Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.
Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.
Inorganic compounds that contain TECHNETIUM as an integral part of the molecule. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) is an isotope of technetium that has a half-life of about 6 hours. Technetium 99, which has a half-life of 210,000 years, is a decay product of technetium 99m.
Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409)
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.
The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
A genus of edible mushrooms in the family Pluteaceae. They have pink gills and a volva at the stem base, and species can be confused with those of the poisonous genus AMANITA.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.
The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.

Chronic radiodermatitis following cardiac catheterisation: a report of two cases and a brief review of the literature. (1/902)

Cardiac angiography produces one of the highest radiation exposures of any commonly used diagnostic x ray procedure. Recently, serious radiation induced skin injuries have been reported after repeated therapeutic interventional procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic imaging. Two male patients, aged 62 and 71 years, in whom chronic radiodermatitis developed one to two years after two consecutive cardiac catheterisation procedures are reported. Both patients had undergone lengthy procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic guidance in a limited number of projections. The resulting skin lesions were preceded, in one case, by an acute erythema and took the form of a delayed pigmented telangiectatic, indurated, or ulcerated plaque in the upper back or below the axilla whose site corresponded to the location of the x ray tube during cardiac catheterisation. Cutaneous side effects of radiation exposure result from direct damage to the irradiated tissue and have known thresholds. The diagnosis of radiation induced skin injury relies essentially on clinical and histopathological findings, location of skin lesions, and careful medical history. Interventional cardiologists should be aware of this complication, because chronic radiodermatitis may result in painful and resistant ulceration and eventually in squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series. (2/902)

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an established component of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, and is an important procedure in cancer staging; however, it is associated with unpleasant side effects. We have investigated a radioactive tracer-guided procedure that facilitates identification, removal, and pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node (i.e., the lymph node first receiving lymphatic fluid from the area of the breast containing the tumor) to predict the status of the axilla and to assess the safety of foregoing axillary dissection if the sentinel lymph node shows no involvement. METHODS: We injected 5-10 MBq of 99mTc-labeled colloidal particles of human albumin peritumorally in 376 consecutive patients with breast cancer who were enrolled at the European Institute of Oncology during the period from March 1996 through March 1998. The sentinel lymph node in each case was visualized by lymphoscintigraphy, and its general location was marked on the overlying skin. During breast surgery, the sentinel lymph node was identified for removal by monitoring the acoustic signal from a hand-held gamma ray-detecting probe. Total axillary dissection was then carried out. The pathologic status of the sentinel lymph node was compared with that of the whole axilla. RESULTS: The sentinel lymph node was identified in 371 (98.7%) of the 376 patients and accurately predicted the state of the axilla in 359 (95.5%) of the patients, with 12 false-negative findings (6.7%; 95% confidence interval = 3.5%-11.4%) among a total of 180 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy using a gamma ray-detecting probe allows staging of the axilla with high accuracy in patients with primary breast cancer. A randomized trial is necessary to determine whether axillary dissection may be avoided in those patients with an uninvolved sentinel lymph node.  (+info)

Initial experience with sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer at the National Cancer Center Hospital East. (3/902)

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an important procedure in the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Axillary lymph node dissection is still performed in over half of breast cancer patients having histologically negative nodes, regardless of the morbidity in terms of axillary pain, numbness and lymphedema. The first regional lymph nodes draining a primary tumor are the sentinel lymph nodes. Sentinel node biopsy is a promising surgical technique for predicting histological findings in the remaining axillary lymph nodes, especially in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer, and a worldwide feasibility study is currently in progress. METHODS: Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy were performed in the axilla by subcutaneous injection of blue dye (indigocarmine) in 88 cases of stage 0-IIIB breast cancer. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified by detecting blue-staining lymph nodes or dye-filled lymphatic tracts after total or partial mastectomy. Finally, axillary lymph node dissection was performed up to Levels I and II or more. RESULTS: Sentinel lymph nodes were successfully identified in 65 of the 88 cases (74%). In the final histological examination, the sentinel lymph nodes in 40 cases were negative, including four cases with non-sentinel-node-positive breast cancer (specificity, 100%; sensitivity, 86%). In nine (31%) of the 29 cases with histologically node-positive breast cancer, the sentinel lymph nodes were the only lymph nodes affected. Axillary lymph node status was accurately predicted in 61 (94%) of the 65 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although it was the initial experience at the National Cancer Center Hospital East, sentinel node biopsy proved feasible and successful. This method may be a reasonable alternative to the standard axillary lymph node dissection in patients with early breast cancer.  (+info)

Clinical course of breast cancer patients with complete pathologic primary tumor and axillary lymph node response to doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (4/902)

PURPOSE: To assess patient and tumor characteristics associated with a complete pathologic response (pCR) in both the breast and axillary lymph node specimens and the outcome of patients found to have a pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred seventy-two LABC patients received treatment in two prospective neoadjuvant trials using four cycles of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy. Patients had a total mastectomy with axillary dissection or segmental mastectomy and axillary dissection followed by four or more cycles of additional chemotherapy. Patients then received irradiation treatment of the chest-wall or breast and regional lymphatics. Median follow-up was 58 months (range, 8 to 99 months). RESULTS: The initial nodal status, age, and stage distribution of patients with a pCR were not significantly different from those of patients with less than a pCR (P>.05). Patients with a pCR had initial tumors that were more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (P<.01), and anaplastic (P = .01) but of smaller size (P<.01) than those of patients with less than a pCR. Upon multivariate analysis, the effects of ER status and nuclear grade were independent of initial tumor size. Sixteen percent of the patients in this study (n = 60) had a pathologic complete primary tumor response. Twelve percent of patients (n = 43) had no microscopic evidence of invasive cancer in their breast and axillary specimens. A pathologic complete primary tumor response was predictive of a complete axillary lymph node response (P<.01 ). The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were significantly higher in the group who had a pCR (89% and 87%, respectively) than in the group who had less than a pCR (64% and 58%, respectively; P<.01). CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the capacity to completely clear the breast and axillary lymph nodes of invasive tumor before surgery. Patients with LABC who have a pCR in the breast and axillary nodes have a significantly improved disease-free survival rate. However, a pCR does not entirely eliminate recurrence. Further efforts should focus on elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with this response.  (+info)

How to improve low lymph node recovery rates from axillary clearance specimens of breast cancer. A short-term audit. (5/902)

AIM: To implement an audit scheme to increase the lymph node yield from axillary clearance specimens. METHODS: Two pathologists cut up each specimen after weighing it. The number of nodes and the dimensions of the largest and smallest nodes were recorded, together with the number of non-lymph node structures recovered. Fifty consecutive audited cases were compared with 50 consecutive cases assessed before the audit process. RESULTS: It proved possible to increase the median number of lymph nodes from 10 to 22. There was an obvious learning period, during which the number of nodes recovered during the second pathologist's cut-up gradually decreased, while the total number remained relatively constant. The increase in lymph node yield resulted from the recovery of smaller nodes. The identification of lymph nodes also improved, and fewer non-lymph node structures were recovered by the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Such an audit scheme can be recommended for all institutions where the lymph node yield of axillary clearance specimens seems suboptimal. The relevance of recovering more nodes remains to be determined; from this small series, it seems to have no clinical impact.  (+info)

Do all patients with sentinel node metastasis from breast carcinoma need complete axillary node dissection? (6/902)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the likelihood of nonsentinel axillary metastasis in the presence of sentinel node metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Sentinel lymphadenectomy is a highly accurate technique for identifying axillary metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. Our group has shown that nonsentinel axillary lymph nodes are unlikely to contain tumor cells if the axillary sentinel node is tumor-free, but as yet no study has examined the risk of nonsentinel nodal involvement when the sentinel node contains tumor cells. METHODS: Between 1991 and 1997, axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in 157 women with a tumor-involved sentinel node. Fifty-three axillae (33.5%) had at least one tumor-involved nonsentinel node. The authors analyzed the incidence of nonsentinel node involvement according to clinical and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Only two variables had a significant impact on the likelihood of nonsentinel node metastasis: the size of the sentinel node metastasis and the size of the primary tumor. The rate of nonsentinel node involvement was 7% when the sentinel node had a micrometastasis (< or =2 mm), compared with 55% when the sentinel node had a macrometastasis (>2 mm). In addition, the rate of nonsentinel node tumor involvement increased with the size of the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: If a primary breast tumor is small and if sentinel node involvement is micrometastatic, then tumor cells are unlikely to be found in other axillary lymph nodes. This suggests that axillary lymph node dissection may not be necessary in patients with sentinel node micrometastases from T1/T2 lesions, or in patients with sentinel node metastases from T1a lesions.  (+info)

The results of thoracoscopic sympathetic trunk transection for palmar hyperhidrosis and sympathetic ganglionectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis. (7/902)

OBJECTIVES: To review our total experience of thoracoscopic sympathetic trunk transection for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis and second and third thoracic sympathetic ganglionectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study following up consecutive patients for 0.3 to 5.5 years. SUBJECTS: Fifty-four consecutive patients undergoing thoracoscopic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis. METHODS: Prospective evaluation of immediate technical success, complications, late recurrence of hyperhidrosis and patient acceptability. RESULTS: 100% initial cure for palmar hyperhidrosis, 91% of sympathetic ganglionectomies for axillary hyperhidrosis were technically successful and initially curative. Compensatory sweating 44% patients, most severe after bilateral sympathetic ganglionectomy. Complications occurred in 14% patients, all resolving without further intervention. There were no cases of Horner's syndrome. 13% patients reported a return of some palmar sweating. 5.4% patients developed recurrent palmar hyperhidrosis at 6, 15 and 21 months postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Transection of the sympathetic trunk between the first and second thoracic sympathetic ganglia initially cures 100% of patients treated primarily for palmar hyperhidrosis. Technically successful 2nd and 3rd thoracic sympathetic ganglionectomy initially cures 100% of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. Compensatory sweating is common after bilateral sympathectomy. Recurrent palmar hyperhidrosis occurs in 5.4% of cases, but can be cured by a second thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Horner's syndrome is an avoidable complication of thoracoscopic sympathectomy.  (+info)

Isolated and combined lesions of the axillary nerve. A review of 146 cases. (8/902)

We have assessed the final strength of the deltoid in 121 patients who had repair of isolated or combined lesions of the axillary (circumflex) nerve and were available for statistical analysis. Successful or useful results were achieved in 85% after grafting of isolated lesions. The strength was statistically better when patients had grafting of the axillary nerve within 5.3 months from the time of injury. The dramatic decrease in the rate of success seen with longer delays suggests that surgery should be undertaken within three months of injury. A statistically significant downward trend of the rate of success was noted with increasing age. The force and level of injury to the shoulder play an important role in the type, combination and level of nerve damage and the incidence of associated rotator-cuff, vascular and other injuries to the upper limb. Management of isolated and combined lesions of the axillary nerve after injury to the shoulder needs to be thorough and systematic.  (+info)

Axillary lymph node metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is extremely rare, and this scarcity hinders understanding of its pathogenesis and, thus, the application of appropriate management. Here, we present a case with axillary lymph node metastasis of cecal carcinoma associated with macroscopic invasion of the skin of the abdominal wall with histological evidence of such invasion, findings which support our hypothesis that the axillary lymph node metastasis developed via the lymph channels in the skin of the abdominal wall. A 76-year-old woman with cecal carcinoma (T4N1M0), complicated with an abdominal wall abscess, underwent right hemicolectomy with partial resection of the abdominal wall. Histology demonstrated multiple sites of lymphatic invasion in the skin. Two months later, an enlarged right axillary lymph node was noticed on CT, and an excisional biopsy was obtained, which later confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma. This is the first case report of axillary lymph node metastasis of carcinoma of
TY - JOUR. T1 - The intraoperative examination of axillary sentinel nodes. AU - Viale, G.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Routine histological examination of axillary sentinel nodes predicts the nonsentinel axillary node status and may allow to spare axillary clearing in patients with breast cancer. To avoid the need for two separate surgical sessions the results of sentinel node examination should be known intraoperatively. Routine frozen section examination of sentinel nodes, however, is liable to yield false-negative results. An extensive intraoperative examination of frozen sentinel nodes which would attain a sensitivity comparable to that obtained by routine histological analysis has been therefore devised. The frozen sentinel nodes are subserially sectioned at 50 μm intervals. For each level one section is stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and the other immunostained for cytokeratins using a rapid immunocytochemical assay. Immunocytochemistry did not increase the sensitivity of the ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: I. To produce a map of the lymphatic drainage of the upper extremity as it relates to breast drainage, to determine the proportion of women undergoing axillary lymphadenectomy at risk for lymphedema. II. To determine if blue lymphatics contain lymph node metastases. III. To evaluate the incidence of lymphedema and associated other surgical related quality of life in those undergoing this procedure as compared to the current standard of care.. OUTLINE: This is a phase I study followed by a randomized phase II study.. PILOT PORTION: Patients receive isosulfan blue dye subcutaneously (SC) and then undergo reverse mapping-guided axillary lymph node dissection.. RANDOMIZED PORTION: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms. ARM I: Patients receive isosulfan blue dye subcutaneously (SC) and then undergo reverse mapping-guided axillary lymph node dissection. ARM II: Patients undergo standard axillary lymph node dissection and then receive isosulfan blue dye SC.. After ...
Objective: The primary objective was to evaluate seroma formation in a comparison between the lymphatic ligation technique and conventional axillary lymph node dissection. The secondary objective was to evaluate the factors affecting seroma formation. Materials and Methods: A randomized control trial was conducted between January 2014 and November 2017. 68 consecutive patients undergoing mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection by one experienced surgeon. The patients were randomly sampled and assigned to Group 1 (lymphatic ligation; n=34) and Group 2 (conventional surgery; n=35). Results: 18 patients had developed seroma (26.09%) with 8 (23.53%) patients who were in the lymphatic ligation group and 10 (28.57%) patients who were in the conventional group. No statistical significance was discovered in seroma formation (P=.633), drain duration (P=.238) or total drain volume (P=.330) between the two groups. Longer operative time was statistically and significantly correlated with lymphatic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gigantomastia in pregnancy with an accessory axillary mass masquerading as inflammatory carcinoma. AU - Lokuhetty, M. D S. AU - Saparamadu, P. A M. AU - Al-Sajee, D. M A. AU - Al-Ajmi, R.. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - Giagantomastia is a rare disorder known to occur in pregnancy, causing enlargement of the breasts greater than that of gravid enlargement. The histological features of gigantomastia are glandular hyperplasia and an increase of stromal tissue. Illustrated by one documented case, cytomorphology of gigantomastia was misdiagnosed as a phyllodes tumor. We document the cytomorphology of an axillary mass in a gravid woman of 24 years with gigantomastia. She presented in her first trimester with bilateral mastalgia and swelling, nonresponsive to antibiotics. Imaging excluded mass breast lesions and a pituitary prolactinoma. The breasts progressively enlarged, became warm, tender, and developed skin ulcerations and a peau dorange appearance. Subsequently she developed a ...
node-positive disease defined as: one positive lymph node by sentinel node biopsy OR at least 1 positive lymph node found among at least 6 axillary nodes examined on axillary node dissection OR status post axillary radiotherapy for sterilization if clinically evaluated as cN1 or cN2 (if sentinel node biopsy is positive, subject may either undergo an axillary node dissection or radiotherapy to the axilla).. node-positive disease evaluated as: ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes cN0-2 by clinical evaluation and axillary lymph nodes pNX, pN0(i+), or pN1-3 by pathological evaluation [patients with pN3 (Stage IIIc disease) must be disease free following completion of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy for at least 12 months and must not have been lost to follow up].. OR node-negative disease defined as: negative sentinel node biopsy OR no positive lymph nodes found among at least 6 axillary nodes examined on axillary node dissection OR status post axillary radiotherapy for sterilization if clinically ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Phase III. Purpose: To evaluate whether radiation to the un-disected axilla and regional lymph noed is inferior to axillary lymph node dissected axilla in terms of invasive breast cancer recurrence-free interval in patient with positive Sentinel Lymph Node after complete of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. ...
An axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is surgery to remove lymph nodes from under the arm that contain cancer. Learn about ALND.
The axillary lymph node status (ALNS) of breast cancers by combined ER, PR and HER-2 expression: Triple positive tumours are more likely lymph node ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trends in axillary lymph node dissection for early-stage breast cancer in Europe. T2 - Impact of evidence on practice. AU - EUSOMA Working Group. AU - Garcia-Etienne, Carlos A.. AU - Mansel, Robert E.. AU - Tomatis, Mariano. AU - Heil, Joerg. AU - Biganzoli, Laura. AU - Ferrari, Alberta. AU - Marotti, Lorenza. AU - Sgarella, Adele. AU - Ponti, Antonio. AU - Danaei, Mahmoud. AU - Stickeler, Elmar. AU - Sarlos, Dimitri. AU - Prové, Annemie. AU - Pagani, Olivia. AU - Berclaz, Gilles. AU - Taffurelli, Mario. AU - Cretella, Elisabetta. AU - Verhoeven, Didier. AU - Denk, Andreas. AU - Carly, Birgit. AU - Ballardini, Bettina. AU - van Riet, Yvonne. AU - Kimmig, Rainer. AU - Reinisch, Mattea. AU - Angiolini, Catia. AU - Möbus, Volker. AU - Emons, Gunter. AU - Friedrichs, Kay. AU - Schneeweiss, Andreas. AU - Tinterri, Corrado. AU - Egle, Daniel. AU - Staelens, Gracienne. AU - Kiechle, Marion. AU - Harbeck, Nadia. AU - Corsi, Fabio. AU - Menghini, Lorenzo. AU - Lombardi, Augusto. AU - ...
The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and effect on patient outcomes of positron emission tomography (PET), with or without computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer. PET and MRI are assessed firstly as a replacement for SLNB or 4-NS, and secondly as an additional test prior to SLNB or 4-NS. ...
When SLN mapping is not successful, complete axillary lymph node dissection is recommended. Absolute contraindications for SLN dissection include clinically suspicious axillary nodes, which should be ... more
Synonyms for axillae in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for axillae. 3 synonyms for axilla: armpit, axillary cavity, axillary fossa. What are synonyms for axillae?
UNLABELLED The aim of this study was to find both predictors of axillary lymph node involvement and predictors of level II or III involvement. With these predictors patients should be selected who can be spared axillary lymph node dissection or who qualify for removal of only first-level lymph nodes. 239 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer stage I-III treated with total axillary dissection were evaluated. In multiple logistic regression analysis 17 clinical and histopathological variables were included. We found 4 multivariate significant predictors for metastatic axillary involvement: Clinically positive axilla, peritumoural lymphatic vessel invasion, multicentric or multifocal tumours and a large number of past pregnancies. Multivariate significant predictors of involvement of level II or III were peritumoural lymphatic vessel invasion, younger age, larger tumour size, multicentric or multifocal tumours and postmenopausal patient. The metastatic involvement of more than 3 nodes ...
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Definition of Apical group of axillary lymph nodes with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Time trends and inter-hospital variation in treatment and axillary staging of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in the era of screening in Southern Netherlands. AU - van Steenbergen, L.N.. AU - Voogd, A.C.. AU - Roukema, J.A.. AU - Louwman, W.J.. AU - Duijm, L.E.M.. AU - Coebergh, J.W.W.. AU - van de Poll-Franse, L.V.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: To examine variation in time and place in axillary staging and treatment of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. METHODS: Trends in patients with DCIS recorded in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry diagnosed in 1991-2010 (n = 2449) were examined. RESULTS: The use of breast conserving surgery (BCS) went from 17% to 67% in 1991-2010 and administration of radiotherapy after BCS increased to 89%. Axillary lymph node dissection decreased to almost 0%, while sentinel node biopsy was performed in 65% of patients in 2010. The proportion who underwent BCS varied between hospitals from 49% ...
Background: Sentinel node SN biopsy has become accepted as a reliable method of predicting the state of the axilla in breast cancer. The key issue, however, is the accuracy of the pathological evaluat
This case report concerns a 40-year-old patient with an unspecific abdominal pain, diarrhoea, a huge axillary mass and a previous pulmonary infection. display A 40-years-old guy in a poor scientific condition was received on the er in a Medical center in S?o Paulo, Brazil. He offered abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and a brief history of previous pulmonary contamination and weight loss (8 kg). His body temperature was 37C. The examination verified the presence of a big right axillary mass, left inguinal-umbilical and left iliac pain, suggesting pulmonary and intestinal Ki16425 infections. Investigations Ultrasound of the axillary Ki16425 mass showed a diffuse inflammatory response (physique 1) and in the stomach suggested a diverticulitis. Physique 1 Right axillary mass C lymph node of 3.5 cm of diameter C with blood flow slightly increased when seen in colour-Doppler. Since the patient had abdominal pain and a history of pulmonary contamination, thoracic and abdominal CT scans were done to ...
A generally accepted tenet of management of solid tumor malignancies-including adenocarcinoma of the breast-is that most bulky/clinically evident sites of disease are best managed by surgical resection, with radiation treatment reserved for microscopic, clinically occult foci of soft tissue disease. The goal of systemic therapy is to eradicate distant organ disease. Clearly, however, there will be overlap in the results achieved by these modalities of cancer care, and these effects can influence the extent of necessary surgery as well as the sequence of delivering these components of cancer care. For example, a patient that initially presents with bulky axillary lymph nodes will likely require an anatomically defined level I/II axillary lymph node dissection, and this surgery may be performed as initial primary treatment as long as there is no evidence of unresectable disease that would place the axillary neurovascular structures at risk for intraoperative damage. However, these patients will ...
Lymph node dissection to diagnose metastatic spread of breast cancer often causes painful underarm ache that can last for months or even decades. The introdu...
ALND is a complete en bloc removal of the level I and level II lymph nodes; the level III nodes are not removed unless suspicious or palpable adenopathy is present. All nodal tissue defined by the bor... more
Risk factors for chronic pain after breast cancer surgery include axillary lymph node dissection, younger age, and radiation therapy. Only axillary lymph node dissection is a high-yield target for a modifiable risk factor to prevent the persistent pain after breast cancer surgery.
Breast cancers with 10 or more positive lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis are staged as pathological N3a (pN3a) and they have poor prognosis. Recent studies showed five-year disease-free survival (
We found high-quality evidence that younger age, radiotherapy, axillary lymph node dissection and greater acute postoperative pain were associated with persistent pain after breast cancer surgery, and we found moderate-quality evidence for an association with preoperative pain. The strongest of these associations was with axillary lymph node dissection, with an absolute increase in risk of persistent pain of 21%. High-quality evidence showed that BMI, type of breast surgery, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy were not associated with persistent pain (Table 1). Investigators have tested 68 additional predictors that could not be statistically pooled (Appendices 10 and 11). Preliminary evidence suggested that 2 of these predictors may warrant additional study: overall comorbidity and radiotherapy dosage.. The most recent systematic review that explored risk factors for persistent pain after breast cancer surgery identified 8 studies that met our eligibility criteria.5 That review presented a ...
The approach towards axillary surgery should be selective and flexible, with its management tailored to patient choice and tumour characteristics, and concordant with local practice guidelines and available resources. Sentinel-lymphnode biopsy has been embraced as a standard of care in many centres around the world and has revolutionised management of the axilla during the past decade. Nonetheless, data for long-term outcomes remain scarce, and there are persistent variations in practice and inconsistencies in methodology. An international perspective has been sought on important issues relating to management of the axilla, which includes not only the indications and techniques for sentinel-lymph-node biopsy, but also lymph-node sampling, axillary-lymph-node dissection, and observation alone. In this Review, we initially present an overview, which focuses on biological models of lymphatic networks within the breast and patterns of tumour dissemination. A set of key questions are posed with ...
Introduction The presence of tumor cells in the axillary lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor in early stage breast cancer. (EMT). Outcomes Both EpCAM and Mucin 1 overflowing for the epithelial-marker conveying cells. Nevertheless, EpCAM-IMS recognized epithelial cells in 71 SLNs, whereas just 35 examples had been positive with RT-PCR focusing on breasts epithelial transcripts. Additional evaluation of EpCAM positive but RT-PCR bad cell fractions demonstrated that they experienced improved manifestation of GANT 58 MMPs, repressors of E-cadherin, Vimentin and SPARC, all transcripts connected with the procedure of epithelial to mesenchymal changeover. Findings The EpCAM IMS-assay recognized growth cells with epithelial and mesenchymal-like features, therefore showing to become a even more strong gun than real epithelial produced biomarkers. This getting offers medical ramifications, today rely on the recognition of epithelial transcripts or protein while most strategies for SLN ...
Background: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 prospective randomized trial demonstrated no local control or survival advantage with more extensive axillary surgery, even in the setting of known axillary disease. These results convincingly showed that axillary surgery provides little, if any, therapeutic benefit. Given that axillary surgery is not associated with local control or survival benefit, the current role of sentinel lymph node (SLNB) is limited to staging the axilla (in other words, SLNB provides staging information but is not therapeutic).. Objectives: In this randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial we aim to determine the utility of axillary ultrasound (AUS) as a pre-operative staging modality for patients with clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer with the hope that it will be a minimally invasive replacement for SLNB.. 1. Primary Objective: To assess whether axillary recurrence rates for patients randomized to Arm 1 (no SLNB) is equivalent to ...
SVEC4-10 is an endothelial cell line derived by SV40 (strain 4A) transformation of endothelial cells from axillary lymph node vessels.
A 17-year-old boy underwent a wide partial mastectomy with axillary dissection for secretory breast cancer, followed by low grade irradiation (30 Gy). There were no axillary lymph node metastases. Hormone receptor assay of the tumor was positive for progesterone and negative for estrogen. There was no local recurrence or sign of dissemination after nearly 5 years. Literature search revealed 21 cases of secretory breast cancer in childhood and adolescence; in only 2 cases was the hormonal status studied. We report an additional case and review the literature ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether treatment to the axilla (area under the arm) can be safely minimized by omitting axillary surgery and f
In ALN metastases high levels of TILs, CD4+ and CD8+ T and CD56+ NK cells were significantly associated with pCRs.. Significantly higher levels of Tregs (FOXP3+, CTLA-4+) and CD56+ NK cells were documented in ALN metastases than in the corresponding primary breast tumours. CD8+ T and CD56+ NK cells showed a positive correlation between metastatic and primary tumours. A high % CD8+ and low % FOXP3+ T cells and high CD8+: FOXP3+ ratio in metastatic ALNs (tumour-free para-cortex) were associated with pCRs. Metastatic ALNs expressed high IL-10, low IL-2 and IFN-ϒ ...
I need help with this procedure. Doctor recently started doing these. So I need help with the coding. Per notes: 1. Revision of scar 2. Drainage of le
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Kittaneh on enlarged lymph node in axilla and in lung: IT sounds like there is a lot more to your condition than you are able to relate in this format. It would probably be best to do a virtual consult
NON-COMPLIANCE WITH HORMONAL THERAPY FOR BREAST CANCER AND RISK OF DEATH. The management of breast cancer today bears little resemblance to the way that we managed this most common cancer among women when I entered medical school in the early 1980s. Back then, both early-stage and advanced breast cancers were managed with a standard one-size-fits-all approach that included removal of the entire breast (mastectomy) and most of the lymph nodes in the armpit area (axillary lymph node dissection). Twenty-five years ago, most women with breast cancer also received chemotherapy, while hormonal therapy for many premenopausal women with breast cancer consisted of the surgical removal of both ovaries (oopherectomy). In 2010, 85 to 90 percent of women are eligible to undergo breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy). Radical removal of the armpit lymph nodes has also become unnecessary for the majority of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, as approximately two-thirds of women will be found to ...
Staging breast cancer is something that your oncologist will do during the diagnosis and treatment planning stage. Talk with a breast cancer specialist at New York Oncology & Hematology for more information.
ICD-10-PCS code 0X944ZZ for Drainage of Right Axilla, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -
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Here are definitions of medical terms related to breast cancer.Adjuvant therapy: Treatment given in addition to surgery, such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.Atypical hyperplasia: Cells that are both abnormal (atypical) and increased in number.Axillary lymph node dissection: Surgery to remove some of the lymph nodes in the armpit.Benign: Not cancerous or
Background The genetic heterogeneity of HER2 gene amplification (GA) in breast cancer has previously been described, but the clinical significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. We studied the genetic categories of a series of consecutive 2+ IHC cases over 5 years, with a focus on cases with HER2 GA detected in minor clone(s). We compared the HER2 status in primary tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes (ALN) when available to test the hypothesis that HER2 amplified cells are more aggressive and metastase quicker than non amplified cells.. Material and methods: From January 1st. 2006 to May 30. 2011, 4491 invasive breast carcinomas had HER2 immunohistochemical (IHC) and/or HER2 gene status evaluation on their tumor sample in Institut Gustave Roussy. The distribution according to their IHC was as follows: 0 in 2915 cases (65%), 1+ in 569 cases (12.6%), 2+ in 536 cases (11.8%) and 3+ in 471 cases (10.6%). All 2+ samples were checked by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For each ...
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A randomised phase III study to determine in women with early breast cancer whether sentinel-node-based management increases the risk of locoregional recurrence and in particular, axillary recurrence, compared with axillary clearance in any subgroup of women.. ...
Dr Felix Jozsa speaks to ecancer about his new article published in ecancermedicalscience. The article looks at the over-treatment of the axillary node,
The axillary region is a common site for mammary glandular epithelium in rodents with potential for neoplastic transformation in the axillary, lateral thoracoabdominal, and flank regions as well as the ventral abdomen. The lesion is sub-classified as a moderate grade malignancy on the basis of cellular undifferentiation, disorganization, necrosis, and invasive growth, although the majority of the latter appears to occur with the intra-lesional supporting fibrous trauma rather than the perilesional subcutis. However, there are a few small satellite nodules around the periphery of the main mass (local perilesional metastases). The thickness of the surgical margin is variable from moderate to minimal with neoplastic glandular epithelium focally extending extremely close to and focally reaching the biopsy margins. Clinical behavior is sometimes more aggressive than might be expected based upon microscopic features such as these. Clinical options might include prophylactic deeper excision or at least ...
Looking for online definition of negative axillary lymph node in the Medical Dictionary? negative axillary lymph node explanation free. What is negative axillary lymph node? Meaning of negative axillary lymph node medical term. What does negative axillary lymph node mean?
Introduction To measure the radiation exposure to the surgeon during axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy using the radioactive isotope technetium-99m. Method A prospective analysis of 36 patients undergoing axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy using technetium-99m, between 15th January 2013 to the 20th February 2013.. Results The exposure to the surgeon during axillary sentinel lymph node dissection was measured in 36 patients by placing a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) on the surgeons finger. The TLDs recorded the total radiation exposure to the surgeon. The recommended occupational dose limit for non radiation workers extremity exposure is less than 500 μSv. The analysed and extrapolated data showed an average exposure dose to the surgeon per patient of 2.7 μSv. Conclusion One surgeon would need to perform more than 85 such procedures per year in order to exceed the advised annual extremity dose limit. The data also suggests that regular measurements of radiation exposure and radiation ...
BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with operable breast cancer is routinely used in some countries for staging the axilla despite limited data from randomized trials on morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted a multicenter randomized trial to compare quality-of-life outcomes between patients with clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer who received sentinel lymph node biopsy and patients who received standard axillary treatment. METHODS: The primary outcome measures were arm and shoulder morbidity and quality of life. From November 1999 to October 2003, 1031 patients were randomly assigned to undergo sentinel lymph node biopsy (n = 515) or standard axillary surgery (n = 516). Patients with sentinel lymph node metastases proceeded to delayed axillary clearance or received axillary radiotherapy (depending on the protocol at the treating institution). Intention-to-treat analyses of data at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery are presented. All statistical tests were ...
Looking for online definition of axillary lymph nodes in the Medical Dictionary? axillary lymph nodes explanation free. What is axillary lymph nodes? Meaning of axillary lymph nodes medical term. What does axillary lymph nodes mean?
Objective:. The role of axillary staging and natural history in microinvasive breast cancer (MIC) is not well known. This study assesses outcome in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with microinvasion who did not undergo sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB).. Methods:. A retrospective analysis of DCIS with microinvasion (DCISM) patients surgically treated at the Asan Medical Center from March, 2003 to December, 2009 was conducted. Bilateral breast cancer patients and patients who underwent node dissection were excluded from the study. SNB was performed in most of DCIS patients after surgery when microinvasion was found, but in some patients with clinically negative axillary lymph node metastasis, SNB was omitted.. Results:. A total of 185 consecutive patients with DCISM were identified. Thirty-three patients did not undergo SNB [SNB(-) group], while 152 patients did [SNB(+) group]. No recurrence occurred in the SNB(-) group during a median follow-up period of 63.5 months, while one ...
SAN ANTONIO, Dec. 06, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Data presented this week on wire-free radar breast localization demonstrated it may be a practical approach for positive axillary lymph node localization prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (NAT) response. The poster presented preliminary data from a subset analysis of an investigator-initiated, prospective study, documenting that among 24 node-positive patients, 100 percent had successful wire-free localization (WFL) placement with 0.0 mm migration throughout NAT on standard-of-care preoperative surveillance imaging (mammogram, ultrasound, MRI and PET/CT). Both the target lymph node and WFL were visualized on MRI and PET/CT imaging. WFL successfully supplemented sentinel lymph node surgery in the surgical cases completed to date (14/14).. This subset analysis suggests that placement of a wire-free radar localization implant prior to NAT can be performed long-term prior to neoadjuvant treatment response when the lesion is clearly visualized ...
HAMBURG-In women with operable breast cancer of small size, sentinel node biopsy can be used to predict the status of the axillary lymph nodes and thereby avoid unnecessary axillary dissection, according to a report from the European Institute of Oncology in Milan presented at the Ninth European Cancer Conference (ECCO 9). 1
BACKGROUND Some clinicopathological features play roles in the spread of breast cancer to axillary lymph node (ALN). However, their roles as predictive factors are not well-established. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between the clinicopathological features of breast cancer and the risk of ALN involvement in Indonesian women.. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Margono Soekarjo Hospital using archival data from January 2017 to June 2018. All subjects with breast cancer who had undergone modified radical mastectomies without any evidence of distant metastasis were included. Chi-square and Fishers exact tests were performed to assess the relationship between ALN involvement and age, menopausal status, laterality, tumor size, tumor stage, histological type, tumor grade, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), skin or nipple infiltration, perineural invasion, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. The odds ...
Sentinel node biopsy utilizing Technetium-99m-labeled sulfur colloid is rapidly becoming a standard part of the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Although this method is effective in identifying sentinel lymph node(s) in the axilla, the non-tumor-specific nature of colloids necessitates removal of the node(s) for subsequent analysis. Tumor-specific radiotracers, such as positron-emitting Fluorine-18-labeled Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), have been used with positron emission tomography (PET) to successfully stage breast cancer. Thus, the use of FDG with a handheld probe optimized for detection of beta particles could perhaps help identify cancer-infiltrated nodes during axillary dissection. In this study the ability of a new solid-state beta-sensitive probe to identify tumor- infiltrated lymph nodes was investigated in a phantom study. The axilla and tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes were simulated with gelatin phantoms containing FDG concentrations commonly reported from PET studies. FDG uptake in ...
Importance: The results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 (ACOSOG Z0011) trial were first reported in 2005 with a median follow-up of 6.3 years. Longer follow-up was necessary because the majority of the patients had estrogen receptor-positive tumors that may recur later in the disease course (the ACOSOG is now part of the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology). Objective: To determine whether the 10-year overall survival of patients with sentinel lymph node metastases treated with breast-conserving therapy and sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) alone without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is noninferior to that of women treated with axillary dissection ...
The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has conveyed several new issues, such as the risk of false negativity, long-term consequences, the prognostic significance of micrometastases and whether ALND can be omitted in sentinel lymph node- (SLN) positive patients.. Archived SLN specimens from 50 false negative patients and 107 true negative controls were serially sectioned and stained with immunohistochemistry. The detection rate of previously unknown metastases did not differ between the false and the true negative patients. The risk of false negativity was higher in patients with multifocal or hormone receptor-negative tumours, or if only one SLN was found.. In a Swedish multicentre cohort, 2216 SLN-negative patients in whom ALND was omitted were followed up for a median of 65 months. The isolated axillary recurrence rate was only 1.0%, and the overall survival was high (93%).. The survival of 3369 breast cancer patients (2383 node-negative (pN0), 107 isolated tumour cells ...
Veronica C Shim, MD, FACS Spring 2007 - Volume 11 Number 2 Since the Halsted radical mastectomy was introduced in 1894,1 breast cancer treatment has undergone major changes. More than a century later, breast conserving surgery is now accepted in the trea
The Z0011 trial demonstrated no difference in overall survival (OS) and locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) randomized to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or no further surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate locoregional recurrence in a nonrandomized group of SLN positive patients, in whom cALND was not performed, that were retrospectively categorized by the Z0011 eligibility criteria. From two hospital breast cancer databases consisting of 656 consecutive SLN positive breast cancer patients, 88 patients, who did not undergo cALND, were identified ...
Metastases that were 2 millimeters or less in diameter (micrometastases) in axillary lymph nodes detected on examination of a single section of the lymph nodes were associated with poorer disease-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients, according to a new study published online February 26 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
The area of the retinal scar was marked by the protocol in orange (moderately attenuated waveforms) and red (highly attenuated waveforms). A drain is inserted into the axilla the lowest price on viagra a do you have to take amoxicillin with food stab ппппппппппппппппппSURGICAL PROCEDURE Breast-conserving procedures Lumpectomy Wide excision Partial mastectomy Segmental mastectomy Quadrantectomy Axillary lymph node dissection Total mastectomy Modified radical mastectomy Radical mastectomy DESCRIPTION Relatively synonymous terms to de- scribe removal of varying amounts of breast tissue, including the wth nant tissue and some surrounding tissue to ensure clear margins; axil- lary lymph nodes are also removed with these procedures, if the cancer was of the invasive type Removal of some or all fat-enmeshed axillary lymph nodes for determina- tion of extent of disease spread; the single most important determinant for prognosis and for need for fгod vant treatment Removal of the breast tissue
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To establish whether a different number of lymph nodes is identified in a delayed versus an immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients ...
Lets go back in time some 30 years and imagine, if you will, trying to explain this trial to a woman with breast cancer and persuade her to be randomized to have either a modified radical mastectomy (total mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection), a lumpectomy plus axillary dissection, or a lumpectomy with axillary dissection plus radiation. Remember, when a patient signs up for a trial like this, she agrees to accept whatever treatment to which she is randomized. In this case, that would mean not knowing whether the operation would be a lumpectomy or removal of the entire breast. Truly, women today with breast cancer owe a huge debt of gratitude to these women who agreed to such an arrangement because this trial showed conclusively that lumpectomy plus radiation therapy produced equivalent survival rates as modified radical mastectomy. Moreover, just the thought experiment of thinking how you might persuade a woman with a relatively small cancer to agree to be randomized to such a trial ...
So, I know have had a left mass found in my axilla. It is five finger breadths from the nipple in the 1 oclock position. This is a picture of my mammo.
PURPOSE: ACOSOG Z0011 established that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is unnecessary in patients with breast cancer with one to two positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) who undergo lumpectomy, radiotherapy (RT), and systemic therapy. We sought to ascertain RT coverage of the regional nodes in that trial. METHODS: We evaluated case report forms completed 18 months after enrollment. From 2012 to 2013, we collected all available detailed RT records for central review. RESULTS: Among 605 patients with completed case report forms, 89% received whole-breast RT. Of these, 89 (15%) were recorded as also receiving treatment to the supraclavicular region. Detailed RT records were obtained for 228 patients, of whom 185 (81.1%) received tangent-only treatment. Among 142 with sufficient records to evaluate tangent height, high tangents (cranial tangent border /= three fields: 22 in the ALND arm and 21 in the SLND arm. Those receiving directed nodal RT had greater nodal involvement (P | .001) than those who
Autoimmune thyroiditis disease axillary lymph nodes - Pathology Thread - The Student Source. Thyromine is a natural thyroid health supplement that will help your thyroid function normally optimising your weight and overall health.
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of axillary ultrasonography (AUS) has increased in recent years, enabling detection of even low-volume axillary nodal metastases. The aim here was to evaluate the axillary tumour burden in women with a fine-needle aspiration/core biopsy-proven positive node on AUS and in those with a positive sentinel node biopsy (SNB). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all patients with early breast cancer who had AUS and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) between 2011 and 2014. RESULTS: A total of 332 patients who had ALND were eligible for the study, 191 (57·5 per cent) in the AUS-positive group and 141 (42·5 per cent) in the SNB-positive group. Patients in the AUS-positive group were older at diagnosis (P = 0·018), more likely to have larger tumours (P = 0·002), higher tumour grade (P = 0·005), positive human epidermal growth factor 2 status (P = 0·015), and negative oestrogen receptor status (P < 0·001). The AUS-positive group also had a larger number of ...
Background: Metastases to breast and axilla from extramammary sites are uncommon and have been reported in only 2% of breast malignancies. Ovarian cancer metastatic to breast and axillary lymph nodes is extremely rare and only accounts for 0.03%-0.6% of all breast neoplasms. The most common histologic feature of ovarian cancer metastatic to breast is papillary serous adenocarcinoma. Differentiating the secondary breast malignancies from primary ones is crucial as the treatment and prognosis are different, which could avoid many unnecessary procedures. Prognosis is generally poor because most patients have simultaneous spread of the disease. ...
Stage III breast cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast, but cancer is found in axillary (under the arm) lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures, or cancer may be found in lymph nodes near the breastbone; or (2) the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures, or the cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone; or (3) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone; or (4) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that may be attached to each other or to other structures, or the cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone. In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size ...
Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) offers replaced conventional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in axillary node-negative breasts cancer sufferers. represent an unbiased aspect (P?=?0.04). FNR Read More ...
Early physiotherapy with an educational strategy after surgery for breast cancer that involved dissection of axillary lymph nodes was associated with a lower risk of secondary lymphoedema than the educational strategy only (control group) after 12 months of follow-up: 25% in the control group compared with 7% in the intervention group. Secondary lymphoedema developed from six to 12 months postoperatively, which agrees with previous studies.29 30 This could be due to the sum of various risk factors associated with secondary lymphoedema: axillary lymph node dissection, the number of lymph nodes removed (between 10 and 20 nodes were removed in 17 of the 18 women with secondary lymphoedema), overweight (12 of the 18 women had a body mass index ,25), and postoperative complications (all 18 women had postoperative complications) along with the effect of radiotherapy (completed in the fourth postoperative month) as well as the gradual weight gain (11 of 12 women with secondary lymphoedema who were ...
Tweet A number of patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in combination with breast cancer surgery experience postoperative pain and limited range of motion associated with a palpable cord of tissue extending from the axilla into the arm on the same side. This condition is known as Axillary Web Syndrome (AWS), or Cording Syndrome is little . . . → Read More: Axillary Web Syndrome. ...
This quick and minimally invasive procedure can assist the surgeon in determining what type of axillary surgery is best for patients with breast cancer. Unfortunately many centers do not routinely perform this procedure as there is not yet consensus on who will benefit from it, she said. The study consisted of USFNA of axillary lymph nodes in 224 breast cancer patients. The researchers measured the cortical thickness of each lymph node that was aspirated. They found that using a cortical thickness measurement of 3mm to determine who gets USFNA would result in the most optimum combination of diagnosing metastatic disease preoperatively while minimizing unnecessary USFNA. Patients in the study had primary tumor sizes ranging from 0-12 cm with a mean of 1.9cm and included 159 tumors that measured less than or equal to 2 cm and 65 tumors that were greater than 2 cm. The use of USFNA was positive in 52 patients (23%). If USFNA were limited only to axillary lymph nodes with a cortical thickness of 3 ...
View details of top sentinel node biopsy hospitals in Navi Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select best sentinel node biopsy hospital in Navi Mumbai
Study Title. ADD-ASPIRIN - A phase III double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial assessing the effects of aspirin on disease recurrence and survival after primary therapy in common non-metastatic solid tumours. Principal Investigator: Mr Liviu Titu (Colorectal). Sub Investigators: Mr Nigel Parr(Prostate) and Mr Raman Vinayagam (Breast). Research Nurses: Liz Bailey, Helyn Evans & Andrea Young. BREAST CANCER. Study Title. MAMMO 50 -Mammographic surveillance in breast cancer patients aged 50 years or older. Principal Investigator: Mr Raman Vinayagram. Research Nurse: Liz Bailey. Study Title. LORIS - A Phase III Trial of Surgery versus Active Monitoring for Low Risk Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS). Principal Investigator: Mr Raman Vinayagram. Research Nurse: Liz Bailey. Study Title:. POSNOC: Positive Sentinel NOde: adjuvant therapy alone versus adjuvant therapy plus Clearance or axillary radiotherapy. A randomised controlled trial of axillary treatment in women with early stage breast cancer ...
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Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP), defined as the presence of metastatic cancer with an undetectable primary site at the time of presentation, is not a common clinical entity. Although the exact incidence is difficult to ascertain, CUP accounted f
This guideline includes statements and recommendations based on available, high-level evidence about the use of sentinel node biopsy in women with early (operable) breast cancer. The guideline aims to provide health professionals with information to assist in making management recommendations for improved patient outcomes. NBOCC* also develops information specifically for
Background: Although the ACOSOG Z0011 study showed axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) could be avoided in a specific population of sentinel lymph node positive patients, its not widely accepted by Chinese surgeons. We conducted a prospective single-arm study to confirm whether or not the r...
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chemotherapy at the time of initial evaluation are not eligible. - Locally advanced disease is defined by any of the following:. - Primary tumor 5 cm (T3). - Tumor of any size with direct extension to the chest wall or skin (T4a-c). - Inflammatory breast cancer (T4d). - Fixed axillary lymph node metastases (N2). - Metastasis to ipsilateral internal mammary node (N3). - No locally recurrent disease. - No evidence of distant metastatic disease (i.e., lung, liver, bone, or ...
The TributeWrap Wrist to Axilla is an off-the-shelf adjustable foam compression garment for lymphedema or other edema management of the arm. It is intended for use during the evening, night, or other low activity periods. It comfortably adjusts to the patients unique arm shape and lifestyle to help maintain gains made during therapy, while allowing the flexibility to support further reduction. It also offers great features to benefit maintenance therapy: (1) durable hook and loop straps and easy-to-pull finger grip holes for easy donning; (2) Coolcore fabric that rapidly wicks away sweat and moisture to regulate body temperature to keep you cool and comfortable; (3) proven foam technology to soften fibrotic tissue and support skin health; (4) chevron channeling based on MLD principles of directing fluid to the collateral pathways; (5) includes complimentary Sleep Sleeve to ensure the straps do not get tangled in the sheets; (6) angled straps and darting at the elbow to support freedom of movement
The axilla is the entrance to the upper limb, providing a smooth transition between the neck and the arm. This article provides an overview of the structure and contents located within it.
Question - Chronic lump in left axilla having characteristic of lipoma. Mammogram done. Should I be worried?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Chronic lump, Ask a General & Family Physician
These lightweight crutches have a comfortable underarm pad and hand grip. The underarm pad and hand grip are both height adjustable to ensure maximum user comfort and usability.These axilla crutches are available in 3 sizes, the sizes refer to the height of the user, not the underarm height.. They are supplied with a PU foam underarm pad to offer comfort and support to the user, these are a replaceable item should they become worn out. The height is adjusted on the bottom section, simply depress the sprung button and slide the inner section to the required length.. Size:. - Small: 4`6″ - 5`2″ (137cm - 157cm ...

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