating both the beta-catenin- Tcf3 and the GBP - dsh interfaces. (xenbase.org)
  • Die homologen Gerüstproteine Conductin und Axin stehen im Mittelpunkt eines zentralen Multiproteinkomplexes, der im Zytoplasma für die Regulation des Wnt/beta-Catenin-Signalwegs verantwortlich ist. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The homologous scaffolding proteins Conductin and Axin are the backbone of a central multi protein complex that is responsible for the tight regulation of the Wnt/beta-Catenin pathway in the cytoplasm. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Axin preferentially binds the activated form of Gα 12 , a behavior consistent with other RGS proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • During Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a Wnt ligand binds transmembrane coreceptors Frizzled (Fz) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 or 6 (LRP5/6) and initiates a process that leads to stabilization and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. (pnas.org)
  • UBXD2 is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that binds valosin-containing protein and promotes ER-associated protein degradation. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Gαo physically binds the RGS domain of Axin and recruits Axin it to the plasma membrane, antagonizing the Axin-based destruction complex. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Binds axin. (rcsb.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear transcription factor which binds DNA as a homodimer. (novusbio.com)
  • It is thought to be a protein scaffold that binds numerous protein partners at distinct sites along its length (see Fig. 1 ) (for review see Polakis 1999 ). (rupress.org)
  • C) Both β-catenin and β-cateninΔC2 bind to axin, but only β-catenin binds to xTcf3 in vitro. (xenbase.org)
  • This elevated monomeric form of β-catenin binds to proteins including T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4), lymphoid enhancement factor, or pangolin 24 - 26 to translocate to the nucleus, where they control the transcription of target genes including c-myc and cyclin-D1, among others. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Motif conserving the exact sequence KEN that binds to the APC/C subunit Cdh1 causing the protein to be targeted for 26S proteasome mediated degradation. (eu.org)
  • This degron motif is present in JAZ transcriptional repressor proteins and binds to the COI1 F-box protein of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase in a jasmonate-dependent manner. (eu.org)
  • AXIN2 (Axin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Axin 2 antibody LS-C156698 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Axin 2 (AXIN2) (aa816-843). (lsbio.com)
  • CRISPR/cas9 endonuclease mediated genome editing of the Axin2 , axin 2, gene was used to introduce an mTurquoise2 reporter knock-in/knock-out mutation. (jax.org)
  • Plasmids encoding a signal guide RNA, designed to replace most of exon 2 of the axin 2 ( Axin2 ) gene with an mTurquoise2 (green fluorescent protein in far blue) coding sequence and a frt -flanked neomycin resistance (neo) cassette, and the cas9 nuclease were microinjected into the pronucleus of fertilized oocytes obtained from superovulated B6CBAF1/J donors mated with C57BL6/Jico studs. (jax.org)
  • mTurquoise2 fluorescent protein expression pattern is similar to the endogenous Axin2 gene expression pattern with Wnt signals detected in the intestinal crypts by direct fluorescent microscopy and in the thymus by flow cytometry. (jax.org)
  • Human AXIN2 partial ORF ( NP_004646, 611 a.a. - 710 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (abnova.com)
  • Axis inhibition protein1 (AXIN1), also called AXIN, together with AXIN2 are multidomain scaffold proteins that negatively regulate Wnt signaling. (ptglab.com)
  • A do rsalizat ion (zeige AXIN1 Antikörper )pathway th at (zeige MAPK8 Antikörper )is exerted by Axin/JNK sig nali (zeige AXIN1 Antikörper )ng and its inhibitor Aida during vertebrate embryogenesis, is defined. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Aida blocks Axin (zeige AXIN1 Antikörper )-mediated JNK (zeige MAPK8 Antikörper ) activation by disrupting Axin (zeige AXIN1 Antikörper ) homodimerization. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In zebrafish embryos, the dorsalization induced by axin (zeige AXIN1 Antikörper ) could be repressed by aida . (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This activity of aida is conferred by its ability to block Axin (zeige AXIN1 Antikörper )-mediated JNK (zeige MAPK8 Antikörper ) activity. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Coexpression and protein-protein complexing of DIX domains of human Dvl1 and Axin1 protein. (springer.com)
  • AXIN1 (Axin 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • In the multiprotein destruction complex, APC acts as a scaffold protein providing the binding sites for the AXIN1 scaffold protein and β-catenin ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the absence of Wnt ligand, cytosolic β-catenin is bound to a complex of proteins including axin, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, where it becomes phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and directed to the proteosome for degradation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and GTPase activator activity . (genecards.org)
  • The encoded protein interacts with adenomatosis polyposis coli, catenin beta-1, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, protein phosphate 2, and itself. (genecards.org)
  • Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 phosphorylates p53 at Ser-46 and mediates apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • Regulation of p53 activity by its interaction with homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2. (nature.com)
  • Liu J, Ni W, Xiao M, Jiang F, Ni R. Decreased expression and prognostic role of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 4 in hepatocellular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified a novel protein which interacts with glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). (asm.org)
  • p. 871 , published online 11 April) characterized the role of the scaffold protein Nud1 in the mitotic exit network and found that the kinase that produces the output from the signaling complex only interacts with a scaffold that is primed by its activator protein kinase, already bound to the scaffold and creating a docking site. (sciencemag.org)
  • 7-10 We have recently reported that eNOS gene transfer activates the NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) cascade and inhibits VSMC hypertrophy induced by AngII. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 Among these kinases, we and others have demonstrated that extracelluar-signal regulated kinase (ERK) activated through "trans"-activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Rho-kinase (ROCK), an effecter of a small G protein, Rho, are critical for VSMC migration induced by AngII. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lee HM, Chen R, Kim H, Etchegaray JP, Weaver DR, Lee C. The period of the circadian oscillator is primarily determined by the balance between casein kinase 1 and protein phosphatase 1. (umassmed.edu)
  • APC is part of the Arm/βcat destruction complex, along with Axin and the kinase Zeste-white 3 (Zw3)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK). (rupress.org)
  • Another peculiarity compared with other protein kinases is its preference for primed substrates, that is, substrates previously phosphorylated by another kinase. (biologists.org)
  • This entry represents the N-terminal domain of the axin interactor, dorsalization-associated protein family AIDA [ PMID: 17681137 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Axin Interactor, Dorsalization Associated Proteine (10) und Axin Interactor, Dorsalization Associated Kits (4) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Your search returned 19 axin interactor, dorsalization associated ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Scaffold proteins serve important roles in cellular signaling by integrating inputs from multiple signaling molecules to regulate downstream effectors that, in turn, carry out specific biological functions. (mdpi.com)
  • Scaffold proteins create a functional proximity of signaling molecules and control the specificity of signal transduction. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • While many components involved in the TGF-beta pathway have been elucidated, little is known about how those components are coordinated by scaffold proteins. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Also, evidence is emerging that besides G protein inhibition, they can enhance G protein activation, serve as effectors, and act as scaffold proteins to gather receptors, G proteins, effectors, and other regulatory molecules together. (aspetjournals.org)
  • One such protein, Axin, represents a major evolutionarily conserved scaffold protein in metazoans that participates in the WNT pathway and other pathways to regulate diverse cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, we conclude that the binding of Axin to LRP-5 is an important part of the Wnt signal transduction pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, contains a canonical regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) core domain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this pathway, axin acts as a scaffolding protein holding together a signaling complex involved in the break-down of β-catenin, the primary target of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Axin facilitates Smad3 activation in the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • This protein functions as a negative regulator of the wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1 (WNT) signaling pathway and can induce apoptosis. (genecards.org)
  • We also provide evidence that the ATM/ATR pathway mediates the Axin-Tip60 complex assembly. (nature.com)
  • The mouse Fused locus encodes Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway that regulates embryonic axis formation. (nature.com)
  • The outcome of the most intensively studied Wnt pathway - the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway - relies to a large extent on the regulation of the stability/abundance of the β-catenin protein ( Fig. 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • The Wnt signaling pathway including Axin, APC and β-catenin is targeted by mutation in multiple tumor lineages ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here I probe the requirement for nuclear localization of APC2 and Axin in the Wg signal transduction pathway during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster . (genetics.org)
  • Axin 2 plays an integral role in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that is involved in stem cell maintenance. (jax.org)
  • Researchers have already identified more than a dozen Wnt ligands (proteins that bind Wnt receptors and initiate signaling), and new components of the pathway are being cloned and added to the already complicated system at a rapid pace. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Based on the model, we can propose that controlling axin levels and its turnover is the major way by which the pathway can be regulated," Lee says. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The Rho-associated protein kinases/LIM kinases/cofilin pathway (ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathway) and CapZ-mediated regulation of actin filament dynamics play key roles in the actin/cytoskeleton network rearrangement ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A family of proteins that are key components of the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, where they function downstream of FRIZZLED RECEPTORS. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The most extensively studied Wnt signaling pathway follows from the binding of Wnts to a Frizzled (FZD) and a Lipoprotein receptor-related protein coreceptor, LRP5 or LRP6. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many downstream components of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway can be mutated in cancers to stabilize β-catenin protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [2] [3] It is thought to interact with the novel protein, SPATS1 , when regulating the Wnt Signalling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein had 44% amino acid identity with Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway.We designated this protein Axil for Axin like. (asm.org)
  • Our results indicate that both SUMO modification and demodification of proteins may occur at the NPC and suggest a connection between the SUMO modification pathway and nucleocytoplasmic transport. (asm.org)
  • citation needed] Normally, the Wnt signaling pathway leads to stabilization of β-catenin through inactivation of a protein complex containing the tumor suppressors APC and Axin. (wikipedia.org)
  • De-regulation of the autocrine Wnt signaling pathway via mutations in APC and Axin have been linked to activation of various types of human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dsh proteins also participate in the planar cell polarity pathway by acting through JNK (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • 15 It is one of the key proteins in this pathway and its deregulation is associated with molecular pathogenesis of several malignancies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Collectively, we show for the first time that the WNT signaling pathway inhibitor XAV939 was able to significantly increase the apoptosis induced by 5-FU/DDP, accompanied by the protein expression level alternation of β-catenin, Axin and CSC markers in colon cancer cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Axin, an important component of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could be a potential molecular target for reversing multidrug resistance in colon cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Recent studies indicated that XAV939 is a small molecule inhibitor of WNT signaling pathway, it broke Wnt signaling pathway in cancer cell lines through binding to tankyrase (TNKS) catalytic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) domain, and then resulted in marked stabilization of the Axin protein, finally leading to increased β-catenin destruction ( 16 - 18 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our results suggest that the WNT pathway small molecule modulator XAV939 affected apoptosis induced by 5-FU/DDP, accompanied by the protein expression level alteration of β-catenin, Axin and CSC markers in colon cancer cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Through experiments in egg extract and reconstitution with purified proteins, we identify a mechanism whereby LRP6 stabilizes β-catenin independently of Axin degradation by directly inhibiting GSK3's phosphorylation of β-catenin. (pnas.org)
  • Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of Axin directs axon formation during cerebral cortex development. (springer.com)
  • In cells treated with sublethal doses of ultra-violet (UV) radiation or doxorubicin (Dox), Pirh2 abrogates Axin-induced p53 phosphorylation at Ser 46 catalysed by HIPK2, by competing with HIPK2 for binding to Axin. (nature.com)
  • Reversible and mostly multiple phosphorylation of proteins is a crucial mechanism that is used in eukaryotic organisms to regulate all kinds of cellular processes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Kinases and phosphatases manipulate the phosphorylation status of their substrates, thereby regulating regulatory proteins. (portlandpress.com)
  • These results show that phosphorylation of FHOD proteins by ERK1/2 is a critical switch for nuclear positioning and may play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy caused by LMNA mutations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It activates Wnt signaling via phosphorylation of LRP6 increasing its affinity for AXIN and recruiting the protein to the cell surface receptor away from the complex ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • RNA-sequencing analysis reveals reduced expression of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-associated proteins and desmosomal polarity proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and RNA polymerase II Ser 2 phosphorylation in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to N-&-N1 indicates that N-&-N1 is able to inhibit CDKs in a cellular context. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report that Wnt signaling is governed by phosphorylation regulation of the Axin scaffolding function. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inactivation of Axin diminished its association with β-catenin and LRP6, thereby inhibiting β-catenin phosphorylation and enabling activated LRP6 to selectively recruit active Axin for inactivation reiteratively. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inhibition of GSK-3ß by DVL-1 could lead to changes in the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins such as Tau, MAP-1B, and MAP-2 that are direct targets of GSK-3ß. (sdbonline.org)
  • To understand how Wnt signaling prevents β-catenin degradation, we focused on the Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), which is required for signal transduction and is sufficient to activate Wnt signaling when overexpressed. (pnas.org)
  • LRP6 has been proposed to stabilize β-catenin by stimulating degradation of Axin, a scaffold protein required for β-catenin degradation. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, LRP6 may also signal through a mechanism distinct from Axin degradation. (pnas.org)
  • To establish a biochemically tractable system to test this hypothesis, we expressed and purified the LRP6 intracellular domain from bacteria and show that it promotes β-catenin stabilization and Axin degradation in Xenopus egg extract. (pnas.org)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Upon ligand binding, the receptor complex of Frizzled (Fz) and Arrow (LRP5/6, Arr) activates Disheveled (Dsh), which in turn inhibits the degradation complex leading to increased Arm protein levels. (genetics.org)
  • Axin is a negative regulator of Wnt signalling that targets β-catenin for degradation, so preventing Wnt target gene activation. (biologists.org)
  • In wild-type oocytes, exogenous β-catenin degradation was prevented by the co-injection of LRP6 mRNA, whereas in axin-depleted oocytes, β-catenin levels increased. (biologists.org)
  • This study reveals a novel role for LRP6 in axin degradation and highlights the complexity of Wnt signalling. (biologists.org)
  • Screens for downstream inhibitors have provided an important insight that β-catenin stability can be regulated by tankyrase-mediated degradation of AXIN ( 11 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tankyrase inhibitors increase AXIN abundance and therefore increase β-catenin degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B) Purified Tcf3 protein (1 μM) blocks β-catenin degradation. (xenbase.org)
  • We observed activation of β-catenin degradation complex comprising of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product (APC) and serine-phosphorylated axin protein, beginning at 5 minutes after hepatectomy, leading to its decreased levels after this time. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • β-Catenin is now presented to β-transducing repeat-containing protein for ubiquitination and degradation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A hydrophobic degron motif present in some kainate receptors necessary to interact with kelch domain of actinfilin protein for efficient ubiquitination and degradation. (eu.org)
  • This low affinity motif is important for ubiquitination and degradation of target proteins. (eu.org)
  • An Acidic degron motif present in wnk kinases necessary to interact with kelch domain of KLHL2 and KLHL3 proteins for efficient ubiquitination degradation. (eu.org)
  • N-terminal motif that initiates protein degradation by binding to the N-box of N-recognins. (eu.org)
  • In contrast to vertebrate Axin and the related protein Conductin, AXL-1 and PRY-1 are not functionally equivalent. (nih.gov)
  • In der vorliegenden Arbeit habe ich eine kombinierte genetische Analyse von Conductin und Axin in der Maus durchgeführt. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Im Weiteren habe ich festgestellt, dass der gemeinsame Verlust von Conductin und einem Axin-Allel (Con-/-;Ax+/-) zu Holoprosenzephalie (HPE) führt, die durch schwere kraniofazialen und Vorderhirndefekten in der Maus charakterisiert ist. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Daneben führt die gleichzeitige Abwesenheit von Conductin und Axin (Con-/-;Ax-/-) zum Verlust der anterior-posterioren Achse in einem frühen Entwicklungsstadium und zum Absterben der Embryonen nach dem Tag 6,5 der Entwicklung. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In the present study I have performed a combined genetic analysis of Conductin and Axin in the mouse. (hu-berlin.de)
  • I could show that the simultaneous loss of Conductin and one Axin allele (Con-/-;Ax+/-) causes Holoprosencephaly (HPE), which is characterized by severe craniofacial and forebrain defects in the mouse. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Moreover, complete absence of both Conductin and Axin (Con-/-;Ax-/-) leads to loss of the anterior-posterior axis early in development and death of the embryos after E6.5. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Using an Axin mutant that does not degrade in response to LRP6, we demonstrate that LRP6 can stabilize β-catenin in the absence of Axin turnover. (pnas.org)
  • L ow-density-lipoprotein receptor- r elated p roteins 5 and 6 (Lrp5 and Lrp6) in vertebrates, and their Drosophila ortholog Arrow, are single-span transmembrane proteins that are indispensable for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and are likely to act as Wnt co-receptors. (biologists.org)
  • Wnt signalosome: Transduction of Wnt signals from the plasma membrane depends on clustering of LRP6 receptors with Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins to recruit the Axin complex for inactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to studies of LRP6, I explore the role of the other Wnt coreceptor Fz, which has been suggested to be a G protein coupled receptor. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) was first identified as a Wnt co-receptor in mice. (biologists.org)
  • On p. 503 , Janet Heasman's group now reveal that LRP6 degrades axin - an essential event in the Wnt11-activated formation of the dorsal axis in Xenopus embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • They also reveal that LRP6 regulates axin levels in the oocyte and maintains β-catenin expression in a low steady state - Wnt signalling has previously been believed to exist in either an on or off state. (biologists.org)
  • LRP6 depletion in the embryo, in this study, led to increased axin and decreased β-catenin levels. (biologists.org)
  • Formation of the Wnt-induced LRP6-Axin signaling complex promoted Axin dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase-1 and inactivated ("closed") Axin through an intramolecular interaction. (sciencemag.org)
  • Background: LRP5 and LRP6 are single-pass transmembrane proteins belonging to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein family. (cellsignal.com)
  • The activity of LRP5 and LRP6 can be inhibited by the binding of some members of the Dickkopf (DKK) family of proteins (6,7). (cellsignal.com)
  • Phosphorylated LRP6 recruits axin to the membrane and presumably activates β-catenin signaling (8-10). (cellsignal.com)
  • ab107613 antibody is predicted to not cross-react with Axin 1. (abcam.com)
  • WB analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Axin 2 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • IHC-P analysis of rat kidney using Axin 2 antibody at a dilution of 1:200. (genetex.com)
  • IHC-P analysis of human lung cancer using Axin 2 antibody at a dilution of 1:200. (genetex.com)
  • ICC/IF analysis of U2OS cells using Axin 2 antibody (red) and DAPI (blue). (genetex.com)
  • When CC polyubiquitin is free (unanchored-polyubiquitin), it also has CC distinct roles, such as in activation of protein kinases, and in CC signaling (By similarity). (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • The enzyme is a key regulator of numerous signalling pathways, including cellular responses to Wnt, receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, ranging from glycogen metabolism to cell cycle regulation and proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • To induce axon extension, the cellular machinery at the nerve growth cone controls the assembly of cytoskeletal proteins and membrane components into new axons. (frontiersin.org)
  • To understand how the Wnt coreceptor LRP-5 is involved in transducing the canonical Wnt signals, we identified Axin as a protein that interacts with the intracellular domain of LRP-5. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we demonstrate both in vitro and in cells that this domain interacts with the α subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein G 12 but not with the closely related Gα 13 or with several other heterotrimeric G proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, on lethal treatment, Tip60 interacts with Axin and abrogates Pirh2-Axin binding, forming an Axin-Tip60-HIPK2-p53 complex that allows maximal p53 activation to trigger apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Pirh2 interacts with Axin and inhibits Axin-induced p53 activation and apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • Figure 4: Tip60 interacts with Axin and reverses Pirh2 inhibition of p53. (nature.com)
  • This review summarizes the vast amount of literature on the regulation and functions of the Axin family of genes in eukaryotes, with a specific focus on Caenorhabditis elegans development. (mdpi.com)
  • At the molecular level, Tankyrase inhibitors significantly decreased YAP protein levels, reduced the expression of YAP target genes, and inhibited YAP/TEAD luciferase reporter activity. (bireme.br)
  • The encoded protein controls the expression of several genes, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha, a transcription factor which regulates the expression of several hepatic genes. (novusbio.com)
  • The increased concentration of this protein in the cytoplasm favors its binding to the T-cell factor (TCF) family of DNA-binding proteins, and it subsequently translocates to the nucleus, where it induces transcription of specific genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although tissue distribution and transcriptional regulation of these two genes are significantly different, the two proteins are functionally equivalent in vivo ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In colorectal cancer, for example, mutations in APC, axin, or β-catenin promote β-catenin stabilization and transcription of genes encoding cancer-associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arm forms a complex with the DNA-binding protein, dTCF, to alter expression of Wg-responsive genes. (rupress.org)
  • These findings establish that the RGS domain of axin is able to directly interact with the α subunit of heterotrimeric G protein G 12 and provide a unique tool to interdict Gα 12 -mediated signaling processes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • FUNCTION: 60S ribosomal protein L40: Component of the 60S subunit CC of the ribosome. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • SUBUNIT: Ribosomal protein L40 is part of the 60S ribosomal CC subunit. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • COP9 signalosome: Catalyses the hydrolysis of NEDD8 protein from the Cullin subunit of Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Su, Changqing 2018-02-01 00:00:00 Protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B (B56), alpha isoform (PPP2R5A) is one of the regulatory subunits of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is a major member of protein serine/threonine phosphatases in cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • RGS (Regulator of G Protein Signalling) proteins are multi-functional, GTPase-accelerating proteins that promote GTP hydrolysis by the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, thereby inactivating the G protein and rapidly switching off G protein-coupled receptor signalling pathways. (embl.de)
  • Upon activation by GPCRs, heterotrimeric G proteins exchange GDP for GTP, are released from the receptor, and dissociate into free, active GTP-bound alpha subunit and beta-gamma dimer, both of which activate downstream effectors. (embl.de)
  • Those RGS proteins that contain GGL domains can interact with G protein beta subunits to form novel dimers that prevent G protein gamma subunit binding and G protein alpha subunit association, thereby preventing heterotrimer formation. (embl.de)
  • A directed protein interaction network for investigating intracellular signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a major role in signal transduction and are targets of many therapeutic drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • They are a highly diverse protein family, have unique tissue distributions, are strongly regulated by signal transduction events, and will likely play diverse functional roles in living cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Like Axin, Axil ventralized Xenopus embryos and inhibited Xwnt8-induced Xenopus axis duplication. (asm.org)
  • Methylation by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 increases stability of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. (springer.com)
  • Axin is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling and dorsal axial development in vertebrates [6]. (nih.gov)
  • However, coexpression of Wnt-1 reduced Smad7 ubiquitination by downregulating Axin levels, underscoring the importance of Axin as an intrinsic regulator in TGF-beta signaling. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • RGS18 is a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling family. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • RGS8 is a member of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family and is a protein with a single RGS domain. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Overexpression of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, leads to severe defects in Drosophila wing growth and patterning (the affected wing is shown in a green pseudocolor, compared to a wild-type wing in pink). (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins form a recently identified protein family, and they strongly modulate the activity of G proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins modulate the activity of G proteins in vitro, and evidence is beginning to emerge on their role in vivo as well. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Freisinger C, Fisher R, Slusarski D. Regulator of g protein signaling 3 modulates wnt5b calcium dynamics and somite patterning. (labome.org)
  • Members of the newly discovered regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) families of proteins have a common RGS domain. (embl.de)
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • The mutations occur at the 5' end of the gene (exons 2-4) and lead to an accumulation of aberrant b-catenin proteins in the nucleus. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Research over the last decade has shown that cells harbor loss-of-function mutations involving components of the Wnt signaling cascade, such as APC, β-catenin and Axin, are considered universal in CRC ( 11 - 13 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Heterotrimeric GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) stimulate a wide variety of cellular signals as a result of their interactions with G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The interaction of Wnt proteins with their receptors on the cell surface is the first step in transducing the extracellular signal into intracellular responses. (biologists.org)
  • Src homolog and collagen homolog 3 (Shc3) is an adaptor protein belonging to the Shc family. (nature.com)
  • Addition of Wnt caused the translocation of Axin to the membrane and enhanced the interaction between Axin and LRP-5. (nih.gov)
  • I find that nuclear localization of APC2 appears to be required, but Axin can block signaling when tethered to the membrane. (genetics.org)
  • Previous results suggested a model where ligand-mediated receptor activation recruited Axin to the membrane where it bound Arr in a larger complex with Dsh and Fz. (genetics.org)
  • Here I report that membrane-tethered Axin is sufficient for the proper transduction of Wg signal in the patterning of the Drosophila embryo. (genetics.org)
  • cell-cell and cell-substratum contact) and the reorganization of proteins in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. (stanford.edu)
  • Once established, polarity is maintained by targeting and retention of proteins to functionally distinct apical and basal-lateral plasma membrane domains. (stanford.edu)
  • Analysis of membrane and cytoplasmic protein sorting, targeting and distribution in established cell lines of polarized renal epithelia in tissue culture (eg. (stanford.edu)
  • Biochemical and molecular analysis of protein sorting into vesicles, transport and docking of vesicles with specialized membrane domains. (stanford.edu)
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • As an original manufacturer for its entire catalog of antibodies and proteins, we are here to support you. (ptglab.com)
  • The crystal structure of a portion of this protein, alone and in a complex with other proteins, has been resolved. (genecards.org)
  • Figure 5: ATM, ATR and Chk1 are involved in Tip60-enriched p53 activating complex centred on Axin. (nature.com)
  • Here, we show that Axin activates TGF-beta signaling by forming a multimeric complex consisting of Smad7 and ubiquitin E3 ligase Arkadia. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Firstly, protein-protein interactions are more easily identified if the interacting protein pair belongs to a multi-protein complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scaffolds in cellular signaling pathways are turning out to do way more than just hold proteins together in a complex. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that enzymes involved in the SUMO modification and demodification of proteins are components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). (asm.org)
  • The HIF1 complex consists of two subunits, HIF-1α and HIF-1β, which are basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS (Per, ARNT, Sim) family (2). (cellsignal.com)
  • ATII cells are involved in ion transport and liquid homeostasis ( Fehrenbach, 2001 ) but, most importantly, ATII cells are responsible for the production, storage, secretion and recycling of pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, lining the alveolar epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • D) Half-life of the axin-β-catenin complex. (xenbase.org)
  • β-catenin-luciferase (4 ng) protein was injected into 2-cell stage Xenopus embryos with or without MBP -cat449/645 (4 ng). (xenbase.org)
  • Low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP-5) and 6, BMP-2, -4, and -7, bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IA and IB (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IA), lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), and transcription factor 4 ( TCF-4) expression levels were investigated in normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This mini-review highlights the involvement of PP2C (protein phosphatase type 2C) family members α and β in apoptosis. (portlandpress.com)
  • PPP1R subunits (also known as PP1-interacting proteins, or PIPs) direct the substrate specificity of protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PPP1C) subunits. (genenames.org)
  • PPP2R5A can regulate the cellular location, substrate specification and protein phosphatase function of PP2A, through which PPP2R5A plays an important role in many cellular activities. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, canonical Wnt signaling is negatively regulated by the highly divergent Axin ortholog PRY-1. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that Axin function in C. elegans is divided over two different Axin orthologs that have specific functions in negatively regulating canonical Wnt signaling. (nih.gov)
  • These results provide the first evidence for an essential developmental role of RGS proteins in modulating the duration of non-canonical Wnt signaling. (labome.org)
  • Dishevelled ( Dsh ) is a family of proteins involved in canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling pathways . (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, proteins associated with cell-cell adhesion sites, such as dynein, regulate mitotic spindle positioning. (stanford.edu)
  • This RGS domain is necessary for conferring upon RGS proteins the capacity to regulate negatively a variety of Galpha protein subunits. (embl.de)
  • Axin is part of two protein complexes that have opposing actions that may regulate the timing of signaling-either activating Wnt signaling, thus protecting β-catenin from destruction, or causing proteolytic destruction of β-catenin. (sciencemag.org)
  • The KRAB domain containing zinc finger proteins are a large group of transcription factors that are vertebrate-specific, varied in their expression patterns between species, and thought to regulate gene transcription programs that control speciation (3,4).TIF1β has been shown to be essential for early embryonic development and spermatogenesis (6,5). (cellsignal.com)
  • More recently, the Frizzled family of seven transmembrane proteins has been shown to act as a receptor for Wnt proteins and therefore may be involved in cell migration patterns. (aacrjournals.org)
  • LRPs and Arrow in Drosophila are long single-pass transmembrane proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • It inhibits axin-mediated JNK activation by binding axin and disrupting axin homodimerization. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Figure 3: Pirh2 inhibits Axin-induced p53 activation independently of its E3 ligase activity. (nature.com)
  • XAV-939 selectively inhibits Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription through tankyrase1/2 inhibition with IC50 of 11 nM/4 nM in cell-free assays, regulates axin levels and does not affect CRE, NF-κB or TGF-β. (selleckchem.com)
  • However, several factors that enhance Ubc9-mediated SUMO modification have been identified, including the PIAS family of proteins and Nup358 ( 10 , 12 , 26 , 30 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Peptides and proteins are guaranteed for 3 months from date of receipt. (novusbio.com)
  • WNT proteins are a family of secreted, glycosylated, and palmitoylated peptides that mediate a wide variety of processes during embryogenesis by regulating stem cell division, migration, and integrity of the stem cell niche ( 8 , 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. (phosphosite.org)
  • An axin mutation promotes carcinogenesis in Axin Fu /+ (Axin-Fused) mice, consistent with a dominant-negative role for Axin Fu in p53 activation. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Mutation of Axin in Axin Fu /+ mice promotes tumour formation. (nature.com)
  • PrxII deletion in mice with inactivating mutation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene reduces intestinal adenomatous polyposis via Axin/ -catenin axis and thereby promotes survival. (bireme.br)
  • Ab32197 gave a positive signal against the tagged partial recombinant protein which has an expected molecular weight of 37 kDa. (abcam.com)
  • HNF4A( NP_000448, 324 a.a. - 424 a.a.) partial recombinant protein with GST. (novusbio.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Axin 2. (thermofisher.com)
  • Such agents include inhibitors of Wnt secretion, as well as recombinant proteins that minimize Wnt-Frizzled interactions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The immunogen is located within amino acids 780 - 830 of Axin 2. (abcam.com)
  • In addition, the LRP-5 sequences involved in interactions with Axin are required for LEF-1 activation. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions. (nih.gov)
  • For human cells, published experimental results are collected in databases like MINT (Molecular Interactions database) and HPRD (Human Protein Reference Database) [ 8 , 9 ], but the amount of information is still largely limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, data have been obtained from different cellular models and using different techniques, thus rendering it difficult to build a global network of interactions or to extrapolate information about the composition of multi-protein complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper we present a new approach for the detection of putative protein interactions based on expression data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides the identification of permanent complexes, it is also capable (at least for well synchronized samples) of reliably identifying interactions among proteins belonging to transient complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we focused on tracking interactions within protein complexes, even though our algorithm can, in principle, identify any type of protein-protein interaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Frequently, the molecular mechanism underlying TGFβ-Wnt interactions is binding of Smad proteins to β-catenin and/or TCF. (genetics.org)
  • In vitro studies of protein organization and interactions in purified and reconstituted cell systems. (stanford.edu)
  • The presence of these additional modules within the RGS proteins provides for multiple novel regulatory interactions performed by these molecules. (embl.de)
  • These regions mediate protein-protein interactions and help DVL channel signals into either the β-catenin or the β-catenin independent pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, ß-catenin, Cyclin D1, and c-Myc protein expression was inhibited by ethanol exposure at P3, but not P10 or P20. (omicsonline.org)
  • Specific knockdown of Axin or Arkadia revealed that Axin and Arkadia cooperate with each other in promoting Smad7 ubiquitination. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein which contains a regulation of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain and a dishevelled and axin (DIX) domain. (genecards.org)
  • Dvl proteins also associate with actin fibers and cytoplasmic vesicular membranes (5) and mediate endocytosis of the Fzd receptor after Wnt protein stimulation (6). (cellsignal.com)
  • The cellular interface of focal adhesions consists of integrin-α/β heterodimers that bind ECM proteins (e.g., fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin) and adaptor complexes (e.g., talin, vinculin, and tensin) via the extracellular and intracellular domains, respectively ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH derived from within residues 800 to the C-terminus of Mouse Axin 2. (abcam.com)
  • When covalently bound, it is CC conjugated to target proteins via an isopeptide bond either as a CC monomer (monoubiquitin), a polymer linked via different Lys CC residues of the ubiquitin (polyubiquitin chains) or a linear CC polymer linked via the initiator Met of the ubiquitin (linear CC polyubiquitin chains). (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Ubiquitin is usually CC conjugated to Lys residues of target proteins, however, in rare CC cases, conjugation to Cys or Ser residues has been observed. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • All three SUMOs are linked to proteins through an isopeptide bond formed between their carboxyl-terminal glycine residues and a lysine(s) in the substrate. (asm.org)
  • RGS family members are GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits. (embl.de)
  • RGS proteins markedly reduce the lifespan of GTP-bound alpha subunits by stabilising the G protein transition state. (embl.de)
  • Thus, Axin is a critical determinant in p53-dependent tumour suppression in which Pirh2 and Tip60 have different roles in triggering cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis depending on the severity of genotoxic stress. (nature.com)
  • Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The P53 protein is involved in cell cycle control, senescence, DNA repair, genomic stability and apoptosis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In addition to their GTPase-stimulating activities, some RGS proteins act as scaffolding molecules that hold signaling complexes together. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here we show that cellular fate commitment depends on Axin forming distinct complexes with Pirh2, Tip60, HIPK2 and p53. (nature.com)
  • Signalosomes are large supramolecular protein complexes that undergo clustering (oligomerisation or polymerisation) and/or colloidal phase separation to form biomolecular condensates that increase the local concentration and signalling activity of the individual components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mad and Smads1/5/8 in vertebrates signal for Dpp/BMP subfamily proteins while Medea and Smad4 in vertebrates form complexes with Smads that signal for all TGFβ proteins ( Newfeld and Wisotzkey 2006 ). (genetics.org)
  • These regions are involved in conferring regulatory selectivity to specific Galpha-coupled signaling pathways, enhancing the efficacy of the RGS domain, and the translocation or targeting of RGS proteins to intracellular membranes. (embl.de)