The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Biological action and events that support the functions of the EYE and VISION, OCULAR.
An alternative to REFRACTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES. A therapeutic procedure for correcting REFRACTIVE ERRORS. It involves wearing CONTACT LENSES designed to force corrective changes to the curvature of the CORNEA that remain after the lenses are removed. The effect is temporary but is maintained by wearing the therapeutic lenses daily, usually during sleep.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Artificial implanted lenses.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.
Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
Color of the iris.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
A method of stopping internal bleeding or blood flow, or the closure of a wound or body cavity, achieved by applying pressure or introducing an absorbent liquid, gel, or tampon.
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
Images seen by one eye.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
Diseases of the cornea.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The period following a surgical operation.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
The surgical removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact. It should be differentiated from ORBIT EVISCERATION which removes the entire contents of the orbit, including eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The loss of some TELOMERE sequence during DNA REPLICATION of the first several base pairs of a linear DNA molecule; or from DNA DAMAGE. Cells have various mechanisms to restore length (TELOMERE HOMEOSTASIS.) Telomere shortening is involved in the progression of CELL AGING.
Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.

Human optical axial length and defocus. (1/93)

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Ethnic differences in the prevalence of myopia and ocular biometry in 10- and 11-year-old children: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). (2/93)

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Hyperopic refractive error and shorter axial length are associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Singapore Malay Eye Study. (3/93)

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In vivo measurement of blood velocity in human major retinal vessels using the laser speckle method. (4/93)

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Relative peripheral refractive error and the risk of onset and progression of myopia in children. (5/93)

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Influence of refractive error and axial length on retinal vessel geometric characteristics. (6/93)

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Axial length of myopia: a review of current research. (7/93)

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Axial length measurements by contact and immersion techniques in pediatric eyes with cataract. (8/93)

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Twenty-eight fresh donor eyes (Georgia Lions Eye Bank) ranging in age from four months to 87 years were used for an in vitro study to determine the feasibility of obtaining accurate anterior chamber diameter measurements with our Scheimpflug ultraviolet-visible slitlamp densitography apparatus. The in vivo study was performed on 16 hybrid monkeys (of varying age). These data were within 0.1 mm of measurements obtained with a modified paracentesis needle specially designed to obtain such measurements. The results of the foregoing study demonstrate that the Scheimpflug slitlamp photographic analyses can provide an accurate measurement of the anterior chamber diameter without entering the globe surgically. This will enable the surgeon to determine the diameter and order an anterior chamber IOL of a specified size prior to surgery. The authors have devised an automated program to analyze the negatives and provide direct anterior chamber diameter measurements. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of the time of day on axial length and choroidal thickness changes to hyperopic and myopic defocus in human eyes. AU - Moderiano, Daniel. AU - Do, Michelle. AU - Hobbs, Sam. AU - Lam, Vy. AU - Sarin, Simran. AU - Alonso-Caneiro, David. AU - Chakraborty, Ranjay. PY - 2019/5. Y1 - 2019/5. N2 - Research in animal models have shown that exposing the eye to positive or negative spectacle lenses can lead to predictable changes in eye growth. Recent research indicates that brief periods (1-2 h) of monocular defocus results in small, but significant changes in axial length and choroidal thickness of human subjects. However, the effects of the time of day on these ocular changes with defocus are not known. In this study, we examined the effects of monocular myopic and hyperopic defocus on axial length and choroidal thickness when applied in the morning (change between 10 a.m. and 12 p.m.) vs the evening (change between 5 and 7 p.m.) in young adult human participants (mean age, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential source of error in axial length measurement in Pseudophakes [3]. AU - Anderson, Nicholas. AU - Waldron, Rhonda G.. AU - Stulting, R. Doyle. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035205693&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035205693&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0886-3350(01)01244-5. DO - 10.1016/S0886-3350(01)01244-5. M3 - Letter. VL - 27. SP - 1902. EP - 1903. JO - Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. JF - Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. SN - 0886-3350. IS - 12. ER - ...
Keywords: Ocular biometry, Visual function, Gullstrand, Cross section, Dioptric distance Background The optics of the human eye is based on the refractive parameters of the individual ocular structures, each of which is affected differently by age. Well known examples of this are the thickening of the crystalline lens with aging and the gradual flattening of the anterior chamber [1]. Although normal aging has been studied extensively in the literature, some SNX14 studies limit themselves to subsections of the population, such as subjects over 40?years, children, certain nationalities or ethnicities, or DBeq IC50 emmetropes [2C4]. Other studies presented only certain parameters of ocular biometry, or concentrated on prevalence of specific eye conditions (e.g., cataract, AMD) [5, 6]. This study concentrates on various biometric parameters in connection with refraction and retinal measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a healthy population. Although measurements in healthy eyes ...
Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood with a peak incidence between 13-15 years. Especially high myopia, a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve. The causes of myopia are complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as time spent outdoors and close work are risk factors. Moreover, genetic studies have revealed more than many factors associated with myopia. Pharmacological and optical interventions to inhibit myopia progression are becoming increasingly common. The ultimate goal of this thesis was to gain insight into the causes and consequences of childhood myopia. For this purpose we investigated the environmental and genetic factors of myopia, eye growth in children and ocular biometry development in subjects of the Generation R and ALSPAC study. We studied the consequences of high myopia on ...
About seven years ago I took one of the nicest pieces of wood that I have ever had and created a pipe I called the hooded beetle. This was another piece of wood deserving of a shape that highlighted its amazing grain. Using the same idea I reversed the direction of the hooded beetle, and so I have creatively called this the hooded beetle 2. Like its predecessor, this has a bamboo shank and a hand cut German ebonite stem. This pipe though is a semi-churchwarden with its long, four-knuckle shank.. Weight: 1.8 oz.. Chamber Diameter: 11/16″. Length: 8″. Bowl height: 2 1/2″. ...
Biometry of an eye is to measure eye length and the power of the cornea. Get your biometry eye test at Vision Care along with latest technology with immersion technique.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Significance of Elevated Adiponectin in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. AU - Combs, Terry P.. AU - Scherer, Philipp E.. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) represent a new family of oral antihyperglycemic agents for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A recently discovered effect of TZDs is the induction of a circulating protein produced exclusively in adipocytes, called Acrp30 or adiponectin. To date, 5 clinical studies have confirmed the induction of circulating adiponectin during TZD treatment. Subjects with type 2 diabetes have lower levels of adiponectin than those without diabetes, yet it is very unlikely that the induction of adiponectin during TZD treatment is a secondary effect of improved glycemia. Highly purified recombinant adiponectin showed very dramatic blood glucose (BG) -lowering effects. The increase in circulating adiponectin during TZD treatment is associated with elevated adiponectin levels in adipose tissue. There is ...
Shen, S.Y., Wong, T.Y., Loo, J.-L., Rosman, M., Aung, T., Wong, W.L., Saw, S.-M., Foster, P.J., Loon, S.-C. (2008). The prevalence and types of glaucoma in Malay people: The Singapore Malay eye study. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49 (9) : 3846-3851. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08- ...
In 2005, Cho et al. reported that axial length in children increased over a 2-year period by 0.29 ± 0.27 mm in an OK-treated group and by 0.54 ± 0.27 mm in a control group treated with spectacles. 40 In 2009, Walline et al. reported similar findings, whereby the mean increase in axial length after 2 years was 0.25 mm in the OK group and 0.57 mm in the control group. 41 In 2011, Kakita et al. reported an increase of 0.39 ± 0.27 mm in the OK group versus 0.61 ± 0.24 mm in the control group. 42 Although similar results were obtained in our study, our subjects showed a slightly greater increase in axial length after 2 years, which was 0.45 ± 0.21 mm in the OK group versus 0.71 ± 0.40 mm in the control group. This discrepancy in the amount of axial length elongation between studies may be related to differences in baseline refractions, because our subjects had a lower degree of myopia than those of other studies. It has been reported in a previous study that OK is less effective in slowing ...
Aim: To determine the correlation between Ocular axial length (AL) and body mass index (BMI) in a black population.. Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out in Port Harcourt City LGA, Nigeria. Subjects were selected using multistage random sampling with inclusion criteria of Visual Acuity , 6/18, age greater than 18 years with no history of past ocular surgeries or trauma. Socio demographic data was obtained through an interviewer based structured proforma. Data obtained included age, sex, tribe, occupation and level of education. Weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured using a standard height and weight automated scale (SECA 769,220). Ocular examinations done included visual acuity, applanation tonometry and ophthalmoscopy. Axial length (AL) was measured using Amplitude (A) scan ultrasonography (SONOMED PACSCAN 300AP). Data obtained from one eye of the subjects were analyzed using SPSS (Version 17), and p value was set at ≤ 0.05.. Results: Four hundred ...
The strengths of our study include standardized protocols for obtaining refraction and lens opacity measurements. There are some limitations to this study that may have affected the results. First, our study is cross-sectional in nature and the temporality of myopia and cognitive dysfunction is not clear. Second, only ethnic Malay adults were examined in this study and the findings may vary in other ethnic groups. Third, although the AMT is a well-validated screening instrument for cognitive impairment, 34 misclassification may occur, likely biasing OR estimates toward the null hypothesis and inflating their SEs, 35 thereby making actual associations more difficult to detect. Fourth, there may be residual confounding due to factors that we have not controlled for (e.g., depressive symptoms, general well-being, and status of Alzheimers disease or Parkinsons disease), and categorization of continuous exposure variables (e.g., education level, hours of reading/writing). Fifth, the current sample ...
This will be a library of Dr. Francis Youngs research papers. A List of Franks Papers: TITLES BEING ADDED: Title, Document #, Number of Pages Ocular Biometry. Y, 2, 287-292 Eskimo Error Refractive Transmission. Y, 5, 276-285 The Effect of Restricted Visual Space on the Primate Eye. Y, 15, 367-374 The Distribution of Refractive Errors…
Aim: To assess the accuracy and signal quality of axial length measurements by partial coherence laser interferometry (PCI) for optical biometry in eyes with conventional silicone oil (SO) or heavy silicone oil (HSO) as endotamponade.. Methods: We included 26 eyes with SO endotamponade (SO, n = 15; HSO, n = 11) using a Zeiss IOLMaster for measurement of axial length the day before and at least 6 weeks after SO removal. We analysed the intra-individual deviation between both measurements and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a marker for signal quality. We included 16 contralateral eyes without history of vitreoretinal surgery to act as the control group.. Results: The mean axial length was 24.76 (SD 2.07) mm (SO 24.63 (SD 2.12) mm, HSO 24.93 (SD 2.10) mm, control 24.95 (SD 2.61) mm) before and 24.75 (SD 1.96) mm after oil removal with a mean intra-individual deviation of 0.13 (SD 0.11) mm (SO 0.13 (SD 0.12) mm, HSO 0.13 (SD 0.09) mm, control 0.02 (SD 0.01) mm) while SNR at baseline was 5.7 (SD 3.5) ...
Results The mean choroidal thickness at the fovea prior to smoking was 301.1±63.1 μm, which decreased to 284.2±56.7 μm at 1 h and 270.8±80.0 μm at 3 h following smoking (p=0.001). The mean choroidal thickness was significantly decreased following smoking at all five extrafoveal points. The difference in choroidal thickness was not statistically significant at 1 and 3 h of smoking at all six points. In the control group, the mean baseline choroidal thickness at the fovea was 270.6±57.9 μm, which was 272.5±52.4 μm at 1 h and 273.8±57.4 μm at 3 h (p=0.816).. ...
0070] Transthoracic Echocardiography in conscious mice was performed using Sequoia Acuson C256 (Malvern, Pa.) ultrasound machine, equipped with a frequency bandwidth of 15 MHz (Am J Physiol, 1999. 277(5 Pt 2): p. H1967-74; Cancer Res, 2003. 63(20): p. 6602-6). The two-dimensional (2-D) and M-mode echocardiogram were obtained in the parasternal short and long axis view of the left ventricle (LV) at the level of the papillary muscles and sweep speed of 200 mm/sec. Using the M-mode echocardiogram image, four parameters were measured: (i) left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end of diastole (LVPWD), (ii) interventricular septa) thickness at end of diastole (IVSD), (iii) left ventricle (LV) chamber diameter at end of diastole (LVEDD), and (iv) left ventricle chamber diameter at end of systole (LVESD). All measurements were performed according to the guidelines set by the American Echocardiography Society. For each mouse, three to five values for each measurement were obtained and averaged for ...
38 eyes from 38 patients with acute NAION (less than 14 days of initial symptom), 38 uninvolved fellow eyes and 76 eyes from 38 healthy age and sex matched subjects were included at a single academic hospital. Choroidal thickness was measured by enhanced depth imaging (EDI) of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Peripapillary choroidal thickness was measured at 1000 and 1500 microns from bruck´s membrane opening (BMO) at the superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal directions, using horizontal and vertical raster scans, centreed at optic nerve head. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured on horizontal raster scan at centre, and 500 microns apart in temporal and nasal sides. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform complex layer was measured using automated segmentation tool of OCT device. Statistical analyses were used to compare choroidal thickness among NAION eyes, uninvolved fellow eyes and control eyes ...
4) subjects will be randomly assigned to one of four groups, consisting of 60 subjects each, each group will be assigned one of four study spectacles.. The study spectacles for all participants will have the optimal lens corrections for both eyes.. Group 1 participants will wear spectacles with lenses tinted to blocks red light.. Group 2 participants will wear spectacles with lenses that have a holographic diffuser on surface of and that are tinted to reduce the light intensity by the same amount that the red-blocking tint does.. Group 3 participants will wear spectacles that are tinted to block red light and that have a holographic diffuser.. Group 4 participants will wear spectacles that are tinted to reduces the light intensity by the same amount that the red-blocking tint does.. Participants will wear the study glasses for 18 months. Axial length measurements will be taken twice prior to when subjects begin wearing the glasses and once every three month thereafter. ...
In cataract surgery, vision is improved by replacing the eyes own cloudy lens with a new clear intraocular lens (IOL). IOLs come in different powers and sizes to compensate for each patients individual needs. For best vision after cataract surgery, precise measurements must be taken to determine which IOL to implant.. The Lenstar LS900 is an efficient painless test, performed by a technician in Dr. Lanes office.. Payment is not covered by OHIP, and is due at the time of the Lenstar exam. A receipt for health insurance or tax purposes will be issued. Methods of payment include Interac, VISA, or Mastercard.. ...
ANTERION® utilizes the power of high-resolution swept-source OCT images to provide the most important anterior segment examinations and measurements in one modular, upgradeable platform.. The result: A single workflow-efficient solution that brings together corneal topography and tomography, anterior segment metrics, axial length measurement and IOL calculation to transform the day-to-day routines in cataract and refractive surgery as well as cornea and glaucoma diagnostics.. ANTERION delivers high-quality images and comprehensive measurements while minimizing the time needed to perform multiple anterior segment examinations. The acquisition time is really fast with no need to move the patient. At the same time, visual confirmation of all measurements with high-resolution swept-source OCT images provides diagnostic confidence.. ANTERION is based on the Imaging App for a high-resolution visualization of the entire anterior segment, and adjusts to various clinical needs featuring three optional ...
Read these three clinical complex atropine cases where general health conditions required careful consideration of atropine prescribing.
Biometrics are an integral part of the modern FinTech landscape and this was reflected in the panels, keynotes, showcases and conversations at Money20/20...
The impact of pregnancy on the choroid is still under investigation. The aim of this study is to compare choroidal thickness measurements of healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). This cross-sectional study included 122 eyes of 61 women, divided into two groups: 27 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 34 age-matched healthy non-pregnant women. Choroidal thickness was measured using Enhanced Depth Imaging OCT at ten different locations: at the fovea and every 500 µm from the fovea up to 2500 µm temporally and up to 2000 µm nasally. There were no significant differences in the ten measurements of choroidal thickness comparing both groups. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 304.1 + 9.6 µm in the control group and 318.1 + 15.6 µm in the pregnant women group (p = 0.446). There was also no statistically significant association between gestational age and choroidal thickness measurements in the
Changes in axial length and choroidal thickness after intraocular pressure reduction resulting from trabeculectomy Shinichi Usui,1,2 Yasushi Ikuno,2 Sato Uematsu,1 Yuko Morimoto,1 Yoshiaki Yasuno,3 Yasumasa Otori11National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan; 3Computational Optics Group, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, JapanPurpose: To evaluate changes in axial length and choroidal thickness after trabeculectomy.Patients and methods: Fourteen patients under 80 years of age with glaucoma, were enrolled. The choroid was imaged using prototypical high-penetration optic coherence tomography (OCT) and the thickness was measured. Axial length, choroidal thickness, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured bilaterally at 3 pm 1 day before and 6 days after trabeculectomy. The choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and four other locations (2 mm superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal to
Orthokeratology Lenses are hard contact lenses which are specifically worn overnight during sleep. This method was first developed in the 1960s to correct myopia without glasses.. The Ortho-K Lenses work by temporarily moulding and flattening the corneas shape so light rays entering the eyes are more focused on the retina, this sharpening vision. The user can go about his/her activities the next day without spectacles and glasses, but the effect only lasts for a day and he/she will have to wear the Ortho-K lens again at night to achieve the same effect the next morning.. Therefore, Ortho-K does not actually treat, control nor reduce myopia. It only temporarily reshapes the cornea into a flatter curvature to overcome near-sightedness. Although Ortho-K lenses can be worn for temporary correction for myopia, most ophthalmologists will not recommend Ortho-K lenses as a means of controlling childhood myopia progression.. ...
Myopia progression is the progressive increase in the amount of nearsightedness in children due to eyeball elongation (axial elongation).
The fishery is also important to the national economy and contributes to improving the trade balance. In 2012, this sector contributed 7.5% towards the GDP of the primary sector and 2.2% towards the total GDP. It also generates direct and indirect jobs for 17% of the working population. Of note is the fact that the impacts of climate change have caused many farmers to turn to the fishery for their livelihoods. This has led to an increase in the numbers of artisanal fishermen while also threatening fishery resources. In some aquatic environments, in addition to resources being overexploited, new environmental conditions have been created by certain activities (for example, the establishment of dams in the Senegal River delta zone has favored the proliferation of certain species, such as Typha domingensis). In marine and coastal ecosystems, the high value placed on certain species, overfishing and an increase in population along the coast are negatively impacting resources (such factors have led ...
3D swept-source OCT detected FCE in 9 eyes (7.8 %). The 3D scanning protocol ‎allowed for detection of small extrafoveal excavations and the 3D segmentation method ‎coupled with en-face scans allowed for clear visualization of the morphology of the ‎excavations. In 5 eyes with FCE, unusual choroidal tissue was detected beneath the ‎FCE, bridging between the bottom of FCE and the outer choroidal boundary. In addition, ‎three of those five eyes showed a suprachoroidal space below the FCE, as if the outer ‎boundary of choroid is pulled inward by this bridging tissue. FCE was often seen within ‎the leakage point and choroidal hyperpermeability. Eyes with FCE were more myopic ‎‎(-4.42 ± 2.92 diopters), and the subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly thinner ‎‎(301.3 ± 60.1 µm), as compared to control CSC eyes (P = .001 and .036 respectively ...
The Library actively supports the Universitys mission by providing integrated and timely access to high quality scholarly resources, an inspiring environment for intellectual growth and discovery, with responsive and outreaching services... [read more ]. ...
Health,(PRWEB) September 13 2013 The Global Biometrics Technology Market (2010-2015) - Market Forecast by Products End-User Application and Geography analyzes the biometrics market by different biometrics technologies and applications and studies the major market drivers restraints and opportunities in regions such as North America Asia Europe and Rest of Worl,Biometrics,Technology,Market,(Biometric,Devices,,Biometric,Products,,Biometric,Fingerprint,Equipment),Worth,$11,229.3,Million,in,2015,-,New,Report,by,MarketsandMarkets,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The conference Next Step in Identity Technologies: Biometrics and Beyond was held last month in Fairmont, WV to discuss the future of biometrics in the country.
In Vivo Distraction Force and Length Measurements of Growing Rods: Which Factors Influence the Ability to Lengthen? Noordeen, Hilali M.; Shah, Suken A.; Elsebaie, Hazem B.; Garrido, Enrique; Farooq, Najma; Al Mukhtar, Mohannad Spine. 36(26):2299-2303, December 15, 2011.
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However, as we think about the possible structures that data may take up, it is clear that the matter may be far more complex. For instance, the moment that our data are in more than two or three dimensions, the moment, in other words, that more than three variables describe each point in our data, we have difficulty in recognising what the data show. And the moment that the data take up forms in which groups ... ...
BALTIMORE - At this rate, the Red Sox are going to have to step up their overall game if they are going to keep ahead of this Baltimore Oriol
PurposeRecent studies have found a choroidal thickening in amblyopic eyes and suggested that there might be a relationship between the choroid and amblyopia. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a six-month treatment of amblyopia on choroidal thickness in anisometropic hyperopic amblyopic children. ...
The present study looked at the CT in POAG subjects (cases) compared with normal healthy subjects (controls) using SD-OCT and SS-OCT at the peripapillary and subfoveal locations. In our study, the CT measured on SD-OCT in cases was found to be thicker compared with controls in both peripapillary and macular area, however this difference was not statistically significant. The lower confidence limit of mean difference at all the points was in negative values on SD-OCT and a few points in SS-OCT, implying that in few patients the CT was thin in cases compared with controls. Similarly, a meta-analysis by Zhang et al (evaluating 22 studies) compared CT in glaucoma and normal subjects using EDI mode SD-OCT and found no significant difference in CT in POAG and normal subjects.6 This observation on SD-OCT might be due to poor sclerochoroidal delineation.. On SS-OCT, we found thicker CT in cases compared with controls in peripapillary and macular area, but only PPCT was statistically significantly ...
PURPOSE: Proper refractive eye growth depends on several features of the visual image and requisite retinal pathways. In this study, we determined the contribution of rod pathways to normal refractive development and form deprivation (FD) myopia by testing Gnat1-/- mice, which lack functional rods due to a mutation in rod transducin-α. METHODS: Refractive development was measured in Gnat1-/- (n = 30-36) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 5-9) from 4 to 12 weeks of age. FD was induced monocularly from 4 weeks of age using head-mounted diffuser goggles (Gnat1-/-, n = 9-10; WT, n = 7-8). Refractive state and ocular biometry were obtained weekly using a photorefractor, 1310 nm optical coherence tomography, and partial coherence interferometry. We measured retinal dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC, using HPLC. RESULTS: During normal development, the refractions of WT mice started at 5.36 ± 0.68 diopters (D) and became more hyperopic before plateauing at 7.78 ± 0.64 D. In contrast, refractions in ...
The effect of myopic defocus on myopia progression was assessed in a two-year prospective study on 94 myopes aged 9{14 years, randomly allocated to an undercorrected group or a fully corrected control group. The 47 experimental subjects were blurred by approximately +0.75 D (blurring VA to 6/12), while the controls were fully corrected. Undercorrection produced more rapid myopia progression and axial elongation (ANOVA, F(1,374)=14.32, p,0.01). Contrary to animal studies, myopic defocus speeds up myopia development in already myopic humans. Myopia could be caused by a failure to detect the direction of defocus rather than by a mechanism exhibiting a zero-point error ...
This prospective, cross-sectional and comparative study include 31 eyes of 31 patients with nanophthalmos and 31 eyes of 31 healty subjects (control group). Subfoveal choroidal thickness and central macular thicness (CMT) were measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering) with enhanced depth imaging (EDI) and fast macular thickness mode. Also, all participants underwent a standardised ocular examination including central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), refractive errors measurements ...
Ophthalmic Exams Optical Coherence Tomography Visual Acuity Test Digital Fundus Photography Fluorescein Angiography Axial Length Measurement
Over the years, a range of different environmental factors have been proposed as potentially playing a role in human myopia development, with factors related to near-work, education and academic achievement being a major focus of many studies.[6] More recently, perhaps spurred on by the sometimes equivocal findings of studies examining the association between myopia and near work, a shift in the focus of refractive error research has occurred, with a move away from traditional near work measures and a broader focus on additional potential environmental factors (e.g. outdoor activities).[7] Evidence has been emerging from both human epidemiological studies, and research with animals, that ambient light exposure may be an important additional environmental factor that plays a role in myopia. Animal studies demonstrate that normal eye growth appears to be influenced by environmental light levels, since rearing young chickens in dim ambient light environments has been shown to result in more rapid ...
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In Kantarci FA, Tatar MG, Uslu H, et al. A Pilot Study of Choroidal Thickness in Chronic Smokers. Retina 2016;36:986-991, Dr. Emine Esra Karaca was incorrectly added as a co-author. Dr. Karaca did not assist with this paper in any way and does not wish to be associated with the article. ...
Learn about Florida International University biometrics. As the entrance requirements for engineering programs vary, learn about the various specialization options available.
just curious if taking a blood thinner would help move gear throughout your body faster instead of sitting in the injected area for a period of time aching ?
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A new study revealed that artificial sweeteners may be causing weight gain and other health issues. An expert claims that these sweeteners disturb the bodys ability to count calories and might simulate hunger.
Using a 10-MHz ultrasound transducer, by the immersion method, the typical accuracy for axial length measurements is within 0.12 mm. This results in approximately 0.28 D of post-operative refractive error in an eye of average axial length. This error would be more for a shorter eye and less for a longer eye. However, the total refractive error involves all components of the measurement process and is closer to 0.36 D, taking into account keratometry, a 2-variable IOL power calculation formula and the configuration of the capsulorrhexis. A-scan biometry by immersion will display an axial length somewhat longer than applanation, because there is no corneal compression and the displayed axial length is closer to the true axial length. The difference between applanation and immersion can be anywhere between 0.14 mm to 0.28 mm depending on the degree of corneal compression. Upon implementing immersion A-scan ultrasonography, it is best to aim for a -0.75 D target refraction and start with the IOL ...
The growing eyes of children necessitate tha pediatric ophthalmologists acquire sufficient knowledge of the basics of pediatric ocular biometry and IOL power calculations. The tools for calculation of keratometry, axial length and intraocular lens power are same as that of an adult eye but implantation of IOL in growing eyes needs under-correction and titration of…
Recent studies show the no prescription cialis value of performing an oral glucose tolerance test in all patients. Parents in primary care agreed that all 10 statements were important. To report the relationship between different optical ocular components and the influence of axial length on emmetropization.. IND (2.7 microM) decreased the contractions to both compounds and this was reversed with 2.8-7 nM PGE1. In 33 of 48 volunteers, two doses of vaccine induced antibodies that neutralized the homologous strain HIV-1/MN. Many aspects of the quiescence program as well as the mechanisms governing the entry and exit from quiescence remain poorly side effects for cialis understood. The purified protein has very low levels of RNase contamination and functioned normally in a variety of activity assays. The survey included 13 validated questions (eight on constipation and purchasing cialis on the internet five on incontinence) and was used to exclude subjects with pathological constipation or ...
Title: Accurate Wavelength Calibration Method for Spectrometer using Low Coherence Interferometry. Abstract:. Dispersive spectrometers are subject to wavelength dispersion errors due to aberration, ruling errors, etc. Thus, their calibration forms an integral aspect of their usage. In this context, we present an interferometric wavelength calibration method for calibrating dispersive spectrometers. The calibration system is based on low coherence interferometry. By analyzing the sinusoidal interference patterns that are modulated in a spectrum, we determine the distribution of wavelengths in a spectrometer using the zero-crossing detection. The spectral sampling interval of the spectrometer is estimated by determining the sampling interval in the z-domain. Assigning only one wavelength to the corresponding camera pixel using a narrowband light source allows the determination of entire wavelengths accurately. We use the information of the wavelength distribution, spectral sampling interval, and ...
Effect of Day Length on Eye Growth, Myopia Progression, and Change of Corneal Power in Myopic Children Dongmei Cui, MD, PhD, Klaus Trier, MD, Søren Munk Ribel-Madsen, MSc, PhD Objective Bec...
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Hirooka et al [31]는 맥락막 혈관의 소실 및 혈류감소로 인하여 정상안압녹내장군의 맥락막두께가 대조군에 비해 얇다고 보고하였으며, Usui et al [32]는 고도근시가 동반된 정상 안압녹내장 환자을 대상으로 한 연구에서 녹내장군이 대조군보다 유두주위 맥락막두께가 얇다고 보고한 바 있다. Park et al [13]은 개방각녹내장 환자를 대상으로 한 연구에서 시신경유두 및 주변 조직의 관류부전과 혈관들의 비정상적인 자가조절로 인해 녹내장군이 대조군보다 유두주위 맥락막두께가 얇다고 보고하면서, 정상안압녹내장의 허혈성 손상과 관련된 해부학적 증거를 제시하였다. Karahan et al [12]은 시신경유두 경계로부터 500 μm, 1,000 μm, 1,500 μm 거리의 맥락막두께를 측정하여 개방각녹내장 환자군이 대조군에 비해 맥락막두께가 얇으며, 개방각녹내장 환자군에서 유두주위 ...
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... is a relatively large synziphosurine, ranging about 7 cm to 10 cm in full body length. The prosoma is covered by a ... and axial nodes. However, the opisthosoma is most likely 11-segmented in origin, with the first segment being highly reduced (a ... semicircular carapace with blunt genal cornua (posterolateral corners). There is possible evidence of lateral eyes located just ...
These include narrow axial neural spines, a back-directed retroarticular projection on the vertebrae, a hill on the coronoid ... Anguanax is a medium size carnivorous basal pliosaurid, at an estimated body length of about 3-4 m based on the holotype. Its ... as suggested by its moderately expanded side-facing eye sockets, the gracile and relatively long lower jaw, and the small, ... depression, a stepped posteroventral corner of the back margin of the eye socket, rib facets that are placed dorsally on caudal ...
The human skeleton can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is formed by the ... sacral and coccygeal bone may vary in length), a part of the rib cage (12 pairs of ribs and the sternum), and the skull (22 ... and gives a classification of eye diseases including cataract surgery. The study of bones in ancient Greece started under ... The axial skeleton (80 bones) is formed by the vertebral column (32-34 bones; the number of the vertebrae differs from human to ...
The head has two conical, depressed tentacles which bear the eyes on a lobe or prominence at their base. The mouth contains a ... True whelks can even attack fish caught in a net by extending their probosces to twice the length of their own bodies. The ... The shell surface is generally smooth, sometimes with a spiral and/ or axial sculpture. The thickness of the shell is more ...
The mandrel rotates around the spindle (Axis 1 or X: Spindle) while a delivery eye on a carriage (Axis 2 or Y: Horizontal) ... The process of Filament Winding; Uses a continuous length of fiber strand / roving (Called Direct Single end Roving), or tape ... axial tensile strength. Products currently being produced using this technique range from pipes, golf club shafts, reverse ...
Polito instituted the Pegasus Award for Criticism, honoring the best book-length poetry criticism published during the previous ... "axial to the Writing & Democracy Program, for both everyday practice and overall design. ... as a result of the omnipresence of ... Looking at Andy Warhol through Andrew Marvell's eyes, and vice versa, The Poetry Foundation, April 3, 2006 Susan Wheeler by ...
Axial tilt usually does not change considerably during a single orbital period; Earth's axial tilt is the cause of the seasons ... parsec (pc) A unit of length defined as the distance at which a star would show a parallax shift of exactly one arcsecond as ... Magnitude 6 is considered the lower limit of objects that can be seen with the naked eye, although this can vary depending on ... Due to Earth's axial tilt, the celestial equator is currently inclined at an angle of 23.44 degrees with respect to the ...
It is an A-mode that provides data on the length of the eye, which is a major determinant in common sight disorders, especially ... Deeper structures such as liver and kidney are imaged at a lower frequency 1-6 MHz with lower axial and lateral resolution as a ... B-scan ultrasonography, or B-scan, which is a B-mode scan that produces a cross-sectional view of the eye and the orbit. It is ... In ophthalmology and optometry, there are two major forms of eye exam using ultrasound: A-scan ultrasound biometry, commonly ...
Particular risk factors are younger age, male sex, longer axial length, and complications during surgery. In the highest risk ... The eye is numbed with either a subtenon injection around the eye (see: retrobulbar block) or topical anesthetic eye drops. The ... The eye is usually patched on the day of surgery and use of an eye shield at night is often suggested for several days after ... Cited in Five-Year Agenda for the National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP), p. B-2; National Eye Institute, U.S. National ...
The former typically ranges from 5× to 100× while the latter ranges from 0.14 to 0.7, corresponding to focal lengths of about ... Comparison microscope, which has two separate light paths allowing direct comparison of two samples via one image in each eye. ... confocal laser scanning and axial tomographic fluorescence light microscopy". In Bigio, Irving J; Grundfest, Warren S; ... Aside from applications needing true depth perception, the use of dual eyepieces reduces eye strain associated with long ...
... is the length of the eye (mm). The SRK II formula adjusts the A constant utilized depending on the axial length: increasing the ... Eye's axial length (AL) Corneal power (K) Postoperative IOL position within the eye known as estimated lens position (ELP) The ... While this is a convenient way to determine the axial length for most normal eyes, errors in measurement almost invariably ... This relationship is changed in LASIK eyes. Most IOL power formulas use the axial length and keratometric reading (K) to ...
... narrowing of the skull behind the eye sockets), more robust postorbital bar (bone that encircles the eye socket), a steeper ... Its skull length averaged 94 mm (3.7 in), ranging from 93.4 to 94.8 mm (3.68 to 3.73 in). It was a mixed feeder, eating fruit, ... its hindlimbs and axial skeleton (skull, spine, and ribs) were more specialized for suspension, as in Palaeopropithecus and ... Skull length ranged from 93.4 to 105.5 mm (3.68 to 4.15 in). The dentition and cranial proportions, however, more closely ...
For example, the fruit fly's compound eye is made of hundreds of small lensed structures (ommatidia); the human eye has a blind ... For example, in the gastropods, the snail-type shell is always built as a tube that grows both in length and in diameter; ... Cohn, M.J.; Tickle, C. (1999). "Developmental basis of limblessness and axial patterning in snakes". Nature. 399 (6735): 474- ... the cephalopod eye has the retina, then a layer of nerve fibres, then the wall of the eye "the right way around". The evidence ...
Closing one eye, the other eye will see a reflection in which it cannot see itself; that lens appears black. However the other ... If the path length in the birefringent medium is sufficient, the two polarization components of a collimated beam (or ray) can ... However, when that same turnstile antenna is used in the "axial mode" (upwards, for the same horizontally-oriented structure) ... The naked human eye is weakly sensitive to polarization, without the need for intervening filters. Polarized light creates a ...
Many non-proprietary co-axial power plugs are 5.5 mm (0.22 in) in outside diameter (OD) and 9.5 mm (0.37 in) in length. Two pin ... If the size is not known, it is difficult to distinguish by eye or measurement between the 2.1mm and 2.5mm ID plugs; some ...
... and Spectacle-Type Eye Protectors for Selected Motor Sports F2813-18 Specification for Glass Used as a Horizontal Surface in ... Test Method for Measuring Length of Road Test Courses Using a Fifth Wheel F560-17 Specification for Unalloyed Tantalum for ... Practice for Air Soft Player Safety Briefing F2942-19 Guide for in vitro Axial, Bending, and Torsional Durability Testing of ... Specification for Eye and Face Protective Equipment for Hockey Players F519-18 Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen ...
... effective length (length of an equivalent hinged-hinged column). From Equation (2) it can be noted that the buckling strength ... If the axial load on the column is not concentric, that is, its line of action is not precisely coincident with the centroidal ... This reduction mimics the parallax effects which the eye expects to see, and tends to make columns look taller and straighter ... As the axial load on a perfectly straight slender column with elastic material properties is increased in magnitude, this ideal ...
The small eyes are set on the vertical outside surface of the eyelobes (or papebral lobes), that extend upwards and backwards ... The exoskeleton of Biceratops is ovate in outline and up to 8 cm in length, disregarding the huge pleural spines of the 3rd ... in combination with effaced features of the raised axial area of the head shield (or glabella), that is bordering the two horn- ... Like all other members of the Olenelloidea superfamily, the eye-ridges spring from the back of the frontal lobe (L4) of the ...
These molecules are tilted by about 15 degrees to the fibril axis, and because of this, the axial periodicity of the fibrils is ... Meek KM; Knupp C (2015). "Corneal structure and transparency". Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 49: 1-16. doi:10.1016/j. ... the length of the CS/DS proteoglycans is about 70 nm, while the KS proteoglycans are about 40 nm long. Proteoglycan protein ... Macular corneal dystrophy, associated with the loss of keratan sulfate Oyster, CW (1999). "8". The human eye: structure and ...
... so called schizochroal eyes), and like almost all other Phacopina, the articulate mid-length part of the body (or thorax) in ... The axial rings of the thorax do not have convex lateral axial nodes on its outer surface. The tailshield (or pygidium) is well ... It was a rounded animal, with a globose head and large eyes, and probably fed on detritus. Phacops is often found rolled up (" ... The large to medium size eyes have a crescent shaped outline, and are elevated high above the cheeks. The steep visual surface ...
5] During the tadpole phase, its length is around 1.2 cm and has dorsal eyes and nostrils. [5] It is distinguished from the ... hooking their humeral hooks in the other's axial region. When this ritual is over, the males may make a peep sound, or simply ... 5] Its eyes are large and protruding with a small space between the eyes. [5] It does not have a tympanum (or cannot be seen ... 7] Higher mating success has been seen to be correlated to longer length of calling. [10] History In the past thirty years ...
An advantage of MRI is its ability to produce images in axial, coronal, sagittal and multiple oblique planes with equal ease. ... Fellowship training programs in radiology are usually one or two years in length. Some medical schools in the US have started ... metal fragments in the eyes and some metallic hardware due to the powerful magnetic fields and strong fluctuating radio signals ... With computer processing, the information can be displayed as axial, coronal and sagittal images (single-photon emission ...
The eyes also change increasing in size by two times and retinal pigments which are sensitive to red light in shallow waters ... Their body movement depends highly on undulation originating near the anterior axial end. Due to the fins being fused we see a ... mid body creating a long continuous fin where in other species it begins more posterior and is not as prominent in length. ... They have relatively well developed eyes and pectoral fins compared to saltwater eels that they use to navigate and maneuver ...
A series of vanes guided the air into the impeller eyes. After radial compression, the air was diffused and turned 90 degrees ... Data from Type: centrifugal compressor turbojet Length: 72 in (183 cm) Diameter: 41.5 in (105 cm) Dry weight: 850 lb (386 kg) ... A relatively short shaft connected the compression system to the single stage axial turbine. After expansion through the ... Compressor: single-stage double-sided centrifugal Combustors: 10 reverse-flow can Turbine: single-stage axial Fuel type: ...
The power of phakic lens is independent of the axial length of the eye. Rather it depends on central corneal power, anterior ... because the eye's natural lens is left untouched. Intraocular lenses that are implanted into eyes after the eye's natural lens ... Both eyes can usually be done on the same day. Steroid antibiotic eye drops are usually prescribed for 2-4 weeks after surgery ... A phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) is a special kind of intraocular lens that is implanted surgically into the eye to correct ...
Double eye or fork Knuckle pin. At one end of the rod the a single eye is formed and a double eye is formed at the other end of ... There is always axial or linear line of action of load. The knuckle joint assembly consists of the following major components: ... a mechanical joint used to connect two members which are subjected to tensile loading which require slight adjustment of length ... Both, single and double eye are connected by a pin inserted through the eye. The pin has a head at one end and at other end ...
Thanks to the axial magnetic field of the focusing coil, this deflection is not in a straight line, thus when the electrons ... It also has a logarithmic light sensitivity curve similar to the human eye. However, it tends to flare in bright light, causing ... Electrons inside these long focus coils take helical paths as they travel along the length of the tube. The center (think local ... Check date values in: ,date= (help) Lawrence, Williams L. (June 27, 1933). Human-like eye made by engineers to televise images ...
When it is supposed that the sun as a farther light source, the eye of viewer as a point on the axis of mirror and a cloud as a ... The whole system composed by the Sun's rays, the observer's head, and the (spherical) water drops has an axial symmetry around ... a wide-angle lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required. Now that software for stitching several images into a ... The number of colours that the human eye is able to distinguish in a spectrum is in the order of 100. Accordingly, the Munsell ...
The length of this period is hotly debated, but it must necessarily be a fixed and definite time." Macrobius (early fifth ... Plato hypothesized that winding the orbital motions of the Sun, Moon and naked eye planets forward or back in time would arrive ... Astrological age Axial precession International Fixed Calendar Precession § Astronomy Yuga "Precession of the Earth's Axis - ... Hipparchus (c. 120 BC) is the first Greek credited with discovering axial precession roughly two hundred years after Plato's ...
The length of trees (logs) also determined the length of walls according to Sæther. In Samnanger church for instance, outside ... rather than an axial one. In Italy, the circular or polygonal form was used throughout the medieval period for baptisteries, ... known for its exaggerated geometrical features that made everything as astounding and eye-catching as possible. Gothic churches ... A square plan in which the nave, chancel and transept arms are of equal length forming a Greek cross, the crossing generally ...
... physiology and diseases of the eye. Submissions should focus on focusing on new diagnostic and surgical techniques, instrument ... axial length of vitreous (VAL), axial length of eye (EAL), ciliary body thickness (CBT), choroidal thickness (CT), and retinal ... Effect of Hemodialysis on Eye Coats, Axial Length, and Ocular Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure. Ling ... HD impacts the thickness of the eye coats and the vitreous axial length, including the thickness of the ciliary body, choroid, ...
Abstract The cornea of one eye was opacified in two young macaque monkeys by multiple stromal injections of a suspension of ... Increase in axial length of the macaque monkey eye after corneal opacification.. ... so that after 1 year it was more than 1 mm longer than the normal eye. This difference in axial length was due to elongation of ... The result of this experiment demonstrates that opacification of the corneal has effects on axial length similar to, although ...
Accuracy and reproducibility of axial length measurement in eyes with silicone oil endotamponade ... Accuracy and reproducibility of axial length measurement in eyes with silicone oil endotamponade ... Results: The mean axial length was 24.76 (SD 2.07) mm (SO 24.63 (SD 2.12) mm, HSO 24.93 (SD 2.10) mm, control 24.95 (SD 2.61) ... Methods: We included 26 eyes with SO endotamponade (SO, n = 15; HSO, n = 11) using a Zeiss IOLMaster for measurement of axial ...
Results: : Axial length ranged between 20.80 and 22.5mm in 11 eyes, between 22.51 and 25.0mm in 11 eyes and between 25.01 and ... and axial length in a sample of healthy eyes. Methods: : RNFL thickness was measured by CirrusTM HD-OCT in 39 eyes of 39 ... M. Carbonelli, G. Savini, P. Barboni; Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Changes According to Axial Length in Healthy Eyes. ... Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Changes According to Axial Length in Healthy Eyes ...
Eye axial lengths at each eccentric gaze were compared to the axial length in primary gaze using a fixed effects regression ... instantaneous axial length elongation occurs in downgaze. Here we determine if axial length changes occur in emmetropic eyes ... Four axial length measurements were taken at 90 degree rotations around the central axis and averaged for each eye in every ... Alexander Vu, Amanda Chi, Jennifer Nguyen, Quan V Hoang; Gaze-Induced Axial Length Changes in Emmetropic Eyes as Gauged by ...
... eyes. CONCLUSIONS Axial length measurements using applanation A-scan US and IOLMaster in eyes with CSME differ statistically ... PARTICIPANTS Twenty-three healthy eyes of 23 participants and 21 eyes with CSME of 21 diabetic outpatients. METHODS The authors ... Mean AL by US and IOLMaster in healthy eyes was 23.17+/-1.07 mm (range, 21.17-25.18) and 23.25+/-1.10 mm (range, 21.17-25.26), ... This is likely a result of the fundamentally different methodology of the 2 methods in measuring eyes with a pathologically ...
Axial length a factor in phaco of microphthalmos, nanophthalmos eyes. by Healio ophthalmology • 2013/01/31. • 0 Comments ... according to a study.The retrospective analysis included 103 eyes with axial length less than 21 mm that underwent ... Despite a series of challenges and risks, phacoemulsification with IOL implantation proved safe in eyes with microphthalmos and ... Endocrinology Diagnostics Emergency Medicine ENT Exclusive Eye Health / Blindness Family Medicine/Primary Care Genetics ...
In the nondeprived eyes, the vitreous chamber depth and axial length were reduced after uPA treatment, whereas PAI-1 increased ... In the form-deprived eyes, uPA inhibited vitreous depth and axial length elongation, but PAI-1 had no effect. CONCLUSIONS The ... in the form-deprived eye and the effect of this growth factor on scleral cell proliferation and axial length. METHODS Change in ... were administered to determine the effect of TGF-beta activation on the axial length in normal and FDM eyes. RESULTS The ...
Simple method of determining the axial length of the eye. By photographing the corneal reflex in two positions of gaze and ... The measurements obtained in this way showed a high correlation with refraction in a series of 80 eyes. The axial length ... Simple method of determining the axial length of the eye. Full Text available with Trip Pro. ... Eye Signs of Neurological Disorders Full Text available with Trip Pro. Eye Signs of Neurological Disorders The author discusses ...
The power of phakic lens is independent of the axial length of the eye. Rather it depends on central corneal power, anterior ... because the eyes natural lens is left untouched. Intraocular lenses that are implanted into eyes after the eyes natural lens ... Both eyes can usually be done on the same day. Steroid antibiotic eye drops are usually prescribed for 2-4 weeks after surgery ... A phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) is a special kind of intraocular lens that is implanted surgically into the eye to correct ...
Axial hyperopia results when the length of the eye is too short for the eye to properly focus distance objects on the retina ... Hyperopia can be caused by the eye being too short (axial hyperopia) or by the cornea being too flat or the crystalline lens ... Emmetropization is the process by which the eye actively adjusts various components of the eye to gradually improve the focus ... If an abnormally short eye has resulted in hyperopia, exposing such an eye to retinal images partially located behind the ...
Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant influence of axial length in violation of the ISNT rule in the normal eye ... The ISNT rule should be cautiously applied when evaluating normal eyes with long axial lengths. In addition, the ISNT rule ... Seventy-seven normal eyes and 97 glaucomatous eyes were included in the study. The ISNT rule was intact in 59 (76.6%) of the ... Factors Affecting ISNT Rule Satisfaction in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes.. Moon J1,2, Park KH1,2, Kim DM1,2, Kim SH1,3. ...
Ophthalmology Instrument from Eye Hospital Equipment Acd Lens Body Length Axial Length a/B Scanner - Xuzhou Kaixin Electronic ... China Eye Hospital Equipment Acd Lens Body Length Axial Length a/B Scanner, Find details about China Ophthalmology Equipment, ... Eye Hospital Equipment Acd Lens Body Length Axial Length a/B Scanner ... Eye Hospital Equipment Acd Lens Body Length Axial Length a/B Scanner. ...
The final BCVA improved in 10 eyes (66.7%), remained unchanged in 3 eyes (20.0%), and worsened in 2 eyes (13.3%).,i, Conclusion ... Type 1 closure was observed in 13 eyes (86.7%); type 2 closure was observed in the remaining 2 eyes (13.3%). Compared to the ... MH closure was observed in all eyes (100%) following the initial surgery. ... combined with Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique is an effective treatment for large MHs in highly myopic eyes. It ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Accuracy of user-adjusted axial length measurements with optical biometry in eyes ... Accuracy of user-adjusted axial length measurements with optical biometry in eyes having combined phacovitrectomy for macular- ... Accuracy of user-adjusted axial length measurements with optical biometry in eyes having combined phacovitrectomy for macular- ... title = "Accuracy of user-adjusted axial length measurements with optical biometry in eyes having combined phacovitrectomy for ...
Such anticipated reduction may be also applicable to eyes with moderate and long axial length. Phacoemulsification may also ... Such anticipated reduction may be also applicable to eyes with moderate and long axial length. Phacoemulsification may also ... axial length was not significantly associated with IOP reduction after cataract surgery in normal eyes [8]. Additionally, from ... the change among the group with shorter axial length ,22 mm (n=23 eyes) relatively raised from a preoperative value of 14.4 ( ...
Molecular analysis of CHX10 and MFRP in Chinese subjects with primary angle closure glaucoma and short axial length eyes.. Aung ... Molecular analysis of CHX10 and MFRP in Chinese subjects with primary angle closure glaucoma and short axial length eyes ... Molecular analysis of CHX10 and MFRP in Chinese subjects with primary angle closure glaucoma and short axial length eyes ... The mean axial length was 21.90+/-0.50 mm (range 19.98-22.50 mm). We identified a possible disease-causing variant in CHX10 (c. ...
... axial length and the association with systemic diseases in 32 eyes of unilateral CRVO. In the CRVO group,the mean axial length ... The differences between the mean axial lengths of both eyes with unilateral CRVO and that of normal comparison eyes were ... Relationship between Central Retinal Vein Occlusion and Axial Length of Eye Relationship between Central Retinal Vein Occlusion ... The mean axial length of normal comparison eyes was 23.81 +/-0.73 mm in males and 23.07 +/-0.69 mm in females. ...
... is the length of the eye (mm). The SRK II formula adjusts the A constant utilized depending on the axial length: increasing the ... Eyes axial length (AL) Corneal power (K) Postoperative IOL position within the eye known as estimated lens position (ELP) The ... While this is a convenient way to determine the axial length for most normal eyes, errors in measurement almost invariably ... This relationship is changed in LASIK eyes. Most IOL power formulas use the axial length and keratometric reading (K) to ...
Proptosis results from increased axial length of the globe.. Thyroid eye disease is the result of an autoimmune process that is ... MRI of the brain and orbits showed posterior staphyloma and increased axial length of the left globe (Figure 4). No abnormal ... MRI of the brain and orbits showed posterior staphyloma and increased axial length of the left globe. ... In the setting of severe myopia with a marked difference in refractive error between the two eyes, this is suggestive of ...
2] and a shorter axial eye length. Recent studies have suggested that increased iris thickness and cross-sectional area are ... Biometrical comparisons between normal eyes and eyes with primary angle-closure glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1970 Mar. 54(3):161- ... Aqueous humor is produced by the ciliary body in the posterior chamber of the eye. It diffuses from the posterior chamber, ... In the traditional model of AACG, the eyes natural response of dilation to environmental or chemical stimuli results in a ...
Axial Length, Eye. The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by ... infection of the posterior part of the eye. From the hyperreflective inflammatory cells and deposits in the vitreous and on the ... When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector ... To determine the early signs of posterior staphylomas in highly myopic eyes of younger subjects by swept-source ultra-widefield ...
Axial length (sum). -. 3158.2. ±. 21.6. ±. 3.0. ±. 6.2. ±. 5.0. Axial length (group). 1.4330. 3268.5. ±. 22.8. ±. 3.4. ±. 5.9. ... The axial length (AL) of eye was defined as the distance in the axial direction from the fitted anterior corneal surface (ACS) ... C. H. Chong, T. Suzuki, K. Totsuka, A. Morosawa, and T. Sakai, "Large coherence length swept source for axial length ... Image registration identified a cyclic axial shift of the eye with time [Fig. 3 ], which would heavily offset any slow axial ...
The results of immersion A-B-scan axial length measurement in eyes with dense cataract. Search Title by author or title ... This study is to determine the accuracy of the axial length (AL) measurement methods in patients with dense cataract using ... Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, Russia Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 130 eyes with ...
Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eyes axial length.[50] ... Scleral buckles, used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye.[61] ... Because the most significant cause of myopia is the increase in axial length of the eye, the retina must stretch out to cover ... with eyes getting shut", from μύειν myein "to shut the eyes" and ὤψ ōps "eye, look, sight" (GEN ὠπός ōpos).[120][121][122][123] ...
The preoperative visual acuity was 20/80 with an axial length of 25.4 mm. The orbital examination was unremarkable. Eye drops ... His eyes were moving under the closed lids in a manner similar to rapid eye movement sleep and continued to move when the eyes ... The axial length was 23 mm. She had a normal intraocular pressure (IOP). Her only regular medications were atenolol and ... He had noticed this on the day after surgery as soon as he removed the eye pad. The visual acuity was now counting fingers with ...
1Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. *. 2Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical ... Conclusions Axial length asymmetry has the strongest correlation with anisometropia; nonetheless, other components of ocular ... Results Asymmetry of axial length, corneal power, vitreous chamber depth, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and lens power ... The correlation of anisometropia with axial length asymmetry was 0.735, 0.273 with corneal power, 0.183 with anterior chamber ...
Gene Therapy Restores Mfrp and Corrects Axial Eye Length.. Velez G, Tsang SH, Tsai YT, Hsu CW, Gore A, Abdelhakim AH, Mahajan M ...
Axial myopia is characterized by an increase in the sagittal diameter of the eye, leading to a lengthening of the optical axis ... for each mm increase in axial diameter, while in eyes with an axial length ,24 mm, the horizontal and vertical globe diameter ... In eyes with an axial length ≤24 mm, horizontal and vertical diameters increased by 0.44 and 0.51 mm, respectively, ... axial length and parapapillary zones. The Beijing Eye Study 2011. PLoS One 10:e0138701 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ...
Results: Twenty-seven eyes were analyzed in this study. The mean AL in the IOL master group was 23.58±0.97 mm preoperatively ... We compared the accuracy of axial length (AL) measurement obtained by optical biometry with that obtained by acoustic biometry ... Significant underestimation of AL measurement was observed when using the IOL master in eyes with RRD with macular involvement ... This prospective descriptive analytic study measured the AL of eyes with RRD preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively using ...
  • In this study, we examined the effects of monocular myopic and hyperopic defocus on axial length and choroidal thickness when applied in the morning (change between 10 a.m. and 12 p.m.) vs the evening (change between 5 and 7 p.m.) in young adult human participants (mean age, 23.44 ± 4.52 years). (edu.au)
  • A series of axial length (using an IOL Master) and choroidal thickness (using an optical coherence tomographer) measurements were obtained over three consecutive days in both eyes. (edu.au)
  • These findings represent a potential interaction between the signal associated with the eye's natural diurnal rhythm and the visual signal associated with the optical defocus, making the eye perhaps more responsive to hyperopic defocus (or 'go' signal) in the morning, and to myopic defocus (or 'stop' signal) in the latter half of the day. (edu.au)
  • Axial ametropia can lead to the development of myopia or hyperopia. (news-medical.net)
  • Hyperopia is caused by decreased ocular axial length, whereas an increase in ocular axial length is held responsible for the development of myopia. (news-medical.net)
  • Myopia is caused by an increased ocular axial length. (news-medical.net)
  • What is the difference between axial and refractive myopia? (news-medical.net)
  • the main causative factor for axial myopia is the elongated eyeball. (news-medical.net)
  • The refractive power in axial myopia is normally around about 60 diopters. (news-medical.net)
  • It should, however, be noted that there is no alteration in ocular axial length in refractive myopia. (news-medical.net)
  • Axial length (AXL) has been well established as the critical measurement in myopia control research. (myopiaprofile.com)
  • Our new Myopia Profile 'Managing Myopia Guidelines' infographics translate research into practice, providing advice on gauging success by both refraction and axial length outcomes. (myopiaprofile.com)
  • Can body height compared to axial length be used to predict risk of myopia or high myopia? (myopiaprofile.com)
  • We explore the comparisons, advantages and disadvantages of using growth charts for axial length in myopia. (myopiaprofile.com)
  • Half of children with high myopia have an underlying systemic condition: ophthalmology co-management, best optical corrections, parental education and eye health monitoring are crucial. (myopiaprofile.com)
  • Significant changes in proteoglycan synthesis have been shown to correlate with changes in the rate of axial elongation during postnatal ocular growth and during the development of myopia in a variety of animal models, 11 12 13 suggesting that proteoglycans play a critical role in determining the biomechanical properties of the sclera. (arvojournals.org)
  • High or pathologic myopia is defined as spherical equivalent refractive error greater than 6.00 diopters (D) or axial length greater than 26.5mm3. (evrs.eu)
  • Brunson PB, Mann PM II, Mann PM, Potvin R . The Impact of Image Registration for Ablation Orientation on Clinical Outcomes After Wavefront-Optimized Refractive Surgery in Eyes with Myopia and Astigmatism. (scienceinvision.com)
  • Brunson PB, Mann PM II, Mann PM, Potvin R . Clinical Outcomes After Topography-Guided Refractive Surgery in Eyes with Myopia and Astigmatism - Comparing Results with New Planning Software to Those Obtained Using the Manifest Refraction. (scienceinvision.com)
  • Defocus Curve and Patient Satisfaction with a New Extended Depth of Focus Toric Intraocular Lens Targeted for Binocular Emmetropia or Slight Myopia in the Non- Dominant Eye. (scienceinvision.com)
  • He describes how the findings fit into the overall understanding of myopia management, and how eye care practitioners can make use of them in practice. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • A study conducted by Jan Roelof Polling and colleagues in a myopia control clinic in the Netherlands confirms the previously reported relationship between improved control of axial length change and higher concentrations of atropine. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • I am sure many eye care practitioners interested in myopia management will find this information especially useful when advising children and their parents on available options. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • She'd pointed at her eyes and said, "Proptosis and high myopia. (wordpress.com)
  • And once the process is completed, this leads to a shortening in the actual axial length of the eyeball, making the images form on the retina like it normally should, thereby curing myopia without any invasive procedure. (wordpress.com)
  • To determine axial, vertical, and horizontal eye dimensions in myopic and emmetropic eyes by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to relate these to different ocular expansion models of myopia development. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cumulative Absolute Reduction in Axial Elongation (CARE), which conveys the benefit that a child receiving a specified treatment might expect, independent of age, progression rate, refractive error and ethnicity over a stated time period. (myopiaprofile.com)
  • Myopic traction maculopathy is caused by the elongation of axial length. (cybersight.org.cn)
  • Elongation of axial length increases vitreous traction. (cybersight.org.cn)
  • Based on height and length dimensions, 25% and 29% of myopic eyes exclusively fitted global expansion and axial elongation models, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
  • Approximately a quarter of the myopic participants fitted each of the global expansion or axial elongation model exclusively. (arvojournals.org)
  • As both equatorial stretching and posterior pole elongation cause axial elongation, these classifications can be combined together as axial elongation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although there were no statistically significant ethnic differences in CR (P=0.36) or AC (P=0.45) in this age group, there was a suggestion that South Asians had longer axial lengths (P=0.09) compared to White and African-Caribbean children. (arvojournals.org)
  • To evaluate changes in axial length and choroidal thickness after trabeculectomy. (dovepress.com)
  • Axial length, choroidal thickness, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured bilaterally at 3 pm 1 day before and 6 days after trabeculectomy. (dovepress.com)
  • The mean magnitude of change in IOP was correlated positively with the mean magnitude of change in axial length, but not correlated with the mean magnitude of change in choroidal thickness at the fovea that underwent trabeculectomy. (dovepress.com)
  • The axial length shortened, the choroid thickened, and the sum of the axial length and subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased with IOP reduction early after trabeculectomy. (dovepress.com)
  • Measure the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and axial length of the eye. (atlaseye.sg)
  • All children participating in the Anyang Childhood Eye Study underwent non-contact tonometry as well as measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length, cycloplegic auto-refraction, blood pressure, height and weight. (viisionsoliibrary19.gq)
  • The distribution of axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth in an adult population of Shahroud, Iran. (ac.ir)
  • Takes accurate axial length and corneal thickness measurements in either automatic or manual modes. (opticalequipmentstore.com)
  • The IOLMaster 700 can also be used to identify irregular eye geometries, such as lens tilt), and, thanks to imaging of the fovea in the macula, to alert the user to insufficient fixation during measurements. (berwickeye.com.au)
  • More accurate corneal power measurements in RK eyes are desirable. (arvojournals.org)
  • Shammas HJ, Shammas MC, Jivrajka RV, Cooke DL, Potvin R . Effects on IOL Power Calculation and Expected Clinical Outcomes of Axial Length Measurements Based on Multiple vs Single Refractive Indices. (scienceinvision.com)
  • Hat-Mounted Transparent Hat Anti-fog Saliva Face Shield Eye Protective UK , Please refer to the measurements below as a sizing guide. (africasia.co.uk)
  • Many measurements of eye size have been made along the axial direction (optical axis and visual axis) with ultrasonography and partial coherence interferometry, but few measurements have been made along other directions. (arvojournals.org)
  • This module also improves the throttle response, Measurements: Length: 24 1⁄2 in Product measurements were taken using size SM. (praarambhpreschools.com)
  • A residual analysis of the correlations between skull measurements and the true brain weight was carried out, resulting in the formula: brain weight, g = (21.8 x axial circumference, cm) + (13.9 x transversal circumference, cm) + (2.105 x length x width, cm) - 890. (nawarhusseinofficial.com)
  • Normal ocular axial length is around 23.5 mm. (news-medical.net)
  • Because OCT images can be captured along the entire length of the eye, the IOLMaster 700 allows identification of all ocular peaks and interfaces. (berwickeye.com.au)
  • Outside speakers will present their latest research on topics such as ocular aberrations and eye movements. (grantome.com)
  • Since 2011, each issue has provided dependable and up-to-date ocular health information for more than 60,000 leading eye care professionals. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In a normal eye (emmetropic eye), light rays focus directly on the retina, whereas in ametropia, the light rays are not able to do so. (news-medical.net)
  • In this form of ametropia, the refractive power of the eye is normal, but due to the altered eyeball length, light rays are not focused directly on the retina. (news-medical.net)
  • In order for a person to have clear vision, light entering the eye must precisely focus on the retina. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The optical power of the cornea and lens must match the actual eye length (distance from cornea to retina). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Because the retina is more stretched for retinal reattachment in highly myopic eyes. (cybersight.org.cn)
  • In the myopic eye the light rays focus anteriorly to the retina. (evrs.eu)
  • The internal length (cornea to retina), height and width (both retina to retina) were measured in emmetropic and myopic eyes (up to −12 D) of 88 participants aged 18 to 36 years. (arvojournals.org)
  • Heidelberg Retina Tomography - HRT 3: HRT3 is a confocal laser scanning system, designed to capture and analyze three-dimensional images of the posterior segment of the eye. (com.gr)
  • The retina can be harmed by high-energy visible (HEV) radiation of blue/violet light that penetrates the macular pigment found in the eye, and the amount of retinal damage varies based on the wavelength of light, intensity, and time of exposure. (vision1eye.com)
  • Blehm C, Potvin R . Evaluating Refractive and Visual Outcomes After Bilateral Implantation of an Apodized Diffractive Multifocal Toric Intraocular Lens with a Moderate Add in the Dominant Eye and a Higher Add in the Fellow Eye. (scienceinvision.com)
  • But in the picture the label is at the angle for the axial tilt of the Earth. (explainxkcd.com)
  • Imagined in its ideal condition as a three-dimensional solid form, the reference lines of which suggest an axial tilt rather than a strict perpendicular orientation, the effect is that of a massive gravity-defying object crammed into a space barely large enough to contain it. (artforum.com)
  • But during the equinox, something even more special occurs: a chance to measure the Earth's axial tilt and the Moon's orbital tilt as it revolves around the Earth. (forbes.com)
  • special for having that axial tilt be perpendicular to the Sun-Earth plane, rather than at an inclined angle, which occurs on all other days of the year. (forbes.com)
  • In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane. (isplink.pl)
  • An objects axis, or axial tilt, also referred to as obliquity, is the angle between an objects orbital axis and rotational axis, or regularly, the angle between its orbital plane and equatorial plane. (isplink.pl)
  • In addition to anterior segment tomography the Pentacam ® AXL has integrated axial length measurement, a feature which allows you to make accurate IOL calculations. (pentacam.com)
  • The Pentacam ® AXL determines the axial length of the eye as well as the data of the anterior eye segment, from the anterior corneal surface to the posterior surface of the crystalline lens, all in a single measurement. (pentacam.com)
  • Purpose: To establish the physiological distribution of anteriorchamber angle parameters and axial length (AL) in a randomly sampled cohort of Chinese children. (elsevier.com)
  • To ensure safety, do not exceed the load capacities specified in the table when using a single eye nut or two eye nuts at horizontal angle greater than 45 degrees. (bossard.com)
  • You can determine a non-right angle of a right triangle by taking the arctangent of the length of the opposite side divided by the length of the adjacent side. (explainxkcd.com)
  • The focal length determines the angle of view taken in by the lens and it is, therefore, an important consideration for lens selection. (the-digital-picture.com)
  • Those using the 135mm focal length on an ASP-C/1.5x FOVCF sensor format camera will have a narrower angle of view to work with, one equivalent to a 202.5mm focal length used on a full frame camera. (the-digital-picture.com)
  • A Wide-Angle Lens with an Eye for Detail. (zeiss.com)
  • The optical design includes 15 elements in 10 groups, with an LD (Low Dispersion) lens element precisely arranged to suppress axial chromatic and other aberrations that are likely to happen with telephoto zoom lenses. (photoxels.com)
  • Produce stunning and sharp images without colour fringing at the focal plane as a result of the employment of three extra-low dispersion (ED) glass elements that effectively compensate axial chromatic aberration. (nikon-asia.com)
  • Myopic eyes usually have longer vitreous chambers than do emmetropic eyes, 1 2 3 although the reason is still not understood. (arvojournals.org)
  • Purpose To assess the influence of the anterior chamber depth (ACD), predicted by corneal power (keratometry [K]), and axial length (AL) on the astigmatic power of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs). (elsevier.com)
  • Ametropia refers to a group of visual disorders caused by errors in the refractive power of the eye. (news-medical.net)
  • The normal refractive power of the eye is about 63 diopters, about 43 diopters of which is contributed by the outermost layer of eye (cornea) and the remaining 23 diopters of which is contributed by the lens. (news-medical.net)
  • Within a mere 2 seconds the Pentacam ® AXL supplies you with precise diagnostic data on the entire anterior eye segment. (pentacam.com)
  • Assessment of corneal radii (CR), axial length (AL), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) was carried out using non-contact partial coherence interferometric biometry (IOL Master, Zeiss, Jena, Germany). (arvojournals.org)
  • mechanisms of disease Flashcards and Study Sets Quizlet2019-11-15 · Nanophthalmos can be defined in various ways, including an axial length of two standard deviations below average or as an extremely short eye with a shallow anterior chamber.It presents an array of challenges even to seasoned cataract surgeons. (oc-ki.com)
  • Methods Meridional analysis (based on the Hoffer Q formula) was applied to an eye model with K ranging from 38.0 to 48.0 diopters and AL ranging from 20 to 30 mm. (elsevier.com)
  • Of those, fourteen (22 eyes) had Zone I or Posterior Zone II ROP and 8 (10 eyes) had Zone II ROP. (evrs.eu)
  • With an increase in myopic refractive correction, myopic eyes became much larger in all three dimensions, but more so in length (0.35 mm/D, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.40) than in height (0.19 mm/D, 95% CI 0.09-0.29) and more so in height than in width (0.10 mm/D, 95% CI 0.01-0.20). (arvojournals.org)
  • Although there are considerable individual variations, in general myopic eyes are elongated relative to emmetropic eyes, more in length than in height and even less in width. (arvojournals.org)
  • Atlas Eye Specialist Centre is dedicated to providing evidence-based and US FDA-approved solutions in eye health. (atlaseye.sg)
  • By filling in this form, you agree that Atlas Eye Specialist Centre may collect, use and disclose the personal data which you have provided in this form, as well as send you marketing material that you have agreed to receive, in accordance with the Personal Data Protection Act 2012. (atlaseye.sg)
  • Website created by Berwick Eye Centre and launched on January 1 2018. (berwickeye.com.au)
  • A cataract is a medical condition in which the lens of your eyes become opaque, causing a blurry vision. (atlaseye.sg)
  • A cataract surgery removes the lens of your eyes, and replaces it with an artificial lens. (atlaseye.sg)
  • Cataract surgery is performed by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor) on an out-patient basis and is generally a safe procedure. (atlaseye.sg)
  • We provide a range of comprehensive eye services including laser vision correction (ReLEx SMILE/LASIK/PRK), cataract surgery, collagen cross-linking and other ophthalmological procedures. (atlaseye.sg)
  • The Beaver Dam Eye Study in the US found that 23.5% of women and 14.3% of men had a visually significant cataract by the age of 65 years. (kieran101.com)
  • The purpose was to establish the position of the fovea centralis to the optic nerve via en-face, near-infrared spectral domain optical coherence tomography (NIR-OCT) in healthy patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • These differences persisted after correcting for axial length in the 487 patients with axial-length data. (arvojournals.org)
  • Eye care practitioners should stay up to date with the latest available evidence and involve patients and their families in deciding what treatment is best for them. (gridserver.com)
  • We have to treat the dry eye preoperatively and explain to these patients that they may need more intensive meds postop for quite a few months, because preservatives in the drops exacerbate preexisting dry eye," he says. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
  • Purpose: We derived optimal formulae permitting effective lens position (ELP) for patients differing in terms of their preoperative axial lengths as revealed by partial coherence interferometry. (jkos.org)
  • Methods: Twenty-nine trabeculectomized eyes of 29 patients (group 1) and 20 Ahmed glaucoma. (jkos.org)
  • In this interventional case study, nine patients between the ages of 12-30 years diagnosed with orbitopalpebral neurofibromatosis underwent palpebral remodeling with composite axial eyelid flap for esthetic purpose and alleviation of visual impediment. (jclpca.org)
  • At 300mm, a commonly used telephoto zoom focal length, the design delivers excellent resolution from edge-to-edge. (photoxels.com)
  • If you can make the 135mm focal length work for your needs, you are going to want this lens in your kit. (the-digital-picture.com)
  • This means that focal length selection for a prime lens is far more critical than for a lens featuring a wide range of focal lengths, a zoom lens. (the-digital-picture.com)
  • What is the 135mm focal length good for? (the-digital-picture.com)
  • Among numerous other applications, I find portraits to be the standout 135mm focal length use. (the-digital-picture.com)
  • This telephoto focal length, on either a full frame or APS-C crop sensor format DSLR, pushes the focus distance far enough to provide an ideal portrait perspective. (the-digital-picture.com)
  • all are great uses for the 135mm focal length. (the-digital-picture.com)
  • While the 135mm focal length may not seem like a staple in a landscape photography kit, it is a great one to have available for a more-compressed landscape look. (the-digital-picture.com)
  • The lens delivers superior optical performance across the entire frame, made possible with a lens design that maximises the large diameter and short focal length of the Z mount system and its in-built 14 elements, including the aspherical lens, in 11 groups. (nikon.com.au)
  • Originally developed for SLR cameras requiring a long back focal distance for short focal lengths because of the mirror box (the distance between the back lens element and the film plane must be considerably longer than the focal length), the Distagon lenses (retrofocus design) are also ideal for mirrorless system cameras thanks to their optimized ray path. (zeiss.com)
  • A typical axial compressor is shown in Figure 3.1.15. (peace-montessori.org)
  • A revolutionary product borne out of decades of experience, the MAX1 is a standardized axial/radial main air compressor equipped with the advanced MAX1 axial blading generation. (peace-montessori.org)
  • Considering the fact that the fouling leads to high consumption of fuel, reducing of the axial compressor's discharge air pressure and increasing of the exhaust temperature, thus designing a compressor degradation detection system will allow prevent such issues. (peace-montessori.org)
  • The A-6 designation related to its axial design and the fact that it was a 6-cylinder compressor unit. (peace-montessori.org)
  • In the axial compressor, the air flows parallel to the axis of rotation. (peace-montessori.org)
  • In axial flow compressor, the air or the gas enters radially into the rotor or impeller and discharges axially. (peace-montessori.org)
  • RMS' experienced staff of Axial Compressor experts ensures the highest degree of engineering support while offering the rapid response required to facilitate demanding compressor repairs. (peace-montessori.org)
  • The working principle of an axial flow compressor is straightforward. (peace-montessori.org)
  • Axial Flow Compressor parts : An axial-flow compressor consists Atlas Copco Fan Axial 2E300 - 1624 2917 85 - Compressor Now offers OEM and Replacement parts for all major manufacturers. (peace-montessori.org)
  • As an axial compressor changes its operating point based on the downstream or upstream requirements, the pressure and flow of the gas at the suction and discharge of the compressor will vary. (peace-montessori.org)
  • A performance investigation of a threestage axial flow compressor with part load consideration in gas turbine application with regard to surge margin was explained by Asli et al. (peace-montessori.org)
  • With over 35 years of experience on virtually all OEM rotating equipment, more than 1,000 axial compressor blade designs, in-house manufacturing capabilities, and immediate inventory availability, EthosEnergy is a flexible, ISO 9001 certified, and responsive maintenance partner. (peace-montessori.org)
  • The TRI-40 is a single spool turbojet engine, consisting of a four-stage axial compressor, annular smokeless combustor and a single-stage turbine. (blogspot.com)
  • Back focal lengths (BFL) of B-KPros for various eye axial lengths were measured using an optical bench, International Organization for Standardization-certified for intraocular lens characterization, and compared against manufacturer's specification. (arvojournals.org)
  • To evaluate the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations in eyes with previous radial keratotomy (RK). (arvojournals.org)
  • Pre-op, short eyes raise uncertainty with IOL power calculation. (oc-ki.com)
  • Axial ametropia is caused by alterations in the length of the eyeball. (news-medical.net)
  • It essentially penetrates the eye to slowly absorb and dehydrate the eyeball over a course of few weeks. (wordpress.com)
  • Tomey Β-Ultrasound: System for the imaging of the eyeball in 2D, the optic nerve, and the extraocular muscles, in order to test eyes with hazy refractive media. (com.gr)
  • The image allows intraoperative matching with the live eye image, eliminating the need for manual pre- and intraoperative markings of the astigmatism axis in conjunction with implantation of a toric IOL. (berwickeye.com.au)
  • The IOLMaster takes a photogrpah of the eye and overlays the astigmatic axis allowing correect dialing of the astigmatic correcting intraouclar lens. (berwickeye.com.au)
  • Axial (horizontal through middle of eye) and sagittal (vertical through visual axis) sections were taken with a T 1 -weighted fast spin-echo sequence. (arvojournals.org)
  • Two independent reviewers measured the horizontal and vertical distance from the fovea to the optic disc center and optic disc diameter via cross-sectional and en-face scanning laser ophthalmoloscopy OCT imaging. (arvojournals.org)
  • Ametropias are present as either spherical ametropias or axial ametropias and can exist in isolation or in combination with other disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • R. Bruce Wallace III, MD, FACS, founder and medical director of Wallace Eye Surgery in Alexandria, La., and clinical professor of ophthalmology at Louisiana State University and Tulane Schools of Medicine in New Orleans, agrees that preexisting conditions must be addressed, including dry eye. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
  • The sclera is a dense viscoelastic connective tissue that determines the shape and axial length of the eye and therefore plays a major role in influencing the refractive state. (arvojournals.org)
  • One large retrospective study found that eyes with axial lengths greater than 25 mm were at greater risk for CBDS. (eyewiki.org)
  • Methods: Retrospective review of 32 premature infants clinical cases (50 eyes) who received 0,03 cc of intravitreal bevacizumab as adjuvant treatment for laser. (evrs.eu)
  • Methods: Retrospective review of 22 infants (32 eyes) that had primary treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab for Type I (stage 3+) ROP. (evrs.eu)
  • Simply align the head with the patient's eye and the TonoRef II will take over: tracking the patient's eye until optimal positioning is achieved and acquisition is triggered. (opticalequipmentstore.com)
  • A horizontal 28-foot-long piece of yarn cuts across the length of the narrow front room at ground level, and two taut diagonal vectors that intersect at an apex on the ceiling outline the diaphanous plane of an obtuse triangle. (artforum.com)
  • This longitudinal study examined body height, axial length and refraction - growth mechanisms are likely linked in emmetropes but not in myopes. (myopiaprofile.com)
  • By the time I joined them, on May 10th, Dr. Geoff Tabin and his team of Ethiopian eye surgeons and ophthalmic nurses had removed cataracts from and restored sight to 1100 people, most of them dirt-poor subsistence farmers Tigray, the northernmost of the country's nine kililoch or ethnic regions. (dispatchesfromthevanishingworld.com)
  • Overexposure may lead to cataracts and other eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (vision1eye.com)
  • Methods: We included 736 eyes. (jkos.org)
  • Because of the very long distance from the star to the eye gazing at it, the rays which are captured by the pupil of the eye are parallel. (gatinel.com)
  • a line passing perpendicularly through the middle of the eye of the volute. (isplink.pl)
  • Myopic refractive error and axial length both progressed significantly slower in children wearing the executive bifocals: around 50% less than single vision spectacles. (gridserver.com)
  • This can be also assumed if the light source is some 4 to 5 meters away (the pupil diameter being less than 8 mm in most eyes). (gatinel.com)
  • The lens is moisture-resistant, features a convenient Tamron standard 67mm filter diameter, and Tamron claims that it can take full advantage of Sony's famed Hybrid AF and Eye AF. (photoxels.com)