A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.

Improving social interaction in chronic psychotic using discriminated avoidance ("nagging"): experimental analysis and generalization. (1/2017)

Three social-interaction behaviors of a withdrawn chronic schizophrenic were increased using a discriminated avoidance ("nagging") procedure. The three behaviors were: (a) voice volume loud enough so that two-thirds of his speech was intellibible at a distance of 3m; (b) duration of speech of at least 15 sec; (c) placement of hands and elbows on the armrests of the chair in which he was sitting. "Nagging" consisted of verbal prompts to improve performance when the behaviors did not meet their criteria. A combined withdrawal and multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure, and the contingency was sequentially applied to each of the three behaviors in each of four different interactions to determine the degree of stimulus and response generalization. Results indicated that the contingency was the effective element in increasing the patient's appropriate performance, and that there was a high degree of stimulus generalization and a moderate degree of response generalization. After the patient's discharge from the hospital, the durability of improvement across time and setting was determined in followup sessions conducted at a day treatment center and at a residential care home. Volume and duration generalized well to the new settings, while arm placement extinguished immediately.  (+info)

Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (2/2017)

The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories.  (+info)

Blocking a selective association in pigeons. (3/2017)

Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems.  (+info)

Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule. (4/2017)

The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates.  (+info)

Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. (5/2017)

1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Intrahippocampal infusion of interleukin-6 impairs avoidance learning in rats. (6/2017)

AIM: To study the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on active avoidance in rats and the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO). METHODS: Using a shuttle-box model, the effects of bilaterally intrahippocampal infusion of IL-6 3.2, 16, and 80 ng as well as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) 400 ng on active avoidance were studied on d 8 after administration. The levels of nitrite as an index of NO in the hippocampus were detected using a fluorometric assay 24 h after infusion of IL-6 3.2 or 80 ng. RESULTS: IL-6 16 and 80 ng impaired the acquisition performance of active avoidance by prolonging the latency of avoidance in training, but not the retention performance in testing. IL-680 ng and SNP 400 ng also resulted in a marked impairment in acquisition performances by decreasing the rate of avoidance, but not in retention performances. IL-680 ng markedly elevated the nitrite levels from 10.6 +/- 0.7 in control rats to 13.6 +/- 2.0 (nmol/g wet wt) (P < 0.01). IL-6 3.2 ng had no effect on active avoidance nor on nitrite levels. CONCLUSION: Intrahippocampal infusion of IL-6 impaired learning acquisition of active avoidance in rats.  (+info)

Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur. (7/2017)

Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.  (+info)

Modeling geriatric depression in animals: biochemical and behavioral effects of olfactory bulbectomy in young versus aged rats. (8/2017)

Geriatric depression exhibits biological and therapeutic differences relative to early-onset depression. We studied olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a paradigm that shares major features of human depression, in young versus aged rats to determine mechanisms underlying these differences. Young OBX rats showed locomotor hyperactivity and a loss of passive avoidance and tactile startle. In contrast, aged OBX animals maintained avoidance and startle responses but showed greater locomotor stimulation; the aged group also exhibited decreased grooming and suppressed feeding with novel presentation of chocolate milk, effects which were not seen in young OBX. These behavioral contrasts were accompanied by greater atrophy of the frontal/parietal cortex and midbrain in aged OBX. Serotonin transporter sites were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of young OBX rats, but were decreased in the aged OBX group. Cell signaling cascades also showed age-dependent effects, with increased adenylyl cyclase responses to monoaminergic stimulation in young OBX but no change or a decrease in aged OBX. These data indicate that there are biological distinctions in effects of OBX in young and aged animals, which, if present in geriatric depression, provide a mechanistic basis for differences in biological markers and drug responses. OBX may provide a useful animal model with which to test therapeutic interventions for geriatric depression.  (+info)

Avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It is a form of learning that occurs when an organism changes its behavior to avoid a negative outcome or situation. This can be seen in both animals and humans, and it is often studied in the field of psychology and neuroscience.

In avoidance learning, the individual learns to associate a particular cue or stimulus with the unpleasant experience. Over time, they learn to perform an action to escape or avoid the cue, thereby preventing the negative outcome from occurring. For example, if a rat receives an electric shock every time it hears a certain tone, it may eventually learn to press a lever to turn off the tone and avoid the shock.

Avoidance learning can be adaptive in some situations, as it allows individuals to avoid dangerous or harmful stimuli. However, it can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety, or if it interferes with an individual's ability to function in daily life. For example, a person who has been attacked may develop a phobia of public places and avoid them altogether, even though this limits their ability to engage in social activities and live a normal life.

In summary, avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It can be adaptive in some situations but can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety or interferes with daily functioning.

Electrolysis is a medical procedure that involves the use of electrical current to permanently remove hair growth. It works by passing a thin, solid metal electrode (called a probe) into the natural opening of the hair follicle and applying an electrical charge to destroy the hair root. This process can be used to remove hair from any part of the body, including the face, legs, arms, underarms, and bikini area.

During electrolysis, a trained professional called an electrologist inserts a small needle into the hair follicle and applies a mild electrical current. The current heats up and destroys the hair root, preventing future growth. Multiple treatments are usually necessary to achieve permanent hair removal, as only one or two hairs can be treated at a time.

Electrolysis is considered a safe and effective method for permanent hair removal, but it can cause some discomfort during and after treatment. Common side effects include redness, swelling, and tenderness in the treated area. These side effects typically resolve within a few hours to a few days after treatment.

It's important to note that electrolysis should only be performed by a licensed and trained electrologist. Improper technique can cause scarring, infection, or other complications. Before undergoing electrolysis, it's recommended to consult with a dermatologist or other healthcare provider to discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure.

Electroshock, also known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), is a medical procedure in which electric currents are passed through the brain to treat certain mental health conditions. It is primarily used to treat severe forms of depression that have not responded to other treatments, and it may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

During an ECT procedure, electrodes are placed on the patient's head, and a carefully controlled electric current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The patient is under general anesthesia and given muscle relaxants to prevent physical injury from the seizure.

ECT is typically administered in a series of treatments, usually two or three times a week for several weeks. While the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, ECT is thought to affect brain chemistry and help regulate mood and other symptoms. It is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for certain mental health conditions when other treatments have failed. However, it can have side effects, including short-term memory loss and confusion, and it may not be appropriate for everyone.

Maze learning is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is often used in the field of neuroscience and psychology. It refers to the process by which an animal or human learns to navigate through a complex environment, such as a maze, in order to find its way to a goal or target.

Maze learning involves several cognitive processes, including spatial memory, learning, and problem-solving. As animals or humans navigate through the maze, they encode information about the location of the goal and the various landmarks within the environment. This information is then used to form a cognitive map that allows them to navigate more efficiently in subsequent trials.

Maze learning has been widely used as a tool for studying learning and memory processes in both animals and humans. For example, researchers may use maze learning tasks to investigate the effects of brain damage or disease on cognitive function, or to evaluate the efficacy of various drugs or interventions for improving cognitive performance.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

In the context of medical and clinical neuroscience, memory is defined as the brain's ability to encode, store, retain, and recall information or experiences. Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves several interconnected regions of the brain and can be categorized into different types based on various factors such as duration and the nature of the information being remembered.

The major types of memory include:

1. Sensory memory: The shortest form of memory, responsible for holding incoming sensory information for a brief period (less than a second to several seconds) before it is either transferred to short-term memory or discarded.
2. Short-term memory (also called working memory): A temporary storage system that allows the brain to hold and manipulate information for approximately 20-30 seconds, although this duration can be extended through rehearsal strategies. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, typically thought to be around 7±2 items.
3. Long-term memory: The memory system responsible for storing large amounts of information over extended periods, ranging from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory has a much larger capacity compared to short-term memory and is divided into two main categories: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (non-declarative) memory.

Explicit (declarative) memory can be further divided into episodic memory, which involves the recollection of specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts, and semantic memory, which refers to the storage and retrieval of general knowledge, facts, concepts, and vocabulary, independent of personal experience or context.

Implicit (non-declarative) memory encompasses various forms of learning that do not require conscious awareness or intention, such as procedural memory (skills and habits), priming (facilitated processing of related stimuli), classical conditioning (associative learning), and habituation (reduced responsiveness to repeated stimuli).

Memory is a crucial aspect of human cognition and plays a significant role in various aspects of daily life, including learning, problem-solving, decision-making, social interactions, and personal identity. Memory dysfunction can result from various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and depression.

Classical conditioning is a type of learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired together, leading to an association between them. This concept was first introduced by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, in his studies on classical conditioning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

In classical conditioning, there are typically two types of stimuli involved: the unconditioned stimulus (US) and the neutral stimulus (NS). The US is a stimulus that naturally triggers a response, known as the unconditioned response (UR), in an organism. For example, food is an US that triggers salivation, which is the UR, in dogs.

The NS, on the other hand, is a stimulus that does not initially trigger any response in the organism. However, when the NS is repeatedly paired with the US, it becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and begins to elicit a conditioned response (CR). The CR is similar to the UR but is triggered by the CS instead of the US.

For example, if Pavlov repeatedly rang a bell (NS) just before presenting food (US) to a dog, the dog would eventually start salivating (CR) in response to the bell (CS) even when food was not presented. This is an example of classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning has been widely studied and is believed to play a role in various physiological processes, such as learning, memory, and emotion regulation. It has also been used in various applications, including behavioral therapy and advertising.

In the context of mental health and psychology, "predatory behavior" is not a term that is commonly used as a medical diagnosis or condition. However, it generally refers to aggressive or exploitative behavior towards others with the intention of taking advantage of them for personal gain or pleasure. This could include various types of harmful behaviors such as sexual harassment, assault, stalking, bullying, or financial exploitation.

In some cases, predatory behavior may be associated with certain mental health conditions, such as antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, which are characterized by a disregard for the rights and feelings of others. However, it's important to note that not all individuals who engage in predatory behavior have a mental health condition, and many people who do may not necessarily exhibit these behaviors.

If you or someone else is experiencing harm or exploitation, it's important to seek help from a trusted authority figure, such as a healthcare provider, law enforcement officer, or social worker.

A learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to acquire, process, and use information in one or more academic areas despite normal intelligence and adequate instruction. It can manifest as difficulties with reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), mathematics (dyscalculia), or other academic skills. Learning disorders are not the result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or environmental factors alone, but rather reflect a significant discrepancy between an individual's cognitive abilities and their academic achievement. They can significantly impact a person's ability to perform in school, at work, and in daily life, making it important to diagnose and manage these disorders effectively.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is not a medical term per se, but rather a teaching and learning approach that has been widely adopted in medical education. Here's a definition of PBL from the medical education perspective:

Problem-Based Learning is an educational method that utilizes clinical cases or real-world problems as a starting point for students to learn and apply concepts and principles from various disciplines. In this approach, students work in small groups to identify learning needs, gather relevant information, analyze and synthesize data, formulate hypotheses, develop solutions, and reflect on their learning process. The role of the instructor is that of a facilitator who guides the learners in their exploration of the problem and provides feedback on their performance. PBL aims to promote critical thinking, self-directed learning, collaborative skills, and clinical reasoning among medical students.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Discrimination learning is a type of learning in which an individual learns to distinguish between two or more stimuli and respond differently to each. It involves the ability to recognize the differences between similar stimuli and to respond appropriately based on the specific characteristics of each stimulus. This type of learning is important for many aspects of cognition, including perception, language, and problem-solving.

In discrimination learning, an individual may be presented with two or more stimuli and reinforced for responding differently to each. For example, a person might be trained to press a button in response to the color red and to do nothing in response to the color green. Through this process of differential reinforcement, the individual learns to discriminate between the two colors and to respond appropriately to each.

Discrimination learning is often studied in animals as well as humans, and it is thought to involve a range of cognitive processes, including attention, memory, and perception. It is an important aspect of many forms of learning and plays a role in a wide variety of behaviors.

Verbal learning is a type of learning that involves the acquisition, processing, and retrieval of information presented in a verbal or written form. It is often assessed through tasks such as list learning, where an individual is asked to remember a list of words or sentences after a single presentation or multiple repetitions. Verbal learning is an important aspect of cognitive functioning and is commonly evaluated in neuropsychological assessments to help identify any memory or learning impairments.

Reversal learning is a neuropsychological concept that refers to the ability to adjust behavioral responses when reward contingencies are changed or reversed. In other words, it is the capacity to learn and adapt to new rules when the previous ones no longer apply or are no longer reinforced. This cognitive process is often studied in animal models and human subjects using various learning paradigms, such as classical or operant conditioning tasks.

In a typical reversal learning task, a subject is initially trained to associate a particular stimulus (e.g., visual cue, sound, or action) with a reward (e.g., food or water). Once the subject has learned this association and responds consistently to the stimulus, the reinforcement contingency is reversed, so that the previously reinforced stimulus is now unreinforced, and the previously unreinforced stimulus is now reinforced. The subject must then learn and adapt to this new reward contingency.

Reversal learning involves several cognitive processes, including attention, memory, motivation, and executive functions. It requires the ability to inhibit a previously learned response, update working memory with new information, and flexibly adjust behavior based on changing environmental demands. Deficits in reversal learning have been observed in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders, suggesting that this cognitive process may be a useful marker of brain dysfunction in these conditions.

Serial learning is a form of learning in which new information or skills are acquired and organized in a sequential manner, with each piece of information building on the previous one. In other words, it involves learning items or concepts one at a time, in a specific order, rather than all at once. This type of learning is often used in situations where the material to be learned has a clear sequence, such as learning the alphabet, numbers, or days of the week.

In a medical context, serial learning may be used to teach complex medical procedures or concepts that have multiple steps or components. For example, a medical student may learn how to perform a physical examination by first learning how to take a patient's vital signs, then moving on to inspecting various parts of the body in a specific order. Through repeated practice and reinforcement, the student gradually builds up a sequence of skills and knowledge that becomes integrated into their long-term memory.

It is worth noting that some individuals may find serial learning more challenging than other forms of learning, particularly if they have difficulty with sequential processing or working memory limitations. Therefore, individualized instruction and accommodations may be necessary to support learners who struggle with serial learning tasks.

An "escape reaction" is a behavioral response displayed by an organism when it attempts to escape from a harmful, noxious, or stressful stimulus or situation. This response is typically characterized by rapid and directed movement away from the source of discomfort or danger. It is a fundamental survival mechanism that is observed across many species, including humans.

In a medical context, an escape reaction may be observed in response to painful medical procedures or treatments. For example, a patient may try to move or pull away during an injection or other invasive procedure. Healthcare providers must be aware of and prepared to manage escape reactions to ensure the safety and comfort of their patients during medical procedures.

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The avoidance response comes into play here when punishment is administered. An animal will presumably learn to avoid the ... Garcia, J (1996). Relation of cue to consequence in avoidance learning. Foundations of animal behavior: Classic papers with ... Wynne, Solomon (1953). "TRAUMATIC AVOIDANCE LEARNING: THE OUTCOMES OF SEVERAL EXTINCTION PROCEDURES WITH DOGS". Skinner, B.F. ( ... Because the avoidance response is adaptive, humans have learned to use it in training animals such as dogs and horses. B.F. ...
... exhibiting avoidance learning; and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. In ... holding or autotomy Shows avoidance learning Shows trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational ... Magee, B. & Elwood, R.W. (2013). "Shock avoidance by discrimination learning in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is consistent ... Robert W. Elwood & Barry Magee (2013). "Shock avoidance by discrimination learning in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is ...
Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kono, Reiko; Sugimoto, Sanae (2004). "Avoidance learning in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) depends on the ... Bolles, Robert C. (1970). "Species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning". Psychological Review. 77 (1): 32-48. doi ... In Evolution and Learning. Bolles RC, Beecher MD, Eds,; Earlbaum, Hillsdale NJ:185-211. Blanchard, DC; Blanchard, RJ (1969). " ... These behaviours are used to reduce the probability of having to exhibit avoidance behaviours, which are evoked when a predator ...
Bolles RC (1970). "Species-specific Defense Reactions and Avoidance Learning". Psychological Review. 77: 32-38. doi:10.1037/ ... Through observational learning, humans can learn to fear potentially dangerous objects-a reaction observed in other primates. A ... Although observational learning has proven effective in creating reactions of fear and phobias, it has also been shown that by ... The avoidance aspect is defined as behaviour that results in the omission of an aversive event that would otherwise occur, ...
Rats that lack the gene stathmin show no avoidance learning, or a lack of fear, and will often walk directly up to cats and be ... The avoidance learning of rats is seen as a conditioned response, and therefore the behavior can be unconditioned, as supported ... The rats showed signs of avoidance learning, not fear, but simply avoiding the area that brought pain to the test rats. ... Species-specific defense reactions (SSDRs) or avoidance learning in nature is the specific tendency to avoid certain threats or ...
Jouventin, P.; Pasteur, G.; Cambefort, J. P. (1977). "Observational Learning of Baboons and Avoidance of Mimics: Exploratory ... Proposed alternatives include observational learning and innate avoidance. These provide alternative explanations to Emsleyan ... But if a predator dies, it cannot learn to recognize a warning signal, e.g., bright colours in a certain pattern. In other ... Another possible mechanism is that a predator might not have to learn that a certain prey is harmful in the first place: it ...
Knauber J, Müller WE (March 2003). "Anseculin improves passive avoidance learning of aged mice". Pharmacological Research. 47 ( ...
... the complex learning associated with this response (see 'Learned Avoidance' below) suggests this view might be overly ... Kawai, N.; Kono, R.; Sugimoto, S. (2004). "Avoidance learning in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) depends on the predatory ... Denti, A.; Dimant, B.; Maldonado, H. (1988). "Passive avoidance learning in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus". Physiology & ... Fernandez-Duque, E.; Valeggia, C.; Maldonado, H. (1992). "Multitrial inhibitory avoidance learning in the crab Chasmagnathus". ...
"The Self-Report Psychopathy Scale and Passive Avoidance Learning". Assessment. 13 (2): 197-207. doi:10.1177/1073191105284992. ... The honesty-humility factor from the HEXACO model of personality is used to measure sincerity, fairness, greed avoidance, and ... Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-7637-7790-6. Campbell, W. Keith; Miller, Joshua D. ( ...
Johnsson, T.; Lavender, J. F.; Hultin, E.; Rasmussen Jr., A. F. (1963). "The Influence of Avoidance-Learning Stress on ... Rasmussen's 1957 paper Increased susceptibility to herpes simplex in mice subjected to avoidance-Learning stress or restraint, ... Antibody Response and Viral Retention During Avoidance Learning Stress". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 116 (3): 677-680. ... "Increased Susceptibility to Herpes Simplex in Mice Subjected to Avoidance-Learning Stress or Restraint". Experimental Biology ...
Khurana S, Abu Baker MB, Siddiqi O. (2009). Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster. J. Biosci. 34: ...
"Contiguous Approach Conditioning: A Model For Sidman Avoidance Learning." Psychological Reports 55.1 (Aug. 1984): 291-295. ... Sidman's explanation of free-operant avoidance is an alternative to the Miller-Mowrer two-process theory of avoidance. ... "free-operant avoidance", in which an individual learns to avoid an aversive stimulus by remembering to produce the response ... Methodologically, a "Sidman avoidance procedure" is an experiment in which the subject is periodically presented with an ...
Chirelstein, Marvin A. (January 1968). "Learned Hand's Contribution to the Law of Tax Avoidance". Yale Law Journal. 77 (3): 440 ...
... exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. ... exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. ... holding or autotomy Shows avoidance learning Shows trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational ... Avoidance learning in octopuses has been known since 1905. Noxious stimuli, for example electric shocks, have been used as " ...
ISBN 0-478-14065-7. Laska, M.; Metzker, K. (1998). "Food avoidance learning in squirrel monkeys and common marmosets". Learn. ... The nematode C. elegans was shown to learn and transmit to their offspring avoidance after exposure to non-coding RNA of a ... However, illness was not necessarily prerequisite for food avoidance learning in these species, for highly concentrated but non ... elegans interprets bacterial non-coding RNAs to learn pathogenic avoidance". Nature. 586 (7829): 445-451. Bibcode:2020Natur.586 ...
20 (1). Rozin, P; Kalat, J (1971). "Specific hungers and poison avoidance as adaptive specializations of learning". ... These birds have learned to eat only the tongue of the toad, leaving the rest of the carcass behind. In this way, the raptors ... This form of learning has been observed to occur in native anurophagous predators when the ill-effects caused by consuming a ... This learnt behaviour has been observed in predators that are more resistant to the cane toad's toxins including birds and ...
Cheney, Karen (27 February 2008). "The role of avoidance learning in an aggressive mimicry system". Behavioral Ecology. 19 (3 ... In both cases, the host fish can rarely or never learn the disguise of the mimic; the fact that A. taeniatus can be easily ...
Noboa, Vanessa; Gillette, Rhanor (2013). "Selective prey avoidance learning in the predatory sea slug Pleurobranchaea ... from their chemical receptors lined along the anterior edge of their veil for localized feeding and have aposematic learning to ...
Scientists explain a mechanism by which C. elegans learns and inherits pathogenic avoidance after exposure to a single non- ... elegans interprets bacterial non-coding RNAs to learn pathogenic avoidance". Nature. 586 (7829): 445-451. Bibcode:2020Natur.586 ... They used deep learning to identify design-rules. 27 July - A new AI algorithm by the University of Pittsburgh achieves the ... "Machine learning reveals recipe for building artificial proteins". phys.org. Retrieved 17 August 2020. Russ, William P.; ...
"Inhibitory learning of phototaxis by honeybees in a passive-avoidance task". Learning & Memory. 26 (10): 412-423. doi:10.1101/ ... Learning & memory 19 (2), 54-66. doi: 10.1101/lm.024711.111. Devaud JM, Papouin T, Carcaud J, Sandoz JC, Grünewald B, Giurfa M ... His work has led to the establishment of virtual reality scenarios for honey bees in which he studies their visual learning and ... Devaud, JM; Papouin T; Carcaud J; Sandoz JC; Grunewald B; Giurfa M (2015). "Neural substrate for higher-order learning in an ...
C. elegans was shown to learn and inherit pathogenic avoidance after exposure to a single non-coding RNA of a bacterial ... elegans interprets bacterial non-coding RNAs to learn pathogenic avoidance". Nature. 586 (7829): 445-451. Bibcode:2020Natur.586 ... Prader-Willi is a developmental disorder associated with over-eating and learning difficulties. SNORD116 has potential target ...
... elegans interprets bacterial non-coding RNAs to learn pathogenic avoidance". Nature. 586 (7829): 445-451. Bibcode:2020Natur.586 ... "Machine learning reveals recipe for building artificial proteins". phys.org. Retrieved 17 August 2020. Russ, William P.; ... Researchers report a deep learning approach to identify gene regulation at the single-cell level, which previously had been ... "UCI researchers use deep learning to identify gene regulation at single-cell level". University of California, Irvine. 5 ...
May 2015). "Histamine in the basolateral amygdala promotes inhibitory avoidance learning independently of hippocampus". ... α-FMH administration has been shown to cause impairments in long-term memory and learning. Additionally, injection of α-FMH has ...
2007). "Avoidance of aposematic prey in European tits (Paridae): learned or innate?". Behavioral Ecology. 18 (1): 148-156. doi: ... avoidance of distinctive prey is selected by predators. Concurrent reciprocal selection (CRS) may entail learning by predators ... Siddall, Emma C.; Marples, Nicola M. (2008-01-22). "Better to be bimodal: the interaction of color and odor on learning and ... By mimicking similarly coloured species, the warning signal to predators is shared, causing them to learn more quickly at less ...
"Basolateral amygdaloid multi-unit neuronal correlates of discriminative avoidance learning in rabbits". Brain Research. 549 (2 ... as well as defining the role for the hippocampus in contextual learning and memory. Maren joined the faculty of University of ... and amygdala that are involved in the expression and extinction of learned fear responses. Maren obtained his undergraduate ... the activity of basolateral amygdala neurons during this form of learning. He obtained his PhD in Biological Sciences ( ...
During his time at Harvard University, Solomon conducted research into avoidance learning. In his experiments, he placed dogs ... Eventually, the dogs learned to avoid shock entirely by running to the other side in the interval between lighting and ...
Ryker, Lee C. (1994). "Male Avoidance of Female Rejection: Learning in Tropisternus Solier Water Beetles (Coleoptera: ... In response to the rejection maneuvers of the female, male T. ellipticus will mimic the buzzing and shaking, often learning ... Resetarits, William J. (September 2001). "Colonization under threat of predation: avoidance of fish by an aquatic beetle, ...
... using an avoidance learning task. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 87: 343-354. Reebs, S.G. (2011) Tool use in fishes ... This is variously called observational learning, cultural transmission, or social learning. For example, fish can learn a ... Through social learning, fishes might learn not only where to get food, but also what to get and how to get it. Hatchery-raised ... Fishes can also learn from others the identity of predatory species. Fathead minnows, for example, can learn the smell of a ...
Dikman ZV, Allen JJ (January 2000). "Error monitoring during reward and avoidance learning in high- and low-socialized ... This position has been elaborated into a reinforcement learning account of the ERN, arguing that both the rERN and the fERN are ... Holroyd CB, Coles MG (October 2002). "The neural basis of human error processing: reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the ...
... therefore presenting an avoidance response. This format does not use Pavlovian learning to condition avoidance responses. In ... leading psychologists and neuroscientists to study how avoidance behaviors are learned using rat or mouse models. Avoidance ... After the training session the rats complete unsignaled avoidance learning (see above) for multiple days. As a test of ... This form of conditioning combines Pavlovian learning with unsignaled avoidance conditioning in order to test whether rats are ...
Operational and avoidance procedures, ICI, Ice Crystal Icing. Honeywell and Rockwell Collins WXR ... Strategic Weather Avoidance. Tactical Weather Avoidance. Tilt. Gain. TURB. 1:60 Rule. CB Cell Clearance. Pass a cell. Avoidance ... Qrosscheck Learning LLC. 6500 River Place Blvd. Building 7. STE 250. Austin, Texas 78730. United States of America ...
Graphical Programming Kit for Learn Coding with Arduino IDE18 - Ultrasonic Obstacle Avoidance Car. Post Time: 2021-08-26 10:08: ... As students have learnt a lot about building blocks from different categories in previous lesson, so in this final project, we ... The next step, we need to use these 3 varaibles to build the blocks and make obstacle avoidance program. ... Location: Home » mBlock Graphic Programming » Graphical Programming Kit for Learn Coding with Arduino IDE18 - Ultrasonic ...
... has been implicated in a variety of learning and memory processes and is important for avoidance learning. The present studies ... has been implicated in a variety of learning and memory processes and is important for avoidance learning. The present studies ... Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2013 Jan:99:25-31. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2012.10.010. Epub 2012 Nov 5. ... Subsequently, CDPPB (30mg/kg, i.p.), administered 20min prior to each of 3 daily reversal learning training sessions in the ...
Obstacle Detection and Avoidance Using Sensors and Deep Learning Models Article Sidebar. PDF ... To study various technologies used in order to solve the problem of obstacle detection and avoidance and develop a system ...
T2 - Correction: Humans perseverate on punishment avoidance goals in multigoal reinforcement learning (eLife (2022) 11 PII: ... Erratum: Correction: Humans perseverate on punishment avoidance goals in multigoal reinforcement learning (eLife (2022) 11 PII ... Erratum: Correction: Humans perseverate on punishment avoidance goals in multigoal reinforcement learning (eLife (2022) 11 PII ... Erratum : Correction: Humans perseverate on punishment avoidance goals in multigoal reinforcement learning (eLife (2022) 11 PII ...
2014) Safety signals as instrumental reinforcers during free-operant avoidance. Learn Mem 21:488-497. doi:10.1101/lm.034603.114 ... D-F, CNO in WT controls (teal bars) failed to impact (D) avoidance%, (E) avoidance latency, or (F) escape latency relative to ... 7A; change from baseline avoidance%: t(10) = 1.50, NS; Vehicle: m = 38.82 ± 5.71; CNO: m = 28.96 ± 5.07; raw %avoidance: t(10) ... Operant shock avoidance/escape task. Procedures were adapted from a previously described shock avoidance/escape task (Oleson et ...
I was involved in the broad area of avoidance learning. I think PTSD is a subset of that but our patients are very avoidance. I ... I would say just another piece on this, that what we often see as a lot of avoidance learning in our patients. If we dont, ... So what Im saying is, you know, Im worried that the evidence is not all in and were not learning the paradigm lessons from ... Sign up to receive COCA Call Announcements, COCA Digest, COCA Learn, COCA Now, and other COCA resources by entering your email ...
... and Collision Avoidance, which keeps the rover operating safely while it learns the environment. Combined, this AI-assisted ...
I was hoping to discuss about the relevant association between chronic mask wearing and avoidance learning. In contrast, there ... Consequently, is dopamine-mediated avoidance conditioning a reversible fear-extinction learning paradigm? What do you think?. ... Likewise, striatal dopamine signaling can also prime the amygdala and hippocampus towards instrumental learning of avoidance. ... Predator avoidance conditioning is a real problem associated to the etiology of dysfunctional surgical mask use and very few ...
Campers will be able to learn bike maintenance, safe street riding, obstacle avoidance, and group riding techniques. Our ... Up to $10 off this event Save now $50 off running shoes Learn more As much as 20-50% off travel Save now Up to $10 off this ... ACTIVE also makes it easy to learn and prepare for all the things you love to do with expert resources, training plans and ...
2017). Disrupted avoidance learning in functional neurological disorder: implications for harm avoidance theories. NeuroImage. ... Morrison, S. E., Saez, A., Lau, B., and Salzman, C. D. (2011). Different time courses for learning-related changes in amygdala ... Aggarwal, P., and Gupta, A. (2019). Multivariate graph learning for detecting aberrant connectivity of dynamic brain networks ... evidence from multimodal MRI and machine learning. Eur. Radiol. 28, 3789-3800. doi: 10.1007/s00330-018-5365-7 ...
Avoidance and punishment. Learned helplessness. Week 10. Animal training 1. Animal training 2. ... Learning Outcomes Course Learning Outcomes. On successful completion of this course students will be able to:. 1. Be able to ... Learning & Teaching Activities Learning & Teaching Modes. This course will be delivered through the following means:. Internal ... Learning Resources Recommended Resources. Bouton, M. E. (2007 or 2016). Learning and Behavior: A Contemporary Synthesis. ...
Learn From NGF Members. Ship Sticks Secrets to a Hassle-Free Buddies Golf Trip Whether youre the head planner of your upcoming ... Exposure Avoidance. March 1, 2021. Almost half of core golfers indicated they would be at least "somewhat concerned" about ...
Limits to learning: Effects of predator pattern and colour on perception and avoidance-learning by prey. Animal Behaviour 47: ... Social learning in New Caledonian crows. Learning and Behavior 38: 206-19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] ... Word learning in a domestic dog: Evidence for "Fast Mapping". Science 304: 1682-83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green ... However, they cannot learn to approach a nonpredatory client as a safe haven (Wismer et al. 2016). Similarly, bees can ...
... youll learn about avalanche awareness while winter hiking, snowshoeing, and ski touring. ... Id say the 1st most important thing to learn is terrain avoidance. Learning safe corridors to travel and how to spot terrain ... Learn how to use Slope Angle Analysis to plan safe off-trail routes in the Backpacking Light Gaia GPS Masterclass ... Im curious to learn what others take for avalanche safety gear, especially backpacking near the treeline where the risk starts ...
Learn about: Capital Gains Tax, Tax Avoidance, Capital Allowances... ... The CISI Capital Markets Programme offers a study pathway for practitioners in the capital markets wholesale sector... Learn ... The scale of working capital Managing inventories Managing trade receivables Managing cash Managing trade payables... Learn ... The various business operations... Learn about: Capital Markets, Capital Budgeting, Capital Investment... ...
reacting to complex learning situations by withdrawal or avoidance *using the excuse of being too busy, not interested, too ... teaching/learning perspective. *D. The gap in knowledge of what the sexes would be like if mankind were not exposed to ... The learning process must begin with onset of illness. *Often there is conflict between feelings of dependence and need for ... Learning 119. Assistive Technologies*Refers to the professional services and the hardware and software that make computer ...
Learn the crucial impact of resilience on building value, while also examining the high risk of avoidance.. ... Learn how to power a performance-based future globally. The frequency, intensity, and impact of natural disasters have ...
I was involved in the broad area of avoidance learning. I think PTSD is a subset of that but our patients are very avoidance. I ... I would say just another piece on this, that what we often see as a lot of avoidance learning in our patients. If we dont, ... So what Im saying is, you know, Im worried that the evidence is not all in and were not learning the paradigm lessons from ... I think the adverse childhood experience sequence that we learned about, the exposure to violence in the home, family members ...
Introducing our new product the name is Avoidance Genevra Sans Serif Font Family comes with 9 different weights. Modern Sans ... Introducing our new product the name is Avoidance Genevra Sans Serif Font Family comes with 9 different weights. Modern Sans ... Click here to Learn more. Avoidance Genevra WebFont EULA Desktop: for use on a desktop workstation. For the most common uses, ... Avoidance Genevra Font Family was designed by Hero and published by UICreative. Avoidance Genevra contains 9 styles and family ...
Now that you have learned how to overcome conflict avoidance, here are three next steps for your continued leadership ... Conflict Avoidance. Have you ever dealt with someone who seems to run away from conflict? Working through a conflict when ... Access their Data. Users have the right to learn if Data is being processed by the Owner, obtain disclosure regarding certain ... To learn, whether the Owner is processing Personal Data for direct marketing purposes, Users may refer to the relevant sections ...
Effect of caffeine and nicotine on avoidance learning in mice: Lack of interaction. JPharm Pharmacol 46:765-767. Santos IS, ... Caffeine does not effectively ameliorate, but rather may worsen the ethanol intoxication when assessed by discrete avoidance in ...
Also learn why to choose GE Digital Digital Twin amongst others. ... Learn how our applications can support your business goals. ... Learn more about GE Digitals digital twin technology and read how digital twins can help industrial organizations increase ... Analytics: An asset model that is empowered by physics-based models, statistical models, and machine learning/AI models to help ... Learn how GE Digital products adhere to the strictest industrial standards and latest best practices ...
Lifelong Learning for Clinicians. *JCP ISSN: Online 1555-2101, Print 0160-6689 ... Rapid onset of avoidance (panic avoidance lag time , 1 year)was predicted by the perception that depersonalization is alife- ... Thedevelopment of phobic avoidance was associated with the presenceof panic disorder (beta = 1.36), the number of ... Results: Thirty-six subjects (37%) had at leastmild phobic avoidance, with 81% (N = 29) of those developing theavoidance less ...
Learn More Why should I brand my topic?. Branding your topics will give more credibility to your content, position you as a ...
Third, we constructed a deep learning obstacle avoidance control through experiments, and the average relative error of this ... deep learning model with the idea of humanoid driving. First, we designed the autonomous obstacle avoidance control rules to ... Abstract: Existing intelligent driving technology often has a problem in balancing smooth driving and fast obstacle avoidance, ... Avoidance Control Strategy for Tracked Intelligent Transportation Vehicles in Non-structural Environment Based on Deep Learning ...
Relationship between number of conditioning trials per training session and avoidance learning in horses. Appl Anim Behav Sci ... The best strategy to preventing the horse from learning these types of behaviors is a knowledge base of associative learning ... The role of associative and non-associative learning in the training of horses and implications for the welfare (a review) ... Nicol C. Learning abilities of the horse. In: Mills DS, McDonnell, SM (Eds). The Domestic Horse: The Origins, Development and ...
  • The next step, we need to use these 3 varaibles to build the blocks and make obstacle avoidance program. (osoyoo.com)
  • To study various technologies used in order to solve the problem of obstacle detection and avoidance and develop a system capable of efficiently detecting and avoiding obstacles and selecting a path that is free from congestion. (harbinengineeringjournal.com)
  • Campers will be able to learn bike maintenance, safe street riding, obstacle avoidance, and group riding techniques. (active.com)
  • Existing intelligent driving technology often has a problem in balancing smooth driving and fast obstacle avoidance, especially when the vehicle is in a non-structural environment, and is prone to instability in emergency situations. (arxiv.org)
  • Therefore, this study proposed an autonomous obstacle avoidance control strategy that can effectively guarantee vehicle stability based on Attention-long short-term memory (Attention-LSTM) deep learning model with the idea of humanoid driving. (arxiv.org)
  • First, we designed the autonomous obstacle avoidance control rules to guarantee the safety of unmanned vehicles. (arxiv.org)
  • Second, we improved the autonomous obstacle avoidance control strategy combined with the stability analysis of special vehicles. (arxiv.org)
  • In contrast, passive avoidance is the prevention of an aversive stimulus by withholding a behavior, which is usually demonstrated by placing a rat in a chamber with a raised platform in which refraining from stepping off the platform prevents a foot shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • front) Flexible space module for y-maze, elevated plus maze, and passive avoidance test. (lu.se)
  • Passive Avoidance is a fear-motivated test to evaluate cognitive processes in rodents. (lu.se)
  • An avoidance response is a natural adaptive behavior performed in response to danger. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neural circuit responsible for expressing signaled avoidance behavior is the same that controls extinction of fear responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learning and Behavior: A Contemporary Synthesis. (edu.au)
  • Learning and behavior, NJ: Prentice Hall. (edu.au)
  • After that, rats are placed into avoidance chambers and presented with the CS for a short amount of time, during which they may shuttle through the opening, preventing the US from occurring, therefore presenting an avoidance response. (wikipedia.org)
  • This form of conditioning combines Pavlovian learning with unsignaled avoidance conditioning in order to test whether rats are able to transfer their learned behavioral response to a previously inescapable conditioned stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • First rats undergo traditional Pavlovain fear learning in which they are not able to escape or avoid the US shock following the CS tone. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the training session the rats complete unsignaled avoidance learning (see above) for multiple days. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a test of Pavlovian instrumental transfer, rats are placed into the same shuttle chambers as for unsignaled avoidance training and presented with the tone CS they received during the Pavlovian conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rats, the fear-motivated response is to freeze, so in both fear extinction and avoidance conditioning inhibition of the amygdala via the mPFC leads to more movement (shuttling) and less freezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avoidance learning in rats devoid of telencephalon plus thalamus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Excessive avoidance has been suggested to contribute to anxiety disorders, leading psychologists and neuroscientists to study how avoidance behaviors are learned using rat or mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very recently it has been demonstrated that horses in these types of conditions can show depressive-like behaviors [17] and learned helplessness could be a consequence of several years of improper management [18]. (scielosp.org)
  • Such a response is considered active avoidance when it occurs prior to the stimulus presentation and prevents the stimulus from occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • School avoidance occurs in about 5% of all school-aged children and affects girls and boys equally. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Avoidance learning is a type of operant conditioning (also known as instrumental conditioning). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Be able to comprehend and apply the principles of associative and operant learning theories. (edu.au)
  • models of sustainable business Capital markets and sustainable development Signals to the market Rewarding financial intermediaries Learning outcomes. (emagister.co.uk)
  • Specifically, it starts from the basic communication between humans and horses and then focuses on associative and non-associative learning, with many practical outcomes in horse management from the ground and under saddle. (scielosp.org)
  • Signaled avoidance involves classical conditioning such that the aversive stimulus becomes an unconditioned stimulus (US) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS), usually a tone or flash of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present studies used an mGlu5 receptor positive allosteric modulator, 3-cyano-N-(1,3 diphenyl-1H-hyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB), to characterize the importance of mGlu5 receptors in aversively- and appetitively-motivated spatial learning tasks (tasks in which the instrumental contingency involves discriminative cues that differ in spatial location). (nih.gov)
  • To demonstrate an avoidance response requires repeated reinforcement through instrumental conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Be able to apply learning principles to applied contexts, including clinical applications. (edu.au)
  • Key findings on the neurobiology of learning will also be discussed, as well as applications of these findings to clinical disorders. (edu.au)
  • Thedevelopment of phobic avoidance was associated with the presenceof panic disorder (beta = 1.36), the number of comorbidpsychiatric disorders (beta = 0.69), and the number of familymembers and/or friends available to discuss health concerns (beta= 0.87). (psychiatrist.com)
  • These other disorders differ from school avoidance in that they also cause problems that are unrelated to school. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has been implicated in a variety of learning and memory processes and is important for avoidance learning. (nih.gov)
  • We address the self-sabotaging thought processes that underlie perfectionism, imposter syndrome or worry and learn to reframe them. (lu.se)
  • Vogeltanz-Holm et al (10) and Leshner et al (14) used cognitive and learning theories to propose further that advertisement effectiveness ratings and recall are greatest when advertisements elicit the emotional responses of fear or disgust or both. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Gondi and a group of colleagues from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) developed an approach to address the problem: hippocampal avoidance (HA)-WBRT. (medscape.com)
  • The conference, one of a series hosted by Emory University (Atlanta, GA, USA), featured discussions of the response to and lessons learned from the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti and examined the role that US academic institutions can play in public health emergencies. (cdc.gov)
  • Challenges and opportunities faced during the cholera epidemic were highlighted, and lessons learned that could be broadly applied to other emergency settings were identified. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this course is to provide students with an intermediate-to-advanced understanding of learning theory and behaviourism with a particular focus on how these principles can be applied to the study of human behaviour. (edu.au)
  • Thus, this review addresses correct horse training based on scientific knowledge in animal learning and psychology. (scielosp.org)
  • Mice will learn to associate that moving to the dark compartment has negative consequences. (lu.se)
  • Learning & Memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The memory test was the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Delayed Recall (HVLT-DR), and the 4-month measurement was the study's primary end point. (medscape.com)
  • Learning and memory capacities are measured by recording the latency to escape from the white compartment. (lu.se)
  • These intervals are called shock-shock (S-S) intervals, but when an avoidance response is made by the rat, the next shock is delayed by a 30-second response-shock (R-S) interval. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, CDPPB (30mg/kg, i.p.), administered 20min prior to each of 3 daily reversal learning training sessions in the Barnes maze, significantly enhanced performance compared to vehicle-treated controls and had a significant effect on search strategy. (nih.gov)
  • Learn how to power a performance-based future globally. (bomi.org)
  • Focus group questions asked respondents to describe experiences of bullying, how the bullying affected meeting their clinical learning objectives, and to provide suggestions to address bullying of student nurses in the clinical setting. (cdc.gov)
  • School avoidance is a disorder affecting school-aged children who, because of anxiety, depression, or social factors, avoid attending school because attendance causes stress. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some psychologic and social factors may cause school avoidance. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 5. The government of Malaysia recognizes that during this period of social distancing and avoidance of mass gatherings, digital connectivity is of paramount importance. (who.int)
  • ACTIVE also makes it easy to learn and prepare for all the things you love to do with expert resources, training plans and fitness calculators. (active.com)
  • Avoidance Genevra Font Family was designed by Hero and published by UICreative . (myfonts.com)
  • Avoidance Genevra contains 9 styles and family package options. (myfonts.com)
  • Learn about: Capital Management, Capital Investment, Development strategy. (emagister.co.uk)
  • Learn more about affiliate commissions, influencer marketing, and our consumer advocacy work by reading our article Stop wasting money on gear . (backpackinglight.com)
  • Taming techniques have two common elements: isolation of the horse from its peers, and ensuring that the horse accepts its attempts of avoidance and escape will be unsuccessful [6]. (scielosp.org)
  • Using a behavioral assay of risky decision-making, and of the food-seeking and shock-avoidance components of this task, we show that engaging inhibitory G i/o signaling specifically in VP GABA neurons suppresses motivation to pursue highly salient palatable foods, and possibly also motivation to avoid being shocked. (jneurosci.org)
  • Graduates are well prepared for living, learning and working in a digital society. (edu.au)
  • Predictors of the Development of Phobic Avoidance. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The presence of limited and extensive phobic avoidancewas measured using the SCID, while rapidity of development (lagtime) was measured as the difference between onset of panic andonset of avoidance. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Depersonalizationis also key to the development of avoidance and the rapidity ofthe development. (psychiatrist.com)
  • She can state a secondary benefit if Janet has Q1 ego needs: "It will help my professional growth to learn your process and how you think when putting these proposals together. (q4solutions.com)
  • But on a deeper level, it is also about how to overcome conflict avoidance. (q4solutions.com)
  • The present results emphasize the role of mGlu5 receptors in spatial learning tasks and support previous studies which report mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators can enhance learning in some tasks and may have potential as nootropic drugs. (nih.gov)