The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Biological action and events that support the functions of the EYE and VISION, OCULAR.
An alternative to REFRACTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES. A therapeutic procedure for correcting REFRACTIVE ERRORS. It involves wearing CONTACT LENSES designed to force corrective changes to the curvature of the CORNEA that remain after the lenses are removed. The effect is temporary but is maintained by wearing the therapeutic lenses daily, usually during sleep.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Artificial implanted lenses.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.
Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
Color of the iris.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
A method of stopping internal bleeding or blood flow, or the closure of a wound or body cavity, achieved by applying pressure or introducing an absorbent liquid, gel, or tampon.
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
Images seen by one eye.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
Diseases of the cornea.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The period following a surgical operation.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
The surgical removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact. It should be differentiated from ORBIT EVISCERATION which removes the entire contents of the orbit, including eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The loss of some TELOMERE sequence during DNA REPLICATION of the first several base pairs of a linear DNA molecule; or from DNA DAMAGE. Cells have various mechanisms to restore length (TELOMERE HOMEOSTASIS.) Telomere shortening is involved in the progression of CELL AGING.
Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.

Human optical axial length and defocus. (1/93)

 (+info)

Ethnic differences in the prevalence of myopia and ocular biometry in 10- and 11-year-old children: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). (2/93)

 (+info)

Hyperopic refractive error and shorter axial length are associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Singapore Malay Eye Study. (3/93)

 (+info)

In vivo measurement of blood velocity in human major retinal vessels using the laser speckle method. (4/93)

 (+info)

Relative peripheral refractive error and the risk of onset and progression of myopia in children. (5/93)

 (+info)

Influence of refractive error and axial length on retinal vessel geometric characteristics. (6/93)

 (+info)

Axial length of myopia: a review of current research. (7/93)

 (+info)

Axial length measurements by contact and immersion techniques in pediatric eyes with cataract. (8/93)

 (+info)

Twenty-eight fresh donor eyes (Georgia Lions Eye Bank) ranging in age from four months to 87 years were used for an in vitro study to determine the feasibility of obtaining accurate anterior chamber diameter measurements with our Scheimpflug ultraviolet-visible slitlamp densitography apparatus. The in vivo study was performed on 16 hybrid monkeys (of varying age). These data were within 0.1 mm of measurements obtained with a modified paracentesis needle specially designed to obtain such measurements. The results of the foregoing study demonstrate that the Scheimpflug slitlamp photographic analyses can provide an accurate measurement of the anterior chamber diameter without entering the globe surgically. This will enable the surgeon to determine the diameter and order an anterior chamber IOL of a specified size prior to surgery. The authors have devised an automated program to analyze the negatives and provide direct anterior chamber diameter measurements. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of the time of day on axial length and choroidal thickness changes to hyperopic and myopic defocus in human eyes. AU - Moderiano, Daniel. AU - Do, Michelle. AU - Hobbs, Sam. AU - Lam, Vy. AU - Sarin, Simran. AU - Alonso-Caneiro, David. AU - Chakraborty, Ranjay. PY - 2019/5. Y1 - 2019/5. N2 - Research in animal models have shown that exposing the eye to positive or negative spectacle lenses can lead to predictable changes in eye growth. Recent research indicates that brief periods (1-2 h) of monocular defocus results in small, but significant changes in axial length and choroidal thickness of human subjects. However, the effects of the time of day on these ocular changes with defocus are not known. In this study, we examined the effects of monocular myopic and hyperopic defocus on axial length and choroidal thickness when applied in the morning (change between 10 a.m. and 12 p.m.) vs the evening (change between 5 and 7 p.m.) in young adult human participants (mean age, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential source of error in axial length measurement in Pseudophakes [3]. AU - Anderson, Nicholas. AU - Waldron, Rhonda G.. AU - Stulting, R. Doyle. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035205693&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035205693&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0886-3350(01)01244-5. DO - 10.1016/S0886-3350(01)01244-5. M3 - Letter. VL - 27. SP - 1902. EP - 1903. JO - Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. JF - Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. SN - 0886-3350. IS - 12. ER - ...
Keywords: Ocular biometry, Visual function, Gullstrand, Cross section, Dioptric distance Background The optics of the human eye is based on the refractive parameters of the individual ocular structures, each of which is affected differently by age. Well known examples of this are the thickening of the crystalline lens with aging and the gradual flattening of the anterior chamber [1]. Although normal aging has been studied extensively in the literature, some SNX14 studies limit themselves to subsections of the population, such as subjects over 40?years, children, certain nationalities or ethnicities, or DBeq IC50 emmetropes [2C4]. Other studies presented only certain parameters of ocular biometry, or concentrated on prevalence of specific eye conditions (e.g., cataract, AMD) [5, 6]. This study concentrates on various biometric parameters in connection with refraction and retinal measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a healthy population. Although measurements in healthy eyes ...
I have been using the PalmScan for the past few months with the immersion a-scan unit and pachymetry with the 50 MHZ probe.. The axial length measurements of the PalmScan immersion are comparable with the IOL Master. For the calculations of the premium IOL, I measure everyone with the IOL Master and the PalmScan and use the ACD and lens thickness from the PalmScan.. I use the 50 MHZ pachymetry probe for central and peripheral measurements of corneal thickness. This probe easily measures the peripheral corneal thickness unlike a 10 MHZ pachymetry probe. There is a built in program for limbal relaxing incision using the Nichamin NAPA nomogram.. PalmScan is very easy to use and is comparable to the IOL Master for axial length and is more accurate for the ACD and lens thickness needed for calculation with Holladay II. A big plus is the portability.. Ray T. Oyakawa, M.D., M.B.A. Torrance, CA (Ophthalmologist) ...
Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood with a peak incidence between 13-15 years. Especially high myopia, a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve. The causes of myopia are complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as time spent outdoors and close work are risk factors. Moreover, genetic studies have revealed more than many factors associated with myopia. Pharmacological and optical interventions to inhibit myopia progression are becoming increasingly common. The ultimate goal of this thesis was to gain insight into the causes and consequences of childhood myopia. For this purpose we investigated the environmental and genetic factors of myopia, eye growth in children and ocular biometry development in subjects of the Generation R and ALSPAC study. We studied the consequences of high myopia on ...
About seven years ago I took one of the nicest pieces of wood that I have ever had and created a pipe I called the hooded beetle. This was another piece of wood deserving of a shape that highlighted its amazing grain. Using the same idea I reversed the direction of the hooded beetle, and so I have creatively called this the hooded beetle 2. Like its predecessor, this has a bamboo shank and a hand cut German ebonite stem. This pipe though is a semi-churchwarden with its long, four-knuckle shank.. Weight: 1.8 oz.. Chamber Diameter: 11/16″. Length: 8″. Bowl height: 2 1/2″. ...
Biometry of an eye is to measure eye length and the power of the cornea. Get your biometry eye test at Vision Care along with latest technology with immersion technique.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Significance of Elevated Adiponectin in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. AU - Combs, Terry P.. AU - Scherer, Philipp E.. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) represent a new family of oral antihyperglycemic agents for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A recently discovered effect of TZDs is the induction of a circulating protein produced exclusively in adipocytes, called Acrp30 or adiponectin. To date, 5 clinical studies have confirmed the induction of circulating adiponectin during TZD treatment. Subjects with type 2 diabetes have lower levels of adiponectin than those without diabetes, yet it is very unlikely that the induction of adiponectin during TZD treatment is a secondary effect of improved glycemia. Highly purified recombinant adiponectin showed very dramatic blood glucose (BG) -lowering effects. The increase in circulating adiponectin during TZD treatment is associated with elevated adiponectin levels in adipose tissue. There is ...
Shen, S.Y., Wong, T.Y., Loo, J.-L., Rosman, M., Aung, T., Wong, W.L., Saw, S.-M., Foster, P.J., Loon, S.-C. (2008). The prevalence and types of glaucoma in Malay people: The Singapore Malay eye study. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49 (9) : 3846-3851. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08- ...
In 2005, Cho et al. reported that axial length in children increased over a 2-year period by 0.29 ± 0.27 mm in an OK-treated group and by 0.54 ± 0.27 mm in a control group treated with spectacles. 40 In 2009, Walline et al. reported similar findings, whereby the mean increase in axial length after 2 years was 0.25 mm in the OK group and 0.57 mm in the control group. 41 In 2011, Kakita et al. reported an increase of 0.39 ± 0.27 mm in the OK group versus 0.61 ± 0.24 mm in the control group. 42 Although similar results were obtained in our study, our subjects showed a slightly greater increase in axial length after 2 years, which was 0.45 ± 0.21 mm in the OK group versus 0.71 ± 0.40 mm in the control group. This discrepancy in the amount of axial length elongation between studies may be related to differences in baseline refractions, because our subjects had a lower degree of myopia than those of other studies. It has been reported in a previous study that OK is less effective in slowing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discrepancy in Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness in Healthy Adults with Isometropia. AU - Kang, Hae M.. AU - Kim, Suk J.. AU - Koh, Hyoung J.. AU - Lee, Christopher S.. AU - Lee, Sung C.. PY - 2015/11. Y1 - 2015/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84930817420&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84930817420&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.05.015. DO - 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.05.015. M3 - Article. C2 - 26077577. AN - SCOPUS:84930817420. VL - 122. SP - 2363. EP - 2364. JO - Ophthalmology. JF - Ophthalmology. SN - 0161-6420. IS - 11. ER - ...
Aim: To determine the correlation between Ocular axial length (AL) and body mass index (BMI) in a black population.. Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out in Port Harcourt City LGA, Nigeria. Subjects were selected using multistage random sampling with inclusion criteria of Visual Acuity , 6/18, age greater than 18 years with no history of past ocular surgeries or trauma. Socio demographic data was obtained through an interviewer based structured proforma. Data obtained included age, sex, tribe, occupation and level of education. Weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured using a standard height and weight automated scale (SECA 769,220). Ocular examinations done included visual acuity, applanation tonometry and ophthalmoscopy. Axial length (AL) was measured using Amplitude (A) scan ultrasonography (SONOMED PACSCAN 300AP). Data obtained from one eye of the subjects were analyzed using SPSS (Version 17), and p value was set at ≤ 0.05.. Results: Four hundred ...
The strengths of our study include standardized protocols for obtaining refraction and lens opacity measurements. There are some limitations to this study that may have affected the results. First, our study is cross-sectional in nature and the temporality of myopia and cognitive dysfunction is not clear. Second, only ethnic Malay adults were examined in this study and the findings may vary in other ethnic groups. Third, although the AMT is a well-validated screening instrument for cognitive impairment, 34 misclassification may occur, likely biasing OR estimates toward the null hypothesis and inflating their SEs, 35 thereby making actual associations more difficult to detect. Fourth, there may be residual confounding due to factors that we have not controlled for (e.g., depressive symptoms, general well-being, and status of Alzheimers disease or Parkinsons disease), and categorization of continuous exposure variables (e.g., education level, hours of reading/writing). Fifth, the current sample ...
Tobacco pipe size: Length: about 5.7in / 14.5 cm . Bowl Height: about 0.98 in /2.5cm. Bowl Width: about 1.0 in / 2.5 cm. Chamber Diameter:about0.59 in / 1.5cm. Weight:about 0.05 lb / 22g.EASY TO CLEAN: Easy to clean and smooth to touch ...
This will be a library of Dr. Francis Youngs research papers. A List of Franks Papers: TITLES BEING ADDED: Title, Document #, Number of Pages Ocular Biometry. Y, 2, 287-292 Eskimo Error Refractive Transmission. Y, 5, 276-285 The Effect of Restricted Visual Space on the Primate Eye. Y, 15, 367-374 The Distribution of Refractive Errors…
Aim: To assess the accuracy and signal quality of axial length measurements by partial coherence laser interferometry (PCI) for optical biometry in eyes with conventional silicone oil (SO) or heavy silicone oil (HSO) as endotamponade.. Methods: We included 26 eyes with SO endotamponade (SO, n = 15; HSO, n = 11) using a Zeiss IOLMaster for measurement of axial length the day before and at least 6 weeks after SO removal. We analysed the intra-individual deviation between both measurements and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a marker for signal quality. We included 16 contralateral eyes without history of vitreoretinal surgery to act as the control group.. Results: The mean axial length was 24.76 (SD 2.07) mm (SO 24.63 (SD 2.12) mm, HSO 24.93 (SD 2.10) mm, control 24.95 (SD 2.61) mm) before and 24.75 (SD 1.96) mm after oil removal with a mean intra-individual deviation of 0.13 (SD 0.11) mm (SO 0.13 (SD 0.12) mm, HSO 0.13 (SD 0.09) mm, control 0.02 (SD 0.01) mm) while SNR at baseline was 5.7 (SD 3.5) ...
Results The mean choroidal thickness at the fovea prior to smoking was 301.1±63.1 μm, which decreased to 284.2±56.7 μm at 1 h and 270.8±80.0 μm at 3 h following smoking (p=0.001). The mean choroidal thickness was significantly decreased following smoking at all five extrafoveal points. The difference in choroidal thickness was not statistically significant at 1 and 3 h of smoking at all six points. In the control group, the mean baseline choroidal thickness at the fovea was 270.6±57.9 μm, which was 272.5±52.4 μm at 1 h and 273.8±57.4 μm at 3 h (p=0.816).. ...
0070] Transthoracic Echocardiography in conscious mice was performed using Sequoia Acuson C256 (Malvern, Pa.) ultrasound machine, equipped with a frequency bandwidth of 15 MHz (Am J Physiol, 1999. 277(5 Pt 2): p. H1967-74; Cancer Res, 2003. 63(20): p. 6602-6). The two-dimensional (2-D) and M-mode echocardiogram were obtained in the parasternal short and long axis view of the left ventricle (LV) at the level of the papillary muscles and sweep speed of 200 mm/sec. Using the M-mode echocardiogram image, four parameters were measured: (i) left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end of diastole (LVPWD), (ii) interventricular septa) thickness at end of diastole (IVSD), (iii) left ventricle (LV) chamber diameter at end of diastole (LVEDD), and (iv) left ventricle chamber diameter at end of systole (LVESD). All measurements were performed according to the guidelines set by the American Echocardiography Society. For each mouse, three to five values for each measurement were obtained and averaged for ...
38 eyes from 38 patients with acute NAION (less than 14 days of initial symptom), 38 uninvolved fellow eyes and 76 eyes from 38 healthy age and sex matched subjects were included at a single academic hospital. Choroidal thickness was measured by enhanced depth imaging (EDI) of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Peripapillary choroidal thickness was measured at 1000 and 1500 microns from bruck´s membrane opening (BMO) at the superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal directions, using horizontal and vertical raster scans, centreed at optic nerve head. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured on horizontal raster scan at centre, and 500 microns apart in temporal and nasal sides. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform complex layer was measured using automated segmentation tool of OCT device. Statistical analyses were used to compare choroidal thickness among NAION eyes, uninvolved fellow eyes and control eyes ...
4) subjects will be randomly assigned to one of four groups, consisting of 60 subjects each, each group will be assigned one of four study spectacles.. The study spectacles for all participants will have the optimal lens corrections for both eyes.. Group 1 participants will wear spectacles with lenses tinted to blocks red light.. Group 2 participants will wear spectacles with lenses that have a holographic diffuser on surface of and that are tinted to reduce the light intensity by the same amount that the red-blocking tint does.. Group 3 participants will wear spectacles that are tinted to block red light and that have a holographic diffuser.. Group 4 participants will wear spectacles that are tinted to reduces the light intensity by the same amount that the red-blocking tint does.. Participants will wear the study glasses for 18 months. Axial length measurements will be taken twice prior to when subjects begin wearing the glasses and once every three month thereafter. ...
In cataract surgery, vision is improved by replacing the eyes own cloudy lens with a new clear intraocular lens (IOL). IOLs come in different powers and sizes to compensate for each patients individual needs. For best vision after cataract surgery, precise measurements must be taken to determine which IOL to implant.. The Lenstar LS900 is an efficient painless test, performed by a technician in Dr. Lanes office.. Payment is not covered by OHIP, and is due at the time of the Lenstar exam. A receipt for health insurance or tax purposes will be issued. Methods of payment include Interac, VISA, or Mastercard.. ...
ANTERION® utilizes the power of high-resolution swept-source OCT images to provide the most important anterior segment examinations and measurements in one modular, upgradeable platform.. The result: A single workflow-efficient solution that brings together corneal topography and tomography, anterior segment metrics, axial length measurement and IOL calculation to transform the day-to-day routines in cataract and refractive surgery as well as cornea and glaucoma diagnostics.. ANTERION delivers high-quality images and comprehensive measurements while minimizing the time needed to perform multiple anterior segment examinations. The acquisition time is really fast with no need to move the patient. At the same time, visual confirmation of all measurements with high-resolution swept-source OCT images provides diagnostic confidence.. ANTERION is based on the Imaging App for a high-resolution visualization of the entire anterior segment, and adjusts to various clinical needs featuring three optional ...
Read these three clinical complex atropine cases where general health conditions required careful consideration of atropine prescribing.
Biometrics are an integral part of the modern FinTech landscape and this was reflected in the panels, keynotes, showcases and conversations at Money20/20...
The impact of pregnancy on the choroid is still under investigation. The aim of this study is to compare choroidal thickness measurements of healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). This cross-sectional study included 122 eyes of 61 women, divided into two groups: 27 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 34 age-matched healthy non-pregnant women. Choroidal thickness was measured using Enhanced Depth Imaging OCT at ten different locations: at the fovea and every 500 µm from the fovea up to 2500 µm temporally and up to 2000 µm nasally. There were no significant differences in the ten measurements of choroidal thickness comparing both groups. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 304.1 + 9.6 µm in the control group and 318.1 + 15.6 µm in the pregnant women group (p = 0.446). There was also no statistically significant association between gestational age and choroidal thickness measurements in the
PubMed journal article: Distribution of ocular perfusion pressure and its relationship with open-angle glaucoma: the singapore malay eye study. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Changes in axial length and choroidal thickness after intraocular pressure reduction resulting from trabeculectomy Shinichi Usui,1,2 Yasushi Ikuno,2 Sato Uematsu,1 Yuko Morimoto,1 Yoshiaki Yasuno,3 Yasumasa Otori11National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan; 3Computational Optics Group, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, JapanPurpose: To evaluate changes in axial length and choroidal thickness after trabeculectomy.Patients and methods: Fourteen patients under 80 years of age with glaucoma, were enrolled. The choroid was imaged using prototypical high-penetration optic coherence tomography (OCT) and the thickness was measured. Axial length, choroidal thickness, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured bilaterally at 3 pm 1 day before and 6 days after trabeculectomy. The choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and four other locations (2 mm superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal to
Orthokeratology Lenses are hard contact lenses which are specifically worn overnight during sleep. This method was first developed in the 1960s to correct myopia without glasses.. The Ortho-K Lenses work by temporarily moulding and flattening the corneas shape so light rays entering the eyes are more focused on the retina, this sharpening vision. The user can go about his/her activities the next day without spectacles and glasses, but the effect only lasts for a day and he/she will have to wear the Ortho-K lens again at night to achieve the same effect the next morning.. Therefore, Ortho-K does not actually treat, control nor reduce myopia. It only temporarily reshapes the cornea into a flatter curvature to overcome near-sightedness. Although Ortho-K lenses can be worn for temporary correction for myopia, most ophthalmologists will not recommend Ortho-K lenses as a means of controlling childhood myopia progression.. ...
Myopia progression is the progressive increase in the amount of nearsightedness in children due to eyeball elongation (axial elongation).
The fishery is also important to the national economy and contributes to improving the trade balance. In 2012, this sector contributed 7.5% towards the GDP of the primary sector and 2.2% towards the total GDP. It also generates direct and indirect jobs for 17% of the working population. Of note is the fact that the impacts of climate change have caused many farmers to turn to the fishery for their livelihoods. This has led to an increase in the numbers of artisanal fishermen while also threatening fishery resources. In some aquatic environments, in addition to resources being overexploited, new environmental conditions have been created by certain activities (for example, the establishment of dams in the Senegal River delta zone has favored the proliferation of certain species, such as Typha domingensis). In marine and coastal ecosystems, the high value placed on certain species, overfishing and an increase in population along the coast are negatively impacting resources (such factors have led ...
3D swept-source OCT detected FCE in 9 eyes (7.8 %). The 3D scanning protocol ‎allowed for detection of small extrafoveal excavations and the 3D segmentation method ‎coupled with en-face scans allowed for clear visualization of the morphology of the ‎excavations. In 5 eyes with FCE, unusual choroidal tissue was detected beneath the ‎FCE, bridging between the bottom of FCE and the outer choroidal boundary. In addition, ‎three of those five eyes showed a suprachoroidal space below the FCE, as if the outer ‎boundary of choroid is pulled inward by this bridging tissue. FCE was often seen within ‎the leakage point and choroidal hyperpermeability. Eyes with FCE were more myopic ‎‎(-4.42 ± 2.92 diopters), and the subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly thinner ‎‎(301.3 ± 60.1 µm), as compared to control CSC eyes (P = .001 and .036 respectively ...
This briefing looks at how participatory immersion techniques can be used to promote advocacy in policy planning, focussing specifically on gaining insight into the situation of the poor. Senior staff in aid agencies are involved in daily decisions about policy and practice which have direct impact on the lives of poor people. But in a rapidly changing world, how can they be sure that they are basing those decisions on up-to-date information about what poor people want and would consider to be most helpful? REALISE is a participatory approach to learning, whereby staff from policy institutions and donor agencies spend a few days living and working with host families in a poor community. This enables them to engage in critical self-reflection both on their own and in a facilitated group and can bring long-term benefits to the practice of development. The experience increases motivation and commitment and the personal contact ensures that poor peopleÆs voices and perspectives are heard and ...
The Library actively supports the Universitys mission by providing integrated and timely access to high quality scholarly resources, an inspiring environment for intellectual growth and discovery, with responsive and outreaching services... [read more ]. ...
Health,(PRWEB) September 13 2013 The Global Biometrics Technology Market (2010-2015) - Market Forecast by Products End-User Application and Geography analyzes the biometrics market by different biometrics technologies and applications and studies the major market drivers restraints and opportunities in regions such as North America Asia Europe and Rest of Worl,Biometrics,Technology,Market,(Biometric,Devices,,Biometric,Products,,Biometric,Fingerprint,Equipment),Worth,$11,229.3,Million,in,2015,-,New,Report,by,MarketsandMarkets,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
PalmScan A2000 USB AScan Biometer gives doctors quick results to measure thicknesses of the anterior chamber, lens, and axial eye length to calculate IOL for a patient.
The conference Next Step in Identity Technologies: Biometrics and Beyond was held last month in Fairmont, WV to discuss the future of biometrics in the country.
In Vivo Distraction Force and Length Measurements of Growing Rods: Which Factors Influence the Ability to Lengthen? Noordeen, Hilali M.; Shah, Suken A.; Elsebaie, Hazem B.; Garrido, Enrique; Farooq, Najma; Al Mukhtar, Mohannad Spine. 36(26):2299-2303, December 15, 2011.
This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Well assume youre ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish.Accept Reject Read More ...
However, as we think about the possible structures that data may take up, it is clear that the matter may be far more complex. For instance, the moment that our data are in more than two or three dimensions, the moment, in other words, that more than three variables describe each point in our data, we have difficulty in recognising what the data show. And the moment that the data take up forms in which groups ... ...
BALTIMORE - At this rate, the Red Sox are going to have to step up their overall game if they are going to keep ahead of this Baltimore Oriol
PurposeRecent studies have found a choroidal thickening in amblyopic eyes and suggested that there might be a relationship between the choroid and amblyopia. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a six-month treatment of amblyopia on choroidal thickness in anisometropic hyperopic amblyopic children. ...
The present study looked at the CT in POAG subjects (cases) compared with normal healthy subjects (controls) using SD-OCT and SS-OCT at the peripapillary and subfoveal locations. In our study, the CT measured on SD-OCT in cases was found to be thicker compared with controls in both peripapillary and macular area, however this difference was not statistically significant. The lower confidence limit of mean difference at all the points was in negative values on SD-OCT and a few points in SS-OCT, implying that in few patients the CT was thin in cases compared with controls. Similarly, a meta-analysis by Zhang et al (evaluating 22 studies) compared CT in glaucoma and normal subjects using EDI mode SD-OCT and found no significant difference in CT in POAG and normal subjects.6 This observation on SD-OCT might be due to poor sclerochoroidal delineation.. On SS-OCT, we found thicker CT in cases compared with controls in peripapillary and macular area, but only PPCT was statistically significantly ...
PURPOSE: Proper refractive eye growth depends on several features of the visual image and requisite retinal pathways. In this study, we determined the contribution of rod pathways to normal refractive development and form deprivation (FD) myopia by testing Gnat1-/- mice, which lack functional rods due to a mutation in rod transducin-α. METHODS: Refractive development was measured in Gnat1-/- (n = 30-36) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 5-9) from 4 to 12 weeks of age. FD was induced monocularly from 4 weeks of age using head-mounted diffuser goggles (Gnat1-/-, n = 9-10; WT, n = 7-8). Refractive state and ocular biometry were obtained weekly using a photorefractor, 1310 nm optical coherence tomography, and partial coherence interferometry. We measured retinal dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC, using HPLC. RESULTS: During normal development, the refractions of WT mice started at 5.36 ± 0.68 diopters (D) and became more hyperopic before plateauing at 7.78 ± 0.64 D. In contrast, refractions in ...
title: Changes in retinal microvasculature and retinal layer thickness in association with apolipoprotein E genotype in Alzheimers disease, doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-80892-z, category: Article
The effect of myopic defocus on myopia progression was assessed in a two-year prospective study on 94 myopes aged 9{14 years, randomly allocated to an undercorrected group or a fully corrected control group. The 47 experimental subjects were blurred by approximately +0.75 D (blurring VA to 6/12), while the controls were fully corrected. Undercorrection produced more rapid myopia progression and axial elongation (ANOVA, F(1,374)=14.32, p,0.01). Contrary to animal studies, myopic defocus speeds up myopia development in already myopic humans. Myopia could be caused by a failure to detect the direction of defocus rather than by a mechanism exhibiting a zero-point error ...
This prospective, cross-sectional and comparative study include 31 eyes of 31 patients with nanophthalmos and 31 eyes of 31 healty subjects (control group). Subfoveal choroidal thickness and central macular thicness (CMT) were measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering) with enhanced depth imaging (EDI) and fast macular thickness mode. Also, all participants underwent a standardised ocular examination including central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), refractive errors measurements ...
An A-scan ultrasound and IOL Master ocular biometry are used to provide gold standard accurate measurements for intraocular lens implant powers used in cataract surgery. Ultrasonic and light waves are used to measure dimensions of the eye and calculate the required lens power to help you achieve clear vision after your surgery.. ...
Ophthalmic Exams Optical Coherence Tomography Visual Acuity Test Digital Fundus Photography Fluorescein Angiography Axial Length Measurement
Over the years, a range of different environmental factors have been proposed as potentially playing a role in human myopia development, with factors related to near-work, education and academic achievement being a major focus of many studies.[6] More recently, perhaps spurred on by the sometimes equivocal findings of studies examining the association between myopia and near work, a shift in the focus of refractive error research has occurred, with a move away from traditional near work measures and a broader focus on additional potential environmental factors (e.g. outdoor activities).[7] Evidence has been emerging from both human epidemiological studies, and research with animals, that ambient light exposure may be an important additional environmental factor that plays a role in myopia. Animal studies demonstrate that normal eye growth appears to be influenced by environmental light levels, since rearing young chickens in dim ambient light environments has been shown to result in more rapid ...
There are 10 schools offering graduate degrees in Biometry, Biometrics. Carnegie Mellon University had highest number of international students receiving a Masters degree. Carnegie Mellon University had the most women graduates in this program. Job outlook for Biometry, Biometrics Biometry, Biometrics is projected to grow 10 percent from 2016 to 2026, faster than average for all occupations Median pay for Biometry, Biometrics in 2018 was 119850$. The number of jobs were 54780.
... Introduces new corporate product offerings and international distribu... markets. ...JERICHO N.Y. Aug. 18 /- bioMETRX Inc. (OTCB...Sequiam Biometrics (Pty) Ltd. now bioMETRX S.A. is a leadingprovid...,bioMETRX,,Inc.,Acquires,Assets,of,Sequiam,Biometrics,(Pty),Ltd.,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
In Kantarci FA, Tatar MG, Uslu H, et al. A Pilot Study of Choroidal Thickness in Chronic Smokers. Retina 2016;36:986-991, Dr. Emine Esra Karaca was incorrectly added as a co-author. Dr. Karaca did not assist with this paper in any way and does not wish to be associated with the article. ...
Learn about Florida International University biometrics. As the entrance requirements for engineering programs vary, learn about the various specialization options available.
just curious if taking a blood thinner would help move gear throughout your body faster instead of sitting in the injected area for a period of time aching ?
Having trouble viewing this email? View it as a Web page. You are subscribed to CDCs Immunizations Hepatitis B Coordinators email subscription service. This email serves to inform you that the contact information for the state of California has been updated and is now available. The CDC has reached over 1.3 million subscribers. Thank you…
A new study revealed that artificial sweeteners may be causing weight gain and other health issues. An expert claims that these sweeteners disturb the bodys ability to count calories and might simulate hunger.
Axial Length of the eye affects exophthalmometer reading. Pseudoproptosis may be seen in severe myopia. "Exophthalmometer in ... "Myopic proptosis and the associated changes in axial components of the eye". Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 43 (6): 525-9. PMID ... Exophthalmometers can also identify enophthalmos (retraction of the eye into the orbit), a sign of blow-out fracture or certain ... An exophthalmometer is an instrument used for measuring the degree of forward displacement of the eye in exophthalmos. The ...
Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eye's axial length Refractive myopia is attributed to the condition of the ... Scleral buckles, used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye. Index ... Vukojević N, Sikić J, Curković T, Juratovac Z, Katusić D, Sarić B, Jukić T (2005). "Axial eye length after retinal detachment ... Upon routine examination of the eyes, the vast majority of myopic eyes appear structurally identical to nonmyopic eyes. Onset ...
Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eye's axial length.[50] ... Scleral buckles, used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye.[61] ... Because the most significant cause of myopia is the increase in axial length of the eye, the retina must stretch out to cover ... with eyes getting shut", from μύειν myein "to shut the eyes" and ὤψ ōps "eye, look, sight" (GEN ὠπός ōpos).[120][121][122][123] ...
"Ultrasonic observation of eyes in premature babies. Part 6: Growth curves of ocular axial length and its components (author's ... Human eyes are formed in such a way that each eye reflects a stimulus at a slightly different angle thereby producing two ... Newborn's eyes move in the same direction only about half of the time. The strength of eye muscle control is positively ... sensitivity to bright light Constant eye turning Strabismus Nystagmus Amblyopia Photophobia Tumor in the eye Cataract Eye exam ...
The power of phakic lens is independent of the axial length of the eye. Rather it depends on central corneal power, anterior ... because the eye's natural lens is left untouched. Intraocular lenses that are implanted into eyes after the eye's natural lens ... Both eyes can usually be done on the same day. Steroid antibiotic eye drops are usually prescribed for 2-4 weeks after surgery ... A phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) is a special kind of intraocular lens that is implanted surgically into the eye to correct ...
... is the length of the eye (mm). The SRK II formula adjusts the A constant utilized depending on the axial length: increasing the ... Eye's axial length (AL) Corneal power (K) Postoperative IOL position within the eye known as estimated lens position (ELP) The ... While this is a convenient way to determine the axial length for most normal eyes, errors in measurement almost invariably ... This relationship is changed in LASIK eyes. Most IOL power formulas use the axial length and keratometric reading (K) to ...
Refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before and after the onset of myopia. Investigative ... National Advisory Eye Council of the National Eye Institute (NEI)/National Institutes of Health (2000-04); Study Chair for the ... Between-eye asymmetry in keratoconus. Cornea. 2002;21:671-9. Walline JJ, Jones LA, Mutti DO, Zadnik K. A randomized trial of ... Normal eye growth in emmetropic schoolchildren. Optometry and Vision Science: official publication of the American Academy of ...
... is a relatively large synziphosurine, ranging about 7 cm to 10 cm in full body length. The prosoma is covered by a ... and axial nodes. However, the opisthosoma is most likely 11-segmented in origin, with the first segment being highly reduced (a ... semicircular carapace with blunt genal cornua (posterolateral corners). There is possible evidence of lateral eyes located just ...
... reduction in eye axial length, and narrow iridocorneal angles. Eyes from individuals with angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) often ... The clinical features of this condition include extreme hyperopia due to short axial length with essentially normal anterior ... The gene is located on long arm of chromosome 2 (2q37.1). The encoded protein is 603 amino acid residues in length with a ... The fundus of the eye shows crowded optical discs, tortuous vessels and an abnormal foveal avascular zone. Mice homozygous for ...
Eyes were crescent shaped providing an almost 360° view, but only in the horizontal plane. Its elongate thorax was composed of ... Pygidium is small with one or two axial rings and may be partially or completely fused to the last thoracic segment. The axis ... Palpebral lobes are short and of variable length. Hypostoma in some species is fused with the rostral plate, e.g. in ... Genal spines are placed at half-length and directed at about 45° outward and backward, curving slightly further backwards and ...
The visual surface of the eye is rather small (about 20% of the length of the cephalon), with the front about halflength of the ... with the front straight and confluent with the eye ridges. The occipital ring is about as wide as the border and the axial ... consisting almost fully of the axis and post axial boss, with two vaguely defined axial rings. During the ontogenetic ... anterior of the visual surface is parallel to the midline or converges slightly forward and from the back of the eye diverges ...
The optics of the eye including its refractive power and axial length also play a major role in retinal image size. Aniseikonia ... The person then closes one eye, and then the other. The person should notice that the target appears larger to the eye that it ... Eyes in the Storm-President Hopkins' Dilemma: The Dartmouth Eye Institute, Norwich, Vermont: Norwich Book Press, p. 288 ... having significantly different refractive errors between each eye) or antimetropia (being myopic (nearsighted) in one eye and ...
2005). "Axial eye length after retinal detachment surgery". Collegium antropologicum. 29 (Suppl 1): 25-27. PMID 16193671.. ... Night Driving - The Facts. OR Eye care advice for driving in the dark January 26, 2005. [PDF]}- ... Morgan I, Rose K (2005). "How genetic is school myopia?". Prog Retin Eye Res. 24 (1): 1-38. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2004.06. ... 2005). "In a Matter of Minutes, the Eye Can Know Which Way to Grow". Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 46 (7): ...
pygidium) has six axial rings that decrease in size backwards and four or five pairs of rearward pointing marginal spines. ... Narrow occular ridges curve backwards from the front of the glabella to the small, outwardly-bowed eyes. The librigenae narrow ... Cephalon, thorax and pygidium are of approximately equal length. Olenoides serratus is one of about twenty species of which the ...
... difference has been hypothesized to originate from a natural decrease in cone density with the increase in eye axial length ... While it is able to image the retina in real time, it has issues with reflections from eye astigmatism and the cornea. Eye ... Analysis of cone packing density before AOSLO was only possible on mounted eyes from eye donor banks. As this method could not ... Bessho K, Fujikado T, Mihashi T, Yamaguchi T, Nakazawa N, Tano Y. "Photoreceptor images of normal eyes and of eyes with macular ...
Axial hypermetropia occur when the axial length of eyeball is too short. About 1 mm decrease in axial length cause 3 diopters ... tiredness of eyes etc. The common symptom is eye strain. Difficulty seeing with both eyes (binocular vision) may occur, as well ... It may occur when the axial length of eyeball is too short, or if the lens or cornea is flatter than normal. Changes in ... Ramjit, Sihota; Radhika, Tandon (15 July 2015). "Refractive errors of the eye". Parsons' diseases of the eye (22nd ed.). ...
... as choroidal thickness decreases with age and increasing axial length of the eye causing near-sightedness (myopia). Within the ... Pachychoroid disorders of the macula represent a group of diseases affecting the central part of the retina of the eye, the ... Anti-VEGF therapy, which is injected directly into the eye (intravitreally), has proven to be an effective therapy in this case ... eyes are classified as having an uncomplicated pachychoroid. It is assumed that a large part of the population has a thickened ...
On observation for increasing axial length was one of the salient features of Marfan syndrome also resulting in TGF-β supported ... deficiency of LRP1 which was responsible to perturbation of TGF-β regulation and might cause abnormal ECM remodeling in the eye ... PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is used for genotyping of LRPAP1 intron 5 insertion/deletion. The ...
Later procedures focused on modifying the axial length of the eye, by preventing elongation and staphyloma progression by ... Eye. Ward, B., Tarutta, E., & Mayer, M. (2009). The efficacy and safety of posterior pole buckles in the control of progressive ... in early literature aimed at shortening the length of the eyeball by resecting a ring of sclera from the equator of the eye. ... Eye, 23(12), 2169-2174. Thompson, F., Scleral Reinforcement. Chapter 10., in Myopia Surgery. 1990, Macmillan: New York. p. 267- ...
With one eye of average size, the asymmetry often becomes much more severe as the child ages. An axial length of less than 16 ... An ultrasound may also be conducted to confirm whether the axial length of the eye is clinically below average (i.e. at least 2 ... as a small eye is usually far-sighted. When one of the eyes is unaffected, caution should be taken to guard this 'good' eye and ... While the axis of an adult human eye has an average length of about 23.8 mm, a diagnosis of microphthalmia generally ...
... whenever the disparity between the two eyes is due to a difference in axial length of the eyes. When a refractive error is ... Knapp's Rule states that lenses placed at the anterior focal point of the eye, generally 15 mm in front of the eye, will create ... One difficulty, then, in prescribing glasses to an individual with a disparity in refractive error between the two eyes is that ... a disparity in image size between the two eyes may be created. There is some controversy as to the soundness of Knapp's Rule. v ...
That condition of the normal eye is achieved when the refractive power of the cornea and the axial length of the eye balance ... "Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) Eye Surgery" Mutti, DO (2005). "Axial Growth and Changes in Lenticular and Corneal Power ... such as an eye chart test). For example, on a Snellen chart test, emmetropic eyes score at "6/6"(m) or "20/20"(ft) vision, ... eyes or hyperopic (far-sighted) eyes would score worse, e.g. 20/40 (visual acuity roughly half normal). Exceptionally acute ...
The glabella is wide at its base, normally parallel sided but may taper gently or be at its widest at half length. Glabellar ... The pygidial axis is long and strongly tapered with 10 or more axial rings. The segmentation of the axis, however, is often ... All Weymouthiidae lack eyes. The thorax consists of three rings when known (Mallagnostus, Marocconus, Serrodiscus, Tannudiscus ... and forms with a primitive occipital structure but with a greatly increased numbers of axial segments. KOBAYASHI T. 1943. Brief ...
Exceedingly small changes in axial length of the eyeball (18.6-19.2 μm) are caused by the action of the ciliary muscle during ... Grierson, Ian (2000). "Exercises for Eyes as an Alternative to Glasses". The Eye Book: Eyes and Eye Problems Explained. ... crossed-eye, lazy eye, and to more serious eye conditions such as cataracts and glaucoma. His therapies were based on these ... "eye exercises, muscle relaxation techniques, biofeedback, eye patches, or eye massages", "alone or in combinations". No ...
The ostrich has the largest eye of any land vertebrate, with an axial length of 50 mm (2 in), twice that of the human eye. Bird ... Nocturnal birds have eyes optimised for visual sensitivity, with large corneas relative to the eye's length, whereas diurnal ... a tough white collagen fibre layer which surrounds the rest of the eye and supports and protects the eye as a whole. The eye is ... The shorter focal length of shearwater eyes give them a smaller, but brighter, image than is the case for pigeons, so the ...
Many non-proprietary co-axial power plugs are 5.5 mm (0.22 in) in outside diameter (OD) and 9.5 mm (0.37 in) in length. Two pin ... If the size is not known, it is difficult to distinguish by eye or measurement between the 2.1mm and 2.5mm ID plugs; some ...
This short length is achieved by the spiral valve with multiple turns within a single short section instead of a very long tube ... These markings run from their eyes to their first dorsal fin and then across the rest of their bodies. Both dorsal fins are ... Port Jackson Shark movements have been quantified using tri-axial accelerometers. These sensors function like Fitbits, but for ... Identification of this species is very easy due to the pattern of harness-like markings that cross the eyes, run along the back ...
The eyes of Nectocaris would have had a similar visual acuity to modern Nautilus (if they lacked a lens) or squid (if they did ... Nectocaris had a flattened, kite-shaped body with a fleshy fin running along the length of each side. The small head had two ... Muscle blocks surrounded the axial cavity, and are now preserved as dark blocks in the lateral body. The fins also show dark ... It has an ovate trunk region and a large muscular foot, and a head with stalked eyes and a pair of long tentacles. The trunk ...
Axial sculpture is absent or feebly developed. The aperture is ovate. The columellar margin is smoot. The outer lip has a ... The eyes are located externally near the base of cylindrical tentacles. The radula formula is 1-0-R-0-1 The duplex radular ... This family consists of moderately sized shells, usually between 20 and 30 mm, but in Nihonia maxima the length of shell can ...
Because its eyes were comparable in size to those of modern day-living (diurnal) lemurs, Pachylemur was probably diurnal as ... Unlike ruffed lemurs, the fore- and hindlimbs of Pachylemur were nearly the same length, and therefore it was likely to be a ... Yet more recent analysis of its axial and appendicular skeleton-particularly the vertebrae and femur-suggests that it was a ... The skull of Pachylemur is relatively broad, but the orbits (eye sockets) are smaller and oriented more towards the front than ...
The points to look at are: eye position, eye symmetry and twisting of the nasal tip. ... The goal is to assess the shape of the forehead, the skull length, the width of the skull, position of the ears and the ... Radiographic analysis by performing a computed axial tomographic scan is the gold standard for diagnosing craniosynostosis.[45] ... which also poses a risk to the eyes that can be seen bulging out of the eye sockets. Other factors, such as a micrognathism and ...
The shielding of photon beam is therefore exponential (with an attenuation length being close to the radiation length of the ... Computed tomography or CT scan (previously known as CAT scan, the "A" standing for "axial") uses ionizing radiation (x-ray ... axial, coronal, and sagittal) which can be further processed to produce a three dimensional image. ...
Kidney problems can have significant impact on quality and length of life, and so psychological support, health education and ... These may include Medical ultrasonography/ultrasound, computed axial tomography (CT), scintigraphy (nuclear medicine), ...
... eyes and a pineal eye.[32] The discoveries of synapsid-like openings (see below) in the skull roof of the skulls of several ... The new section will however contain cartilage rather than bone, and will never grow to the same length as the original tail. ... In squamates, the lungs are ventilated almost exclusively by the axial musculature. This is also the same musculature that is ... Varanids, and a few other lizard species, employ buccal pumping as a complement to their normal "axial breathing". This allows ...
... so the focal length of the lens altered to function in air. The eye was now exposed to a relatively dry environment rather than ... Axial skeletonEdit. With the move from water to land, the spine had to resist the bending caused by body weight and had to ... Changes in the eye came about because the behavior of light at the surface of the eye differs between an air and water ... A notable characteristic that make a tetrapod's skull different from a fish's are the relative frontal and rear portion lengths ...
The length of the pathway varies depending on the level of difficulty (1-10) and the matrices themselves may vary in length ... for example one axial line determinant is gravity (McNamara & Shelton, 2001; Kim & Penn, 2004). Axial lines aid everyone in ... and eye movements. For example, participants completed both the VPT and the Corsi Blocks Task in a selective interference ... The sequence length increases each trial until the participant is no longer able to replicate the pattern correctly. The test ...
MRI (axial FLAIR) demonstrates increased T2 signal within the posterior part of the internal capsule, consistent with the ... the muscles responsible for eye movement) are usually spared[33][c] until the final stages of the disease.[35] ... Non-invasive ventilation may result in both improved quality and length of life.[5] Mechanical ventilation can prolong survival ... in which they are completely paralyzed except for their eye muscles.[14] About half of the people with ALS who choose to ...
These are made by doping a length of fiber with the rare-earth mineral erbium and pumping it with light from a laser with a ... Intermodal dispersion, caused by the different axial speeds of different transverse modes, limits the performance of multi-mode ... Single-mode fiber cables are commonly available in 12 km (7.5 mi) lengths, minimizing the number of splices required over a ... Because the effect of dispersion increases with the length of the fiber, a fiber transmission system is often characterized by ...
Improving axial resolution[edit]. The point spread function of the pinhole is an ellipsoid, several times as long as it is wide ... The objective was a simple lens with a focal length of 8.5 mm. As opposed to all earlier and most later systems, the sample was ... In 1940 Hans Goldmann, ophthalmologist in Bern, Switzerland, developed a slit lamp system to document eye examinations.[14] ... This limits the axial resolution of the microscope. One technique of overcoming this is 4π microscopy where incident and or ...
Horses bred to gallop need a good length of croup and good length of hip for proper attachment of muscles, and so unlike angle ... Occipital Atlanto-Axial Malformation (OAAM). This is a condition where the occiput, atlas and axis vertebrae in the neck and at ... Many Arabians also have a slight forehead bulge between their eyes, called the jibbah by the Bedouin, that adds additional ... The hip angle is determined by the attachment of the ilium to the spine, the structure and length of the femur, and other ...
Runs along the length of the penis on its ventral (underneath) surface. It is about 15-16 cm in length, and travels through the ... General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, superficial anatomy of ... There is inadequate data for the typical length of the male urethra; however, a study of 109 men showed an average length of ... The length of a male's urethra, and the fact it contains a prominent bend, makes catheterization more difficult. The integrity ...
In vapor axial deposition, a short seed rod is used, and a porous preform, whose length is not limited by the size of the ... which ensures laser eye safety in the event of a broken fiber, can also effectively halt propagation of the fiber fuse.[80] In ... A cleave is made at a required length, to get as close to the polished piece already inside the connector. The gel surrounds ... In outside vapor deposition or vapor axial deposition, the glass is formed by flame hydrolysis, a reaction in which silicon ...
An operation called a slide tracheoplasty can open up the rings and rejoin them as wider rings, shortening the length of the ... Tracheal diverticulum as seen on axial CT imaging. Tracheal agenesis[17] is a rare birth defect in which the trachea fails to ... Behind the trachea, along its length, sits the oesophagus, followed by connective tissue and the vertebral column.[2] To its ... An adult's trachea has an inner diameter of about 1.5 to 2 centimetres (0.59 to 0.79 in) and a length of about 10 to 11 ...
This short length is achieved by the spiral valve with multiple turns within a single short section instead of a long tube-like ... The eye of a swordfish can generate heat to better cope with detecting their prey at depths of 2000 feet. Fish swim by ... via contractions of longitudinal red muscle fibers and obliquely oriented white muscle fibers within the segmented axial ... Fish eyes are similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens. Their retinas ...
General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, superficial anatomy of ... The outermost layer of the esophagus is the adventitia in most of its length, with the abdominal part being covered in serosa. ... In most fish, the esophagus is extremely short, primarily due to the length of the pharynx (which is associated with the gills ... in length, and carries food to the stomach. A muscular ring, called the cardiac sphincter, connects the stomach to the ...
At the other end of the scale, the smallest extant snake is Leptotyphlops carlae, with a length of about 10.4 cm (4.1 in).[7] ... Some snakes, such as the Asian vine snake (genus Ahaetulla), have binocular vision, with both eyes capable of focusing on the ... The axial skeleton of the snakes' common ancestor, like most other tetrapods, had regional specializations consisting of ... The now extinct Titanoboa cerrejonensis snakes found were 12.8 m (42 ft) in length.[9] By comparison, the largest extant snakes ...
It is an A-mode that provides data on the length of the eye, which is a major determinant in common sight disorders, especially ... Deeper structures such as liver and kidney are imaged at a lower frequency 1-6 MHz with lower axial and lateral resolution as a ... Ophthalmology (eyes)Edit. In ophthalmology and optometry, there are two major forms of eye exam using ultrasound: *A-scan ... B-scan ultrasonography, or B-scan, which is a B-mode scan that produces a cross-sectional view of the eye and the orbit. It is ...
The first hyaluronan biomedical product, Healon, was developed in the 1970s and 1980s by Pharmacia, and approved for use in eye ... Hyaluronic acid can be 25,000 disaccharide repeats in length. Polymers of hyaluronic acid can range in size from 5,000 to ... whereas the smaller hydrogens assume the less-favorable axial positions. ... Hyaluronic acid has been used in various formulations to create artificial tears to treat dry eye.[44] ...
John Aubrey was one of the first to examine the site with a scientific eye in 1666, and in his plan of the monument, he ... They discovered the Mesolithic postholes dating from between 7000 and 8000 BC, as well as a 10-metre (33 ft) length of a ...
A bellows is made up of a series of one or more convolutions of metal to allow the axial, lateral, or angular deflection. ... possible to add more or less fiber material at different sections of the product by changing the fiber angles over the length ... Limit rods may be used in an expansion joint design to limit the axial compression or expansion. They allow the expansion joint ... An expansion joint is designed to allow deflection in the axial (compressive), lateral (shear), or angular (bending) ...
... since axial length and keratometry readings do not reveal a corneal or length basis for a myopic shift.[47][48] It is usually ... EyesEdit. In premature babies, signs of damage to the eye (retinopathy of prematurity, or ROP) are observed via an ... Anderson Jr, B; Shelton, DL (1987). "Axial length in hyperoxic myopia". In: Bove, Alfred A; Bachrach, Arthur J; Greenbaum, Leon ... "Journal of Community Eye Health. London: International Centre for Eye Health. 10 (22): 22-4.. ...
Capacitors are manufactured in many forms, styles, lengths, girths, and from many materials. They all contain at least two ... Axial, radial (single ended) and V-chip styles of aluminum electrolytic capacitors ...
To the naked eye, Venus appears as a white point of light brighter than any other planet or star (apart from the Sun).[123] The ... Mayer; McCullough & Sloanaker (January 1958). "Observations of Venus at 3.15-cm Wave Length". The Astrophysical Journal. 127: 1 ... Venus's minute axial tilt-less than 3°, compared to 23° on Earth-also minimises seasonal temperature variation.[77] Altitude is ... Naked eye observations of Venus during daylight hours exist in several anecdotes and records. Astronomer Edmund Halley ...
The average length of a Martian sidereal day is 24 h 37 m 22.663 s (88,642.66300 seconds based on SI units), and the length of ... Mars has an axial tilt and a rotation period similar to those of Earth. Thus it experiences seasons of spring, summer, autumn ... However, Earth and Moon would generally be visible to the naked eye when they were above the horizon at night, and the time it ... The length of time for Mars to complete one orbit around the Sun is its sidereal year, and is about 686.98 Earth solar days, or ...
An advantage of MRI is its ability to produce images in axial, coronal, sagittal and multiple oblique planes with equal ease. ... Fellowship training programs in radiology are usually 1 or 2 years in length.[6] ... metal fragments in the eyes and some metallic hardware due to the powerful magnetic fields and strong fluctuating radio signals ... With computer processing, the information can be displayed as axial, coronal and sagittal images (SPECT images, single-photon ...
An advantage of MRI is its ability to produce images in axial, coronal, sagittal and multiple oblique planes with equal ease. ... Fellowship training programs in radiology are usually one or two years in length.[11] ... metal fragments in the eyes and some metallic hardware due to the powerful magnetic fields and strong fluctuating radio signals ... With computer processing, the information can be displayed as axial, coronal and sagittal images (single-photon emission ...
... the worm's-eye view (from below), the bird's-eye view (overhead), and three-quarter-profile views.[8] ... The length of the flap is determined by placing an un-folded, un-stretched 4 × 4-inch gauze upon the wound, and with it ... The forehead flap is an axial skin flap based upon the supraorbital artery (an ophthalmic artery branch) and the supratrochlear ... Naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures - damages to the nose and the eye-sockets; and damage to the bones and the walls of the nasal ...
"Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 20 (1, pp. 9-137): 95-137. doi:10.1016/S1350-9462(00)00016-1.. ... These molecules are tilted by about 15 degrees to the fibril axis, and because of this, the axial periodicity of the fibrils is ... the length of the CS/DS proteoglycans is about 70 nm, while the KS proteoglycans are about 40 nm long. Proteoglycan protein ... "Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 49: 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2015.07.001.. ...
General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, superficial anatomy of ... a pair of compound eyes, one to three simple eyes (ocelli) and three sets of modified appendages that form the mouthparts. The ... Low frequency vibrations are detected by the lateral line system of sense organs that run along the length of the sides of fish ... The nostrils, eyes and ears are elevated above the top of the flat head enabling them to remain above the surface of the water ...
... physiology and diseases of the eye. Submissions should focus on focusing on new diagnostic and surgical techniques, instrument ... axial length of vitreous (VAL), axial length of eye (EAL), ciliary body thickness (CBT), choroidal thickness (CT), and retinal ... Effect of Hemodialysis on Eye Coats, Axial Length, and Ocular Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure. Ling ... HD impacts the thickness of the eye coats and the vitreous axial length, including the thickness of the ciliary body, choroid, ...
Abstract The cornea of one eye was opacified in two young macaque monkeys by multiple stromal injections of a suspension of ... Increase in axial length of the macaque monkey eye after corneal opacification.. ... so that after 1 year it was more than 1 mm longer than the normal eye. This difference in axial length was due to elongation of ... The result of this experiment demonstrates that opacification of the corneal has effects on axial length similar to, although ...
Accuracy and reproducibility of axial length measurement in eyes with silicone oil endotamponade ... Accuracy and reproducibility of axial length measurement in eyes with silicone oil endotamponade ... Results: The mean axial length was 24.76 (SD 2.07) mm (SO 24.63 (SD 2.12) mm, HSO 24.93 (SD 2.10) mm, control 24.95 (SD 2.61) ... Methods: We included 26 eyes with SO endotamponade (SO, n = 15; HSO, n = 11) using a Zeiss IOLMaster for measurement of axial ...
Results: : Axial length ranged between 20.80 and 22.5mm in 11 eyes, between 22.51 and 25.0mm in 11 eyes and between 25.01 and ... and axial length in a sample of healthy eyes. Methods: : RNFL thickness was measured by CirrusTM HD-OCT in 39 eyes of 39 ... M. Carbonelli, G. Savini, P. Barboni; Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Changes According to Axial Length in Healthy Eyes. ... Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Changes According to Axial Length in Healthy Eyes ...
Eye axial lengths at each eccentric gaze were compared to the axial length in primary gaze using a fixed effects regression ... instantaneous axial length elongation occurs in downgaze. Here we determine if axial length changes occur in emmetropic eyes ... Four axial length measurements were taken at 90 degree rotations around the central axis and averaged for each eye in every ... Alexander Vu, Amanda Chi, Jennifer Nguyen, Quan V Hoang; Gaze-Induced Axial Length Changes in Emmetropic Eyes as Gauged by ...
... eyes. CONCLUSIONS Axial length measurements using applanation A-scan US and IOLMaster in eyes with CSME differ statistically ... PARTICIPANTS Twenty-three healthy eyes of 23 participants and 21 eyes with CSME of 21 diabetic outpatients. METHODS The authors ... Mean AL by US and IOLMaster in healthy eyes was 23.17+/-1.07 mm (range, 21.17-25.18) and 23.25+/-1.10 mm (range, 21.17-25.26), ... This is likely a result of the fundamentally different methodology of the 2 methods in measuring eyes with a pathologically ...
Axial length a factor in phaco of microphthalmos, nanophthalmos eyes. by Healio ophthalmology • 2013/01/31. • 0 Comments ... according to a study.The retrospective analysis included 103 eyes with axial length less than 21 mm that underwent ... Despite a series of challenges and risks, phacoemulsification with IOL implantation proved safe in eyes with microphthalmos and ... Endocrinology Diagnostics Emergency Medicine ENT Exclusive Eye Health / Blindness Family Medicine/Primary Care Genetics ...
In the nondeprived eyes, the vitreous chamber depth and axial length were reduced after uPA treatment, whereas PAI-1 increased ... In the form-deprived eyes, uPA inhibited vitreous depth and axial length elongation, but PAI-1 had no effect. CONCLUSIONS The ... in the form-deprived eye and the effect of this growth factor on scleral cell proliferation and axial length. METHODS Change in ... were administered to determine the effect of TGF-beta activation on the axial length in normal and FDM eyes. RESULTS The ...
Simple method of determining the axial length of the eye. By photographing the corneal reflex in two positions of gaze and ... The measurements obtained in this way showed a high correlation with refraction in a series of 80 eyes. The axial length ... Simple method of determining the axial length of the eye. Full Text available with Trip Pro. ... Eye Signs of Neurological Disorders Full Text available with Trip Pro. Eye Signs of Neurological Disorders The author discusses ...
Axial hyperopia results when the length of the eye is too short for the eye to properly focus distance objects on the retina ... Hyperopia can be caused by the eye being too short (axial hyperopia) or by the cornea being too flat or the crystalline lens ... Emmetropization is the process by which the eye actively adjusts various components of the eye to gradually improve the focus ... If an abnormally short eye has resulted in hyperopia, exposing such an eye to retinal images partially located behind the ...
Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant influence of axial length in violation of the ISNT rule in the normal eye ... The ISNT rule should be cautiously applied when evaluating normal eyes with long axial lengths. In addition, the ISNT rule ... Seventy-seven normal eyes and 97 glaucomatous eyes were included in the study. The ISNT rule was intact in 59 (76.6%) of the ... Factors Affecting ISNT Rule Satisfaction in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes.. Moon J1,2, Park KH1,2, Kim DM1,2, Kim SH1,3. ...
Ophthalmology Instrument from Eye Hospital Equipment Acd Lens Body Length Axial Length a/B Scanner - Xuzhou Kaixin Electronic ... China Eye Hospital Equipment Acd Lens Body Length Axial Length a/B Scanner, Find details about China Ophthalmology Equipment, ... Eye Hospital Equipment Acd Lens Body Length Axial Length a/B Scanner ... Eye Hospital Equipment Acd Lens Body Length Axial Length a/B Scanner. ...
The JCRS publishes Full-length articles that are reports of completed clinical research, Laboratory Science articles that ... Comparison of groups stratified by axial length. Cho, Yang Kyeung ... Model-eye and human-eye study. Cerviño, Alejandro; Bansal, Dheeraj; Hosking, Sarah L.; More ... Meridional differences in internal dimensions of the anterior segment in human eyes evaluated with 2 imaging systems. Werner, ...
The final BCVA improved in 10 eyes (66.7%), remained unchanged in 3 eyes (20.0%), and worsened in 2 eyes (13.3%).,i, Conclusion ... Type 1 closure was observed in 13 eyes (86.7%); type 2 closure was observed in the remaining 2 eyes (13.3%). Compared to the ... MH closure was observed in all eyes (100%) following the initial surgery. ... combined with Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique is an effective treatment for large MHs in highly myopic eyes. It ...
To compare the reliability of axial eye length [AEL] measurement in silicone oil-filled phakic eyes by conventional B-scan ... Index: IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) Main subject: Vitrectomy / Prospective Studies / Ultrasonography / Eye / Axial Length, Eye ... Index: IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) Main subject: Vitrectomy / Prospective Studies / Ultrasonography / Eye / Axial Length, Eye ... Axial eye length assessment in silicone oil-filled eyes Axial eye length assessment in silicone oil-filled eyes ...
However, 1OL power and axial length measured by traditional method in silicone-filled eye is normally bias to the actual levels ... Results In normal IOP group ( T≥ 10 mmHg,29 eyes), the precision and stability of IOLMaster for axial length ( AL ) ... 15 eyes),there were too much differences in axial length mesurement and IOL power calculation between the IOLMaster and ... 29 eyes;group B<10 mmHg group, 15 eyes). IOLMaster and ocular ultrasonic measurement were used to measure the axis length ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Accuracy of user-adjusted axial length measurements with optical biometry in eyes ... Accuracy of user-adjusted axial length measurements with optical biometry in eyes having combined phacovitrectomy for macular- ... Accuracy of user-adjusted axial length measurements with optical biometry in eyes having combined phacovitrectomy for macular- ... title = "Accuracy of user-adjusted axial length measurements with optical biometry in eyes having combined phacovitrectomy for ...
Such anticipated reduction may be also applicable to eyes with moderate and long axial length. Phacoemulsification may also ... Such anticipated reduction may be also applicable to eyes with moderate and long axial length. Phacoemulsification may also ... axial length was not significantly associated with IOP reduction after cataract surgery in normal eyes [8]. Additionally, from ... the change among the group with shorter axial length ,22 mm (n=23 eyes) relatively raised from a preoperative value of 14.4 ( ...
Molecular analysis of CHX10 and MFRP in Chinese subjects with primary angle closure glaucoma and short axial length eyes.. Aung ... Molecular analysis of CHX10 and MFRP in Chinese subjects with primary angle closure glaucoma and short axial length eyes ... Molecular analysis of CHX10 and MFRP in Chinese subjects with primary angle closure glaucoma and short axial length eyes ... The mean axial length was 21.90+/-0.50 mm (range 19.98-22.50 mm). We identified a possible disease-causing variant in CHX10 (c. ...
PSR with genipin-cross-linked sclera should be considered as a preferred surgical approach to treat MHRD in highly myopic eyes ... The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), axial length (AL), optical coherence tomography (OCT) outcomes and the complications ... Posterior scleral reinforcement using genipin-cross-linked sclera for macular hole retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes Br ... Results: Macular hole was closed in 73.7% of the eyes, foveal reattachment rate was 100%. The mean logMAR BCVA improved from ...
Proptosis results from increased axial length of the globe.. Thyroid eye disease is the result of an autoimmune process that is ... MRI of the brain and orbits showed posterior staphyloma and increased axial length of the left globe (Figure 4). No abnormal ... MRI of the brain and orbits showed posterior staphyloma and increased axial length of the left globe. ... In the setting of severe myopia with a marked difference in refractive error between the two eyes, this is suggestive of ...
2] and a shorter axial eye length. Recent studies have suggested that increased iris thickness and cross-sectional area are ... Biometrical comparisons between normal eyes and eyes with primary angle-closure glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1970 Mar. 54(3):161- ... Aqueous humor is produced by the ciliary body in the posterior chamber of the eye. It diffuses from the posterior chamber, ... In the traditional model of AACG, the eyes natural response of dilation to environmental or chemical stimuli results in a ...
Axial Length, Eye. The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by ... infection of the posterior part of the eye. From the hyperreflective inflammatory cells and deposits in the vitreous and on the ... When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector ... To determine the early signs of posterior staphylomas in highly myopic eyes of younger subjects by swept-source ultra-widefield ...
Axial length (sum). -. 3158.2. ±. 21.6. ±. 3.0. ±. 6.2. ±. 5.0. Axial length (group). 1.4330. 3268.5. ±. 22.8. ±. 3.4. ±. 5.9. ... The axial length (AL) of eye was defined as the distance in the axial direction from the fitted anterior corneal surface (ACS) ... C. H. Chong, T. Suzuki, K. Totsuka, A. Morosawa, and T. Sakai, "Large coherence length swept source for axial length ... Image registration identified a cyclic axial shift of the eye with time [Fig. 3 ], which would heavily offset any slow axial ...
The results of immersion A-B-scan axial length measurement in eyes with dense cataract. Search Title by author or title ... This study is to determine the accuracy of the axial length (AL) measurement methods in patients with dense cataract using ... Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, Russia Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 130 eyes with ...
Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eyes axial length.[50] ... Scleral buckles, used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye.[61] ... Because the most significant cause of myopia is the increase in axial length of the eye, the retina must stretch out to cover ... with eyes getting shut", from μύειν myein "to shut the eyes" and ὤψ ōps "eye, look, sight" (GEN ὠπός ōpos).[120][121][122][123] ...
The preoperative visual acuity was 20/80 with an axial length of 25.4 mm. The orbital examination was unremarkable. Eye drops ... His eyes were moving under the closed lids in a manner similar to rapid eye movement sleep and continued to move when the eyes ... The axial length was 23 mm. She had a normal intraocular pressure (IOP). Her only regular medications were atenolol and ... He had noticed this on the day after surgery as soon as he removed the eye pad. The visual acuity was now counting fingers with ...
Gene Therapy Restores Mfrp and Corrects Axial Eye Length.. Velez G, Tsang SH, Tsai YT, Hsu CW, Gore A, Abdelhakim AH, Mahajan M ...
1Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. *. 2Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical ... Conclusions Axial length asymmetry has the strongest correlation with anisometropia; nonetheless, other components of ocular ... Results Asymmetry of axial length, corneal power, vitreous chamber depth, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and lens power ... The correlation of anisometropia with axial length asymmetry was 0.735, 0.273 with corneal power, 0.183 with anterior chamber ...
... the ORs for their risk alleles tended to increase according to the progression of SE and axial length in the dominant model. Of ... Of these, rs644242 had the highest OR (2.56) in patients with SE,-15 D in both eyes in the recessive model. On the other hand, ... for their risk alleles tended to increase with the progression of SE and axial length in the additive and recessive models. ... 5Aoto Eye Clinic, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan Purpose: Many studies have investigated the relationship of paired box 6 (PAX6) ...
  • Hyperopia can be caused by the eye being too short (axial hyperopia) or by the cornea being too flat or the crystalline lens being to weak (refractive hyperopia). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • High myopia (spherical equivalent of refractive error of at least −6 diopters (D) and axial length of at least 26.5 mm) has high prevalence in China and accounts for 4.1% of the population [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusion For anticipatory normal postoperative IOP eyes , the refractive outcome in cataract surgery in silicone oil-filled eyes can be predicted reliably and accurately with IOLMaster. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the setting of severe myopia with a marked difference in refractive error between the two eyes, this is suggestive of posterior staphyloma. (medscape.com)
  • To determine the postoperative refractive error in eyes with intraocular gas tamponade in combined phacovitrectomy using a Z-haptic intraocular lens (IOL). (dovepress.com)
  • IOL master had more accuracy and less deviation in predictive postoperative refractive error than A-scan immersion in SO-filled eyes. (nih.gov)
  • The high prevalence of refractive error, allergic conjunctivitis, visual impairment, and cataract among this group of people suggests the importance of increasing access to eye care services. (springer.com)
  • Small errors in axial length measurements in short eyes will have a bigger impact and, therefore, a larger refractive shift than in normal eyes. (healio.com)
  • Specialist in refractive cataract surgery, cornea and external eye diseases. (healthpoint.co.nz)
  • Outcome measures were 1) visual functions (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, perimetry, and color vision), 2) presence of strabismus, and 3), measurements of eye size and the dimensions of its components including refractive state. (aappublications.org)
  • Due to limited ray-tracing computational power and inadequate biological measurements at the time, these models simplified the optical system of human eyes by reducing the number of ocular surfaces, approximating ocular surfaces with spherical surfaces, or using a homogeneous refractive index for the crystalline lens. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Dopamine, a potential stop signal for refractive eye growth, was assessed as a potential underlying mechanism. (molvis.org)
  • Refractive eye growth in mice that were homozygous for a mutation in Pde6b , Pde6b rd1/rd1 (rd1) , or Pde6b rd10/rd10 ( rd10 ) was measured weekly from 4 to 12 weeks of age and compared to age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. (molvis.org)
  • Refractive error was measured using an eccentric infrared photorefractor, and axial length was measured with partial coherence interferometry or spectral domain ocular coherence tomography. (molvis.org)
  • Refractive development describes a critical period of early post-natal development in which visual input influences the match between eye growth and optical power. (molvis.org)
  • Emmetropia or zero refractive error describes a perfect match of optical power and length of the eye such that the image is focused on the retina. (molvis.org)
  • Orthokeratology contact lenses, although not intended to modify refractive error, were more effective than SVLs in slowing axial elongation. (cochrane.org)
  • Refractive error and biometry in older Chinese adults: the Liwan eye study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It also demonstrates an important role for APLP2 in refractive development in mice and humans, suggesting a high level of evolutionary conservation of the signaling pathways underlying refractive eye development. (plos.org)
  • All preterm babies are at increased risk of refractive errors, particularly myopia, astigmatism, anisometropia (different refractive errors in each eye), and strabismus. (cehjournal.org)
  • However, it is important to bear in mind that the refractive status of the eyes changes dramatically over the first few years of life as the eyes grow, with most children's eyes becoming emmetropic (no refractive error) by the time they are 5-6 years old. (cehjournal.org)
  • Using GSEA, however, we are the first to show that more subtle shifts in structural, metabolic, and immune pathway expression are correlated with the eye size and refractive changes induced by lens defocus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings link gene expression with the morphological characteristics of refractive error, and suggest that physiological stress arising from metabolic and inflammatory pathway activation could increase the vulnerability of myopic eyes to secondary pathologies. (frontiersin.org)
  • During the first year of life, there are incredible changes with accommodation, refractive error, eye motility, and stereopsis. (coopervision.com)
  • After congenital conditions and gross amblyogenic risks are ruled out at the first visit, the eye exam performed before age 3 hones in on refractive development and eye alignment. (coopervision.com)
  • Studies about emmetropization in human subjects show substantial changes in axial growth which affects resultant refractive error. (coopervision.com)
  • Starting in 2017, Dr. Aller spearheaded a prospective, registered clinical trial (NCT03358862) with the objective of identifying change in refractive error as well as axial length growth in myopic children wearing NaturalVue Multifocal. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Using published estimates of axial length change based on the prior year's refractive error (1 mm=3.00 D)3, these children would have been predicted to have shown an increase in axial length of 0.43 + 0.26 mm in the year prior to wearing NaturalVue MF. (pharmiweb.com)
  • With NaturalVue MF, the 19 children who have worn the lens for at least one year demonstrated an axial length change of 0.20 + 0.19 mm in one year, a favorable difference to what would have been expected given their high rate of refractive error change observed prior to wearing NaturalVue MF. (pharmiweb.com)
  • DR prevalence was not correlated with the ocular parameters of ocular perfusion pressure, axial length, refractive error, optic disc size, optic disc hemorrhages, neuroretinal rim area, intraocular pressure, and retinal nerve fiber layer cross-section area. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When placed on the eye, one part of the MiSight contact lens corrects the refractive error to improve distance vision in nearsighted eyes, similar to a standard corrective lens. (visionmonday.com)
  • Hospital- and population-based investigations have shown that optic disc and parapapillary atrophy start to enlarge at about -8.00 D of refractive error or an axial length (AL) of ~26.5 mm. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To assess the accuracy and signal quality of axial length measurements by partial coherence laser interferometry (PCI) for optical biometry in eyes with conventional silicone oil (SO) or heavy silicone oil (HSO) as endotamponade. (bmj.com)
  • In our analysis, optical biometry using PCI generated results with acceptable accuracy and signal quality for measurement of axial length in SO-filled eyes. (bmj.com)
  • RNFL thickness was measured by Cirrus TM HD-OCT in 39 eyes of 39 healthy subjects whose axial length was assessed by ultrasound biometry. (arvojournals.org)
  • Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of user-adjusted axial length (AL) measured by optical biometry for intraocular lens (IOL) calculations in eyes having combined phacovitrectomy for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (hud.ac.uk)
  • To compare the accuracy and reliability of intraocular lens (IOL) master and A-scan immersion biometry in silicone oil (SO)-filled eyes. (nih.gov)
  • A biometry-based human eye model was developed by using the empirical anatomic and optical data of ocular parameters. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • A-mode ultrasonic biometry using 10 MHz linear transducer in amplitude mode was used to measure different intraocular distances (anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and axial length). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study was to characterize the normal ultrasound appearance and ocular biometry of vitreous chamber in the eye of cattle by using a widely available, general purpose scanner and this investigation will provide baseline information for the study of pathologic conditions affecting the eyes with an ultrasound unit commonly available to the veterinarian. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of our study was to report the accuracy of OLCR biometry obtained from the Lenstar LS900 (Haag-Streit AG, Koniz, Switzerland) in predicting post- operative refraction in eyes undergoing phacovitrectomy for macular pathology (ERM or MH). (scirp.org)
  • For this purpose we investigated the environmental and genetic factors of myopia, eye growth in children and ocular biometry development in subjects of the Generation R and ALSPAC study. (eur.nl)
  • SWEPT Source Biometry of the IOLMaster 700 provides a full-length OCT image showing surgeons anatomical details, such as lens tilt of the crystalline lens, or poor fixation of the patient, that could lead to unsatisfactory post-operative visual experiences. (zeiss.com)
  • Ultrasound measurements showed that the eye with opaque cornea grew at a faster rate, so that after 1 year it was more than 1 mm longer than the normal eye. (omicsonline.org)
  • Four axial length measurements were taken at 90 degree rotations around the central axis and averaged for each eye in every gaze. (arvojournals.org)
  • The measurements obtained in this way showed a high correlation with refraction in a series of 80 eyes. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Results In normal IOP group ( T≥ 10 mmHg,29 eyes ), the precision and stability of IOLMaster for axial length ( AL ) measurements and IOL power calculations were better than adjusted ultrasound A-scan( ZIOLMasterdependent = -2. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2 The limiting factor for the depth range is the coherence length of the individual spectral measurements, defined either by the optics and pixel count of the spectrometer or by the instantaneous linewidth of a tunable laser. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The technique is used to make biometric measurements such as the axial length of the eye, the depth of the anterior chamber, the thickness of the lens, the distance between the back of the lens and the retina, the thickness of the cornea and detect ocular pathology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study was conducted to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements by the Goldman applanation tonometer (GAT), non contact tonometer (NCT) and the ocular blood flow (OBF) pneumotonometer in different IOP ranges in glaucomatous eyes. (ebscohost.com)
  • IOP measurements of 130 eyes of primary glaucoma patients were performed using GAT by an ophthalmologist while NCT and OBF-pneumotonometer measurements were performed by an experienced optometrist. (ebscohost.com)
  • Eyes with extremely short axial lengths (less than 20 mm) and small white-to-white measurements (less than 11 mm) may also be at higher risk for suprachoroidal hemorrhage, according to the literature. (healio.com)
  • As axial length increases, measurements may become less reliable. (healio.com)
  • We enrolled consecutive cases of eyes that had undergone uneventful cataract surgery and whose preoperative AL measurements were not feasible with the partial coherence interferometry (PCI) device due to a central PSC cataract. (escrs.org)
  • Axial length and keratomety measurements. (healthpoint.co.nz)
  • Andrew P. Schachat, MD, professor of ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, described another scenario in which IOL measurements for both eyes were in the chart. (aao.org)
  • The surgeon should always query any pair of measurements for right vs. left eye wherein there is a difference of 0.3 mm or more and ask for more double-checking, or confirm any reason for such a difference. (aao.org)
  • Mean measurements of CCT for our groups were: 538.31 μm (SD = 36.30) in eyes with POAG, 544.45 μm (SD = 28.57) in eyes with PXFG, 506.91 μm (SD = 34.55) in eyes with PACG and 549.63 μm (SD = 42.9) in the control group. (springermedizin.de)
  • Every 6 months measurements such as height and weight, visual acuity, evaluation of anterior segment using slit lamp, accommodation, crystalline lens thickness and axial length measurements using Lenstar, posterior segment evaluation (retinal and choroidal thickness) using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) will be performed. (anzctr.org.au)
  • The repeatability and accuracy of axial length and anterior chamber depth measurements from the IOLMaster. (pharmiweb.com)
  • range: 10.1-15.0 mm) was associated with longer corneal curvature radius longer axial length, male gender, younger maternal age, rural region of habitation and lower intraocular pressure measurements. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The two big measurements are the axial length of the eye and the corneal curvature. (millerandzois.com)
  • In a meta-analysis of cataract surgery results by Norrby published in 2008, preoperative estimation of postoperative IOL position, postoperative refraction determination, and preoperative AL measurement were the largest contributors of error (35%, 27%, and 17%, respectively), with a mean absolute error of 0.6 D for an eye of average dimensions. (dovepress.com)
  • We found that high myopic patients with the non-VL transmitting pIOLs implanted are almost two times more myopic in the change of refraction and four times longer in the change of axial length, compared to those implanted with the VL transmitting pIOLs. (nature.com)
  • If conducting cycloplegic refraction, inform patients that the eye drops may sting for a few seconds before instilling them into the eye. (cehjournal.org)
  • The total refraction of the eye is approximately 60 diopters. (google.com.au)
  • The first device to combine Scheimpflug Tomography with Axial Length + Total Wavefront + Refraction + Retroillumination! (escrs.org)
  • Data were analyzed for differential expression of single genes, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to identify gene sets correlated with ocular axial length and refraction across lens groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cycloplegic refraction was measured using an autorefractor, axial eye length, and corneal power using an automatic combined noncontact partial coherence interferometer and keratometer. (medhelp.org)
  • Change over 6 months in axial length, refraction, and corneal power. (medhelp.org)
  • Objective: To evaluate macular choroidal thickness (CT) and retinal thickness in Turkish patients with high myopia without maculopathy and in normal subjects and to examine the association with age, axial length (AL), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), cycloplegic refraction, and spherical equivalent (SE). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Refraction should be performed with cycloplegia (paralysis of the ciliary muscles in the eye). (futurelearn.com)
  • In eyes with longer axial length, the RNFLs significantly decreased in the non-temporal segments. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 95% CI: 2.2, 3.0) was associated with longer corneal curvature radius, longer axial length, younger maternal age and male gender. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In 4 to 18-year-old children, larger corneal diameter was associated most strongly with flatter corneal curvature, followed by longer axial length and male gender. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The mean axial length was 21.90+/-0.50 mm (range 19.98-22.50 mm). (cdc.gov)
  • Axial hyperopia results when the length of the eye is too short for the eye to properly focus distance objects on the retina while the focusing system is relaxed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Numerous animal studies suggest that if an animal is exposed to retinal images located behind the retina either centrally or peripherally, the eye will grow in the direction of the focused image. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If an abnormally short eye has resulted in hyperopia, exposing such an eye to retinal images partially located behind the retina might encourage axial elongation, thus reducing the hyperopia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Near-sightedness , also known as short-sightedness and myopia , is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina . (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the most significant cause of myopia is the increase in axial length of the eye, the retina must stretch out to cover the increased surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • She presented with a metallic foreign body that partially entered her left eye through the nasal sclera via pars plana, 3 mm posterior to the limbus, but did not reach the retina. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Pupillary dilatation forms part of the ophthalmic examination because it is much easier to see the tissues within the eye i.e. the retina when the pupil size is enlarged (dilated) with atropine-like eye drops. (healthpoint.co.nz)
  • A mismatch of power and axial length produces either myopia, where the visual image forms in front of the retina, or hyperopia, where the visual image forms behind the retina. (molvis.org)
  • A 15-year study of nearly 4,000 older adults found that active people who exercised three or more times a week were less likely to get exudative (wet) age-related macular degeneration, which develops when abnormal blood vessels grow beneath the retina and leak fluid and blood into the eye (Knudtson, Klein & Klein 2006). (ideafit.com)
  • The growing eye taps into feedback cycles to focus incoming light accurately onto the retina. (coopervision.com)
  • If a person develops severe myopia as a child, they may be susceptible to other eye problems such as early cataracts or a detached retina during adulthood. (visionmonday.com)
  • In addition, concentric peripheral rings in the lens focus part of the light in front of the retina (the back of the eye). (visionmonday.com)
  • Myopia is an eye condition in which light coming through the pupil focuses not directly on the retina but rather in front of it. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The ophthalmologist should assess the ocular alignment and eye movements and perform a dilated examination of the retina and optic disc. (futurelearn.com)
  • Preliminary studies demonstrate high-throughput, reproducible assessment of multiple biometric features (e.g., day-to-day reproducibility of axial length measurement ±5.3 µm) that is insensitive to eye motion sufficient for long-term monitoring. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The aim of this study was to observe ocular parameters of the eyeball (e.g., thickness of each eye coat structure, depth of anterior chamber, thickness of lens, and axial length of vitreous) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) changes in hemodialysis patients before and after HD, as well as to explore the possible mechanisms of these changes. (hindawi.com)
  • This difference in axial length was due to elongation of the posterior segment, since lens thickness, depth of anterior chamber, and corneal curvature were identical in both eyes. (omicsonline.org)
  • At histological examination, no pathological changes were observed in the anterior segment of the latex-injected eye except for a scant vascularization of the corneal opacity. (omicsonline.org)
  • Ocular characteristics related to PACG such as short hyperopic eyes with shallow anterior chambers suggest the involvement of genes that regulate ocular size. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 Therefore, only specialized sources can satisfy the demand at higher complexity and cost, while reducing the scanning speed, 4 due to the significant mismatch between the signals obtained from the anterior and posterior structures of the eye, depending on which is positioned closer to the zero delay. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Secondary outcome measures were spherical equivalent, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and axial length. (dovepress.com)
  • This latter method eliminates the risk of indentation of the cornea and underestimation of the anterior chamber depth and axial length. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Results Asymmetry of axial length, corneal power, vitreous chamber depth, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and lens power were significantly more among participants who were anisometropic than those who were non-anisometropic. (bmj.com)
  • An interface is the junction between any two media of different densities and velocities, which, in the eye, include the anterior corneal surface, the aqueous/anterior lens surface, the posterior lens capsule/anterior vitreous, the posterior vitreous/retinal surface, and the choroid/anterior scleral surface. (medscape.com)
  • Small or short eyes have a shorter axial length and a shallower anterior chamber. (healio.com)
  • The standard phaco probe can induce more astigmatism in smaller eyes, and a shallow anterior chamber makes creating a capsulorrhexis more difficult. (healio.com)
  • The prevalence of pterygium was associated with short axial length and anterior chamber depth in a Chinese retrospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study. (healio.com)
  • For example, in eyes with axial myopia, the difference in power between the posterior and anterior chamber lens may be only 2 diopters. (aao.org)
  • To interpret how the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) changes with increasing age, axial length, or anterior chamber depth as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the normal elderly population in Taiwan. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The eye and pituitary develop in close proximity to the source of SHH in the anterior hypothalamus and depend on this signal for formation of the optic disc, from where the optic nerve exits the eye, and for coordinating pituitary morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • It is caused by a developmental arrest of some of the structures within the anterior (front) segment of the eye. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the eye is rotated by an assistant, the surgeon sweeps the knife blade or needle through 90 - 120 degrees of arc in the eye, making incisions in the anterior trabecular meshwork, avoiding the posterior part of the trabecular meshwork in order to decrease the risk of damage to the iris and lens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Based on spherical equivalent (SE) in diopters (D), participants were divided into four groups: low myopia/control (SE: - 0.50 to - 3.00D), moderate myopia (SE: - 3.00 to - 6.00D), high myopia (SE: - 6.00 to - 10.00D) and severe myopia (SE greater than - 10.00D). Axial length (AL), anterior segment parameters, and corneal biomechanical properties were obtained with the Lenstar LS900, Pentacam HR and Corvis ST, respectively. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Increase in axial length of the macaque monkey eye after corneal opacification. (omicsonline.org)
  • The increase in axial lengh of the ciliary body (CBAXL) was used as an indicator during accommodation. (escrs.org)
  • 24 mm, the horizontal and vertical globe diameter increased by a lower amount of 0.19 and 0.21 mm, respectively, for each mm increase in axial diameter. (springermedizin.de)
  • Our group previously reported that in highly myopic eyes with staphyloma, a reversible, instantaneous axial length elongation occurs in downgaze. (arvojournals.org)
  • A reversible, instantaneous axial length elongation appears to occur in downgaze, not only in highly myopic patients with staphyloma, but also in emmetropic patients without staphyloma. (arvojournals.org)
  • Vitrectomy combined with Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique is an effective treatment for large MHs in highly myopic eyes. (hindawi.com)
  • Highly myopic eyes are susceptible to different retinopathies, among which macular holes (MHs) with or without associated retinal detachment (RD) are one of the most vision-threatening complications [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The mechanism of MH is different in highly myopic eyes versus nonmyopic ones. (hindawi.com)
  • To investigate the surgical outcomes of posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) using genipin-cross-linked sclera to treat macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) in highly myopic eyes. (nih.gov)
  • For at least a 1-year period of follow-up, PSR with genipin-cross-linked sclera should be considered as a preferred surgical approach to treat MHRD in highly myopic eyes, especially when foveal retinoschisis is also documented. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the early signs of posterior staphylomas in highly myopic eyes of younger subjects by swept-source ultra-widefield optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fujiwara T, Imamura Y, Margolis R, Slakter JS, Spaide RF (2009) Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in highly myopic eyes. (springermedizin.de)
  • Liang IC, Shimada N, Tanaka Y, Nagaoka N, Moriyama M, Yoshida T, Ohno-Matsui K (2015) Comparison of clinical features in highly myopic eyes with and without a dome-shaped macula. (springermedizin.de)
  • One of the difficulties with preoperative calculations in highly myopic patients is the determination of axial length. (healio.com)
  • Conclusions: Highly myopic eyes have a thinner choroid, which may be secondary to longer AL but is not an independent factor. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • i) Patients with a history of glaucoma or ocular hypertension or eye surgery (ii) Patients suffering from severe fundus lesions. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular analysis of CHX10 and MFRP in Chinese subjects with primary angle closure glaucoma and short axial length eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • The study included 135 globes removed because of malignant uveal melanoma (111 globes) or end-stage painful glaucoma ( n = 24 eyes). (springermedizin.de)
  • Vurgese S, Panda-Jonas S, Jonas JB (2012) Sclera thickness in human globes and its relations to age, axial length and glaucoma. (springermedizin.de)
  • Grosor corneal central determinado mediante topografÃ-a corneal ORBSCAN en pacientes diagnosticados con glaucoma en población mexicana. (ebscohost.com)
  • To investigate intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement values in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes using two different types of tonometer that are supposed to be little affected by corneal biochemical properties. (ebscohost.com)
  • A total of 264 eyes (81.7 per cent) had uniocular surgery while 42 eyes (13.0 per cent) had combined trabeculectomy for cataract and glaucoma. (cehjournal.org)
  • We included A total of 119 eyes with glaucoma, including POAG (54 eyes), PXFG (31 eyes) and PACG (34 eyes), we also included 57 control eyes. (springermedizin.de)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Jonasson F, Damji KF, Arnarsson A, Sverrisson T, Wang L, Sasaki H, Sasaki K. Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma in Iceland: Reykjavik eye study. (springermedizin.de)
  • These structures do not develop normally in the eyes of patients with isolated congenital glaucoma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These changes lead to an excess of fluid in the eye, which can cause pressure that can damage the internal structures of the eye and cause glaucoma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lowering the IOP helps to stabilize the enlargement of the cornea and the distension and stretching of the eye that often occur in congenital glaucoma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At the moment the only treatment for glaucoma that works is lowering fluid pressure in the eye , but this doesn't work for everyone, so we need new targets for treatment. (fightforsight.org.uk)
  • Studies suggest the condition may be a risk factor for more serious eye problems including cataract 14 and glaucoma, 15 although myopia's relationship to these other problems is still unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Ophthalmology Equipment, Ophthalmology Instrument, a/B Scan manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Eye Hospital Equipment Acd Lens Body Length Axial Length a/B Scanner, Laptop Full Digital B Mode Ultrasound Scanner for Human (KX5000), Laptop Full Digital Veterinary Ultrasound Scanner for Animal (KX5000V) and so on. (made-in-china.com)
  • Among the Department of Ophthalmology, KAUH reviewers that underwent surgery during the period from 2000 to 2010, 252 eyes of 211 cataract patients were included in the current study. (austinpublishinggroup.com)
  • The annual meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) in Vancouver was an amazing opportunity for ZEISS to engage in conversation about ground-breaking research and technological advancements in eye care. (zeiss.com)
  • Billson, 'Monocular axial myopia associated with neonatal eyelid closure in human infants', American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The anatomic and optical properties of human eyes have long been important issues in the fields of ophthalmology, optics, and vision science. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • OphtAI, the joint-venture between Adcis and Evolucare, dedicated to ophthalmology, is set to revolutionize eye diseases screening and diagnosis with its state of the art Artificial Intelligence based solution. (escrs.org)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, and the American Optometric Association recommend regular eye examinations for children, starting as early as in infancy. (coopervision.com)
  • [ 2 ] and a shorter axial eye length. (medscape.com)
  • 0.001) shorter than the axial diameter. (springermedizin.de)
  • 95% CI: 2.0, 2.8) was correlated with shorter corneal curvature radius, shorter axial length and urban region of habitation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Eye elongation and myopia progression seem to decrease in periods with longer days and to increase in periods with shorter days. (medhelp.org)
  • Likewise, the horizontal position of the eye will be vary (distance Rx has a small effect, and ADD power has a greater effect- since higher ADD powers have a shorter focal length which requires greater convergence). (optiboard.com)
  • To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of measuring axial length (AL) by a new optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR)-based device in eyes with central posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). (escrs.org)
  • 23 reported that the axial length elongation of adult high myopic patients (myopia ≤ −6 diopters (D) or axial length ≥ 26.5 mm) whether there was a staphyloma or not, was confirmed in adults aged from 22 to 84 years. (nature.com)
  • However, this difference can be as high as 4 diopters in patients who have short eyes," Dr. Koch said. (aao.org)
  • Since the near zone extends to 8mm or so below the optical center (located at the PRP in a PAL), our hyperope is looking through up to 3.2 diopters of base up prism at near- which displaces the image and requires the eye to rotate downward an additional 1mm. (optiboard.com)
  • Approximately 30 minutes before and after HD, we recorded multiple parameters, including lens thickness (LT), axial length of vitreous (VAL), axial length of eye (EAL), ciliary body thickness (CBT), choroidal thickness (CT), and retinal thickness (RT). (hindawi.com)
  • Methods Forty-four silicone -filled eyes of 42 patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraocular pressure (IOP) ( group A ≥ 10 mmHg group,29 eyes ;group B<10 mmHg group, 15 eyes ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods Consecutive eyes having phacovitrectomy for macula-off RRD were evaluated. (hud.ac.uk)
  • This study is to determine the accuracy of the axial length (AL) measurement methods in patients with dense cataract using contact ultrasound A - and B - scan methods and immersion ultrasound A - and A - B - scan methods. (escrs.org)
  • Despite a series of challenges and risks, phacoemulsification with IOL implantation proved safe in eyes with microphthalmos and nanophthalmos, according to a study.The retrospective analysis included 103 eyes with axial length less than 21 mm that underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. (linkoph.com)
  • To evaluate the changes of Intraocular Pressure (IOP) in non-glaucomatous eyes following Phacoemulsification surgery among patient groups with different Axial Lengths (AL). (austinpublishinggroup.com)
  • Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is routinely performed in eyes with vitreoretinal pathology and coexisting cataract. (dovepress.com)
  • Fifteen eyes of 15 (n=15) patients with FHIC and cataract who had phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were enrolled in this retrospective study between 2002-2008. (escrs.org)
  • Secondly, the study aimed to compare outcomes in phacovitrectomy against sequential cases, where phacoemulsification occurred post-vitrectomy, and against routine phacoemulsification surgery in eyes with no prior vitreoretinal history. (scirp.org)
  • The mean change in axial length was near-zero and not statistically significant when comparing the primary gaze to the nasal gaze (p = 0.619), temporal gaze (p = 0.406) or up gaze (p = 0.340). (arvojournals.org)
  • Besides, 13.9% of children in the treatment group had no change in axial length changes whereas the control group recorded zero. (prnewswire.com)
  • Both IOL master and immersion A-scan were performed to measure the axial length (AXL) before SO removal. (nih.gov)
  • To get the correct intraocular lens, you have to indirectly measure the axial length of the eye with an ultrasound. (millerandzois.com)
  • A prospective, consecutive, nonrandomized study was performed in 34 SO-filled eyes of 34 patients, who underwent a pars plana vitrectomy, with SO removal and cataract surgery, as well as IOL implantation. (nih.gov)
  • Cataract surgery in either very short or very long eyes presents specific, unique situations. (healio.com)
  • Results: Cataract surgery with IOL implants accounted for 40.4 per cent of all eye surgeries. (cehjournal.org)
  • 1.5 D in 6%-18% of eyes undergoing cataract surgery [ 2 - 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Her left eye can see 6/60 after vitrectomy for stage 4b ROP and cataract surgery. (cehjournal.org)
  • Both the reference image and keratometry data are transferred to CALLISTO eye ® , the computer-assisted cataract surgery system from ZEISS. (zeiss.com)
  • This Salisbury, Maryland malpractice lawsuit involves allegations that two doctors failed to measure properly the Plaintiff's left eye before cataract surgery, leading to the implantation of the wrong power lens. (millerandzois.com)
  • In this study, an increasing trend was found in the prevalence of pterygium with the severity of hyperopia, which has a connection with short axial length," the authors wrote. (healio.com)
  • instead, it was just a consequence of short axial length," the authors said. (healio.com)
  • This study raises the question of whether pterygium is associated with short axial length. (healio.com)
  • Various factors such as severe axial elongation of the globe, the presence of posterior staphyloma, and chorioretinal atrophy make these cases challenging [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • MRI of the brain and orbits showed posterior staphyloma and increased axial length of the left globe (Figure 4). (medscape.com)
  • The relationship between age, axial length and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in the normal elderly population in Taiwan: The Chiayi eye study in Taiwan. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Journal Article] Posterior pole asymmetry analyses of retinal thickness of upper and lower sectors and their association with peak retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in healthy young eyes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Correlation between Axial Length and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Myopic Eyes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 20 eyes of 15 patients with no ocular conditions other than cataract had implantation of posterior chamber intraocular lens (AcrySof. (escrs.org)
  • The sound velocity through the aphakic eye is 1532 m/s, and the velocity through the pseudophakic eye is 1532 m/s plus the correction factor for the intraocular lens (IOL) material. (medscape.com)
  • To investigate the influence of VL for adult myopia, we retrospectively compared the myopic progression and the axial length elongation over five years in adult high myopic patients over 25 years of age after two types (non-VL transmitting and VL transmitting) of phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation. (nature.com)
  • The intraocular lens assemblies (IOL's) of this invention may be foldable to enable implantation with minimal trauma to the eye. (google.com.au)
  • One-year evaluation of the performance of the Trulign toric intraocular lens implanted in eyes using intraoperative aberrometry to determine sphere, cylinder and position. (alliedacademies.org)
  • To evaluate the performance of the Trulign toric intraocular lens (IOL) positioned with intraoperative aberrometry in eyes with one year of follow-up. (alliedacademies.org)
  • It fits with the notion that myopic elongation may occur by an elongation of the eye walls in regions close to the globe's equator. (springermedizin.de)
  • More trials should be conducted where acupuncture is compared to placebo , other types of acupuncture are investigated, compliance with treatment for at least six months is explored and axial length elongation of the eye should be for at least one year. (cochrane.org)
  • Axial length elongation of the eye should be investigated for at least one year. (cochrane.org)
  • The ISNT rule should be cautiously applied when evaluating normal eyes with long axial lengths. (nih.gov)
  • Such anticipated reduction may be also applicable to eyes with moderate and long axial length. (austinpublishinggroup.com)
  • Studies by Earl Smith, O.D., Ph.D. have suggested that multi-zonal contact lenses that provide proper axial focus while manipulating peripheral defocus can either discourage or encourage axial growth to treat myopia or hyperopia respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the present study, simultaneous vision bifocal soft contact lenses will be used to encourage axial growth in hyperopic children and adolescents with axial hyperopia in an effort to reduce hyperopia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prevalence of Hyperopia and Associations with Eye Findings in 6- and 12-Year-Olds. (edu.au)
  • Eye shape is another variable (since most myopia and hyperopia is related to axial length). (optiboard.com)
  • Axial length measurement in eyes with diabetic macular edema: a-scan ultrasound versus IOLMaster. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Objective This study was to evaluate the predictability of IOL power calculations using the IOLMaster and adjusting contact ultrasound A-scan method in silicone oil-filled eyes . (bvsalud.org)
  • 025 ), although in low IOP group ( T< 10 mmHg, 15 eyes ),there were too much differences in axial length mesurement and IOL power calculation between the IOLMaster and adjusted ultrasound A-scan, so the post-operative imformation was not predicted accurately. (bvsalud.org)
  • A technique utilizing high frequency ultrasound waves (greater than 18 000 Hz) emitted by a transducer placed near the eye. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fig. U1 Histogram of ultrasound reflections (or echoes) in the eye. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The velocity of the ultrasound waves in the eye is approximately 1550 m/s (it is 1641 m/s in the lens and 1532 m/s in the humours). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For rs662702, rs644242, and rs667773, odds ratios (ORs) for their risk alleles tended to increase with the progression of SE and axial length in the additive and recessive models. (dovepress.com)
  • On the other hand, for rs3026393 and rs3026390, the ORs for their risk alleles tended to increase according to the progression of SE and axial length in the dominant model. (dovepress.com)
  • This result indicated that the VL transmitting pIOL suppressed myopia progression and axial length elongation compared with the non-VL transmitting one. (nature.com)
  • Dr. Vera-Diaz currently investigates the effect of various aspects of visual functioning on myopia development and progression, including fixational eye movements in outdoor and indoor environments, the interaction between central and peripheral vision, and various cues for accommodation on real 3D targets. (neco.edu)
  • Eye drop medication, such as atropine, probably slows myopia progression in children. (cochrane.org)
  • Treatments can slow growth of the eye, thereby slowing down the progression of myopia. (cochrane.org)
  • In other words, children wearing the DIMS Spectacle Lenses had significantly less myopic progression by 59%, and axial elongation by 60%, as compared with those wearing the single vision lenses. (prnewswire.com)
  • Published in the peer-reviewed journal, Eye & Contact Lens, the study was a retrospective case series analysis from 10 practice locations following children for 6-25 months after wearing NaturalVue Multifocal.1 These data demonstrated a 96% decrease in the rate of myopic progression among 32 children, ages 6-19. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Today's approval is the first FDA-approved product to slow the progression of myopia in children, which ultimately could mean a reduced risk of developing other eye problems," said Malvina Eydelman, M.D., director of the Office of Ophthalmic, Anesthesia, Respiratory, ENT and Dental Devices in the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health. (visionmonday.com)
  • The MiSight soft contact lenses are meant to be worn daily to correct nearsightedness and slow the progression of myopia in children with healthy eyes. (visionmonday.com)
  • The purpose of current study was to investigate whether axial eye growth, myopia progression, or corneal power change in Danish myopic children varies with the length of the day. (medhelp.org)
  • Significant correlations were found between hours of daylight and eye elongation (P = 0.00), myopia progression (P = 0.01), and corneal power change (P = 0.00). (medhelp.org)
  • In children with an average of 2782±19 hours of daylight, axial eye growth was 0.12±0.09 mm, myopia progression was 0.26±0.27 D, and corneal power change was 0.05±0.10 D per 6 months, whereas in children with an average of 1681±24 hours of daylight, axial eye growth was 0.19±0.10 mm, myopia progression was 0.32±0.27 D, and corneal power change was −0.04±0.08 D per 6 months. (medhelp.org)
  • Every Varilux design since Varilux Panamic (launched in 2000) has featured varied progression length and inset based on ametropia and ADD. (optiboard.com)
  • Not particularly satisfying (especially for someone like myself that likes to tinker with everything), but it's borne out by the data (e.g., analysis of a database containing over 500,000 orders, remakes are higher when progression length is manually selected vs. allowing the calculation to automatically set the progression length). (optiboard.com)
  • This was a retrospective analysis of 130 eyes with dense cataract (130 patients) aged 65,8 ± 5,3 years. (escrs.org)
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess astigmatic and VA outcomes after 1 year in eyes implanted with the Trulign toric IOL in a routine clinical setting. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Additionally, to estimate the rate of vision-threatening corneal infections (i.e., corneal ulcers) among children and adolescents who wear soft contact lenses daily, the FDA reviewed real world data from a retrospective analysis of medical records of 782 children ages 8 to 12 years old from seven community eye care clinics. (visionmonday.com)
  • HSO, n = 11) using a Zeiss IOLMaster for measurement of axial length the day before and at least 6 weeks after SO removal. (bmj.com)
  • IOLMaster and ocular ultrasonic measurement were used to measure the axis length before and after silicone oil was removed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Within the normal axial length group, the mean IOP was significantly reduced from 14.1 (3.2) at baseline to 13.5 (2.9) post operatively (p=0.035). (austinpublishinggroup.com)
  • We found that the axial length elongation in the group wearing VL transmitting contact lenses was smaller than those in the group wearing partially VL-blocking contact lenses, finding that axial length elongation was significantly less in the group wearing VL transmitting contact lenses 19 . (nature.com)
  • however, axial length became significantly longer only in WT mice starting at 7 weeks of age. (molvis.org)
  • At 6 months after transplantation, repeat scans in 11 of the patients who had neuropathy showed that nerve fiber density and length had improved significantly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with high myopia underwent vitrectomy and Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique to treat MH without RD. Patients were followed up over 6 months. (hindawi.com)
  • IOL power formulas can resulting in hyperopic surprises, therefore the axial length needs to be adjusted. (healio.com)
  • Myopic eyes are characterized by excessive size while hyperopic (long-sighted) eyes are typically small. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our study provides epidemiologic data on the prevalence of eye diseases among adult population in low-income urban community of Dhaka city. (springer.com)
  • Twenty-seven eyes of 27 adult patients were enrolled in the study. (escrs.org)
  • While myopia might be initially detected by a patient (e.g. reporting distance blur), or an adult observing behaviour changes in a child (e.g. squinting or viewing things closer than expected), myopia is generally diagnosed by an eye care professional. (cehjournal.org)
  • [2] Individual case reports of children and an adult with axial spondlometaphyseal dysplasia demonstrate height as being between 2 to 6 SD's below average. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and axial length in a sample of healthy eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), axial length (AL), optical coherence tomography (OCT) outcomes and the complications were evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • In Bangladesh, few researches have been carried out on visual impairment and blindness, however, there is a paucity of investigations focusing on the prevalence and risk factors of common eye diseases among low-income population of Bangladesh. (springer.com)
  • We studied the consequences of high myopia on visual impairment in adults and found a strong association between axial length and visual impairment. (eur.nl)
  • By photographing the corneal reflex in two positions of gaze and measuring the radius of curvature of the cornea it is possible to calculate the radius of rotation of the eye. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Some identified variants showed precise scaling in corneal curvature and eye elongation (i.e. axial length) to maintain eyes in emmetropia (i.e. (jyu.fi)
  • Our study provides insights into population-specific novel genes for corneal curvature, and their pleiotrop ic effect in regulating eye size or conferring susceptibility to myopia. (jyu.fi)
  • Some individuals with axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia develop scoliosis (curvature of the spine). (nih.gov)
  • Significant differences were detected within the four groups in terms of six corneal biomechanical parameters: deformation amplitude (DA), time from start until second applanation (A2-time), length of flattened cornea at the second applanation (A2-length), corneal velocity during the first and second applanation (A2-velocity), time from start to highest concavity (HC-time), and central curvature at highest concavity (HC radius). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The issue in this case was not the axial length but with the corneal curvature . (millerandzois.com)
  • Our data confirmed previous results obtained by time-domain OCT, as RNFL thickness measured by spectral-domain OCT is influenced by axial length. (arvojournals.org)
  • Results The study comprised 22 eyes of 22 patients. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Proptosis results from increased axial length of the globe. (medscape.com)
  • Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia primarily affects the bones of the chest, pelvis, spine, upper arms and upper legs, and results in shortened stature. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS: Forty-one eyes of 39 patients (6 male, 33 female, mean age 63.7 14.1 years) with CNV secondary to pathologic myopia were included in the study. (bireme.br)
  • For spectacle lens, the challenge is the eye will move behind the spectacle lens and therefore the myopic defocus optics has to be incorporated all over the lens,' said Professor To. (prnewswire.com)
  • When the eye moves around different regions of the spectacle lens, the eye still experiences a constant amount of myopic defocus,' he added. (prnewswire.com)
  • Certain pitfalls have to be considered when planning a combined surgery as major factors limiting an IOL power calculation in combined surgery are inaccuracies in axial length (AL) measurement and the estimated lens position. (dovepress.com)
  • The optical performance of the eye model was evaluated in CodeV and ASAP and presented by the modulation transfer functions at single and multiple wavelengths. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The chromatic optical powers obtained from this model resembled that of the average physiological eyes. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Dozens of schematic eye models mimicking the optical structure of the eye have been proposed since the beginning of the 20th century. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Aqueous humor is produced by the ciliary body in the posterior chamber of the eye. (medscape.com)
  • These structures include the iris and the ciliary body, which produces the aqueous fluid needed to maintain the integrity of the eye. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But for complicated or anticipatory unstable postoperative IOP eyes , secondary implantation of IOL would be better. (bvsalud.org)
  • The axial postoperative IOL movement in eyes treated with additional intraocular gas tamponade remains unclear. (dovepress.com)
  • Cycloplegic eye drops (e.g., tropicamide, cyclopentolate or atropine). (cehjournal.org)
  • Data were obtained by means of a parent questionnaire and ocular evaluations that included axial length and cycloplegic autorefraction at the beginning and after 1 year. (medhelp.org)