Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Wireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Pirenzepine: An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Anterior Thalamic Nuclei: Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.United StatesCaenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Improving social interaction in chronic psychotic using discriminated avoidance ("nagging"): experimental analysis and generalization. (1/2017)

Three social-interaction behaviors of a withdrawn chronic schizophrenic were increased using a discriminated avoidance ("nagging") procedure. The three behaviors were: (a) voice volume loud enough so that two-thirds of his speech was intellibible at a distance of 3m; (b) duration of speech of at least 15 sec; (c) placement of hands and elbows on the armrests of the chair in which he was sitting. "Nagging" consisted of verbal prompts to improve performance when the behaviors did not meet their criteria. A combined withdrawal and multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure, and the contingency was sequentially applied to each of the three behaviors in each of four different interactions to determine the degree of stimulus and response generalization. Results indicated that the contingency was the effective element in increasing the patient's appropriate performance, and that there was a high degree of stimulus generalization and a moderate degree of response generalization. After the patient's discharge from the hospital, the durability of improvement across time and setting was determined in followup sessions conducted at a day treatment center and at a residential care home. Volume and duration generalized well to the new settings, while arm placement extinguished immediately.  (+info)

Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (2/2017)

The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories.  (+info)

Blocking a selective association in pigeons. (3/2017)

Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems.  (+info)

Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule. (4/2017)

The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates.  (+info)

Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. (5/2017)

1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Intrahippocampal infusion of interleukin-6 impairs avoidance learning in rats. (6/2017)

AIM: To study the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on active avoidance in rats and the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO). METHODS: Using a shuttle-box model, the effects of bilaterally intrahippocampal infusion of IL-6 3.2, 16, and 80 ng as well as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) 400 ng on active avoidance were studied on d 8 after administration. The levels of nitrite as an index of NO in the hippocampus were detected using a fluorometric assay 24 h after infusion of IL-6 3.2 or 80 ng. RESULTS: IL-6 16 and 80 ng impaired the acquisition performance of active avoidance by prolonging the latency of avoidance in training, but not the retention performance in testing. IL-680 ng and SNP 400 ng also resulted in a marked impairment in acquisition performances by decreasing the rate of avoidance, but not in retention performances. IL-680 ng markedly elevated the nitrite levels from 10.6 +/- 0.7 in control rats to 13.6 +/- 2.0 (nmol/g wet wt) (P < 0.01). IL-6 3.2 ng had no effect on active avoidance nor on nitrite levels. CONCLUSION: Intrahippocampal infusion of IL-6 impaired learning acquisition of active avoidance in rats.  (+info)

Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur. (7/2017)

Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.  (+info)

Modeling geriatric depression in animals: biochemical and behavioral effects of olfactory bulbectomy in young versus aged rats. (8/2017)

Geriatric depression exhibits biological and therapeutic differences relative to early-onset depression. We studied olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a paradigm that shares major features of human depression, in young versus aged rats to determine mechanisms underlying these differences. Young OBX rats showed locomotor hyperactivity and a loss of passive avoidance and tactile startle. In contrast, aged OBX animals maintained avoidance and startle responses but showed greater locomotor stimulation; the aged group also exhibited decreased grooming and suppressed feeding with novel presentation of chocolate milk, effects which were not seen in young OBX. These behavioral contrasts were accompanied by greater atrophy of the frontal/parietal cortex and midbrain in aged OBX. Serotonin transporter sites were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of young OBX rats, but were decreased in the aged OBX group. Cell signaling cascades also showed age-dependent effects, with increased adenylyl cyclase responses to monoaminergic stimulation in young OBX but no change or a decrease in aged OBX. These data indicate that there are biological distinctions in effects of OBX in young and aged animals, which, if present in geriatric depression, provide a mechanistic basis for differences in biological markers and drug responses. OBX may provide a useful animal model with which to test therapeutic interventions for geriatric depression.  (+info)

The potency of two β-endorphin fragments, des-Tyr1-γ-endorphin (DTγE, βE-(2-17)) and des-enkephalin-γ-endorphin (DEγE, βE-(6-17)) was compared on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior and on retention of a one-trial step-through passive avoidance procedure. Both peptides facilitated the extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior and attenuated passive avoidance behavior. The γ-type endorphins exhibited an ... read more inverted U-shaped dose-response curve on passive avoidance behavior but not on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior. DEγE appeared to be approximately three times more potent than DTγE on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior but one hundred times more potent on passive avoidance behavior. It is suggested that DEγE rather than DTγE represents the endogenous neurolepticlike neuropeptide derived from β-endorphin. show less ...
Church, A C. and Sprott, R L., " The influence of mouse genotype on passive avoidance learning and subsequent concentrations of norepinephrine and serotonin in the hypothalamus and hippocampus." (1979). Faculty Research 1970 - 1979. 1053 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complex effects of NMDA receptor antagonist APV in the basolateral amygdala on acquisition of two-way avoidance reaction and long-term fear memory. AU - Savonenko, Alena. AU - Werka, Tomasz. AU - Nikolaev, Evgeni. AU - Zieliñski, Kazimierz. AU - Kaczmarek, Leszek. PY - 2003/7. Y1 - 2003/7. N2 - Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known about an involvement of this structure in more complex aversive learning, such as acquisition of an active avoidance reaction. In the present study, rats with a pretraining injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 2-amino-S-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were found to be impaired in two-way active avoidance learning. During multitrial training in a shuttle box, the APV-injected rats were not different from the controls in sensitivity to shock or in acquisition of freezing to contextual cues. However, APV ...
We investigated the effects of thioperamide, a histamine H3-receptor antagonist, on a scopolamine-induced learning deficit in the step-through passive avoidance test in mice, and on contents of acetylcholine and choline in the brain. In a behavioral study, thioperamide (20 mg/kg) alone slightly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning deficit, and pretreatment with zolantidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ameliorating effect of thioperamide. This enhanced ameliorating effect of thioperamide was antagonized by pyrilamine, a histamine H1-receptor antagonist and (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a histamine H3-receptor agonist, suggesting that thioperamide showed the ameliorating effect via histamine H3 receptors and/or histamine H1 receptors. In the biochemical study, thioperamide (20 mg/kg) in combination with zolantidine (20 mg/kg) significantly increased contents of choline in most of brain regions. These findings suggest that there is a close relationship between
Assessment of inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish is based on a conflict, and addresses learning and memory related to anxiety and fear behavior.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists on the passive avoidance task in mice. AU - Nabeshima, T.. AU - Itoh, K.. AU - Kawashima, K.. AU - Kameyama, T.. AU - Shih, J. C.. PY - 1992/12/1. Y1 - 1992/12/1. N2 - Effects of 5-HT agonists on learning and memory were examined using a step-down passive avoidance task in mice. A nonselective 5-HT agonist. 5- methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) given immediately after training remarkably decreased the step-down latencies in the retention test. A 5-HT1 antagonist, (±)-pindolol significantly attenuated 5-MeODMT-induced amnesia. 5-HT(1A) selective agonists. 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH- DPAT) and 1-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (PAPP) given immediately after training caused impairment of memory. 8-OH- DPAT-induced memory impairment was inhibited by a nonselective 5-HT antagonist, methysergide and a 5-HT1 antagonist, (±)-pindolol, whereas a selective 5-HT2 antagonist, ritanserin was ...
Morphines effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory
TY - JOUR. T1 - Opiate antagonist facilitation of time-dependent memory processes. T2 - Dependence upon intact norepinephrine function. AU - Gallagher, Michela. AU - Rapp, Peter R.. AU - Fanelli, Richard J.. PY - 1985/11/18. Y1 - 1985/11/18. N2 - Post-training administration of opiate antagonists improves retention of recent learning in laboratory animals tested on a variety of tasks. We examined the possibility that this effect of opiate antagonist treatment might be due to release of brain norepinephrine (NE) function from opioid peptide inhibition. The behavioral testing procedure in these experiments consisted of one-trial passive avoidance conditioning. Rats received post-training treatments immediately after the training trial and retention was tested 24 h later. Lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNB) that were induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) were found to prevent the memory enhancing effect of post-training naloxone administration. The memory enhancing effect of naloxone ...
Both muscarinic antagonists, such as scopolamine, and benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) agonists, such as diazepam, produce a reliable impairment in the performance of one trial passive avoidance. Such deficits are frequently interpreted as drug-induced amnesia. However, these deficits could also result from a learning impairment. The present experiments compared the effects of two BZR agonists, lorazepam (0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 mg/kg, IP) and diazepam (0, 0.78, 1.56, and 3.13 mg/kg, IP) with the effects of two muscarinic antagonists, scopolamine (0, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mg/kg, SC) and atropine (0, 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg, IP) on a multiple trial passive avoidance task. In this procedure, the rats were trained with a 5-min inter-trial interval until a learning criterion was achieved. Retention was assessed 24 h later. This enabled the effects of the drugs on the acquisition and the retention of a passive avoidance response to be dissociated. Both atropine and scopolamine produced a marked impairment in the
Electric shock is a common stimulus for nociception-research and the most widely used reinforcement in aversive associative learning experiments. Yet, nothing is known about the mechanisms it recruits at the periphery. To help fill this gap, we undertook a genome-wide association analysis using 38 inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains, which avoided shock to varying extents. We identified 514 genes whose expression levels and/or sequences covaried with shock avoidance scores. We independently scrutinized 14 of these genes using mutants, validating the effect of 7 of them on shock avoidance. This emphasizes the value of our candidate gene list as a guide for follow-up research. In addition, by integrating our association results with external protein-protein interaction data we obtained a shock avoidance- associated network of 38 genes. Both this network and the original candidate list contained a substantial number of genes that affect mechanosensory bristles, which are hairlike organs distributed
Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OXO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OXO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OXO-M/PZ binding ...
Passive avoidance learning is with advantage studied in day-old chicks trained to distinguish between beads of two different colors, of which one at training was associated with aversive taste. During the first 30-min post-training, two periods of gl
79 Moreover, the amygdaloid complex contains a moderate density of receptors and the developmental role of u s cholinergic amygdaloid system in passive avoidance learning cymbalta the rat has been described to occur during cymbalta us patent same time period. 25c 1 H 0.
Aversiveness of biological sounds has been studied in detail in the context of predator avoidance (Deecke et al., 2002; Tuttle and Ryan, 1981). By contrast, factors influencing aversiveness of other sounds are poorly understood and have only been investigated with respect to stimulus amplitude (Campbell, 1957; Kastelein et al., 2006a), practical applications (Blackshaw et al., 1990; Kastelein et al., 2001; Talling et al., 1998) or the use of sound as a reinforcing stimulus (Campbell and Bloom, 1965). An aversive stimulus is an unpleasant or noxious stimulus, which induces an avoidance response in an animal. Such behavioural responses to sounds are influenced by a variety of psychophysical factors relating to sound perception, the motivational state of an animal and basic learning processes (e.g. habituation, conditioning). Elucidating the role of these factors is not only relevant for animal welfare and conservation (Nowacek et al., 2007) but can also provide answers to fundamental questions of ...
Based on feedback from its partners in the BC offset market, Pacific Carbon Trust (PCT) has launched a new, streamlined project acquisition process.This new ...
An avoidance response is a response that prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring. It is a kind of negative reinforcement. An avoidance response is a behavior based on the concept that animals will avoid performing behaviors that result in an aversive outcome. This can involve learning through operant conditioning when it is used as a training technique. It is a reaction to undesirable sensations or feedback that leads to avoiding the behavior that is followed by this unpleasant or fear-inducing stimulus. Whether the aversive stimulus is brought on intentionally by another or is naturally occurring, it is adaptive to learn to avoid situations that have previously yielded negative outcomes. A simple example of this is food aversions, or the aversion developed to food that has previously resulted in sickness. Food aversions can also be conditioned using classical conditioning, so that an animal learns to avoid a stimulus previously neutral that has been associated with a negative outcome. This ...
Vasopressin (VP) is axonally distributed in many brain structures, including the ventral hippocampus. Picogram quantities of VP injected into the hippocampus improve the passive avoidance response of rats, presumably by enhancing memory processes. Vasopressin is metabolized by the brain tissue into shorter peptides, such as [pGlu4r,Cyt6]VP(4 9[ and [pGIu4,Cyt6,]VP(4 8), which preserve ... read more the behavioral activity but lose the peripheral activities of the parent hormone. Using brain slices, we investigated whether VP or VP(4 8) affects excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and/or membrane responses to depolarization in neurons of the CA 1 /subiculum of the ventral hippocampus. The EPSPs were evoked by stimulating the stratum radiatum of the CAI field; the membrane responses were elicited by current injections. Exposure of slices for 15 min to 0.1 nM solution of these peptides resulted in an increase in the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs in 21 neurons (67%) tested. No consistent ...
The principles of operant conditioning have taught us to recognize how certain coping techniques can reward, and therefore continue anxiety disorders. Two similar coping strategies for dealing with anxiety symptoms are called avoidance and escape.
The effects of scopolamine (2.0 mg/kg) and d-amphetamine (3.0 mg/kg) on one-way, shuttle and inhibitory avoidance performance were evaluated in 3 strains of mice (A/J, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J) and their 6 reciprocal F1 hybrids. In the saline condition, intermediate inheritance was observed in the inhibitory task, complete dominance for superior avoidance in the one-way task, and hybrid superiority in the shuttle situation. Administration of d-amphetamine disrupted inhibitory performance in all strains. In the shuttle task no amphetamine effect was observed in C57BL/6J mice, while improvement was seen in A/J and DBA/2J mice, as well as in all the hybrid crosses. No drug effect was seen in the one-way task. As with d-amphetamine, scopolamine disrupted performance in the inhibitory task among the inbreds, but had negligible effects in the hybrids. In the shuttle task, only the A/J mice exhibited improved performance, while a small decline in response rate was seen in one-way avoidance. Results were ...
The present study investigated the potential sex differences in repeated aripiprazole (ARI) treatment-induced behavioral sensitization from adolescence to adulthood, and to determine whether ARI sensitization can be transferred to olanzapine (OLZ) and/or clozapine (CLZ) using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and phencyclidine-induced (PCP) hyperlocomotion tests of antipsychotic activity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley adolescence rats (P46) were first treated with ARI (10 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days (P46-50) and tested for avoidance response and ARI-induced inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. After they became adults (|P68), rats were challenged with ARI (1.5 mg/kg, sc) (P70), OLZ (0.5 mg/kg, sc; P73), CLZ (5 mg/kg, sc; P76) and again with ARI (1.5 mg/kg, sc; P84) and tested for avoidance response and ARI-induced inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion again. During the drug treatment period in adolescence, repeated ARI treatment suppressed avoidance response, inhibited the PCP
Reforms that focus on the methodological procedures of the acquisition process are only partial remedies because they do not address incentives to deviate from sound practices. Weapons acquisition is a complicated enterprise, complete with unintended incentives that encourage moving programs forward by delaying testing and employing other problematic practices. These incentives stem from several factors. For example, the different participants in the acquisition process impose conflicting demands on weapon programs so that their purpose transcends just filling voids in military capability. Also, the budget process forces funding decisions to be made well in advance of program decisions, which encourages undue optimism about program risks and costs. Finally, DOD program managers short tenures and limitations in experience and training can foster a short-term focus and put them at a disadvantage with their industry counterparts ...
To test hippocampal-dependent learning in the absence of immature neurons, both DCXDTR and WT mice were treated with DT and subsequently tested in the active place avoidance task in "Room 1," 3 d after the last DT injection. The experimental design is shown in Figure 2C. In the 5 min habituation phase, during which the shock zone was not activated, both DCXDTR and WT mice explored the arena to a similar extent. The total distance covered (WT: 30.0 ± 1.4 m vs DCXDTR: 26.7 ± 1.5 m), the number of "virtual shocks" (WT: 27.9 ± 2.0 vs DCXDTR: 24.33 ± 1.6), and the number of entries into the shock zone (WT: 13.3 ± 0.8 vs DCXDTR: 12.1 ± 1.0) were similar between genotypes (n = 12 per experimental group). During habituation, the number of "virtual shocks" was typically higher than the number of entries into the shock zone because test animals were not presented with an aversive stimulus to encourage their exit from this area. However, after activation of the shock zone, the number of shocks ...
Im running on avoidance this week. That means I am doing everything and anything that I can think of, just to avoid doing anything. It that makes sense to you, then welcome to the avoidance club. It is probably one of the most stupid of human states, that exist. It would quite simply be easier,…
The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning
We present a multi scale approach for automating the image acquisition process for an computerized virus diagnostic application. Our methods are designed to mimic the methodology used by virus TEM experts manually operating the microscope. The methods decrease the search area considerably. In addition we present a segmentation method for virus-like particles based on local intensity information and PCA. This method makes no assumption regarding shape which is vital since many viruses are highly pleomorphic, i.e., have different shapes. The only input parameter used is the approximate virus thickness, which is a conserved feature within a virus species.. ...
Chronic pain is associated with cognitive deficits. Considerable overlap in brain regions involved in pain and aversion suggests that aversive learning and memory may be affected during chronic pain. Passive-avoidance ...
Morys, F.; Janssen, L.; Cesnaite, E.; Beyer, F.; Garcia-Garcia, I.; Kumral, D.; Liem, F.; Mehl, N.; Mahjoory, K.; Schrimpf, A. et al.; Gaebler, M.; Margulies, D. S.; Villringer, A.; Neumann, J.; Nikulin, V. V.; Horstmann, A.: Hemispheric asymmetries in resting-state EEG and fMRI are related to approach and avoidance behaviour, but not to eating behaviour or BMI. Human Brain Mapping 41 (5), S. 1136 - 1156 (2020 ...
University of Washington law professor Anita Ramasastry comments on the recent release of records known as the Paradise Papers, which reveal the identities of thousands of individuals and corporations using offshore jurisdictions as a tax avoidance strategy. Ramasastry argues that while such actions may in many cases be legal, they are also unethical. She points out that if we focus on the harm of tax avoidance to society, rather than how it is legally defined, then we can see that it contributes to growing inequality and increases tax burdens on resident taxpayers who cannot change their citizenship or move their money.
Collision Avoidance Sensors Market - Global industry segment analysis, regional outlook, share, growth; Collision Avoidance Sensors Market 2017 to 2027 by future market insights
Tobe BTD, Crain AM, Winquist AM, Calabrese B, Makihara H, Zhao WN, Lalonde J, Nakamura H, Konopaske G, Sidor M, Pernia CD, Yamashita N, Wada M, Inoue Y, Nakamura F, Sheridan SD, Logan RW, Brandel M, Wu D, Hunsberger J, Dorsett L, Duerr C, Basa RCB, McCarthy MJ, Udeshi ND, Mertins P, Carr SA, Rouleau GA, Mastrangelo L, Li J, Gutierrez GJ, Brill LM, Venizelos N, Chen G, Nye JS, Manji H, Price JH, McClung CA, Akiskal HS, Alda M, Chuang DM, Coyle JT, Liu Y, Teng YD, Ohshima T, Mikoshiba K, Sidman RL, Halpain S, Haggarty SJ, Goshima Y, Snyder EY ...
Roadscope Lx , Find Complete Details about Roadscope Lx,Fcw,Ldws,Crash Avoidance from Car Black Box Supplier or Manufacturer-PLK TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.
Nagano-Saito, A.; Kato, T.; Arahata, Y.; Washimi, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Abe, Y.; Yamada, T.; Iwai, K.; Hatano, K.; Kawasumi, Y. et al.; Kachi, T.; Dagher, A.; Ito, K.: Cognitive- and motor-related regions in Parkinsons disease: FDOPA and FDG PET studies. NeuroImage 22 (2), S. 553 - 561 (2004 ...
Aversion therapy uses principles from behavioral psychology to help reduce or eliminate unwanted behaviors. Learn more about how this process works.
၂၂-၉-ဝ၉ ေန႔က အဂၤလန္မွာ ထုတ္ျပန္ လိုက္တဲ့ သုေတသန စစ္တမ္းအရ "အမ်ိဳးသမီး ဆရာဝန္မ်ားသည္ အမ်ိဳးသား ဆရာဝန္မ်ားထက္ စိတ္ခ်ရျပီး၊ အလုပ္ ထုတ္ျပစ္ခံရျခ ...
The Raimondi range of Tile Spacers offer precision spaced joints and the optimum system for levelling tiles for the avoidance of Lippage - ALL AT THE RIGHT PRICE!!
Businesses and individuals being targeted for alleged tax avoidance are being left in “limbo” as HM Revenue & Customs struggles with a huge backlog.
Description: In the conditioned taste aversion test, rats are given two water bottles from which to drink. One is filled with plain water and the other is filled with water to which a small amount of saccharin or sucrose has been added. After a conditioning period, the rats are injected with either a test drug or a saline solution. The rats are returned to their cages and observed to determine whether they avoid the water bottle filled with sweet-tasting water, which would suggest a learned aversion to the solution, i.e., they associated the sweet-tasting water with a negative reaction (e.g., gastrointestinal malaise) that was actually caused by the injected drug. Purpose: Conditioned taste aversion is a useful test for determining whether a drug causes gastrointestinal side effects ...
The amygdala is strongly implicated in learning under emotionally charged settings such as fear. An inhibitory avoidance paradigm was used by Alkire and Nathan in which rats were placed in a lighted chamber facing a dark tunnel, which they normally prefer to enter. However, entrance into the dark area was negatively reinforced by electrical shock; rats quickly learned to avoid entering the dark tunnel and remained in the nonpreferred but "safe" lighted environment. When retested the next day, the rats continued to avoid entering the dark tunnel; their memory retention latency (i.e. , time to enter the dark tunnel) was very long, indicating that they remember being shocked. If a low concentration of sevoflurane was administered during the initial training period, the animals quickly entered the dark tunnel the following day, i.e. , sevoflurane prevented avoidance learning. However, after bilateral lesion of the basolateral amygdala, rats exhibited equally long memory retention latencies ...
Although the terms "taste avoidance" and "taste aversion" are often used interchangeably, studies with rats indicate they are not necessarily synonymous. "Aversion" is defined as "a strong dislike or disinclination"[4] and "avoidance" is defined as "stopping oneself from doing".[5] The difference is that in avoidance, the organism is controlling its behavioural responses. Taste avoidance and taste aversion can at times go hand in hand, but they cannot be looked at or be defined the same way.. Studies on rats to determine how they react to different tasting liquids and injections indicate this difference. Scientists measured the facial and somatic reactions of rats after exposure to a flavored solution (sucrose or salt) which do not induce abnormal feelings. However, immediately after the rat ingests the solution, the rat is injected with a drug that induces nausea. The rat subsequently expresses a disgust reaction towards the solution, seen by mouth gaping. This is a Pavlovian conditioned ...
Background and Objective: Lipolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule isolated from bacteria such as the enterobacteriaceae family with a negative effect on memory and learning through disturbing the balance of free radicals and creating oxidative stress conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and LPS-induced memory impairment in the rat. Materials and Methods: Male rats (n=40) were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, control under treatment with quercetin at a dose of 50 mg/kg, LPS, and LPS groups treated with quercetin at doses of 10 or 50 mg/kg. For induction of inflammation, LPS dissolved in normal saline (500 μg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. After one week, the passive avoidance behavior was tested in the shuttle box and hippocampal homogenate was prepared. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) were measured using specific kits. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16). Results: Step
In aposematism a prey species use bright colours, often combined with a black contrasting pattern, to signal unprofitability as prey to potential predators. Although there are several different hypotheses about the presence of these internally contrasting patterns, there is little experimental evidence of any beneficial effects. In this thesis I have used bird predators and artificial prey signals to investigate if the contrasting internal patterns in warning displays may have evolved to increase signal efficacy, especially regarding the speed of avoidance learning. In paper I the relative importance of colour and pattern in avoidance learning was studied. The conclusion was that birds primarily attend to colour, not pattern, when learning the discrimination, which was further supported by the results in paper II-IV, all suggesting a secondary role of patterns. In paper II I show that predators may to some degree use patterns for discrimination, if they convey important information about prey ...
Landis, D M. and Sidman, R L., "Electron microscopic analysis of postnatal histogenesis in the cerebellar cortex of staggerer mutant mice." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 4340 ...
The aim of the present work was to shed light on the role played by the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in the modulation of emotional reactivity and memory consolidation in rodents through the inhibition of the key and rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) both in vivo and in vitro with simvastatin. Three-month-old male Wistar rats treated for 21 days with simvastatin or vehicle were tested in the social interaction, elevated plus-maze, and inhibitory avoidance tasks; after behavioral testing, the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, dorsal, and ventral striatum were dissected out for biochemical assays. In order to delve deeper into the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects, primary rat hippocampal neurons were used. Our results show that HMGR inhibition by simvastatin induces anxiogenic-like effects in the social interaction but not in the elevated plus-maze test, and improves memory consolidation in the inhibitory ...
Whereas reward (appetitiveness) and aversiveness (punishment) have been distinguished as two discrete dimensions within psychology and behavior, physiological and computational models of their neural representation have treated them as opposite sides of a single continuous dimension of "value." Here, I show that although dopamine neurons of the primate ventral midbrain are activated by evidence for reward and suppressed by evidence against reward, they are insensitive to aversiveness. This indicates that reward and aversiveness are represented independently as two dimensions, even by neurons that are closely related to motor function. Because theory and experiment support the existence of opponent neural representations for value, the present results imply four types of value-sensitive neurons corresponding to reward-ON (dopamine), reward-OFF, aversive-ON, and aversive-OFF ...
The dorsal anterior cingulate (adACC) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) play a central role in the discrimination and appraisal of threatening stimuli. Yet, little is known about what specific features of threatening situations recruit these regions and how avoidance may modulate appraisal and activation through prevention of aversive events. In this investigation, thirty healthy adults underwent functional neuroimaging while completing an avoidance task in which responses to an Avoidable CS+ threat prevented delivery of an aversive stimulus, but not to an Unavoidable CS+ threat. Extinction testing was also completed where CSs were presented without aversive stimulus delivery and an opportunity to avoid. The Avoidable CS+ relative to the Unavoidable CS+ was associated with reductions in ratings of negative valence, fear, and US expectancy and activation. Greater regional activation was consistently observed to the Unavoidable CS+ during avoidance, which declined during extinction. Individuals
RESULTS: A deficit in avoidance learning and higher corticosterone level were observed in learned helplessness rats. SYG significantly reduced this deficit and reversed the corticosterone alteration. CMS induced significant reduction of sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test, an increased latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and an increased immobility time in the forced swim test as compared to the control. It was also found that BDNF and TrkB levels were decreased in CMS model. Chronic treatment of SYG significantly suppressed the behavioral changes and up-regulated the BDNF signal pathway in the hippocampus ...
Brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and/or extinction.Different brain areas (with at least unilateral activation during aversive conditioning and/or e
The depression-prone mice displayed higher concentrations of engram cells compared to the less susceptible mice, and the density of the cells correlated with the level of social avoidance behavior. Activating the engram cells increased social avoidance behavior while suppressing the cells decreased it, suggesting a role in the cognitive symptoms of depression ...
Prey face a conflict between acquiring energy and avoiding predators and use both direct and indirect cues to assess predation risk. Illumination, an indirect cue, influences nocturnal rodent foraging behaviour. New Zealand holds no native rodent species but has introduced mice (Mus musculus) that severely impair native biodiversity. We used Giving-Up Densities (GUDs) and observations of foraging frequency and duration to assess if artificial light induces risk avoidance behaviour in mice and could limit their activity. We found both captive (wild strain) mice in outdoor pens and wild mice within a pest fenced sanctuary (Maungatautari, New Zealand) displayed avoidance behaviour in response to illumination. In captivity, total foraging effort was similar across lit and unlit pens but mice displayed a strong preference for removing seeds from dark control areas (mean: 15.33 SD: +/-11.64 per 3.5 hours) over illuminated areas (2.00 +/-3.44). Wild mice also removed fewer seeds from illuminated areas (0.42 +/
On a behavioral level, treated mice out-performed controls on several tests of memory and also out-performed controls on a passive avoidance test ,which relies on memory of punishment.. In terms of brain anatomy there were notable differences in the thickness of the cortex of the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, which participates in memory formation and recall. With respect to the main culprit in Alzheimers disease - ß amyloid - the amount of this protein decreased in treated mice, both inside and outside the brain cells. Also, the pathways that breakdown and remove ß amyloid were more active in the brains of probiotic-treated AD mice.. All in all, the results of this study suggest that probiotics may restore the parts of the brain responsible for memory function, counteract the typical morphological alterations of AD, and significantly reduce the amount of ß amyloid in the brain.. ...
The molecular basis of shade avoidance reaction PNAS report on a collaborative study involving RUB scientists Plants that lose the battle during competitiveness for light because they are shaded by larger neighbours, counteract. They adapt by rapid shoot elongation and stretch their leaves towards the sun. The molecular basis of this so-called shade avoidance syndrome had been unclarified to date. Research scientists from the Utrecht University in the Netherlands and the Ruhr University in Bochum have now been able to unravel a regulation pathway.
Looking for Hydrofoil Collision Avoidance and Tracking System? Find out information about Hydrofoil Collision Avoidance and Tracking System. A computer-based system designed to automate target tracking and navigation functions in order to increase the safety of high-speed ships; it makes use of... Explanation of Hydrofoil Collision Avoidance and Tracking System
We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP) rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control), EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg), or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls) 30 min before the assays. Animals were submitted to open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and inhibitory avoidance tests. After behavioral tasks, blood samples were collected through intracardiac pathway, to evaluate the oxidative balance ...
I applaud Chairman Skelton, Ranking Member McHugh and Rep. Conaway for their leadership on the WASTE TKO Act. This bill will help stop the Department of Defense from wasting taxpayer dollars through endless cost growth in weapons programs. The WASTE TKO Act will also ensure that we get the weapons capabilities we need to keep America safe at reasonable cost. Passage of this legislation is an essential step at a time when the federal budget, including defense spending, must be brought under control. I look forward to continuing our work on the Defense Acquisition Reform Panel and finding solutions for the other 80 percent of the defense acquisition process that will continue saving precious taxpayer dollars," said Representative Andrews ...
High-resolution x-ray micro-tomography is used for imaging of solid materials at micrometer scale in 3D. Our goal is to implement nondestructive techniques to quantify properties in the interior of solid objects, including information on their 3D geometries, which supports modeling of the fluid dynamics into the pore space of the host object. The micro-tomography data acquisition process generates large data sets that are often difficult to handle with adequate performance when using current standard computing and image processing algorithms. We propose an efficient set of algorithms to filter, segment and extract features from stacks of image slices of porous media. The first step tunes scale parameters to the filtering algorithm, then it reduces artifacts using a fast anisotropic filter applied to the image stack, which smoothes homogeneous regions while preserving borders. Next, the volume is partitioned using statistical region merging, exploiting the intensity similarities of each segment. ...
When data is submitted to TCIA it undergoes an extensive curation process to assure completeness, proper formatting to facilitate discovery and data reuse and removal of all protected health information. Once data is released on the public TCIA repository it is Published to the world. This publication is associated with the creation of a Digital Object Identifier that allows direct access to the data. In addition to data publication via TCIA we strongly urge researchers who submit data to TCIA to also submit a Data Descriptor publication to a journal such as Nature Scientific Data. In this type of publication the authors will describe the data acquisition process, the experiment that drove this data collection and value of the data for future research (see each journal for specific content requirements). A Data Descriptor is a scientific paper that includes the DOI to the data previously published on TCIA and helps to call the attention of the scientific community to the data you have submitted. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Avoidance at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Avoidance easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Streptomyces luteireticuli ATCC ® 27446™ Designation: ISP 5509 TypeStrain=True Application: Produces acetopyrrothine thiolutin Produces aureothricin Produces mycometoxin A and B Produces restriction endonuclease SluI
Date:Sept. 29, 2016 Runtime:119min. Languages:Japanese Subtitles:----DVD ID:WANZ-541 Content ID:wanz00541 Actress(es):Yui HatanoSeries:---- Studio:Wanz Factory Channel:---- Director:---- Label:WANZ
All models on site.com adult site are 18 years or older. site.com has a zero-tolerance policy against ILLEGAL pornography. All videos are provided by 3rd parties and are embedded to our site. We take no responsibility for the content of these websites. We are proudly labeled with the RTA.. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Estrada, Ernesto and Hameed, Ehsan and Hatano, Naomichi and Langer, Matthias (2017) Path Laplacian operators and superdiffusive processes on graphs. I. one-dimensional case. Linear Algebra and its Applications, 523. pp. 307-334. ISSN 0024-3795 Estrada, Ernesto and Silver, Grant (2017) Accounting for the role of long walks on networks via a new matrix function. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 449 (2). pp. 1581-1600. ISSN 0022-247X Estrada, Ernesto and Benzi, Michele (2017) Core-satellite graphs : clustering, assortativity and spectral properties. Linear Algebra and its Applications, 517. pp. 30-52. ISSN 0024-3795 Estrada, Ernesto and Alhomaidhi, Alhanouf Ali and Al-Thukair, Fawzi (2017) Exploring the "Middle Earth" of network spectra via a Gaussian matrix function. Chaos, 023109. pp. 1-27. ISSN 1054-1500 Estrada, Ernesto (2016) The ABC matrix. Journal of Mathematical Chemistry. ISSN 0259-9791 Estrada, Ernesto and Meloni, Sandro and Sheerin, Matthew and Moreno, Yamir (2016) ...
One of my dogs, Penny, had a recurring illness that went on for years. It began when we moved to our new house. She would be in terrible pain for days and then it would subside. One time she hadnt eaten or drunk water in days and we thought she had come to the end. The vet was coming that afternoon to help her slip into the next life. I lay with her on our bed, sobbing on and off as one does, and after awhile Penny lifted her head and looked at me, jumped off the bed and headed to the toilet for a drink, then to the kitchen where she ate. She lasted many more months. I think she thought how sad, someone is going to die - OMG its me, Id better get up and going again.. ReplyDelete ...
Three major British Churches are calling on Chancellor George Osborne to take tough action on tax avoidance in his 21 March 2012 statement. ...
When consumption of a novel tasting substance is followed by administration of a chemical agent that produces physiological changes indicative of malaise, animals will reduce their consumption of the substance during subsequent encounters. This learned response is traditionally referred to as a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Studies have shown that the hormone estradiol is capable of producing this learned gustatory aversion. In addition, estradiol produces reductions in food intake and body weight, a phenomenon that is referred to as its anorectic effects. As a consequence of this anorectic effect, we question whether estradiol truly can induce CTA learning. Therefore, one of the purposes of the experiments presented in this dissertation was to test the dissociability of estradiol CTA and estradiol anorexia. The second purpose of this thesis was to examine the neural basis of estradiol CTA and estradiol anorexia. Four approaches were adopted to test the ability of estradiol to condition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Forgetting, preconditioning CS familiarization and taste aversion learning. T2 - An animal experiment with implications for alcoholism treatment. AU - Elkins, Ralph L.. AU - Hobbs, Steve H. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. N2 - The rapid taste aversion acquisition, which typically occurs in many species when ingestion of a novel flavor precedes gastrointestinal distress, is retarded by preconditioning familiarity with the CS flavor. This CS familiarity effect (CSFE) might contraindicate taste aversion approaches to alcoholism treatment since alcoholics are quite accustomed to the tastes of alcoholic beverages. However, many alcoholics do develop strong nausea-induced alcohol aversions under appropriate conditioning parameters. Additionally, the CSFE is attenuated in rats by repeated conditioning trials including discrimination training. The present animal experiment was conducted to determine if the CSFE could additionally be weakened by process of forgetting, i.e. by ...
16. Mohammad Nasehi, SamanehAmin-Yavari, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, MohammadTorabi-Nami, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast. The dual effect of CA1 NMDA receptor modulation on ACPA-induced amnesia in step-down passive avoidance learning task. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015. 17. Ghasemi R, Zarifkar A, Rastegar K, Maghsoudi N, Moosavi M. Insulin protects against A beta-induced spatial memory impairment, hippocampal apoptosis and MAPKs signaling disruption. Neuropharmacology. 2014.. 18. Farrokhi MR, Nikoo Z, Gholami M, Hosseini Kh. Comparison between Acrylic Cage and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage in Single-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2015.. 19. Farrokhi MR, Lotfi M, Masoudi MS, Gholami M. Effects of methylene blue on postoperative low-back pain and functional outcomes after lumbar open discectomy: a triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alterations of conditioned taste aversion after microiontophoretically applied neurotoxins in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat. AU - Hernádi, István. AU - Karádi, Zoltán. AU - Vígh, József. AU - Petykó, Zoltán. AU - Egyed, Róbert. AU - Berta, Beáta. AU - Lénárd, László. PY - 2000/12/1. Y1 - 2000/12/1. N2 - The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been reported to be essential in neural control of feeding. In the present study, we aimed to provide a complex characterization of behavioral consequences of PFC microlesions in CFY rats. Kainic acid (KA) was microiontophoretically applied into the mediodorsal division of PFC to damage intrinsic neurons, whereas in another group of rats, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was microiontophoretized into the same region to destroy catecholaminergic (CA) projection fiber terminals. Body weights, food and fluid intake of both lesioned and (sham-operated or intact) control animals were daily measured. Effects of intracellular dehydration ...
Several studies have shown that sleep deprivation produces deficits in learning tasks, but mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Other lines of evidence indicate an involvement of brain GABA systems in cognitive processes. Here, we investigated the possibility that alterations in GABA(A) or benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor binding might underlie avoidance deficits induced by sleep deprivation. Rats were deprived of sleep for 96 h using the platform method and then trained in a step-through inhibitory avoidance task, or allowed to recover sleep for 24 h before training (sleep rebound group). Thirty minutes after training, animals were given a retention test. Both sleep-deprived and sleep-recovered animals showed a significant impairment in avoidance responding compared to cage controls, and the sleep-deprived group performed significant worse than the sleep-recovered group. A separate group of animals was sacrificed either immediately after 96 h of sleep deprivation or after 96 h of ...
OBJECTIVE:Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of falling. In healthy elderly persons with a history of falling, a reduced ability to avoid obstacles while walking has been shown to relate to increased fall risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether this potential risk factor for falls would also be present in persons with RA.METHODS:Twelve RA patients and twelve controls performed an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill. The obstacle was released during three different phases of the gait cycle (late stance, early swing and mid swing) to create increasing difficulty levels. The primary outcome measure was failure rate.RESULTS:Overall, the RA patients had significantly higher obstacle avoidance failure rates. To avoid an obstacle, a long or a short stride strategy can be used, the choice of which depends on the phase of obstacle release. There were no significant group differences in the distribution of obstacle avoidance strategies. However, the RA patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of p-chlorophenylalanine-induced depletion of brain serotonin on retrieval of appetitive and aversive memories. AU - Kumar, K. B.. AU - Nalini, K.. AU - Karanth, K. S.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - This study examined whether depletion of central serotonin produces an improved retrieval of aversive memories in the same way as pre-exposure to inescapable footshocks, in rats. Animals conditioned in a T-maze with appetitive (10% sucrose) and aversive (2.0 mA footshock) events were given ICV 24 hr later a single dose of p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) (100, 200, 400 μg/rat) or drug vehicle. The retention performance and activity were assessed 48 hr after treatment with this depletor. While lower doses of p-CPA selectively reduced serotonin levels in striatum and anterior cortex, higher doses reduced both serotonin and norepinephrine levels in hippocampus in a dose-dependent fashion. The depletor however, failed to produce a differential improvement of aversive memory ...
P>It has been postulated that memory consolidation process requires post-learning molecular changes that will support long-term experiences. In the present study, we assessed with in vivo microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis whether such changes involve the release of neurotransmitters at post-acquisition stages. Using conditioned taste aversion paradigm we observed spontaneous off-line (i.e. in absence of stimulation) dopamine and glutamate reactivation within the insular cortex about 45 min after the stimuli association. These increments did not appear in control groups that were unable to acquire the task, and it seems to be dependent on amygdala activity since its reversible inactivation by tetrodotoxin impaired cortical off-line release of both neurotransmitters and memory consolidation. In addition, blockade of dopaminergic D1 and/or NMDA receptors before the off-line activity impaired long- but not short-term memory. These results suggest that off-line extracellular increments of ...
... is fear-motivated tests classically used to assess short-term or long-term memory on small laboratory animals (rat, mice).
Most studies investigating the genetic basis of animal behavior have focused on a single genetic background-often the reference laboratory strain. As a result, we have relatively little understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation in behavior. In this study, we sought to identify the genetic mechanisms that generate natural variation in behavioral responses to a thermal stimulus. Our results show that the escape behavior induced by thermal stimuli is composed of simpler behavioral components that are influenced by at least six distinct genetic loci. Our results reveal a genetic system that allows independent modification of behavioral components regulating escape response. Overall, our study reveals the constraints and the flexibility of the genetic mechanisms that generate diversity in C. elegans escape behavior.. We have identified six distinct genetic loci underlying different components of escape behavior and explaining a fraction of the variation that we observe in the RIAIL ...
The valence of memories is malleable because of their intrinsic reconstructive property1. This property of memory has been used clinically to treat maladaptive behaviours2. However, the neuronal mechanisms and brain circuits that enable the switching of the valence of memories remain largely unknown. Here we investigated these mechanisms by applying the recently developed memory engram cell- manipulation technique3, 4. We labelled with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) a population of cells in either the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus or the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) that were specifically activated during contextual fear or reward conditioning. Both groups of fear-conditioned mice displayed aversive light-dependent responses in an optogenetic place avoidance test, whereas both DG- and BLA-labelled mice that underwent reward conditioning exhibited an appetitive response in an optogenetic place preference test. Next, in an attempt to reverse the valence of memory within a ...
The valence of memories is malleable because of their intrinsic reconstructive property1. This property of memory has been used clinically to treat maladaptive behaviours. However, the neuronal mechanisms and brain circuits that enable the switching of the valence of memories remain largely unknown. Here we investigated these mechanisms by applying the recently developed memory engram cellmanipulation technique. We labelled with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) a population of cells in either the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus or the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) that were specifically activated during contextual fear or reward conditioning. Both groups of fear-conditioned mice displayed aversive light-dependent responses in an optogenetic place avoidance test, whereas both DGand BLA-labelled mice that underwent reward conditioning exhibited an appetitive response in an optogenetic place preference test. Next, in an attempt to reverse the valence of memory within a subject, ...
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD). We present a nonpharmacological approach for removing Aβ and restoring memory function in a mouse model of AD in which Aβ is deposited in the brain. We used repeated scanning ultrasound (SUS) treatments of the mouse brain to remove Aβ, without the need for any additional therapeutic agent such as anti-Aβ antibody. Spinning disk confocal microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction revealed extensive internalization of Aβ into the lysosomes of activated microglia in mouse brains subjected to SUS, with no concomitant increase observed in the number of microglia. Plaque burden was reduced in SUS-treated AD mice compared to sham-treated animals, and cleared plaques were observed in 75% of SUS-treated mice. Treated AD mice also displayed improved performance on three memory tasks: the Y-maze, the novel object recognition test, and the active place avoidance task. Our findings suggest ...
The biflagellate green alga Spermatozopsis similis exhibits a remarkable avoidance reaction in addition to the photophobic or stop response characteristic of such algae. S. similis normally swims forward with its anteriorly attached flagella directed posteriorly and propagating sine-like waves base to tip. Upon contact with surfaces or other cells, S. similis responds with rapid backward swimming, covering distances of up to 50 microns in 140 to 220 msec. This reaction, which we term the mechanoshock response, also can be triggered by vigorous mechanical stimulation, but not by physiological light intensities. It consists of 3 phases: (1) a rapid acceleration phase with average duration of 31 msec; (2) a phase of about 66 msec with constant high speed (maximal velocities of | 600 microns.sec-1) or slow deceleration; and (3) a deceleration phase of approximately 83 msec, followed by a stop or short period of circling. The cells then resume forward swimming in a random direction. Prior to the mechanoshock
Hi all. Im currently 8 weeks pregnant and for the last 3 weeks I have had constant nausea and terrible food aversions. I feel ... Read more on Netmums
Youll learn the secret methods that weve developed dog training schools in tulsa oklahoma will help you understand why your Doberman Pinscher is being aggressive and then use this knowledge to permanently stop your Doberman Pinschers aggression. In all escape/avoidance training, the exercise is set up so the handler controls every option the dog is faced with. He is not scratching at all, has lost his red skin and open sores and is beginning to get hair again all over his little body. Praise the dog when it begins to move towards you, and do not require that it do any kind of sit in front or return to heel at this stage of training.
Duties include, but are not limited to:. · Analyzes and interprets procurement law and regulation, executive orders, DoD policy and guidance, and Comptroller General Decisions; Determines impact on OIG acquisition plans, policies, and operations and advises division chief leadership on effect on OIG programs and operations and on incorporation into OIG acquisition processes; Identifies the need for, researches, and drafts proposed policies and procedures for internal use and for use OIG-wide; Explains and interprets law, regulation, and procedures to OIG components.. · Participates in acquisition planning; Analyzes past requirements and trends; Develops data and projections of acquisition requirements; Recommends strategies and options for delivery of acquisition services to support the OIG mission worldwide.. · Analyzes procurement and acquisition business processes, customer service levels, and other program areas; Develops and applies evaluation criteria and metrics to evaluate branch ...
Human access to the increasing amount of information and data plays an essential role for the professional level and also for everyday life. While information visualization has developed new and remarkable ways for visualizing data and enabling the exploration process, adaptive systems focus on users behavior to tailor information for supporting the information acquisition process. Recent research on adaptive visualization shows promising ways of synthesizing these two complementary approaches and make use of the surpluses of both disciplines. The emerged methods and systems aim to increase the performance, acceptance, and user experience of graphical data representations for a broad range of users. Although the evaluation results of the recently proposed systems are promising, some important aspects of information visualization are not considered in the adaptation process. The visual adaptation is commonly limited to change either visual parameters or replace visualizations entirely. Further, ...
THE NOMAD PRO 2 Handheld X-ray system is a dental X-ray unit that has revolutionised the way intraoral X-rays are taken. Its shielded, portable design enables operators to stay in the room while taking X-rays, making the entire image acquisition process faster, more efficient, and more enjoyable to both dental professionals and patients.
The present experiments provide some insight into the time course of perceptual learning for chromatic targets. Access to this information is difficult to obtain from previous comparative experiments, which often used aversive conditioning that over time engenders a long-term avoidance response to the testing situation. The present results show that subjects needed a variable number of sessions to reach plateau performance for different colors, but that the range was the same between monkey and human subjects (one to seven sessions). Monkeys and humans also showed similar variability in the number of sessions necessary to reach plateau performance (SD = 1.9 for monkeys, 1.8 for humans). Once plateau performance was achieved, optimal performance was maintained across long time gaps in task activity (Supplementary Figure S2). The results show a striking asymmetry in the improvement in performance over training for the +S versus −S targets for both humans and monkeys: the learning effect for +S ...
The present work defends the idea that grammatical categories are not intrinsic to mergeable items, taking as a departure point Lennebergs (1967, 1975) claim that syntactic objects are definable only contextually. It is argued that there are four different strands of inquiry that are of interest when one seeks to build an evolutionarily plausible theory of labels and operation Label: (i) linguistic constraints on adjacent elements of the same type such as Repetition/Identity Avoidance ([*XX]), (ii) data that flout these constraints ([XX]), (iii) disorders that raise questions as to whether the locus of impairment is a categorial feature per se, and (iv) operation Label as a candidate for human uniqueness. After discussing categorial identity through these perspectives, this work first traces the origins and manifestations of Identity Avoidance in language and other domains of human cognition, with emphasis on attention orienting. Second, it proposes a new processing principle, the Novel ...
Mentor: Dr. Gregory Quirk; University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus. Project: Infralimbic BDNF Regulates Extinction of Active Avoidance. ...
TrendSights Analysis: Moderation & Avoidance, explores how FMCG brands can help consumers to limit or avoid specific products or ingredients, either out of choice or necessity.
Community Treatment Program Aversion Therapy utilizes conditioning as treatment for alcohol and drug abuse. Locate one peer-reviewed article on aversion therapy published within the past five years. The article should describe.
Hi! At the moment I have implemented a third person camera that rotates around the player and tilts up and down. The camera follows player movement in and o...
The British prime minister's family finances are receiving unflattering scrutiny after a trove of internal Mossack Fonseca documents detailed his father's offshore banking activity.
Do you have burns? Learn more about how to take care of a burn! Brought to you by Sugarloaf Urgent Care, serving the areas of 30044
[img src=innovate.bta-nxt.dcp-bta._electric-shock-drowning._aquabot.001.jpg width=437 alt=the Aquabot] The Aquabot with one LEGO NXT robot, two Vernier NXT Sensor Adapters, and two Vernier Current Probes This year, the FIRST® LEGO® League competition theme was
How many times have we come across situations where middle management is deeply involved in risk avoidance but people on the Corporate Board have not
Patients who continue to be symptomatic on GAPS may need to avoid additional foods in order to heal. Avoidance of short chain carbs which ferment may also help.
Optimal management of anaphylaxis is avoidance of known triggers, but if a reaction occurs, being prepared is crucial to successful treatment and preventing.
Selected publications:. 1. Manuel R, M Gorissen, J Zethof, LOE Ebbesson, H Vis, G Flik and R Bos (2014) Unpredictable chronic stress decreases inhibitory avoidance learning in Tuebingen Long-Fin zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton): stronger effects in the resting phase than in the active phase. Journal of Experimental Biology, DOI: 10.1242/jeb.109736. 2. Handeland SO, AK Imsland, TO Nilsen, LOE Ebbesson, CD Hosfeld, C Pedrosa, H Toften and SO Stefansson (2014) Osmoregulation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts transferred to seawater at different temperatures. Journal of Fish Biology DOI: 10.1111/jfb.12481. 3. Eilertsen M, Ø Drivenes, RB Edvardsen, CA Bradley, LOE Ebbesson, and JV Helvik (2014) The exorhodopsin and melanopsin systems in the pineal complex and brain at early developmental stages of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Journal of Comparative Neurology DOI:10.1002/cne.23652. 4. Lund I, E Höglund, LOE Ebbesson, PV Skov (2014) Dietary LC-PUFA deficiency early in ontogeny ...
In urban areas, people often have to stand or move in close proximity to others. The egocentric distance to stimuli is a powerful determinant of defensive behavior in animals. Yet, little is known about how spatial proximity to others alters defensive responses in humans. We hypothesized that the valence of social cues scales with egocentric distance, such that proximal social stimuli have more positive or negative valence than distal stimuli. This would predict enhanced defensive responses to proximal threat and reduced defensive responses to proximal reward. We tested this hypothesis across four experiments using 3-D virtual reality simulations. Results from Experiment 1 confirmed that proximal social stimuli facilitate defensive responses, as indexed by fear-potentiated startle, relative to distal stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed that interpersonal defensive boundaries flexibly increase with aversive learning. Experiment 3 examined whether spatial proximity enhances memory for aversive ...
The administration of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonist 4-Cmc (0.003-9 nmol per mouse intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) ameliorated memory functions, whereas the RyR antagonist ryanodine (0.0001-1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) induced amnesia in the mouse passive avoidance test. The role of the type 1, 2, and 3 RyR isoforms in memory processes was then evaluated by inhibiting the expression of the three RyR proteins in the mouse brain. A selective knockdown of the RyR isoforms was obtained by the i.c.v. administration of antisense oligonucleotides (aODNs) complementary to the sequence of RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3 proteins, as demonstrated by immunoblotting experiments. RyR1 (5-9 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) knockdown mice did not show any memory dysfunction. Conversely, RyR2 (1-7 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) and RyR3 (1-7 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) knockdown animals showed an impairment of memory processes. This detrimental effect was temporary and reversible, disappearing 7 d after the end of the aODN treatment. At the ...
Background: Latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is sensitive to external and internal cues. Time of day can serve as an internal cue, and latent inhibition may be reduced if the pre-exposure and conditioning stages occur at different times of day. This contextual cue attributed to a change in the time of day may reveal a temporal specificity of latent inhibition. Although the habituation period to spatial contexts is a determinant variable for the spatial specificity of latent inhibition of CTA, the influence of contextual-temporal familiarity (time of day) on latent inhibition of CTA has not been explored through direct comparisons between different periods of habituation to the temporal context. Method: Two different periods of contextual habituation (short vs. long) previous to taste pre-exposures were compared in Wistar rats to analyze the influence of these periods on the temporal specificity of latent inhibition of CTA. Results: A long period of habituation, in relation ...
The fast technological evolution and dissemination of multimodal sensors and compliant actuators bring a new human-centric perspective to robotics. The variety of human-robot interactions that stem from these new capabilities unveil compelling challenges for machine learning. An attractive approach to the problem of transferring skills to robots is to take inspiration from the way humans learn by imitation, adaptation and self-refinement. Such learning strategies require various types of interaction with the end-users and with the robots environment. The overall skill acquisition process can hardly be segmented or sequenced in a specific way in advance. This indicates the importance of finding a representation of skills that can be shared by different learning strategies and that can accommodate multimodal continuous data streams for both analysis and synthesis purposes. The aim is to provide robots with a representation of rich motor skills able to handle recognition, prediction, synthesis and ...
... exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. ... exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. ... holding or autotomy Shows avoidance learning Shows trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational ... Avoidance learning in octopuses has been known since 1905. Noxious stimuli, for example electric shocks, have been used as " ...
However, hedgehogs fail to learn this avoidance behavior. This might seem to show the hedgehog's inability to learn, but the ... The birds learned to come back to the flowers at about the right time, learning the refill rates of up to eight separate ... Memory induced in a free-flying honeybee by a single learning trial lasts for days and, by three learning trials, for a ... and the Learning to Time model (LeT) in a double bisection task. Behavior and Learning, 33, 111-122 Chimps Use "Spears" to Hunt ...
Knauber, J; Müller, WE (2003). "Anseculin improves passive avoidance learning of aged mice". Pharmacological research : the ...
Chirelstein, Marvin A. (January 1968). "Learned Hand's Contribution to the Law of Tax Avoidance". Yale Law Journal. 77 (3): 440 ...
"Food avoidance learning in squirrel monkeys and Common Marmosets". Learn Mem. 5 (3): 193-203. doi:10.1101/lm.5.3.193. PMC ... However, illness was not necessarily prerequisite for food avoidance learning in these species, for highly concentrated but non ... Animals learn an association between stimulus characteristics, usually the taste or odor, of a toxic substance and the illness ... Third, there are learned aversions to distinctive foods if ingestion is followed by illness. A typical experiment tested food ...
20 (1). Rozin, P; Kalat, J (1971). "Specific hungers and poison avoidance as adaptive specializations of learning". ... These birds have learned to eat only the tongue of the toad, leaving the rest of the carcass behind. In this way, the raptors ... This form of learning has been observed to occur in native anurophagous predators when the ill-effects caused by consuming a ... This learnt behaviour has been observed in predators that are more resistant to the cane toad's toxins including birds and ...
"Avoidance learning in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) depends on the predatory imminence of the unconditioned stimulus: a ... Bolles, Robert C. "Species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning". Psychological Review. 77 (1): 32-48. doi:10.1037 ... In Evolution and Learning. Bolles RC, Beecher MD, Eds,; Earlbaum, Hillsdale NJ:185-211. Blanchard DC, Blanchard RJ (1969) ... These behaviours are used to reduce the probability of having to exhibit avoidance behaviours, which are evoked when a predator ...
Cheney, Karen (27 February 2008). "The role of avoidance learning in an aggressive mimicry system". Behavioral Ecology. 19 (3 ... In both cases, the host fish can rarely or never learn the disguise of the mimic; the fact that A. taeniatus can be easily ...
"Taste Avoidance and Taste Aversion: Evidence for Two Different Processes". Animal Learning & Behavior. 31 (2): 165-172. doi ... Compared with taste avoidance[edit]. Although the terms "taste avoidance" and "taste aversion" are often used interchangeably, ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2006) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... The difference is that in avoidance, the organism is controlling its behavioural responses. Taste avoidance and taste aversion ...
... avoidance of distinctive prey is selected by predators. Concurrent reciprocal selection (CRS) may entail learning by predators ... "Avoidance of aposematic prey in European tits (Paridae): learned or innate?". Behavioral Ecology. 18 (1): 148-156. doi:10.1093/ ... By mimicking similarly coloured species, the warning signal to predators is shared, causing them to learn more quickly at less ... If so, predators would learn to associate the colour with unpalatability from males with the trait, while heterozygous females ...
Bovet, D., McGaugh, J. L., & Oliverio, A. (1966). Effects of post trial administration of drugs on avoidance learning of mice. ... Studies on learning and memory in inbred mice (With D. Bovet and J.L. McGaugh). 1967-70 Research Pharmacologist, University of ... Studies on behaviour genetics, neurobiological correlates of individual differences and learning. Psychopharmacogenetics. 1978 ... Centre for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, University of California at Irvine. 1994 to 2001. President, Italian Institute ...
During his time at Harvard University, Solomon conducted research into avoidance learning. In his experiments, he placed dogs ... Eventually, the dogs learned to avoid shock entirely by running to the other side in the interval between lighting and ...
Avoidance is not necessarily an evolutionary response as it is generally learned from bad experiences with prey. However, when ... there is no opportunity for learning and avoidance must be inherited. Predators can also respond to dangerous prey with counter ... Cengage Learning. pp. 153-154. ISBN 978-81-315-0104-7. .. *^ Cetaruk, Edward W. (2005). "Rattlesnakes and Other Crotalids". In ... The predator can respond with avoidance, which in turn drives the evolution of mimicry. ...
... using an avoidance learning task. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 87: 343-354. Reebs, S.G. (2011) Tool use in fishes ... This is variously called observational learning, cultural transmission, or social learning. For example, fish can learn a ... Through social learning, fishes might learn not only where to get food, but also what to get and how to get it. Hatchery-raised ... Fishes can also learn from others the identity of predatory species. Fathead minnows, for example, can learn the smell of a ...
"Error monitoring during reward and avoidance learning in high- and low-socialized individuals". Psychophysiology. 37 (1): 43-54 ... This position has been elaborated into a reinforcement learning account of the ERN, arguing that both the rERN and the fERN are ... Holroyd, C. B.; Coles, M. G. H. (2002). "The neural basis of human error processing: Reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the ... ProQuest Information & Learning)" Dissertation Abstracts International 53 (10-B), 5090-5090. (Electronic; Print) Gehring, W. J ...
"Abnormal avoidance learning in mice lacking functional high-affinity nicotine receptor in the brain". Nature. 374 (6517): 65-67 ... "Abnormal avoidance learning in mice lacking functional high-affinity nicotine receptor in the brain". Nature. 374 (6517): 65-67 ...
... exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. If ... holding or autotomy Shows avoidance learning Shows trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational ... Furthermore, this avoidance learning is flexible and is related to the intensity of the stimulus. A painful experience may ... Dunlop, R., Millsopp, S. and Laming, P. (2006). "Avoidance learning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and trout (Oncorhynchus ...
Subsequent animal studies with rats found similar results, particularly in aversion and avoidance learning tasks. Rats lacking ... Memory and new learning involve the cerebral cortex, the subcortical projections, the hippocampus, the diencephalon and the ... However, both are important for memory and learning. The volume of grey and white matter in the brains of aging individuals has ... Levin H. S.; High W. M.; Eisenberg H. M. (1988). "Learning and forgetting during posttraumatic amnesia in head injured patients ...
An explanation of the learning-approach and learning-avoidance goal orientations are also included for completeness. In ... Learning goal orientation has also been separated into two categories learning approach orientation and learning avoid ... Alternatively, learning-avoidance goals "entail striving to avoid losing one's skills and abilities (or having their ... When designing learning environments for students, it is important to create opportunities that promote learning goals as ...
The Role of Cyclophilin D in learning and memory. Brush, F. Robert. (2003). Selection for Differences in avoidance Learning: ... To study auditory learning and memory, songbirds can be used. To study more complex systems such as motor learning, object ... These experiments help to develop theories on how we learn associations and what conditions affect that learning. Free recall ... however if animals can be selected for memory and learning ability, maybe we can learn something about how genes contribute to ...
... the complex learning associated with this response (see 'Learned Avoidance' below) suggests this view might be overly ... Learning and Memory, 4: 328-336 Putz, G. and Heisenberg, M., (2002). Memories in Drosophila heat-box learning. Learning and ... Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 74: 206-218 Denti, A., Dimant, B. and Maldonado, H., (1988). Passive avoidance learning in the ... Behavior and Neural Biology, 57: 189-197 Kawai, N., Kono, R.and Sugimoto, S., (2004). Avoidance learning in the crayfish ( ...
Epstein, M.K.; Poythress, N.G.; Brandon, K.O. (2006). "The Self-Report Psychopathy Scale and Passive Avoidance Learning A ... Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-7637-7790-6. W. Keith Campbell; Joshua D. Miller (7 July 2011). The Handbook of ... The honesty-humility factor from the HEXACO model of personality is used to measure sincerity, fairness, greed avoidance, and ...
Hale MW, Crowe SF (July 2002). "The effects of selective dopamine agonists on a passive avoidance learning task in the day-old ... Laszy J, Laszlovszky I, Gyertyán I (May 2005). "Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists improve the learning performance in memory- ... and facilitation of learning and memory, as well as augmentation and inhibition, respectively, of amphetamine-induced reward ...
"Involvement of the telencephalon in spaced-trial avoidance learning in the goldfish (Carassius auratus)". Physiology & Behavior ... However, this learning is context-dependent, as when these flies are placed in a new environment, they will again exhibit the ... In vertebrates, the avoidance behaviour appears to be processed in the telencephalon. This has been shown repeatedly in ... While many do not consider habituation a form of learning, many researchers are beginning to suggest that it could be a form of ...
"Differential Neuromodulation of Acquisition and Retrieval of Avoidance Learning by the Lateral Habenula and Ventral Tegmental ... The lateral habenula functions to oppose the action of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus in the acquisition of avoidance ... and learning. Recent demonstrations using fMRI and single unit electrophysiology have closely linked the function of the ... responses but not the processing of avoidance later on when it is a memory, motivation or its execution. New research suggests ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Barnes, Brian M. (1989). "Freeze Avoidance in a Mammal: Body Temperatures Below 0 °C in an Arctic Hibernator". Science. 244 ( ... Learning to eat is a messy process for children, and children often do not master neatness or eating etiquette until they are 5 ... allowing the body to learn when to stop eating. The stomach contains receptors to allow us to know when we are full. The ...

No FAQ available that match "avoidance learning"