Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Groin: The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.Hyperhidrosis: Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Lymphoscintigraphy: Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Paget Disease, Extramammary: A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Acanthosis Nigricans: A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.Technetium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain TECHNETIUM as an integral part of the molecule. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) is an isotope of technetium that has a half-life of about 6 hours. Technetium 99, which has a half-life of 210,000 years, is a decay product of technetium 99m.Syphilis, Cutaneous: Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409)False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sweat: The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Singing: Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.Music Therapy: The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Deodorants: Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)CarbanilidesChickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.

Chronic radiodermatitis following cardiac catheterisation: a report of two cases and a brief review of the literature. (1/902)

Cardiac angiography produces one of the highest radiation exposures of any commonly used diagnostic x ray procedure. Recently, serious radiation induced skin injuries have been reported after repeated therapeutic interventional procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic imaging. Two male patients, aged 62 and 71 years, in whom chronic radiodermatitis developed one to two years after two consecutive cardiac catheterisation procedures are reported. Both patients had undergone lengthy procedures using prolonged fluoroscopic guidance in a limited number of projections. The resulting skin lesions were preceded, in one case, by an acute erythema and took the form of a delayed pigmented telangiectatic, indurated, or ulcerated plaque in the upper back or below the axilla whose site corresponded to the location of the x ray tube during cardiac catheterisation. Cutaneous side effects of radiation exposure result from direct damage to the irradiated tissue and have known thresholds. The diagnosis of radiation induced skin injury relies essentially on clinical and histopathological findings, location of skin lesions, and careful medical history. Interventional cardiologists should be aware of this complication, because chronic radiodermatitis may result in painful and resistant ulceration and eventually in squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series. (2/902)

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an established component of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, and is an important procedure in cancer staging; however, it is associated with unpleasant side effects. We have investigated a radioactive tracer-guided procedure that facilitates identification, removal, and pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node (i.e., the lymph node first receiving lymphatic fluid from the area of the breast containing the tumor) to predict the status of the axilla and to assess the safety of foregoing axillary dissection if the sentinel lymph node shows no involvement. METHODS: We injected 5-10 MBq of 99mTc-labeled colloidal particles of human albumin peritumorally in 376 consecutive patients with breast cancer who were enrolled at the European Institute of Oncology during the period from March 1996 through March 1998. The sentinel lymph node in each case was visualized by lymphoscintigraphy, and its general location was marked on the overlying skin. During breast surgery, the sentinel lymph node was identified for removal by monitoring the acoustic signal from a hand-held gamma ray-detecting probe. Total axillary dissection was then carried out. The pathologic status of the sentinel lymph node was compared with that of the whole axilla. RESULTS: The sentinel lymph node was identified in 371 (98.7%) of the 376 patients and accurately predicted the state of the axilla in 359 (95.5%) of the patients, with 12 false-negative findings (6.7%; 95% confidence interval = 3.5%-11.4%) among a total of 180 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy using a gamma ray-detecting probe allows staging of the axilla with high accuracy in patients with primary breast cancer. A randomized trial is necessary to determine whether axillary dissection may be avoided in those patients with an uninvolved sentinel lymph node.  (+info)

Initial experience with sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer at the National Cancer Center Hospital East. (3/902)

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an important procedure in the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Axillary lymph node dissection is still performed in over half of breast cancer patients having histologically negative nodes, regardless of the morbidity in terms of axillary pain, numbness and lymphedema. The first regional lymph nodes draining a primary tumor are the sentinel lymph nodes. Sentinel node biopsy is a promising surgical technique for predicting histological findings in the remaining axillary lymph nodes, especially in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer, and a worldwide feasibility study is currently in progress. METHODS: Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy were performed in the axilla by subcutaneous injection of blue dye (indigocarmine) in 88 cases of stage 0-IIIB breast cancer. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified by detecting blue-staining lymph nodes or dye-filled lymphatic tracts after total or partial mastectomy. Finally, axillary lymph node dissection was performed up to Levels I and II or more. RESULTS: Sentinel lymph nodes were successfully identified in 65 of the 88 cases (74%). In the final histological examination, the sentinel lymph nodes in 40 cases were negative, including four cases with non-sentinel-node-positive breast cancer (specificity, 100%; sensitivity, 86%). In nine (31%) of the 29 cases with histologically node-positive breast cancer, the sentinel lymph nodes were the only lymph nodes affected. Axillary lymph node status was accurately predicted in 61 (94%) of the 65 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although it was the initial experience at the National Cancer Center Hospital East, sentinel node biopsy proved feasible and successful. This method may be a reasonable alternative to the standard axillary lymph node dissection in patients with early breast cancer.  (+info)

Clinical course of breast cancer patients with complete pathologic primary tumor and axillary lymph node response to doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (4/902)

PURPOSE: To assess patient and tumor characteristics associated with a complete pathologic response (pCR) in both the breast and axillary lymph node specimens and the outcome of patients found to have a pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred seventy-two LABC patients received treatment in two prospective neoadjuvant trials using four cycles of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy. Patients had a total mastectomy with axillary dissection or segmental mastectomy and axillary dissection followed by four or more cycles of additional chemotherapy. Patients then received irradiation treatment of the chest-wall or breast and regional lymphatics. Median follow-up was 58 months (range, 8 to 99 months). RESULTS: The initial nodal status, age, and stage distribution of patients with a pCR were not significantly different from those of patients with less than a pCR (P>.05). Patients with a pCR had initial tumors that were more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (P<.01), and anaplastic (P = .01) but of smaller size (P<.01) than those of patients with less than a pCR. Upon multivariate analysis, the effects of ER status and nuclear grade were independent of initial tumor size. Sixteen percent of the patients in this study (n = 60) had a pathologic complete primary tumor response. Twelve percent of patients (n = 43) had no microscopic evidence of invasive cancer in their breast and axillary specimens. A pathologic complete primary tumor response was predictive of a complete axillary lymph node response (P<.01 ). The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were significantly higher in the group who had a pCR (89% and 87%, respectively) than in the group who had less than a pCR (64% and 58%, respectively; P<.01). CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the capacity to completely clear the breast and axillary lymph nodes of invasive tumor before surgery. Patients with LABC who have a pCR in the breast and axillary nodes have a significantly improved disease-free survival rate. However, a pCR does not entirely eliminate recurrence. Further efforts should focus on elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with this response.  (+info)

How to improve low lymph node recovery rates from axillary clearance specimens of breast cancer. A short-term audit. (5/902)

AIM: To implement an audit scheme to increase the lymph node yield from axillary clearance specimens. METHODS: Two pathologists cut up each specimen after weighing it. The number of nodes and the dimensions of the largest and smallest nodes were recorded, together with the number of non-lymph node structures recovered. Fifty consecutive audited cases were compared with 50 consecutive cases assessed before the audit process. RESULTS: It proved possible to increase the median number of lymph nodes from 10 to 22. There was an obvious learning period, during which the number of nodes recovered during the second pathologist's cut-up gradually decreased, while the total number remained relatively constant. The increase in lymph node yield resulted from the recovery of smaller nodes. The identification of lymph nodes also improved, and fewer non-lymph node structures were recovered by the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Such an audit scheme can be recommended for all institutions where the lymph node yield of axillary clearance specimens seems suboptimal. The relevance of recovering more nodes remains to be determined; from this small series, it seems to have no clinical impact.  (+info)

Do all patients with sentinel node metastasis from breast carcinoma need complete axillary node dissection? (6/902)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the likelihood of nonsentinel axillary metastasis in the presence of sentinel node metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Sentinel lymphadenectomy is a highly accurate technique for identifying axillary metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. Our group has shown that nonsentinel axillary lymph nodes are unlikely to contain tumor cells if the axillary sentinel node is tumor-free, but as yet no study has examined the risk of nonsentinel nodal involvement when the sentinel node contains tumor cells. METHODS: Between 1991 and 1997, axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in 157 women with a tumor-involved sentinel node. Fifty-three axillae (33.5%) had at least one tumor-involved nonsentinel node. The authors analyzed the incidence of nonsentinel node involvement according to clinical and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Only two variables had a significant impact on the likelihood of nonsentinel node metastasis: the size of the sentinel node metastasis and the size of the primary tumor. The rate of nonsentinel node involvement was 7% when the sentinel node had a micrometastasis (< or =2 mm), compared with 55% when the sentinel node had a macrometastasis (>2 mm). In addition, the rate of nonsentinel node tumor involvement increased with the size of the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: If a primary breast tumor is small and if sentinel node involvement is micrometastatic, then tumor cells are unlikely to be found in other axillary lymph nodes. This suggests that axillary lymph node dissection may not be necessary in patients with sentinel node micrometastases from T1/T2 lesions, or in patients with sentinel node metastases from T1a lesions.  (+info)

The results of thoracoscopic sympathetic trunk transection for palmar hyperhidrosis and sympathetic ganglionectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis. (7/902)

OBJECTIVES: To review our total experience of thoracoscopic sympathetic trunk transection for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis and second and third thoracic sympathetic ganglionectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study following up consecutive patients for 0.3 to 5.5 years. SUBJECTS: Fifty-four consecutive patients undergoing thoracoscopic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis. METHODS: Prospective evaluation of immediate technical success, complications, late recurrence of hyperhidrosis and patient acceptability. RESULTS: 100% initial cure for palmar hyperhidrosis, 91% of sympathetic ganglionectomies for axillary hyperhidrosis were technically successful and initially curative. Compensatory sweating 44% patients, most severe after bilateral sympathetic ganglionectomy. Complications occurred in 14% patients, all resolving without further intervention. There were no cases of Horner's syndrome. 13% patients reported a return of some palmar sweating. 5.4% patients developed recurrent palmar hyperhidrosis at 6, 15 and 21 months postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Transection of the sympathetic trunk between the first and second thoracic sympathetic ganglia initially cures 100% of patients treated primarily for palmar hyperhidrosis. Technically successful 2nd and 3rd thoracic sympathetic ganglionectomy initially cures 100% of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. Compensatory sweating is common after bilateral sympathectomy. Recurrent palmar hyperhidrosis occurs in 5.4% of cases, but can be cured by a second thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Horner's syndrome is an avoidable complication of thoracoscopic sympathectomy.  (+info)

Isolated and combined lesions of the axillary nerve. A review of 146 cases. (8/902)

We have assessed the final strength of the deltoid in 121 patients who had repair of isolated or combined lesions of the axillary (circumflex) nerve and were available for statistical analysis. Successful or useful results were achieved in 85% after grafting of isolated lesions. The strength was statistically better when patients had grafting of the axillary nerve within 5.3 months from the time of injury. The dramatic decrease in the rate of success seen with longer delays suggests that surgery should be undertaken within three months of injury. A statistically significant downward trend of the rate of success was noted with increasing age. The force and level of injury to the shoulder play an important role in the type, combination and level of nerve damage and the incidence of associated rotator-cuff, vascular and other injuries to the upper limb. Management of isolated and combined lesions of the axillary nerve after injury to the shoulder needs to be thorough and systematic.  (+info)

*Axilla

"LAB #4 PECTORAL REGION & Introduction to the Axilla". Retrieved 2007-12-23. "Dissector Answers - Axilla and Arm". Archived from ... The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to ... The axilla is the space between the side of the thorax and the upper arm. Axillary artery and its branches Axillary vein and ... The term oxter is used in the Scots language and in Ireland instead of "axilla". The underarm can be a ticklish area, possibly ...

*Suspensory ligament of axilla

The suspensory ligament of axilla, or Gerdy's ligament, is a suspensory ligament that connects the clavipectoral fascia to the ... This union shapes the axilla (underarm). The American Heritage Medical Dictionary (Revised edition of 2nd ed.). Houghton ...

*List of songs recorded by Phish

"Axilla". Song Histories. phish.net. Retrieved 2012-11-02. "Axilla (Part II)". Song Histories. phish.net. Retrieved 2012-11-02 ... " "Axilla" "Axilla Part II" "Babylon Baby" "Back on the Train" "Backwards Down the Number Line" "Backwards Food for Backwards ...

*Long thoracic nerve

Backpack palsy Fischer, J. (2012). Anatomy of the Axilla. Fischer's Mastery of Surgery, 2 Volume Set. Retrieved September 20, ...

*Forearm

ISBN 978-0-544-18897-6. "Dissector Answers - Axilla & Arm". Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-17 ...

*Glossary of bird terms

axilla Also, axillar region; "underarm"; "armpit". The "armpit" of a bird, often hosting covert feathers called axillaries. ... sides The topographical area between the breast and the back, stretching from the axilla (underarm) to the Iliac crest. song A ...

*Cervicoaxillary canal

It then enters the canal in the axilla. cervicoaxillary canalCervicoaxillary canal; The FreeDictionary.com, accessed: September ... Anatomy of the Axilla. Fischer's Mastery of Surgery, 2 Volume Set. Retrieved September 20, 2015 from http://www.r2library.com/ ...

*Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm

It arises in the axilla. It is of small size, and passes through the axilla to the medial side of the area supplying the skin ...

*Cuban small-eared toad

Length from end of muzzle to tympanum 11 lines; of antebrachium and hand, 14.5 lines; axilla to vent, 2 inches; vent to end of ...

*Dermatome (anatomy)

T2 - At the apex of the axilla. T3 - Intersection of the midclavicular line and the third intercostal space T4 - Intersection ...

*Phish: Live in Brooklyn

"Axilla I" (Anastasio, Herman, Marshall) - 3:25 -> "2001" (Deodato) - 8:59 -> "Birds of a Feather" (Anastasio, Fishman, Gordon, ...

*Mammillaria mammillaris

Axils have scant wool. The flowers are cream-white, funnel-shaped and have a length of 1 to 1.2 centimeters. The club-shaped ...

*Deodorant

Antiperspirants with propylene glycol, when applied to the axillae, can cause irritation and may promote sensitization to other ... Granulomas of axillae (zirconium?) (author's transl)]". Dermatologica. 152 (3): 161-7. PMID 939343. Agren-Jonsson S, Magnusson ...

*Bicipital groove

It is the lateral wall of the axilla. Radial groove Medial bicipital groove This article incorporates text in the public domain ... from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) "Dissector Answers - Axilla and Arm". Archived from the original on 2007-12-10. ...

*Mammary gland

Axilla and Breast". International Journal of Morphology. 24 (4). doi:10.4067/S0717-95022006000500030. Lawrence, Ruth A.; ...

*Draco blanfordii

... the adpressed hind limb nearly reaches the axilla. Colouration is grey-brown above, with small dark spots. The wing-membranes ...

*Cassine glauca

leaf, roots- medicinal; Wood -turnery, utensils, cart axils. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/31165 http://www. ...

*Veronica serpyllifolia

Roots grow from leaf axils. The prostrate stems bear erect flowering branches up to 20 cm high. The leaves are opposite on ...

*Acleisanthes nevadensis

Flowers occur in leaf axils. Each is a trumpet-shaped bloom with a narrow, tubular green throat up to 4 centimeters long and a ...

*Rib cage

The grooves run between the axilla to the groin. Each groove overlies the myotomal septa to mark the position of the internal ...

*Kandyan day gecko

Its body and limbs are rather slender; the hind limbs reach the axilla or the shoulder. Its digits are slender, the basal part ...

*Trianthema portulacastrum

Solitary flowers occur in leaf axils. The flower lacks petals but has purple, petallike sepals. The fruit is a curved, ...

*Scutellaria tuberosa

Flowers emerge from the leaf axils. Each flower is held in a calyx of sepals with a large ridge or dome-shaped appendage on the ...

*Scutellaria siphocampyloides

Flowers emerge from the leaf axils. Each flower is held in a calyx of sepals with a large ridge or appendage on the upper part ...

*Rotala ramosior

Flowers occur singly in leaf axils. Each has triangular sepals with long, narrow appendages and usually four tiny white petals ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: I. To produce a map of the lymphatic drainage of the upper extremity as it relates to breast drainage, to determine the proportion of women undergoing axillary lymphadenectomy at risk for lymphedema. II. To determine if blue lymphatics contain lymph node metastases. III. To evaluate the incidence of lymphedema and associated other surgical related quality of life in those undergoing this procedure as compared to the current standard of care.. OUTLINE: This is a phase I study followed by a randomized phase II study.. PILOT PORTION: Patients receive isosulfan blue dye subcutaneously (SC) and then undergo reverse mapping-guided axillary lymph node dissection.. RANDOMIZED PORTION: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms. ARM I: Patients receive isosulfan blue dye subcutaneously (SC) and then undergo reverse mapping-guided axillary lymph node dissection. ARM II: Patients undergo standard axillary lymph node dissection and then receive isosulfan blue dye SC.. After ...
Objective: The primary objective was to evaluate seroma formation in a comparison between the lymphatic ligation technique and conventional axillary lymph node dissection. The secondary objective was to evaluate the factors affecting seroma formation. Materials and Methods: A randomized control trial was conducted between January 2014 and November 2017. 68 consecutive patients undergoing mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection by one experienced surgeon. The patients were randomly sampled and assigned to Group 1 (lymphatic ligation; n=34) and Group 2 (conventional surgery; n=35). Results: 18 patients had developed seroma (26.09%) with 8 (23.53%) patients who were in the lymphatic ligation group and 10 (28.57%) patients who were in the conventional group. No statistical significance was discovered in seroma formation (P=.633), drain duration (P=.238) or total drain volume (P=.330) between the two groups. Longer operative time was statistically and significantly correlated with lymphatic ...
node-positive disease defined as: one positive lymph node by sentinel node biopsy OR at least 1 positive lymph node found among at least 6 axillary nodes examined on axillary node dissection OR status post axillary radiotherapy for sterilization if clinically evaluated as cN1 or cN2 (if sentinel node biopsy is positive, subject may either undergo an axillary node dissection or radiotherapy to the axilla).. node-positive disease evaluated as: ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes cN0-2 by clinical evaluation and axillary lymph nodes pNX, pN0(i+), or pN1-3 by pathological evaluation [patients with pN3 (Stage IIIc disease) must be disease free following completion of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy for at least 12 months and must not have been lost to follow up].. OR node-negative disease defined as: negative sentinel node biopsy OR no positive lymph nodes found among at least 6 axillary nodes examined on axillary node dissection OR status post axillary radiotherapy for sterilization if clinically ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Phase III. Purpose: To evaluate whether radiation to the un-disected axilla and regional lymph noed is inferior to axillary lymph node dissected axilla in terms of invasive breast cancer recurrence-free interval in patient with positive Sentinel Lymph Node after complete of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. ...
The axillary lymph node status (ALNS) of breast cancers by combined ER, PR and HER-2 expression: Triple positive tumours are more likely lymph node ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trends in axillary lymph node dissection for early-stage breast cancer in Europe. T2 - Impact of evidence on practice. AU - EUSOMA Working Group. AU - Garcia-Etienne, Carlos A.. AU - Mansel, Robert E.. AU - Tomatis, Mariano. AU - Heil, Joerg. AU - Biganzoli, Laura. AU - Ferrari, Alberta. AU - Marotti, Lorenza. AU - Sgarella, Adele. AU - Ponti, Antonio. AU - Danaei, Mahmoud. AU - Stickeler, Elmar. AU - Sarlos, Dimitri. AU - Prové, Annemie. AU - Pagani, Olivia. AU - Berclaz, Gilles. AU - Taffurelli, Mario. AU - Cretella, Elisabetta. AU - Verhoeven, Didier. AU - Denk, Andreas. AU - Carly, Birgit. AU - Ballardini, Bettina. AU - van Riet, Yvonne. AU - Kimmig, Rainer. AU - Reinisch, Mattea. AU - Angiolini, Catia. AU - Möbus, Volker. AU - Emons, Gunter. AU - Friedrichs, Kay. AU - Schneeweiss, Andreas. AU - Tinterri, Corrado. AU - Egle, Daniel. AU - Staelens, Gracienne. AU - Kiechle, Marion. AU - Harbeck, Nadia. AU - Corsi, Fabio. AU - Menghini, Lorenzo. AU - Lombardi, Augusto. AU - ...
The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and effect on patient outcomes of positron emission tomography (PET), with or without computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer. PET and MRI are assessed firstly as a replacement for SLNB or 4-NS, and secondly as an additional test prior to SLNB or 4-NS. ...
When SLN mapping is not successful, complete axillary lymph node dissection is recommended. Absolute contraindications for SLN dissection include clinically suspicious axillary nodes, which should be ... more
Synonyms for axillae in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for axillae. 3 synonyms for axilla: armpit, axillary cavity, axillary fossa. What are synonyms for axillae?
UNLABELLED The aim of this study was to find both predictors of axillary lymph node involvement and predictors of level II or III involvement. With these predictors patients should be selected who can be spared axillary lymph node dissection or who qualify for removal of only first-level lymph nodes. 239 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer stage I-III treated with total axillary dissection were evaluated. In multiple logistic regression analysis 17 clinical and histopathological variables were included. We found 4 multivariate significant predictors for metastatic axillary involvement: Clinically positive axilla, peritumoural lymphatic vessel invasion, multicentric or multifocal tumours and a large number of past pregnancies. Multivariate significant predictors of involvement of level II or III were peritumoural lymphatic vessel invasion, younger age, larger tumour size, multicentric or multifocal tumours and postmenopausal patient. The metastatic involvement of more than 3 nodes ...
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Definition of Apical group of axillary lymph nodes with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Background: Sentinel node SN biopsy has become accepted as a reliable method of predicting the state of the axilla in breast cancer. The key issue, however, is the accuracy of the pathological evaluat
This case report concerns a 40-year-old patient with an unspecific abdominal pain, diarrhoea, a huge axillary mass and a previous pulmonary infection. display A 40-years-old guy in a poor scientific condition was received on the er in a Medical center in S?o Paulo, Brazil. He offered abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and a brief history of previous pulmonary contamination and weight loss (8 kg). His body temperature was 37C. The examination verified the presence of a big right axillary mass, left inguinal-umbilical and left iliac pain, suggesting pulmonary and intestinal Ki16425 infections. Investigations Ultrasound of the axillary Ki16425 mass showed a diffuse inflammatory response (physique 1) and in the stomach suggested a diverticulitis. Physique 1 Right axillary mass C lymph node of 3.5 cm of diameter C with blood flow slightly increased when seen in colour-Doppler. Since the patient had abdominal pain and a history of pulmonary contamination, thoracic and abdominal CT scans were done to ...
A generally accepted tenet of management of solid tumor malignancies-including adenocarcinoma of the breast-is that most bulky/clinically evident sites of disease are best managed by surgical resection, with radiation treatment reserved for microscopic, clinically occult foci of soft tissue disease. The goal of systemic therapy is to eradicate distant organ disease. Clearly, however, there will be overlap in the results achieved by these modalities of cancer care, and these effects can influence the extent of necessary surgery as well as the sequence of delivering these components of cancer care. For example, a patient that initially presents with bulky axillary lymph nodes will likely require an anatomically defined level I/II axillary lymph node dissection, and this surgery may be performed as initial primary treatment as long as there is no evidence of unresectable disease that would place the axillary neurovascular structures at risk for intraoperative damage. However, these patients will ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical experience with axillary presentation breast cancer. AU - Galimberti, Viviana. AU - Bassani, Gulliermo. AU - Monti, Simonetta. AU - Simsek, Serife. AU - Villa, Gaetano. AU - Renne, Giuseppe. AU - Luini, Alberto. PY - 2004/11. Y1 - 2004/11. N2 - We present our experience of 50 cases of occult primary tumours presenting as axillary metastases, all with histological report of adenocarcinoma compatible with mammary carcinoma. After bilateral US and mammography, with MRI and mammoscintigraphy where necessary, ipsilateral breast cancer was suspected in 23 cases and quadrantectomy performed. Breast cancer was found only in 12 (24%). In the other 27 women there was no clinical or instrumental suspicion of breast cancer or other primary disease site, so the main treatment was complete axillary dissection plus radiotherapy to the ipsilateral breast (given to all patients). Chemotherapy alone was given to 27 patients, hormone treatment to 5 patients, and both to 18. Mean follow-up ...
ALND is a complete en bloc removal of the level I and level II lymph nodes; the level III nodes are not removed unless suspicious or palpable adenopathy is present. All nodal tissue defined by the bor... more
Risk factors for chronic pain after breast cancer surgery include axillary lymph node dissection, younger age, and radiation therapy. Only axillary lymph node dissection is a high-yield target for a modifiable risk factor to prevent the persistent pain after breast cancer surgery.
Breast cancers with 10 or more positive lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis are staged as pathological N3a (pN3a) and they have poor prognosis. Recent studies showed five-year disease-free survival (
The approach towards axillary surgery should be selective and flexible, with its management tailored to patient choice and tumour characteristics, and concordant with local practice guidelines and available resources. Sentinel-lymphnode biopsy has been embraced as a standard of care in many centres around the world and has revolutionised management of the axilla during the past decade. Nonetheless, data for long-term outcomes remain scarce, and there are persistent variations in practice and inconsistencies in methodology. An international perspective has been sought on important issues relating to management of the axilla, which includes not only the indications and techniques for sentinel-lymph-node biopsy, but also lymph-node sampling, axillary-lymph-node dissection, and observation alone. In this Review, we initially present an overview, which focuses on biological models of lymphatic networks within the breast and patterns of tumour dissemination. A set of key questions are posed with ...
... is the most important prognostic factor in early stage breast cancer. (EMT). Outcomes Both EpCAM and Mucin 1 overflowing for the epithelial-marker conveying cells. Nevertheless, EpCAM-IMS recognized epithelial cells in 71 SLNs, whereas just 35 examples had been positive with RT-PCR focusing on breasts epithelial transcripts. Additional evaluation of EpCAM positive but RT-PCR bad cell fractions demonstrated that they experienced improved manifestation of GANT 58 MMPs, repressors of E-cadherin, Vimentin and SPARC, all transcripts connected with the procedure of epithelial to mesenchymal changeover. Findings The EpCAM IMS-assay recognized growth cells with epithelial and mesenchymal-like features, therefore showing to become a even more strong gun than real epithelial produced biomarkers. This getting offers medical ramifications, today rely on the recognition of epithelial transcripts or protein while most strategies for SLN ...
Background: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 prospective randomized trial demonstrated no local control or survival advantage with more extensive axillary surgery, even in the setting of known axillary disease. These results convincingly showed that axillary surgery provides little, if any, therapeutic benefit. Given that axillary surgery is not associated with local control or survival benefit, the current role of sentinel lymph node (SLNB) is limited to staging the axilla (in other words, SLNB provides staging information but is not therapeutic).. Objectives: In this randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial we aim to determine the utility of axillary ultrasound (AUS) as a pre-operative staging modality for patients with clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer with the hope that it will be a minimally invasive replacement for SLNB.. 1. Primary Objective: To assess whether axillary recurrence rates for patients randomized to Arm 1 (no SLNB) is equivalent to ...
SVEC4-10 is an endothelial cell line derived by SV40 (strain 4A) transformation of endothelial cells from axillary lymph node vessels.
A 17-year-old boy underwent a wide partial mastectomy with axillary dissection for secretory breast cancer, followed by low grade irradiation (30 Gy). There were no axillary lymph node metastases. Hormone receptor assay of the tumor was positive for progesterone and negative for estrogen. There was no local recurrence or sign of dissemination after nearly 5 years. Literature search revealed 21 cases of secretory breast cancer in childhood and adolescence; in only 2 cases was the hormonal status studied. We report an additional case and review the literature ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether treatment to the axilla (area under the arm) can be safely minimized by omitting axillary surgery and f
In ALN metastases high levels of TILs, CD4+ and CD8+ T and CD56+ NK cells were significantly associated with pCRs.. Significantly higher levels of Tregs (FOXP3+, CTLA-4+) and CD56+ NK cells were documented in ALN metastases than in the corresponding primary breast tumours. CD8+ T and CD56+ NK cells showed a positive correlation between metastatic and primary tumours. A high % CD8+ and low % FOXP3+ T cells and high CD8+: FOXP3+ ratio in metastatic ALNs (tumour-free para-cortex) were associated with pCRs. Metastatic ALNs expressed high IL-10, low IL-2 and IFN-ϒ ...
I need help with this procedure. Doctor recently started doing these. So I need help with the coding. Per notes: 1. Revision of scar 2. Drainage of le
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Kittaneh on enlarged lymph node in axilla and in lung: IT sounds like there is a lot more to your condition than you are able to relate in this format. It would probably be best to do a virtual consult
NON-COMPLIANCE WITH HORMONAL THERAPY FOR BREAST CANCER AND RISK OF DEATH. The management of breast cancer today bears little resemblance to the way that we managed this most common cancer among women when I entered medical school in the early 1980s. Back then, both early-stage and advanced breast cancers were managed with a standard "one-size-fits-all" approach that included removal of the entire breast (mastectomy) and most of the lymph nodes in the armpit area (axillary lymph node dissection). Twenty-five years ago, most women with breast cancer also received chemotherapy, while "hormonal therapy" for many premenopausal women with breast cancer consisted of the surgical removal of both ovaries (oopherectomy). In 2010, 85 to 90 percent of women are eligible to undergo breast-conserving surgery ("lumpectomy"). Radical removal of the armpit lymph nodes has also become unnecessary for the majority of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, as approximately two-thirds of women will be found to ...
Staging breast cancer is something that your oncologist will do during the diagnosis and treatment planning stage. Talk with a breast cancer specialist at New York Oncology & Hematology for more information.
Phish - Axilla (Part II) Lyrics. Summer, sitting out by the pool A ray of sunlight getting in my way Close your eyes and wish that it were cool Everyday And I wish it could
Background The genetic heterogeneity of HER2 gene amplification (GA) in breast cancer has previously been described, but the clinical significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. We studied the genetic categories of a series of consecutive 2+ IHC cases over 5 years, with a focus on cases with HER2 GA detected in minor clone(s). We compared the HER2 status in primary tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes (ALN) when available to test the hypothesis that HER2 amplified cells are more aggressive and metastase quicker than non amplified cells.. Material and methods: From January 1st. 2006 to May 30. 2011, 4491 invasive breast carcinomas had HER2 immunohistochemical (IHC) and/or HER2 gene status evaluation on their tumor sample in Institut Gustave Roussy. The distribution according to their IHC was as follows: 0 in 2915 cases (65%), 1+ in 569 cases (12.6%), 2+ in 536 cases (11.8%) and 3+ in 471 cases (10.6%). All 2+ samples were checked by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For each ...
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The axillary region is a common site for mammary glandular epithelium in rodents with potential for neoplastic transformation in the axillary, lateral thoracoabdominal, and flank regions as well as the ventral abdomen. The lesion is sub-classified as a moderate grade malignancy on the basis of cellular undifferentiation, disorganization, necrosis, and invasive growth, although the majority of the latter appears to occur with the intra-lesional supporting fibrous trauma rather than the perilesional subcutis. However, there are a few small satellite nodules around the periphery of the main mass (local perilesional metastases). The thickness of the surgical margin is variable from moderate to minimal with neoplastic glandular epithelium focally extending extremely close to and focally reaching the biopsy margins. Clinical behavior is sometimes more aggressive than might be expected based upon microscopic features such as these. Clinical options might include prophylactic deeper excision or at least ...
My surgeon said 24 hours post op I could shower. I had to be careful raising my arm, but as long as I took it slow and was careful I was ok. I felt so much better after showering. I had steri strips (white tape) covering my stitches and was told to keep them on till they fell off on their own- I had to peel them off after my 10 day post op visit, they stayed on that good! The one issue I had after the axillary node dissection was I heard and felt swishing when I moved. I wasnt sure if it needed to be drained, so I made an appointment and was reassured that it was normal and it did go away on its own. Best of luck with your recovery! ...
Haron, N.H.; Taib, N.A.; Yip, C.H. (2008) Is clinical assessment of the axilla a reliable indicator for lymph node metastases in breast cancer? ANZ Journal of Surgery, 78 (11). pp. 943-4. ISSN 1445-2197. ...
Fragestellung: Eine 42-jährige Frau wurde mit einem subungualem Melanom am rechten Daumen zur weiteren Therapie vorgestellt. Alio loco wurde in der Dermatologie bereits eine Exzision non in sano mit temporärem Wundverschluss und positiver Sentinel-Lymphknotenextirpation in der Axilla durchgeführt.[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL ...
Looking for online definition of negative axillary lymph node in the Medical Dictionary? negative axillary lymph node explanation free. What is negative axillary lymph node? Meaning of negative axillary lymph node medical term. What does negative axillary lymph node mean?
Introduction To measure the radiation exposure to the surgeon during axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy using the radioactive isotope technetium-99m. Method A prospective analysis of 36 patients undergoing axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy using technetium-99m, between 15th January 2013 to the 20th February 2013.. Results The exposure to the surgeon during axillary sentinel lymph node dissection was measured in 36 patients by placing a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) on the surgeons finger. The TLDs recorded the total radiation exposure to the surgeon. The recommended occupational dose limit for non radiation workers extremity exposure is less than 500 μSv. The analysed and extrapolated data showed an average exposure dose to the surgeon per patient of 2.7 μSv. Conclusion One surgeon would need to perform more than 85 such procedures per year in order to exceed the advised annual extremity dose limit. The data also suggests that regular measurements of radiation exposure and radiation ...
BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with operable breast cancer is routinely used in some countries for staging the axilla despite limited data from randomized trials on morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted a multicenter randomized trial to compare quality-of-life outcomes between patients with clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer who received sentinel lymph node biopsy and patients who received standard axillary treatment. METHODS: The primary outcome measures were arm and shoulder morbidity and quality of life. From November 1999 to October 2003, 1031 patients were randomly assigned to undergo sentinel lymph node biopsy (n = 515) or standard axillary surgery (n = 516). Patients with sentinel lymph node metastases proceeded to delayed axillary clearance or received axillary radiotherapy (depending on the protocol at the treating institution). Intention-to-treat analyses of data at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery are presented. All statistical tests were ...
Looking for online definition of axillary lymph nodes in the Medical Dictionary? axillary lymph nodes explanation free. What is axillary lymph nodes? Meaning of axillary lymph nodes medical term. What does axillary lymph nodes mean?
Objective:. The role of axillary staging and natural history in microinvasive breast cancer (MIC) is not well known. This study assesses outcome in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with microinvasion who did not undergo sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB).. Methods:. A retrospective analysis of DCIS with microinvasion (DCISM) patients surgically treated at the Asan Medical Center from March, 2003 to December, 2009 was conducted. Bilateral breast cancer patients and patients who underwent node dissection were excluded from the study. SNB was performed in most of DCIS patients after surgery when microinvasion was found, but in some patients with clinically negative axillary lymph node metastasis, SNB was omitted.. Results:. A total of 185 consecutive patients with DCISM were identified. Thirty-three patients did not undergo SNB [SNB(-) group], while 152 patients did [SNB(+) group]. No recurrence occurred in the SNB(-) group during a median follow-up period of 63.5 months, while one ...
SAN ANTONIO, Dec. 06, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Data presented this week on wire-free radar breast localization demonstrated it may be a practical approach for positive axillary lymph node localization prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (NAT) response. The poster presented preliminary data from a subset analysis of an investigator-initiated, prospective study, documenting that among 24 node-positive patients, 100 percent had successful wire-free localization (WFL) placement with 0.0 mm migration throughout NAT on standard-of-care preoperative surveillance imaging (mammogram, ultrasound, MRI and PET/CT). Both the target lymph node and WFL were visualized on MRI and PET/CT imaging. WFL successfully supplemented sentinel lymph node surgery in the surgical cases completed to date (14/14).. "This subset analysis suggests that placement of a wire-free radar localization implant prior to NAT can be performed long-term prior to neoadjuvant treatment response when the lesion is clearly visualized ...
HAMBURG-In women with operable breast cancer of small size, sentinel node biopsy can be used to predict the status of the axillary lymph nodes and thereby avoid unnecessary axillary dissection, according to a report from the European Institute of Oncology in Milan presented at the Ninth European Cancer Conference (ECCO 9). 1
BACKGROUND Some clinicopathological features play roles in the spread of breast cancer to axillary lymph node (ALN). However, their roles as predictive factors are not well-established. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between the clinicopathological features of breast cancer and the risk of ALN involvement in Indonesian women.. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Margono Soekarjo Hospital using archival data from January 2017 to June 2018. All subjects with breast cancer who had undergone modified radical mastectomies without any evidence of distant metastasis were included. Chi-square and Fishers exact tests were performed to assess the relationship between ALN involvement and age, menopausal status, laterality, tumor size, tumor stage, histological type, tumor grade, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), skin or nipple infiltration, perineural invasion, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. The odds ...
Sentinel node biopsy utilizing Technetium-99m-labeled sulfur colloid is rapidly becoming a standard part of the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Although this method is effective in identifying sentinel lymph node(s) in the axilla, the non-tumor-specific nature of colloids necessitates removal of the node(s) for subsequent analysis. Tumor-specific radiotracers, such as positron-emitting Fluorine-18-labeled Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), have been used with positron emission tomography (PET) to successfully stage breast cancer. Thus, the use of FDG with a handheld probe optimized for detection of beta particles could perhaps help identify cancer-infiltrated nodes during axillary dissection. In this study the ability of a new solid-state beta-sensitive probe to identify tumor- infiltrated lymph nodes was investigated in a phantom study. The axilla and tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes were simulated with gelatin phantoms containing FDG concentrations commonly reported from PET studies. FDG uptake in ...
Importance: The results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 (ACOSOG Z0011) trial were first reported in 2005 with a median follow-up of 6.3 years. Longer follow-up was necessary because the majority of the patients had estrogen receptor-positive tumors that may recur later in the disease course (the ACOSOG is now part of the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology). Objective: To determine whether the 10-year overall survival of patients with sentinel lymph node metastases treated with breast-conserving therapy and sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) alone without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is noninferior to that of women treated with axillary dissection ...
The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has conveyed several new issues, such as the risk of false negativity, long-term consequences, the prognostic significance of micrometastases and whether ALND can be omitted in sentinel lymph node- (SLN) positive patients.. Archived SLN specimens from 50 false negative patients and 107 true negative controls were serially sectioned and stained with immunohistochemistry. The detection rate of previously unknown metastases did not differ between the false and the true negative patients. The risk of false negativity was higher in patients with multifocal or hormone receptor-negative tumours, or if only one SLN was found.. In a Swedish multicentre cohort, 2216 SLN-negative patients in whom ALND was omitted were followed up for a median of 65 months. The isolated axillary recurrence rate was only 1.0%, and the overall survival was high (93%).. The survival of 3369 breast cancer patients (2383 node-negative (pN0), 107 isolated tumour cells ...
Veronica C Shim, MD, FACS Spring 2007 - Volume 11 Number 2 Since the Halsted radical mastectomy was introduced in 1894,1 breast cancer treatment has undergone major changes. More than a century later, breast conserving surgery is now accepted in the trea
The Z0011 trial demonstrated no difference in overall survival (OS) and locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) randomized to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or no further surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate locoregional recurrence in a nonrandomized group of SLN positive patients, in whom cALND was not performed, that were retrospectively categorized by the Z0011 eligibility criteria. From two hospital breast cancer databases consisting of 656 consecutive SLN positive breast cancer patients, 88 patients, who did not undergo cALND, were identified ...
Metastases that were 2 millimeters or less in diameter (micrometastases) in axillary lymph nodes detected on examination of a single section of the lymph nodes were associated with poorer disease-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients, according to a new study published online February 26 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
The area of the retinal scar was marked by the protocol in orange (moderately attenuated waveforms) and red (highly attenuated waveforms). A drain is inserted into the axilla the lowest price on viagra a do you have to take amoxicillin with food stab ппппппппппппппппппSURGICAL PROCEDURE Breast-conserving procedures Lumpectomy Wide excision Partial mastectomy Segmental mastectomy Quadrantectomy Axillary lymph node dissection Total mastectomy Modified radical mastectomy Radical mastectomy DESCRIPTION Relatively synonymous terms to de- scribe removal of varying amounts of breast tissue, including the wth nant tissue and some surrounding tissue to ensure clear margins; axil- lary lymph nodes are also removed with these procedures, if the cancer was of the invasive type Removal of some or all fat-enmeshed axillary lymph nodes for determina- tion of extent of disease spread; the single most important determinant for prognosis and for need for fгod vant treatment Removal of the breast tissue
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To establish whether a different number of lymph nodes is identified in a delayed versus an immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients ...
Lets go back in time some 30 years and imagine, if you will, trying to explain this trial to a woman with breast cancer and persuade her to be randomized to have either a modified radical mastectomy (total mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection), a lumpectomy plus axillary dissection, or a lumpectomy with axillary dissection plus radiation. Remember, when a patient signs up for a trial like this, she agrees to accept whatever treatment to which she is randomized. In this case, that would mean not knowing whether the operation would be a lumpectomy or removal of the entire breast. Truly, women today with breast cancer owe a huge debt of gratitude to these women who agreed to such an arrangement because this trial showed conclusively that lumpectomy plus radiation therapy produced equivalent survival rates as modified radical mastectomy. Moreover, just the thought experiment of thinking how you might persuade a woman with a relatively small cancer to agree to be randomized to such a trial ...
So, I know have had a left mass found in my axilla. It is five finger breadths from the nipple in the 1 oclock position. This is a picture of my mammo.
PURPOSE: ACOSOG Z0011 established that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is unnecessary in patients with breast cancer with one to two positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) who undergo lumpectomy, radiotherapy (RT), and systemic therapy. We sought to ascertain RT coverage of the regional nodes in that trial. METHODS: We evaluated case report forms completed 18 months after enrollment. From 2012 to 2013, we collected all available detailed RT records for central review. RESULTS: Among 605 patients with completed case report forms, 89% received whole-breast RT. Of these, 89 (15%) were recorded as also receiving treatment to the supraclavicular region. Detailed RT records were obtained for 228 patients, of whom 185 (81.1%) received tangent-only treatment. Among 142 with sufficient records to evaluate tangent height, high tangents (cranial tangent border /= three fields: 22 in the ALND arm and 21 in the SLND arm. Those receiving directed nodal RT had greater nodal involvement (P | .001) than those who
Autoimmune thyroiditis disease axillary lymph nodes - Pathology Thread - The Student Source. Thyromine is a natural thyroid health supplement that will help your thyroid function normally optimising your weight and overall health.
Stage III breast cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast, but cancer is found in axillary (under the arm) lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures, or cancer may be found in lymph nodes near the breastbone; or (2) the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures, or the cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone; or (3) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone; or (4) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that may be attached to each other or to other structures, or the cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone. In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size ...
Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) offers replaced conventional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in axillary node-negative breasts cancer sufferers. represent an unbiased aspect (P?=?0.04). FNR Read More ...
Tweet A number of patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in combination with breast cancer surgery experience postoperative pain and limited range of motion associated with a palpable cord of tissue extending from the axilla into the arm on the same side. This condition is known as Axillary Web Syndrome (AWS), or Cording Syndrome is little . . . → Read More: Axillary Web Syndrome. ...
This quick and minimally invasive procedure can assist the surgeon in determining what type of axillary surgery is best for patients with breast cancer. Unfortunately many centers do not routinely perform this procedure as there is not yet consensus on who will benefit from it," she said. The study consisted of USFNA of axillary lymph nodes in 224 breast cancer patients. The researchers measured the cortical thickness of each lymph node that was aspirated. They found that using a cortical thickness measurement of 3mm to determine who gets USFNA would result in the most optimum combination of diagnosing metastatic disease preoperatively while minimizing unnecessary USFNA. Patients in the study had primary tumor sizes ranging from 0-12 cm with a mean of 1.9cm and included 159 tumors that measured less than or equal to 2 cm and 65 tumors that were greater than 2 cm. The use of USFNA was positive in 52 patients (23%). If USFNA were limited only to axillary lymph nodes with a cortical thickness of 3 ...
View details of top sentinel node biopsy hospitals in Navi Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select best sentinel node biopsy hospital in Navi Mumbai
Study Title. ADD-ASPIRIN - A phase III double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial assessing the effects of aspirin on disease recurrence and survival after primary therapy in common non-metastatic solid tumours. Principal Investigator: Mr Liviu Titu (Colorectal). Sub Investigators: Mr Nigel Parr(Prostate) and Mr Raman Vinayagam (Breast). Research Nurses: Liz Bailey, Helyn Evans & Andrea Young. BREAST CANCER. Study Title. MAMMO 50 -Mammographic surveillance in breast cancer patients aged 50 years or older. Principal Investigator: Mr Raman Vinayagram. Research Nurse: Liz Bailey. Study Title. LORIS - A Phase III Trial of Surgery versus Active Monitoring for Low Risk Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS). Principal Investigator: Mr Raman Vinayagram. Research Nurse: Liz Bailey. Study Title:. POSNOC: Positive Sentinel NOde: adjuvant therapy alone versus adjuvant therapy plus Clearance or axillary radiotherapy. A randomised controlled trial of axillary treatment in women with early stage breast cancer ...
Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP), defined as the presence of metastatic cancer with an undetectable primary site at the time of presentation, is not a common clinical entity. Although the exact incidence is difficult to ascertain, CUP accounted f
The TributeWrap Wrist to Axilla is an off-the-shelf adjustable foam compression garment for lymphedema or other edema management of the arm. It is intended for use during the evening, night, or other low activity periods. It comfortably adjusts to the patients unique arm shape and lifestyle to help maintain gains made during therapy, while allowing the flexibility to support further reduction. It also offers great features to benefit maintenance therapy: (1) durable hook and loop straps and easy-to-pull finger grip holes for easy donning; (2) Coolcore fabric that rapidly wicks away sweat and moisture to regulate body temperature to keep you cool and comfortable; (3) proven foam technology to soften fibrotic tissue and support skin health; (4) chevron channeling based on MLD principles of directing fluid to the collateral pathways; (5) includes complimentary Sleep Sleeve to ensure the straps do not get tangled in the sheets; (6) angled straps and darting at the elbow to support freedom of movement
The axilla is the entrance to the upper limb, providing a smooth transition between the neck and the arm. This article provides an overview of the structure and contents located within it.
Question - Chronic lump in left axilla having characteristic of lipoma. Mammogram done. Should I be worried?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Chronic lump, Ask a General & Family Physician
These lightweight crutches have a comfortable underarm pad and hand grip. The underarm pad and hand grip are both height adjustable to ensure maximum user comfort and usability.These axilla crutches are available in 3 sizes, the sizes refer to the height of the user, not the underarm height.. They are supplied with a PU foam underarm pad to offer comfort and support to the user, these are a replaceable item should they become worn out. The height is adjusted on the bottom section, simply depress the sprung button and slide the inner section to the required length.. Size:. - Small: 4`6″ - 5`2″ (137cm - 157cm ...
Breast Tumor Metastases To Ipsilateral Axillary Lymph Nodes Attached To Each Other Or To Other Structures [TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) Classification ...
Breast Tumor Metastases To Ipsilateral Axillary Lymph Nodes Attached To Each Other Or To Other Structures [TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) Classification ...
Phyllodes tumour is classified as benign and low or high grade malignant reflecting an estimate of probable clinical course based on histological appearance. Benign, borderline and malignant type show mitosis (per 10 HPF) of 5, 5-9 and 10 or greater respectively.Our case revealed mitotic activity of 5-6/10 HPF. Benign will not metastatize and have low probability for local recurrence after excision. A low grade malignant or borderline tumour has a slight probability (,5%) of metastasis, but such a tumor is more likely than a benign phyllodes to recur locally. Metastasis occurs in about 25% of high grade malignant lesions and are prone to local recurrence. High grade malignant show earlier recurrences than after initial treatment of benign or low grade malignant tumors. Less than 1% high grade tumours give rise to axillary lymph node metastasis [4 ...
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Looking for axillaries? Find out information about axillaries. Of, pertaining to, or near the axilla or armpit. Placed or growing in the axis of a branch or leaf Explanation of axillaries
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM C77.3 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Expanding on the topic of tumors discussed last week, this blog is devoted to lipomas, aka fatty tumors. Of all the benign growths dogs develop as they age, lipomas are one of the most common. They arise from fat (lipid) cells and their favorite sites to set up housekeeping are the subcutaneous tissue (just beneath the skin surface) of axillary regions (armpits) and alongside
The author combines a complete, superbly illustrated atlas of imaging findings with a comprehensive text that covers all imaging modalities and addresses all aspects of breast imaging-including breast anatomy, histology, physiology, pathology, breast cancer staging, and preoperative localization of occult lesions.
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Subscriber can Lookup for complete CPT Code List 01610-01654 with CPT descriptor, lay term and guidelines as per AMA 2014 updates.
Discussion Haemorrhage is managed through direct pressure and the application of a tourniquet. It is therefore recommended that the minimum coverage should be the most proximal extent to which a tourniquet can be applied. Superimposition of OSPREY brassards over these identified anatomical structures demonstrates that current coverage provided by the brassards could potentially be reduced. ...
E- and N-cadherin expression in metastatic lesions. Sections of salivary glands (Sal, top left), pancreas (top right); axillary lymph nodes (LN, bottom right),
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I had lymph nodes in my groin and axilla removed to determine if there was cancer present. Thankfully both areas came back normal. However, after the surgery, I developed an inguinal seroma which I j...
An ice-bag over the trunk of the supplying artery (axilla, bend of elbow, groin, popliteal space) will lessen the local congestion (of inflammatory conditions involving deep structures of the hands and feet), as well of even better than an application to the whole arm or leg; while an application to the part alone might produce might produce collateral internal congestion. p 854. ...
... Welcome to this story thread, I hope it proves to be a long, enjoyable, constructive and prosperous thread. Sentinels, is a pe...
... , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy In Breast Cancer, Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, Axilary Lymph Node Biopsy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy For Breast Cancer - Lazoi.com, What is a sentinel lymph node biopsy?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Properties and characteristics of the dyes injected to assist axillary sentinel node localization in breast surgery. AU - Masannat, Y. AU - Shenoy, H. AU - Speirs, V. AU - Hanby, A. AU - Horgan, K. PY - 2006/5. Y1 - 2006/5. N2 - AIMS: A review of the safety profile of dyes injected to assist in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer.METHODS: A literature search was performed of the medline database 1966-2005 using the Ovid web Gateway detailing the words sentinel node, breast cancer, allergic reactions, blue dye, isosulfan blue, patent blue and methylene blue.RESULTS: There are reported side-effects from the parenteral administration of dyes, which range from minor to life threatening in severity. There are differences between the dyes as regards their effects. These aspects are discussed.CONCLUSION: Many dyes have been used for SLNB with acceptable identification rates. There are variable side-effects for each of those dyes. Further research is needed to clarify the ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for failed sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgeon experience and detection success/failure were registered at 748 sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures at our inpatient clinic. Data were analysed with backward stepwise multiple logistic regression with a cut-off point of p,0.05. We found that increased age, increased BMI, medial tumour location and less surgeon experience independently were associated with a lower sentinel lymph node detection rate. Tumour size, palpability and biopsy method were not significantly associated with the sentinel lymph node detection rate. In conclusion, it is possible to identify patients with a higher risk of sentinel lymph node identification failure and we recommend that these patients are operated by experienced surgeons in order to avoid accumulation of independent risk factors in individual cases. ...
Background: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has replaced axillary lymph node dissection as the routine staging procedure in clinically node-negative breast cancer. False-negative SLN biopsy results in misclassification and may cause undertreatment of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serial sectioning of SLNs reveals metastases more frequently in patients with false-negative SLNs than in patients with true-negative SLNs. Methods: This was a case-control study. Tissue blocks from patients with false-negative SLNs, defined as tumour-positive lymph nodes excised at completion axillary dissection or a subsequent axillary tumour recurrence, were reassessed by serial sectioning and immunohistochemical staining. For each false-negative node, two true-negative SLN biopsies were analysed. Tumour and node characteristics in patients with false-negative SLNs were compared with those in patients with a positive SLN by univariable and multivariable regression analysis. Results: ...
A sentinel lymph node biopsy is the removal and testing of specific lymph node tissue. A sentinel lymph node biopsy is often done during cancer-removal surgery or prior to surgery. The sentinal nodes are the lymph nodes to which cancer would spread first. Sentinel node biopsy is part of the staging process. Staging is an attempt to determine how much the cancer has spread away from the original tumor.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcomes of early use of an end of range axilla orthotic in children following burn injury. AU - Thomas, Rhianydd. AU - Wicks, Stephanie. AU - Toose, Claire. AU - Pacey, Verity. PY - 2019/8/14. Y1 - 2019/8/14. N2 - Scar contracture is a significant complication of burn injury. This study aimed to describe outcomes of early axilla orthotic use at end of range abduction in children, following a burn to the axilla region. A retrospective review of 76 children (mean age 3.9 years [SD 3.6]) treated at a tertiary childrens hospital from 2006 to 2016 was conducted. No child developed axilla contracture for the duration of the 2-year study follow-up with no adverse events recorded. If orthotic use was ceased ,60 days post-burn, it was considered not an essential intervention to maintain range of movement, leaving 49 children using the orthotic ≥60 days. Compared with the children who ceased orthotic use in ,60 days, children who required the orthotic ≥60 days had a significantly ...
... is performed to assess whether there is any spread of breast cancer into the axilla. The technique is usually performed in conjunction with lumpectomy or mastectomy. Prior to surgery, an injection of dye (a radioactive isotope) is performed in the X-Ray Department. The dye is injected around the tumour and/or under the nipple. This dye is taken up into the lymphatic system and allows mapping of the lymphatic drainage of the breast. This is usually into the lymph nodes under the armpit (axilla) but may occasionally be toward the midline, between the ribs. It may take up to three hours to map which lymph nodes drain from the tumour site. The skin is usually marked over the lymph nodes of interest. During the surgical procedure, blue dye is also injected around the tumour to map out the lymphatic drainage in a similar fashion. At operation, an incision is made over the lymph node, which would most often be in the axilla. A small transverse incision , approximately 3 to 5 ...
The main objective of the trial is to prove equivalent local/regional control for patients with proven axillary lymph node metastasis by sentinel node biopsy if treated with axillary radiotherapy instead of axillary lymph node dissection, with reduced morbidity. A second objective is to investigate whether adequate axillary control can be obtained by not subjecting patients with a negative sentinel lymph node to ALND.. As of 1 May, 18 institutes have included 1173 patients. It is assumed that the axillary recurrence-free rate in the ALND treatment group at 5 years equals 98%, and the aim of this study is to show that the axillary recurrence-free rate in the radiotherapy group at 5 years is not less than 96%. Given the ratio of 40 positive patients/60 negative patients, a total of 3485 patients are required to complete this study. The ratio to date of 35/63 (taking into account a 2% nonidentification rate) leads to a slight adjustment of the total number of patients needed. The study will at ...
A sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is surgery to find and remove a sentinel lymph node to see if it contains cancer cells. Find out more about SLNB.
Okay, get ready for some jargon: lymphedema, axillary node dissection, sentinel node biopsy. An appreciation of such terminology is necessary to understand the huge step forward in debrutalizing (I admit to wordsmithing here) the treatment of breast cancer for many women Rick and I talk about in this weeks podcast, based on a study in JAMA. So here goes:. Lymphedema is swelling that develops in the arms of women whove had most or all of their lymph nodes removed, or dissected, from their armpit, also known as the axilla. So called axillary node dissection. The swelling happens because lymph, one of the bodys fluids that is normally transported through both lymphatic channels and lymph nodes, pools in the arm because the plumbing has been removed. Lymphedema can be severe enough that movement can be quite difficult, and renders the limb susceptible to infection. Axillary node dissection was the standard of care for many women who had positive sentinel node biopsies, where a dye is injected in ...
Cooper C, Wayne JD, et al. "A 10-year, single-institution analysis of clinicopathologic features and sentinel lymph node biopsy in thin melanomas." J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;69(5):693-9.. Faries MB, Cochran AJ, et al. "Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial-I confirms the central role of sentinel node biopsy in contemporary melanoma management." Br J Dermatol. 2015;172(3):571-3.. Gerami P, cook RW, et al. "Gene expression profiling for molecular staging of cutaneous melanoma in patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy." J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72(5):780-5.. Leung AM, Morton DL, et al. "Staging of regional lymph nodes in melanoma: a case for including non-sentinel lymph node positivity in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system." JAMA Surg. 2013;148(9):879-84.. Liang MI and Carson WE. "Biphasic anaphylactic reaction to blue dye during sentinel lymph node biopsy." World J Surg Oncol. 2008;6:79.. Lima Sánchez J, Sánchez Medina M, et al. "Sentinel lymph node biopsy for ...
EDKINS, O; HOFMEYR, C and FAGAN, J J. Does sentinel lymph node biopsy have a role in node-positive head and neck squamous carcinoma?. S. Afr. j. surg. [online]. 2013, vol.51, n.1, pp.22-25. ISSN 2078-5151. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJS.1357.. OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The objective of the study was to determine whether sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) can be used to reduce clinical overstaging of cervical nodes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a developing world setting. STUDY DESIGN: Sentinel and echelon lymph nodes were identified by means of a combination of lymphoscintigraphy, gamma probe and blue dye staining. They were analysed histologically and their pathological status was compared with the rest of the neck dissection specimen to determine diagnostic accuracy in patients with T1-4 N0-3 SCC of the oral cavity or oropharynx undergoing primary surgical resection and neck dissection. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were included in the study, 13 in the node-negative (N0) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sentinel lymph node assessment in endometrial cancer. T2 - A systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Bodurtha Smith, Anna Jo. AU - Nickles Fader, Amanda Nickles. AU - Tanner, Edward J.. PY - 2016/9/12. Y1 - 2016/9/12. N2 - Background: In the staging of endometrial cancer, controversy remains regarding the role of sentinel lymph node mapping compared with other nodal assessment strategies. Objective: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact of sentinel lymph node mapping in the management of endometrial cancer. Data Sources: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled trials for studies published in English before March 25, 2016 (PROSPERO CRD42016036503). Study Eligibility Criteria: Studies were included if they contained 10 or more women with endometrial cancer and reported on the detection rate, sensitivity, and/or impact on treatment or survival of sentinel lymph node mapping. Study Appraisal and ...
Cervical adenopathy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract is assumed to represent nodal metastasis and is treated with therapeutic neck dissection.[1] Overstaging of the neck leads to overtreatment by modified neck dissection. In southern Africa and the developing world, the accuracy of clinical staging of cervical adenopathy in head and neck cancer may be confounded by the high prevalence of other causes of lymphadenopathy such as HIV, tuberculosis and untreated upper respiratory and dental infections. De Waal et al. reported a false-positive rate of 32% for the clinically node-positive (N+) neck when comparing clinical staging with pathological analysis in a study done in Cape Town.[2]. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been employed for the node-negative (N0) neck to avoid unnecessary elective neck dissection (END).[1,3-6] However, no studies have been reported on the use of SLNB to distinguish between inflammatory and metastatic adenopathy in the ...
Although 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a delicate modality for detecting a malignant lesion, increased 18F-FDG uptake is also seen in infected or inflammatory processes. nodes with intense 18F-FDG uptake (maximum SUV of 8.8) are seen in the right axilla (in a and c), which were diagnosed with tuberculous lymphadenitis. Moreover, a lymph node with intense 18F-FDG uptake (optimum SUV of 5.0) sometimes appears in the proper lower paratracheal section of the mediastinum (in a and c) Subsequently, she underwent best mastectomy with best axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological study of the right breasts lesion demonstrated invasive ductal breasts carcinoma without lymphatic or vascular invasion. All 36 dissected lymph nodes demonstrated granulomatous lymphadenitis with caseation necrosis no involvement of malignancy. Special spots for acid-fast bacilli had been detrimental for the axillary lymph nodes; nevertheless, polymerase chain response (PCR) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Feasibility of intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph nodes with 89-zirconium-labelled nanocolloidal albumin PET-CT and a handheld high-energy gamma probe. AU - Heuveling, Derrek A.. AU - Karagozoglu, K. Hakki. AU - Van Lingen, Arthur. AU - Hoekstra, Otto S.. AU - Van Dongen, Guus A. M. S.. AU - De Bree, Remco. PY - 2018/2/14. Y1 - 2018/2/14. N2 - Background: PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy using 89Zr-nanocolloidal albumin has the potential to improve the preoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), especially if located in the near proximity of the primary tumour. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy followed by intraoperative detection of 89Zr-nanocolloidal albumin containing SLNs with the use of a handheld high-energy gamma probe. Methods: PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy was performed after peritumoural injection of 89Zr-nanocolloidal albumin in five patients with oral cavity carcinoma planned for surgical resection. SLN biopsy ...

Evaluating the Stability of Flavor and Fragrance Materials in Deodorant SticksEvaluating the Stability of Flavor and Fragrance Materials in Deodorant Sticks

Mechanism of action: The human axilla provides ideal ecological factors for bacterial growth.4 The rich supply of eccrine sweat ... Other substances in the axilla originating from sebaceous and eccrine glands also may contribute to the total odor profile of ... contribute to the ecology of the axilla. The outermost region of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), is a compartment that ... coupled with the anatomy of the axilla, which produces a semi-occluded environment that minimizes evaporation of water, results ...
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Patente US5605681 - Mild gel deodorant composition containing soap, polymeric hydrogel forming ... - Google PatentesPatente US5605681 - Mild gel deodorant composition containing soap, polymeric hydrogel forming ... - Google Patentes

Typically, the safe and effective amount used is from about 0.1 gram per axilla to about 2.0 gram per axilla. ...
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Axilla - WikipediaAxilla - Wikipedia

Suspensory ligament of axilla. Notes[edit]. *^ Turkington, Carol; Dover, Jeffrey S. (2007). The encyclopedia of skin and skin ... The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to ... floor/base: by the skin[3] (visible surface of axilla). The lower posterior boundary is called the posterior axillary fold and ... Anatomically, the boundaries of the axilla are: superiorly: by the outer border of first rib, superior border of scapula, and ...
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Axilla - AnatomyAxilla - Anatomy

The axilla is the space in the interval marking the junction of the upper arm and the chest wall. It is a key area because many ... Contents of the Axilla. The main contents of the axilla are the axillary vein and artery, the axillary lymph nodes, with a ... Boundaries of the Axilla. The anterior boundary of the axilla comprises the following:. *Pectoralis major - the largest muscle ... and the posterior part of the axilla. The skin of the axilla is supplied by the intercostobrachial nerve. ...
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Axilla (Part II) Lyrics PhishAxilla (Part II) Lyrics Phish

Axilla (Part II) Lyrics. Summer, sitting out by the pool A ray of sunlight getting in my way Close your eyes and wish that it ... Axilla, axilla, axilla, axilla. Axilla, axilla. Axilla, axilla, axilla, axilla. Axilla, axilla, axilla, axilla. ... Axilla, axilla, axilla, axilla. Axilla, axilla, axilla, axilla, yeah. Never understood what my body was for. Thats why I ...
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SMRT: Shoulder, Axilla, Ribcage, & Upper Back - MASSAGE MagazineSMRT: Shoulder, Axilla, Ribcage, & Upper Back - MASSAGE Magazine

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SMRT: Shoulder, Axilla, Ribcage, Upper Back - MASSAGE MagazineSMRT: Shoulder, Axilla, Ribcage, Upper Back - MASSAGE Magazine

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Axil - Name Meaning, What does Axil mean?Axil - Name Meaning, What does Axil mean?

Complete 2018 information on the meaning of Axil, its origin, history, pronunciation, popularity, variants and more as a baby ... Axil Ulysses (A.U.), .. How popular is Axil?. Axil is an uncommonly occurring given name for males. Axil is an unusual last ... What does Axil mean?. Axil as a boys name is of Hebrew derivation, and the name Axil means "father is peace". Axil is a ... These relations of Axil are at the top of their popularity today (AVERAGE #663). Axel and Axl are two of the more chic baby ...
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Tribute for Arm - Fingertips to Axilla - Chevron StyleTribute for Arm - Fingertips to Axilla - Chevron Style

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Axil Z Power Data PortAxil Z Power Data Port

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Irritating skin problems affecting the axilla - 10 cases | DermNet New ZealandIrritating skin problems affecting the axilla - 10 cases | DermNet New Zealand

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Primary Apocrine Adenocarcinoma of the AxillaPrimary Apocrine Adenocarcinoma of the Axilla

... Kathrotiya, Puja R. ; Bridge, Andrew T. ; Warren, Simon J. ; Do, Ha ; Klenk, ... We report the case of a 49-year-old man with primary AA of the left axilla and provide a review of the clinical and histologic ... is a rare malignant cutaneous neoplasm that typically arises in areas of high apocrine gland density such as the axillae and ... Primary apocrine adenocarcinoma of the axilla. Cutis, 95(5), 271-274, 281. ...
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Diagnosis of Laforas disease in apocrine sweat glands of the axillaDiagnosis of Lafora's disease in apocrine sweat glands of the axilla

Diagnosis of Laforas disease in apocrine sweat glands of the axilla. Idoate MA, Vazquez JJ, Soto J, de Castro P.. Department ... Therefore, the skin biopsy of the axilla proved to be very useful in the diagnosis of this entity. ...
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Baked eggs are the bomb! - Review of Axil Coffee Roasters, Melbourne, Australia - TripAdvisorBaked eggs are the bomb! - Review of Axil Coffee Roasters, Melbourne, Australia - TripAdvisor

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Suspensory ligament of axilla - WikipediaSuspensory ligament of axilla - Wikipedia

The suspensory ligament of axilla, or Gerdys ligament, is a suspensory ligament that connects the clavipectoral fascia to the ... This union shapes the axilla (underarm). The American Heritage Medical Dictionary (Revised edition of 2nd ed.). Houghton ...
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Axilla of Arm Flashcards by Rodney Dreier | BrainscapeAxilla of Arm Flashcards by Rodney Dreier | Brainscape

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  • Chevron channels in this Tribute provide bi-directional gradient flow, medial to lateral (from side to side) and distal to proximal (from fingertips to axilla. (brightlifedirect.com)
  • What structure forms the lateral wall of the axilla? (brainscape.com)
  • We report the case of a 49-year-old man with primary AA of the left axilla and provide a review of the clinical and histologic findings, epidemiology, and treatment modalities of this rare cutaneous neoplasm. (iupui.edu)
  • A 43-year-old woman with a positive family history of breast cancer presented with a painless lump in her left axilla for 2 years. (bmj.com)
  • I had a lunch meal at Axil recently which I found to be a very small portion, but the coffee was just amazing. (tripadvisor.com)
  • Black Chicken Axilla stands head and shoulders above ALL of them. (biome.com.au)
  • Course Description: SMRT: Shoulder, Axilla, Ribcage, & Upper Back live class will help you to work the entire shoulder girdle. (massagemag.com)
  • It was concluded that the semiautomated gun can be used as an alternative to the automated gun when the size and location of the lesion render use of the automatic device uncertain or dangerous, e.g., in small breast lesions or lesions located in the axilla. (diva-portal.org)