Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.
Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.
Inorganic compounds that contain TECHNETIUM as an integral part of the molecule. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) is an isotope of technetium that has a half-life of about 6 hours. Technetium 99, which has a half-life of 210,000 years, is a decay product of technetium 99m.
Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409)
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.

Chronic radiodermatitis following cardiac catheterisation: a report of two cases and a brief review of the literature. (1/902)

Cardiac angiography produces one of the highest radiation exposures of any commonly used diagnostic x ray procedure. Recently, serious radiation induced skin injuries have been reported after repeated therapeutic interventional procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic imaging. Two male patients, aged 62 and 71 years, in whom chronic radiodermatitis developed one to two years after two consecutive cardiac catheterisation procedures are reported. Both patients had undergone lengthy procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic guidance in a limited number of projections. The resulting skin lesions were preceded, in one case, by an acute erythema and took the form of a delayed pigmented telangiectatic, indurated, or ulcerated plaque in the upper back or below the axilla whose site corresponded to the location of the x ray tube during cardiac catheterisation. Cutaneous side effects of radiation exposure result from direct damage to the irradiated tissue and have known thresholds. The diagnosis of radiation induced skin injury relies essentially on clinical and histopathological findings, location of skin lesions, and careful medical history. Interventional cardiologists should be aware of this complication, because chronic radiodermatitis may result in painful and resistant ulceration and eventually in squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series. (2/902)

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an established component of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, and is an important procedure in cancer staging; however, it is associated with unpleasant side effects. We have investigated a radioactive tracer-guided procedure that facilitates identification, removal, and pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node (i.e., the lymph node first receiving lymphatic fluid from the area of the breast containing the tumor) to predict the status of the axilla and to assess the safety of foregoing axillary dissection if the sentinel lymph node shows no involvement. METHODS: We injected 5-10 MBq of 99mTc-labeled colloidal particles of human albumin peritumorally in 376 consecutive patients with breast cancer who were enrolled at the European Institute of Oncology during the period from March 1996 through March 1998. The sentinel lymph node in each case was visualized by lymphoscintigraphy, and its general location was marked on the overlying skin. During breast surgery, the sentinel lymph node was identified for removal by monitoring the acoustic signal from a hand-held gamma ray-detecting probe. Total axillary dissection was then carried out. The pathologic status of the sentinel lymph node was compared with that of the whole axilla. RESULTS: The sentinel lymph node was identified in 371 (98.7%) of the 376 patients and accurately predicted the state of the axilla in 359 (95.5%) of the patients, with 12 false-negative findings (6.7%; 95% confidence interval = 3.5%-11.4%) among a total of 180 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy using a gamma ray-detecting probe allows staging of the axilla with high accuracy in patients with primary breast cancer. A randomized trial is necessary to determine whether axillary dissection may be avoided in those patients with an uninvolved sentinel lymph node.  (+info)

Initial experience with sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer at the National Cancer Center Hospital East. (3/902)

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an important procedure in the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Axillary lymph node dissection is still performed in over half of breast cancer patients having histologically negative nodes, regardless of the morbidity in terms of axillary pain, numbness and lymphedema. The first regional lymph nodes draining a primary tumor are the sentinel lymph nodes. Sentinel node biopsy is a promising surgical technique for predicting histological findings in the remaining axillary lymph nodes, especially in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer, and a worldwide feasibility study is currently in progress. METHODS: Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy were performed in the axilla by subcutaneous injection of blue dye (indigocarmine) in 88 cases of stage 0-IIIB breast cancer. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified by detecting blue-staining lymph nodes or dye-filled lymphatic tracts after total or partial mastectomy. Finally, axillary lymph node dissection was performed up to Levels I and II or more. RESULTS: Sentinel lymph nodes were successfully identified in 65 of the 88 cases (74%). In the final histological examination, the sentinel lymph nodes in 40 cases were negative, including four cases with non-sentinel-node-positive breast cancer (specificity, 100%; sensitivity, 86%). In nine (31%) of the 29 cases with histologically node-positive breast cancer, the sentinel lymph nodes were the only lymph nodes affected. Axillary lymph node status was accurately predicted in 61 (94%) of the 65 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although it was the initial experience at the National Cancer Center Hospital East, sentinel node biopsy proved feasible and successful. This method may be a reasonable alternative to the standard axillary lymph node dissection in patients with early breast cancer.  (+info)

Clinical course of breast cancer patients with complete pathologic primary tumor and axillary lymph node response to doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (4/902)

PURPOSE: To assess patient and tumor characteristics associated with a complete pathologic response (pCR) in both the breast and axillary lymph node specimens and the outcome of patients found to have a pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred seventy-two LABC patients received treatment in two prospective neoadjuvant trials using four cycles of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy. Patients had a total mastectomy with axillary dissection or segmental mastectomy and axillary dissection followed by four or more cycles of additional chemotherapy. Patients then received irradiation treatment of the chest-wall or breast and regional lymphatics. Median follow-up was 58 months (range, 8 to 99 months). RESULTS: The initial nodal status, age, and stage distribution of patients with a pCR were not significantly different from those of patients with less than a pCR (P>.05). Patients with a pCR had initial tumors that were more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (P<.01), and anaplastic (P = .01) but of smaller size (P<.01) than those of patients with less than a pCR. Upon multivariate analysis, the effects of ER status and nuclear grade were independent of initial tumor size. Sixteen percent of the patients in this study (n = 60) had a pathologic complete primary tumor response. Twelve percent of patients (n = 43) had no microscopic evidence of invasive cancer in their breast and axillary specimens. A pathologic complete primary tumor response was predictive of a complete axillary lymph node response (P<.01 ). The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were significantly higher in the group who had a pCR (89% and 87%, respectively) than in the group who had less than a pCR (64% and 58%, respectively; P<.01). CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the capacity to completely clear the breast and axillary lymph nodes of invasive tumor before surgery. Patients with LABC who have a pCR in the breast and axillary nodes have a significantly improved disease-free survival rate. However, a pCR does not entirely eliminate recurrence. Further efforts should focus on elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with this response.  (+info)

How to improve low lymph node recovery rates from axillary clearance specimens of breast cancer. A short-term audit. (5/902)

AIM: To implement an audit scheme to increase the lymph node yield from axillary clearance specimens. METHODS: Two pathologists cut up each specimen after weighing it. The number of nodes and the dimensions of the largest and smallest nodes were recorded, together with the number of non-lymph node structures recovered. Fifty consecutive audited cases were compared with 50 consecutive cases assessed before the audit process. RESULTS: It proved possible to increase the median number of lymph nodes from 10 to 22. There was an obvious learning period, during which the number of nodes recovered during the second pathologist's cut-up gradually decreased, while the total number remained relatively constant. The increase in lymph node yield resulted from the recovery of smaller nodes. The identification of lymph nodes also improved, and fewer non-lymph node structures were recovered by the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Such an audit scheme can be recommended for all institutions where the lymph node yield of axillary clearance specimens seems suboptimal. The relevance of recovering more nodes remains to be determined; from this small series, it seems to have no clinical impact.  (+info)

Do all patients with sentinel node metastasis from breast carcinoma need complete axillary node dissection? (6/902)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the likelihood of nonsentinel axillary metastasis in the presence of sentinel node metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Sentinel lymphadenectomy is a highly accurate technique for identifying axillary metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. Our group has shown that nonsentinel axillary lymph nodes are unlikely to contain tumor cells if the axillary sentinel node is tumor-free, but as yet no study has examined the risk of nonsentinel nodal involvement when the sentinel node contains tumor cells. METHODS: Between 1991 and 1997, axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in 157 women with a tumor-involved sentinel node. Fifty-three axillae (33.5%) had at least one tumor-involved nonsentinel node. The authors analyzed the incidence of nonsentinel node involvement according to clinical and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Only two variables had a significant impact on the likelihood of nonsentinel node metastasis: the size of the sentinel node metastasis and the size of the primary tumor. The rate of nonsentinel node involvement was 7% when the sentinel node had a micrometastasis (< or =2 mm), compared with 55% when the sentinel node had a macrometastasis (>2 mm). In addition, the rate of nonsentinel node tumor involvement increased with the size of the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: If a primary breast tumor is small and if sentinel node involvement is micrometastatic, then tumor cells are unlikely to be found in other axillary lymph nodes. This suggests that axillary lymph node dissection may not be necessary in patients with sentinel node micrometastases from T1/T2 lesions, or in patients with sentinel node metastases from T1a lesions.  (+info)

The results of thoracoscopic sympathetic trunk transection for palmar hyperhidrosis and sympathetic ganglionectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis. (7/902)

OBJECTIVES: To review our total experience of thoracoscopic sympathetic trunk transection for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis and second and third thoracic sympathetic ganglionectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study following up consecutive patients for 0.3 to 5.5 years. SUBJECTS: Fifty-four consecutive patients undergoing thoracoscopic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis. METHODS: Prospective evaluation of immediate technical success, complications, late recurrence of hyperhidrosis and patient acceptability. RESULTS: 100% initial cure for palmar hyperhidrosis, 91% of sympathetic ganglionectomies for axillary hyperhidrosis were technically successful and initially curative. Compensatory sweating 44% patients, most severe after bilateral sympathetic ganglionectomy. Complications occurred in 14% patients, all resolving without further intervention. There were no cases of Horner's syndrome. 13% patients reported a return of some palmar sweating. 5.4% patients developed recurrent palmar hyperhidrosis at 6, 15 and 21 months postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Transection of the sympathetic trunk between the first and second thoracic sympathetic ganglia initially cures 100% of patients treated primarily for palmar hyperhidrosis. Technically successful 2nd and 3rd thoracic sympathetic ganglionectomy initially cures 100% of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. Compensatory sweating is common after bilateral sympathectomy. Recurrent palmar hyperhidrosis occurs in 5.4% of cases, but can be cured by a second thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Horner's syndrome is an avoidable complication of thoracoscopic sympathectomy.  (+info)

Isolated and combined lesions of the axillary nerve. A review of 146 cases. (8/902)

We have assessed the final strength of the deltoid in 121 patients who had repair of isolated or combined lesions of the axillary (circumflex) nerve and were available for statistical analysis. Successful or useful results were achieved in 85% after grafting of isolated lesions. The strength was statistically better when patients had grafting of the axillary nerve within 5.3 months from the time of injury. The dramatic decrease in the rate of success seen with longer delays suggests that surgery should be undertaken within three months of injury. A statistically significant downward trend of the rate of success was noted with increasing age. The force and level of injury to the shoulder play an important role in the type, combination and level of nerve damage and the incidence of associated rotator-cuff, vascular and other injuries to the upper limb. Management of isolated and combined lesions of the axillary nerve after injury to the shoulder needs to be thorough and systematic.  (+info)

The term "axilla" is used in anatomical context to refer to the armpit region, specifically the space located lateral to the upper part of the chest wall and medial to the upper arm. This area contains a number of important structures such as blood vessels, nerves, and lymph nodes, which play a critical role in the health and functioning of the upper limb. Understanding the anatomy of the axilla is essential for medical professionals performing various procedures, including surgeries and injections, in this region.

A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a surgical procedure used in cancer staging to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary tumor to the lymphatic system. This procedure involves identifying and removing the sentinel lymph node(s), which are the first few lymph nodes to which cancer cells are most likely to spread from the primary tumor site.

The sentinel lymph node(s) are identified by injecting a tracer substance (usually a radioactive material and/or a blue dye) near the tumor site. The tracer substance is taken up by the lymphatic vessels and transported to the sentinel lymph node(s), allowing the surgeon to locate and remove them.

The removed sentinel lymph node(s) are then examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells. If no cancer cells are found, it is unlikely that the cancer has spread to other lymph nodes or distant sites in the body. However, if cancer cells are present, further lymph node dissection and/or additional treatment may be necessary.

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is commonly used in the staging of melanoma, breast cancer, and some types of head and neck cancer.

In medical terms, the "groin" refers to the area where the lower abdomen meets the thigh. It is located on both sides of the body, in front of the upper part of each leg. The groin contains several important structures such as the inguinal canal, which contains blood vessels and nerves, and the femoral artery and vein, which supply blood to and from the lower extremities. Issues in this region, such as pain or swelling, may indicate a variety of medical conditions, including muscle strains, hernias, or infections.

Hyperhidrosis is a medical condition characterized by excessive sweating beyond the normal requirement for thermoregulation. It can affect various parts of the body, but it primarily occurs in the palms, soles, underarms, and face. The sweating can be so profuse that it can interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress or embarrassment. Hyperhidrosis can be primary (idiopathic), meaning there is no underlying medical condition causing it, or secondary, due to a known cause such as anxiety, certain medications, infections, or medical conditions like diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

A thermometer is a device used to measure temperature. In the medical field, thermometers are commonly used to take the body temperature of patients to assess their health status. There are several types of medical thermometers available, including:

1. Digital thermometers: These are electronic devices that provide a digital readout of the temperature. They can be used orally, rectally, or under the arm (axillary).
2. Temporal artery thermometers: These thermometers use infrared technology to measure the temperature of the temporal artery in the forehead.
3. Infrared ear thermometers: These thermometers measure the temperature of the eardrum using infrared technology.
4. Pacifier thermometers: These are designed for infants and young children, and measure their temperature through the pacifier.
5. Forehead strip thermometers: These are adhesive strips that stick to the forehead and provide a temperature reading.

Medical thermometers should be properly cleaned and disinfected between uses to prevent the spread of infection. It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use and storage to ensure accurate readings.

Lymph node excision is a surgical procedure in which one or more lymph nodes are removed from the body for the purpose of examination. This procedure is often conducted to help diagnose or stage various types of cancer, as malignant cells may spread to the lymphatic system and eventually accumulate within nearby lymph nodes.

During a lymph node excision, an incision is made in the skin overlying the affected lymph node(s). The surgeon carefully dissects the tissue surrounding the lymph node(s) to isolate them from adjacent structures before removing them. In some cases, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed instead, where only the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node to which cancer cells are likely to spread) is removed and examined.

The excised lymph nodes are then sent to a laboratory for histopathological examination, which involves staining and microscopic evaluation of the tissue to determine whether it contains any malignant cells. The results of this examination can help guide further treatment decisions and provide valuable prognostic information.

Apocrine glands are a type of sweat gland found in mammals, including humans. They are most concentrated in areas with dense hair follicles, such as the axillae (armpits) and genital region. These glands release their secretions into the hair follicle, which then reaches the skin surface through the pores.

Apocrine glands become active during puberty and are associated with the production of odorous sweat. The sweat produced by apocrine glands is initially odorless but can acquire a smell when it comes into contact with bacteria on the skin surface, which break down the organic compounds in the sweat. This can contribute to body odor.

It's important to note that while apocrine glands are often associated with body odor, they do not cause body odor directly. The odor is produced when the sweat from apocrine glands mixes with bacteria on the skin surface.

Lymphatic metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant lymph nodes through the lymphatic system. It occurs when malignant cells break away from the original tumor, enter the lymphatic vessels, and travel to nearby or remote lymph nodes. Once there, these cancer cells can multiply and form new tumors, leading to further progression of the disease. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for many types of cancer to spread and can have significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid is a radioactive tracer used in medical imaging procedures, specifically in nuclear medicine. It is composed of tiny particles of sulfur colloid that are labeled with the radioisotope Technetium-99m. This compound is typically injected into the patient's body, where it accumulates in certain organs or tissues, depending on the specific medical test being conducted.

The radioactive emissions from Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid are then detected by a gamma camera, which produces images that can help doctors diagnose various medical conditions, such as liver disease, inflammation, or tumors. The half-life of Technetium-99m is approximately six hours, which means that its radioactivity decreases rapidly and is eliminated from the body within a few days.

Lymphedema is a chronic condition characterized by swelling in one or more parts of the body, usually an arm or leg, due to the accumulation of lymph fluid. This occurs when the lymphatic system is unable to properly drain the fluid, often as a result of damage or removal of lymph nodes, or because of a genetic abnormality that affects lymphatic vessel development.

The swelling can range from mild to severe and may cause discomfort, tightness, or a feeling of heaviness in the affected limb. In some cases, lymphedema can also lead to skin changes, recurrent infections, and reduced mobility. The condition is currently not curable but can be managed effectively with various treatments such as compression garments, manual lymphatic drainage, exercise, and skincare routines.

Lymphoscintigraphy is a medical imaging technique that uses radioactive tracers to examine the lymphatic system, specifically the lymph nodes and vessels. In this procedure, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into the area of interest, usually an extremity or the site of a surgical incision. The tracer then travels through the lymphatic channels and accumulates in the regional lymph nodes. A specialized camera called a gamma camera detects the radiation emitted by the tracer and creates images that reveal the function and anatomy of the lymphatic system.

Lymphoscintigraphy is often used to diagnose and assess conditions affecting the lymphatic system, such as lymphedema, cancer metastasis to lymph nodes, or unusual lymphatic flow patterns. It can help identify sentinel lymph nodes (the first node(s) to receive drainage from a tumor) in patients with melanoma and breast cancer, which is crucial for surgical planning and staging purposes.

In summary, lymphoscintigraphy is a non-invasive imaging technique that utilizes radioactive tracers to visualize the lymphatic system's structure and function, providing valuable information for diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making in various clinical scenarios.

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare skin condition that typically affects the genital or anal areas, but can also occur in other areas such as the axillae (armpits) or male nipples. It is named similar to Paget's disease of the breast, but they are different conditions. EMPD is not related to breast cancer.

EMPD is characterized by the presence of abnormal cells called Paget cells in the skin. These cells can invade the surrounding tissue and may spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The exact cause of EMPD is unknown, but it's thought to be associated with an underlying malignancy such as an adenocarcinoma in the adjacent area.

Symptoms of EMPD can include redness, itching, burning, or pain in the affected area. There may also be scaling, crusting, or oozing of the skin. The lesions associated with EMPD are typically slow-growing and can be mistaken for eczema, psoriasis, or other benign skin conditions.

Diagnosis of EMPD is usually made through a biopsy of the affected skin. Treatment typically involves surgical excision of the lesion, with wide margins to ensure complete removal of the abnormal cells. In some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be recommended if there are signs of spread (metastasis) to other parts of the body. Regular follow-up is important to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

A mastectomy is a surgical procedure where the entire breast tissue along with the nipple and areola is removed. This is usually performed to treat or prevent breast cancer. There are different types of mastectomies, such as simple (total) mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, and nipple-sparing mastectomy. The choice of procedure depends on various factors including the type and stage of cancer, patient's preference, and the recommendation of the surgical team.

Acanthosis nigricans is a medical condition characterized by the darkening and thickening of the skin in certain areas of the body. These areas typically include the back of the neck, armpits, groin, and skin folds. The skin becomes velvety to touch, and may have a "dirty" appearance.

The condition is often associated with insulin resistance, which can be a sign of type 2 diabetes or prediabetes. It can also be linked to obesity, hormonal imbalances, certain medications, and some rare genetic syndromes.

In addition to the changes in skin color and texture, people with acanthosis nigricans may also experience itching, odor, or discomfort in the affected areas. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as managing diabetes or losing weight. Topical treatments may also be used to improve the appearance of the skin.

Technetium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the radioactive technetium (Tc) element. Technetium is a naturally rare element and does not have any stable isotopes, making it only exist in trace amounts in the Earth's crust. However, it can be produced artificially in nuclear reactors.

Technetium compounds are widely used in medical imaging as radioactive tracers in diagnostic procedures. The most common technetium compound is Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), which has a half-life of 6 hours and emits gamma rays that can be detected by external cameras. Tc-99m is often bound to various pharmaceuticals, such as methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or human serum albumin (HSA), to target specific organs or tissues in the body.

Technetium compounds are used in a variety of diagnostic procedures, including bone scans, lung perfusion scans, myocardial perfusion imaging, and brain scans. They provide valuable information about organ function, blood flow, and tissue metabolism, helping doctors diagnose various medical conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and bone fractures.

It is important to note that technetium compounds should only be used under the supervision of trained medical professionals due to their radioactive nature. Proper handling, administration, and disposal procedures must be followed to ensure safety and minimize radiation exposure.

Cutaneous syphilis refers to the manifestation of the sexually transmitted infection syphilis on the skin. This can occur in various stages of the disease. In the primary stage, it may appear as a painless chancre (ulcer) at the site of infection, usually appearing 3 weeks after exposure. In the secondary stage, a widespread rash can develop, often affecting the palms and soles, along with other symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, and hair loss. Later stages of syphilis can also cause skin issues, including condylomata lata (broad, flat warts) and gummatous lesions (large, destructive ulcers). It's important to note that if left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs.

A "false negative" reaction in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the absence of a specific condition or disease, when in fact it is present. This can occur due to various reasons such as issues with the sensitivity of the test, improper sample collection, or specimen handling and storage.

False negative results can have serious consequences, as they may lead to delayed treatment, misdiagnosis, or a false sense of security for the patient. Therefore, it is essential to interpret medical test results in conjunction with other clinical findings, patient history, and physical examination. In some cases, repeating the test or using a different diagnostic method may be necessary to confirm the initial result.

Sweat, also known as perspiration, is the fluid secreted by the sweat glands in human skin. It's primarily composed of water, with small amounts of sodium chloride, potassium, and other electrolytes. Sweat helps regulate body temperature through the process of evaporation, where it absorbs heat from the skin as it turns from a liquid to a gas.

There are two types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine. Eccrine glands are found all over the body and produce a watery, odorless sweat in response to heat, physical activity, or emotional stress. Apocrine glands, on the other hand, are mainly located in the armpits and groin area and become active during puberty. They produce a thicker, milky fluid that can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

It is important to note that while sweating is essential for maintaining normal body temperature and overall health, excessive sweating or hyperhidrosis can be a medical condition requiring treatment.

Corynebacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some species of Corynebacterium can cause disease in humans, including C. diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria, and C. jeikeium, which can cause various types of infections in immunocompromised individuals. Other species are part of the normal flora and are not typically pathogenic. The bacteria are characterized by their irregular, club-shaped appearance and their ability to form characteristic arrangements called palisades. They are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, toes are the digits located at the end of the foot. Humans typically have five toes on each foot, consisting of the big toe (hallux), second toe, third toe, fourth toe, and little toe (fifth toe). The bones of the toes are called phalanges, with the exception of the big toe, which has a different bone structure and is composed of a proximal phalanx, distal phalanx, and sometimes a sesamoid bone.

Toes play an essential role in maintaining balance and assisting in locomotion by helping to push off the ground during walking or running. They also contribute to the overall stability and posture of the body. Various medical conditions can affect toes, such as ingrown toenails, bunions, hammertoes, and neuromas, which may require specific treatments or interventions to alleviate pain, restore function, or improve appearance.

The pectoralis muscles are a group of chest muscles that are primarily involved in the movement and stabilization of the shoulder joint. They consist of two individual muscles: the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor.

1. Pectoralis Major: This is the larger and more superficial of the two muscles, lying just under the skin and fat of the chest wall. It has two heads of origin - the clavicular head arises from the medial half of the clavicle (collarbone), while the sternocostal head arises from the anterior surface of the sternum (breastbone) and the upper six costal cartilages. Both heads insert onto the lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus (upper arm bone). The primary actions of the pectoralis major include flexion, adduction, and internal rotation of the shoulder joint.

2. Pectoralis Minor: This is a smaller, triangular muscle that lies deep to the pectoralis major. It originates from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs near their costal cartilages and inserts onto the coracoid process of the scapula (shoulder blade). The main function of the pectoralis minor is to pull the scapula forward and downward, helping to stabilize the shoulder joint and aiding in deep inspiration during breathing.

Together, these muscles play essential roles in various movements such as pushing, pulling, and hugging, making them crucial for daily activities and athletic performance.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck region and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb. It is formed by the ventral rami (branches) of the lower four cervical nerves (C5-C8) and the first thoracic nerve (T1). In some cases, contributions from C4 and T2 may also be included.

The brachial plexus nerves exit the intervertebral foramen, pass through the neck, and travel down the upper chest before branching out to form major peripheral nerves of the upper limb. These include the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves, which further innervate specific muscles and sensory areas in the arm, forearm, and hand.

Damage to the brachial plexus can result in various neurological deficits, such as weakness or paralysis of the upper limb, numbness, or loss of sensation in the affected area, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

A modified radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the whole breast tissue (including the nipple and areola), some of the axillary lymph nodes, and the lining over the chest muscles. However, unlike a radical mastectomy, the underlying major chest muscle (the pectoralis major) is left intact unless it is directly involved by cancer. This type of mastectomy is often performed for breast cancer staging, particularly in cases where there's confirmation or suspicion of cancer in the lymph nodes, but the tumor is too large to be treated with breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy).

Neoadjuvant therapy is a treatment regimen that is administered to patients before they undergo definitive or curative surgery for their cancer. The main goal of neoadjuvant therapy is to reduce the size and extent of the tumor, making it easier to remove surgically and increasing the likelihood of complete resection. This type of therapy often involves the use of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy, and it can help improve treatment outcomes by reducing the risk of recurrence and improving overall survival rates. Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, lung, esophageal, rectal, and bladder cancer.

Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk ducts (the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). It is called "ductal" because it starts in the cells that line the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma can be further classified as either non-invasive or invasive, based on whether the cancer cells are confined to the ducts or have spread beyond them into the surrounding breast tissue.

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (also known as intraductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) is a condition where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the milk ducts, but they have not spread outside of the ducts. These cells have the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the breast or body if left untreated.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and then grows into the surrounding breast tissue. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma may include a lump or thickening in the breast, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin on the breast, nipple discharge (especially if it is clear or bloody), and/or redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. However, many cases of ductal carcinoma are detected through mammography before any symptoms develop.

Treatment for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences. Treatment options may include surgery (such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapies.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

A nipple is a small projection or tubular structure located at the center of the areola, which is the darker circle of skin surrounding the nipple on the breast. The primary function of the nipple is to provide a pathway for milk flow from the mammary glands during lactation in females.

The nipple contains smooth muscle fibers that contract and cause the nipple to become erect when stimulated, such as during sexual arousal or cold temperatures. Nipples can come in various shapes, sizes, and colors, and some individuals may have inverted or flat nipples. It is essential to monitor any changes in the appearance or sensation of the nipples, as these could be indicative of underlying medical conditions, such as breast cancer.

Coloring agents, also known as food dyes or color additives, are substances that are added to foods, medications, and cosmetics to improve their appearance by giving them a specific color. These agents can be made from both synthetic and natural sources. They must be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be used in products intended for human consumption.

Coloring agents are used for various reasons, including:

* To replace color lost during food processing or preparation
* To make foods more visually appealing
* To help consumers easily identify certain types of food
* To indicate the flavor of a product (e.g., fruit-flavored candies)

It's important to note that while coloring agents can enhance the appearance of products, they do not affect their taste or nutritional value. Some people may have allergic reactions to certain coloring agents, so it's essential to check product labels if you have any known allergies. Additionally, excessive consumption of some synthetic coloring agents has been linked to health concerns, so moderation is key.

Mammary ultrasonography, also known as breast ultrasound, is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures of the breast tissue. It is often used in conjunction with mammography to help identify and characterize breast abnormalities, such as lumps, cysts, or tumors, and to guide biopsy procedures.

Ultrasonography is particularly useful for evaluating palpable masses, assessing the integrity of breast implants, and distinguishing between solid and fluid-filled lesions. It is also a valuable tool for monitoring treatment response in patients with known breast cancer. Because it does not use radiation like mammography, mammary ultrasonography is considered safe and can be repeated as often as necessary. However, its effectiveness is highly dependent on the skill and experience of the sonographer performing the examination.

In the context of medicine, "odors" refer to smells or scents that are produced by certain medical conditions, substances, or bodily functions. These odors can sometimes provide clues about underlying health issues. For example, sweet-smelling urine could indicate diabetes, while foul-smelling breath might suggest a dental problem or gastrointestinal issue. However, it's important to note that while odors can sometimes be indicative of certain medical conditions, they are not always reliable diagnostic tools and should be considered in conjunction with other symptoms and medical tests.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

A nose, in a medical context, refers to the external part of the human body that is located on the face and serves as the primary organ for the sense of smell. It is composed of bone and cartilage, with a thin layer of skin covering it. The nose also contains nasal passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs known as cilia. These structures help to filter, warm, and moisturize the air we breathe in before it reaches our lungs. Additionally, the nose plays an essential role in the process of verbal communication by shaping the sounds we make when we speak.

Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations that contain radioactive isotopes and are used for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. These compounds are designed to interact specifically with certain biological targets, such as cells, tissues, or organs, and emit radiation that can be detected and measured to provide diagnostic information or used to destroy abnormal cells or tissue in therapeutic applications.

The radioactive isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals have carefully controlled half-lives, which determine how long they remain radioactive and how long the pharmaceutical preparation remains effective. The choice of radioisotope depends on the intended use of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as factors such as its energy, range of emission, and chemical properties.

Radiopharmaceuticals are used in a wide range of medical applications, including imaging, cancer therapy, and treatment of other diseases and conditions. Examples of radiopharmaceuticals include technetium-99m for imaging the heart, lungs, and bones; iodine-131 for treating thyroid cancer; and samarium-153 for palliative treatment of bone metastases.

The use of radiopharmaceuticals requires specialized training and expertise in nuclear medicine, as well as strict adherence to safety protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare workers.

Soft tissue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the soft tissues of the body. Soft tissues include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and synovial membranes (the thin layer of cells that line joints and tendons). Neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their behavior and potential for spread depend on the specific type of neoplasm.

Benign soft tissue neoplasms are typically slow-growing, well-circumscribed, and rarely spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically with a low risk of recurrence. Examples of benign soft tissue neoplasms include lipomas (fat tumors), schwannomas (nerve sheath tumors), and hemangiomas (blood vessel tumors).

Malignant soft tissue neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow rapidly, invade surrounding tissues, and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. They are often more difficult to treat than benign neoplasms and require a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Examples of malignant soft tissue neoplasms include sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma (arising from skeletal muscle), leiomyosarcoma (arising from smooth muscle), and angiosarcoma (arising from blood vessels).

It is important to note that soft tissue neoplasms can occur in any part of the body, and their diagnosis and treatment require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional with expertise in this area.

Lymphatic diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the lymphatic system, which is an important part of the immune and circulatory systems. The lymphatic system consists of a network of vessels, organs, and tissues that help to transport lymph fluid throughout the body, fight infection, and remove waste products.

Lymphatic diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. Some common types of lymphatic diseases include:

1. Lymphedema: A condition that causes swelling in the arms or legs due to a blockage or damage in the lymphatic vessels.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
3. Infections: Certain bacterial and viral infections can affect the lymphatic system, such as tuberculosis, cat-scratch disease, and HIV/AIDS.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and scleroderma can cause inflammation and damage to the lymphatic system.
5. Congenital abnormalities: Some people are born with abnormalities in their lymphatic system, such as malformations or missing lymph nodes.

Symptoms of lymphatic diseases may vary depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or radiation therapy. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of a lymphatic disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

The breast is the upper ventral region of the human body in females, which contains the mammary gland. The main function of the breast is to provide nutrition to infants through the production and secretion of milk, a process known as lactation. The breast is composed of fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, and the mammary gland, which is made up of 15-20 lobes that are arranged in a radial pattern. Each lobe contains many smaller lobules, where milk is produced during lactation. The milk is then transported through a network of ducts to the nipple, where it can be expressed by the infant.

In addition to its role in lactation, the breast also has important endocrine and psychological functions. It contains receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which play a key role in sexual development and reproduction. The breast is also a source of sexual pleasure and can be an important symbol of femininity and motherhood.

It's worth noting that males also have breast tissue, although it is usually less developed than in females. Male breast tissue consists mainly of adipose tissue and does not typically contain functional mammary glands. However, some men may develop enlarged breast tissue due to conditions such as gynecomastia, which can be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

A segmental mastectomy, also known as a partial mastectomy, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a portion of the breast tissue. This type of mastectomy is typically used to treat breast cancer that is limited to a specific area of the breast. During the procedure, the surgeon removes the cancerous tumor along with some surrounding healthy tissue, as well as the lining of the chest wall below the tumor and the lymph nodes in the underarm area.

In a segmental mastectomy, the goal is to remove the cancer while preserving as much of the breast tissue as possible. This approach can help to achieve a more cosmetic outcome compared to a total or simple mastectomy, which involves removing the entire breast. However, the extent of the surgery will depend on the size and location of the tumor, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health and personal preferences.

It is important to note that while a segmental mastectomy can be an effective treatment option for breast cancer, it may not be appropriate for all patients or tumors. The decision to undergo this procedure should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider, taking into account the individual patient's medical history, diagnosis, and treatment goals.

... The term "underarm" typically refers to the outer surface of the axilla. ... Look up axilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The axilla (PL: axillae or axillas; also known as the armpit, underarm or ... "LAB #4 PECTORAL REGION & Introduction to the Axilla". Retrieved 2007-12-23. "Dissector Answers - Axilla and Arm". Archived from ... The axilla is the space between the side of the thorax and the upper arm. Axillary artery and its branches Axillary vein and ...
... and not Axilla or Ahala, is more likely to be correct. Weber suggests that later sources mistakenly applied the surname Axilla ... Gaius Servilius Axilla (or Servilius Structus; fl. c. 427-417 BC) was a Roman aristocrat and statesman during the early ... The Fasti call him Gaius Servilius Axilla, son of Quintus and grandson of Gaius. Livy uses the more common variant Ahala, while ... Weber also proposed, against Mommsen, identifying Servilius 'Axilla' with Gaius Servilius Ahala, the famous murderer of Spurius ...
The suspensory ligament of axilla, or Gerdy's ligament, is a suspensory ligament that connects the clavipectoral fascia to the ... This union shapes the axilla (underarm). The American Heritage Medical Dictionary (Revised edition of 2nd ed.). Houghton ...
"Axilla". Song Histories. Retrieved 2012-11-02. "Axilla (Part II)". Song Histories. Retrieved 2012-11-02 ... " "Axilla" "Axilla Part II" "Babylon Baby" "Back on the Train" "Backwards Down the Number Line" "Backwards Food for Backwards ...
Anatomy of the Axilla. Fischer's Mastery of Surgery, 2 Volume Set. Retrieved September 20, 2015 from ...
The axilla is white. Throat, chest and belly yellowish, lower arms, and hind limbs are greyish. Some finger discs are white. ...
"Axilla (Part II)" is a version of the song "Axilla", which had been debuted in 1992, with new lyrics. Although the band played ... "Axilla History -". Retrieved 28 December 2019. "At Shoreline, Phish Play First "Axilla (Part II)" Since 12 ... "Axilla (Part II) History -". Retrieved 28 December 2019. " ... "Part II" throughout 1994, Phish retired the song in favor of the original version of "Axilla" in 1995. After 1995, Phish did ...
axilla Also, axillar region; "underarm"; "armpit". The "armpit" of a bird, often hosting covert feathers called axillaries. ... sides The topographical area between the breast and the back, stretching from the axilla (underarm) to the Iliac crest. song A ...
It then enters the canal in the axilla. cervicoaxillary canalCervicoaxillary canal; The, accessed: September ... Anatomy of the Axilla. Fischer's Mastery of Surgery, 2 Volume Set. Retrieved September 20, 2015 from ...
It arises in the axilla. It is of small size, and passes through the axilla to the medial side of the area supplying the skin ...
Length from end of muzzle to tympanum 11 lines; of antebrachium and hand, 14.5 lines; axilla to vent, 2 inches; vent to end of ...
It is the lateral wall of the axilla. The bicipital groove allows for the long tendon of the biceps brachii muscle to pass. ... "Dissector Answers - Axilla and Arm". Archived from the original on 2007-12-10. Retrieved 2007-12-23. Anatomy photo:03:st-0204 ...
Ahala, of which Axilla is merely another form, is a diminutive of ala, a wing. A popular legend related that the name was first ... 83 ("Ahala"), 448 ("Axilla"). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 533-535 ("Caepio"), vol. II, p ... Gaius Servilius Q. f. C. n. Axilla, consul in 427 BC, consular tribune in 419, 418 and 417 BC, and magister equitum in 418. ... The Servilii were divided into numerous families; of these the names in the Republican period are Ahala, Axilla, Caepio, Casca ...
Dialani V, James DF, Slanetz PJ (April 2015). "A practical approach to imaging the axilla". Insights into Imaging. 6 (2): 217- ...
They should not be confused with the true "axillary space" within the borders of the axilla. The true axilla is a conical space ... This space is also in the posterior wall of the axilla. It is a triangular space bounded medially by teres minor, laterally by ... This space is in the inferior to the posterior wall of the axilla. The triangular interval is bounded medially by long head of ... "Anatomy of the Axilla Dr Rania Gabr. - ppt video online download". Retrieved 2020-01-01. Dissector Answers - ...
T2 - At the apex of the axilla. T3 - Intersection of the midclavicular line and the third intercostal space T4 - Intersection ...
"Axilla I" (Anastasio, Herman, Marshall) - 3:25 -> "2001" (Deodato) - 8:59 -> "Birds of a Feather" (Anastasio, Fishman, Gordon, ...
Dialani, V.; James, D. F.; Slanetz, P. J. (2014). "A practical approach to imaging the axilla". Insights into Imaging. 6 (2): ...
Axils have scant wool. The flowers are cream-white, funnel-shaped and have a length of 1 to 1.2 centimeters. The club-shaped ...
Antiperspirants with propylene glycol, when applied to the axillae, can cause irritation and may promote sensitization to other ... Kleinhans D, Knoth W (July 1976). "[Granulomas of axillae (zirconium?) (author's transl)]". Dermatologica. 152 (3): 161-7. doi: ...
... the adpressed hind limb nearly reaches the axilla. Colouration is grey-brown above, with small dark spots. The wing-membranes ...
... and Axilla. Dub producer Hopeton Overton Brown Scientist often worked at Social Services in the late 1990s. Bands that have ...
The flanks are cream; the axilla and groin have large black blotches. The chest and the belly are cream, while the lower jaw ...
Roots grow from leaf axils. The prostrate stems bear erect flowering branches up to 20 cm high. The leaves are opposite on ... Flowers have four petals and grow from the leaf axils. The fruits are capsules. The capsules are obcordate or heart shaped, ...
Flowers occur in leaf axils. Each is a trumpet-shaped bloom with a narrow, tubular green throat up to 4 centimeters long and a ...
The grooves run between the axilla to the groin. Each groove overlies the myotomal septa to mark the position of the internal ...
Axilla and Breast" (PDF). International Journal of Morphology. 24 (4). doi:10.4067/S0717-95022006000500030. Lawrence, Ruth A.; ...
Its body and limbs are rather slender; the hind limbs reach the axilla or the shoulder. Its digits are slender, the basal part ...
Solitary flowers occur in leaf axils. The flower lacks petals but has purple, petallike sepals. The fruit is a curved, ...
Flowers emerge from the leaf axils. Each flower is held in a calyx of sepals with a large ridge or dome-shaped appendage on the ...
Axilla Axilla Axilla Axilla Axilla Axilla Axilla The term "underarm" typically refers to the outer surface of the axilla. ... Look up axilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The axilla (PL: axillae or axillas; also known as the armpit, underarm or ... "LAB #4 PECTORAL REGION & Introduction to the Axilla". Retrieved 2007-12-23. "Dissector Answers - Axilla and Arm". Archived from ... The axilla is the space between the side of the thorax and the upper arm. Axillary artery and its branches Axillary vein and ...
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The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil. The process by which the proton decays in LENR.. Some esoteric process is causing the proton to decay in LENR. This process is the root source for the production of energy and sub atomic particles in LENR.. Whatever is causing the proton to decay into strange matter is a new unrecognized if not unknown process in physics. This cause is not part of current standard model theory. This makes LENR theory doubly hard and mysterious. Not only do we need to explain the characteristics of LENR, but also LENR thinking gets involved in unrecognized physics that is itself ill-defined and speculative and rooted in solving the hardest and still unexplained issues in physics. As we go through this string of dots, you will get a feel for why LENR theory will not be fully understood for another century.. Gathering the dots together.. Before we attempt to connect the dots relegated to proton decay, we must define them and gather them ...
What does Axil mean? Read the name meaning, origin, pronunciation, and popularity of the baby name Axil for boys. ... syll. a-xil, ax-il ] The baby boy name Axil is pronounced as aeGZL †. Axils origin is Hebrew. Axil is a variant form of the ... Within the group of boy names directly linked to Axil, Axel was the most popular in 2018. Baby names that sound like Axil ... approx English pronunciation for Axil: AE as in "at (AE.T)" ; G as in "grin (G.R.IH.N)" ; Z as in "zoo (Z.UW)" ; L as in "lay ( ...
... [´æksil] n бот. пазва, прен. скут, книж. лоно, ост., поет. недра, вътрешност ... Axil - Ax il ([a^]ks [i^]l), n. [L. axilla. Cf. {Axle}.] (Bot.) The angle or point of divergence between the upper side of a ... axil - [ak′sil] n. [< L axilla, AXILLA] the upper angle formed by a leaf, twig, etc. and the stem from which it grows … ... axil. axil[´æksil] n бот. пазва, прен. скут, книж. лоно, ост., поет. недра, вътрешност. ...
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Axilla. Prior to the injections, an iodine starch test is recommended. The hyperhidrotic areas are delineated by a deep blue- ... The recommended total dose is 50 U per axilla. Avoid marking the injection sites with ink; if ink is used, do not inject ...
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Axilla-Shield Extra Strong Adhesive Sweat Pads (Pack of 10). Regular price £6.99 ...
Cons of Axil Ear Protection:. *Pricing: Quality comes at a price. While the features and benefits justify the cost, Axil ... When to Choose Axil Over Peltor?. Alright, lets get down to the nitty-gritty! Weve compared Axil and Peltor from all angles, ... So, are you team Axil today?. When to Choose Peltor Over Axil?. Lets flip the coin and gaze upon the other side of our hearing ... 2. Where are AXIL products made?. AXIL, as a brand, originates from the United States, and much of its product development and ...
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Axilla * Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis * Biopsy, Fine-Needle* / methods * Breast Neoplasms / chemistry * Breast Neoplasms / ...
Highest intercostal artery: The Axilla. veins: The Veins of the Upper Extremity and Thorax. nuchal line: The Occipital Bone. ... thoracic artery: The Axilla. Highmore, antrum of: The Maxillæ (Upper Jaw). The Organ of Smell. ...
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Axilla, forearm, leg. Abscesses. AMC. None. NA. P 11. 35 y, M. Axilla, forearm, leg. Abscess, furuncles. AMC, LFX. Surgical. + ... Neck, groin, axilla,. Pustules, abscesses. AMC, AMC. Spontaneous. +. A. t005. 22. P 13. 3 y, M. Forearm. Abscesses. AMC. None. ...
under your arm (axilla). You might also have a breast x-ray (mammogram). ...
describing the health effects associated with arsenic exposure.
Discover the functions and branches of the anterior ramus of the sixth cervical nerve, including its sensory and motor innervation.
Flowers are in leaf axils. Calyx tubular, greenish at base, turning red at the upper part, with 5 shallow lobes. Corolla ...
  • The contents of the axilla include the axillary vein and artery, as well as the brachial plexus, lymph nodes and fat. (
  • Axillary artery and its branches Axillary vein and its tributaries Infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus Long thoracic and intercostobrachial nerves Five groups of axillary lymph nodes and the associated lymphatics Axillary fat and areolar tissue in which the other contents are embedded Anatomy of the axilla Superficial muscles of the chest and front of the arm. (
  • Breast cancer typically spreads via lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes found in the axilla. (
  • Radiotherapy was delivered to ipsilateral axil- cancer patients in the future, it is essential to increase our lary and supraclavicular lymph nodes and the remaining knowledge in mechanisms responsible for drug resistance, breast parenchyma after breast conservation surgery or tho- and to define reliable indicators for response to therapy. (
  • Testing for C. auris colonization, using a composite swab of the groin and axilla, was conducted for 390 close contacts of the 77 patients in three states, primarily patients on the same ward in health care facilities because of the risk for environmental contamination and transmission from health care personnel. (
  • two swabs (1%) were positive, both from patients with positive groin/axilla swabs. (
  • Anatomically, the boundaries of the axilla are: The lower posterior boundary is called the posterior axillary fold and this is a compound structure consisting of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles. (
  • Motor to muscles of the posterior axilla, scapula, and shoulder. (
  • Posterior axilla sling traction: a technique for intractable shoulder dystocia. (
  • Save up to 10% or more while shopping at AXIL with these AXIL promotional codes and discounts for April 2024. (
  • The objectives of this study were to In Queen Alia Military Hospital, rectal evaluate the agreement between temperature temperature is usually taken in those less measured at the axilla and that measured in than 3 years while axillary temperature is the rectum in children and young people, us- taken in children over this age. (
  • The second edition of the "Lucerne Toolbox", a multidisciplinary consortium of European cancer societies and patient representatives, addresses the challenges of clinical axillary lymph node management, from diagnosis to local therapy of the axilla. (
  • During the sixth week of development, the mammary glands first develop as solid downgrowths of the epidermis that extend into the mesenchyme from the axilla to the inguinal regions. (
  • AXIL understands this, hence their products are crafted with an emphasis on extended wear comfort, even when the mercury soars. (
  • After researching, I found AXIL TRACKR ear protection highly recommended in reviews. (
  • In a rapidly evolving world, AXIL isn't content with the status quo. (
  • Axil is a variant form of the English, German, and Scandinavian name Axel . (
  • AXIL has developed the most advanced electronics and 100% digital technology to create a superior product offering that will simultaneously enhance your hearing to your desired level-whether you have normal hearing or hearing loss-and protect your hearing at the same time. (
  • In order to use any AXIL promo code or AXIL discount code displayed on this page, click on the related link. (
  • AXIL offers and discounts will not apply to any previous order, or to any order that has been completed without the discount code or link. (
  • The axilla is the space between the side of the thorax and the upper arm. (
  • Axil vs Peltor: Which Reigns Supreme in Hearing Protection? (
  • Axil and Peltor both prioritize safety with advanced hearing protection technologies. (
  • Take the AXIL GS Extreme 2.0 earbuds for instance: ear protection with Bluetooth connectivity? (
  • scapose or leafy, generally erect, generally branched, bulblets in axils of lower leaves or 0. (
  • Pasti kalian sudah tau brand Thailand Kiss yang lagi booming banget belakangan ini dengan sleeping masknya Kiss Skin Care Whitening Collagen , ternyata brand kiss ini juga ngeluarin produk baru Kiss No Worry Axilla Care Cream, produk ini adalah underarm cream. (
  • Kiss No Worry Axilla Care Cream ini berfungsi sebagai deodorant, mencerahkan kulit underarm, melembutkan dan menghaluskan, menutrisi dan memperbaiki tekstur kulit, selain digunakan di underarm bisa juga di gunakan di daerah lainnya seperti lutut, siku, dll. (
  • Overall, buat kamu yang punya underarm hitam dan punya masalah basket Kiss No Worry Axilla Care Cream bisa kamu jadikan produk andalan kamu, karena efektif banget mencerahkan dan menghaluskan daerah underarm, selain itu wanginya juga enak banget. (
  • Borderline phyllodes tumor arising in ectopic breast tissue in the axilla: Report of a rare case with brief review of literature. (
  • Development of a neoplasm in an ectopic breast is uncommon, while the development of phyllodes tumor in an ectopic breast in the axilla is even rarer. (
  • Frequent sites of infection include the neck, upper chest, and arm pit (axilla). (
  • The 10" to 30" fixed TV stand , from the Engel Axil brand, is useful and necessary for a TV between 10 and 30 inches. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Axilla" by people in this website by year, and whether "Axilla" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Axilla" by people in Profiles. (
  • During the two-person transfers, the FFP on the forceplate to the right side of the patient showed a reduction in the forward bending moment using the Drew People Mover relative to the Sling and under-axilla conditions. (