Avulavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus AVULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes NEWCASTLE DISEASE and other infections of domestic fowl.Avulavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE, causing disease in domestic fowl. There are many species, the most well-known being avian paramyxovirus 1 (NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS).Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)ScandinaviaDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.

IRF-1 deficiency skews the differentiation of dendritic cells toward plasmacytoid and tolerogenic features. (1/14)

Members of the IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) family are transcriptional regulators that play essential roles in the homeostasis and function of the immune system. Recent studies indicate a direct involvement of some members of the family in the development of different subsets of dendritic cells (DC). Here, we report that IRF-1 is a potent modulator of the development and functional maturation of DC. IRF-1-deficient mice (IRF-1(-/-)) exhibited a predominance of plasmacytoid DC and a selective reduction of conventional DC, especially the CD8alpha(+) subset. IRF-1(-/-) splenic DC were markedly impaired in their ability to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12. By contrast, they expressed high levels of IL-10, TGF-beta, and the tolerogenic enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase. As a consequence, IRF-1(-/-) DC were unable to undergo full maturation and retained plasmacytoid and tolerogenic characteristics following virus infection ex vivo and in vivo. Accordingly, DC from IRF-1(-/-) mice were less efficient in stimulating the proliferation of allogeneic T cells and instead, induced an IL-10-mediated, suppressive activity in allogeneic CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. Together, these results indicate that IRF-1 is a key regulator of DC differentiation and maturation, exerting a variety of effects on the functional activation and tolerogenic potential of these cells.  (+info)

Molecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75. (2/14)

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Complete genome sequences of avian paramyxovirus type 8 strains goose/Delaware/1053/76 and pintail/Wakuya/20/78. (3/14)

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Activation of natural killer cells by newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. (4/14)

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Complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 7 (strain Tennessee) and comparison with other paramyxoviruses. (5/14)

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Complete genome sequences of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 (APMV-2) strains Bangor, England and Kenya: evidence for the existence of subgroups within serotype 2. (6/14)

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Experimental avian paramyxovirus serotype-3 infection in chickens and turkeys. (7/14)

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Pathogenesis of two strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2, Yucaipa and Bangor, in chickens and turkeys. (8/14)

Nine serologic types of avian paramyxovirus (APMV) have been recognized. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized virus, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two strains of APMV-2, Yucaipa and Bangor, in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks, and 4-wk-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was more than 168 hr for both strains, and their intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) was zero, indicating that these viruses are nonpathogenic in chickens. When inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old chicks, neither strain caused disease or replicated detectably in the brain. This suggests that the zero ICPI value of APMV-2 reflects the inability of the virus to grow in neural cells. Groups of twelve 4-wk-old SPF chickens and turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with either strain, and three birds per group were euthanatized on days 2, 4, 6, and 14 postinoculation for analysis. There were no overt clinical signs of illnesses, although all birds seroconverted by day 6. The viruses were isolated predominantly from the respiratory and alimentary tracts. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of a large amount of viral antigens in epithelial linings of respiratory and alimentary tracts. There also was evidence of systemic spread even though the cleavage site of the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin protease cleavage site.  (+info)

  • If chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) are genetically or epigenetically modified to resist NDV infection, it may be possible to generate ND resistant poultry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The occurrence of vNDV infections in birds is a notifiable event, and when these infections occur in poultry, trade restrictions are imposed. (asm.org)
  • vNDV infections present a significant threat to the U.S. poultry industry, as evidenced by the California outbreak in 2002 to 2003 ( 41 ), which resulted in the destruction of 3.3 million birds and cost nearly $200 million dollars to eradicate ( 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Birds from live poultry market system and backyard flocks have higher infection rates. (farm.com.np)
  • When AI infection occur it spreads rapidly through integrated poultry system from farm to farm causing epizootics of LP or HP AI. (farm.com.np)
  • Baumeister E, Leotta G, Pontoriero A, Campos A, Monalti D. Serological evidence of influenza A virus infection in Antarctica migratory birds. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 Velogenic ND often infects the intestines of birds causing hemorrhagic lesions, which is referred to as viscerotropic velogenic ND, or it may cause respiratory and nueorological infections and is referred to as neurotropic velogenic ND. (burdockgroup.com)
  • Birds that are partially immune to velogenic infections typically develop a chronic infection but may develop neurological effects, such as tremors, ataxia, torticollis, and paresis or paralysis in the wings and or legs within days of contracting the disease. (burdockgroup.com)
  • Though adult birds may acquire infection, the clinical signs are not seen in them. (farm.com.np)
  • 5 ] showed that activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exerted a cytotoxic effect on melanoma, colon cancer and breast carcinoma, upon influenza A virus infection. (medsci.org)
  • Simultaneous subcutaneous and conjunctival administration of the influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus vaccine to pregnant heifers provides better protection against B. abortus 544 infection than the commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • According to Alexander and Jones [ 3 ], NDV can be further divided into three pathotypes based on the virulence and severity of the disease, which are velogenic (highly contagious), mesogenic (moderate) and lentogenic (mild infection). (medsci.org)
  • This single-stranded, non-segmented, negative-sense RNA avian avulavirus can be classified into three pathotypes depending on its virulence: lentogenic (low), mesogenic (medium), and velogenic (high) depending on a mean death time in chicken embryo [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of vaccines (B1, LaSota, and inactivated vaccines) against velogenic ND infection in broilers after different vaccination schemes. (scielo.br)
  • The majority of APMV-infected hamsters exhibited transient histological lesions that self resolved by 14 days post infection (dpi). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sampling system employed enabled us to follow APMV-1 infections and the shedding of one particular viral strain in one individual bird over several days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. (bioportfolio.com)
  • NDV can cause clinical signs ranging from subclinical infections to 100% morbidity and/or mortality, depending on the virulence of the virus and the susceptibility of the host. (asm.org)
  • Among the three genotypes (A, B, and C) types A and C are most often associated with increased morbidity and bacterial secondary infection. (datexis.com)
  • Antibodies can be detected in the blood serum of breed flocks in case of infection. (farm.com.np)
  • Animal studies suggest that while neutralizing antibodies against the viral spike protein may correlate with protection, additional antibody functions may also be important in preventing infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, in the case of the mutant bearing the S530∆, the mutation helped to sustain the wild-type MERS-CoV infection by producing a free S1 subunit with a "sticky" hydrophobic tail and the additional disulfide bonds caused the aggregation and mis-folding of proteins. (mediaatlas.si)
  • We have hypothesized that poor stimulation of innate immune defenses by RSV might be the basis for the inadequate adaptive immune response to this infection. (asm.org)
  • While the direct antiviral effects of IFN-α/β are their best-characterized function, their ability to influence dendritic cell (DC) activation has suggested a role for these cytokines in shaping adaptive immune responses to virus infection ( 14 , 38 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • The mature chicken immune system is a tight biological barrier against T. cruzi and the infection is eradicated upon development of its immune system by the end of the first week of growth 3 . (jove.com)
  • It was noted that immune serum offered protection to canine distemper immediately after infection, during the incubation period of the disease , 48 hours after infection and early phase of the disease(at the appearance of clinical signs). (edu.pk)
  • Abstract To determine whether geese are infection of avian leukosis virus (ALV), 702 serum samples from domestic and foreign goose breeds were screened for p27 antigen as well as being inoculated into DF-1 cell cultures to isolate ALV. (medworm.com)
  • Investigations on the occurrence of ortho- and paramyxovirus infections among free living greylag geese ( Anser anser Linne, 1758)] [in German]. (cdc.gov)
  • WHO estimates that 131 million new cases of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections occur globally every year. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Symptoms occur 12 to 72 hours after infection and include (but not limited to) diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, ,and nausea. (rentokil.ie)
  • Primary infection with HBoV seems to occur early in life and children between the ages of 6-24 months seem to be mostly affected-, but older children can also be infected. (datexis.com)