Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Analysis of Variance
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
Computer Communication Networks
Remote Sensing Technology
Electric Power Supplies
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
Anterior Thalamic Nuclei
Encyclopedias as Topic
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Improving social interaction in chronic psychotic using discriminated avoidance ("nagging"): experimental analysis and generalization. (1/2017)Three social-interaction behaviors of a withdrawn chronic schizophrenic were increased using a discriminated avoidance ("nagging") procedure. The three behaviors were: (a) voice volume loud enough so that two-thirds of his speech was intellibible at a distance of 3m; (b) duration of speech of at least 15 sec; (c) placement of hands and elbows on the armrests of the chair in which he was sitting. "Nagging" consisted of verbal prompts to improve performance when the behaviors did not meet their criteria. A combined withdrawal and multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure, and the contingency was sequentially applied to each of the three behaviors in each of four different interactions to determine the degree of stimulus and response generalization. Results indicated that the contingency was the effective element in increasing the patient's appropriate performance, and that there was a high degree of stimulus generalization and a moderate degree of response generalization. After the patient's discharge from the hospital, the durability of improvement across time and setting was determined in followup sessions conducted at a day treatment center and at a residential care home. Volume and duration generalized well to the new settings, while arm placement extinguished immediately. (+info)
Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (2/2017)The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories. (+info)
Blocking a selective association in pigeons. (3/2017)Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems. (+info)
Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule. (4/2017)The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates. (+info)
Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. (5/2017)1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. (+info)
Intrahippocampal infusion of interleukin-6 impairs avoidance learning in rats. (6/2017)AIM: To study the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on active avoidance in rats and the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO). METHODS: Using a shuttle-box model, the effects of bilaterally intrahippocampal infusion of IL-6 3.2, 16, and 80 ng as well as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) 400 ng on active avoidance were studied on d 8 after administration. The levels of nitrite as an index of NO in the hippocampus were detected using a fluorometric assay 24 h after infusion of IL-6 3.2 or 80 ng. RESULTS: IL-6 16 and 80 ng impaired the acquisition performance of active avoidance by prolonging the latency of avoidance in training, but not the retention performance in testing. IL-680 ng and SNP 400 ng also resulted in a marked impairment in acquisition performances by decreasing the rate of avoidance, but not in retention performances. IL-680 ng markedly elevated the nitrite levels from 10.6 +/- 0.7 in control rats to 13.6 +/- 2.0 (nmol/g wet wt) (P < 0.01). IL-6 3.2 ng had no effect on active avoidance nor on nitrite levels. CONCLUSION: Intrahippocampal infusion of IL-6 impaired learning acquisition of active avoidance in rats. (+info)
Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur. (7/2017)Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition. (+info)
Modeling geriatric depression in animals: biochemical and behavioral effects of olfactory bulbectomy in young versus aged rats. (8/2017)Geriatric depression exhibits biological and therapeutic differences relative to early-onset depression. We studied olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a paradigm that shares major features of human depression, in young versus aged rats to determine mechanisms underlying these differences. Young OBX rats showed locomotor hyperactivity and a loss of passive avoidance and tactile startle. In contrast, aged OBX animals maintained avoidance and startle responses but showed greater locomotor stimulation; the aged group also exhibited decreased grooming and suppressed feeding with novel presentation of chocolate milk, effects which were not seen in young OBX. These behavioral contrasts were accompanied by greater atrophy of the frontal/parietal cortex and midbrain in aged OBX. Serotonin transporter sites were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of young OBX rats, but were decreased in the aged OBX group. Cell signaling cascades also showed age-dependent effects, with increased adenylyl cyclase responses to monoaminergic stimulation in young OBX but no change or a decrease in aged OBX. These data indicate that there are biological distinctions in effects of OBX in young and aged animals, which, if present in geriatric depression, provide a mechanistic basis for differences in biological markers and drug responses. OBX may provide a useful animal model with which to test therapeutic interventions for geriatric depression. (+info)
Effect of des-Tyr1-[gamma]-endorphin and des-enkephalin-[gamma]-endorphin on active and passive avoidance behavior of rats; A...
The potency of two β-endorphin fragments, des-Tyr1-γ-endorphin (DTγE, βE-(2-17)) and des-enkephalin-γ-endorphin (DEγE, βE-(6-17)) was compared on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior and on retention of a one-trial step-through passive avoidance procedure. Both peptides facilitated the extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior and attenuated passive avoidance behavior. The γ-type endorphins exhibited an ... read more inverted U-shaped dose-response curve on passive avoidance behavior but not on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior. DEγE appeared to be approximately three times more potent than DTγE on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior but one hundred times more potent on passive avoidance behavior. It is suggested that DEγE rather than DTγE represents the endogenous neurolepticlike neuropeptide derived from β-endorphin. show less ...
The influence of mouse genotype on passive avoidance learning and sub by A C. Church and R L. Sprott
Church, A C. and Sprott, R L., The influence of mouse genotype on passive avoidance learning and subsequent concentrations of norepinephrine and serotonin in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. (1979). Faculty Research 1970 - 1979. 1053 ...
The role of nitric oxide in passive avoidance learning
The role of nitric oxide on passive avoidance learning was studied by administering L-arginine or D-arginine to male rats in a passive avoidance paradigm. L-Arginine administered into the lateral brain ventricle at a dose of 1.25 microg showed a tendency to increase the passive avoidance latency, an …
Complex effects of NMDA receptor antagonist APV in the basolateral amygdala on acquisition of two-way avoidance reaction and...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complex effects of NMDA receptor antagonist APV in the basolateral amygdala on acquisition of two-way avoidance reaction and long-term fear memory. AU - Savonenko, Alena. AU - Werka, Tomasz. AU - Nikolaev, Evgeni. AU - Zieliñski, Kazimierz. AU - Kaczmarek, Leszek. PY - 2003/7. Y1 - 2003/7. N2 - Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known about an involvement of this structure in more complex aversive learning, such as acquisition of an active avoidance reaction. In the present study, rats with a pretraining injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 2-amino-S-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were found to be impaired in two-way active avoidance learning. During multitrial training in a shuttle box, the APV-injected rats were not different from the controls in sensitivity to shock or in acquisition of freezing to contextual cues. However, APV ...
Effects of thioperamide on the cholinergic system and the step-through passive avoidance test in mice. | Semantic Scholar
We investigated the effects of thioperamide, a histamine H3-receptor antagonist, on a scopolamine-induced learning deficit in the step-through passive avoidance test in mice, and on contents of acetylcholine and choline in the brain. In a behavioral study, thioperamide (20 mg/kg) alone slightly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning deficit, and pretreatment with zolantidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ameliorating effect of thioperamide. This enhanced ameliorating effect of thioperamide was antagonized by pyrilamine, a histamine H1-receptor antagonist and (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a histamine H3-receptor agonist, suggesting that thioperamide showed the ameliorating effect via histamine H3 receptors and/or histamine H1 receptors. In the biochemical study, thioperamide (20 mg/kg) in combination with zolantidine (20 mg/kg) significantly increased contents of choline in most of brain regions. These findings suggest that there is a close relationship between
Inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio) | Noldus
Assessment of inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish is based on a conflict, and addresses learning and memory related to anxiety and fear behavior.
Effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists on the passive avoidance task in mice<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists on the passive avoidance task in mice. AU - Nabeshima, T.. AU - Itoh, K.. AU - Kawashima, K.. AU - Kameyama, T.. AU - Shih, J. C.. PY - 1992/12/1. Y1 - 1992/12/1. N2 - Effects of 5-HT agonists on learning and memory were examined using a step-down passive avoidance task in mice. A nonselective 5-HT agonist. 5- methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) given immediately after training remarkably decreased the step-down latencies in the retention test. A 5-HT1 antagonist, (±)-pindolol significantly attenuated 5-MeODMT-induced amnesia. 5-HT(1A) selective agonists. 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH- DPAT) and 1-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (PAPP) given immediately after training caused impairment of memory. 8-OH- DPAT-induced memory impairment was inhibited by a nonselective 5-HT antagonist, methysergide and a 5-HT1 antagonist, (±)-pindolol, whereas a selective 5-HT2 antagonist, ritanserin was ...
Prior Learning of Relevant Nonaversive Information Is a Boundary Condition for Avoidance Memory Reconsolidation in the Rat...
Figure 4. The effect of repeated nonreinforced pretraining exposure to the training apparatus on avoidance memory reconsolidation is time dependent and requires NMDAr activation immediately after each preexposure session. A, Left, Bilateral intra-CA1 infusion of AP5 immediately after each preexposure session prevented the decrease in step-down latency caused by repeated nonreinforced exposure to the training environment. Animals were allowed to explore the step-down inhibitory avoidance (SD-IA) TB once daily for 5 min during 5 d and immediately after each session received intra-CA1 infusions of VEH (0.9% saline) or AP5 (5 μg/side). Right, Bilateral intra-CA1 infusion of AP5 immediately after each preexposure session prevented the amnesic effect of the postreactivation administration of AMA and ANI. Twenty-four hours after the last preexposure session, the animals showed in the left panel were trained in the SD-IA task (TR; 0.8 mA/2 s) and 1 d later submitted to a 40-s-long nonreinforced memory ...
Proteome Analysis of Rat Hippocampus Following Morphine-induced Amnesia and State-dependent Learning
Morphines effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory
Value generalization in human avoidance learning | eLife
Individual differences in generalization of aversive value (but not safety information) during human active avoidance learning specifically predict experience of anxiety and intrusive thoughts.
Opiate antagonist facilitation of time-dependent memory processes: Dependence upon intact norepinephrine function<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Opiate antagonist facilitation of time-dependent memory processes. T2 - Dependence upon intact norepinephrine function. AU - Gallagher, Michela. AU - Rapp, Peter R.. AU - Fanelli, Richard J.. PY - 1985/11/18. Y1 - 1985/11/18. N2 - Post-training administration of opiate antagonists improves retention of recent learning in laboratory animals tested on a variety of tasks. We examined the possibility that this effect of opiate antagonist treatment might be due to release of brain norepinephrine (NE) function from opioid peptide inhibition. The behavioral testing procedure in these experiments consisted of one-trial passive avoidance conditioning. Rats received post-training treatments immediately after the training trial and retention was tested 24 h later. Lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNB) that were induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) were found to prevent the memory enhancing effect of post-training naloxone administration. The memory enhancing effect of naloxone ...
NAVER Academic | Double dissociation between the effects of muscarinic antagonists and benzodiazepine receptor agonists on the...
Both muscarinic antagonists, such as scopolamine, and benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) agonists, such as diazepam, produce a reliable impairment in the performance of one trial passive avoidance. Such deficits are frequently interpreted as drug-induced amnesia. However, these deficits could also result from a learning impairment. The present experiments compared the effects of two BZR agonists, lorazepam (0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 mg/kg, IP) and diazepam (0, 0.78, 1.56, and 3.13 mg/kg, IP) with the effects of two muscarinic antagonists, scopolamine (0, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mg/kg, SC) and atropine (0, 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg, IP) on a multiple trial passive avoidance task. In this procedure, the rats were trained with a 5-min inter-trial interval until a learning criterion was achieved. Retention was assessed 24 h later. This enabled the effects of the drugs on the acquisition and the retention of a passive avoidance response to be dissociated. Both atropine and scopolamine produced a marked impairment in the
MyJurnal - Malaysian Citation Centre
Background: Cognitive functions are impaired in patients with liver disease. Bile duct ligation causes cholestasis that impairs liver function. This study investigated the impact of cholestasis progression on the acquisition and retention times in the passive avoidance test and on the locomotor activity of rats. Methods: Cholestasis was induced in male Wistar rats by ligating the main bile duct. Locomotor activity, learning and memory were assessed by the passive avoidance learning test at day 7, day 14, and day 21 post-bile duct ligation. The serum levels of bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were measured. Results: The results showed that acquisition time and locomotor activity were not affected at day 7 and day 14, but they were significantly (P , 0.05) impaired at day 21 post-bile duct ligation compared with the results for the control group. Additionally, memory was significantly impaired on day 7 (P , 0.01), day 14, and day 21 (P , 0.001) compared with the ...
OPUS Würzburg | Genome-Wide Association Analyses Point to Candidate Genes for Electric Shock Avoidance in Drosophila...
Electric shock is a common stimulus for nociception-research and the most widely used reinforcement in aversive associative learning experiments. Yet, nothing is known about the mechanisms it recruits at the periphery. To help fill this gap, we undertook a genome-wide association analysis using 38 inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains, which avoided shock to varying extents. We identified 514 genes whose expression levels and/or sequences covaried with shock avoidance scores. We independently scrutinized 14 of these genes using mutants, validating the effect of 7 of them on shock avoidance. This emphasizes the value of our candidate gene list as a guide for follow-up research. In addition, by integrating our association results with external protein-protein interaction data we obtained a shock avoidance- associated network of 38 genes. Both this network and the original candidate list contained a substantial number of genes that affect mechanosensory bristles, which are hairlike organs distributed
Navigational choice between reversal and curve during acidic pH avoidance behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans | BMC Neuroscience...
Under experimental conditions, virtually all behaviors of Caenorhabditis elegans are achieved by combinations of simple locomotion, including forward, reversal movement, turning by deep body bending, and gradual shallow turning. To study how worms regulate these locomotion in response to sensory information, acidic pH avoidance behavior was analyzed by using worm tracking system. In the acidic pH avoidance, we characterized two types of behavioral maneuvers that have similar behavioral sequences in chemotaxis and thermotaxis. A stereotypic reversal-turn-forward sequence of reversal avoidance caused an abrupt random reorientation, and a shallow gradual turn in curve avoidance caused non-random reorientation in a less acidic direction to avoid the acidic pH. Our results suggest that these two maneuvers were each triggered by a distinct threshold pH. A simulation study using the two-distinct-threshold model reproduced the avoidance behavior of the real worm, supporting the presence of the threshold.
Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OXO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OXO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OXO-M/PZ binding ...
Reciprocal changes in forebrain contents of glycogen and of glutamate/glutamine during early memory consolidation in the day...
Passive avoidance learning is with advantage studied in day-old chicks trained to distinguish between beads of two different colors, of which one at training was associated with aversive taste. During the first 30-min post-training, two periods of gl
experimental results cymbalta us patent Polarity references
79 Moreover, the amygdaloid complex contains a moderate density of receptors and the developmental role of u s cholinergic amygdaloid system in passive avoidance learning cymbalta the rat has been described to occur during cymbalta us patent same time period. 25c 1 H 0.
Aversiveness of sounds in phocid seals: psycho-physiological factors, learning processes and motivation | Journal of...
Aversiveness of biological sounds has been studied in detail in the context of predator avoidance (Deecke et al., 2002; Tuttle and Ryan, 1981). By contrast, factors influencing aversiveness of other sounds are poorly understood and have only been investigated with respect to stimulus amplitude (Campbell, 1957; Kastelein et al., 2006a), practical applications (Blackshaw et al., 1990; Kastelein et al., 2001; Talling et al., 1998) or the use of sound as a reinforcing stimulus (Campbell and Bloom, 1965). An aversive stimulus is an unpleasant or noxious stimulus, which induces an avoidance response in an animal. Such behavioural responses to sounds are influenced by a variety of psychophysical factors relating to sound perception, the motivational state of an animal and basic learning processes (e.g. habituation, conditioning). Elucidating the role of these factors is not only relevant for animal welfare and conservation (Nowacek et al., 2007) but can also provide answers to fundamental questions of ...
Pacific carbon trust launches new streamlined project ...
Based on feedback from its partners in the BC offset market, Pacific Carbon Trust (PCT) has launched a new, streamlined project acquisition process.This new ...
Adding Value to the Facility Acquisition Process... [PDF]
Adding Value to the Facility Acquisition Process (Federal Facilities Council technical... - Free PDF Download - National Research... - 89 pages - year: 2000
Avoidance response - Wikipedia
An avoidance response is a response that prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring. It is a kind of negative reinforcement. An avoidance response is a behavior based on the concept that animals will avoid performing behaviors that result in an aversive outcome. This can involve learning through operant conditioning when it is used as a training technique. It is a reaction to undesirable sensations or feedback that leads to avoiding the behavior that is followed by this unpleasant or fear-inducing stimulus. Whether the aversive stimulus is brought on intentionally by another or is naturally occurring, it is adaptive to learn to avoid situations that have previously yielded negative outcomes. A simple example of this is food aversions, or the aversion developed to food that has previously resulted in sickness. Food aversions can also be conditioned using classical conditioning, so that an animal learns to avoid a stimulus previously neutral that has been associated with a negative outcome. This ...
Long-lasting enhancement of synaptic excitability of CA1/subiculum neurons of the rat ventral hippocampus by vasopressin and...
Vasopressin (VP) is axonally distributed in many brain structures, including the ventral hippocampus. Picogram quantities of VP injected into the hippocampus improve the passive avoidance response of rats, presumably by enhancing memory processes. Vasopressin is metabolized by the brain tissue into shorter peptides, such as [pGlu4r,Cyt6]VP(4 9[ and [pGIu4,Cyt6,]VP(4 8), which preserve ... read more the behavioral activity but lose the peripheral activities of the parent hormone. Using brain slices, we investigated whether VP or VP(4 8) affects excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and/or membrane responses to depolarization in neurons of the CA 1 /subiculum of the ventral hippocampus. The EPSPs were evoked by stimulating the stratum radiatum of the CAI field; the membrane responses were elicited by current injections. Exposure of slices for 15 min to 0.1 nM solution of these peptides resulted in an increase in the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs in 21 neurons (67%) tested. No consistent ...
Expression of c-fos in mouse brain during acquisition of footshock avoidance task<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of c-fos in mouse brain during acquisition of footshock avoidance task. AU - Anokhin, K. V.. AU - Ryabinin, A. E.. AU - Sudakov, K. V.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Levels of c-fos mRNA expression in mouse cerebral cortex and hippocampus at different stages of footshock escape and avoidance learning were studied by Northern hydridization. In the first series of experiments a mouse was presented with 30 electric footshock daily in a chamber where it could escape from the floor by jumping on the safe platform attached to the wall. A large increase in c-fos mRNA level in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was observed during the first day of training. Mice that were trained for 9 consecutive days and acquired a footshock escape reaction showed no elevation of c-fos expression in the brain as compared to the quiet control group. In the second series of experiments the levels of c-fos expression were compared in individual mice trained to avoid the footshock by ...
Operant Conditioning and Avoidance Learning - Anxiety Disorders
The principles of operant conditioning have taught us to recognize how certain coping techniques can reward, and therefore continue anxiety disorders. Two similar coping strategies for dealing with anxiety symptoms are called avoidance and escape.
MacOdrum Library - Carletons Institutional Repository: Effects of scopolamine and d-amphetamine on one-way, shuttle and...
The effects of scopolamine (2.0 mg/kg) and d-amphetamine (3.0 mg/kg) on one-way, shuttle and inhibitory avoidance performance were evaluated in 3 strains of mice (A/J, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J) and their 6 reciprocal F1 hybrids. In the saline condition, intermediate inheritance was observed in the inhibitory task, complete dominance for superior avoidance in the one-way task, and hybrid superiority in the shuttle situation. Administration of d-amphetamine disrupted inhibitory performance in all strains. In the shuttle task no amphetamine effect was observed in C57BL/6J mice, while improvement was seen in A/J and DBA/2J mice, as well as in all the hybrid crosses. No drug effect was seen in the one-way task. As with d-amphetamine, scopolamine disrupted performance in the inhibitory task among the inbreds, but had negligible effects in the hybrids. In the shuttle task, only the A/J mice exhibited improved performance, while a small decline in response rate was seen in one-way avoidance. Results were ...
Sex Differences in Aripiprazole Sensitization from Adolescence to Adul by Elizabeth Freeman, Joanne Lin et al.
The present study investigated the potential sex differences in repeated aripiprazole (ARI) treatment-induced behavioral sensitization from adolescence to adulthood, and to determine whether ARI sensitization can be transferred to olanzapine (OLZ) and/or clozapine (CLZ) using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and phencyclidine-induced (PCP) hyperlocomotion tests of antipsychotic activity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley adolescence rats (P46) were first treated with ARI (10 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days (P46-50) and tested for avoidance response and ARI-induced inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. After they became adults (|P68), rats were challenged with ARI (1.5 mg/kg, sc) (P70), OLZ (0.5 mg/kg, sc; P73), CLZ (5 mg/kg, sc; P76) and again with ARI (1.5 mg/kg, sc; P84) and tested for avoidance response and ARI-induced inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion again. During the drug treatment period in adolescence, repeated ARI treatment suppressed avoidance response, inhibited the PCP
Various Consequences: Defense Acquisitions: Where Should Reform Aim Next?
Reforms that focus on the methodological procedures of the acquisition process are only partial remedies because they do not address incentives to deviate from sound practices. Weapons acquisition is a complicated enterprise, complete with unintended incentives that encourage moving programs forward by delaying testing and employing other problematic practices. These incentives stem from several factors. For example, the different participants in the acquisition process impose conflicting demands on weapon programs so that their purpose transcends just filling voids in military capability. Also, the budget process forces funding decisions to be made well in advance of program decisions, which encourages undue optimism about program risks and costs. Finally, DOD program managers short tenures and limitations in experience and training can foster a short-term focus and put them at a disadvantage with their industry counterparts ...
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2107.12353] Vincular Pattern Avoidance on Cyclic Permutations
Abstract: Pattern avoidance for permutations has been extensively studied, and has been generalized to vincular patterns, where certain elements can be required to be adjacent. In addition, cyclic permutations, i.e., permutations written in a circle rather than a line, have been frequently studied, including in the context of pattern avoidance. We investigate vincular pattern avoidance on cyclic permutations. In particular, we enumerate many avoidance classes of sets of vincular patterns of length 3, including a complete enumeration for all single patterns of length 3. Furthermore, we enumerate many avoidance classes of vincular patterns of length 4, in which the Catalan numbers appear numerous times. We then study more generally whether sets of vincular patterns of an arbitrary length $k$ can be avoided for arbitrarily long cyclic permutations, in particular investigating the boundary cases of minimal unavoidable sets and maximal avoidable sets ...
Daniel Sidman - McSweeneys Internet Tendency
As well as operating a daily humor website, we also publish Timothy McSweeneys Quarterly Concern, Illustoria and an ever-growing selection of books under various imprints. You can buy all of these things from our online store. You can support us today by making a donation ...
Avoiding life | Two Rooms Plus Utilities
Im running on avoidance this week. That means I am doing everything and anything that I can think of, just to avoid doing anything. It that makes sense to you, then welcome to the avoidance club. It is probably one of the most stupid of human states, that exist. It would quite simply be easier,…
Sensors | Free Full-Text | Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning...
The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning
Evidence shows that cardiovascular system disease (CHD) may be the most - Discovery of novel inhibitors for the treatment of...
Evidence shows that cardiovascular system disease (CHD) may be the most common results of hypertension. (CHD). In line with the blood circulation pressure (BP) cutoff of 140/90?mm?Hg for hypertension, seeing that defined with the seventh survey from the Joint Country wide Committee on Avoidance, Recognition, Evaluation, and Treatment of Great BLOOD CIRCULATION PRESSURE (JNC 7) , more than 65 million adult Us citizens, or approximately 1 / 4 from the American people, have got hypertension . The survey from the INTERHEART research regarding 52 countries all around the globe demonstrated that H-1152 dihydrochloride manufacture hypertension conferred a larger adjusted relative threat of severe myocardial infarction than diabetes . Among people aged 40 to 90 years, each 20/10?mm?Hg rise in BP doubles the chance of fatal coronary occasions . Reviews of national research conducted in a variety of countries in THE UNITED STATES, Asia, and Africa suggest that hypertension is normally highly ...
Within An Pimples Crisis? Attempt These Concepts!
Acne breakouts can be uncomfortable and you could not want to get assistance from any individual in the beginning. Even purchasing chemicals or medications through the retailer may possibly end up being embarrassing. Here are a few methods which can be used frequently discovered products about your residence to securely and properly take care of and prevent zits.. Acne tips based on avoidance can be quite powerful. 1 idea that numerous find to be valuable is ingesting a good amount of drinking water. Enjoying a minimum of 8 glasses each day can help keep yourself, and naturally your skin layer, hydrated. A wholesome skin tone begins with nicely hydrated epidermis.. To remove or avoid acne breakouts, the initial thing you should think about is what your skin enters into connection with. When you have any questions with regards to wherever and how to use porno randki, you can e mail us with our web page. Healthy skin care merchandise, sun screen lotion, soaps, types of surface as well as some ...
When data is submitted to TCIA it undergoes an extensive curation process to assure completeness, proper formatting to facilitate discovery and data reuse and removal of all protected health information. Once data is released on the public TCIA repository it is Published to the world. This publication is associated with the creation of a Digital Object Identifier that allows direct access to the data. In addition to data publication via TCIA we strongly urge researchers who submit data to TCIA to also submit a Data Descriptor publication to a journal such as Nature Scientific Data. In this type of publication the authors will describe the data acquisition process, the experiment that drove this data collection and value of the data for future research (see each journal for specific content requirements). A Data Descriptor is a scientific paper that includes the DOI to the data previously published on TCIA and helps to call the attention of the scientific community to the data you have submitted. ...
Substratum Sensation: Internal Respiration - Embodied Wisdom
Today, accessing information on any topic is easy, quick and the volume abundant. This is both a delight and a curse. In the past, sources were fewer and the acquisition process arduous, time consuming and potentially only available to a few. Today information is commoditised, available to everyone, anywhere. But how do you trust the information to be truthful and valuable? Is it founded on principles and will it have a long life?. ...
Detecting Virus-like Particles Using Transmission Electron Microscopy
We present a multi scale approach for automating the image acquisition process for an computerized virus diagnostic application. Our methods are designed to mimic the methodology used by virus TEM experts manually operating the microscope. The methods decrease the search area considerably. In addition we present a segmentation method for virus-like particles based on local intensity information and PCA. This method makes no assumption regarding shape which is vital since many viruses are highly pleomorphic, i.e., have different shapes. The only input parameter used is the approximate virus thickness, which is a conserved feature within a virus species.. ...
Automated characterization of noise distributions in diffusion MRI data
Knowledge of the noise distribution in magnitude diffusion MRI images is the centerpiece to quantify uncertainties arising from the acquisition process. The use of parallel imaging methods, the number of receiver coils and imaging filters applied by the scanner, amongst other factors, dictate the re …
professionalism - How representative of a company is a bad interview process? - The Workplace Stack Exchange
Here is an aspect to consider - Only one person showed, he was late, he was unprepared, the other person didnt show, and had to be reminded, a week later, that you were supposed to talk.. Now, that might not be indicative of a company in trouble, but, clearly, we can safely say their recruiting and talent acquisition process is dysfunctional.. What is the purpose of the recruiting process? To identify and bring on board the best talent possible.. If the process for identifying the right people for the company is a complete crap-show of a mess, what are the odds that they are employing the best people and the best fits for the company? This company is going to be filled with employees gathered through this mess of a process. Chances are they will have missed or turned-off some of the best candidates out there. Chances are they will have hired people who are either not good workers or possibly not even technically competent. You cant take a process that clearly doesnt work and expect it to get ...
Browsing Pharmacology & Therapeutics by Author McGuire, Brian E.
Chronic pain is associated with cognitive deficits. Considerable overlap in brain regions involved in pain and aversion suggests that aversive learning and memory may be affected during chronic pain. Passive-avoidance ...
Publikationen | Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften
Morys, F.; Janssen, L.; Cesnaite, E.; Beyer, F.; Garcia-Garcia, I.; Kumral, D.; Liem, F.; Mehl, N.; Mahjoory, K.; Schrimpf, A. et al.; Gaebler, M.; Margulies, D. S.; Villringer, A.; Neumann, J.; Nikulin, V. V.; Horstmann, A.: Hemispheric asymmetries in resting-state EEG and fMRI are related to approach and avoidance behaviour, but not to eating behaviour or BMI. Human Brain Mapping 41 (5), S. 1136 - 1156 (2020 ...
Trouble in Paradise? The Paradise Papers and the Ethics of Lawful Tax Avoidance | Anita Ramasastry | Verdict | Legal Analysis...
University of Washington law professor Anita Ramasastry comments on the recent release of records known as the Paradise Papers, which reveal the identities of thousands of individuals and corporations using offshore jurisdictions as a tax avoidance strategy. Ramasastry argues that while such actions may in many cases be legal, they are also unethical. She points out that if we focus on the harm of tax avoidance to society, rather than how it is legally defined, then we can see that it contributes to growing inequality and increases tax burdens on resident taxpayers who cannot change their citizenship or move their money.
Collision Avoidance Sensors Market Global Industry Analysis, Size and Forecast, 2017 to 2027
Collision Avoidance Sensors Market - Global industry segment analysis, regional outlook, share, growth; Collision Avoidance Sensors Market 2017 to 2027 by future market insights
Paper Chase | HMS
Tobe BTD, Crain AM, Winquist AM, Calabrese B, Makihara H, Zhao WN, Lalonde J, Nakamura H, Konopaske G, Sidor M, Pernia CD, Yamashita N, Wada M, Inoue Y, Nakamura F, Sheridan SD, Logan RW, Brandel M, Wu D, Hunsberger J, Dorsett L, Duerr C, Basa RCB, McCarthy MJ, Udeshi ND, Mertins P, Carr SA, Rouleau GA, Mastrangelo L, Li J, Gutierrez GJ, Brill LM, Venizelos N, Chen G, Nye JS, Manji H, Price JH, McClung CA, Akiskal HS, Alda M, Chuang DM, Coyle JT, Liu Y, Teng YD, Ohshima T, Mikoshiba K, Sidman RL, Halpain S, Haggarty SJ, Goshima Y, Snyder EY ...
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Intracranial self-stimulation facilitates active-avoidance retention and induces expression of c-Fos and Nurr1 in rat brain...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracranial self-stimulation facilitates active-avoidance retention and induces expression of c-Fos and Nurr1 in rat brain memory systems. AU - Aldavert-Vera, Laura. AU - Huguet, Gemma. AU - Costa-Miserachs, David. AU - Ortiz, Sandra Pena de. AU - Kádár, Elisabeth. AU - Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio. AU - Segura-Torres, Pilar. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a special form of deep brain stimulation in which subjects self-administered electrical stimulation in brain reward areas as the lateral hypothalamus, facilitates learning and memory in a wide variety of tasks. Assuming that ICSS improves learning and memory increasing the activation of memory-related brain areas, the present work examined whether rats receiving an ICSS treatment immediately after the acquisition session of a two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) show both an improved retention and a pattern of increased c-Fos and Nurr1 protein expression in the amygdala, ...
Small Animal Behavior Core Laboratory Services Conditioned Taste Aversion
Description: In the conditioned taste aversion test, rats are given two water bottles from which to drink. One is filled with plain water and the other is filled with water to which a small amount of saccharin or sucrose has been added. After a conditioning period, the rats are injected with either a test drug or a saline solution. The rats are returned to their cages and observed to determine whether they avoid the water bottle filled with sweet-tasting water, which would suggest a learned aversion to the solution, i.e., they associated the sweet-tasting water with a negative reaction (e.g., gastrointestinal malaise) that was actually caused by the injected drug. Purpose: Conditioned taste aversion is a useful test for determining whether a drug causes gastrointestinal side effects ...
Anesthesia, Amnesia, and the Amygdala:Reducing the Fear of Intraoperative Awareness | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
The amygdala is strongly implicated in learning under emotionally charged settings such as fear. An inhibitory avoidance paradigm was used by Alkire and Nathan in which rats were placed in a lighted chamber facing a dark tunnel, which they normally prefer to enter. However, entrance into the dark area was negatively reinforced by electrical shock; rats quickly learned to avoid entering the dark tunnel and remained in the nonpreferred but safe lighted environment. When retested the next day, the rats continued to avoid entering the dark tunnel; their memory retention latency (i.e. , time to enter the dark tunnel) was very long, indicating that they remember being shocked. If a low concentration of sevoflurane was administered during the initial training period, the animals quickly entered the dark tunnel the following day, i.e. , sevoflurane prevented avoidance learning. However, after bilateral lesion of the basolateral amygdala, rats exhibited equally long memory retention latencies ...
Conditioned taste aversion - Wikipedia
Although the terms taste avoidance and taste aversion are often used interchangeably, studies with rats indicate they are not necessarily synonymous. Aversion is defined as a strong dislike or disinclination and avoidance is defined as stopping oneself from doing. The difference is that in avoidance, the organism is controlling its behavioural responses. Taste avoidance and taste aversion can at times go hand in hand, but they cannot be looked at or be defined the same way.. Studies on rats to determine how they react to different tasting liquids and injections indicate this difference. Scientists measured the facial and somatic reactions of rats after exposure to a flavored solution (sucrose or salt) which do not induce abnormal feelings. However, immediately after the rat ingests the solution, the rat is injected with a drug that induces nausea. The rat subsequently expresses a disgust reaction towards the solution, seen by mouth gaping. This is a Pavlovian conditioned ...
The Effect of Quercetin on Learning and Memory Deficit, Lipid Peroxidation, and Cholinesterase Activeity Following...
Background and Objective: Lipolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule isolated from bacteria such as the enterobacteriaceae family with a negative effect on memory and learning through disturbing the balance of free radicals and creating oxidative stress conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and LPS-induced memory impairment in the rat. Materials and Methods: Male rats (n=40) were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, control under treatment with quercetin at a dose of 50 mg/kg, LPS, and LPS groups treated with quercetin at doses of 10 or 50 mg/kg. For induction of inflammation, LPS dissolved in normal saline (500 μg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. After one week, the passive avoidance behavior was tested in the shuttle box and hippocampal homogenate was prepared. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) were measured using specific kits. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16). Results: Step
DiVA - Search result
In aposematism a prey species use bright colours, often combined with a black contrasting pattern, to signal unprofitability as prey to potential predators. Although there are several different hypotheses about the presence of these internally contrasting patterns, there is little experimental evidence of any beneficial effects. In this thesis I have used bird predators and artificial prey signals to investigate if the contrasting internal patterns in warning displays may have evolved to increase signal efficacy, especially regarding the speed of avoidance learning. In paper I the relative importance of colour and pattern in avoidance learning was studied. The conclusion was that birds primarily attend to colour, not pattern, when learning the discrimination, which was further supported by the results in paper II-IV, all suggesting a secondary role of patterns. In paper II I show that predators may to some degree use patterns for discrimination, if they convey important information about prey ...
Foxp2 Mutations Impair Auditory-Motor Association Learning
Heterozygous mutations of the human FOXP2 transcription factor gene cause the best-described examples of monogenic speech and language disorders. Acquisition of proficient spoken language involves auditory-guided vocal learning, a specialized form of sensory-motor association learning. The impact of etiological Foxp2 mutations on learning of auditory-motor associations in mammals has not been determined yet. Here, we directly assess this type of learning using a newly developed conditioned avoidance paradigm in a shuttle-box for mice. We show striking deficits in mice heterozygous for either of two different Foxp2 mutations previously implicated in human speech disorders. Both mutations cause delays in acquiring new motor skills. The magnitude of impairments in association learning, however, depends on the nature of the mutation. Mice with a missense mutation in the DNA-binding domain are able to learn, but at a much slower rate than wild type animals, while mice carrying an early nonsense mutation
Electron microscopic analysis of postnatal histogenesis in the cerebel by D M. Landis and R L. Sidman
Landis, D M. and Sidman, R L., Electron microscopic analysis of postnatal histogenesis in the cerebellar cortex of staggerer mutant mice. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 4340 ...
Perinatal diazepam exposure: Behavioral and neurochemical consequences<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perinatal diazepam exposure. T2 - Behavioral and neurochemical consequences. AU - Lauer, Julie A.. AU - Adams, Perrie M.. AU - Johnson, Kenneth M.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - In the present study the effects of perinatal diazepam (DZP) exposure on behavior and benzodiazepine binding site characteristics in offspring were investigated. Pregnant F344 rats were treated during the last trimester of gestation with vehicle or diazepam (3 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg). Lactating dams were similarly treated on postnatal days 1-7. Both prenatal and postnatal exposure to diazepam resulted in significant effects on the acquisition and extinction of active avoidance behavior measured postweaning. The number of trials to extinction of one-way active avoidance behavior was significantly greater in offspring exposed gestationally to 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg diazepam and postnatally to 10 mg/kg diazepam. The mean response latencies for all diazepam treated groups were significantly shorter ...
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Simvastatin Treatment Highlights a New Role for the Isoprenoid/Cholesterol Biosynthetic Pathway in the Modulation of Emotional...
The aim of the present work was to shed light on the role played by the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in the modulation of emotional reactivity and memory consolidation in rodents through the inhibition of the key and rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) both in vivo and in vitro with simvastatin. Three-month-old male Wistar rats treated for 21 days with simvastatin or vehicle were tested in the social interaction, elevated plus-maze, and inhibitory avoidance tasks; after behavioral testing, the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, dorsal, and ventral striatum were dissected out for biochemical assays. In order to delve deeper into the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects, primary rat hippocampal neurons were used. Our results show that HMGR inhibition by simvastatin induces anxiogenic-like effects in the social interaction but not in the elevated plus-maze test, and improves memory consolidation in the inhibitory ...
Reward vs. aversion: false dichotomy | Physics Forums
a refutation of an assumption in 14 physiology papers. Apparently, the psychological/behavioral model is favored and the physiological/computational model...
Targeting Topics 07q1
Ablation of NK1 receptor bearing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract blunts cardiovascular reflexes in awake rats.. Abdala AP, Schoorlemmer GH, Colombari E.. Brain Res 1119(1):165-173, 2006.. Cardiovascular function is largely controlled by the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). This work focuses on the baroreflex, cardiopulmonary chemoreflex, and arterial chemoreflex. Rats were injected with either 20 nl of 2 µM SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07) into the subpostremal NTS, or 200 nl into the subpostremal and commissural NTS. Saporin (Cat. #PR-01) was used as a control. It was established that NK-1 receptor-expressing neurons in the NTS are critical for these reflexes.. Noradrenergic inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus underlie hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis but not hypophagic or conditioned avoidance responses to systemic yohimbine.. Banihashemi L, Rinaman L.. J Neurosci 26(44):11442-11453, 2006.. Yohimbine (YO) is an α2 ...
Frontiers | Not so bad: avoidance and aversive discounting modulate threat appraisal in anterior cingulate and medial...
The dorsal anterior cingulate (adACC) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) play a central role in the discrimination and appraisal of threatening stimuli. Yet, little is known about what specific features of threatening situations recruit these regions and how avoidance may modulate appraisal and activation through prevention of aversive events. In this investigation, thirty healthy adults underwent functional neuroimaging while completing an avoidance task in which responses to an Avoidable CS+ threat prevented delivery of an aversive stimulus, but not to an Unavoidable CS+ threat. Extinction testing was also completed where CSs were presented without aversive stimulus delivery and an opportunity to avoid. The Avoidable CS+ relative to the Unavoidable CS+ was associated with reductions in ratings of negative valence, fear, and US expectancy and activation. Greater regional activation was consistently observed to the Unavoidable CS+ during avoidance, which declined during extinction. Individuals
Search - NeL.edu
RESULTS: A deficit in avoidance learning and higher corticosterone level were observed in learned helplessness rats. SYG significantly reduced this deficit and reversed the corticosterone alteration. CMS induced significant reduction of sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test, an increased latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and an increased immobility time in the forced swim test as compared to the control. It was also found that BDNF and TrkB levels were decreased in CMS model. Chronic treatment of SYG significantly suppressed the behavioral changes and up-regulated the BDNF signal pathway in the hippocampus ...
Brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and/or ex | Open-i
Brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and/or extinction.Different brain areas (with at least unilateral activation during aversive conditioning and/or e
Kisspeptin-13 ameliorates memory impairment induced by streptozotocin in male rats via cholinergic system - Physiology and...
Introduction: Kisspeptin-13 (KP-13) is a novel endogenous factor, increases synaptic transmission and is involved in several behavioral functions such as anxiety, locomotion, epilepsy and avoidance learning. However, the role of this peptide on cognition has not been well clarified yet. Here we studied the effect of kisspeptin-13 pretreatment on spatial learning ...
Society for Neuroscience - Negative Memory Storage Affects Depression Symptoms
The depression-prone mice displayed higher concentrations of engram cells compared to the less susceptible mice, and the density of the cells correlated with the level of social avoidance behavior. Activating the engram cells increased social avoidance behavior while suppressing the cells decreased it, suggesting a role in the cognitive symptoms of depression ...
complement - Drug Discovery Opinion
Writing in the Journal of Immunology, US and Australian scientists have now described the effect of administration of an antagonist of the receptor for the complement activation product, C5a, in animal models of Alzheimers disease. Oral administration of PMX205 in drinking water for 2-3 months resulted in substantial reductions in disease markers such as fibrillar amyloid deposits and activated glia in two mouse models of Alzheimers disease. The reduction in pathological markers correlated with improved performance in a passive avoidance task in Tg2576 mice. In 3xTg mice, PMX205 also significantly reduced hyperphosphorylated tau.. PMX205 is a cyclic hexapeptide derivative that was developed by Promics as a second generation C5a receptor antagonist for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. An earlier compound, PMX53, was found to be well tolerated in phase I clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis.. The new study shows for the first time ...
Converting Predation Cues into Conservation Tools: The Effect of Light on Mouse Foraging Behaviour
Prey face a conflict between acquiring energy and avoiding predators and use both direct and indirect cues to assess predation risk. Illumination, an indirect cue, influences nocturnal rodent foraging behaviour. New Zealand holds no native rodent species but has introduced mice (Mus musculus) that severely impair native biodiversity. We used Giving-Up Densities (GUDs) and observations of foraging frequency and duration to assess if artificial light induces risk avoidance behaviour in mice and could limit their activity. We found both captive (wild strain) mice in outdoor pens and wild mice within a pest fenced sanctuary (Maungatautari, New Zealand) displayed avoidance behaviour in response to illumination. In captivity, total foraging effort was similar across lit and unlit pens but mice displayed a strong preference for removing seeds from dark control areas (mean: 15.33 SD: +/-11.64 per 3.5 hours) over illuminated areas (2.00 +/-3.44). Wild mice also removed fewer seeds from illuminated areas (0.42 +/
Probiotics for Alzheimers
On a behavioral level, treated mice out-performed controls on several tests of memory and also out-performed controls on a passive avoidance test ,which relies on memory of punishment.. In terms of brain anatomy there were notable differences in the thickness of the cortex of the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, which participates in memory formation and recall. With respect to the main culprit in Alzheimers disease - ß amyloid - the amount of this protein decreased in treated mice, both inside and outside the brain cells. Also, the pathways that breakdown and remove ß amyloid were more active in the brains of probiotic-treated AD mice.. All in all, the results of this study suggest that probiotics may restore the parts of the brain responsible for memory function, counteract the typical morphological alterations of AD, and significantly reduce the amount of ß amyloid in the brain.. ...
How plants counteract against the shade of larger neighbours - academics
The molecular basis of shade avoidance reaction PNAS report on a collaborative study involving RUB scientists Plants that lose the battle during competitiveness for light because they are shaded by larger neighbours, counteract. They adapt by rapid shoot elongation and stretch their leaves towards the sun. The molecular basis of this so-called shade avoidance syndrome had been unclarified to date. Research scientists from the Utrecht University in the Netherlands and the Ruhr University in Bochum have now been able to unravel a regulation pathway.
Hydrofoil Collision Avoidance and Tracking System | Article about Hydrofoil Collision Avoidance and Tracking System by The Free...
Looking for Hydrofoil Collision Avoidance and Tracking System? Find out information about Hydrofoil Collision Avoidance and Tracking System. A computer-based system designed to automate target tracking and navigation functions in order to increase the safety of high-speed ships; it makes use of... Explanation of Hydrofoil Collision Avoidance and Tracking System
Ensuring Adequate Intelligence Support for the Acquisition of New Weapon Systems | RAND
This documented briefing examines how intelligence support is provided to the existing DoD requirements and acquisition process and then discusses the adequacy of that support.
Yellow Propolis May Help Treat Depression
We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP) rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control), EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg), or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls) 30 min before the assays. Animals were submitted to open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and inhibitory avoidance tests. After behavioral tasks, blood samples were collected through intracardiac pathway, to evaluate the oxidative balance ...
Defense Industrial Base: House Armed Services Committee: HOUSE APPROVES WASTE TKO ACT Skelton-McHugh Bill Reforms Weapons...
I applaud Chairman Skelton, Ranking Member McHugh and Rep. Conaway for their leadership on the WASTE TKO Act. This bill will help stop the Department of Defense from wasting taxpayer dollars through endless cost growth in weapons programs. The WASTE TKO Act will also ensure that we get the weapons capabilities we need to keep America safe at reasonable cost. Passage of this legislation is an essential step at a time when the federal budget, including defense spending, must be brought under control. I look forward to continuing our work on the Defense Acquisition Reform Panel and finding solutions for the other 80 percent of the defense acquisition process that will continue saving precious taxpayer dollars, said Representative Andrews ...
Dr. Dilworth Y. Parkinson Profile
High-resolution x-ray micro-tomography is used for imaging of solid materials at micrometer scale in 3D. Our goal is to implement nondestructive techniques to quantify properties in the interior of solid objects, including information on their 3D geometries, which supports modeling of the fluid dynamics into the pore space of the host object. The micro-tomography data acquisition process generates large data sets that are often difficult to handle with adequate performance when using current standard computing and image processing algorithms. We propose an efficient set of algorithms to filter, segment and extract features from stacks of image slices of porous media. The first step tunes scale parameters to the filtering algorithm, then it reduces artifacts using a fast anisotropic filter applied to the image stack, which smoothes homogeneous regions while preserving borders. Next, the volume is partitioned using statistical region merging, exploiting the intensity similarities of each segment. ...
Publications - The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) Public Access - Cancer Imaging Archive Wiki
When data is submitted to TCIA it undergoes an extensive curation process to assure completeness, proper formatting to facilitate discovery and data reuse and removal of all protected health information. Once data is released on the public TCIA repository it is Published to the world. This publication is associated with the creation of a Digital Object Identifier that allows direct access to the data. In addition to data publication via TCIA we strongly urge researchers who submit data to TCIA to also submit a Data Descriptor publication to a journal such as Nature Scientific Data. In this type of publication the authors will describe the data acquisition process, the experiment that drove this data collection and value of the data for future research (see each journal for specific content requirements). A Data Descriptor is a scientific paper that includes the DOI to the data previously published on TCIA and helps to call the attention of the scientific community to the data you have submitted. ...
Pinpointing customer service problems | The Strategic Counsel
Challenge A large North American bank believed it was mismanaging the customer experience in its mortgage acquisition process and losing ground to the competition. The client needed to make a business case to executive management to support the need to transform internal processes and enhance the customer experience. Solution The…
Avoidance facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Avoidance
Get information, facts, and pictures about Avoidance at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Avoidance easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Streptomyces luteireticuli (ex Katoh and Arai) Hatano et al. ATCC ®
Streptomyces luteireticuli ATCC ® 27446™ Designation: ISP 5509 TypeStrain=True Application: Produces acetopyrrothine thiolutin Produces aureothricin Produces mycometoxin A and B Produces restriction endonuclease SluI
FHD] Explosive Sex With A Cock That Has Been Saving Up Semen For 12 Years Yui Hatano | FHD AV
Date:Sept. 29, 2016 Runtime:119min. Languages:Japanese Subtitles:----DVD ID:WANZ-541 Content ID:wanz00541 Actress(es):Yui HatanoSeries:---- Studio:Wanz Factory Channel:---- Director:---- Label:WANZ
Yui Hatano POV blowjob - Triouleyre Sex Site
All models on site.com adult site are 18 years or older. site.com has a zero-tolerance policy against ILLEGAL pornography. All videos are provided by 3rd parties and are embedded to our site. We take no responsibility for the content of these websites. We are proudly labeled with the RTA.. ...
Parallel Neural Pathways Mediate CO2 Avoidance Responses in Drosophila | Science
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Scoreboard - Epinephrine & Sophistry
In the last month I have written about 10,000 words on the book…except it was mostly salvage from the first take. I have been working at it around 3 days a week, although I rise each day to do so. I have actually written about 3,000 fresh words. Sort of moderately-acceptable words, but words. At times when I should be doing something else, I have been posting to the bad_sex community for fun, and, in the same period, wrote 3,860 words. 3,860 very good words.. Ive written some wonderful stuff for the book. I have no question as to my basic ability to write. I am highly motivated to work on this. Im not sure this is about the writing, although that is where I first noticed the avoidance behaviors.. I have exercised five times in the last month. No running at all.. I am reading very, very slowly, and in short bursts. I wander if I read very long.. I spent several weekends recreating because I said that I would. Then I spent weekends working on the irrigation system. Firewood is yet to come, the ...
Trends and gradients in top tax responses | VOX, CEPR Policy Portal
The responsiveness of high-income earners to taxation is a central aspect of tax system design. This column presents patterns in the tax elasticity of top earners for up to 30 countries over a period of 115 years. Tax elasticities vary tremendously over time, space, and income, with a J-shaped pattern emerging over the past century. Tax avoidance behaviour strongly influences
Obstacle avoidance | sitting duck when attacked by birds | DJI Mavic Drone Forum
My home air space is over a lake. When flying around 15-20 above the lake, my Obstacle warnings frequently sound an alarm, the Mavic stops and then it...
Estrada, Ernesto and Hameed, Ehsan and Hatano, Naomichi and Langer, Matthias (2017) Path Laplacian operators and superdiffusive processes on graphs. I. one-dimensional case. Linear Algebra and its Applications, 523. pp. 307-334. ISSN 0024-3795 Estrada, Ernesto and Silver, Grant (2017) Accounting for the role of long walks on networks via a new matrix function. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 449 (2). pp. 1581-1600. ISSN 0022-247X Estrada, Ernesto and Benzi, Michele (2017) Core-satellite graphs : clustering, assortativity and spectral properties. Linear Algebra and its Applications, 517. pp. 30-52. ISSN 0024-3795 Estrada, Ernesto and Alhomaidhi, Alhanouf Ali and Al-Thukair, Fawzi (2017) Exploring the Middle Earth of network spectra via a Gaussian matrix function. Chaos, 023109. pp. 1-27. ISSN 1054-1500 Estrada, Ernesto (2016) The ABC matrix. Journal of Mathematical Chemistry. ISSN 0259-9791 Estrada, Ernesto and Meloni, Sandro and Sheerin, Matthew and Moreno, Yamir (2016) ...
Going Gently: A Lesson In Avoidance
One of my dogs, Penny, had a recurring illness that went on for years. It began when we moved to our new house. She would be in terrible pain for days and then it would subside. One time she hadnt eaten or drunk water in days and we thought she had come to the end. The vet was coming that afternoon to help her slip into the next life. I lay with her on our bed, sobbing on and off as one does, and after awhile Penny lifted her head and looked at me, jumped off the bed and headed to the toilet for a drink, then to the kitchen where she ate. She lasted many more months. I think she thought how sad, someone is going to die - OMG its me, Id better get up and going again.. ReplyDelete ...
Avoidance Goals - Pacific Standard
Researchers find that people who work to avoid conflicts are just as happy single-in fact, theyre happier than other singles. ...
General Detoxification and Cleansing - Healthy.net
Detoxification programs help us to eliminate and cleanse specific common toxins and habits from our lives. It is somewhat difficult to separate the concepts and practices of detoxification from those of fasting. Fasting, or the avoidance of solid food, as I use the term here, is one method of detoxification, probably the most effective, yet…
Ekklesia | budget 2012
Three major British Churches are calling on Chancellor George Osborne to take tough action on tax avoidance in his 21 March 2012 statement. ...
Pain in invertebrates
Location avoidance. Avoidance learning was examined in the crab Neohelice granulata by placing the animals in a dark ... Learned avoidance. Learning to avoid a noxious stimulus indicates that prior experience of the stimulus is remembered by ... 5 Trade-offs between stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. *6 Learned avoidance *6.1 Habituation and ... the complex learning associated with this response (see 'Learned Avoidance' below) suggests this view might be overly ...
Pain in crustaceans
... exhibiting avoidance learning; and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. In ... holding or autotomy Shows avoidance learning Shows trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational ... Magee, B. & Elwood, R.W. (2013). "Shock avoidance by discrimination learning in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is consistent ... Robert W. Elwood & Barry Magee (2013). "Shock avoidance by discrimination learning in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is ...
Predatory imminence continuum
Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kono, Reiko; Sugimoto, Sanae (2004). "Avoidance learning in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) depends on the ... Bolles, Robert C. (1970). "Species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning". Psychological Review. 77 (1): 32-48. doi ... In Evolution and Learning. Bolles RC, Beecher MD, Eds,; Earlbaum, Hillsdale NJ:185-211. Blanchard, DC; Blanchard, RJ (1969). " ... These behaviours are used to reduce the probability of having to exhibit avoidance behaviours, which are evoked when a predator ...
Bolles, R. C. (1970). "Species-specific Defense Reactions and Avoidance Learning". Psychological Review. 77: 32-38. doi:10.1037 ... Through observational learning, humans can to learn to fear potentially dangerous objects-a reaction also observed in other ... Even though observational learning has been proven effective in creating reactions of fear and phobias, it has also been shown ... The avoidance aspect is defined as behaviour that results in the omission of an aversive event that would otherwise occur, ...
Rats that lack the gene stathmin show no avoidance learning, or a lack of fear, and will often walk directly up to cats and be ... The avoidance learning of rats is seen as a conditioned response, and therefore the behavior can be unconditioned, as supported ... However, the rats did show signs of avoidance learning, not fear, but simply avoiding the area that brought pain to the test ... Species-specific defense reactions (SSDRs) or avoidance learning in nature is the specific tendency to avoid certain threats or ...
Jouventin, P.; Pasteur, G.; Cambefort, J. P. (1977). "Observational Learning of Baboons and Avoidance of Mimics: Exploratory ... Proposed alternatives include observational learning and innate avoidance. These provide alternative explanations to Emsleyan ... But if a predator dies, it cannot learn to recognize a warning signal, e.g., bright colours in a certain pattern. In other ... Another possible mechanism is that a predator might not have to learn that a certain prey is harmful in the first place: it ...
Relation of cue to consequence in avoidance learning. Psychonomic Science, 4, 123-124. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (2013). ... The rats with damaged brains didn't learn as well as the control rats, but no particular region seemed to be necessary to learn ... His principle of "mass action" stated that the cerebral cortex acts as one-as a whole-in many types of learning. In behaviorism ... The principle of equipotentiality is the idea that the rate of learning is independent of the combination of conditioned and ...
Knauber J, Müller WE (March 2003). "Anseculin improves passive avoidance learning of aged mice". Pharmacological Research. 47 ( ...
"The Self-Report Psychopathy Scale and Passive Avoidance Learning". Assessment. 13 (2): 197-207. doi:10.1177/1073191105284992. ... Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-7637-7790-6. .. *^ W. Keith Campbell; Joshua D. Miller (7 July 2011). The Handbook ... The honesty-humility factor from the HEXACO model of personality is used to measure sincerity, fairness, greed avoidance, and ...
Pain in cephalopods
... exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. ... exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. ... holding or autotomy Shows avoidance learning Shows trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational ... Avoidance learning in octopuses has been known since 1905. Noxious stimuli, for example electric shocks, have been used as " ...
"Contiguous Approach Conditioning: A Model For Sidman Avoidance Learning." Psychological Reports 55.1 (Aug. 1984): 291-295. ... Sidman's explanation of free-operant avoidance is an alternative to the Miller-Mowrer two-process theory of avoidance. ... "free-operant avoidance", in which an individual learns to avoid an aversive stimulus by remembering to produce the response ... Methodologically, a "Sidman avoidance procedure" is an experiment in which the subject is periodically presented with an ...
Chirelstein, Marvin A. (January 1968). "Learned Hand's Contribution to the Law of Tax Avoidance". Yale Law Journal. 77 (3): 440 ...
ISBN 0-478-14065-7. Laska, M. and Metzker, K. (1998). "Food avoidance learning in squirrel monkeys and Common Marmosets". Learn ... C. elegans was shown to learn and inherit pathogenic avoidance after exposure to a single non-coding RNA of a bacterial ... However, illness was not necessarily prerequisite for food avoidance learning in these species, for highly concentrated but non ... elegans interprets bacterial non-coding RNAs to learn pathogenic avoidance". Nature. 586 (7829): 445-451. Bibcode:2020Natur.586 ...
Adaptations of Australian animals to cane toads
20 (1). Rozin, P; Kalat, J (1971). "Specific hungers and poison avoidance as adaptive specializations of learning". ... These birds have learned to eat only the tongue of the toad, leaving the rest of the carcass behind. In this way, the raptors ... This form of learning has been observed to occur in native anurophagous predators when the ill-effects caused by consuming a ... This learnt behaviour has been observed in predators that are more resistant to the cane toad's toxins including birds and ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Cheney, Karen (27 February 2008). "The role of avoidance learning in an aggressive ... In both cases, the host fish can rarely or never learn the disguise of the mimic; the fact that A. taeniatus can be easily ...
July-September 2020 in science
Scientists explain a mechanism by which C. elegans learns and inherits pathogenic avoidance after exposure to a single non- ... elegans interprets bacterial non-coding RNAs to learn pathogenic avoidance". Nature. 586 (7829): 445-451. Bibcode:2020Natur.586 ... They used deep learning to identify design-rules. 27 July - A new AI algorithm by the University of Pittsburgh achieves the ... "Machine learning reveals recipe for building artificial proteins". phys.org. Retrieved 17 August 2020. Russ, William P.; ...
"Inhibitory learning of phototaxis by honeybees in a passive-avoidance task". Learning & Memory. 26: 412-423. doi:10.1101/lm. ... Learning & memory 19 (2), 54-66. doi: 10.1101/lm.024711.111. • Devaud JM, Papouin T, Carcaud J, Sandoz JC, Grünewald B, Giurfa ... His work has led to the establishment of virtual reality scenarios for honey bees in which he studies their visual learning and ... Devaud, JM; Papouin T; Carcaud J; Sandoz JC; Grunewald B; Giurfa M (2015). "Neural substrate for higher-order learning in an ...
C. elegans was shown to learn and inherit pathogenic avoidance after exposure to a single non-coding RNA of a bacterial ... elegans interprets bacterial non-coding RNAs to learn pathogenic avoidance". Nature: 1-7. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2699-5. ISSN ... Prader-Willi is a developmental disorder associated with over-eating and learning difficulties. SNORD116 has potential target ...
2007). "Avoidance of aposematic prey in European tits (Paridae): learned or innate?". Behavioral Ecology. 18 (1): 148-156. doi: ... avoidance of distinctive prey is selected by predators. Concurrent reciprocal selection (CRS) may entail learning by predators ... Siddall, Emma C.; Marples, Nicola M. (2008-01-22). "Better to be bimodal: the interaction of color and odor on learning and ... By mimicking similarly coloured species, the warning signal to predators is shared, causing them to learn more quickly at less ...
"Basolateral amygdaloid multi-unit neuronal correlates of discriminative avoidance learning in rabbits". Brain Research. 549 (2 ... as well as defining the role for the hippocampus in contextual learning and memory. Maren joined the faculty of University of ... and amygdala that are involved in the expression and extinction of learned fear responses. Maren obtained his undergraduate ... the activity of basolateral amygdala neurons during this form of learning. He obtained his PhD in Biological Sciences ( ...
May 2015). "Histamine in the basolateral amygdala promotes inhibitory avoidance learning independently of hippocampus". ... α-FMH administration has been shown to cause impairments in long-term memory and learning. Additionally, injection of α-FMH has ...
Richard Solomon (psychologist)
During his time at Harvard University, Solomon conducted research into avoidance learning. In his experiments, he placed dogs ... Eventually, the dogs learned to avoid shock entirely by running to the other side in the interval between lighting and ...
Conditioned taste aversion
"Taste Avoidance and Taste Aversion: Evidence for Two Different Processes". Animal Learning & Behavior. 31 (2): 165-172. doi ... Compared with taste avoidance. Although the terms "taste avoidance" and "taste aversion" are often used interchangeably, ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2006) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... The difference is that in avoidance, the organism is controlling its behavioural responses. Taste avoidance and taste aversion ...
Ryker, Lee C. (1994). "Male Avoidance of Female Rejection: Learning in Tropisternus Solier Water Beetles (Coleoptera: ... In response to the rejection maneuvers of the female, male T. ellipticus will mimic the buzzing and shaking, often learning ... Resetarits, William J. (September 2001). "Colonization under threat of predation: avoidance of fish by an aquatic beetle, ...
... using an avoidance learning task. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 87: 343-354. Reebs, S.G. (2011) Tool use in fishes ... This is variously called observational learning, cultural transmission, or social learning. For example, fish can learn a ... Through social learning, fishes might learn not only where to get food, but also what to get and how to get it. Hatchery-raised ... Fishes can also learn from others the identity of predatory species. Fathead minnows, for example, can learn the smell of a ...
Dikman ZV, Allen JJ (January 2000). "Error monitoring during reward and avoidance learning in high- and low-socialized ... This position has been elaborated into a reinforcement learning account of the ERN, arguing that both the rERN and the fERN are ... Holroyd CB, Coles MG (October 2002). "The neural basis of human error processing: reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the ...
"Abnormal avoidance learning in mice lacking functional high-affinity nicotine receptor in the brain". Nature. 374 (6517): 65-67 ... "Abnormal avoidance learning in mice lacking functional high-affinity nicotine receptor in the brain". Nature. 374 (6517): 65-67 ...
... learning processes regarding the avoidance of electric shock. B.F. Skinner was a well-known and influential researcher who ... approach-avoidance conflict, and avoidance-avoidance conflict) described by Kurt Lewin (1935) and can operationalize other ... punishment or ECS on passive avoidance learning". Physiology & Behavior. 18 (6): 1103-9. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(77)90018-X. PMID ... Once that is learned, the teacher inserts the key, and the subject is taught to turn it, then opens the door as the next step. ...
"Involvement of the telencephalon in spaced-trial avoidance learning in the goldfish (Carassius auratus)". Physiology & Behavior ... However, this learning is context-dependent, as when these flies are placed in a new environment, they will again exhibit the ... In vertebrates, the avoidance behaviour appears to be processed in the telencephalon. This has been shown repeatedly in ... While many do not consider habituation a form of learning, many researchers are beginning to suggest that it could be a form of ...
Students, however, learn about power by watching, by imitating, by avoidance of what they fear". In general, most of the ... Social and Emotional Learning and the Passage into Adolescence. New York: Teachers College. p137 Casel (2003) Safe and Sound. ... Learning to manage our emotions. Repairing emotional problems. Putting it all together: emotional interactivity. Having its ... pp178 McIntosh, P. and Style, E. (1999) Social, Emotional and Political Learning, in Cohen, J. (ed.) Educating Minds and Hearts ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Barnes, Brian M. (1989). "Freeze Avoidance in a Mammal: Body Temperatures Below 0 °C in an Arctic Hibernator". Science. 244 ( ... Learning to eat is a messy process for children, and children often do not master neatness or eating etiquette until they are 5 ... allowing the body to learn when to stop eating. The stomach contains receptors to allow us to know when we are full. The ...
Odum, E. P.; Barrett, G. W. (2005). Fundamentals of Ecology (5th ed.). Brooks/Cole, a part of Cengage Learning. ISBN 0-534- ...
"Natural farming" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... ", "the natural way of farming" or "do-nothing farming". The title refers not to lack of effort, but to the avoidance of ... "The role of a learning site for urban residents hoping to do farming: Focusing on the spread of 'natural farming' by the Akame ...
The predation-avoidance behavior of sleeping with one eye open, allowing one brain hemisphere to remain aware while the other ... they learn about and remember their traditional migratory routes (unless they are born and raised in captivity).In New Zealand ... not only for warmth and protection but also to learn about and remember their habitat as well as how and where to forage for ...
Wikipedia talk:Manual of Style
Having been around Wikipedia for a while, I wouldn't be surprised to learn that there are two Wikipedia definitions for the ... but it is probably worth keeping the existing structure for the avoidance of any doubt. MapReader (talk) 23:13, 10 December ... I also think that seeing "WP:" and "MOS:" confuses newbies, although they will eventually learn that "MOS:" specifically points ...
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure
Benbadis SR (August 2007). "Differential Diagnosis of Epilepsy". CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology. 13: 48-70. doi: ... CBT treatments for PNES typically target fear avoidance and work to reattribute patients' symptoms to psychosocial issues. For ... The individual does not have control of the learned reaction, but this can be retrained to allow the patient to control the ... One hypothesis is that they are a learned physical reaction or habit the body develops, similar to a reflex. ...
Brian Urquhart, "What You Can Learn from Reinhold Niebuhr", The New York Review of Books ... He was a debunker of hypocrisy and pretense and made the avoidance of self-righteous illusions the center of his thoughts.[ ... Morton White, Religion, Politics, and the Higher Learning, (1959) pp. 117-118 ... "What You Can Learn from Reinhold Niebuhr". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved March 15, 2015 ...
"Display" zoology - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... predator avoidance) and maximize gain (mate attraction). The first factor is temporal. Depending on the time of the season, ...
The avoidance of expression of such deleterious recessive alleles caused by inbreeding, via inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, is ... Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too ... Pusey A, Wolf M (May 1996). "Inbreeding avoidance in animals". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 11 (5): 201-6. doi:10.1016/0169- ... Van Den Berghe, Pierre L (2010). "Human inbreeding avoidance: Culture in nature". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 6: 91-102. doi ...
Thus avoidance is the most common form of defense in reptiles. At the first sign of danger, most snakes and lizards crawl ... One study found that wood turtles were better than white rats at learning to navigate mazes. ... Brodie III, Edmund D (1993). "Differential avoidance of coral snake banded patterns by free-ranging avian predators in Costa ...
Soft foods and avoidance of contact sports it also recommended in the short term. Dental care should be sought as quickly as ... Primary dentition stage (2-3 years old, when children's motor function is developing and start learning how to walk/ run) ...
A comparison of Atkins, Zone diet, Ornish diet, and LEARN diet in premenopausal women found the greatest benefit from the ... or 21-day avoidance of foods (Daniel Fast) declared unclean by God in the laws of Moses. In modern versions of the ... LEARN diet, Ornish diet). The Nurses' Health Study, an observational cohort study, found that low carbohydrate diets based on ... "Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight ...
Discrimination against asexual people
"Intergroup bias toward "Group X": Evidence of prejudice, dehumanization, avoidance, and discrimination against asexuals" (PDF) ... "Intergroup bias toward "Group X": Evidence of prejudice, dehumanization, avoidance, and discrimination against asexuals" ...
"The pilot learns from his experience what's the best for him, and it turns out that that's the best solution for the airline," ... More complex rules can be added, such as obstacle avoidance and goal seeking. ... Such behavior can also suggest deep learning algorithms, in particular when mapping of such swarms to neural circuits is ... Martens, D.; Baesens, B.; Fawcett, T. (2011). "Editorial Survey: Swarm Intelligence for Data Mining". Machine Learning. 82 (1 ...
Theodore Holmes Bullock
His work on the jamming avoidance response in electric fish (work later carried on by Walter Heiligenberg) is an excellent ... Anti-Hebbian learning. *Sound localization. *Ultrasound avoidance in insects. People. *Theodore Holmes Bullock ...
In this late summer stage, they may learn quickly to feed on stranded fish or to capture ducks flightless in eclipse. Juvenile ... The white-tailed eagles of the region seem to have no behavioral avoidance capabilities, as in many raptors, since the blades ... the young usually stay nearby for another 35-40 days and may still be largely fed by their parents but gradually learn to take ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Indirect reciprocity. The avoidance of poor reciprocators and cheaters causes a person's reputation to become very ... Journal of the Learning Sciences. 13 (2): 165-195. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.72.4881 . doi:10.1207/s15327809jls1302_2.. ... contributes to learning altruistic behavior, especially in those with trait empathy. The same study has shown a connection ...
The Persuasive Pen: An Integrated Approach to Reasoning and Writing, Jones and Bartlett Learning, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7637-0234-2 ... or avoidance of a threatening stimulus. ... Analysis of a Possible Case of Social Learning in Wild Rats ( ... a practice demonstrating social learning among members of this species. Rats on the island of Norderoog in the North Sea ...
Dietary avoidance. The primary way of managing the symptoms of lactose intolerance is to limit the intake of lactose to a ... When lactose avoidance is not possible, or on occasions when a person chooses to consume such items, then enzymatic lactase ... There are four general principles in dealing with lactose intolerance: avoidance of dietary lactose, substitution to maintain ...
An example of poisoning in the workplace can be seen from the phrase "mad as a hatter" (18th and 19th century England). The process for stiffening the felt used in making hats more than a hundred years ago involved mercury, which forms organic species such as methylmercury, which is lipid-soluble, and tends to accumulate in the brain, resulting in mercury poisoning. Other lipid-soluble (fat-soluble) poisons include tetraethyllead compounds (the lead in leaded petrol), and DDT. These compounds are stored in the body's fat, and when the fatty tissues are used for energy, the compounds are released and cause acute poisoning. Strontium-90, part of the fallout from atomic bombs, is chemically similar enough to calcium that it is utilized in osteogenesis, where its radiation can cause damage for a long time. Some animal species exhibit bioaccumulation as a mode of defense; by consuming toxic plants or animal prey, a species may accumulate the toxin, which then presents a deterrent to a potential ...
Ert, E.; Erev, I. (2008). "The rejection of attractive gambles, loss aversion, and the lemon avoidance heuristic". Journal of ... Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 45 (4): 591-605. doi:10.1037/xlm0000607. PMID 29999403.. ... An advance on the payment and the re framing of the incentive as avoidance of a loss, the researchers observed treatment ... 2019). "Are we attracted by losses? Boundary conditions for the approach and avoidance effects of losses". Journal of ...
Science in the Age of Enlightenment
James E. McClellan III, "Learned Societies," in Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment, ed. Alan Charles Kors (Oxford: Oxford ... the avoidance of thematic and hierarchical systems thus allows free interpretation of the works and becomes an example of ... With the exception of daughters of craftsmen, who sometimes learned their father's profession by assisting in the workshop, ... Scientific journals, readily accessible to members of learned societies, became the most important form of publication for ...
ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders
Learning Ally. *Learning problems in childhood cancer. *Literacy. *Management of dyslexia. *Multisensory integration ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... and basal forebrain-areas vital to learning, memory, and higher thinking. BDNF is also expressed in the retina, kidneys, ... It was previously mentioned that AMPA receptor expression is essential to learning and memory formation, as these are the ... leading to improved performance on various learning and memory tasks. BDNF mediates more pathways involved in these enrichment- ... This is important as neuron morphology is critical in behavioral processes like learning and motor skills development. Research ...
In particular, learning mastery (the degree to which people perceive their lives to be under their own control) and ... Poor coping skills (e.g., rigidity/inflexible problem solving, denial, avoidance, impulsivity, extreme self-expectation, ... Contextual factors that are thought to contribute to anxiety include gender socialization and learning experiences. ... gender socialization and learning mastery explain these gender differences.[medical citation needed] Research has ...
A teenager hired to aid in constructing a shed or barn, for example, learns valuable skills and responsibility.[citation needed ... Avoidance of wage garnishment or payment of child support or alimony. *Cheaper workforce and avoidance of minimum wage laws ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
Air-conditioning avoidance Archived October 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine *^ a b c d "How Ancient Persian Architecture ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
... and passive-avoidance learning". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 73 (3): 515-526. doi:10.1037/h0030234. ... "Learning & Memory. 19 (9): 423-433. doi:10.1101/lm.021311.110. ISSN 1549-5485. PMID 22904373.. ... These findings have also been replicated in a number of different species with different learning paradigms. The importance ... This initially was researched in rat models and found that younger rats forget a conditioned avoidance response to a shock- ...
"Normal inhibitory avoidance learning and anxiety, but increased locomotor activity in mice devoid of PrP(C)". Brain Res. Mol. ... learning or memory. • cellular copper ion homeostasis. • cellular response to copper ion. • cell cycle. • metabolism. • ... However, spatial learning, a predominantly hippocampal-function, is decreased in the null mice and can be recovered with the ... While null mice exhibit normal learning ability and short-term memory, long-term memory consolidation deficits have been ...
Overmier, J. B., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1967). Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding. ... Possible relationship to learned helplessnessEdit. Learned helplessness is a term to explain a specific pattern of behavior ... Due to the unclear results of Eisenberger's study of a Learned Industriousness-Learned Helplessness Continuum, further research ... Eisenberger, R. (1992). Learned Industriousness. Psychological Review, 99(2), 248-267. *^ a b Tucker-Ladd, C. E. (1996). ...
Avoidance learning - Wikipedia
... therefore presenting an avoidance response. This format does not use Pavlovian learning to condition avoidance responses. In ... leading psychologists and neuroscientists to study how avoidance behaviors are learned using rat or mouse models. Avoidance ... After the training session the rats complete unsignaled avoidance learning (see above) for multiple days. As a test of ... This form of conditioning combines Pavlovian learning with unsignaled avoidance conditioning in order to test whether rats are ...
Parental presence switches avoidance to attraction learning in children | Nature Human Behaviour
Here we examined the learning underlying this attraction in preschool-age children. Young children underwent an aversive ... The results suggest that learning systems during early childhood are constructed to permit modification by parental presence. ... Results suggest that early learning systems are constructed to permit modification by parental presence. ... defies the traditional rules of learning in that it seems to occur independently of apparent reinforcement1-young children ...
The role of nitric oxide in passive avoidance learning
The role of nitric oxide on passive avoidance learning was studied by administering L-arginine or D-arginine to male rats in a ... passive avoidance paradigm. L-Arginine administered into the lateral brain ventricle at a dose of 1.25 microg showed a tendency ... The role of nitric oxide in passive avoidance learning Neuropharmacology. Nov-Dec 1997;36(11-12):1583-7. doi: 10.1016/s0028- ... The role of nitric oxide on passive avoidance learning was studied by administering L-arginine or D-arginine to male rats in a ...
Vision-Based Obstacle Avoidance Using Deep Learning | IEEE Conference Publication | IEEE Xplore
Parental presence switches avoidance to attraction learning in children
... defies the traditional rules of learning in that it seems to occur independently of apparent reinforcement,sup,1,/sup,-young ... Attachment-related learning (that is, forming preferences for cues associated with the parent) ... Parental presence switches avoidance to attraction learning in children Nat Hum Behav. 2019 Oct;3(10):1070-1077. doi: 10.1038/ ... Attachment-related learning (that is, forming preferences for cues associated with the parent) defies the traditional rules of ...
LACAS: Learning Automata-Based Congestion Avoidance Scheme for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks | IEEE Communications Society
In this work, the authors address the problem of congestion in the nodes of healthcare WSN using a learning automata (LA)-based ... LACAS: Learning Automata-Based Congestion Avoidance Scheme for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks. CTN Issue: July 2013 IEEE ... Title: LACAS: Learning Automata-Based Congestion Avoidance Scheme for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks Author: S. Misra, V. ... The authors maintain that the proposed algorithm, named as Learning Automata-Based Congestion Avoidance Algorithm in Sensor ...
Inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio) | Noldus
... and addresses learning and memory related to anxiety and fear behavior. ... Assessment of inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish is based on a conflict, ... which has been studied through inhibitory avoidance paradigms [1,2]. Assessment of inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish ... increase brain volume and improve performance in spatial learning tasks. Inhibitory avoidance learning is reduced following ...
Basolateral amygdaloid multi-unit neuronal correlates of discriminative avoidance learning in rabbits
Differential effects of lead and zinc on inhibitory avoidance learning in mice
... Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2001, vol.34, n.1 ... and postnatal periods and then tested in the step-through inhibitory avoidance memory task. Chronic postnatal intoxication with ... while Zn2+ appears to facilitate learning extinction. ... Keywords : lead; zinc; inhibitory avoidance; memory. · text in ...
Value generalization in human avoidance learning | eLife
... during human active avoidance learning specifically predict experience of anxiety and intrusive thoughts. ... Simply, we fitted a series of reinforcement learning models to avoidance data from both samples (modified Q-learning algorithms ... 2015) Avoidance learning: a review of theoretical models and recent developments Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9:189. ... Avoidance behaviour was modelled using a set of modified Q-learning algorithms (Sutton and Barto, 1998). Each stimulus was ...
Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning |...
Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning. BA ... Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning ... Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning ... Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning ...
Individual Differences in Insular Sensitivity During Loss Anticipation Predict Avoidance Learning by Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin,...
Individual Differences in Insular Sensitivity During Loss Anticipation Predict Avoidance Learning. Psychological Science, Vol. ... Individual Differences in Insular Sensitivity During Loss Anticipation Predict Avoidance Learning. Psychological Science, Vol. ... To learn more, visit our Cookies page. This page was processed by aws-apollo4 in 0.228 seconds ... We found that insular responsiveness to anticipated losses predicted participants ability to learn to avoid losses (but not to ...
Effects of Gonadectomy and Avoidance Learning on the GABAAα1 Receptor Density in the Prefrontal Cortex of Male and Female Rats ...
We evaluated the effects of gonadectomy and passive avoidance learning on the density of GABAAα1receptors in the prefrontal ... gonadectomized rats with learning. A shuttle box was used for the induction of passive avoidance learning. The density of GABAA ... intact rats with no learning session, (ii) Sham-L, intact rats subjected to the avoidance learning session, (iii) GE, ... gonadectomy passive avoidance learning prefrontal cortex GABAAα1 receptors This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ...
TRPM channels mediate learned pathogen avoidance following intestinal distention | eLife
Behavioral assays using Caenorhabditis elegans show that a learned pathogen avoidance following intestinal distention requires ... faecalis avoidance. Whether they are involved in some other learning process underpinning avoidance remains unclear. ... 2. Avoidance occurs via an aversive learning process.. The olfactory plasticity data shown are quite strong and convincing. My ... 2. Avoidance occurs via an aversive learning process.. The olfactory plasticity data shown are quite strong and convincing. My ...
Prior Learning of Relevant Nonaversive Information Is a Boundary Condition for Avoidance Memory Reconsolidation in the Rat...
... hippocampus-dependent learning task suited to study time-dependent changes associated with retrieval of learned avoidance in ... 2004) Retrieval does not induce reconsolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory. Learn Mem 11:572-578. doi:10.1101/lm.76804 pmid ... 1979) The role of fear in theories of avoidance learning, flooding and extinction. Psychol Bull 86:985-1010. doi:10.1037/0033- ... Prior Learning of Relevant Nonaversive Information Is a Boundary Condition for Avoidance Memory Reconsolidation in the Rat ...
Avoidance Learning | Profiles RNS
"Avoidance Learning" by people in this website by year, and whether "Avoidance Learning" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Avoidance Learning" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Avoidance Learning" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Avoidance Learning". ...
A study of the relationship between kinds of punishment, autonomic arousal, subjective anxiety, and avoidance learning in the...
Avoidance. Avoidance conditioning. Avoidance learning. Galvanic Skin Response. Language. Learning. Minnesota Multiphasic ... A study of the relationship between kinds of punishment, autonomic arousal, subjective anxiety, and avoidance learning in the ... A study of the relationship between kinds of punishment, autonomic arousal, subjective anxiety, and avoidance learning in the ...
Early-life stress is associated with a preponderance of habitual responding in a novel instrumental avoidance learning paradigm.
Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2020 Oct 01;:107316 Authors: Gordon AL, Patterson TK, Knowlton BJ Abstract There is substantial evidence ... Early-life stress is associated with a preponderance of habitual responding in a novel instrumental avoidance learning paradigm ... Early-life stress is associated with a preponderance of habitual responding in a novel instrumental avoidance learning paradigm ... Early-life stress is associated with a preponderance of habitual responding in a novel instrumental avoidance learning paradigm ...
Effects of benzodiazepines on passive avoidance response and latent learning in mice: relationship to benzodiazepine receptors...
Effects of benzodiazepines on passive avoidance response and latent learning in mice: relationship to benzodiazepine receptors ... Effects of benzodiazepines on passive avoidance response and latent learning in mice: relationship to benzodiazepine receptors ... Effects of benzodiazepines on passive avoidance response and latent learning in mice: relationship to benzodiazepine receptors ... Effects of benzodiazepines on passive avoidance response and latent learning in mice: relationship to benzodiazepine receptors ...
SID.ir | THE EFFECTS OF LIDOCAINE REVERSIBLE INACTIVATION OF THE DORSAL RAPHE NUCLEUS ON PASSIVE AVOIDANCE LEARNING IN RATS
Free Full-Text of an article THE EFFECTS OF LIDOCAINE REVERSIBLE INACTIVATION OF THE DORSAL RAPHE NUCLEUS ON PASSIVE AVOIDANCE ... Paper: THE EFFECTS OF LIDOCAINE REVERSIBLE INACTIVATION OF THE DORSAL RAPHE NUCLEUS ON PASSIVE AVOIDANCE LEARNING IN RATS. ... Introduction: The role of serotonergic fibers in avoidance learning is controversial. Involvement of the dorsal raphe nucleus ( ... Keyword(s): DORSAL RAPHE, PASSIVE AVOIDANCE, REVERSIBLE INACTIVATION, LEARNING AND MEMORY, LIDOCAINE, RAT. ...
SID.ir | EFFECTS OF FOLIC ACID ON PASSIVE AVOIDANCE LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RAT ALZHEIMER MODEL BY INTRACEREBROVENTRICULAR...
Download Free Full-Text of an article EFFECTS OF FOLIC ACID ON PASSIVE AVOIDANCE LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RAT ALZHEIMER MODEL BY ... To assess learning and memory in rats, the passive avoidance learning test was performed.. Findings: Intracerebroventricular ... EFFECTS OF FOLIC ACID ON PASSIVE AVOIDANCE LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RAT ALZHEIMER MODEL BY INTRACEREBROVENTRICULAR INJECTION OF ... EFFECTS OF FOLIC ACID ON PASSIVE AVOIDANCE LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RAT ALZHEIMER MODEL BY INTRACEREBROVENTRICULAR INJECTION OF ...
Pain in invertebrates - Wikipedia
Location avoidance. Avoidance learning was examined in the crab Neohelice granulata by placing the animals in a dark ... Learned avoidance. Learning to avoid a noxious stimulus indicates that prior experience of the stimulus is remembered by ... 5 Trade-offs between stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. *6 Learned avoidance *6.1 Habituation and ... the complex learning associated with this response (see Learned Avoidance below) suggests this view might be overly ...
Aminoguanidine Changes Hippocampal Expression of Apoptosis-Related Genes, Improves Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in...
... can either affect the Bcl-2 family gene expression or reduce the diabetic imposing abnormalities of passive avoidance learning ... In conclusion, initial treatment with AG by intra-CA1 micro-injection improves the impaired passive avoidance task in STZ- ... The result of passive avoidance task showed that AG significantly improved the cognitive performance in diabetic rats. Moreover ... Aminoguanidine Changes Hippocampal Expression of Apoptosis-Related Genes, Improves Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in ...
Shuttle-box avoidance learning in mice: Improvement by combined glucose and tacrine<...
Shuttle-box avoidance learning in mice : Improvement by combined glucose and tacrine. In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. ... Shuttle-box avoidance learning in mice: Improvement by combined glucose and tacrine. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 69(2 ... Shuttle-box avoidance learning in mice: Improvement by combined glucose and tacrine. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 1998 ... Shuttle-box avoidance learning in mice: Improvement by combined glucose and tacrine, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol ...
Search - SAE International
This paper considers the use of Learning Reference Governor (LRG) for tanker truck rollover avoidance. ... Therefore, effective schemes for tanker truck rollover avoidance are highly desirable and can bring a considerable amount of ... Low-Speed Autonomous Shuttles - Lessons Learned from Real-World Implementation. 2021-04-15 ...
Learn to recognize avoidance When an evaluator is convinced, based on his or her own direct interactions with a trainee, that ... Learning to read between the lines of letters of recommendation should be viewed as a game of "gotcha." Identifying outliers ... A classic model of avoidance is the letter that spends three paragraphs describing in great detail the trainees project, its ... On the other hand, any behavior suggestive of avoidance, such as difficulty in selecting a first strength, generally is ...
Paulo Drews-Jr - Mendeley
Reversal of Salt Preference Is Directed by the Insulin/PI3K and Gq/PKC Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans | Genetics
The learned avoidance of animals with 2-ASER was fully dependent on gcy-22, indicating that ASER promotes learned salt ... One model is that unidentified sensory neurons (such as ASH neurons) direct the learned avoidance and these avoidance neurons ... Taste receptor neurons ASE promote salt avoidance and other sensory neurons are also required for salt avoidance. (A) Learning ... Both strains show impaired learned avoidance but still show plasticity. (C) Learning assays were performed with wild-type ...
Tax Avoidance Resource | Learn About, Share and Discuss Tax Avoidance At Popflock.com
View Videos or join the Tax Avoidance discussion. Add Tax Avoidance to your PopFlock.com topic list or share. Tax Avoidance at ... Get Tax Avoidance essential facts below. View Videos or join the Tax Avoidance discussion. Add Tax Avoidance to your PopFlock. ... Tax avoidance reduces government revenue, so governments with a stricter anti-avoidance stance seek to prevent tax avoidance or ... Two kind of anti-avoidance measures exist; General Anti Avoidance Rules (GAAR) and Specific Anti Avoidance Rules (SAAR). The ...
BehaviorRatsParadigmBehaviorsConditioned stimulusNeuronsInhibitory avoidanceAnxietyAversiveOperantStimuliCollision AvoidanceConsolidation of passive avoidancePunishmentPassive avoidance responseTrial passive avoidanceReinforcementDiscriminative avoidanceBehavioralMeSHExtinctionImpairmentRemains unclearMemoryRisk avoidanceObstacle avoidanceCognitiveMechanismsMiceInstrumentalProcessesLatencyDorsalShuttle boxTaskBehaviourRetention2020Acquisition2019ChronicBehaviouralSignificantAdaptiveReconsolidationNeuralRewardPathogenAnimal learnsSignificantlyHippocampusConditioningAnimalsExcessiveSituationsAmygdaloidApproachBasolateralAssociativePsychologyHippocampalBrain
- An avoidance response is a natural adaptive behavior performed in response to danger. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast, passive avoidance is the prevention of an aversive stimulus by withholding a behavior, which is usually demonstrated by placing a rat in a chamber with a raised platform in which refraining from stepping off the platform prevents a foot shock. (wikipedia.org)
- The neural circuit responsible for expressing signaled avoidance behavior is the same that controls extinction of fear responses. (wikipedia.org)
- Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , we show that ingestion of Enterococcus faecalis leads to a fast pathogen avoidance behavior that results in aversive learning. (elifesciences.org)
- The G-protein coupled receptor NPR-1-dependent oxygen-sensing pathway opposes this avoidance behavior, while an ASE neuron-dependent pathway and an AWB and AWC neuron-dependent pathway are directly required for avoidance. (elifesciences.org)
- This avoidance behavior, which exists in opposition to an NPR-1-mediated hyperoxia avoidance process, requires the ASE, AWB, and AWC chemosensory neurons. (elifesciences.org)
- Avoidance is a normal defensive behavior intended to avert uncomfortable or fearful situations. (jneurosci.org)
- Persisting in performing a response after its outcome has been devalued is the hallmark of habitual behavior in instrumental learning. (medworm.com)
- An avoidance response is a behavior based on the concept that animals will avoid performing behaviors that result in an aversive outcome. (wikipedia.org)
- An animal will presumably learn to avoid the behavior that preceded this punishment. (wikipedia.org)
- It has been applied to a broad range of phenomena in learning, including the operant or instrumental behavior studied by B. F. Skinner and the respondent or classical conditioning procedures of Ivan Pavlov . (encyclopedia.com)
- The term, which also applies to certain types of machine learning procedures studied by computer scientists and engineers, now refers mostly to cases in which behavior has some consequences and, by virtue of these consequences, comes to occur more often. (encyclopedia.com)
- We all learn from our experiences which shape our behavior. (buzzle.com)
- In the present work, the possible effects of different neurotransmitters on the action of MZ-4-71 were studied in the memory consolidation of passive avoidance behavior. (elsevier.com)
- We therefore investigated the neural factors underlying individual imbalances in harm avoidance behavior. (pnas.org)
- These findings highlight a neural basis for imbalanced harm avoidance behavior, extreme forms of which may contribute to psychiatric pathology. (pnas.org)
- These results reveal functional and structural neural components underlying individual differences in avoidance learning, which may be important contributors to psychiatric disorders involving pathological harm avoidance behavior. (pnas.org)
- However, learning what to avoid doing, rather than what to do, could lead to maladaptive passive risk-avoidant behavior. (pnas.org)
- However, an opposite tendency, to learn predominantly from successful actions that helped avoid harm, might lead to maladaptive active behavior. (pnas.org)
- The second strategy involves desensitization and other behavior modification techniques which are used to deal directly with the hierarchy of fears and avoidance behaviours. (hubpages.com)
- They will learn basic fly husbandry, genetics and maintenance, basic wet lab skills (e.g. making soutions), and run sophisticated optogenetic behavioral experiments, in which light is used to artificially activate/silence specific neurons in freely moving flies, to investigate the role of different neurons during choice-making behavior. (google.com)
- After that, rats are placed into avoidance chambers and presented with the CS for a short amount of time, during which they may shuttle through the opening, preventing the US from occurring, therefore presenting an avoidance response. (wikipedia.org)
- This form of conditioning combines Pavlovian learning with unsignaled avoidance conditioning in order to test whether rats are able to transfer their learned behavioral response to a previously inescapable conditioned stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
- First rats undergo traditional Pavlovain fear learning in which they are not able to escape or avoid the US shock following the CS tone. (wikipedia.org)
- After the training session the rats complete unsignaled avoidance learning (see above) for multiple days. (wikipedia.org)
- As a test of Pavlovian instrumental transfer, rats are placed into the same shuttle chambers as for unsignaled avoidance training and presented with the tone CS they received during the Pavlovian conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
- In rats, the fear-motivated response is to freeze, so in both fear extinction and avoidance conditioning inhibition of the amygdala via the mPFC leads to more movement (shuttling) and less freezing. (wikipedia.org)
- The role of nitric oxide on passive avoidance learning was studied by administering L-arginine or D-arginine to male rats in a passive avoidance paradigm. (nih.gov)
- Twenty adult males weighing 200 ± 30 g and 20 adult females weighing 150 ± 20 g were divided into four groups: (i) Sham, intact rats with no learning session, (ii) Sham-L, intact rats subjected to the avoidance learning session, (iii) GE, gonadectomized rats without learning, and (iv) GE-L, gonadectomized rats with learning. (springer.com)
- The comparison of male and female rats showed that the density of GABA Aα1 receptors in castrated rats with learning was significantly lower than that in ovariectomized females with learning. (springer.com)
- Learning provides increases in the GABA Aα1 receptor density in different regions of the prefrontal cortex in female rats, while castration of male rats exerts no significant effect from this aspect. (springer.com)
- Combining behavioral and electrophysiological analyses in male Wistar rats, we found that previous learning of relevant nonaversive information is essential to elicit the participation of the hippocampus in avoidance memory reconsolidation, which is associated with an increase in theta- and gamma-oscillation power and cross-frequency coupling in dorsal CA1 during reactivation of the avoidance response. (jneurosci.org)
- Using a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats, we found that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when the animals acquired the avoidance response in an environment that they had previously learned as safe and showed that increased theta- and gamma-oscillation coupling during reactivation is an electrophysiological signature of this process. (jneurosci.org)
- According to the fact that folic acid is one of the precursors for synthesis of Q10 in the cell, and it has been demonstrated that its blood levels are decreased in Alzheimer's disease, this study aimed to evaluate effects of folic acid on passive avoidance learning and memory in rats. (sid.ir)
- To assess learning and memory in rats, the passive avoidance learning test was performed. (sid.ir)
- Findings: Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin impairs severely learning and memory in rats and folic acid can prevent these impairments. (sid.ir)
- CFY male rats were conditioned in two-compartment passive avoidance paradigm and place preference was examined in two-compartment-box and in circular open field. (elsevier.com)
- Comparable rates and patterns of lever-pressing by rats were obtained under a multiple variable interval schedule of food reinforcement and continuous shock avoidance. (biomedsearch.com)
- The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on hippocampus antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and learning and memory was investigated in diabetic rats. (pau.edu.tr)
- The purpose of this study was to investigate, has been the effects of methamphetamine on passive avoidance learning and memory in adult male Wistar rats. (applphysiology.org)
- Milad Rezazadeh, Mehdi Ahmadifar, Meysam Ahmadi Manesh, The Study of Effect of Amphetamine on Passive Avoidance Learning in Wistar Male Rats, Advances in Applied Physiology . (applphysiology.org)
- Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Rumex patientia (RP), this research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic Rumex patientia feeding on alleviation of learning and memory disturbance in streptozotocindiabetic rats. (ac.ir)
- In this research, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol chronic treatment on learning and memory in diabetic male rats. (ac.ir)
- Thus, the aim of the present study in rats was to extend these findings by testing the effects of MO in two aversive paradigms, Pavlovian fear conditioning (FC) and the operant two-way active avoidance (TWA) learning paradigms. (frontiersin.org)
- Male Wistar rats (220 to 280 g) were trained in an inhibitory step-down avoidance task and tested 24 h or 21 days later. (bvsalud.org)
- Objective: To evaluate the effect of Costusigneus on learning and memory in normal and diabetic rats using passive avoidance test. (elsevier.com)
- After 30 days of oral administration of respective drug to different groups, blood glucose and body weight were measured and rats were assessed for learning and memory using passive avoidance test. (elsevier.com)
- Results: Diabetic rats showed impairment in acquisition trial of passive avoidance test. (elsevier.com)
- Conclusion: C.igneus prevents learning and memory deficit which is otherwise impaired in diabetic rats. (elsevier.com)
- Homauni Afshari Z, Sofiabadi M, Dezfulian M, Haghdost Yazdy H. Effects of prenatal exposure to combined stress on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. (ac.ir)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to combined stress on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. (ac.ir)
- The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of glibenclamide on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. (ac.ir)
- All rats were trained in a passive avoidance task (50 Hz, 1 mA, 3 s). (ac.ir)
- Esmaeili M, Rostapishea F, Mohammad Khanlo M, Vadidar F, Bamdad Z. Effects of glibenclamide on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. (ac.ir)
- Here, the moderate treadmill training showed preventive effects on learning impairment due to bilateral hippocampal lesion in the rats. (ac.ir)
- After the treatment period, treated rats and age-matched control rats were subjected to spatial learning (T-maze) and passive avoidance tests. (scielo.br)
- The results showed an improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in rats treated with Bacopa monniera extract. (scielo.br)
- 1-6 The active constituents of the plant facilitate learning and memory in normal rats and inhibit the amnesic effects of scopolamine, electroshock and immobilization stress. (scielo.br)
- The results indicate that nitric oxide is able to facilitate the learning and consolidation of memory in a passive avoidance paradigm, but it is ineffective in retrieval processes. (nih.gov)
- In the inhibitory avoidance learning paradigm, two distinct types of responders are observed: fish that strongly avoid the black compartment (avoiders) and fish that quickly enter the black compartment (non-avoiders). (noldus.com)
- Early-life stress is associated with a preponderance of habitual responding in a novel instrumental avoidance learning paradigm. (medworm.com)
- To address this gap in knowledge, we developed a novel instrumental learning paradigm to explore the effects of ELS on the balance of habitual versus goal-directed learning. (medworm.com)
- Participants with a history of higher ELS were significantly more likely to make habitual responses in this instrumental avoidance learning paradigm than individuals with a history of lower ELS. (medworm.com)
- Hypotheses were that fear of an auditory CS (conditioned in an avoidance paradigm) is reduced during RP, and that fear conditioning would occur to aspects of the conditioning environment per se. (biomedsearch.com)
- A-B suppressed significantly more than CD-B, suggesting that RP was more effective when fear was learned in a classical as compared to an avoidance paradigm. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the TWA paradigm MO induced a significant decrease of avoidance responses compared to vehicle treated animals, while the number of escape reactions during the acquisition of the TWA task remained unaffected. (frontiersin.org)
- We used a step down avoidance learning paradigm (SDA) which is frequently used in rodents. (edu.pl)
- Our results further indicate that the step down avoidance paradigm is suitable to examine learning and memory processes in adult laying hens. (edu.pl)
- To further illuminate the relationship between incentive valence and action requirement, we combined a cued monetary incentive paradigm with an approach/avoidance joystick task. (springer.com)
- Excessive avoidance has been suggested to contribute to anxiety disorders, leading psychologists and neuroscientists to study how avoidance behaviors are learned using rat or mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
- SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by maladaptive avoidance responses to stimuli or behaviors that represent or bear resemblance to some aspect of a traumatic experience. (jneurosci.org)
- Caenorhabditis elegans detects chemicals with a limited number of sensory neurons, allowing us to dissect roles of each neuron for innate and learned behaviors. (genetics.org)
- To understand neuronal plasticity underlying learning, it is important to dissect neurons and molecules for sensing environmental stimuli, storing memory, and executing learned behaviors. (genetics.org)
- Systematic desensitization can also be used to extinguish avoidance response behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
- Princeton University researchers have discovered that learned behaviors can be inherited for multiple generations in C. elegans, transmitted from parent to progeny via eggs and sperm cells. (news-medical.net)
- Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and Category:Behaviors , including skills , knowledge , understanding , values , and wisdom . (wikimedia.org)
- Bacopa monniera (BM), a traditional ayurvedic medicine, is reported to improve learning and memory behaviors in animals and humans. (scielo.br)
- Signaled avoidance involves classical conditioning such that the aversive stimulus becomes an unconditioned stimulus (US) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS), usually a tone or flash of light. (wikipedia.org)
- Residual fear of the conditioned stimulus as a function of response prevention after avoidance or classical defensive conditioning in the rat. (biomedsearch.com)
- medial dorsal thalamic nucleus) and effects of lesions suggest that the neurons in these areas participate in a circuit involved in mediation of avoidance learning. (umich.edu)
- E. faecalis- mediated avoidance does not depend on sRNAs, nor does it require ASI neurons, full bacterial virulence, or innate immune activation. (elifesciences.org)
- In Drosophila, anatomically discrete dopamine neurons that innervate distinct zones of the mushroom body (MB) assign opposing valence to odors during olfactory learning. (ox.ac.uk)
- it remains unclear whether ASE neurons act as salt receptors for the learned avoidance. (genetics.org)
- Increase learning and short-term memory and reduced long term memory and passive avoidance learning mechanism is probably due to the involvement of the hippocampus in learning and memory consolidation and short term memory convert to long-term memory could potential mechanism of methamphetamine-induced damage to hippocampal neurons, particularly CA1 neurons. (applphysiology.org)
- For Pleurobranchaea , previous work outlined a neural network of identified neurons that mediates avoidance turning stimulated by unilateral electrical shocks to the oral veil ( Jing and Gillette, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
- Here, we investigated the effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region that is concerned with learning and memory. (scielo.br)
- We know that mammalian brains learn by performing the same computations that machines use (i.e. machine-learning algorithms), but it's hard to figure out how neurons calculate things, because mammalian brains are big and complicated. (google.com)
- They will learn basic fly husbandry, genetics and maintenance, basic wet lab skills (e.g. pipetting), and run sophisticated optogenetic behavioral experiments, in which light is used to artificially activate specific neurons during learning odor-punishment associations, to investigate the role of different neurons during learning. (google.com)
- Solutions to this engineering problem may find inspiration in biology: the humble fruit fly has solved this problem, as it can learn to associate specific odours with reward or punishment with a brain of only 100,000 neurons. (sheffield.ac.uk)
- This learning occurs by synaptic plasticity: changing connection strength between odour-encoding neurons and output neurons that lead to approach or avoidance behaviour. (sheffield.ac.uk)
- An emerging field addresses learning and memory related to anxiety and fear behaviour, which has been studied through inhibitory avoidance paradigms [1,2]. (noldus.com)
- Higher latencies of entering the dark area following training are indicative of increased inhibitory avoidance learning. (noldus.com)
- Housing zebrafish under long periods (i.e. 42 days) of continuous light leads to a strong reduction in inhibitory avoidance learning. (noldus.com)
- Inhibitory avoidance learning is reduced following housing under enriched conditions. (noldus.com)
- During inhibitory avoidance learning, behaviour has been recorded and analysed post-hoc using EthoVision XT v10.0 tracking software (Noldus, Wageningen, the Netherlands). (noldus.com)
- ANTONIOLLI, A.R. and MARCHIORO, M. . Differential effects of lead and zinc on inhibitory avoidance learning in mice . (scielo.br)
- Animals were intoxicated through drinking water during the pre- and postnatal periods and then tested in the step-through inhibitory avoidance memory task. (scielo.br)
- innate anxiety) and avoiding this dark area, as it has been associated with an electric shock as negative stimulus (conditioned fear avoidance). (noldus.com)
- However, adding enrichment has been shown to reduce anxiety-like behaviour, increase brain volume and improve performance in spatial learning tasks. (noldus.com)
- These differences in avoidance behaviour are associated with differences in whole-body cortisol content as well as expression levels of genes related to learning, memory and anxiety. (noldus.com)
- Overall, our data suggest that the zebrafish is a suitable model to study gene-brain-behaviour relationships underlying learning and memory related to anxiety and fear. (noldus.com)
- In addition, these data serve as starting point for unravelling individual differences in anxiety and fear-associated learning. (noldus.com)
- These results reveal a set of distinct mechanisms that mediate generalization in avoidance learning, and show how specific individual differences within them can yield anxiety. (elifesciences.org)
- Although individual differences in insular sensitivity have been associated with self-report measures of chronic anxiety, previous research has not examined whether individual differences in insular sensitivity predict learning to avoid aversive stimuli. (ssrn.com)
- These findings suggest that in addition to correlating with self-reported anxiety, heightened insular sensitivity may promote learning to avoid loss. (ssrn.com)
- People with obsessive compulsive disorder may learn to avoid using public restrooms because it produces anxiety in them (aversive stimulus). (wikipedia.org)
- A key for diagnosing anxiety in athletes lies in understanding that fear and avoidance are two different, but not independent, learning processes. (ncaa.org)
- Findings obtained will contribute to contemporary theories of adACC/dmPFC function and development of an empirically grounded model of the endophenotypic expressions of pathological avoidance in anxiety which is fundamental to advancing our understanding its etiology, correlates, and prevention. (frontiersin.org)
- Based on the assumption that phobias are symbolic representations of what was originally feared the first strategy focuses on helping the patient understand the phobia and learn more effective techniques for coping with the anxiety and the feared situation. (hubpages.com)
- We study a range of topics related to self-regulation including anxiety, avoidance, risk aversion, ostracism/social exclusion, risk-taking/ substance use risk, reward processing, mindfulness and self-compassion. (google.com)
- Altered learning under uncertainty in unmedicated mood and anxiety disorders. (nih.gov)
- Fragile-X symptoms include learning and memory impairment, anxiety, hyperactivity and social avoidance. (prnewswire.com)
- We showed that despite disliking the aversive unconditioned stimulus, children exhibited a behavioural approach for conditioned stimuli that were acquired in the parent's presence and an avoidance for stimuli acquired in the parent's absence, an effect that was strongest among those with the lowest cortisol levels. (nature.com)
- We found that generalization of avoidance could be parsed into perceptual and value-based processes, and further, that value-based generalization could be subdivided into that relating to aversive and neutral feedback − with corresponding circuits including primary sensory cortex, anterior insula, amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. (elifesciences.org)
- However, the extent to which these observations extend to a decision-making context − that is whether or not to make an avoidance response in the face of certain stimuli, allowing us to exert control over experience of aversive outcomes − is unclear. (elifesciences.org)
- Colonization of the anterior part of the intestine by E. faecalis leads to AWB and AWC mediated olfactory aversive learning. (elifesciences.org)
- These results suggest a mechanism by which TRPM channels may sense the intestinal distension caused by bacterial colonization to elicit pathogen avoidance and aversive learning by detecting changes in host physiology. (elifesciences.org)
- Our data are the first to demonstrate that SP in the ABL is involved in learning and memory processes related to aversive situations. (elsevier.com)
- An avoidance response is a response that prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring. (wikipedia.org)
- Whether the aversive stimulus is brought on intentionally by another or is naturally occurring, it is adaptive to learn to avoid situations that have previously yielded negative outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
- These results led to questioning in the term avoidance paradox (the question of how the nonoccurrence of an aversive event can be a reinforcer for an avoidance response? (wikipedia.org)
- In panic disorder, a person learns to avoid certain situations such as being in crowded places because when they enter these situations, a panic attack (aversive stimulus) ensues. (wikipedia.org)
- Yet, little is known about what specific features of threatening situations recruit these regions and how avoidance may modulate appraisal and activation through prevention of aversive events. (frontiersin.org)
- In this investigation, 30 healthy adults underwent functional neuroimaging while completing an avoidance task in which responses to an Avoidable CS+ threat prevented delivery of an aversive stimulus, but not to an Unavoidable CS+ threat. (frontiersin.org)
- These are the first results linking adACC/dmPFC reactivity to avoidance-based reductions of aversive events and modulation of activation by individual differences in aversive discounting. (frontiersin.org)
- Specifically, striatal responses to pain were modulated in a manner consistent with an aversive prediction error in individuals who learned predominantly from pain, whereas in individuals who learned predominantly from success in preventing pain, modulation was consistent with an appetitive prediction error. (pnas.org)
- In this test, subjects learn to avoid an environment in which an aversive stimulus (such as a foot-shock) was previously delivered. (stanford.edu)
- Avoidance learning is a type of operant conditioning (also known as instrumental conditioning). (wikipedia.org)
- This can involve learning through operant conditioning when it is used as a training technique. (wikipedia.org)
- B.F. Skinner (1938) believed that animals learn primarily through rewards and punishments, the basis of operant conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
- One of his critical contributions was to clarify the difference between operant learning and the classical or respondent learning that had been studied by Pavlov (in Pavlov's experiments, the organism's responses had no effect on the stimuli that were presented). (encyclopedia.com)
- However, in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), avoidance of emotions, thoughts, and stimuli that symbolize or resemble traumatic events is exacerbated and disproportionate. (jneurosci.org)
- and (7) avoidance turns induced by mildly noxious stimuli were computed similarly to orienting, while differing in direction. (biologists.org)
- For instance, while moderately hungry animals may orient to and approach weak appetitive stimuli, satiation and learning can change these responses so food stimuli are actively avoided by satiated animals. (biologists.org)
- Healthy young volunteers performed a reinforcement learning task where they chose one of two fractal stimuli associated with monetary gain (reward trials) or avoidance of monetary loss (avoidance trials). (elsevier.com)
- What learning rules and information coding strategies are best for allowing systems to learn that certain stimuli or actions are good or bad, even with imperfect inputs or limited, unreliable computational resources? (sheffield.ac.uk)
- Lessons Learned: Incorporate proven technologies and false alarm reduction strategies in the design of future Automotive Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS). (dot.gov)
- Experience from a Field Operational Test (FOT) in Michigan to evaluate an Automotive Rear-End Collision Avoidance System. (dot.gov)
- This lesson learned article is drawn from the results of an independent evaluation of the Automotive Collision Avoidance System (ACAS). (dot.gov)
- This lesson is drawn from the experiences of the Field Operation Test (FOT) of an Automotive Collision Avoidance System (ACAS). (dot.gov)
- Consider state-of-the-art system design issues and technologies for Automotive Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS). (dot.gov)
- A biohybrid fly-robot interface system that performs active collision avoidance. (bioportfolio.com)
- Under closed-loop conditions during oscillatory forward movements biased towards the wall, collision avoidance manoeuvres were triggered whenever the H1-cell spike rate exceeded a certain threshold value. (bioportfolio.com)
- In this paper, we propose an integrated biologically inspired visual collision avoidance approach that is deployed on a real hexapod walking robot. (bioportfolio.com)
Consolidation of passive avoidance4
- Peripheral administration (intraperitoneal) of L-arginine facilitated the consolidation of passive avoidance learning in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
- MZ-4-71 facilitates the consolidation of passive avoidance learning. (elsevier.com)
- Beta-amyloid 25-35 impairs the consolidation of passive avoidance learning and MZ-4-71 fully blocks this impairment. (elsevier.com)
- The results demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, the 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor and opioid receptors are involved as mediators in the action of MZ-4-71 on the consolidation of passive avoidance learning. (elsevier.com)
- The avoidance response comes into play here when punishment is administered. (wikipedia.org)
- In this functional neuroimaging study, we investigated neural activations during the process of learning to gain monetary rewards and to avoid monetary loss, and how these activations are modulated by individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. (elsevier.com)
- Individual differences in sensitivity to punishment were negatively associated with activation in the left dorsal striatum during avoidance anticipation and also with activation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during receiving monetary loss. (elsevier.com)
- These results suggest that learning to attain reward and learning to avoid loss are dependent on separable sets of neural regions whose activity is modulated by trait sensitivity to reward or punishment. (elsevier.com)
- We've known for decades that flies can be classically conditioned (think Pavlov's dogs) to associate odors with punishment, but it's less clear exactly HOW they learn it. (google.com)
Passive avoidance response3
- A significant increase in passive avoidance response was obtained following an injection of 100 mg/kg L-arginine. (nih.gov)
- When L-arginine was given i.c.v. with a selected dose of 5 microg, 30 min prior to a learning trial, the latency of the passive avoidance response was likewise lengthened. (nih.gov)
- Effects of benzodiazepines on passive avoidance response and latent learning in mice: relationship to benzodiazepine receptors and the cholinergic neuronal system. (aspetjournals.org)
Trial passive avoidance1
- Chicks were trained on a single trial passive avoidance task. (edu.au)
- To demonstrate an avoidance response requires repeated reinforcement through instrumental conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we use reinforcement learning modelling to dissect out different contributions to the generalization of instrumental avoidance in two groups of human volunteers ( N = 26, N = 482). (elifesciences.org)
- Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
- We found that insular responsiveness to anticipated losses predicted participants' ability to learn to avoid losses (but not to approach gains) in a behavioral test several months later. (ssrn.com)
- However, to date few studies have elucidated the behavioral elements of orienting or avoidance or of their neural bases. (biologists.org)
- Some possible explanations to the occurrence of this phenomenon (one-trial tolerance-OTT) involve behavioral modifications thought to be consequence of some kind of learning in the first trial. (unifesp.br)
- FC is learned rapidly, and after one conditioning session, a very stable and long-lasting behavioral change is produced which is useful for neurobehavioral, genetic, and pharmacological studies. (stanford.edu)
- Avoidance Learning" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
- These results suggest an impairment of memory formation by Pb 2+ when the animals are exposed during the critical period of neurogenesis, while Zn 2+ appears to facilitate learning extinction. (scielo.br)
- Greater regional activation was consistently observed to the Unavoidable CS+ during avoidance, which declined during extinction. (frontiersin.org)
- Furthermore, BMX ameliorates scopolamine-(Sco-) induced learning and memory impairment in animals, indicating a novel role of BMX in learning and memory. (hindawi.com)
- The preventive effects of the moderate treadmill training on the learning impairment due to bilateral hippocampal lesion in the rat were evaluated in this study. (ac.ir)
- Learning & Memory. (wikipedia.org)
- The results also suggest that, under the experimental circumstances used, nitric oxide is involved only in the facilitated learning and memory processes caused by pharmacological effect of L-arginine, and not involved in normal learning processes. (nih.gov)
- However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. (jneurosci.org)
- In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial. (jneurosci.org)
- Our results indicate that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when reactivation results in contradictory representations regarding the consequences of avoidance and suggest that robust nesting of hippocampal theta-gamma rhythms at the time of retrieval is a specific reconsolidation marker. (jneurosci.org)
- However, much of what is known about fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation derives from studies based on fear conditioning instead of avoidance-learning paradigms. (jneurosci.org)
- The objective of this study was to examine whether bilateral intrahippocampal CA1 (intra-CA1) injection of aminoguanidine (AG) can either affect the Bcl-2 family gene expression or reduce the diabetic imposing abnormalities of passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory. (semanticscholar.org)
- The effects on shuttle-box avoidance acquisition produced by glucose combined with a cholinomimetic agent support the hypothesis that cholinergic mechanisms may be involved in the action of glucose on learning and memory. (elsevier.com)
- Neurobiology of Learning and Memory , 69 (2), 204-210. (elsevier.com)
- Prolonged deficits that are dependent upon memory reactivation would suggest that glucocorticoids play a role in reconsolidation of learned avoidance. (efpsa.org)
- Consistent with previous research, ouabain administration induced a memory deficit following the initial learning trial. (edu.au)
- Neurobiology of learning and memory, 247-287. (applphysiology.org)
- Memory is a vital determinant of what we know, learn, and practice. (buzzle.com)
- Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. (ac.ir)
- For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL) and step-through latency (STL) were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. (ac.ir)
- Background: Diabetes type I is accompanied with disturbances in cognitive skills, memory and learning. (ac.ir)
- For evaluation of learning and memory, passive avoidance test and Y-maze task were used. (ac.ir)
- Conclusion: Probably due to different mechanism of long term and short term memory, long term resveratrol treatment didn't improve memory and learning in passive avoidance learning. (ac.ir)
- Because BMX enhances neurite outgrowth and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation, the effect of BMX on neural plasticity such as learning and memory is examined. (hindawi.com)
- To examine declarative and nondeclarative memory, a water maze, a passive one-way avoidance task, and a novel object recognition task were performed. (hindawi.com)
- With regards to the results, prenatal exposure to combined stress can reduce the memory retention of passive avoidance learning. (ac.ir)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of propolis on passive avoidance memory in adult male mice. (ac.ir)
- Then, passive avoidance learning and memory were recorded in timescales of 24 and 48 hours, 4 days and a week after shock by the shuttle box. (ac.ir)
- Oral administrations of propolis can improve learning and memory dose-dependently in adult male mice. (ac.ir)
- Gheibi N, Shahbazi J, Zarmohammadi Z, Alipoor Heydari M, Kakaeie E, Sofiabadi M. Effect of Oral Administration of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis on Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Adult Male Mice. (ac.ir)
- Although not discarding the modulation exerted by other memory processes in the OTT phenomenon, the results indicate that situations that impair the learned avoidance response to the open arms in the EPM do not modify the phenomenon of OTT. (unifesp.br)
- Domestic chickens are an established model organism for studies on learning and memory. (edu.pl)
- In particular, there is no test established which focuses on the role of the hippocampus, a brain region, which is often critically involved in learning and memory consolidation. (edu.pl)
- 14 The amygdala is associated with a range of cognitive functions, including emotion, learning, memory, attention and perception. (scielo.br)
- 15 Most current views of amygdala function emphasize its role in negative emotions, such as fear, and in the linking of negative emotions with other aspects of cognition, such as learning and memory. (scielo.br)
- The choice to explore the novel object reflects the use of learning and recognition memory. (stanford.edu)
- The Passive Avoidance task is a fear-aggravated test used to evaluate learning and memory in rodent models of CNS disorders. (stanford.edu)
- Computing the direction and amplitude of orienting and avoidance turns is fundamental to prey pursuit and risk avoidance in motile foragers. (biologists.org)
- By definition, Sexual Risk Avoidance (SRA) education is a science-based approach on the public health model of primary prevention to empower youth to avoid all the risks of sexual activity. (justsayyes.org)
- As stated on the Ascend website, a leading organization in the sexual risk avoidance field, there is evidence that SRA programs are highly effective. (justsayyes.org)
- Want to learn more about our sexual risk avoidance programs? (justsayyes.org)
- Self-supervised learning of the biologically-inspired obstacle avoidance of hexapod walking robot. (bioportfolio.com)
- However, the main finding of the present study is related to the enhancement by glucose of the learning improving action of a drug clinically used as cognitive enhancer. (elsevier.com)
- So far, this was primarily shown in appetitive learning paradigms, but it is yet unclear whether MO exerts a more general cognitive enhancement effect. (frontiersin.org)
- So far, the cognitive enhancing effects of MO were mainly analyzed in appetitive learning paradigms, based on the assumption that the release of dopamine is a key modulator of reward related learning. (frontiersin.org)
- However, little is known about mechanisms for learned salt avoidance. (genetics.org)
- in the present study, the influence of learning-impairing situations on the effects of the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide on mice re-tested in the EPM is investigated. (unifesp.br)
- Theories of avoidance highlight central roles for Pavlovian and instrumental learning processes in identifying and coping with threat. (frontiersin.org)
- Moreover, the neural signals expressed in this region revealed key processes through which individuals learn to avoid harm. (pnas.org)
- L-Arginine administered into the lateral brain ventricle at a dose of 1.25 microg showed a tendency to increase the passive avoidance latency, and 2.5 microg exerted almost maximal action, but the action gradually increased still further up to 20 microg tested. (nih.gov)
- In passive avoidance learning, there wasn't any significant difference in initial latency between diabetic and treated- diabetic group. (ac.ir)
- Involvement of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the main source of hippocampal projecting serotonergic fibers in acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of passive avoidance (PA) learning, was investigated by functional suppression of this area. (sid.ir)
- During avoidance trials, activation of the dorsal striatum and prefrontal regions was found. (elsevier.com)
- A shuttle box was used for the induction of passive avoidance learning. (springer.com)
- Three groups were then avoidance trained in a two-way shuttle box to a criterion of 10 successive avoidances. (biomedsearch.com)
- The learning was evaluated using shuttle box setup. (ac.ir)
- The conditioned active avoidance learning was assessed by shuttle box apparatus. (ac.ir)
- The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor per se in different doses had no action on the learning of a passive avoidance task. (nih.gov)
- After four months, PIO-treated animals showed multiple beneficial effects, including improved learning on the active avoidance task, reduced serum cholesterol, decreased hippocampal amyloid-β and tau deposits, and enhanced short- and long-term plasticity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This study investigated the effect of ouabain, an inhibitor of NA(+) and K(+) ATPase, on consolidation and reconsolidation of a passive avoidance learning task in the day-old chick. (edu.au)
- Thus, the experiments revealed that the hippocampus is critically involved in learning the inhibitory SDA task. (edu.pl)
- The Modified Barnes Maze is thought to measure similar learning abilities as the DMP without forcing the subjects to perform a task under unnatural conditions, i.e. swimming in water. (stanford.edu)
- Like in mammals, zebrafish show reduced learning at old age: aged zebrafish (24 months) require an additional training day before showing a similar level of avoidance behaviour as 12-month (adult) zebrafish. (noldus.com)
- We investigated the long-lasting effect of peripheral injection of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) and of some N- or C-terminal SP fragments (SPN and SPC, respectively) on retention test performance of avoidance learning . (bvsalud.org)
- Therefore, it seems that DRN has opposite effects on consolidation and retrieval of passive avoidance learning, but it has no effect on PA acquisition. (sid.ir)
- Pretraining intraperitoneal administration of glucose alone (50-400 mg/kg) had no significant effect, while tacrine alone (0.5-3 mg/kg) improved avoidance acquisition at the dose of 2 mg/kg only. (elsevier.com)
- The appropriateness of their decisions for turn direction and amplitude determines success in resource acquisition and avoidance of predators and accidental injury. (biologists.org)
- For instance, when learning to ski, an overreaction to a painful fall could render a person overly cautious and hinder progress in skill acquisition. (pnas.org)
- This invaluable research tool amalgamates the original sources that have most significantly shaped research in recent years in basic learning theory, connectionism, development, language acquisition, plasticity, and applied topics such as training and the role of learning in addiction and mental disorders such as depression. (sagepub.com)
-  The World Bank 's World Development Report 2019 on the future of work supports increased government efforts to curb tax avoidance as part of a new social contract focused on human capital investments and expanded social protection . (popflock.com)
- Zebrafish show reduced avoidance learning when exposed to (weeks of) unpredictable chronic stress (UCS). (noldus.com)
- Fig. 2: Behavioural and physiological evidence of CS+/CS− learning. (nature.com)
- Telegdy, G & Schally, AV 2012, ' Involvement of neurotransmitters in the action of growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist on passive avoidance learning ', Behavioural Brain Research , vol. 233, no. 2, pp. 326-330. (elsevier.com)
- Significant avoidance learning improvements were instead produced by 50 or 100 mg/kg glucose combined with 0.5 or 1 mg/kg tacrine. (elsevier.com)
- Results have shown that the incidence of passive avoidance between healthy and control groups there was no significant difference but there is a significantly decreased between the control group and the group receiving methamphetamine. (applphysiology.org)
- Because the avoidance response is adaptive, humans have learned to use it in training animals such as dogs and horses. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the avoidance response is often advantageous and has developed because it is adaptive, it can sometimes be harmful or become obsessive. (wikipedia.org)
- Discriminating and appraising situations as threatening or non-threatening is important for adaptive approach-avoidance decision-making. (frontiersin.org)
- Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. (jneurosci.org)
- In this experiment, we used our Conflict Alleyway Apparatus and a glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone, to investigate the role of glucocorticoids in the reconsolidation of learned avoidance in defeated male Syrian hamsters. (efpsa.org)
- Recognizing Human Activities Using a Layered Markov Architecture , volume 7552 of Artificial Neural Networks and Machine Learning - ICANN 2012 . (uni-ulm.de)
- Dikman, ZV & Allen, JJB 2000, ' Error monitoring during reward and avoidance learning in high- and low- socialized individuals ', PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY , vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 43-54. (elsevier.com)
- Methamphetamine-Induced Disruption of Frontostriatal Reward Learning Signals: Relation to Psychotic Symptoms. (applphysiology.org)
- Finally, two transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) channels, GON-2 and GTL-2, mediate this newly described rapid pathogen avoidance. (elifesciences.org)
- Genetically tractable organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have proven to be quite useful in uncovering the molecular and cellular components of pathogen avoidance. (elifesciences.org)
- Indeed, while the TRP vanilloid (TRPV) channel genes ocr-2 and osm-9 are known to inhibit avoidance of the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( Singh and Aballay, 2019a ), this inhibition is through their role on hyperoxia avoidance rather than direct sensing of bacteria or distention. (elifesciences.org)
- Because nearly all of these channels are conserved across species, identification of their role in pathogen avoidance in C. elegans is likely to improve our understanding of pathogen avoidance in a range of organisms. (elifesciences.org)
- Finally, we identified two novel regulators of intestinal distention-induced pathogen avoidance: the TRP melastatin (TRPM) channels GON-2 and GTL-2. (elifesciences.org)
- The principle of exclusion and avoidance is to keep the pathogen away from the growing host plant. (britannica.com)
- Food aversions can also be conditioned using classical conditioning, so that an animal learns to avoid a stimulus previously neutral that has been associated with a negative outcome. (wikipedia.org)
- After repeated pairings of CS and US, the animal learns to fear both the tone and training context. (stanford.edu)
- An important feature of LACAS is that it intelligently "learns" from the past and improves its performance significantly as time progresses. (comsoc.org)
- at the same time, ovariectomized females with learning demonstrated a significantly higher density of GABA Aα1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex as compared to the Sham group. (springer.com)
- Results showed that post-shock infusion of 10 ng SP significantly enhanced passive avoidance learning while 100 ng SP was ineffective. (elsevier.com)
- The influence of mouse genotype on passive avoidance learning and subsequent concentrations of norepinephrine and serotonin in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. (jax.org)
- Church, A C. and Sprott, R L., " The influence of mouse genotype on passive avoidance learning and subsequent concentrations of norepinephrine and serotonin in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. (jax.org)
- Also evaluated was the effectiveness of RP when fear had been learned under two different conditions: (a) avoidance or (b) classical defensive conditioning. (biomedsearch.com)
- After differential treatments all animals were immediately returned to the lever box in which they had learned to bar press, a VI 2 schedule was reinstated, and the CER was measured. (biomedsearch.com)
- When these areas of the brain are lesioned or removed, animals display difficulty in maintaining a conditioned avoidance response. (wikipedia.org)
- An analysis of the passive one-way avoidance results showed that the BMX-treated animals stayed longer in the illuminated chamber by 1 day and 7 days after footshock. (hindawi.com)
- The results showed that the number of trained animals in achieving improved learning was greater compared with untrained animals. (ac.ir)
- the trained lesioned animals showed better learning in the trail numbers and days in achieving the level to avoid electrical shock. (ac.ir)
- However, over-generalization, resulting in excessive and inappropriate avoidance, has been implicated in a variety of psychological disorders. (elifesciences.org)
- However, excessive harm avoidance can be maladaptive, as evident in psychiatric disorders such as avoidant personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (pnas.org)
- Basolateral (BL) amygdaloid multi-unit activity was recorded as male albino rabbits learned to avoid a foot-shock unconditioned stimulus (US) by stepping in an activity wheel to an acoustic (pure tone) warning stimulus (CS+). (umich.edu)
- In this work, the authors address the problem of congestion in the nodes of healthcare WSN using a learning automata (LA)-based approach. (comsoc.org)
- Perisse E, Yin Y, Lin AC, Lin S, Huetteroth W, Waddell S. Different kenyon cell populations drive learned approach and avoidance in Drosophila. (umassmed.edu)
- Recurrent, robust and scalable patterns underlie human approach and avoidance. (umassmed.edu)
- Different kenyon cell populations drive learned approach and avoidance in Drosophila. (ox.ac.uk)
- Why does the fly use opposing output channels (approach and avoidance)? (sheffield.ac.uk)
- While some studies report positive-approach and negative-avoidance biases, others find no such mappings. (springer.com)
- Approach avoidance training in the eating domain: Testing the effectiveness across three single session studies. (springer.com)
- Lénárd, L & Kertes, E 2002, ' Influence of passive avoidance learning by substance P in the basolateral amygdala ', Acta biologica Hungarica , vol. 53, no. 1-2, pp. 95-104. (elsevier.com)
- Sherrin T, Blank T, Hippel C, Rayner M, Davis RJ, Todorovic C. Hippocampal c-Jun-N-terminal kinases serve as negative regulators of associative learning. (umassmed.edu)
- Psychology of Learning brings together the major publications in the psychology of learning from the past 30-40 years. (sagepub.com)
- Intra-hippocampal injections of D-AP5 impaired the learning abilities of adult laying hens compared to sham-injected control subjects. (edu.pl)
- We're interested in understanding what goes on in the fruit-fly's brain during learning. (google.com)